Development of a thick gas electron multiplier for microdosimetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orchard, G.M.; Chin, K.; Prestwich, W.V.; Waker, A.J.; Byun, S.H.
2011-01-01
A new tissue-equivalent proportional counter based on a thick gas electron multiplier (THGEM) was developed and tested for microdosimetry. A systematic test was conducted at the McMaster Accelerator Laboratory to investigate the overall performance of the prototype detector. A mixed neutron-gamma-ray radiation field was generated using the 7 Li(p,n) reaction. The detector was operated at low voltage initially to test the stability and then the relative multiplication gain was measured as a function of the operating high voltage. A drift potential of 100 V and a THGEM bias of 727 V generated a multiplication gain sufficient for the detection of both neutron and gamma-ray radiation. A consistent microdosimetric pattern was observed between the THGEM detector and standard TEPC for microdosimetry.
A Monte Carlo simulation of the microdosimetric response for thick gas electron multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanu, A.; Byun, S.H.; Prestwich, W.V.
2010-01-01
The neutron microdosimetric responses of the thick gas electron multiplier (THGEM) detector were simulated. The THGEM is a promising device for microdosimetry, particularly for measuring the dose spectra of intense radiation fields and for collecting two-dimensional microdosimetric distributions. To investigate the response of the prototype THGEM microdosimetric detector, a simulation was developed using the Geant4 Monte Carlo code. The simulation calculates the deposited energy in the detector sensitive volume for an incident neutron beam. Both neutron energy and angular responses were computed for various neutron beam conditions. The energy response was compared with the reported experimental microdosimetric spectra as well as the evaluated fluence-to-kerma conversion coefficients. The effects of using non-tissue equivalent materials were also investigated by comparing the THGEM detector response with the response of an ideal detector in identical neutron field conditions. The result of the angular response simulations revealed severe angular dependencies for neutron energies above 100 keV. The simulation of a modified detector design gave an angular response pattern close to the ideal case, showing a fluctuation of less than 10% over the entire angular range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comby, G.
1996-01-01
The Ceramic Electron Multipliers (CEM) is a compact, robust, linear and fast multi-channel electron multiplier. The Multi Layer Ceramic Technique (MLCT) allows to build metallic dynodes inside a compact ceramic block. The activation of the metallic dynodes enhances their secondary electron emission (SEE). The CEM can be used in multi-channel photomultipliers, multi-channel light intensifiers, ion detection, spectroscopy, analysis of time of flight events, particle detection or Cherenkov imaging detectors. (auth)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seidman, A.; Avrahami, Z.; Sheinfux, B.; Grinberg, J.
1976-01-01
A channel electron multiplier is described having a tubular wall coated with a secondary-electron emitting material and including an electric field for accelerating the electrons, the electric field comprising a plurality of low-resistive conductive rings each alternating with a high-resistive insulating ring. The thickness of the low-resistive rings is many times larger than that of the high-resistive rings, being in the order of tens of microns for the low-resistive rings and at least one order of magnitude lower for the high-resistive rings; and the diameter of the channel tubular walls is also many times larger than the thickness of the high-resistive rings. Both single-channel and multiple-channel electron multipliers are described. A very important advantage, particularly in making multiple-channel multipliers, is the simplicity of the procedure that may be used in constructing such multipliers. Other operational advantages are described
Microchannel electron multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beranek, I.; Janousek, L.; Vitovsky, O.
1981-01-01
A microchannel electron multiplier is described for detecting low levels of alpha, beta, soft X-ray and UV radiations. It consists of a glass tube or a system of tubes of various shapes made of common technological glass. The inner tube surface is provided with an active coat with photoemitter and secondary emitter properties. (B.S.)
GEM the gas electron multiplier
Sauli, Fabio
1997-01-01
We describe the basic structure and operation of a new device, the Gas Electron Multiplier. Consisting in a polymer foil, metal-clad on both sides and perforated by a high density of holes, the GEM mesh allows to pre-amplify charges released in the gas with good uniformity and energy. Coupled to a micro-strip plate, the pre-amplification element allows to preserve high rate capability and resolution at considerably lower operating voltages, thus completely eliminating discharges and instabilities. Several GEM grids can be operated in cascade; charge gains are large enough to allow detection of signals in the ionization mode on the last element, permitting the use of a simple printed circuit as read-out electrode. Two-dimensional read-out can then be easily implemented. A new generation of simple, reliable and cheap fast position sensitive detectors seems at hand.
Spin sensitivity of a channel electron multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scholten, R.E.; McClelland, J.J.; Kelley, M.H.; Celotta, R.J.
1988-01-01
We report direct measurements of the sensitivity of a channel electron multiplier to electrons with different spin orientations. Four regions of the multiplier cone were examined using polarized electrons at 100-eV incident energy. Pulse counting and analog modes of operation were both investigated and in each case the observed spin effects were less than 0.5%
The gas electron multiplier (GEM)
Bouclier, Roger; Dominik, Wojciech; Hoch, M; Labbé, J C; Million, Gilbert; Ropelewski, Leszek; Sauli, Fabio; Sharma, A
1996-01-01
We describe operating priciples and results obtained with a new detector component: the Gas Electrons Multiplier (GEM). Consisting of a thin composite sheet with two metal layers separated by a thin insulator, and pierced by a regular matrix of open channels, the GEM electrode, inserted on the path of electrons in a gas detector, allows to transfer the charge with an amplification factor approaching ten. Uniform response and high rate capability are demonstrated. Coupled to another device, multiwire or micro-strip chamber, the GEM electrode permit to obtain higher gains or less critical operation; separation of the sensitive (conversion) volume and the detection volume has other advantages, as a built-in delay (useful for triggering purposes) and the possibility of applying high fields on the photo-cathode of ring imaging detectors to improve efficiency. Multiple GEM grids in the same gas volume allow to obtain large amplification factors in a succession of steps, leading to the realization of an effective ga...
Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) Detectors
Gnanvo, Kondo
2017-09-01
Gaseous detectors have played a pivotal role as tracking devices in the field of particle physics experiments for the last fifty years. Recent advances in photolithography and micro processing techniques have enabled the transition from Multi Wire Proportional Chambers (MWPCs) and Drift Chambers to a new family of gaseous detectors refer to as Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGDs). MPGDs combine the basic gas amplification principle with micro-structure printed circuits to provide detectors with excellent spatial and time resolution, high rate capability, low material budget and high radiation tolerance. Gas Electron Multiplier (GEMs) is a well-established MPGD technology invented by F. Sauli at CERN in 1997 and deployed various high energy physics (HEP) and nuclear NP experiment for tracking systems of current and future NP experiments. GEM detector combines an exceptional high rate capability (1 MHz / mm2) and robustness against harsh radiation environment with excellent position and timing resolution performances. Recent breakthroughs over the past decade have allowed the possibility for large area GEMs, making them cost effective and high-performance detector candidates to play pivotal role in current and future particle physics experiments. After a brief introduction of the basic principle of GEM technology, I will give a brief overview of the GEM detectors used in particle physics experiments over the past decades and especially in the NP community at Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory (JLab) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). I will follow by a review of state of the art of the new GEM development for the next generation of colliders such as Electron Ion Collider (EIC) or High Luminosity LHC and future Nuclear Physics experiments. I will conclude with a presentation of the CERN-based RD51 collaboration established in 2008 and its major achievements regarding technological developments and applications of MPGDs.
Electron cyclotron resonance multiply charged ion sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geller, R.
1975-01-01
Three ion sources, that deliver multiply charged ion beams are described. All of them are E.C.R. ion sources and are characterized by the fact that the electrons are emitted by the plasma itself and are accelerated to the adequate energy through electron cyclotron resonance (E.C.R.). They can work without interruption during several months in a quasi-continuous regime. (Duty cycle: [fr
Evaporator line for special electron tubes, in particular electron multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richter, M.
1984-01-01
The invention has been aimed at reducing the effort for preventing short circuits in achieving certain material-dependent effects e.g. secondary emission, by deposition through evaporation in the production of electron tubes, in particular electron multipliers
Electronic de-multipliers; Demultiplicateurs electroniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ailloud, J
1948-07-01
The counting of a huge number of events, randomly or periodically distributed, requires the use of electronic counters which can work with a flow of up to 500000 events per second, while mechanical systems have a much lower resolution which leads to an important percentage of losses (non-counted events). Thus, hybrid systems are generally used which comprise an electronic part with fast counting capabilities but low recording capacities, and a mechanical part for the recording of the successive resets of the electronic part. This report describes the basic elementary circuits of these electronic counters (de-multipliers): dividers by 2 and 5 and flip-flop circuits using triode and pentode valves for the counting of events in the decimal system. (J.S.)
Effects of tritium on electron multiplier performance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerst, R.A.; Malinowski, M.E.
1980-01-01
In developing diagnostic instruments for fusion reactors, it is necessary to measure the effects of tritium contamination on channel electron multipliers (CEM). A CEM was exposed to T 2 pressures of up to 1.5 x 10 -1 Pa, with exposure quantities ranging up to 8800 Pa-s. The counting rate of the CEM is shown to consist of a prompt (Type I) signal caused by gas-phase tritium and a residual (Type II) signal, probably caused by near-surface tritium. The potential for using CEMs for observing the dynamics of tritium adsorption and absorption is discussed
Single electron based binary multipliers with overflow detection ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
electron based device. Multipliers with overflow detection based on serial and parallel prefix computation algorithm are elaborately discussed analytically and designed. The overflow detection circuits works in parallel with a simplified multiplier to ...
Performance of gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, S. H.; Moon, B. S.; Kim, Y. K.; Chung, C. E.; Kang, H. D.; Cho, H. S.
2002-01-01
We have investigated in detail the operating properties of Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors with a double conical and a cylindrical structure in a wide range of external fields and GEM voltages. With the double conical GEM, the gain gradually increased with time by 10%; whereas this surface charging was eliminated with the cylindrical GEM. Effective gains above 1000 were easily observed over a wide range of collection field strengths in a gas mixture of Ar/CO 2 (70/30). The transparency and electron collection efficiency were found to depend on the ratio of external field and the applied GEM voltage; the mutual influence of both drift and collection fields was found to be trivial
Charge transfer in gas electron multipliers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ottnad, Jonathan; Ball, Markus; Ketzer, Bernhard; Ratza, Viktor; Razzaghi, Cina [HISKP, Bonn University, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)
2015-07-01
In order to efficiently employ a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) at interaction rates higher than ∝1 kHz, as foreseen e.g. in the ALICE experiment (CERN) and at CB-ELSA (Bonn), a continuous operation and readout mode is required. A necessary prerequisite is to minimize the space charge coming from the amplification system and to maintain an excellent spatial and energy resolution. Unfortunately these two goals can be in conflict to each other. Gas Electron Multipliers (GEM) are one candidate to fulfill these requirements. It is necessary to understand the processes within the amplification structure to find optimal operation conditions. To do so, we measure the charge transfer processes in and between GEM foils with different geometries and field configurations, and use an analytical model to describe the results. This model can then be used to predict and optimize the performance. The talk gives the present status of the measurements and describes the model.
Fabrication and measurement of gas electron multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Minglong; Xia Yiben; Wang Linjun; Gu Beibei; Wang Lin; Yang Ying
2005-01-01
Gas electron multiplier (GEM) with special performance has been widely used in the field of radiation detectors. In this work, GEM film was fabricated using a 50 μm -thick kapton film by the therma evaporation and laser masking drilling technique. GEM film has many uniformly arrayed holes with a diameter of 100 μm and a gap of 223 μm. It was then set up to a gas-flowing detector with an effective area of 3 x 3 cm 2 , 5.9 keV X-ray generated from a 55 Fe source was used to measure the pulse height distribution of GEM operating at various high voltage and gas proportion. The effect of high potential and gas proportion on the count rate and the energy resolution was discussed in detail. The results indicate that GEM has a very high ratio of signal to noise and better energy resolution of 18.2%. (authors)
Tritium-caused background currents in electron multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malinowski, M.E.
1979-05-01
One channel electron multiplier (Galileo No. 4501) and one 14 stage Be/Cu multiplier (Dumont No. SPM3) were exposed to tritium pressures between approx. 10 -7 Torr to 10 -3 Torr in amounts from approx. 10 -5 Torr-s to 60 Torr-s and the β-decay caused currents in the multipliers measured. The background currents in both multipliers consisted of two components: (1) a high, reversible current which was proportional to the tritium exposure pressure; and (2) a lower, irreversible background current which increased with increasing cumulative tritium exposure. The β-decay caused currents in each multiplier increased the same way with exposure, suggesting the detected electrons arose from decaying tritium adsorbed on surfaced external to the multipliers
Production processes of multiply charged ions by electron impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda, Nobuo
1980-02-01
First, are compared the foil or gas stripper and the ion sources utilizing electron-atom ionizing collisions, which are practically used or are under development to produce multiply charged ions. A review is made of the fundamental physical parameters such as successive ionization potentials and various ionization cross sections by electron impact, as well as the primary processes in multiply charged ion production. Multiply charged ion production processes are described for the different existing ion sources such as high temperature plasma type, ion-trapping type and discharge type. (author)
Electronic de-multipliers II (ring-shape systems)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raievski, V.
1948-09-01
This report describes a new type of ring-shape fast electronic counter (de-multiplier) with a resolution capacity equivalent to the one made by Regener (Rev. of Scientific Instruments USA 1946, 17, 180-89) but requiring two-times less electronic valves. This report follows the general description of electronic de-multipliers made by J. Ailloud (CEA--001). The ring comprises 5 flip-flop circuits with two valves each. The different elements of the ring are calculated with enough details to allow the transfer of this calculation to different valve types. (J.S.)
The Tynode: A new vacuum electron multiplier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graaf, Harry van der, E-mail: vdgraaf@nikhef.nl [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Akhtar, Hassan; Budko, Neil; Chan, Hong Wah; Hagen, Cornelis W. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Hansson, Conny C.T. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Nützel, Gert; Pinto, Serge D. [Photonis, Roden (Netherlands); Prodanović, Violeta; Raftari, Behrouz; Sarro, Pasqualina M. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Sinsheimer, John; Smedley, John [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Tao, Shuxia [Eindhoven University of Technology/DIFFER (Netherlands); Theulings, Anne M.M.G. [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Nikhef, Science Park 105, 1098 XG Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vuik, Kees [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)
2017-03-01
By placing, in vacuum, a stack of transmission dynodes (tynodes) on top of a CMOS pixel chip, a single free electron detector could be made with outstanding performance in terms of spatial and time resolution. The essential object is the tynode: an ultra thin membrane, which emits, at the impact of an energetic electron on one side, a multiple of electrons at the other side. The electron yields of tynodes have been calculated by means of GEANT-4 Monte Carlo simulations, applying special low-energy extensions. The results are in line with another simulation based on a continuous charge-diffusion model. By means of Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) technology, tynodes and test samples have been realized. The secondary electron yield of several samples has been measured in three different setups. Finally, several possibilities to improve the yield are presented.
Multiply excited molecules produced by photon and electron interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Odagiri, T.; Kouchi, N.
2006-01-01
The photon and electron interactions with molecules resulting in the formation of multiply excited molecules and the subsequent decay are subjects of great interest because the independent electron model and Born-Oppenheimer approximation are much less reliable for the multiply excited states of molecules than for the ground and lower excited electronic states. We have three methods to observe and investigate multiply excited molecules: 1) Measurements of the cross sections for the emission of fluorescence emitted by neutral fragments in the photoexcitation of molecules as a function of incident photon energy [1-3], 2) Measurements of the electron energy-loss spectra tagged with the fluorescence photons emitted by neutral fragments [4], 3) Measurements of the cross sections for generating a pair of photons in absorption of a single photon by a molecule as a function of incident photon energy [5-7]. Multiply excited states degenerate with ionization continua, which make a large contribution in the cross section curve involving ionization processes. The key point of our methods is hence that we measure cross sections free from ionization. The feature of multiply excited states is noticeable in such a cross section curve. Recently we have measured: i) the cross sections for the emission of the Lyman- fluorescence in the photoexcitation of CH 4 as a function of incident photon energy in the range 18-51 eV, ii) the electron energy-loss spectrum of CH 4 tagged with the Lyman-photons at 80 eV incident electron energy and 10 electron scattering angle in the range of the energy loss 20-45 eV, in order to understand the formation and decay of the doubly excited methane in photon and electron interactions. [8] The results are summarized in this paper and the simultaneous excitation of two electrons by electron interaction is compared with that by photon interaction in terms of the oscillator strength. (authors)
The Gas Electron Multiplier Chamber Exhibition LEPFest 2000
2000-01-01
The Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) is a novel device introduced in 1996.Large area detectors based on this technology are in construction for high energy physics detectors.This technology can also be used for high-rate X-ray imaging in medical diagnostics and for monitoring irradiation during cancer treatment
Statistics of electron multiplication in multiplier phototube: iterative method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grau Malonda, A.; Ortiz Sanchez, J.F.
1985-01-01
An iterative method is applied to study the variation of dynode response in the multiplier phototube. Three different situations are considered that correspond to the following ways of electronic incidence on the first dynode: incidence of exactly one electron, incidence of exactly r electrons and incidence of an average anti-r electrons. The responses are given for a number of steps between 1 and 5, and for values of the multiplication factor of 2.1, 2.5, 3 and 5. We study also the variance, the skewness and the excess of jurtosis for different multiplication factors. (author)
Statistics of electron multiplication in a multiplier phototube; Iterative method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ortiz, J. F.; Grau, A.
1985-01-01
In the present paper an iterative method is applied to study the variation of dynode response in the multiplier phototube. Three different situation are considered that correspond to the following ways of electronic incidence on the first dynode: incidence of exactly one electron, incidence of exactly r electrons and incidence of an average r electrons. The responses are given for a number of steps between 1 and 5, and for values of the multiplication factor of 2.1, 2.5, 3 and 5. We study also the variance, the skewness and the excess of jurtosis for different multiplication factors. (Author) 11 refs
Charge amplification and transfer processes in the gas electron multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bachmann, S.; Bressan, A.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.; Sharma, A.; Moermann, D.
1999-01-01
We report the results of systematic investigations on the operating properties of detectors based on the gas electron multiplier (GEM). The dependence of gain and charge collection efficiency on the external fields has been studied in a range of values for the hole diameter and pitch. The collection efficiency of ionization electrons into the multiplier, after an initial increase, reaches a plateau extending to higher values of drift field the larger the GEM voltage and its optical transparency. The effective gain, fraction of electrons collected by an electrode following the multiplier, increases almost linearly with the collection field, until entering a steeper parallel plate multiplication regime. The maximum effective gain attainable increases with the reduction in the hole diameter, stabilizing to a constant value at a diameter approximately corresponding to the foil thickness. Charge transfer properties appear to depend only on ratios of fields outside and within the channels, with no interaction between the external fields. With proper design, GEM detectors can be optimized to satisfy a wide range of experimental requirements: tracking of minimum ionizing particles, good electron collection with small distortions in high magnetic fields, improved multi-track resolution and strong ion feedback suppression in large volume and time-projection chambers
Charge-transfer properties in the gas electron multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han, Sanghyo; Kim, Yongkyun; Cho, Hyosung
2004-01-01
The charge transfer properties of a gas electron multiplier (GEM) were systematically investigated over a broad range of electric field configurations. The electron collection efficiency and the charge sharing were found to depend on the external fields, as well as on the GEM voltage. The electron collection efficiency increased with the collection field up to 90%, but was essentially independent of the drift field strength. A double conical GEM has a 10% gain increase with time due to surface charging by avalanche ions whereas this effect was eliminated with the cylindrical GEM. The positive-ion feedback is also estimated. (author)
Research on nonlinearity effect of secondary electron multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Xingjian; Liao Junsheng; Deng Dachao; Yu Chunrong; Yuan Li
2007-01-01
The nonlinearity of secondary electron multiplier (SEM) of a thermal ionization mass spectrometer has been researched by using UTB-500 uranium isotope reference material and multi-collecting technique. The results show that the nonlinearity effect of SEM exists in the whole ion counting range, and there is an extreme point of the nonlinearity when the ion counting rate is about 20000 cps. The deviation between measured value of the extreme point and the reference value of the reference sample can be up to 3%, and the nonlinearity obeys logarithm linearity law on both sides of extreme point. A kind of mathematics model of nonlinearity calibration has been put forward. Using this model, the nonlinearity of SEM of TIMS can be calibrated. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hahn, S.F.; Burch, J.L.
1980-01-01
A series of data on high count rate channel electron multipliers revealed an initial drop and subsequent recovery of gains in exponential fashion. The FWHM of the pulse height distribution at the initial stage of testing can be used as a good criterion for the selection of operating bias voltage of the channel electron multiplier
Investigation of the Decelerating Field of an Electron Multiplier under Negative Ion Impact
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Elfinn; Kjeldgaard, K.
1973-01-01
The effect of the decelerating field of an electron multiplier towards negative ions was investigated under standard mass spectrometric conditions. Diminishing of this decelerating field by changing of the potential of the electron multiplier increased the overall sensitivity to negative ions...
Ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier with secondary electron emission
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chalmeton, Vincent.
1974-01-01
The present invention relates to a ionizing device comprising a microchannel electron multiplier involving secondary electron emission as a means of ionization. A system of electrodes is used to accelerate said electrons, ionize the gas and extract the ions from thus created plasma. Said ionizer is suitable for bombarding the target in neutron sources (target of the type of nickel molybdenum coated with tritiated titanium or with a tritium deuterium mixture) [fr
Effect of the channel electron multiplier connection diagram on its parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ajnbund, M.R.
1976-01-01
Basic alternatives of connection of a channel electron multiplier are described. A dependence of a gain factor and amplitude resolution of the channel electron multiplier upon its connection diagram is studied. The studies have shown that the maximum gain factor is typical of an open-output circuit where the signal is recorded from the anode of the channel electron multiplier at a potential with respect to the channel outlet. The highest amplitude resolution is inherent in a separate-anode circuit where the loading resistance is connected directly to the channel outlet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You, H.J.
2012-01-01
It is quite well known that ion confinement is an important factor in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) as it is closely related to the plasma potential. A model of sheath formation was extended to a plasma containing multiply charged ions (MCIs), cold and hot electrons, and secondary electrons emitted either by MCIs or hot electrons. In the model, a modification of the 'Bohm criterion' was given, the sheath potential drop and the critical emission condition were also analyzed. It appears that the presence of hot electrons and emitted electrons strongly affects the sheath formation so that smaller hot electrons and larger emission current result in reduced sheath potential (or floating potential). However the sheath potential was found to become independent of the emission current J when J > J c , (where J c is the critical emission current. The paper is followed by the associated poster
Utilization of a channel electron multiplier for counting-measurement on condensed molecular jet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Le Bihan, A.M.; Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92
1974-01-01
A channel electron multiplier has been used for counting ionized clusters containing up to a few thousands molecules; clusters are accelerated towards a negative (approximately-220V) copper target; a larger negative bias (approximately-3000V) is applied to the multiplier entrance so as to collect positive secondary ions and/or reflected cluster fragments; in the present application this gives better signal to noise ratio than detecting clusters directly or by secondary electron emission on the target [fr
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raievski, V
1948-09-01
This report describes a new type of ring-shape fast electronic counter (de-multiplier) with a resolution capacity equivalent to the one made by Regener (Rev. of Scientific Instruments USA 1946, 17, 180-89) but requiring two-times less electronic valves. This report follows the general description of electronic de-multipliers made by J. Ailloud (CEA--001). The ring comprises 5 flip-flop circuits with two valves each. The different elements of the ring are calculated with enough details to allow the transfer of this calculation to different valve types. (J.S.)
High dynamic range isotope ratio measurements using an analog electron multiplier
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Williams, P.; Lorinčík, Jan; Franzreb, K.; Herwig, R.
2013-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 1 (2013), s. 549-552 ISSN 0142-2421 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 894 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Isotope ratios * electron multiplier * dynamic range Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.393, year: 2013
Colliding beam studies of electron detachement from H- by multiply-charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melchert, F.; Benner, M.; Kruedener, S.; Schulze, R.; Meuser, S.; Pfaff, S.; Petri, S.; Huber, K.; Salzborn, E.; Presnyakov, L.P.; Uskov, D.B.
1993-01-01
Employing the crossed-beams technique, we have investigated electron-detachment processes from H - in collisions with multiply-charged noble gas ions A q+ . Absolute cross sections for single- and double-electron removal have been measured at center-of-mass energies from 50 keV to 200 keV and charge states q up to 8
Electron capture to autoionizing states of multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mack, E.M.
1987-01-01
The present thesis investigates electron capture reactions resulting from slow collisions (V q+ ) and neutral gas targets (B). The energy spectra of the emitted electrons are measured; detection angle is 50 0 . Mainly, autoionizing double capture resulting from collisions with two-electron targets (He, H 2 ) is studied; then, the emitted electrons stem from doubly excited projectile states. The projectiles used are bare C 6+ , the H-like and He-like ions of C, N and O, He-like Ne 8+ and Ne-like Ar 8+ . Excited metastable projectiles used are C 5+ (2s), He-like projectiles A q+ (1s2s 3 S) and Ar 8+ (...2p 5 3s). Comparison is made with the predictions of a recently proposed extended classical barrier model, that was developed in connection with the work. This model assumes sequential capture of the electrons ('two-step' process); it predicts the realized binding enegies of the captured electrons - which may be directly determined from the autoionization spectra using only the projectile charge, the ionization potentials of the target and the collision velocity as parameters. No adjustable parameter enters into the calculations. The term energies and decay modes of the highly excited product ions themselves are studied. Generally, the autoionizing decay of these states is found to proceed preferentially to the directly adjacent lower singly excited state. Experimental evidence is presented, that triply excited states decay by successive emission of two electrons, whenever this is energetically possible. Finally, the L-MM decay in few-electron systems is considered. 314 refs.; 96 figs.; 29 tabs
Electronic shell structure in multiply charged silver clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kandler, O.; Athanassenas, K.; Echt, O.; Kreisle, D.; Leisner, T.; Recknagel, E.
1991-01-01
Silver clusters are generated by standard laser vaporization technique and ionized via multiphoton ionization. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry reveals singly, doubly and triply charged clusters, Ag n z+ (z=1, 2, 3). The spectra show, for all charge states, intensity variations, indicating enhanced stabilities for cluster sizes with closed electronic configurations in accord with the spherical jellium model. (orig.)
Studies of collision mechanisms in electron capture by slow multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilbody, H B; McCullough, R W
2004-01-01
We review measurements based on translational energy spectroscopy which are being used to identify and assess the relative importance of the various collision mechanisms involved in one-electron capture by slow multiply charged ions in collisions with simple atoms and molecules
Schweinzer, J; Brandenburg, R; Bray, [No Value; Hoekstra, R; Aumayr, F; Janev, RK; Winter, HP
New experimental and theoretical cross-section data for inelastic collision processes of Li atoms in the ground state and excited states (up to n = 4) with electrons, protons, and multiply charged ions have been reported since the database assembled by Wutte et al. [ATOMIC DATA AND NUCLEAR DATA
Electron and X-ray emission in collisions of multiply charged ions and atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Woerlee, P.H.
1979-01-01
The author presents experimental results of electron and X-ray emission following slow collisions of multiply charged ions and atoms. The aim of the investigation was to study the mechanisms which are responsible for the emission. (G.T.H.)
Electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions in high energy collisions with molecular oxygen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hvelplund, P; Nielsen, SB; Sørensen, M
2001-01-01
We report on the electron loss from multiply protonated lysozyme ions Lys-Hn(n)+ (n = 7 - 17) and the concomitant formation of Lys-Hn(n+1)+. in high-energy collisions with molecular oxygen (laboratory kinetic energy = 50 x n keV). The cross section for electron loss increases with the charge state...... of the precursor from n = 7 to n = 11 and then remains constant when n increases further. The absolute size of the cross section ranges from 100 to 200 A2. The electron loss is modeled as an electron transfer process between lysozyme cations and molecular oxygen....
Timing characteristics of the VEhU-6 microchannel electron multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakhtizin, R.Z.; Yumaguzin, Yu.M.
1982-01-01
The VEhU-6 charnel electron multiplier timing characteristics are experimentally studied. Dependence of monoelectron pulse duration at the VEhU-6 output at different values of channel supply voltage is investigated. The VEhU-6 delay time is measured. Delay time increased from 10 to 30 ns with the increase of channel supply voltage from 2.8 to 3.2 kV (at approximately 10 5 pulse/s loading). Delay time increases with loading decrease
On the fast response of charnel electron multipliers in coUnting mode operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belyaevskij, O.A.; Gladyshev, I.L.; Korobochko, Yu.S.; Mineev, V.I.
1983-01-01
Dependences of amplitude distribution of pulses at the outlet of channel electron multipliers (CEM) and effectiveness of monitoring on counting rate at different supply voltages are determined. It is shown that the maximUm counting rate of CEM runs into 6x10 5 s -1 at short-term and 10 5 s -1 at long-term operation using monitoring eqUipment with operation threshold of 2.5 mV
Indirect mechanisms in electron-impact ionization of multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phaneuf, R.A.; Gregory, D.C.
1986-09-01
The important role of indirect-ionization mechanisms in electron-impact ionization of multiply charged ions has been emphasized by some recent experiments conducted with the ORNL-ECR multicharged ion source. Illustrative examples of investigations of the Mg-isoelectronic and Fe-isonuclear sequences are presented and compared with the results of detailed theoretical calculations. New experimental data is also presented concerning the role of resonance effects in the ionization of Li-like O 5+ and Na-like Fe 15+ ions
Development of a time projection chamber using gas electron multipliers (GEM-TPC)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda, S.X.; Hamagaki, H.; Ozawa, K.; Inuzuka, M.; Sakaguchi, T.; Isobe, T.; Gunji, T.; Morino, Y.; Saito, S.; Yamaguchi, Y.L.; Sawada, S.; Yokkaichi, S.
2006-01-01
We developed a prototype time projection chamber using gas electron multipliers (GEM-TPC) for high energy heavy ion collision experiments. To investigate its performance, we conducted a beam test with three kinds of gases (Ar(90%)-CH 4 (10%), Ar(70%)-C 2 H 6 (30%) and CF 4 ). Detection efficiency of 99%, and spatial resolution of 79μm in the pad-row direction and 313μm in the drift direction were achieved. The test results show that the GEM-TPC meets the requirements for high energy heavy ion collision experiments. The configuration and performance of the GEM-TPC are described
A zerotime detector for nuclear fragments using channel electron multiplier plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sundqvist, B.
1975-01-01
The literature on zerotime detectors which use the emission of secondary electrons from a thin foil is reviewed. The construction of a zerotime detector using multiplication of the secondary electrons with two Mullard channel electron multiplier plates (CEMP) in tandem is described. Results of tests of such a detector with α particles from a natural α source are given. Total time resolutions of about 200 ps (FWHM) with a Si(Sb) detector as the stop detector has been achieved. The contribution from the zerotime detector is estimated to be less than 150 ps (FWHM). The application of this detector technique to the construction of a heavy-ion spectrometer and a 8 Be detector is described. (Auth)
Coupled-Multiplier Accelerator Produces High-Power Electron Beams for Industrial Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatridge, M.; McIntyre, P.; Roberson, S.; Sattarov, A.; Thomas, E.; Meitzler, Charles
2003-01-01
The coupled multiplier is a new approach to efficient generation of MeV d.c. power for accelerator applications. High voltage is produced by a series of modules, each of which consists of a high-power alternator, step-up transformer, and 3-phase multiplier circuit. The alternators are connected mechanically along a rotating shaft, and connected by insulating flexible couplers. This approach differs from all previous d.c. technologies in that power is delivered to the various stages of the system mechanically, rather than through capacitive or inductive electrical coupling. For this reason the capital cost depends linearly on required voltage and power, rather than quadratically as with conventional technologies. The CM technology enables multiple electron beams to be driven within a common supply and insulating housing. MeV electron beam is extremely effective in decomposing organic contaminants in water. A 1 MeV, 100 kW industrial accelerator using the CM technology has been built and is being installed for treatment of wastewater at a petrochemical plant
Analysis of microwave amplifier and frequency multiplier tube with a multipactor electron gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokoo, Kuniyoshi; Ono, Shoichi; Tai, Dong-Zhe.
1983-01-01
The performance analysis was made for a multipactor microwave tube with the aim of realizing a microwave amplifier or a frequency multiplier tube with a multipactor cathode with high efficiency and high power. The possibility for producing the multipactor tube with high efficiency and high power was shown by using effectively the characteristics of the multipactor cathode which emits pulsed electron current with narrow band, synchronizing with high frequency period. As the operating conditions for the multipactor cathode, it was shown that the wide spacing of the cathode was needed for the operation in high operating power, and the narrow spacing was needed for the operation in high efficiency and for reducing power consumption. It was also shown that there were the best values of the high-frequency voltage for the cathode operation. The study by the simulation for the multipactor cathode and for the acceleration zone of electron current was also performed to examine the possible performance for a microwave amplifier and a frequency multiplier tube. For the use of the multipactor cathode with a spacing of 1 mm, the conversion efficiency for d. c. input power was 86, 56 and 31 % for the primary, the secondary and the tertiary harmonic wave amplifications, respectively. (Asami, T.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pansky, A.; Breskin, A.; Chechik, R.; Malamud, G.
1992-12-01
Ionization electrons deposited by soft X-rays in a low pressure (10 Torr) gas medium are efficiently counted by a multistage electron multiplier, providing an accurate measurement of the X-ray photon energy. Energy resolution of 56-28% FWHM were measured for X-rays of 110-676 eV, recording electrical induced charges or visible photons emitted during the avalanche process. It is demonstrated that a combined analysis of the number of electron trail length of an event, provides a powerful and competitive way of resolving ultra soft X-rays. We present the experimental technique, discuss the advantages and limitations of the Primary Electron Counter, and suggest ways to improve its performances. (authors)
Removal of contaminating tritium and tritium pressure measurement by a secondary electron multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ichimura, K.; Watanabe, K.; Nishizawa, K.; Fujita, J.
1984-01-01
A ceramic secondary electron multiplier (SEM), Ceratron, was used to study impairment of the SEM performance due to adsorbed tritium, its decontamination, and the applicability of the SEM to measure tritium pressure. The background level of the SEM increased significantly, up to its counting limit, due to tritium adsorption. Heating it to 300 0 C in vacuo and/or in the presence of reactive gases such as D 2 and CO at 1 x 10 -4 Pa was not effective to decontaminate the SEM, whereas photon irradiation was extremely powerful for the decontamination. The tritium (HT) pressure in a range of 1 x 10 -6 - 1 x 10 -3 Pa could be measured with no significant impairment of the SEM performance with the aid of photon irradiation. It is revealed that a particle flux as low as 1 particle/s will be able to measure in the presence of tritium if suitable photon sources are installed in the systems. (orig.)
Gas electron multiplier (GEM) foil test, repair and effective gain calculation
Tahir, Muhammad; Zubair, Muhammad; Khan, Tufail A.; Khan, Ashfaq; Malook, Asad
2018-06-01
The focus of my research is based on the gas electron multiplier (GEM) foil test, repairing and effective gain calculation of GEM detector. During my research work define procedure of GEM foil testing short-circuit, detection short-circuits in the foil. Study different ways to remove the short circuits in the foils. Set and define the GEM foil testing procedures in the open air, and with nitrogen gas. Measure the leakage current of the foil and applying different voltages with specified step size. Define the Quality Control (QC) tests and different components of GEM detectors before assembly. Calculate the effective gain of GEM detectors using 109Cd and 55Fe radioactive source.
High- and low-pressure operation of the gas electron multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondar, A.; Buzulutskov, A.; Shekhtman, L.; Sauli, F.
1998-01-01
We have studied the operation of the gas electron multiplier (GEM) in gas mixtures Xe-CO 2 , Ar-CO 2 and CH 4 at different pressures varying from 0.1 to 5 atm. In Ar- and Xe-based mixtures, the maximum GEM gain considerably decreases with pressure, from a few hundreds at 1 atm to below 10 at 5 atm. Combined gain of GEM and the micro-strip gas chamber (MSGC) can exceed values of 10000 at 1 atm and 100 at 5 atm. High GEM gains, of above 1000, were obtained in CH 4 at low pressures. We have observed the effect of the avalanche confinement in GEM micro-holes, resulting in violation of the pressure scaling and in the possibility of GEM operation in pure noble gases. (author)
Performance test of a micro-pattern stereo detector with two gas electron multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barvich, T.; Bluem, P.; Erdmann, M.; Fahrer, M.; Kaercher, K.; Kuehn, F.; Moermann, D.; Mueller, Th.; Neuberger, D.; Roederer, F.; Simonis, H.J.; Skiba, A.; Thuemmel, W.H.; Weiler, Th.; Weseler, S.
2002-01-01
We report on the performance of a large micro-pattern detector with two gas electron multiplier foils and a two-layer readout structure at ground potential. The two readout layers each have a 406 μm pitch and cross at an effective angle of 6.7 deg. . This structure allows for two orthogonal coordinates to be determined. Using a muon beam at CERN together with a silicon tracking system, the position resolutions of the two coordinates are measured to be 50 μm and 1 mm respectively (1 standard deviation). The muon detection efficiency for the two-dimensional space points reaches 96%. The detector was found to be well operational over a wide range in the settings of the different electrical fields
Gas electron multiplier (GEM) operation with tissue-equivalent gases at various pressures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farahmand, M.; Bos, A.J.J.; Eijk, C.W.E. van
2003-01-01
We have studied the operation of two different Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) structures in both methane and propane based Tissue-Equivalent (TE) gases at different pressures varying from 0.1 to 1 atm. This work was motivated to explore the possibility of using a GEM for a new type of Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter. In methane based TE gas, a maximum safe GEM gain of 1.5x10 3 has been reached while in propane based TE gas this is 6x10 3 . These maxima have been reached at different gas pressures depending on GEM structure and TE gas. Furthermore, we observed a decrease of the GEM gain in time before it becomes stable. Charge up/polarisation effects can explain this
Electron cyclotron resonance (E.C.R.) multiply charged ion sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geller, R.
1978-01-01
High charge state ions can be produced by electron bombardment inside targets when the target electron density n (cm -3 ) multiplied by the ion transit time through the target tau (sec) is: n tau > 5.10 9 cm -3 sec. The relative velocity between electrons and ions determines the balance between stripping and capture i.e. the final ion charge state. (In a stripper foil fast ions interact with slow electrons involving typically n approximately 10 24 cm -3 , tau approximately 10 -14 sec). In the E.C.R. source a cold ion plasma created in a first stage diffuses slowly through a second stage containing a hot E.C.R. plasma with n > 3.10 11 cm -3 and tau > 10 -2 sec. Continuous beams of several μA of C 6+ N 7+ Ne 9+ A 11+ are extracted from the second stage with normalized emittances of approximately 0.5 π mm mrad. The absence of cathodes and plasma arcs makes the source very robust, reliable and well-fitted for cyclotron injection. A super conducting source is under development
Multicascade X-Ray Free-Electron Laser with Harmonic Multiplier and Two-Frequency Undulator
Zhukovsky, K. V.
2018-06-01
The feasibility of generation of powerful x-ray radiation by a cascade free-electron laser (FEL) with amplification of higher harmonics using a two-frequency undulator is studied. To analyze the FEL operation, a complex phenomenological single-pass FEL model is developed and used. It describes linear and nonlinear generation of harmonics in the FEL with seed laser that takes into account initial electron beam noise and describes all main losses of each harmonic in each FEL cascade. The model is also calibrated against and approved by the experimental FEL data and available results of three-dimensional numerical simulation. The electron beam in the undulator is assumed to be matched and focused, and the dynamics of power in the singlepass FEL with cascade harmonic multipliers is investigated to obtain x-ray laser radiation in the FEL having the shortest length, beam energy, and frequency of the seed laser as low as possible. In this context, the advantages of the two-frequency undulator used for generation of harmonics are demonstrated. The evolution of harmonics in a multicascade FEL with multiplication of harmonics is investigated. The operation of the cascade FEL at the wavelength λ = 1.14 nm, generating 30 MW already on 38 m with the seed laser operating at a wavelength of 11.43 nm corresponding to the maximal reflectivity of the multilayered mirror MoRu/Be coating is investigated. In addition, the operation of the multicascade FEL with accessible seed UVlaser operating at a wavelength of 157 nm (F2 excimer UV-laser) and electron beam with energy of 0.5 GeV is investigated. X-ray radiation simulated in it at the wavelength λ 3.9 nm reaches power of 50 MW already at 27 m, which is by two orders of magnitude shorter than 3.4 km of the x-ray FEL recently put into operation in Europe.
Monteiro, C. M. B.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Oliveira, C. A. B.; dos Santos, J. M. F.
2012-07-01
The search for alternatives to PMTs as photosensors in optical TPCs for rare event detection has significantly increased in the last few years. In particular, in view of the next generation large volume detectors, the use of photosensors with lower natural radioactivity, such as large area APDs or GM-APDs, with the additional possibility of sparse surface coverage, triggered the intense study of secondary scintillation production in micropattern electron multipliers, such as GEMs and THGEMs, as alternatives to the commonly used uniform electric field region between two parallel meshes. The much higher scintillation output obtained from the electron avalanches in such microstructures presents an advantage in those situations. The accurate knowledge of the amount of such scintillation is important for correct detector simulation and optimization. It will also serve as a benchmark for software tools developed and/or under development for the calculation of the amount of such scintillation.The secondary scintillation yield, or electroluminescence yield, in the electron avalanches of GEMs and THGEMs operating in gaseous xenon and argon has been determined for different gas pressures. At 1 bar, THGEMs deliver electroluminescence yields that are more than one order of magnitude higher when compared to those achieved in GEMs and two orders of magnitude when compared to those achieved in a uniform field gap. The THGEM electroluminescence yield presents a faster decrease with pressure when comparing to the GEM electroluminescence yield, reaching similar values to what is achieved in GEMs for xenon pressures of 2.5 bar, but still one order of magnitude higher than that produced in a uniform field gap. Another exception is the GEM operating in argon, which presents an electroluminescence yield similar to that produced in a uniform electric field gap, while the THGEM achieves yields that are more than one order of magnitude higher.
Gas Electron Multipliers: Development of large area GEMs and spherical GEMs
Duarte Pinto, Serge; Brock, Ian
2011-01-01
Gaseous radiation detectors have been a crucial part of high-energy physics instrumentation since the 1960s, when the first multiwire proportional counters were built. In the 1990s the first micropattern gas detectors (MPGDs) saw the light; with sub-millimeter feature sizes these novel detectors were faster and more accurate than their predecessors. The gas electron multiplier (GEM) is one of the most successful of these technologies. It is a charge multiplication structure made from a copper clad polymer foil, pierced with a regular and dense pattern of holes. I will describe the properties and the application of GEMs and GEM detectors, and the research and development I have done on this technology. Two of the main objectives were the development of large area GEMs (~m^2) for particle physics experiments and GEMs with a spherical shape for x-ray or neutron diffraction detectors. Both have been realized, and the new techniques involved are finding their way to applications in research and industry.
Gas electron multipliers. Development of large area GEMS and spherical GEMS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pinto, Serge Duarte
2011-08-15
Gaseous radiation detectors have been a crucial part of high-energy physics instrumentation since the 1960s, when the first multiwire proportional counters were built. In the 1990s the first micropattern gas detectors (MPGDS) saw the light; with sub-millimeter feature sizes these novel detectors were faster and more accurate than their predecessors. The gas electron multiplier (GEM) is one of the most successful of these technologies. It is a charge multiplication structure made from a copper clad polymer foil, pierced with a regular and dense pattern of holes. I describe the properties and the application of GEMs and GEM. detectors, and the research and development I have done on this technology. Two of the main objectives were the development of large area GEMs ({proportional_to}m{sup 2}) for particle physics experiments and GEMs with a spherical shape for X-ray or neutron diffraction detectors. Both have been realized, and the new techniques involved are finding their way to applications in research and industry. (orig.)
The current status of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) research at Kasetsart University, Thailand
Kumpiranon, P.; Kulasri, K.; Rittirong, A.; Saenboonruang, K.
2017-06-01
During the past decade, Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors have been greatly developed and utilized in numbers of applications including advanced nuclear and particle researches, medical imaging, astrophysics, and neutron detection for national security. Our GEM research group at the Department of Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Thailand, realized in its excellent properties/potentials and started extensive researches on GEM detectors. To build a strong foundation on our research group, two 10 cm × 10 cm triple GEM detectors were characterized on their important properties including absolute gains and detection uniformity. Moreover, to widen applications of the GEM detector, our group had modified the GEM detector by introducing either solid or gaseous neutron converters to the detector so that the detector could effectively detect neutrons. These modifications included coating a thin film of 10B and natB to the GEM drift cathode for thermal neutron detection and flowing a gas mixture of He/CO2 (80:20 and 70:30) and C4H10/He/CO2 (7:70:23) for fast neutron detection. Results showed that the modified GEM-based neutron detector could detect both types of neutrons with different relative efficiencies and gains depending on thicknesses and types of neutron converters. This article discusses basic knowledge of the GEM detector, construction and testing procedures, results, and discussion.
Gas electron multipliers: Development of large area GEMS and spherical GEMS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinto, Serge Duarte
2011-08-01
Gaseous radiation detectors have been a crucial part of high-energy physics instrumentation since the 1960s, when the first multiwire proportional counters were built. In the 1990s the first micropattern gas detectors (MPGDS) saw the light; with sub-millimeter feature sizes these novel detectors were faster and more accurate than their predecessors. The gas electron multiplier (GEM) is one of the most successful of these technologies. It is a charge multiplication structure made from a copper clad polymer foil, pierced with a regular and dense pattern of holes. I describe the properties and the application of GEMs and GEM. detectors, and the research and development I have done on this technology. Two of the main objectives were the development of large area GEMs (∝m 2 ) for particle physics experiments and GEMs with a spherical shape for X-ray or neutron diffraction detectors. Both have been realized, and the new techniques involved are finding their way to applications in research and industry. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, H.D.
1976-06-01
The EXALPHA procedures provide a simplified method for running the MUSCATEL computer code, which in turn is used for calculating electronic properties of simple molecules and atomic clusters, based on the multiply scattered electron approximation for the wave equations. The use of the EXALPHA procedures to set up a run of MUSCATEL is described.
Sharma, A
1999-01-01
In this paper a detailed description of how to simulate charge transfer processes in a gaseous device is presented, taking the gas electron multiplier (GEM) as an example. A 3-dimensional simulation of the electric field and avalanche is performed. Results on charge transport are compared to experiment and agree within experimental errors; the avalanche mechanism and positive ion feedback are studied. The procedures used in the simulation are described in detail, and program scripts are appended. (15 refs).
Photoionisation detection of single 87Rb-atoms using channel electron multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henkel, Florian Alexander
2011-01-01
Fast and efficient detection of single atoms is a universal requirement concerning modern experiments in atom physics, quantum optics, and precision spectroscopy. In particular for future quantum information and quantum communication technologies, the efficient readout of qubit states encoded in single atoms or ions is an elementary prerequisite. The rapid development in the field of quantum optics and atom optics in the recent years has enabled to prepare individual atoms as quantum memories or arrays of single atoms as qubit registers. With such systems, the implementation of quantum computation or quantum communication protocols seems feasible. This thesis describes a novel detection scheme which enables fast and efficient state analysis of single neutral atoms. The detection scheme is based on photoionisation and consists of two parts: the hyperfine-state selective photoionisation of single atoms and the registration of the generated photoion-electron pairs via two channel electron multipliers (CEMs). In this work, both parts were investigated in two separate experiments. For the first step, a photoionisation probability of p ion =0.991 within an ionisation time of t ion =386 ns is achieved for a single 87 Rb-atom in an optical dipole trap. For the second part, a compact detection system for the ionisation fragments was developed consisting of two opposing CEM detectors. Measurements show that single neutral atoms can be detected via their ionisation fragments with a detection efficiency of η atom =0.991 within a detection time of t det =415.5 ns. In a future combined setup, this will allow the state-selective readout of optically trapped, single neutral 87 Rb-atoms via photoionisation detection with an estimated detection efficiency η=0.982 and a detection time of t tot = 802 ns. Although initially developed for single 87 Rb-atoms, the concept of photoionisation detection is in principle generally applicable to any atomic or molecular species. As efficient
Photoionisation detection of single {sup 87}Rb-atoms using channel electron multipliers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Henkel, Florian Alexander
2011-09-02
Fast and efficient detection of single atoms is a universal requirement concerning modern experiments in atom physics, quantum optics, and precision spectroscopy. In particular for future quantum information and quantum communication technologies, the efficient readout of qubit states encoded in single atoms or ions is an elementary prerequisite. The rapid development in the field of quantum optics and atom optics in the recent years has enabled to prepare individual atoms as quantum memories or arrays of single atoms as qubit registers. With such systems, the implementation of quantum computation or quantum communication protocols seems feasible. This thesis describes a novel detection scheme which enables fast and efficient state analysis of single neutral atoms. The detection scheme is based on photoionisation and consists of two parts: the hyperfine-state selective photoionisation of single atoms and the registration of the generated photoion-electron pairs via two channel electron multipliers (CEMs). In this work, both parts were investigated in two separate experiments. For the first step, a photoionisation probability of p{sub ion}=0.991 within an ionisation time of t{sub ion}=386 ns is achieved for a single {sup 87}Rb-atom in an optical dipole trap. For the second part, a compact detection system for the ionisation fragments was developed consisting of two opposing CEM detectors. Measurements show that single neutral atoms can be detected via their ionisation fragments with a detection efficiency of {eta}{sub atom}=0.991 within a detection time of t{sub det}=415.5 ns. In a future combined setup, this will allow the state-selective readout of optically trapped, single neutral {sup 87}Rb-atoms via photoionisation detection with an estimated detection efficiency {eta}=0.982 and a detection time of t{sub tot} = 802 ns. Although initially developed for single {sup 87}Rb-atoms, the concept of photoionisation detection is in principle generally applicable to any
Cross-Calibration of Secondary Electron Multiplier in Noble Gas Analysis
Santato, Alessandro; Hamilton, Doug; Deerberg, Michael; Wijbrans, Jan; Kuiper, Klaudia; Bouman, Claudia
2015-04-01
The latest generation of multi-collector noble gas mass spectrometers has decisively improved the precision in isotopic ratio analysis [1, 2] and helped the scientific community to address new questions [3]. Measuring numerous isotopes simultaneously has two significant advantages: firstly, any fluctuations in signal intensity have no effect on the isotope ratio and secondly, the analysis time is reduced. This particular point becomes very important in static vacuum mass spectrometry where during the analysis, the signal intensity decays and at the same time the background increases. However, when multi-collector analysis is utilized, it is necessary to pay special attention to the cross calibration of the detectors. This is a key point in order to have accurate and reproducible isotopic ratios. In isotope ratio mass spectrometry, with regard to the type of detector (i.e. Faraday or Secondary Electron Multiplier, SEM), analytical technique (TIMS, MC-ICP-MS or IRMS) and isotope system of interest, several techniques are currently applied to cross-calibrate the detectors. Specifically, the gain of the Faraday cups is generally stable and only the associated amplifier must be calibrated. For example, on the Thermo Scientific instrument control systems, the 1011 and 1012 ohm amplifiers can easily be calibrated through a fully software controlled procedure by inputting a constant electric signal to each amplifier sequentially [4]. On the other hand, the yield of the SEMs can drift up to 0.2% / hour and other techniques such as peak hopping, standard-sample bracketing and multi-dynamic measurement must be used. Peak hopping allows the detectors to be calibrated by measuring an ion beam of constant intensity across the detectors whereas standard-sample bracketing corrects the drift of the detectors through the analysis of a reference standard of a known isotopic ratio. If at least one isotopic pair of the sample is known, multi-dynamic measurement can be used; in this
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ortiz, J F; Grau, A
1985-07-01
In the present paper an iterative method is applied to study the variation of dynode response in the multiplier phototube. Three different situation are considered that correspond to the following ways of electronic incidence on the first dynode: incidence of exactly one electron, incidence of exactly r electrons and incidence of an average r electrons. The responses are given for a number of steps between 1 and 5, and for values of the multiplication factor of 2.1, 2.5, 3 and 5. We study also the variance, the skewness and the excess of jurtosis for different multiplication factors. (Author) 11 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anders, Andre
2008-01-01
Self-sputtering runaway in high power impulse magnetron sputtering is closely related to the appearance of multiply charged ions. This conclusion is based on the properties of potential emission of secondary electrons and energy balance considerations. The effect is especially strong for materials whose sputtering yield is marginally greater than unity. The absolute deposition rate increases ∼Q 1/2 , whereas the rate normalized to the average power decreases ∼Q -1/2 , with Q being the mean ion charge state number
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Nazhen; Wang Weiguo; Zhao Wuduo; Han Fenglei; Li Haiyang
2010-01-01
Graphical abstract: The formation mechanism for multiply charged ions (C q+ and O q+ (q = 2-4)) were investigated experimentally and theoretically using a dual polarity time-of-flight mass spectrometer when diethyl ether clusters interacted with nanosecond laser pulse. - Abstract: The formation mechanism for multiply charged ions (C q+ and O q+ (q = 2-4)) were investigated using a dual polarity time-of-flight mass spectrometer when diethyl ether clusters interacted with nanosecond laser pulse. The signal intensity of multiply charged ions and electron energy was measured experimentally. It was shown that the intensity of multiply charged ions increased about 50 times when laser intensity increased from 7.6 x 10 9 to 7.0 x 10 10 W/cm 2 , then saturated as laser intensity increased further. It is interesting that the evolution of the mean value of electron energy was same to that of multiply charged ions. The theoretical calculation showed the ionization potential of atomic ions could be significantly decreased due to the effect of Coulomb screening especially at low laser intensity. It indicated that the electron ionization combined with Coulomb screening effect could explain the production of multiply charged ions in nanosecond laser field.
Multi-anode photon-multiplier readout electronics for the LHCb ring imaging Cherenkov detectors
Smale, N J
2004-01-01
A readout system for the Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) detectors of the LHCb experiment has been developed. Two detector technologies for the measurement of Cherenkov photons are considered, the Multi-Anode Photo-Multiplier Tube (MAPMT) and the Hybrid Photon Detector (HPD), both of which meet the RICH requirements. The properties of the MAPMT are evaluated using a controlled single-photon source; a pixel-to-pixel gain variation of ~3 and a typical signal to noise of ~20 is measured. The relative tube efficiency is found to be reduced by ~26 % due to the detailed focusing structure of the MAPMT device. A radiation hard application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip, the Beetle1.2MA0, has been developed to capture and store signals from a pair of MAPMTs. The Beetle1.2MA0 is built on the architecture of the Beetle family that was designed for silicon strip detectors, the difference being a modified front-end amplifier. The 128 input-channels of the Beetle1.2MA0 have a charge-sensitive pre-amplifier followed...
Electron loss process and cross section of multiply charged ions by neutral atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karashima, S.; Watanabe, T.
1985-01-01
The significance of experimental and theoretical results on the electron loss and capture of ions in matter plays an important role in the charge equilibrium problems of fusion plasma physics and of accelerator physics. In the report, we calculate electron stripping cross section by using the binary encounter approximation (BEA). Our treatment of the electron loss process is based on BEA, in which the nucleus of B screened by the surrounding electrons collides with electrons in the ion A sup(q+). The basic approximation in EBA is that the ion interacts with only one electron or nucleus of the target atom at a time. In the calculation for Li sup(2+) + H, we have found that EBA will give approximately reliable results. (Mori, K.)
The detection of hard x-rays (10-140 KeV) by channel plate electron multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, J.E.
1976-12-01
Results are presented indicating that hard X-rays in the energy range 10 to 50 keV can be detected with good efficiency (5 to 10%) in channel plate electron multipliers (CPEM). From 50 keV to 140 keV the detection efficiency lies in the range 1 to 2%. A simple physical model is developed which indicates that not only can good detection efficiency be obtained but that very good X-ray imaging is possible. The model predicts that with further development, a wideband, hard X-ray detector can be realised with a detection efficiency in the range 5 to 20% and spatial response better than 10 lp/mm in the energy range 10 to 140 keV. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chernyshova, M., E-mail: maryna.chernyshova@ipplm.pl; Malinowski, K.; Czarski, T.; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Wojeński, A.; Poźniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Krawczyk, R.; Kolasiński, P.; Zabołotny, W.; Zienkiewicz, P. [Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland); Vezinet, D.; Herrmann, A. [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Mazon, D.; Jardin, A. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)
2016-11-15
A Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM)-based detector is being developed for soft X-ray diagnostics on tokamaks. Its main goal is to facilitate transport studies of impurities like tungsten. Such studies are very relevant to ITER, where the excessive accumulation of impurities in the plasma core should be avoided. This contribution provides details of the preliminary tests at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) with a focus on the most important aspects for detector operation in harsh radiation environment. It was shown that both spatially and spectrally resolved data could be collected, in a reasonable agreement with other AUG diagnostics. Contributions to the GEM signal include also hard X-rays, gammas, and neutrons. First simulations of the effect of high-energy photons have helped understanding these contributions.
Electron beam effects on the spectroscopy of multiply charged ions in plasma focus experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdallah, J.; Clark, R.E.H.; Faenov, A.Y.; Karpinski, L.; Pikuz, S.A.; Romanova, V.M.; Sadowski, M.; Scholz, M.; Szydlowski, A.
1999-01-01
Argon-hydrogen mixture plasma focus experiments performed at the Warsaw Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion show detailed space resolved spectra for Ar K-shell satellite lines up to F-like Ar and K-alpha of Ar. These transitions originating from autoionizing levels are caused by collisions of ions with the energetic electron beams which are created by the constrictions of the plasma column due to the development of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. A collisional-radiative model was constructed using a non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution consisting of a thermal Maxwellian part plus a Gaussian part to represent the high-energy electron beam. The shapes of the observed satellite structures are consistent with the calculated spectrum for electron temperatures between 20 and 230 eV, and beam densities of about 10 -3 times the plasma electron density. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
Electron beam effects on the spectroscopy of multiply charged ions in plasma focus experiments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdallah, J. [UCLA Plasma Physics Laboratory, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Clark, R.E.H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Faenov, A.Y. [MISDC, NPO ' VNIIFTRI' , Mendeleevo, Moscow region, 141570 (Russian Federation); Karpinski, L. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Pikuz, S.A.; Romanova, V.M. [P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Sadowski, M. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk (Poland); Scholz, M.; Szydlowski, A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland)
1999-05-01
Argon-hydrogen mixture plasma focus experiments performed at the Warsaw Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion show detailed space resolved spectra for Ar K-shell satellite lines up to F-like Ar and K-alpha of Ar. These transitions originating from autoionizing levels are caused by collisions of ions with the energetic electron beams which are created by the constrictions of the plasma column due to the development of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. A collisional-radiative model wasconstructed using a non-Maxwellian electron energy distribution consisting of a thermal Maxwellian part plus a Gaussian part to represent the high-energy electron beam. The shapes of the observed satellite structures are consistent with the calculated spectrum for electron temperatures between 20 and 230 eV, and beam densities of about 10{sup -3} times the plasma electron density. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, D J; Soman, M; Tutt, J; Murray, N; Holland, A; Schmitt, T; Raabe, J; Strocov, V N; Schmitt, B
2012-01-01
In 2007, a study of back-illuminated Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for soft X-ray photon detection demonstrated the improvements that could be brought over more traditional micro-channel plate detectors for X-ray spectrometers based on diffraction gratings and position sensitive detectors. Whilst the spatial resolution was reported to be improved dramatically, an intrinsic limit of approximately 25 micrometers was found due to the spreading of the charge cloud generated in the CCD across several pixels. To overcome this resolution limit, it is necessary to move away from the current integrated imaging methods and consider a photon-counting approach, recording the photon interaction locations to the sub-pixel level. To make use of photon-counting techniques it is important that the individual events are separable. To maintain the throughput of the spectrometer for high intensity lines, higher frame rates and therefore higher readout speeds are required. With CCD based systems, the increased noise at high readout speeds can limit the photon-counting performance. The Electron-Multiplying CCD shares a similar architecture with the standard CCD but incorporates a g ain register . This novel addition allows controllable gain to be applied to the signal before the read noise is introduced, therefore allowing individual events to be resolved above the noise even at much higher readout rates. In the past, the EM-CCD has only been available with imaging areas too small to be practical in soft X-ray emission spectrometers. The current drive for large area Electron-Multiplying CCDs is opening this technology to new photon-counting applications, requiring in-depth analysis of the processes and techniques involved. Early results indicate that through the introduction of photon-counting techniques the resolution in such systems can be dramatically improved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manley, B W; Burgess, H
1979-01-11
The detector system may be used in diagnostic X-ray or gamma radiography. It essentially consists of a great number of channel secondary electron multipliers assigned to which are two electrodes consisting of parallel electrode strips each. The strips in one electrode are some distance away from those of the other electrode and are shifted by 90/sup 0/ with respect to them. Each electrode strip has got a connection joined to a charge detection circuit. This charge detection circuit contains a logic circuit by which a reliable assessment of the surface distribution of the particles resp. quanta hitting the channel secondary electron multipliers is made possible.
Study of spatial resolution of coordinate detectors based on Gas Electron Multipliers
Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Maltsev, T. V.; Shekhtman, L. I.
2017-02-01
Spatial resolution of GEM-based tracking detectors is determined in the simulation and measured in the experiments. The simulation includes GEANT4 implemented transport of high energy electrons with careful accounting of atomic relaxation processes including emission of fluorescent photons and Auger electrons and custom post-processing with accounting of diffusion, gas amplification fluctuations, distribution of signals on readout electrodes, electronics noise and particular algorithm of final coordinate calculation (center of gravity). The simulation demonstrates that the minimum of spatial resolution of about 10 μm can be achieved with a gas mixture of Ar -CO2 (75-25 %) at a strips pitch from 250 μm to 300 μm. At a larger pitch the resolution quickly degrades reaching 80-100 μm at a pitch of 460-500 μm. Spatial resolution of low-material triple-GEM detectors for the DEUTERON facility at the VEPP-3 storage ring is measured at the extracted beam facility of the VEPP-4 M collider. One-coordinate resolution of the DEUTERON detector is measured with electron beam of 500 MeV, 1 GeV and 3.5 GeV energies. The determined value of spatial resolution varies in the range from approximately 35 μm to 50 μm for orthogonal tracks in the experiments.
Electron capture and ionization in collisions of multiply charged ions with H(2s)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Errea, L F; Guzman, F; Illescas, Clara; Mendez, L; Pons, B; Riera, A; Suarez, J
2007-01-01
We present total cross sections for electron capture and ionization in collisions of B 5+ and Ne 10+ with H(2s), calculated using two methods: the semiclassical close-coupling molecular formalism and the eikonal-CTMC method. We have evaluated partial cross sections for capture into excited n-levels, required in plasma diagnostics
McMullen, Timothy; Liyanage, Nilanga; Xiong, Weizhi; Zhao, Zhiwen
2017-01-01
Our research has focused on simulating the response of a Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector using computational methods. GEM detectors provide a cost effective solution for radiation detection in high rate environments. A detailed simulation of GEM detector response to radiation is essential for the successful adaption of these detectors to different applications. Using Geant4 Monte Carlo (GEMC), a wrapper around Geant4 which has been successfully used to simulate the Solenoidal Large Intensity Device (SoLID) at Jefferson Lab, we are developing a simulation of a GEM chamber similar to the detectors currently used in our lab. We are also refining an object-oriented digitization program, which translates energy deposition information from GEMC into electronic readout which resembles the readout from our physical detectors. We have run the simulation with beta particles produced by the simulated decay of a 90Sr source, as well as with a simulated bremsstrahlung spectrum. Comparing the simulation data with real GEM data taken under similar conditions is used to refine the simulation parameters. Comparisons between results from the simulations and results from detector tests will be presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pikuz, S.A.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Ramanova, V.M.; Abdallah, J. Jr.; Csanak, G.; Clark, R.E.H.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Hammer, D.A.
1997-01-01
The first experimental studies of an electron beam generated in an X pinch on the XP machine (Cornell University, USA) and the BIN machine (P. N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences) are reported. It is shown that it is possible in an X pinch to isolate the effect of a plasma-generated electron beam on the multiply charged ion radiation. The intensities of the satellite lines corresponding to Li-, Be-, B-, and C-like ions are calculated for the Al spectrum on the basis of a collisional-radiative model with a non-Maxwellian electron distribution in the plasma. The effect of an electron beam on the multiply charged light ion radiation in an X-pinch plasma is demonstrated. Comparing our calculations with the experimental spectra, we conclude that the present model can be used to estimate the electron beam intensity
Development of Gas Electron Multiplier(GEM) for digital radiographic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, B. S.; Chung, C. E.; Lee, J. W.
2000-04-01
Two computer programs SHOWFIELD and IMAGEQUAL have been developed. SHOWFIELD is used to draw electric field lines for GEM detectors and IMAGEQUAL is used to study the spatial resolution of x-ray images. Various simulation runs have been carried out using EGS4 to study the characteristics of electrons generated by micro-channel plates and Ar, Xe gases. A prototype GEM detector was developed through this project. The GEM detector is composed of a pair of GEM plates, a micro-channel plate, readout circuit in a gas filled chamber. GEM plate were made in CERN to meet KAERI's design specification and the micro-channel plates were purchased from Proxitronic company
Coates, Colin G; Denvir, Donal J; McHale, Noel G; Thornbury, Keith D; Hollywood, Mark A
2004-01-01
The back-illuminated electron multiplying charge-coupled device (EMCCD) camera is having a profound influence on the field of low-light dynamic cellular microscopy, combining highest possible photon collection efficiency with the ability to virtually eliminate the readout noise detection limit. We report here the use of this camera, in 512 x 512 frame-transfer chip format at 10-MHz pixel readout speed, in optimizing a demanding ultra-low-light intracellular calcium flux microscopy setup. The arrangement employed includes a spinning confocal Nipkow disk, which, while facilitating the need to both generate images at very rapid frame rates and minimize background photons, yields very weak signals. The challenge for the camera lies not just in detecting as many of these scarce photons as possible, but also in operating at a frame rate that meets the temporal resolution requirements of many low-light microscopy approaches, a particular demand of smooth muscle calcium flux microscopy. Results presented illustrate both the significant sensitivity improvement offered by this technology over the previous standard in ultra-low-light CCD detection, the GenIII+intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD), and also portray the advanced temporal and spatial resolution capabilities of the EMCCD. Copyright 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.
Preliminary results of the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) as real-time beam monitor in hadron therapy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aza, E., E-mail: eleni.aza@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); AUTH, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ciocca, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Murtas, F. [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); LNF-INFN, Via Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Puddu, S. [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland); AEC-LHEP, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, 3012 Bern (Switzerland); Pullia, M. [Fondazione CNAO, Strada Campeggi 53, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Silari, M. [CERN, Geneva 23, 1211 Geneva (Switzerland)
2017-01-01
The use of proton and carbon ion beams in cancer therapy (also known as hadron therapy) is progressively growing worldwide due to their improved dose distributions, sparing of healthy tissues and (for carbon ions) increased radiobiological effectiveness especially for radio-resistant tumours. Strict Quality Assurance (QA) protocols need to be followed for guaranteeing the clinical beam specifications. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a gaseous detector based on the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) technology for measuring the beam spot dimensions and the homogeneity of the scanned irradiation field, which are daily QA tasks commonly performed using radiochromic films. Measurements performed at the National Centre for Oncological Hadron Therapy (CNAO) in Pavia (Italy) showed that the detector is able to monitor the 2D beam image on-line with a pad granularity of 2 mm and a response proportional to the number of delivered particles. The dose homogeneity was measured with low deviation from the results obtained with radiochromic films.
Dickson, Shannon; Gausa, Michael; Robertson, Scott; Sternovsky, Zoltan
2013-04-01
We demonstrate that a channel electron multiplier (CEM) can be operated on a sounding rocket in the pulse-counting mode from 120 km to 80 km altitude without the cryogenic evacuation used in the past. Evacuation of the CEM is provided only by aerodynamic flow around the rocket. This demonstration is motivated by the need for additional flights of mass spectrometers to clarify the fate of metallic compounds and ions ablated from micrometeorites and their possible role in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds. The CEMs were flown as guest instruments on two sounding rockets to the mesosphere. Modeling of the aerodynamic flow around the payload with Direct Simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) code showed that the pressure is reduced below ambient in the void behind (relative to the direction of motion) an aft-facing surface. An enclosure containing the CEM was placed forward of an aft-facing deck and a valve was opened during flight to expose the CEM to the aerodynamically evacuated region behind it. The CEM operated successfully from apogee down to ∼80 km. A Pirani gauge confirmed pressures reduced to as low as 20% of ambient with the extent of reduction dependent upon altitude and velocity. Additional DSMC simulations indicate that there are alternate payload designs with improved aerodynamic pumping for forward mounted instruments such as mass spectrometers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deng Zhongguo
1989-01-01
The mass spectrometric determination of magnesium isotopic ratios by the use of uranyl nitrate added to magnesium samples to act as a binding agent is reported. Prebaking empty filaments and preheating filaments with deposited magnesium samples on its surface in a vacuum are employed to reduce the Na signal from the thenium-ribbon. Methods for correcting magnesium isotopic ratios for electron multiplier discrimination and mass fractionation are described in detail. The results of the determination of natural magnesium isotopic ratios are 25 Mg/ 24 Mg = 0.12660 (1±0.01%) and 26 Mg/ 24 Mg = 0.13938 (1±0.10%). The magnesium isotopic ratios of rich - 26 Mg-2 sample and rich- 25 Mg-1 sample are 24 Mg/ 26 Mg = 0.003463 (1±0.2%), 25 Mg/ 26 Mg = 0.001656 (±0.2%) and 24 Mg/ 25 Mg = 0.006716 (1±0.2%), 26 Mg/ 25 Mg = 0.007264 (1±0.2%) respectively
Sharma, Ram Krishna
2017-01-01
The High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) will provide exceptional high instantaneous and integrated luminosity. The forward region $\\mid \\eta \\mid \\geq 1.5$ of the CMS detector will face extremely high particle rates in tens of $KHz/cm^{2}$ and hence it will affect the momentum resolution and longevity of the muon detectors. To overcome these issues the CMS collaboration has decided to install new large size rate capable Triple Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors in the forward region of CMS muon system. The first set of Triple GEM detectors will be installed in the GE1/1 region $(1.5 \\leq \\eta \\leq 2.2)$ of muon endcap during the LS2 of the LHC and the next one will be installed in the GE2/1 region $(1.6 \\leq \\eta \\leq 2.5)$, during the LS3. Towards this goal, full-size CMS Triple GEM prototype chambers have been fabricated and put under the test beam at the CERN SPS test beam facility. The GEM detectors were operated with two gas mixtures $Ar/CO_{2}$ (70/30) and $Ar/CO_{2}/CF_{4}$ (40/15/45). In 2014 and 2016, ...
Zhao, Qiaole; Schelen, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van den Oever, Rein; Leenen, René; van Kuijk, Harry; Peters, Inge; Polderdijk, Frank; Bosiers, Jan; Raspe, Marcel; Jalink, Kees; Geert Sander de Jong, Jan; van Geest, Bert; Stoop, Karel; Young, Ian Ted
2012-12-01
We have built an all-solid-state camera that is directly modulated at the pixel level for frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) measurements. This novel camera eliminates the need for an image intensifier through the use of an application-specific charge coupled device design in a frequency-domain FLIM system. The first stage of evaluation for the camera has been carried out. Camera characteristics such as noise distribution, dark current influence, camera gain, sampling density, sensitivity, linearity of photometric response, and optical transfer function have been studied through experiments. We are able to do lifetime measurement using our modulated, electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (MEM-FLIM) camera for various objects, e.g., fluorescein solution, fixed green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells, and GFP-actin stained live cells. A detailed comparison of a conventional microchannel plate (MCP)-based FLIM system and the MEM-FLIM system is presented. The MEM-FLIM camera shows higher resolution and a better image quality. The MEM-FLIM camera provides a new opportunity for performing frequency-domain FLIM.
Gola, Mohit
2017-01-01
As the CERN LHC is heading towards a high luminosity phase a very high flux is expected in the endcaps of the CMS Detector. The presence of muons in collision events can be due to rare or new physics so it is important to maintain the high trigger efficiency of the CMS muon system. The CMS Collaboration has proposed to instrument the high-eta region (1.6 lt IetaI lt 2.2) of the muon endcaps with Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors, referred to as GE1/1 chambers, during the LS2. This technology will help in maintaining optimum trigger performance with maximum selection efficiency of muons even in a high flux environment. We describe plans for a Slice Test to installa few GE1/1 chambers covering 50 degrees in azimuthal angle within the CMS detector in 2017, with subsequent operation during the current Run 2 of the LHC. We show the performance of the GE1/1 chambers to be installed during the slice test, specifically GEM foil leakage currents, chamber gas volume integrity, high voltage circuit performanc...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Garry Jacobs
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This article is not a comprehensive factual history of money as an economic instrument. It aims rather to present an essential psychological history of the power of money as a social organization or social technology. It explores the catalytic role of money in the development of society and its ever-increasing capacity for accomplishment in both economic and non-economic fields. This perspective focuses attention on the unutilized potential for harnessing the social power of money for promoting full employment, global development and human welfare. The title ‘multiplying money’ is intended to convey the idea that this untapped potential is exponential in nature. In order to recognize it, some fundamental misconceptions about the nature of money, how it is created and on what it is based need to be examined. This is the second article in a series.
Shen, C.; Wu, C.; Gallet, S.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.; Hsieh, Y.; Lin, K.
2008-12-01
Contemporary multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) with discrete dynode secondary electron multipliers (SEMs) can offer U-Th isotopic determinations with subpermil-permil- level precision in femtogram quantities. However, accurate isotopic measurement requires fully understanding SEM mass and intensity biases. In additional to dead-time effect, Richter et al (2001, Int. J. Mass Spectrom., 206, 105-127) reported a nonlinearity on SEMs produced by ETP and MasCom for count rates > 20 thousand counts per second (cps). We evaluated the possible biases for ion beams of 500- 1,600,000 cps on a latest MasCom SEM, SEV TE-Z/17, with more effective ion optical acceptance area (>50%) and better peak shape than previous models, used in a MC-ICP-MS, Thermo Fisher NEPTUNE. With the retarding potential quadruple lens (RPQ) turned off, ion beam intensity can be biased by only dead- time effect, which can be precisely corrected online or offline. With the RPQ on, two additional biases, an exponential-like increase of ion beam intensity from 100-100,000 s cps and an apparent dead-time effect (-2 to 2 ns) at high count rates, are observed. They are likely caused by the slightly defocused ions with a wide kinetic energy spread of ~5 eV, 10 times worse than that with thermal source, passing through the RPQ lens to the SEM, which is installed behind the focal plane. Fortunately, the two biases, which are stable during the daily measurements with the same settings of inlet system, source lenses, zoom optics, and RPQ, can be corrected effectively offline to earn accurate U-Th isotopic measurement.
2013-01-01
A few weeks ago, I had a vague notion of what TED was, and how it worked, but now I’m a confirmed fan. It was my privilege to host CERN’s first TEDx event last Friday, and I can honestly say that I can’t remember a time when I was exposed to so much brilliance in such a short time. TEDxCERN was designed to give a platform to science. That’s why we called it Multiplying Dimensions – a nod towards the work we do here, while pointing to the broader importance of science in society. We had talks ranging from the most subtle pondering on the nature of consciousness to an eighteen year old researcher urging us to be patient, and to learn from our mistakes. We had musical interludes that included encounters between the choirs of local schools and will.i.am, between an Israeli pianist and an Iranian percussionist, and between Grand Opera and high humour. And although I opened the event by announcing it as a day off from physics, we had a quite brill...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Zhao-Yi; Li Da-Yu; Hu Li-Fa; Mu Quan-Quan; Yang Cheng-Liang; Cao Zhao-Liang; Xuan Li
2016-01-01
High signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved with the electron multiplying charge-coupled-device (EMCCD) applied in the Shack–Hartmann wavefront sensor (S–H WFS) in adaptive optics (AO). However, when the brightness of the target changes in a large scale, the fixed electron multiplying (EM) gain will not be suited to the sensing limitation. Therefore an auto-gain-control method based on the brightness of light-spots array in S–H WFS is proposed in this paper. The control value is the average of the maximum signals of every light spot in an array, which has been demonstrated to be kept stable even under the influence of some noise and turbulence, and sensitive enough to the change of target brightness. A goal value is needed in the control process and it is predetermined based on the characters of EMCCD. Simulations and experiments have demonstrated that this auto-gain-control method is valid and robust, the sensing SNR reaches the maximum for the corresponding signal level, and especially is greatly improved for those dim targets from 6 to 4 magnitude in the visual band. (special topic)
POSTHUMUS, JH; MORGENSTERN, R
1992-01-01
We have investigated multielectron capture processes in collisions of Ar9+ on Ar by measuring the resulting Auger electrons in coincidence with charge-state-analyzed target ions. In this way it was possible to reconstruct partial electron energy spectra, each corresponding to a particular number of
de Filippo, E.; Lanzanó, G.; Amorini, F.; Cardella, G.; Geraci, E.; Grassi, L.; La Guidara, E.; Lombardo, I.; Politi, G.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Volant, C.; Hagmann, S.; Rothard, H.
2010-12-01
The interaction of ion beams with insulators leads to charging-up phenomena, which at present are under investigation in connection with guiding phenomena in nanocapillaries with possible application in nanofocused beams. We studied the charging dynamics of insulating foil targets [Mylar, polypropylene (PP)] irradiated with swift ion beams (C, O, Ag, and Xe at 40, 23, 40, and 30 MeV/u, respectively) via the measurement of the slowing down of fast binary-encounter electrons. Also, sandwich targets (Mylar covered with a thin Au layer on both surfaces) and Mylar with Au on only one surface were used. Fast-electron spectra were measured by the time-of-flight method at the superconducting cyclotron of Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) Catania. The charge buildup leads to target-material-dependent potentials of the order of 6.0 kV for Mylar and 2.8 kV for PP. The sandwich targets, surprisingly, show the same behavior as the insulating targets, whereas a single Au layer on the electron and ion exit side strongly suppresses the charging phenomenon. The accumulated number of projectiles needed for charging up is inversely proportional to electronic energy loss. Thus, the charging up is directly related to emission of secondary electrons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Filippo, E.; Lanzano, G.; Cardella, G.; Amorini, F.; Geraci, E.; Grassi, L.; Politi, G.; La Guidara, E.; Lombardo, I.; Rizzo, F.; Russotto, P.; Volant, C.; Hagmann, S.; Rothard, H.
2010-01-01
The interaction of ion beams with insulators leads to charging-up phenomena, which at present are under investigation in connection with guiding phenomena in nanocapillaries with possible application in nanofocused beams. We studied the charging dynamics of insulating foil targets [Mylar, polypropylene (PP)] irradiated with swift ion beams (C, O, Ag, and Xe at 40, 23, 40, and 30 MeV/u, respectively) via the measurement of the slowing down of fast binary-encounter electrons. Also, sandwich targets (Mylar covered with a thin Au layer on both surfaces) and Mylar with Au on only one surface were used. Fast-electron spectra were measured by the time-of-flight method at the superconducting cyclotron of Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (LNS) Catania. The charge buildup leads to target-material-dependent potentials of the order of 6.0 kV for Mylar and 2.8 kV for PP. The sandwich targets, surprisingly, show the same behavior as the insulating targets, whereas a single Au layer on the electron and ion exit side strongly suppresses the charging phenomenon. The accumulated number of projectiles needed for charging up is inversely proportional to electronic energy loss. Thus, the charging up is directly related to emission of secondary electrons.
Gruchala, Marek Michal
2016-01-01
The high luminosity LHC will require new detectors in the CMS endcap muon system to suppress the trigger rate of background events, to maintain high trigger efficiency for low transverse momentum muons, to enhance the robustness of muon detection in the high-flux environment of the endcap, and to extend the geometrical acceptance. We report on the design and recent progress towards implementing a new system of large-area, triple-foil gas electron-multiplier (GEM) detectors that will be installed in the first three of five muon detector stations in each endcap, the first station being closest to the interaction point. The first station will extend the geometric acceptance in pseudo-rapidity to eta lt 3.0 from the current limit of eta lt 2.4. The second and third stations will enhance the performance in the range 1.6 lt eta lt 2.4. We describe the design of the chambers and readout electronics and report on the performance of prototype systems in tests with cosmic ray muons, high-energy particlebeams, a...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kravis, S.D.; Church, D.A.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.; Jones, K.W.; Levin, J.C.; Sellin, I.A.; Azuma, Y.; Berrah-Mansour, N.; Berry, H.G.; Druetta, M.
1992-01-01
The rate coefficients for electron transfer from Ar and H 2 to Ar q+ ions (3≤q≤6) have been measured using an ion-storage technique in a Penning ion trap. The ions were produced in the trap by K-shell photoionization of Ar atoms, using broadband synchrotron x-ray radiation. K-electron removal resulted in vacancy cascading, yielding a distribution of argon-ion charge states peaked near Ar 4+ . The stored ion gas had an initial temperature near 480 K. The basic data determining the rate coefficients k(Ar q+ ) are the storage time constants of each charge state in the trap, in the presence of a measured pressure of target gas. The results of the measurements (in units of 10 -9 cm 3 s -1 ) are k(Ar 3+ ,H 2 )=4.3(0.7), k(Ar 3+ ,Ar)=1.6(0.2), k(Ar 4+ ,H 2 )=5.2(0.6), k(Ar 4+ ,Ar)=2.5(0.3), k(Ar 5+ ,H 2 )=5.9(0.7), k(Ar 5+ ,Ar)=2.9(0.3), k(Ar 6+ ,H 2 )=8.5(1.2), and k(Ar 6+ ,Ar)=2.5(0.3)
Ruiz Alvarez, Jose David
2016-01-01
A new data acquisition and on-line control system is being developed for gas-electron multiplier (GEM) detectors which will be installed in the forward region (1.6 \\( < \\eta < \\) 2.2) of the CMS muon spectrometer during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC, planned for the period 2018-2019. A prototype system employs the TOTEM VFAT2 ASIC that will eventually be replaced with the VFAT3 ASIC, under development. The front-end ASIC communicates over printed circuit lines with an intermediate on-detector board called the opto-hybrid. Data, trigger, and control information is transmitted via optical fiber between the opto-hybrid and an off-detector readout system using micro-TCA technology. On-line software, implemented in the CMS XDAQ framework, includes applications for latency and HV scans, and system management. We report on the operational status of the prototype system that has been tested using cosmic ray muons and extracted high-energy particle beams. This work is preparatory for the operation of a prot...
Wang, Guiqin; Sun, Tiantian; Xu, Jifeng
2017-10-15
According to the Johnson-Nyquist noise equation, the value of electron noise is proportional to the square root of the resistor value. This relationship gives a theoretical improvement of 100 in the signal/noise ratio by going from 10 11 Ω to 10 13 Ω amplifiers for Faraday detection in thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). We measured Os isotopes using static Faraday cups with 10 13 Ω amplifiers in negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS) and compared the results with those obtained with 10 11 Ω amplifiers and by peak-hopping on a single secondary electron multiplier (SEM). We analysed large loads of Os (1 μg) at a range of intensities of 187 OsO 3 (0.02-10 mV) in addition to small loads of Os (5-500 pg) to compare the results of the three methods. Using 10 13 Ω amplifiers, the long-term reproducibility determined from Merck Os was 187 Os/ 188 Os = 0.1211 ± 0.0086 and 0.120229 ± 0.000034 at 0.02 mV and 10 mV of 187 OsO 3 intensities. Meanwhile, the analysed JMC Os loadings of 5 and 500 pg showed 187 Os/ 188 Os = 0.10669 ± 0.00036 and 0.106807 ± 0.000023. In comparison, the values measured by the SEM were 187 Os/ 188 Os = 0.10704 ± 0.00056 and 0.10690 ± 0.00013. All errors are in 2 standard deviation (SD). Both the accuracy and the precision determined using the 10 13 Ω amplifiers and the SEM are identical when the Os amounts are within 10-50 pg. However, the former analysis time can be shortened by approximately two-thirds. The SEM measurement is still the most precise method for Os amounts 50 pg. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Calculated characteristics of multichannel photoelectron multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasil'chenko, V.G.; Dajkovskij, A.G.; Milova, N.V.; Rakhmatov, V.E.; Rykalin, V.I.
1990-01-01
Structural features and main calculated characteristics of some modifications of position-sensitive two-coordinate multichannel photoelectron multipliers (PEM) with plate-type multiplying systems are described. The presented PEM structures are free from direct optical and ion feedbacks, provide coordinate resolution ≅ 1 mm with efficiency of photoelectron detection ≅ 90%. Capabilities for using silicon field-effect photocathodes, providing electron extraction into vacuum, as well as prospects of using multichannel multiplying systems for readout of the data from solid detectors are considered
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lohez, P; Nief, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1957-07-01
The apparatus described is designed to measure weak ion currents received at the collector of a mass spectrometer. The report describes successively the study of electron paths in the multiplier by the method of analogy, using rubber membranes, and the practical details of construction of the apparatus. The variation with surface treatment of the secondary emission coefficient of the alloy CuBe containing 2 per cent Be, which makes up the dynodes, and the influence of the voltage on the gain per stage, are discussed. Results of tests regarding: the influence of the ion mass on the gain, the background of the instrument and the energy distribution of the impulses coming out on a high gain multiplier (q.q. 10{sup 7}) are given. Finally the performances of the multiplier are reported. 1- For a low gain (10{sup 4}), precision and reproducibility comparable to the electrometer valve, sensitivity 100 times greater, currents capable of detection 10{sup -17} Ampere. 2- For a high gain (10{sup 7}) and measurement by impulse counting, currents capable of detection 10{sup -19} Ampere. Mounting difficult to use on a mass spectrometer. (author) [French] L'appareil decrit est destine a la mesure des faibles courants d'ions re s au collecteur d'un spectrometre de masse. Le rapport decrit successivement l'etude des trajectoires des electrons dans le multiplicateur, par la methode analogique de la menbrane en caoutchouc, et la realisation pratique de l'appareil. La variation du coefficient d'emission secondaire de l'alliage CuBe a 2 pour cent de Be, constituant les dynodes suivant le traitement des surfaces, et l'influence de la tension sur le gain par etage sont discutees. Des resultats d'essais concernant: l'influence de la masse des ions sur le gain, le bruit de fond de l'appareil et la repartition en energie des impulsions de sortie sur un multiplicateur a gain eleve (q.q. 10{sup 7}) sont donnes. Enfin, sont rapportees les performances du multiplicateur. 1- pour un gain faible
The Multiply Handicapped Child.
Wolf, James M., Ed.; Anderson, Robert M., Ed.
Articles presented in the area of the medical and educational challenge of the multiply handicapped child are an overview of the problem, the increasing challenge, congenital malformations, children whose mothers had rubella, prematurity and deafness, the epidemiology of reproductive casualty, and new education for old problems. Discussions of…
Flowers, William L., Jr.; Harris, John B.
1981-01-01
The multiplier effect is discussed as it applies to the field of continuing education. The authors' main point is that one grant or contract can, and should, be used as the basis for building organizational competencies and capabilities that will secure other funds. (Author/CT)
Microwave Frequency Multiplier
Velazco, J. E.
2017-02-01
High-power microwave radiation is used in the Deep Space Network (DSN) and Goldstone Solar System Radar (GSSR) for uplink communications with spacecraft and for monitoring asteroids and space debris, respectively. Intense X-band (7.1 to 8.6 GHz) microwave signals are produced for these applications via klystron and traveling-wave microwave vacuum tubes. In order to achieve higher data rate communications with spacecraft, the DSN is planning to gradually furnish several of its deep space stations with uplink systems that employ Ka-band (34-GHz) radiation. Also, the next generation of planetary radar, such as Ka-Band Objects Observation and Monitoring (KaBOOM), is considering frequencies in the Ka-band range (34 to 36 GHz) in order to achieve higher target resolution. Current commercial Ka-band sources are limited to power levels that range from hundreds of watts up to a kilowatt and, at the high-power end, tend to suffer from poor reliability. In either case, there is a clear need for stable Ka-band sources that can produce kilowatts of power with high reliability. In this article, we present a new concept for high-power, high-frequency generation (including Ka-band) that we refer to as the microwave frequency multiplier (MFM). The MFM is a two-cavity vacuum tube concept where low-frequency (2 to 8 GHz) power is fed into the input cavity to modulate and accelerate an electron beam. In the second cavity, the modulated electron beam excites and amplifies high-power microwaves at a frequency that is a multiple integer of the input cavity's frequency. Frequency multiplication factors in the 4 to 10 range are being considered for the current application, although higher multiplication factors are feasible. This novel beam-wave interaction allows the MFM to produce high-power, high-frequency radiation with high efficiency. A key feature of the MFM is that it uses significantly larger cavities than its klystron counterparts, thus greatly reducing power density and arcing
Pritha Mitra; Tigran Poghosyan
2015-01-01
Amid renewed crisis, falling tax revenues, and rising debt, Ukraine faces serious fiscal consolidation needs. Durable fiscal adjustment can support economic confidence and rebuild buffers but what is its overall impact on growth? How effective are revenue versus spending instruments? Does current or capital spending have a larger impact? Applying a structural vector autoregressive model, this paper finds that Ukraine’s near-term revenue and spending multipliers are well below one. In the medi...
Nelson, Jane Bray
2012-01-01
As a new physics teacher, I was explaining how to find the weight of an object sitting on a table near the surface of the Earth. It bothered me when a student asked, "The object is not accelerating so why do you multiply the mass of the object by the acceleration due to gravity?" I answered something like, "That's true, but if the table were not…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaither III, C.C.; Breinig, M.; Berryman, J.W.; Hasson, B.F.; Richards, J.D.; Price, K.
1993-01-01
The angular distributions of energetic electrons ejected at angles between 45 degree and 135 degree with respect to the incident-beam direction have been measured in coincidence with the charge states of the target recoil ions produced in multiply ionizing collisions for the 1-MeV/u O q+ (q=4,7)+Ar collision systems. These measurements have been made for ∼179-, ∼345-, and ∼505-eV electrons. Additionally, the energy distributions of electrons ejected into specific angular regions have been measured. Ar LMM satellite Auger electrons appear as a peak in the energy spectrum of electrons ejected at all large angles. The center of this peak is found at an electron energy of ∼179 eV. Electrons with ∼179 eV energy, ejected at large angles, are preferentially produced in coincidence with recoil ions of charge state 4+. Electrons with ∼345 eV energy and ∼505 eV energy ejected at large angles are preferentially produced in coincidence with recoil ions of charge state 3+. The angular distributions for these electrons are strongly peaked in the forward direction; essentially no electrons are observed at angles larger than 90 degree. These results are consistent with the dominant production mechanism for energetic electrons ejected at large angles being a binary-encounter process. Differential cross sections have been calculated from these angular distributions. They are on the order of 10 -21 cm 2 /(eV sr)
Optical studies of multiply excited states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mannervik, S.
1989-01-01
Optical studies of multiply-excited states are reviewed with emphasis on emission spectroscopy. From optical measurements, properties such as excitation energies, lifetimes and autoionization widths can be determined with high accuracy, which constitutes a challenge for modern computational methods. This article mainly covers work on two-, three- and four-electron systems, but also sodium-like quartet systems. Furthermore, some comments are given on bound multiply-excited states in negative ions. Fine structure effects on transition wavelengths and lifetimes (autoionization) are discussed. In particular, the most recent experimental and theoretical studies of multiply-excited states are covered. Some remaining problems, which require further attention, are discussed in more detail. (orig.) With 228 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wahlin, E.K.; Thompson, J.S.; Dunn, G.H.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Gregory, D.C.; Smith, A.C.H.
1990-01-01
For the first time absolute total cross sections for electron-impact excitation of a multiply-charged ion have been measured using an electron-energy-loss technique. Measurements were made near threshold for the process e + Si 3+ (3s 2 S 1/2 ) → e + Si 3+ (3p 2 P 1/2 , 3/2 ) -- 8.88 eV. The 10 -15 cm 2 measured cross section agrees with results of 7-state close coupling calculations to better than the ±20% (90% CL) total uncertainty of the measurements. Convoluting the theoretical curve with a Gaussian energy distribution indicates an energy width of 0.15 approx-lt ΔE approx-lt 0.20 eV. 12 refs., 2 figs
UWB delay and multiply receiver
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dallum, Gregory E.; Pratt, Garth C.; Haugen, Peter C.; Romero, Carlos E.
2013-09-10
An ultra-wideband (UWB) delay and multiply receiver is formed of a receive antenna; a variable gain attenuator connected to the receive antenna; a signal splitter connected to the variable gain attenuator; a multiplier having one input connected to an undelayed signal from the signal splitter and another input connected to a delayed signal from the signal splitter, the delay between the splitter signals being equal to the spacing between pulses from a transmitter whose pulses are being received by the receive antenna; a peak detection circuit connected to the output of the multiplier and connected to the variable gain attenuator to control the variable gain attenuator to maintain a constant amplitude output from the multiplier; and a digital output circuit connected to the output of the multiplier.
Maximilien Brice
2002-01-01
Photo 0210005_11: The CTF3 linac accelerates an electron beam up to 350 MeV. Photo 0210005_1: At the front, the yellow dipole is used for the spectrometer line. At the back, a doublet of blue quadrupole for the matching. Photo 0210005_03: The CTF3 transfer line between the electron linac and the isochronous ring. Photo 0210005_04: One arc of the EPA isochronous ring. Photo 0210005_06: The CTF3 bunching system. The first RF wave guide feeds the Pre-Buncher while the second RF wave guide feeds the Buncher. They provide a bunched electron beam at 4 MeV. The blue magnet is a solenoid around the Buncher. Photo 0210005_07: A LIL accelerating structure used for CTF3. It is 4.5 meters long and provides an energy gain of 45 MeV. One can see 3 quadrupoles around the RF structure.
Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter
Su, Gui-Jia [Oak Ridge, TN; Peng, Fang Z [Okemos, MI
2007-08-07
A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.
Grubbs, Guy II; Michell, Robert; Samara, Marilia; Hampton, Don; Jahn, Jorg-Micha
2016-01-01
A technique is presented for the periodic and systematic calibration of ground-based optical imagers. It is important to have a common system of units (Rayleighs or photon flux) for cross comparison as well as self-comparison over time. With the advancement in technology, the sensitivity of these imagers has improved so that stars can be used for more precise calibration. Background subtraction, flat fielding, star mapping, and other common techniques are combined in deriving a calibration technique appropriate for a variety of ground-based imager installations. Spectral (4278, 5577, and 8446 A ) ground-based imager data with multiple fields of view (19, 47, and 180 deg) are processed and calibrated using the techniques developed. The calibration techniques applied result in intensity measurements in agreement between different imagers using identical spectral filtering, and the intensity at each wavelength observed is within the expected range of auroral measurements. The application of these star calibration techniques, which convert raw imager counts into units of photon flux, makes it possible to do quantitative photometry. The computed photon fluxes, in units of Rayleighs, can be used for the absolute photometry between instruments or as input parameters for auroral electron transport models.
Lagrange multipliers and gravitational theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elston, F.D.
1977-01-01
The Lagrange multiplier variational method is extended to nonlinear Lagrangians in a Riemann space, where it is shown explicitly for the quadratic Lagrangians that, as expected, this approach is equivalent to the Hilbert variational method. It is not, in general, equivalent to the Palatini variational method. The nonvanishing Lagrange multipliers for the quadratic Lagrangians are explicitly obtained in covariant form. A similiar analysis is then carried out in a Riemann--Cartan torsional metric space for the specific Lagrangians g/sup 1/2/R tilde and g/sup 1/2/R/sub uv/tilde R/sup uv/tilde. The possible relevance of the R/sub uv/R/sup u anti v/ invariant to an action-principle formulation of the Rainich--Misner--Wheeler (RMW) already-unified theory is also discussed. It is then pointed out how a different use of the Lagrange multiplier technique in the language of the 3 + 1 canonical formalism developed by Arnowitt, Deser, and Misner (ADM) permits the recasting of the equations of motion for quadratic and general higher-order invariants into the ADM canonical formalism. In general, without this Lagrange multiplier approach, the higher-order ADM problem could not be solved. This is done explicitly for the simplest quadratic Langrangian g/sup 1/2/R 2 as an example
Multiplied Environmental Literacy. Final Report.
Buethe, Chris
This booklet presents a pupil-oriented program designed to increase the environmental literacy of teachers and students in Indiana schools through a programmed multiplier effect. Junior and senior high school science teachers were prepared to teach students the meanings of 44 selected environmental terms and related concepts. Those teachers then…
Principal parameters of classical multiply charged ion sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winter, H.; Wolf, B.H.
1974-01-01
A review is given of the operational principles of classical multiply charged ion sources (operating sources for intense beams of multiply charged ions using discharge plasmas; MCIS). The fractional rates of creation of multiply charged ions in MCIS plasmas cannot be deduced from the discharge parameters in a simple manner; they depend essentially on three principal parameters, the density and energy distribution of the ionizing electrons, and the confinement time of ions in the ionization space. Simple discharge models were used to find relations between principal parameters, and results of model calculations are compared to actually measured charge state density distributions of extracted ions. Details of processes which determine the energy distribution of ionizing electrons (heating effects), confinement times of ions (instabilities), and some technical aspects of classical MCIS (cathodes, surface processes, conditioning, life time) are discussed
Synthesis algorithm of VLSI multipliers for ASIC
Chua, O. H.; Eldin, A. G.
1993-01-01
Multipliers are critical sub-blocks in ASIC design, especially for digital signal processing and communications applications. A flexible multiplier synthesis tool is developed which is capable of generating multiplier blocks for word size in the range of 4 to 256 bits. A comparison of existing multiplier algorithms is made in terms of speed, silicon area, and suitability for automated synthesis and verification of its VLSI implementation. The algorithm divides the range of supported word sizes into sub-ranges and provides each sub-range with a specific multiplier architecture for optimal speed and area. The algorithm of the synthesis tool and the multiplier architectures are presented. Circuit implementation and the automated synthesis methodology are discussed.
Otanps synapse linear relation multiplier circuit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chible, H.
2008-01-01
In this paper, a four quadrant VLSI analog multiplier will be proposed, in order to be used in the implementation of the neurons and synapses modules of the artificial neural networks. The main characteristics of this multiplier are the small silicon area and the low power consumption and the high value of the weight input voltage. (author)
On compact multipliers of topological algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammad, N.
1994-08-01
It is shown that if the maximal ideal space Δ(A) of a semisimple commutative complete metrizable locally convex algebra contains no isolated points, then every compact multiplier is trivial. Particularly, compact multipliers on semisimple commutative Frechet algebras whose maximal ideal space has no isolated points are identically zero. (author). 5 refs
Faster and Energy-Efficient Signed Multipliers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Ramkumar
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate faster and energy-efficient column compression multiplication with very small area overheads by using a combination of two techniques: partition of the partial products into two parts for independent parallel column compression and acceleration of the final addition using new hybrid adder structures proposed here. Based on the proposed techniques, 8-b, 16-b, 32-b, and 64-b Wallace (W, Dadda (D, and HPM (H reduction tree based Baugh-Wooley multipliers are developed and compared with the regular W, D, H based Baugh-Wooley multipliers. The performances of the proposed multipliers are analyzed by evaluating the delay, area, and power, with 65 nm process technologies on interconnect and layout using industry standard design and layout tools. The result analysis shows that the 64-bit proposed multipliers are as much as 29%, 27%, and 21% faster than the regular W, D, H based Baugh-Wooley multipliers, respectively, with a maximum of only 2.4% power overhead. Also, the power-delay products (energy consumption of the proposed 16-b, 32-b, and 64-b multipliers are significantly lower than those of the regular Baugh-Wooley multiplier. Applicability of the proposed techniques to the Booth-Encoded multipliers is also discussed.
Temperature Insensitive Current-Mode Four Quadrant Multiplier Using Single CFCTA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tuntrakool Sunti
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A four quadrant multiplier of two current input signals using active building block, namely current follower cascaded transconductance amplifier (CFCTA is presented in this paper. The proposed multiplier consists of only single CFCTA without the use of any passive element. The presented circuit has low impedance at current input node and high impedance at current output node which is convenient for cascading in current mode circuit without the need of current buffer circuits. The output current can multiply two input currents with temperature insensitivity. Moreover, the magnitude of output current can be controlled electronically via DC bias current. With only single active building block, the presented multiplier is suitable for integrated circuit implementation for analog signal processing. Simulation results from a PSpice program are presented in order to demonstrate the multiplier proposed here.
Multiply-negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Walsh, Noelle
2008-07-15
Multiply negatively charged aluminium clusters and fullerenes were generated in a Penning trap using the 'electron-bath' technique. Aluminium monoanions were generated using a laser vaporisation source. After this, two-, three- and four-times negatively charged aluminium clusters were generated for the first time. This research marks the first observation of tetra-anionic metal clusters in the gas phase. Additionally, doubly-negatively charged fullerenes were generated. The smallest fullerene dianion observed contained 70 atoms. (orig.)
Keynesian multiplier versus velocity of money
Wang, Yougui; Xu, Yan; Liu, Li
2010-08-01
In this paper we present the relation between Keynesian multiplier and the velocity of money circulation in a money exchange model. For this purpose we modify the original exchange model by constructing the interrelation between income and expenditure. The random exchange yields an agent's income, which along with the amount of money he processed determines his expenditure. In this interactive process, both the circulation of money and Keynesian multiplier effect can be formulated. The equilibrium values of Keynesian multiplier are demonstrated to be closely related to the velocity of money. Thus the impacts of macroeconomic policies on aggregate income can be understood by concentrating solely on the variations of money circulation.
Multipliers for continuous frames in Hilbert spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balazs, P; Bayer, D; Rahimi, A
2012-01-01
In this paper, we examine the general theory of continuous frame multipliers in Hilbert space. These operators are a generalization of the widely used notion of (discrete) frame multipliers. Well-known examples include anti-Wick operators, STFT multipliers or Calderón–Toeplitz operators. Due to the possible peculiarities of the underlying measure spaces, continuous frames do not behave quite as their discrete counterparts. Nonetheless, many results similar to the discrete case are proven for continuous frame multipliers as well, for instance compactness and Schatten-class properties. Furthermore, the concepts of controlled and weighted frames are transferred to the continuous setting. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (paper)
Economic Multipliers and Mega-Event Analysis
Victor Matheson
2004-01-01
Critics of economic impact studies that purport to show that mega-events such as the Olympics bring large benefits to the communities “lucky” enough to host them frequently cite the use of inappropriate multipliers as a primary reason why these impact studies overstate the true economic gains to the hosts of these events. This brief paper shows in a numerical example how mega-events may lead to inflated multipliers and exaggerated claims of economic benefits.
Charge-exchange collisions of multiply charged ions with atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grozdanov, T.P.; Janev, R.K.
1978-01-01
The problem of electron transfer between neutral atoms and multiply charged ions is considered at low and medium energies. It is assumed that a large number of final states are available for the electron transition so that the electron-capture process is treated as a tunnel effect caused by the strong attractive Coulomb field of the multicharged ions. The electron transition probability is obtained in a closed form using the modified-comparison-equation method to solve the Schroedinger equation. An approximately linear dependence of the one-electron transfer cross section on the charge of multicharged ion is found. Cross-section calculations of a number of charge-exchange reactions are performed
Bio/Nano Electronic Devices and Sensors
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Jones, W. K
2008-01-01
...) Cold cathode microwave generator and ceramic electron multiplier-ceramic multiplier using a novel secondary electron yield materials of MgO and CNT was demonstrated as well as cooling structures...
Semigroups of Herz-Schur multipliers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudby, Søren
2014-01-01
function (see Theorem 1.2). It is then shown that a (not necessarily proper) generator of a semigroup of Herz–Schur multipliers splits into a positive definite kernel and a conditionally negative definite kernel. We also show that the generator has a particularly pleasant form if and only if the group...
A quantum architecture for multiplying signed integers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Sanchez, J J; Alvarez-Bravo, J V; Nieto, L M
2008-01-01
A new quantum architecture for multiplying signed integers is presented based on Booth's algorithm, which is well known in classical computation. It is shown how a quantum binary chain might be encoded by its flank changes, giving the final product in 2's-complement representation.
Auger transitions in singly and multiply ionized atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehlhorn, W.
1978-01-01
Some recent progress in Auger and autoionizing electron spectrometry of free metal atoms and of multiply ionized atoms is reviewed. The differences which arise between the spectra of atoms in the gaseous and the solid state are due to solid state effects. This will be shown for Cd as an example. The super Coster-Kronig transitions 3p-3d 2 (hole notation) and Coster-Kronig transitions 3p-3d 4s have been measured and compared with free-atom calculations for free Zn atoms. The experimental width GAMMA(3p)=(2.1+-0.2)eV found for the free atom agrees with the value obtained for solid Zn but is considerably smaller than the theoretical value for the free atom. Autoionizing spectra of Na following an L-shell excitation or ionization by different particles are compared and discussed. The nonisotropic angular distribution of electrons from the transition 2p 5 3s 2 2 Psub(3/2)→2p 6 +e - is compared with theoretical calculations. Two examples for Auger spectrometry of multiply ionized atoms are given: (1) excitation of neon target atoms by light and heavy ions, and (2) excitation of projectile ions Be + and B + in single gas collisions with CH 4 . A strong alignment of the excited atoms has also been found here
Hydrogen retention behavior of beryllides as advanced neutron multipliers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Fujii
2016-12-01
Full Text Available Beryllium intermetallic compounds (beryllides are the most promising candidate materials for use as advanced neutron multipliers in future fusion reactors because of their low swelling and high stability at high temperatures. Recently, beryllium–titanium beryllide pebbles such as Be12Ti have been successfully fabricated using a novel granulation process. In this study, the fundamental aspects of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in Be12Ti pebbles were investigated via thermal desorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. In addition, atomistic calculations using first principles electronic-structure methods were applied to determine the solution energy of hydrogen in Be12Ti. The results showed simpler and weaker hydrogen-trapping efficiency for Be12Ti than for pure Be.
Outer-shell transitions in collisions between multiply charged ions and atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloemen, E.W.P.
1980-01-01
The study of collisions between multiply charged ions and atoms (molecules) is of importance in different areas of research. Usually, the most important process is capture of an electron from the target atom into the projectile ion. In most cases the electron goes to an excited state of the projectile ion. These electron capture processes are studied. The author also studied direct excitation of the target atom and of the projectile ion. (Auth.)
Equations for the stochastic cumulative multiplying chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lewins, J D [Cambridge Univ. (UK). Dept. of Engineering
1980-01-01
The forward and backward equations for the conditional probability of the neutron multiplying chain are derived in a new generalization accounting for the chain length and admitting time dependent properties. These Kolmogorov equations form the basis of a variational and hence complete description of the 'lumped' multiplying system. The equations reduce to the marginal distribution, summed over all chain lengths, and to the simpler equations previously derived for that problem. The method of derivation, direct and in the probability space with the minimum of mathematical manipulations, is perhaps the chief attraction: the equations are also displayed in conventional generating function form. As such, they appear to apply to number of problems in areas of social anthropology, polymer chemistry, genetics and cell biology as well as neutron reactor theory and radiation damage.
Equations for the stochastic cumulative multiplying chain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lewins, J.D.
1980-01-01
The forward and backward equations for the conditional probability of the neutron multiplying chain are derived in a new generalization accounting for the chain length and admitting time dependent properties. These Kolmogorov equations form the basis of a variational and hence complete description of the 'lumped' multiplying system. The equations reduce to the marginal distribution, summed over all chain lengths, and to the simpler equations previously derived for that problem. The method of derivation, direct and in the probability space with the minimum of mathematical manipulations, is perhaps the chief attraction: the equations are also displayed in conventional generating function form. As such, they appear to apply to number of problems in areas of social anthropology, polymer chemistry, genetics and cell biology as well as neutron reactor theory and radiation damage. (author)
Tourism multipliers in the Mexican economy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Kido-Cruz
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the multiplier impact generated by the tourism sector in Mexico in the year 2013. The importance of studying this sector, in particular, lies in its contribution to the National GDP of over 8% and in its promising development based on services’ quality and the preferred destination of the developed countries. In addition, it is proposed to simulate the multiplier impact that will generate two current events, as they are, the construction of the new International Airport of Mexico and the increase of the investment in Fibers. The results were very punctual, a better distribution of the investment is generated, it is invested in the tourism sector, mainly in variables such as value added and remuneration.
Integrated optic vector-matrix multiplier
Watts, Michael R [Albuquerque, NM
2011-09-27
A vector-matrix multiplier is disclosed which uses N different wavelengths of light that are modulated with amplitudes representing elements of an N.times.1 vector and combined to form an input wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) light stream. The input WDM light stream is split into N streamlets from which each wavelength of the light is individually coupled out and modulated for a second time using an input signal representing elements of an M.times.N matrix, and is then coupled into an output waveguide for each streamlet to form an output WDM light stream which is detected to generate a product of the vector and matrix. The vector-matrix multiplier can be formed as an integrated optical circuit using either waveguide amplitude modulators or ring resonator amplitude modulators.
Tax Multipliers: Pitfalls in Measurement and Identification
Daniel Riera-Crichton; Carlos A. Vegh; Guillermo Vuletin
2012-01-01
We contribute to the literature on tax multipliers by analyzing the pitfalls in identification and measurement of tax shocks. Our main focus is on disentangling the discussion regarding the identification of exogenous tax policy shocks (i.e., changes in tax policy that are not the result of policymakers responding to output fluctuations) from the discussion related to the measurement of tax policy (i.e., finding a tax policy variable under the direct control of the policymaker). For this purp...
Multiplier-free filters for wideband SAR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dall, Jørgen; Christensen, Erik Lintz
2001-01-01
This paper derives a set of parameters to be optimized when designing filters for digital demodulation and range prefiltering in SAR systems. Aiming at an implementation in field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), an approach for the design of multiplier-free filters is outlined. Design results...... are presented in terms of filter complexity and performance. One filter has been coded in VHDL and preliminary results indicate that the filter can meet a 2 GHz input sample rate....
Mining, regional Australia and the economic multiplier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paul Cleary
2012-12-01
Full Text Available Mining in Australia has traditionally delivered a strong development multiplier for regional communities where most mines are based. This relationship has weakened in recent decades as a result of the introduction of mobile workforces - typically known as fly in, fly out. Political parties have responded with policies known as ‘royalties for regions’, though in designing them they overlooked long established Indigenous arrangements for sharing benefits with areas affected directly by mining.
The Uncertainty Multiplier and Business Cycles
Saijo, Hikaru
2013-01-01
I study a business cycle model where agents learn about the state of the economy by accumulating capital. During recessions, agents invest less, and this generates noisier estimates of macroeconomic conditions and an increase in uncertainty. The endogenous increase in aggregate uncertainty further reduces economic activity, which in turn leads to more uncertainty, and so on. Thus, through changes in uncertainty, learning gives rise to a multiplier effect that amplifies business cycles. I use ...
Isometric multipliers of a vector valued Beurling algebra on a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 1. Isometric multipliers of a vector valued Beurling algebra on a discrete semigroup. Research Article Volume 127 Issue 1 February 2017 pp 109- ... Keywords. Weighted semigroup; multipliers of a semigroup; Beurling algebra; isometric multipliers.
Study of heterogeneous multiplying and non-multiplying media by the neutron pulsed source technique
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deniz, V.
1969-01-01
The pulsed neutron technique consists essentially in sending in the medium to be studied a short neutron pulse and in determining the asymptotic decay constant of the generated population. The variation of the decay constant as a function of the size of the medium allows the medium characteristics to be defined. This technique has been largely developed these last years and has been applied as well to moderator as to multiplying media, in most cases homogeneous ones. We considered of interest of apply this technique to lattices, to see if useful informations could be collected for lattice calculations. We present here a general theoretical study of the problem, and results and interpretation of a series of experiments made on graphite lattices. There is a good agreement for non-multiplying media. In the case of multiplying media, it is shown that the age value used until now in graphite lattices calculations is over-estimated by about 10 per cent [fr
A high reliability automatic multiplier for a mass spectrometer ion detector circuit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoshino, Kiichi; Satooka, Sakae
1978-01-01
An automatic multiplier of an ion detector circuit for measurement of isotopic abundance ratio of heavy hydrogen to be used with a single collector has been constructed. This multiplier works at 1/1, 1/5, 1/20, 1/100, 1/500, 1/2000 and infinity, and the input voltage which is required to change the range from 1/1 to 1/5 is 10 mV and that from 1/2000 to infinity is 20 V. As the amplifier preceding the automatic multiplier, a vibrating reed electrometer which generates maximum output of 30 V is used. On measurement, marks which indicate the magnifications are recorded on the chart of electronic recorder. It is possible to set the minimum magnification at 1/1, 1/5, or 1/20 by a switch for setting the minimum magnification. (author)
Transient phenomena in bounded fast multiplying assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraft, T.E.
1976-01-01
A generalized dispersion formalism is developed in the context of time-, space-, and energy-dependent transport theory. The evolution of the neutron population in a fast multiplying system following an initial burst of neutrons is examined. The generalized dispersion law obtained is an integral equation, in one variable, for the Laplace and Fourier transformed time- and space-dependent sources of fission neutrons. An approximation technique is shown to generate solutions which converge in L 2 norm to the exact solution for exact elastic, exact inelastic, Goertzel-Grueling or Wigner scattering kernels, and any reasonable fission spectrum
Quasiparticle trapping and the quasiparticle multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Booth, N.E.
1987-01-01
Superconductors and in particular superconducting tunnel junctions can be used to detect phonons, electromagnetic radiation, x rays, and nuclear particles by the mechanism of Cooper-pair breaking to produce excess quasiparticles and phonons. We show that the sensitivity can be increased by a factor of 100 or more by trapping the quasiparticles in another superconductor of lower gap in the region of the tunnel junction. Moreover, if the ratio of the gap energies is >3 a multiplication process can occur due to the interaction of the relaxation phonons. This leads to the concept of the quasiparticle multiplier, a device which could have wider applications than the Gray effect transistor or the quiteron
Multipliers on Generalized Mixed Norm Sequence Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oscar Blasco
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Given 1≤p,q≤∞ and sequences of integers (nkk and (nk′k such that nk≤nk′≤nk+1, the generalized mixed norm space ℓℐ(p,q is defined as those sequences (ajj such that ((∑j∈Ik|aj|p1/pk∈ℓq where Ik={j∈ℕ0 s.t. nk≤j
Synthesis of highly faceted multiply twinned gold nanocrystals stabilized by polyoxometalates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan Junhua; Chen Yuanxian; Han Dongxue; Zhang Yuanjian; Shen Yanfei; Wang Zhijuan; Niu Li
2006-01-01
A novel and facile chemical synthesis of highly faceted multiply twinned gold nanocrystals is reported. The gold nanocrystals are hexagonal in transmission electron microscopy and icosahedral in scanning electron microscopy. Phosphotungstic acid (PTA), which was previously reduced, serves as a reductant and stabilizer for the synthesis of gold nanocrystals. The PTA-gold nanocomposites are quite stable in aqueous solutions, and electrochemically active towards the hydrogen evolution reaction
Rhinoplasty for the multiply revised nose.
Foda, Hossam M T
2005-01-01
To evaluate the problems encountered on revising a multiply operated nose and the methods used in correcting such problems. The study included 50 cases presenting for revision rhinoplasty after having had 2 or more previous rhinoplasties. An external rhinoplasty approach was used in all cases. Simultaneous septal surgery was done whenever indicated. All cases were followed for a mean period of 32 months (range, 1.5-8 years). Evaluation of the surgical result depended on clinical examination, comparison of pre- and postoperative photographs, and degree of patients' satisfaction with their aesthetic and functional outcome. Functionally, 68% suffered nasal obstruction that was mainly caused by septal deviations and nasal valve problems. Aesthetically, the most common deformities of the upper two thirds of the nose included pollybeak (64%), dorsal irregularities (54%), dorsal saddle (44%), and open roof deformity (42%), whereas the deformities of lower third included depressed tip (68%), tip contour irregularities (60%), and overrotated tip (42%). Nasal grafting was necessary in all cases; usually more than 1 type of graft was used in each case. Postoperatively, 79% of the patients, with preoperative nasal obstruction, reported improved breathing; 84% were satisfied with their aesthetic result; and only 8 cases (16%) requested further revision to correct minor deformities. Revision of a multiply operated nose is a complex and technically demanding task, yet, in a good percentage of cases, aesthetic as well as functional improvement are still possible.
Quantum mechanics in a multiply connected region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyazawa, H.
1986-01-01
It is usually assumed that wave fields or wave functions are single valued functions of space-time. However, the phase of a complex field is an unobservable quantity and there is no obvious reason that it must be single valued. On this point quantum mechanics in a multiply connected regions is not well formulated. This ambiguity appears e.g., in the case of the Bohm-Aharonov effect concerning the observability of the vector potential around a magnetic flux. The author discusses the single or multiple valuedness of wave functions and attempts to see if such an effect really exists or not. The wave function of a charged particle in a multiply connected region is not necessarily single valued. The condition that the ground state energy be a minimum fixes the character of the multiple valuedness. For a charged particle around a magnetic flux a multiple valued wave function is preferable and no Bohm-Aharonov effect is observed. The minimum energy principle is proved if one also considers the interaction of a charged particle with external objects. Then theoretically the Bohm-Aharonov effect should not be observed. Experiments are not yet conclusive on this point
Microchannel electron multiplier: improvement in gain performances and detection dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Audier, M.; Delmotte, J.C.; Boutot, J.P.
1978-01-01
The performances of an MCP are a function of its geometrical characteristics (diameter d and ratio 1/d of a channel, useful area) and of the applied voltage. Gain and mean output current are limited by saturation phenomena. By using a particular cascaded MCP's configuration, it is possible to simultaneously improve the gain, its associated fluctuations and the detection dynamics (detected level, counting rate). For gains 10 6 7 , the fluctuations, can be kept as low as 20% and an improvement by a factor > 10 can be obtained on the detection dynamics [fr
Hadamard Multipliers and Abel Dual of Hardy Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paweł Mleczko
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the study of Hadamard multipliers of functions from the abstract Hardy classes generated by rearrangement invariant spaces. In particular the relation between the existence of such multiplier and the boundedness of the appropriate convolution operator on spaces of measurable functions is presented. As an application, the description of Hadamard multipliers into H∞ is given and the Abel type theorem for mentioned Hardy spaces is proved.
φ-Multipliers on Banach Algebras and Topological Modules
Adib, Marjan
2015-01-01
We prove some results concerning Arens regularity and amenability of the Banach algebra ${M}_{\\phi }(A)$ of all $\\phi $ -multipliers on a given Banach algebra $A$ . We also consider $\\phi $ -multipliers in the general topological module setting and investigate some of their properties. We discuss the $\\phi $ -strict and $\\phi $ -uniform topologies on ${M}_{\\phi }(A)$ . A characterization of $\\phi $ -multipliers on ${L}_{1}(G)$ -module ${L}_{p}(G)$ , where $G$ is a compact group, is given.
Neutron multiplier alternative for fusion reactor blankets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taczanowski, S.
1980-01-01
A proposal is given to replace neutron multiplier needed to enable low lithium and tritium inventories simultaneously assuring sufficient production of tritium, by an efficient moderator ( 7 LiH or 7 LiD). The advantageous effect of the intensified neutron energy degradation is due to the 1/v character of the main tritium producing reaction. The slowing-down medium is designed to be the source of moderated neutrons for the surrounding Li ( 6 Li enriched) region where the most of tritium is to be produced. The surplus tritium production remains stored in the moderator zone. Some preliminary calculations illustrating the above concept were carried out and the neutron flux and tritium production distributions are presented. The indications regarding further studies are also suggested. (author)
Four-gate transistor analog multiplier circuit
Mojarradi, Mohammad M. (Inventor); Blalock, Benjamin (Inventor); Cristoloveanu, Sorin (Inventor); Chen, Suheng (Inventor); Akarvardar, Kerem (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A differential output analog multiplier circuit utilizing four G.sup.4-FETs, each source connected to a current source. The four G.sup.4-FETs may be grouped into two pairs of two G.sup.4-FETs each, where one pair has its drains connected to a load, and the other par has its drains connected to another load. The differential output voltage is taken at the two loads. In one embodiment, for each G.sup.4-FET, the first and second junction gates are each connected together, where a first input voltage is applied to the front gates of each pair, and a second input voltage is applied to the first junction gates of each pair. Other embodiments are described and claimed.
Faster Double-Size Bipartite Multiplication out of Montgomery Multipliers
Yoshino, Masayuki; Okeya, Katsuyuki; Vuillaume, Camille
This paper proposes novel algorithms for computing double-size modular multiplications with few modulus-dependent precomputations. Low-end devices such as smartcards are usually equipped with hardware Montgomery multipliers. However, due to progresses of mathematical attacks, security institutions such as NIST have steadily demanded longer bit-lengths for public-key cryptography, making the multipliers quickly obsolete. In an attempt to extend the lifespan of such multipliers, double-size techniques compute modular multiplications with twice the bit-length of the multipliers. Techniques are known for extending the bit-length of classical Euclidean multipliers, of Montgomery multipliers and the combination thereof, namely bipartite multipliers. However, unlike classical and bipartite multiplications, Montgomery multiplications involve modulus-dependent precomputations, which amount to a large part of an RSA encryption or signature verification. The proposed double-size technique simulates double-size multiplications based on single-size Montgomery multipliers, and yet precomputations are essentially free: in an 2048-bit RSA encryption or signature verification with public exponent e=216+1, the proposal with a 1024-bit Montgomery multiplier is at least 1.5 times faster than previous double-size Montgomery multiplications.
Efek Multiplier Zakat terhadap Pendapatan di Provinsi DKI Jakarta
Al Arif, M. Nur Rianto
2012-01-01
The aim of this research is to analyse the multiplier effect of zakâh revenue in DKI Jakarta. A study case at Badan Amil Zakat, Infak, and Sadaqah (BAZIS) DKI Jakarta. Least square method is used to analyze the data. The coefficients will be used to calculate the multiplier effect of zakâh-revenue and it will be compared with the economy without zakah revenue. The results showed 2,522 multiplier effects of zakâh-revenue and 3.561 multiplier effect ofeconomic income without zakâh-revenue. Thi...
Lasher, Mark E.; Henderson, Thomas B.; Drake, Barry L.; Bocker, Richard P.
1986-09-01
The modified signed-digit (MSD) number representation offers full parallel, carry-free addition. A MSD adder has been described by the authors. This paper describes how the adder can be used in a tree structure to implement an optical multiply algorithm. Three different optical schemes, involving position, polarization, and intensity encoding, are proposed for realizing the trinary logic system. When configured in the generic multiplier architecture, these schemes yield the combinatorial logic necessary to carry out the multiplication algorithm. The optical systems are essentially three dimensional arrangements composed of modular units. Of course, this modularity is important for design considerations, while the parallelism and noninterfering communication channels of optical systems are important from the standpoint of reduced complexity. The authors have also designed electronic hardware to demonstrate and model the combinatorial logic required to carry out the algorithm. The electronic and proposed optical systems will be compared in terms of complexity and speed.
Wu, Zhenkai; Ding, Jing; Zhao, Dahang; Zhao, Li; Li, Hai; Liu, Jianlin
2017-07-10
The multiplier method was introduced by Paley to calculate the timing for temporary hemiepiphysiodesis. However, this method has not been verified in terms of clinical outcome measure. We aimed to (1) predict the rate of angular correction per year (ACPY) at the various corresponding ages by means of multiplier method and verify the reliability based on the data from the published studies and (2) screen out risk factors for deviation of prediction. A comprehensive search was performed in the following electronic databases: Cochrane, PubMed, and EMBASE™. A total of 22 studies met the inclusion criteria. If the actual value of ACPY from the collected date was located out of the range of the predicted value based on the multiplier method, it was considered as the deviation of prediction (DOP). The associations of patient characteristics with DOP were assessed with the use of univariate logistic regression. Only one article was evaluated as moderate evidence; the remaining articles were evaluated as poor quality. The rate of DOP was 31.82%. In the detailed individual data of included studies, the rate of DOP was 55.44%. The multiplier method is not reliable in predicting the timing for temporary hemiepiphysiodesis, even though it is prone to be more reliable for the younger patients with idiopathic genu coronal deformity.
Multipliers for the Absolute Euler Summability of Fourier Series
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this paper, the author has investigated necessary and sufficient conditions for the absolute Euler summability of the Fourier series with multipliers. These conditions are weaker than those obtained earlier by some workers. It is further shown that the multipliers are best possible in certain sense.
Multiplier convergent series and uniform convergence of mapping ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
MS received 14 April 2011; revised 17 November 2012. Abstract. In this paper, we introduce the frame property of complex sequence sets and study the uniform convergence of nonlinear mapping series in β-dual of spaces consisting of multiplier convergent series. Keywords. Multiplier convergent series; mapping series. 1.
Dimension of the c-nilpotent multiplier of Lie algebras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. The purpose of this paper is to derive some inequalities for dimension of the c-nilpotent multiplier of finite dimensional Lie algebras and their factor Lie algebras. We further obtain an inequality between dimensions of c-nilpotent multiplier of Lie algebra L and tensor product of a central ideal by its abelianized factor ...
Silicon Photo-Multiplier Radiation Hardness Tests with a White Neutron Beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montanari, A.; Tosi, N.; Pietropaolo, A.; Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Luppi, E.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Malaguti, R.; Santoro, V.; Tellarini, G.; Tomassetti, L.; De Donato, C.; Reali, E.
2013-06-01
We report radiation hardness tests performed, with a white neutron beam, at the Geel Electron Linear Accelerator in Belgium on silicon Photo-Multipliers. These are semiconductor photon detectors made of a square matrix of Geiger-Mode Avalanche photo-diodes on a silicon substrate. Several samples from different manufacturers have been irradiated integrating up to about 6.2 x 10 9 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm 2 . (authors)
Charge exchange and ionization in atom-multiply-charged ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Presnyakov, L.P.; Uskov, D.B.
1988-01-01
This study investigates one-electron transitions to the continuous and discrete spectra induced by a collision of atom A and multiply-charged ion B +Z with nuclear charge Z > 3. An analytical method is developed the charge-exchange reaction; this method is a generalization of the decay model and the approximation of nonadiabatic coupling of two states that are used as limiting cases in the proposed approach
Influence of capture to excited states of multiply charged ion beams colliding with small molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montenegro, P; Monti, J M; Fojón, O A; Hanssen, J; Rivarola, R D
2015-01-01
Electron capture by multiply charged ions impacting on small molecules is theoretically investigated. Particular attention is paid to the case of biological targets. The interest is focused on the importance of the transition to excited final states which can play a dominant role on the total capture cross sections. Projectiles at intermediate and high collision energies are considered. Comparison with existing experimental data is shown. (paper)
Optimizing strassen matrix multiply on GPUs
ul Hasan Khan, Ayaz; Al-Mouhamed, Mayez; Fatayer, Allam
2015-01-01
© 2015 IEEE. Many core systems are basically designed for applications having large data parallelism. Strassen Matrix Multiply (MM) can be formulated as a depth first (DFS) traversal of a recursion tree where all cores work in parallel on computing each of the NxN sub-matrices that reduces storage at the detriment of large data motion to gather and aggregate the results. We propose Strassen and Winograd algorithms (S-MM and W-MM) based on three optimizations: a set of basic algebra functions to reduce overhead, invoking efficient library (CUBLAS 5.5), and parameter-tuning of parametric kernel to improve resource occupancy. On GPUs, W-MM and S-MM with one recursion level outperform CUBLAS 5.5 Library with up to twice as faster for large arrays satisfying N>=2048 and N>=3072, respectively. Compared to NVIDIA SDK library, S-MM and W-MM achieved a speedup between 20x to 80x for the above arrays. The proposed approach can be used to enhance the performance of CUBLAS and MKL libraries.
Optimizing strassen matrix multiply on GPUs
ul Hasan Khan, Ayaz
2015-06-01
© 2015 IEEE. Many core systems are basically designed for applications having large data parallelism. Strassen Matrix Multiply (MM) can be formulated as a depth first (DFS) traversal of a recursion tree where all cores work in parallel on computing each of the NxN sub-matrices that reduces storage at the detriment of large data motion to gather and aggregate the results. We propose Strassen and Winograd algorithms (S-MM and W-MM) based on three optimizations: a set of basic algebra functions to reduce overhead, invoking efficient library (CUBLAS 5.5), and parameter-tuning of parametric kernel to improve resource occupancy. On GPUs, W-MM and S-MM with one recursion level outperform CUBLAS 5.5 Library with up to twice as faster for large arrays satisfying N>=2048 and N>=3072, respectively. Compared to NVIDIA SDK library, S-MM and W-MM achieved a speedup between 20x to 80x for the above arrays. The proposed approach can be used to enhance the performance of CUBLAS and MKL libraries.
Electronic structure of elements and compounds and electronic phases of solids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nadykto, B.A.
2000-01-01
The paper reviews technique and computed energies for various electronic states of many-electron multiply charged ions, molecular ions, and electronic phases of solids. The model used allows computation of the state energy for free many-electron multiply charged ions with relative accuracy ∼10 -4 suitable for analysis of spectroscopy data
Design of two easily-testable VLSI array multipliers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferguson, J.; Shen, J.P.
1983-01-01
Array multipliers are well-suited to VLSI implementation because of the regularity in their iterative structure. However, most VLSI circuits are very difficult to test. This paper shows that, with appropriate cell design, array multipliers can be designed to be very easily testable. An array multiplier is called c-testable if all its adder cells can be exhaustively tested while requiring only a constant number of test patterns. The testability of two well-known array multiplier structures are studied. The conventional design of the carry-save array multipler is shown to be not c-testable. However, a modified design, using a modified adder cell, is generated and shown to be c-testable and requires only 16 test patterns. Similar results are obtained for the baugh-wooley two's complement array multiplier. A modified design of the baugh-wooley array multiplier is shown to be c-testable and requires 55 test patterns. The implementation of a practical c-testable 16*16 array multiplier is also presented. 10 references.
Analytical theory of frequency-multiplying gyro-traveling-wave-tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nusinovich, G.S.; Chen, W.; Granatstein, V.L.
2001-01-01
The theory is developed which describes analytically the gain and bandwidth in frequency-multiplying gyro-traveling-wave-tubes. In this theory the input waveguide is considered in the small-signal approximation. Then, in the drift region separating the input and output waveguides, the electron ballistic bunching evolves which causes the appearance in the electron current density of the harmonics of the signal frequency. The excitation of the output waveguide by one of these harmonics is considered in a specified current approximation. This makes the analytical study of a large-signal operation possible. The theory is illustrated by using it to analyze the performance of an existing experimental tube
Confinement of multiply charged ions in an ECRH mirror plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Petty, C.C.
1989-06-01
This thesis is an experimental study of multiply charged ions in the Constance B mirror experiment. By measuring the ion densities, end loss fluxes and ion temperatures, the parallel confinement times for the first five charge states of oxygen and neon plasmas are determined. The parallel ion confinement times increase with charge state and peak on axis, both indications of an ion-confining potential dip created by the hot electrons. The radial profile of ion end loss is usually hollow due to large ion radial transport (τ paralleli ∼ τ perpendiculari ), with the peak fluxes occurring at the edge of the electron cyclotron resonance zone. Several attempts are made to increase the end loss of selected ion species. Using minority ICRH, the end loss flux of resonant ions increases by 20% in cases when radial transport induced by ICRH is not too severe. A large antenna voltage can also extinguish the plasma. By adding helium to an oxygen plasma, the end loss of O 6+ increases by 80% due to decreased ion radial transport. An ion model is developed to predict the ion densities, end loss fluxes and confinement times in the plasma center using the ion particle balance equations, the quasineutrality condition and theoretical confinement time formulas. The model generally agrees with the experimental data for oxygen and neon plasmas to within experimental error. Under certain conditions spatial diffusion appears to determine the parallel ion confinement time of the highest charge states. For oxygen plasmas during ICRH, the measured parallel confinement time of the resonant ions is much shorter than their theoretical value, probably due to rf diffusion of the ions into the loss cone. 58 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs
Gys, Thierry
1999-01-01
Current developments in position-sensitive hybrid photon detectors and photo-multiplier tubes have stimulated increased interest from a variety of fields such as astronomy, biomedical imaging and high- energy physics. These devices are sensitive to single photons over a photon energy spectrum defined by the transmission of the optical entrance window and the photo-cathode type. Their spatial resolution ranges from a few millimeters for pad hybrid photon detectors and multi-anode photo-multiplier tubes down to a few tens of microns for pixel hybrid photon detectors and electron-bombarded charge-coupled devices. Basic technological and design aspects are assessed in this paper. (21 refs).
Photoionization of multiply charged ions at the advanced light source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlachter, A.S.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.; Aguilar, A.; Gharaibeh, M.F.; Emmons, E.D.; Scully, S.W.J.; Phaneuf, R.A.; Muller, A.; Schippers, S.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Hinojosa, G.; McLaughlin, B.M.
2004-01-01
Photoionization of multiply charged ions is studied using the merged-beams technique at the Advanced Light Source. Absolute photoionization cross sections have been measured for a variety of ions along both isoelectronic and isonuclear sequences
Cavallo's multiplier for in situ generation of high voltage
Clayton, S. M.; Ito, T. M.; Ramsey, J. C.; Wei, W.; Blatnik, M. A.; Filippone, B. W.; Seidel, G. M.
2018-05-01
A classic electrostatic induction machine, Cavallo's multiplier, is suggested for in situ production of very high voltage in cryogenic environments. The device is suitable for generating a large electrostatic field under conditions of very small load current. Operation of the Cavallo multiplier is analyzed, with quantitative description in terms of mutual capacitances between electrodes in the system. A demonstration apparatus was constructed, and measured voltages are compared to predictions based on measured capacitances in the system. The simplicity of the Cavallo multiplier makes it amenable to electrostatic analysis using finite element software, and electrode shapes can be optimized to take advantage of a high dielectric strength medium such as liquid helium. A design study is presented for a Cavallo multiplier in a large-scale, cryogenic experiment to measure the neutron electric dipole moment.
Sociophysics of sexism: normal and anomalous petrie multipliers
Eliazar, Iddo
2015-07-01
A recent mathematical model by Karen Petrie explains how sexism towards women can arise in organizations where male and female are equally sexist. Indeed, the Petrie model predicts that such sexism will emerge whenever there is a male majority, and quantifies this majority bias by the ‘Petrie multiplier’: the square of the male/female ratio. In this paper—emulating the shift from ‘normal’ to ‘anomalous’ diffusion—we generalize the Petrie model to a stochastic Poisson model that accommodates heterogeneously sexist men and woman, and that extends the ‘normal’ quadratic Petrie multiplier to ‘anomalous’ non-quadratic multipliers. The Petrie multipliers span a full spectrum of behaviors which we classify into four universal types. A variation of the stochastic Poisson model and its Petrie multipliers is further applied to the context of cyber warfare.
Atomic collisions in fusion plasmas involving multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salzborn, E.
1980-01-01
A short survey is given on atomic collisions involving multiply charged ions. The basic features of charge transfer processes in ion-ion and ion-atom collisions relevant to fusion plasmas are discussed. (author)
Efek Multiplier Zakat Terhadap Pendapatan di Propinsi DKI Jakarta
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Nur Rianto Al Arif
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyze the multiplier effect of zakah revenue in DKI Jakarta, a study case at Badan Amil Zakat, Infak, and Shadaqah (BAZIS DKI Jakarta. Least square methods is used to analyze the data. The coefficient will be used to calculate the multiplier effect of zakah revenue and it will be compared with the economy without zakah revenue. The result showed 2,522 multiplier effects of zakah revenue and 3,561 multiplier effect of economic income without zakah revenue. This suggest that the management of zakah in BAZIS DKI Jakarta still can have a significant influence on the economyDOI: 10.15408/aiq.v4i1.2079
Multiplier less high-speed squaring circuit for binary numbers
Sethi, Kabiraj; Panda, Rutuparna
2015-03-01
The squaring operation is important in many applications in signal processing, cryptography etc. In general, squaring circuits reported in the literature use fast multipliers. A novel idea of a squaring circuit without using multipliers is proposed in this paper. Ancient Indian method used for squaring decimal numbers is extended here for binary numbers. The key to our success is that no multiplier is used. Instead, one squaring circuit is used. The hardware architecture of the proposed squaring circuit is presented. The design is coded in VHDL and synthesised and simulated in Xilinx ISE Design Suite 10.1 (Xilinx Inc., San Jose, CA, USA). It is implemented in Xilinx Vertex 4vls15sf363-12 device (Xilinx Inc.). The results in terms of time delay and area is compared with both modified Booth's algorithm and squaring circuit using Vedic multipliers. Our proposed squaring circuit seems to have better performance in terms of both speed and area.
Instructional Computing Project Uses "Multiplier Effect" to Train Florida Teachers.
Roblyer, M. D.; Castine, W. H.
1987-01-01
Reviews the efforts undertaken in the Florida Model Microcomputer Trainer Project (FMMTP) and its statewide impact. Outlines its procedural strategies, trainer curriculum, networking system, and the results of its multiplier effect. (ML)
EFEK MULTIPLIER ZAKAT TERHADAP PENDAPATAN DI PROVINSI DKI JAKARTA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Nur Rianto Al Arif
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The aim of this research is to analyse the multiplier effect of zakâh revenue in DKI Jakarta. A study case at Badan Amil Zakat, Infak, and Sadaqah (BAZIS DKI Jakarta. Least square method is used to analyze the data. The coefficients will be used to calculate the multiplier effect of zakâh-revenue and it will be compared with the economy without zakah revenue. The results showed 2,522 multiplier effects of zakâh-revenue and 3.561 multiplier effect ofeconomic income without zakâh-revenue. This suggests that the management of zakat in BAZIS Jakarta still can have a significant influence on the economy.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v4i1.2533
The generalization of the Schur multipliers of Bieberbach groups
Masri, Rohaidah; Hassim, Hazzirah Izzati Mat; Sarmin, Nor Haniza; Ali, Nor Muhainiah Mohd; Idrus, Nor'ashiqin Mohd
2014-12-01
The Schur multiplier is the second homology group of a group. It has been found to be isomorphic to the kernel of a homomorphism which maps the elements in the exterior square of the group to the elements in its derived subgroup. Meanwhile, a Bieberbach group is a space group which is a discrete cocompact group of isometries of oriented Euclidean space. In this research, the Schur multipliers of Bieberbach groups with cyclic point group of order two of finite dimension are computed.
Physics of subcritical multiplying regions and experimental validation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salvatores, M.
1996-01-01
The coupling of a particle accelerator with a spallation target and with a subcritical multiplying region has been proposed in the fifties and is called here a hybrid system. This article gives some ideas about the energetic balance of such a system. The possibilities of experimental validation of some properties of a subcritical multiplying region by using MASURCA facility at CEA-Cadarache are examined. The results of a preliminary experiment called MUSE are presented. (A.C.)
Isometric multipliers of a vector valued Beurling algebra on a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Throughout, let S be a nonunital faith- ful abelian semigroup, and let A be a commutative Banach algebra. A map σ : S → S is a multiplier [1, 4] if σ(xy) = xσ(y) = σ(x)y, x,y ∈ S. Let M(S) be the set of all multipliers of S. Then M(S) is a unital abelian semigroup under composition. Since S is faithful, S can be imbedded as an ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo Xiaolin; Niu Dongmei; Kong Xianglei; Wen Lihua; Liang Feng; Pei Kemei; Wang Bin; Li Haiyang
2005-01-01
The photoionization of methyl iodide beam seeded in argon and helium is studied by time-of-flight mass spectrometry using a 25 ns, 532 nm Nd-YAG laser with intensities in the range of 2 x 10 10 -2 x 10 11 W/cm 2 . Multiply charged ions of I q+ (q = 2-3) and C 2+ with tens of eV kinetic energies have been observed when laser interacts with the middle part of the pulsed molecular beam, whose peak profiles are independent on the laser polarization directions. Strong evidences show that these ions are coming from the Coulomb explosion of multiply charged CH 3 I clusters, and laser induced inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of caged electrons plays a key role in the formation of multiply charged ions
Experiment study on the thick GEM-like multiplier for X-ray photoelectrons energy deposition gaining
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu Pengfei; Ye Yan; Long Yan; Cao Ningxiang; Jia Xing; Li Jianfeng
2009-01-01
The GEM is a novel detector with high gain,high time and location resolution. Imitating the structure of the GEM, a thick GEM-like multiplier which has the similar function with that of the GEM is designed and manufactured. The characteristics of the thick GEM-like multiplier increasing electron energy deposition in absorbing medium has been experimentally studied. The results indicate that the energy deposition gain of x-ray photoelectron in medium is apparent, and the maximum energy deposition can increase by more than 40%. Some suggestions of further increasing the energy deposition are given, and the future application of the way of increasing the x-ray photoelectron energy deposition by the thick GEM-like multiplier in hard x-ray imaging is prospected. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bedilov, R.M.; Bedilov, M.R.; Sabitov, M.M.; Matnazarov, A.; Niyozov, B.
2004-01-01
Full text: It is known, under interaction of laser radiation with solid surface a power density q > 0.01 W/cm 2 are observed destruction of a solid and issue of electrons, ions, neutrals, neutrons, plasmas, and also radiation in a wide ranges of a spectra. Despite of a plenty of works, devoted to study of processes of interaction, the studies of feature of destruction of solids by laser beam in process of formation multiply charged ions are insufficiently investigated. The results of study feature of destruction of solids by laser radiation in process of formation multiply charged ions are given in this work. In our experiments, we used the mass spectrometer with single-channel laser radiation. The laser installation had the following parameters: a power density of laser radiation q=(0.1-50) GW/cm 2 ; the angle of incidence a=18 deg. to the target surface Al, (W). It was obtained experimentally dynamics of morphology of destruction and also mass - charge and energy spectra of multiply charged ions formed under interaction of laser radiation with Al (W) in the intensity range q=(0.1-50) GW/cm 2 . These studies showed features of destruction Al(W) by laser radiation, i.e. invariable of value evaporation mass from a surface of a solid increase as the laser intensity q. But thus temperature a pair increases in accordance with increase of flow density of a laser radiation. Increase of temperature the pair gives in formation of multiply charged plasma. It is typical that, as q of the laser increases the maximum charge number of ions in laser plasma considerably increase and their energy spectra extend toward higher energies. For example, under q=0.1 GW/cm 2 and 50 GW/cm 2 the maximum charge number of ions Al (W) are equal to Z max = 1 and 7, respectively. From the experimental data obtained, we can conclude that, the formed multiply charged plasma practically completely absorption laser radiation and 'shielding' a target surface for various metals at power densities
Modeling Photo-multiplier Gain and Regenerating Pulse Height Data for Application Development
Aspinall, Michael D.; Jones, Ashley R.
2018-01-01
Systems that adopt organic scintillation detector arrays often require a calibration process prior to the intended measurement campaign to correct for significant performance variances between detectors within the array. These differences exist because of low tolerances associated with photo-multiplier tube technology and environmental influences. Differences in detector response can be corrected for by adjusting the supplied photo-multiplier tube voltage to control its gain and the effect that this has on the pulse height spectra from a gamma-only calibration source with a defined photo-peak. Automated methods that analyze these spectra and adjust the photo-multiplier tube bias accordingly are emerging for hardware that integrate acquisition electronics and high voltage control. However, development of such algorithms require access to the hardware, multiple detectors and calibration source for prolonged periods, all with associated constraints and risks. In this work, we report on a software function and related models developed to rescale and regenerate pulse height data acquired from a single scintillation detector. Such a function could be used to generate significant and varied pulse height data that can be used to integration-test algorithms that are capable of automatically response matching multiple detectors using pulse height spectra analysis. Furthermore, a function of this sort removes the dependence on multiple detectors, digital analyzers and calibration source. Results show a good match between the real and regenerated pulse height data. The function has also been used successfully to develop auto-calibration algorithms.
Low-order-mode harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifier in W band
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yeh, Y. S.; Chen, C. H.; Yang, S. J.; Lai, C. H.; Lin, T. Y.; Lo, Y. C.; Hong, J. W.; Hung, C. L.; Chang, T. H.
2012-01-01
Harmonic multiplying gyrotron traveling-wave amplifiers (gyro-TWAs) allow for magnetic field reduction and frequency multiplication. To avoid absolute instabilities, this work proposes a W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA operating at low-order modes. By amplifying a fundamental harmonic TE 11 drive wave, the second harmonic component of the beam current initiates a TE 21 wave to be amplified. Absolute instabilities in the gyro-TWA are suppressed by shortening the interaction circuit and increasing wall losses. Simulation results reveal that compared with Ka-band gyro-TWTs, the lower wall losses effectively suppress absolute instabilities in the W-band gyro-TWA. However, a global reflective oscillation occurs as the wall losses decrease. Increasing the length or resistivity of the lossy section can reduce the feedback of the oscillation to stabilize the amplifier. The W-band harmonic multiplying gyro-TWA is predicted to yield a peak output power of 111 kW at 98 GHz with an efficiency of 25%, a saturated gain of 26 dB, and a bandwidth of 1.6 GHz for a 60 kV, 7.5 A electron beam with an axial velocity spread of 8%.
Tables of compound-discount interest rate multipliers for evaluating forestry investments.
Allen L. Lundgren
1971-01-01
Tables, prepared by computer, are presented for 10 selected compound-discount interest rate multipliers commonly used in financial analyses of forestry investments. Two set of tables are given for each of the 10 multipliers. The first set gives multipliers for each year from 1 to 40 years; the second set gives multipliers at 5-year intervals from 5 to 160 years....
On centralized power pool auction: a novel multipliers stabilization procedure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jimenez-Redondo, Noemi
2005-01-01
This paper addresses the Short-Term Hydro-Thermal Coordination (STHTC) problem. It is a large-scale, combinatorial and nonlinear optimization problem. It is usually solved using a Lagrangian Relaxation (LR) approach. LR procedure is based on the solution of the dual problem of the original one. The dual problem variables are the Lagrange multipliers. These multipliers have an economic meaning: electric energy hourly prices. This paper focuses on an efficient solution of the dual problem of the STHTC problem. A novel multiplier stabilization technique, which significantly improves the quality of the solution, is presented. The provided method could be the optimization tool used by the Independent System Operator of a centralized Power Pool. The solution procedure diminishes the conflict of interest in determining energy prices. A realistic large-scale case study illustrates the behavior of the presented approach. (Author)
New design of an RSFQ parallel multiply-accumulate unit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataeva, Irina; Engseth, Henrik; Kidiyarova-Shevchenko, Anna
2006-01-01
The multiply-accumulate unit (MAC) is a central component of a successive interference canceller, an advanced receiver for W-CDMA base stations. A 4 x 4 two's complement fixed point RSFQ MAC with rounding to 5 bits has been simulated using VHDL, and maximum performance is equal to 24 GMACS (giga-multiply-accumulates per second). The clock distribution network has been re-designed from a linear ripple to a binary tree network in order to eliminate the data dependence of the clock propagation speed and reduce the number of Josephson junctions in clock lines. The 4 x 4 bit MAC has been designed for the HYPRES 4.5 kA cm -2 process and its components have been experimentally tested at low frequency: the 5-bit combiner, using an exhaustive test pattern, had margins on DC bias voltage of ± 18%, and the 4 x 4 parallel multiplier had margins equal to ± 2%
Multiplier Accounting of Indian Mining Industry: The Application
Hussain, Azhar; Karmakar, Netai Chandra
2017-10-01
In the previous paper (Hussain and Karmakar in Inst Eng India Ser, 2014. doi: 10.1007/s40033-014-0058-0), the concepts of input-output transaction matrix and multiplier were explained in detail. Input-output multipliers are indicators used for predicting the total impact on an economy due to changes in its industrial demand and output which is calculated using transaction matrix. The aim of this paper is to present an application of the concepts with respect to the mining industry, showing progress in different sectors of mining with time and explaining different outcomes from the results obtained. The analysis shows that a few mineral industries saw a significant growth in their multiplier values over the years.
Dark energy from modified gravity with Lagrange multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capozziello, Salvatore; Matsumoto, Jiro; Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2010-01-01
We study scalar-tensor theory, k-essence and modified gravity with Lagrange multiplier constraint which role is to reduce the number of degrees of freedom. Dark Energy cosmology of different types (ΛCDM, unified inflation with DE, smooth non-phantom/phantom transition epoch) is reconstructed in such models. It is demonstrated that presence of Lagrange multiplier simplifies the reconstruction scenario. It is shown that mathematical equivalence between scalar theory and F(R) gravity is broken due to presence of constraint. The cosmological evolution is defined by the second F 2 (R) function dictated by the constraint. The convenient F(R) gravity sector is relevant for local tests. This opens the possibility to make originally non-realistic theory to be viable by adding the corresponding constraint. A general discussion on the role of Lagrange multipliers to make higher-derivative gravity canonical is developed.
Study on neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as neutron multiplier
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishitsuka, Etsuo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment
1998-03-01
More than 300 tons beryllium is expected to be used as a neutron multiplier in ITER, and study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) were performed to get the engineering data for fusion blanket design. This study started as the study on the tritium behavior in beryllium neutron reflector in order to make clear the generation mechanism on tritium of JMTR primary coolant since 1985. These experiences were handed over to beryllium studies for fusion study, and overall studies such as production technology of beryllium pebbles, irradiation behavior evaluation and reprocessing technology have been started since 1990. In this presentation, study on the neutron irradiation behavior of beryllium as the neutron multiplier with JMTR was reviewed from the point of tritium release, thermal properties, mechanical properties and reprocessing technology. (author)
Splay states in globally coupled Josephson arrays: Analytical prediction of Floquet multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strogatz, S.H.; Mirollo, R.E.
1993-01-01
In recent numerical experiments on series arrays of overdamped Josephson junctions, Nichols and Wiesenfeld [Phys. Rev. A 45, 8430 (1992)] discovered that the periodic states known as splay states are neutrally stable in all but four directions in phase space. We present a theory that accounts for this enormous degree of neutral stability. The theory also predicts the four non-neutral Floquet multipliers to within 0.1% of their numerically computed values. The analytical approach used here may be appli- cable to other globally coupled systems of oscillators, such as multimode lasers, electronic oscillator circuits, and solid-state laser arrays
Time efficient signed Vedic multiplier using redundant binary representation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ranjan Kumar Barik
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This study presents a high-speed signed Vedic multiplier (SVM architecture using redundant binary (RB representation in Urdhva Tiryagbhyam (UT sutra. This is the first ever effort towards extension of Vedic algorithms to the signed numbers. The proposed multiplier architecture solves the carry propagation issue in UT sutra, as carry free addition is possible in RB representation. The proposed design is coded in VHDL and synthesised in Xilinx ISE 14.4 of various FPGA devices. The proposed SVM architecture has better speed performances as compared with various state-of-the-art conventional as well as Vedic architectures.
Radial multipliers on amalgamated free products of II-factors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Möller, Sören
2014-01-01
Let ℳi be a family of II1-factors, containing a common II1-subfactor 풩, such that [ℳi : 풩] ∈ ℕ0 for all i. Furthermore, let ϕ: ℕ0 → ℂ. We show that if a Hankel matrix related to ϕ is trace-class, then there exists a unique completely bounded map Mϕ on the amalgamated free product of the ℳi...... with amalgamation over 풩, which acts as a radial multiplier. Hereby, we extend a result of Haagerup and the author for radial multipliers on reduced free products of unital C*- and von Neumann algebras....
New stable multiply charged negative atomic ions in linearly polarized superintense laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wei Qi; Kais, Sabre; Moiseyev, Nimrod
2006-01-01
Singly charged negative atomic ions exist in the gas phase and are of fundamental importance in atomic and molecular physics. However, theoretical calculations and experimental results clearly exclude the existence of any stable doubly-negatively-charged atomic ion in the gas phase, only one electron can be added to a free atom in the gas phase. In this report, using the high-frequency Floquet theory, we predict that in a linear superintense laser field one can stabilize multiply charged negative atomic ions in the gas phase. We present self-consistent field calculations for the linear superintense laser fields needed to bind extra one and two electrons to form He - , He 2- , and Li 2- , with detachment energies dependent on the laser intensity and maximal values of 1.2, 0.12, and 0.13 eV, respectively. The fields and frequencies needed for binding extra electrons are within experimental reach. This method of stabilization is general and can be used to predict stability of larger multiply charged negative atomic ions
ANALYSIS OF THE INVESTMENT ARBITRAGE STRATEGY USING FINANCIAL MULTIPLIERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dmitry S. Pashkov
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This article describes an algorithm for stock pairs trading using financial multipliers of underlying companies. This algorithm has been tested on historical data and compared with classical Bollinger bands strategy. The results of tests were presented for two financial sectors of US stock market.
Garbage-free reversible constant multipliers for arbitrary integers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Torben Ægidius
2013-01-01
We present a method for constructing reversible circuitry for multiplying integers by arbitrary integer constants. The method is based on Mealy machines and gives circuits whose size are (in the worst case) linear in the size of the constant. This makes the method unsuitable for large constants...
Smooth bifurcation for variational inequalities based on Lagrange multipliers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Eisner, Jan; Kučera, Milan; Recke, L.
2006-01-01
Roč. 19, č. 9 (2006), s. 981-1000 ISSN 0893-4983 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : abstract variational inequality * bifurcation * Lagrange multipliers Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics
Detection of differential item functioning using Lagrange multiplier tests
Glas, Cornelis A.W.
1998-01-01
Abstract: In the present paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or Rao’s efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of IRT models such as the Rasch model, the OPLM, the 2-parameter logistic model, the
Detection of differential item functioning using Lagrange multiplier tests
Glas, Cornelis A.W.
1996-01-01
In this paper it is shown that differential item functioning can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or C. R. Rao's efficient score test. The test is presented in the framework of a number of item response theory (IRT) models such as the Rasch model, the one-parameter logistic model, the
Lagrange-multiplier tests for weak exogeneity: a synthesis.
Boswijk, H.P.; Urbain, J.P.
1997-01-01
This paper unifies two seemingly separate approaches to test weak exogeneity in dynamic regression models with Lagrange-multiplier statistics. The first class of tests focuses on the orthogonality between innovations and conditioning variables, and thus is related to the Durbin-Wu-Hausman
Fiscal multipliers over the growth cycle : evidence from Malaysia
Rafiq, Sohrab; Zeufack, Albert
2012-01-01
This paper explores the stabilisation properties of fiscal policy in Malaysia using a model incorporating nonlinearities into the dynamic relationship between fiscal policy and real economic activity over the growth cycle. The paper also investigates how output multipliers for government purchases may alter for different components of government spending. The authors find that fiscal polic...
A database analysis of information on multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delcroix, J.L.
1989-01-01
A statistical analysis of data related to multiply charged ions, is performed in GAPHYOR data base: over-all statistics by ionization degree from q=1 to q=99, 'historical' development from 1975 to 1987, distribution (for q≥ 5) over physical processes (energy levels, charge exchange,...) and chemical elements
Multiple images of our galaxy in closed, multiply connected cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fagundes, H.V.
1985-01-01
Friedmanian cosmology with multiply connected spatial sections allows multiple images of cosmic sources, in particular of the galaxy itself. This is illustrated with a specific example of a closed hyperbolic model and a brief mention of a spherical model. Such images may eventually become observable (or recognized as such), thus providing a new test of relativistic cosmology. (Author) [pt
A CMOS four-quadrant analog current multiplier
Wiegerink, Remco J.
1991-01-01
A CMOS four-quadrant analog current multiplier is described. The circuit is based on the square-law characteristic of an MOS transistor and is insensitive to temperature and process variations. The circuit is insensitive to the body effect so it is not necessary to place transistors in individual
The evolution of unconditional strategies via the 'multiplier effect'.
McNamara, John M; Dall, Sasha R X
2011-03-01
Ostensibly, it makes sense in a changeable world to condition behaviour and development on information when it is available. Nevertheless, unconditional behavioural and life history strategies are widespread. Here, we show how intergenerational effects can limit the evolutionary value of responding to reliable environmental cues, and thus favour the evolutionary persistence of otherwise paradoxical unconditional strategies. While cue-ignoring genotypes do poorly in the wrong environments, in the right environment they will leave many copies of themselves, which will themselves leave many copies, and so on, leading genotypes to accumulate in habitats in which they do well. We call this 'The Multiplier Effect'. We explore the consequences of the multiplier effect by focussing on the ecologically important phenomenon of natal philopatry. We model the environment as a large number of temporally varying breeding sites connected by natal dispersal between sites. Our aim is to identify which aspects of an environment promote the multiplier effect. We show, if sites remain connected through some background level of 'accidental' dispersal, unconditional natal philopatry can evolve even when there is density dependence (with its accompanying kin competition effects), and cues that are only mildly erroneous. Thus, the multiplier effect may underpin the evolution and maintenance of unconditional strategies such as natal philopatry in many biological systems. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.
A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage voltage multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iqbal, Shahid; Singh, G K; Besar, R; Muhammad, G
2006-01-01
A cascaded three-phase symmetrical multistage Cockcroft-Walton voltage multiplier (CW-VM) is proposed in this report. It consists of three single-phase symmetrical voltage multipliers, which are connected in series at their smoothing columns like string of batteries and are driven by three-phase ac power source. The smoothing column of each voltage multiplier is charged twice every cycle independently by respective oscillating columns and discharged in series through load. The charging discharging process completes six times a cycle and therefore the output voltage ripple's frequency is of sixth order of the drive signal frequency. Thus the proposed approach eliminates the first five harmonic components of load generated voltage ripples and sixth harmonic is the major ripple component. The proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical voltage multiplier has less than half the voltage ripple, and three times larger output voltage and output power than the conventional single-phase symmetrical CW-VM. Experimental and simulation results of the laboratory prototype are given to show the feasibility of proposed cascaded three-phase symmetrical CW-VM
Robust formation control of marine surface craft using Lagrange multipliers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ihle, Ivar-Andre F.; Jouffroy, Jerome; Fossen, Thor I.
2006-01-01
This paper presents a formation modelling scheme based on a set of inter-body constraint functions and Lagrangian multipliers. Formation control for a °eet of marine craft is achieved by stabilizing the auxiliary constraints such that the desired formation con¯guration appears. In the proposed fr...
Familiar Sports and Activities Adapted for Multiply Impaired Persons.
Schilling, Mary Lou, Ed.
1984-01-01
Means of adapting some familiar and popular physical activities for multiply impaired persons are described. Games reviewed are dice baseball, one base baseball, in-house bowling, wheelchair bowling, ramp bowling, swing-ball bowling, table tennis, shuffleboard, beanbag bingo and tic-tac-toe, balloon basketball, circle football, and wheelchair…
The resistive plate WELL detector as a single stage thick gaseous multiplier detector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bressler, Shikma; Breskin, Amos; Moleri, Luca; Kumar, Ashwini; Pitt, Michael [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) (Israel); Kudella, Simon [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), KIT (Germany)
2015-07-01
Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector use high electric fields inside the h ole of a foil to achieve a high charge multiplication. As a thicker version of G EMs based on printed circuit board (PCB) structures, Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detectors combine the high gain of a GEM foil with the robustness, stability and low production costs of a PCB and allow a large quantity of applications that require the coverage of a large area at low cost and moderate spatial resolution. One application the Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) develops as a member of the RD51 framework is the Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector. This single stage detector allows a very stable, discharge free operation at high gain (10{sup 5}). The single stage operation allows a low total height and make s the RPWELL a candidate for the Digital Hadronic Calorimeter (DHCAL) of the International Large Detector (ILD) at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The talk gives an insight into the way the RPWELL works and shows results from the last test beam.
Design studies for an advanced ECR ion source for multiply charged ion beam generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alton, G.D.
1994-01-01
An innovative technique: for increasing ion source intensity is described which, in principle, could lead to significant advances in ECR ion source technology for multiply charged ion beam formation. The advanced concept design uses a minimum-B magnetic mirror geometry which consists of a multi-cusp, magnetic field, to assist in confining the plasma radially, a flat central field for tuning to the ECR resonant condition, and specially tailored min-or fields in the end zones to confine the plasma in the axial direction. The magnetic field is designed to achieve an axially symmetric plasma ''volume'' with constant mod-B, which extends over the length of the central field region. This design, which strongly contrasts w h the ECR ''surfaces'' characteristic of conventional ECR ion sources, results in dramatic increases in the absorption of RF power, thereby increasing the electron temperature and ''hot'' electron population within the ionization volume of the source
Characterization of photo-multiplier tube as ex-vessel radiation detector in tokamak
Jo, Jungmin; Cheon, MunSeong; Kim, Junghee; An, YoungHwa; Park, Seungil; Chung, Kyoung-Jae; Hwang, Y. S.
2017-09-01
Feasibility of using conventional photo-multiplier tubes (PMTs) without a scintillator as an ex-vessel radiation detector in a tokamak environment is studied. Basic irradiation tests using standard gamma ray sources and a d-d neutron generator showed that the PMT is responding both to gamma photons and neutrons, possibly due to the direct generation of secondary electrons inside the PMT by the impingement of high energy photons. Because of the selective sensitivity of the PMT to hard x-ray and neutrons in ohmic and neutral beam injected plasmas, respectively, it is shown that the PMT with certain configuration can be utilized either to monitor the fluctuation in the fusion neutron generation rate or to study the behavior of runaway electrons in tokamaks.
Californium Multiplier. Part I. Design for neutron radiography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crosbie, K.L.; Preskitt, C.A.; John, J.; Hastings, J.D.
1982-01-01
The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of enriched uranium surrounding a californium-252 neutron source. The function of the CFX is to multiply the neutrons emitted by the source to a number sufficient for neutron radiography. The CFX is designed to provide a collimated beam of thermal neutrons from which the gamma radiation is filtered, and the scattered neutrons are reduced to make it suitable for high resolution radiography. The entire system has inherent safety features, which provide for system and personnel safety, and it operates at moderate cost. In Part I, the CFX and the theory of its operation are described in detail. Part II covers the performance of the Mound Facility CFX
Generation of fast multiply charged ions in conical targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demchenko, V.V.; Chukbar, K.V.
1990-01-01
So-called conical targets, when the thermonuclear fuel is compressed and heated in a conical cavity in a heavy material (lead, gold, etc.) with the help of a spherical segment that is accelerated by a laser pulse or a beam of charged particles, are often employed in experimental studies of inertial-confinement fusion. In spite of the obvious advantages of such a scheme, one of which is a significant reduction of the required energy input compared with the complete spherical target, it also introduces additional effects into the process of cumulation of energy. In this paper the authors call attention to an effect observed in numerical calculations: the hydrodynamic heating of a small group of multiply charged heavy ions of the walls of the conical cavity up to high energies (T i approx-gt 100 keV). This effect ultimately occurs as a result of the high radiation losses of a multiply charged plasma
Inverse mass matrix via the method of localized lagrange multipliers
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
González, José A.; Kolman, Radek; Cho, S.S.; Felippa, C.A.; Park, K.C.
2018-01-01
Roč. 113, č. 2 (2018), s. 277-295 ISSN 0029-5981 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000493; GA ČR GA17-22615S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : explicit time integration * inverse mass matrix * localized Lagrange multipliers * partitioned analysis Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Applied mechanics Impact factor: 2.162, year: 2016 https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nme.5613
On Lagrange Multipliers in Work with Quality and Reliability Assurance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui; Becker, P.
1986-01-01
In optimizing some property of a system, reliability say, a designer usually has to accept certain constraints regarding cost, completion time, volume, weight, etc. The solution of optimization problems with boundary constraints can be helped substantially by the use of Lagrange multipliers...... in the areas of sales promotion and teaching. These maps illuminate the logic structure of solution sequences. One such map is shown, illustrating the application of LMT in one of the examples....
Characterization of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dinu, N. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France)], E-mail: dinu@lal.in2p3.fr; Barrillon, P.; Bazin, C. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Bondil-Blin, S. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Chaumat, V. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Collazuol, G. [Scuola Normale Superiore (SNS), 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); De La Taille, C. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Del Guerra, A. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Llosa, G. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); Marcatili, S. [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' E. Fermi' , 56127 Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Melchiorri, M.; Piemonte, C. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Puill, V. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Tarolli, A. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy); Vagnucci, J.F. [Laboratory of Linear Accelerator (LAL), IN2P3-CNRS, 91898 Orsay (France); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK-irst), 38050 Trento (Italy)
2009-10-21
This work reports on the electrical as well as the optical characterizations of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM). The electrical test consists of the measurement of the static (breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, post-breakdown dark current) as well as the dynamic characteristics (gain, dark count rate). The optical test consists of the estimation of the photon detection efficiency as a function of wavelength as well as operation voltage.
Characterization of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dinu, N.; Barrillon, P.; Bazin, C.; Belcari, N.; Bisogni, M.G.; Bondil-Blin, S.; Boscardin, M.; Chaumat, V.; Collazuol, G.; De La Taille, C.; Del Guerra, A.; Llosa, G.; Marcatili, S.; Melchiorri, M.; Piemonte, C.; Puill, V.; Tarolli, A.; Vagnucci, J.F.; Zorzi, N.
2009-01-01
This work reports on the electrical as well as the optical characterizations of a prototype matrix of Silicon PhotoMultipliers (SiPM). The electrical test consists of the measurement of the static (breakdown voltage, quenching resistance, post-breakdown dark current) as well as the dynamic characteristics (gain, dark count rate). The optical test consists of the estimation of the photon detection efficiency as a function of wavelength as well as operation voltage.
Radial multipliers on reduced free products of operator algebras
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Haagerup, Uffe; Møller, Søren
2012-01-01
Let AiAi be a family of unital C¿C¿-algebras, respectively, of von Neumann algebras and ¿:N0¿C¿:N0¿C. We show that if a Hankel matrix related to ¿ is trace-class, then there exists a unique completely bounded map M¿M¿ on the reduced free product of the AiAi, which acts as a radial multiplier...
Study of the electric field inside microchannel plate multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gatti, E.; Oba, K.; Rehak, P.
1982-01-01
Electric field inside high gain microchannel plate multipliers was studied. The calculations were based directly on the solution of the Maxwell equations applied to the microchannel plate (MCP) rather than on the conventional lumped RC model. The results are important to explain the performance of MCP's, (1) under a pulsed bias tension and, (2) at high rate conditions. The results were tested experimentally and a new method of MCP operation free from the positive ion feedback was demonstrated
Neutralization of H-- in energetic collisions with multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Melchert, F.; Benner, M.; Kruedener, S.; Schulze, R.; Meuser, S.; Huber, K.; Salzborn, E.; Uskov, D.B.; Presnyakov, L.P.
1995-01-01
Employing the crossed-beam technique, we have measured absolute cross sections for neutralization of H -- ions in collisions with multiply charged ions Ne q+ (q≤4) and Ar q+ , Xe q+ (q≤8) at center-of-mass energies ranging from 20 to 200 keV. . . It is found that th cross sections are independent of the target ion species. The data are in excellent agreement with quantum calculations. A universal scaling law for the neutralization cross section is given
Estimates for Unimodular Multipliers on Modulation Hardy Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiecheng Chen
2013-01-01
Full Text Available It is known that the unimodular Fourier multipliers eit|Δ|α/2, α>0, are bounded on all modulation spaces Mp,qs for 1≤p,q≤∞. We extend such boundedness to the case of all 00 and obtain the local well-posedness for the Cauchy problem of some nonlinear partial differential equations with fundamental semigroup eit|Δ|α/2.
Safety analysis report for the Neutron Multiplier Facility, 329 Building
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rieck, H.G.
1978-09-01
Neutron multiplication is a process wherein the flux of a neutron source such as 252 Cf is enhanced by fission reactions that occur in a subcritical assemblage of fissile material. The multiplication factor of the device depends upon the consequences of neutron reactions with matter and is independent of the initial number of neutrons present. Safe utilization of such a device demands that the fissile material assemblage be maintained in a subcritical state throughout all normal and credibly abnormal conditions. Examples of things that can alter the multiplication factor (and degree of subcriticality) are temperature fluctuations, changes in moderator material such as voiding or composition, addition of fissile materials, and change in assembly configuration. The Neutron Multiplier Facility (NMF) utilizes a multiplier- 252 Cf assembly to produce neutrons for activation analysis of organic and inorganic environmental samples and for on-line mass spectrometry analysis of fission products which diffuse from a stationary fissile target (less than or equal to 4 g fissile material) located in the Neutron Multiplier. The NMF annex to the 329 Building provides close proximity to related counting equipment, and delay between sample irradiation and counting is minimized
Neutron fluctuations in a multiplying medium randomly varying in time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pal, L. [KFKI Atomic Energy Research Inst., Budapest (Hungary); Pazsit, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering
2006-07-15
The master equation approach, which has traditionally been used for the calculation of neutron fluctuations in multiplying systems with constant parameters, is extended to a case when the parameters of the system change randomly in time. A forward type master equation is considered for the case of a multiplying system whose properties jump randomly between two discrete states, both with and without a stationary external source. The first two factorial moments are calculated, including the covariance. This model can be considered as the unification of stochastic methods that were used either in a constant multiplying medium via the master equation technique, or in a fluctuating medium via the Langevin technique. The results obtained show a much richer characteristic of the zero power noise than that in constant systems. The results are relevant in medium power subcritical nuclear systems where the zero power noise is still significant, but they also have a bearing on all types of branching processes, such as evolution of biological systems, spreading of epidemics etc, which are set in a time-varying environment.
Neutron fluctuations in a multiplying medium randomly varying in time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, L.; Pazsit, I.
2006-01-01
The master equation approach, which has traditionally been used for the calculation of neutron fluctuations in multiplying systems with constant parameters, is extended to a case when the parameters of the system change randomly in time. A forward type master equation is considered for the case of a multiplying system whose properties jump randomly between two discrete states, both with and without a stationary external source. The first two factorial moments are calculated, including the covariance. This model can be considered as the unification of stochastic methods that were used either in a constant multiplying medium via the master equation technique, or in a fluctuating medium via the Langevin technique. The results obtained show a much richer characteristic of the zero power noise than that in constant systems. The results are relevant in medium power subcritical nuclear systems where the zero power noise is still significant, but they also have a bearing on all types of branching processes, such as evolution of biological systems, spreading of epidemics etc, which are set in a time-varying environment
A new technique for the study of charge transfer in multiply charged ion-ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shinpaugh, J.L.; Meyer, F.W.; Datz, S.
1994-01-01
While large cross sections (>10 -16 cm 2 ) have been predicted for resonant charge transfer in ion-ion collisions, no experimental data exist for multiply charged systems. A novel technique is being developed at the ORNL ECR facility to allow study of symmetric charge exchange in multiply charged ion-ion collisions using a single ion source. Specific intra-beam charge transfer collisions occurring in a well-defined interaction region labeled by negative high voltage are identified and analyzed by electrostatic analysis in combination with ion time-of-flight coincidence detection of the collision products. Center-of-mass collision energies from 400 to 1000 eV are obtained by varying source and labeling-cell voltages. In addition, by the introduction of a target gas into the high-voltage cell, this labeling-voltage method allows measurement of electron-capture and -loss cross sections for ion-atom collisions. Consequently, higher collision energies can be investigated without the requirement of placing the ECR source on a high-voltage platform
Closing of Coster-Kronig transitions in multiply ionised gold atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banas, D.; Braziewicz, J.; Czarnota, M.; Fijal, I.; Jaskola, M.; Korman, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Pajek, M.; Semaniak, J.
2003-01-01
The paper discusses the effect of closing of L- and M-shell Coster-Kronig (CK) transitions in multiply ionised Au atoms, for which the selected CK transitions become energetically forbidden. This effect plays an important role when the Coster-Kronig energy for single-hole configuration is relatively low, being comparable with a change of the electronic binding energies in multiply ionised atom. We show, by using a simplified model, that for gold the effect of closing of CK transitions occurs for strong L 1 -L 3 M 4,5 transition for the L 1 -subshell as well as the M 3 -M 5 N 6,7 and M 4 -M 5 O 3,4 CK transitions for the M 3 - and M 4 -subshell, respectively. We demonstrate that the discussed effect of closing CK transitions substantially changes the X-ray fluorescence and Coster-Kronig yields and thus has to be considered in interpretation of X-rays excited by heavy ion impact
Auditing the multiply-related concepts within the UMLS.
Mougin, Fleur; Grabar, Natalia
2014-10-01
This work focuses on multiply-related Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts, that is, concepts associated through multiple relations. The relations involved in such situations are audited to determine whether they are provided by source vocabularies or result from the integration of these vocabularies within the UMLS. We study the compatibility of the multiple relations which associate the concepts under investigation and try to explain the reason why they co-occur. Towards this end, we analyze the relations both at the concept and term levels. In addition, we randomly select 288 concepts associated through contradictory relations and manually analyze them. At the UMLS scale, only 0.7% of combinations of relations are contradictory, while homogeneous combinations are observed in one-third of situations. At the scale of source vocabularies, one-third do not contain more than one relation between the concepts under investigation. Among the remaining source vocabularies, seven of them mainly present multiple non-homogeneous relations between terms. Analysis at the term level also shows that only in a quarter of cases are the source vocabularies responsible for the presence of multiply-related concepts in the UMLS. These results are available at: http://www.isped.u-bordeaux2.fr/ArticleJAMIA/results_multiply_related_concepts.aspx. Manual analysis was useful to explain the conceptualization difference in relations between terms across source vocabularies. The exploitation of source relations was helpful for understanding why some source vocabularies describe multiple relations between a given pair of terms. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Fission multipliers for D-D/D-T neutron generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lou, T.P.; Vujic, J.L.; Koivunoro, H.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.
2003-01-01
A compact D-D/D-T fusion based neutron generator is being designed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to have a potential yield of 10 12 D-D n/s and 10 14 D-T n/s. Because of its high neutron yield and compact size (∼20 cm in diameter by 4 cm long), this neutron generator design will be suitable for many applications. However, some applications required higher flux available from nuclear reactors and spallation neutron sources operated with GeV proton beams. In this study, a subcritical fission multiplier with k eff of 0.98 is coupled with the compact neutron generators in order to increase the neutron flux output. We have chosen two applications to show the gain in flux due to the use of fission multipliers--in-core irradiation and out-of-core irradiation. For the in-core irradiation, we have shown that a gain of ∼25 can be achieved in a positron production system using D-T generator. For the out-of-core irradiation, a gain of ∼17 times is obtained in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) using a D-D neutron generator. The total number of fission neutrons generated by a source neutron in a fission multiplier with k eff is ∼50. For the out-of-core irradiation, the theoretical maximum net multiplication is ∼30 due to the absorption of neutrons in the fuel. A discussion of the achievable multiplication and the theoretical multiplication will be presented in this paper
Spot Pricing When Lagrange Multipliers Are Not Unique
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feng, Donghan; Xu, Zhao; Zhong, Jin
2012-01-01
Classical spot pricing theory is based on multipliers of the primal problem of an optimal market dispatch, i.e., the solution of the dual problem. However, the dual problem of market dispatch may yield multiple solutions. In these circumstances, spot pricing or any standard pricing practice based...... on a strict extension of the principles of spot pricing and surplus allocation, we propose a new pricing methodology that can yield unique, impartial, and robust solution. The new method has been analyzed and compared with other pricing approaches in accordance with spot pricing theory. Case studies support...
Monte Carlo technique for local perturbations in multiplying systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernnat, W.
1974-01-01
The use of the Monte Carlo method for the calculation of reactivity perturbations in multiplying systems due to changes in geometry or composition requires a correlated sampling technique to make such calculations economical or in the case of very small perturbations even feasible. The technique discussed here is suitable for local perturbations. Very small perturbation regions will be treated by an adjoint mode. The perturbation of the source distribution due to the changed system and its reaction on the reactivity worth or other values of interest is taken into account by a fission matrix method. The formulation of the method and its application are discussed. 10 references. (U.S.)
Practical model for the calculation of multiply scattered lidar returns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eloranta, E.W.
1998-01-01
An equation to predict the intensity of the multiply scattered lidar return is presented. Both the scattering cross section and the scattering phase function can be specified as a function of range. This equation applies when the cloud particles are larger than the lidar wavelength. This approximation considers photon trajectories with multiple small-angle forward-scattering events and one large-angle scattering that directs the photon back toward the receiver. Comparisons with Monte Carlo simulations, exact double-scatter calculations, and lidar data demonstrate that this model provides accurate results. copyright 1998 Optical Society of America
Science with multiply-charged ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, K.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Meron, M.; Thieberger, P.
1987-01-01
The production of multiply-charged heavy ions at Brookhaven National Laboratory and their use in different types of experiments are discussed. The main facilities that are used are the Double MP Tandem Van de Graaff and the National Synchrotron Light Source. The capabilities of a versatile Atomic Physics Facility based on a combination of the two facilities and a possible new heavy-ion storage ring are summarized. It is emphasized that the production of heavy ions and the relevant science necessitates very flexible and diverse apparatus
Chromatographic analysis and purification of multiply tritium-labelled eicosanoids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shevchenko, V.P.; Nagaev, I.Yu.; Myasoedov, N.F.
1988-01-01
A comparative study of different chromatographic techniques (gas-liquid (GLC), thin-layer (TLC), liquid (LC), high-pressure liquid (HPLC) chromatography) is presented. They were applied to the analysis and preparative purification of tritium-labelled eicosanoids with a molar radioactivity of 1.8-8.8 TBq/mmol, obtained by selective hydrogenation and by chemical or enzymic methods. The possibility of analyzing reaction mixtures and isolating individual multiply labelled eicosanoids with a chemical and radiochemical purity of 95-98% was demonstrated. Special features of HPLC for high molar radioactivity eicosanoids are considered. (author) 9 refs.; 6 tabs
233U breeding and neutron multiplying blankets for fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, A.G.; Maniscalco, J.A.
1975-01-01
In this work, along with a previous paper three possible uses of 14-MeV deuterium--tritium fusion neutrons are investigated: energy production, neutron multiplication, and fissile-fuel breeding. The results presented include neutronic studies of fissioning and nonfissioning thorium systems, tritium breeding systems, various fuel options (UO 2 , UC, UC 2 , etc.), and uranium as well as refractory metal first-wall neutron-multiplying regions. A brief energy balance and an estimate of potential revenues for fusion devices are given to help illustrate the potentials of these designs
Determination of Ultimate Torque for Multiply Connected Cross Section Rod
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. L. Danilov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this work is to determine load-carrying capability of the multiply cross-section rod. This calculation is based on the model of the ideal plasticity of the material, so that the desired ultimate torque is a torque at which the entire cross section goes into a plastic state.The article discusses the cylindrical multiply cross-section rod. To satisfy the equilibrium equation and the condition of plasticity simultaneously, two stress function Ф and φ are introduced. By mathematical transformations it has been proved that Ф is constant along the path, and a formula to find its values on the contours has been obtained. The paper also presents the rationale of the line of stress discontinuity and obtained relationships, which allow us to derive the equations break lines for simple interaction of neighboring circuits, such as two lines, straight lines and circles, circles and a different sign of the curvature.After substitution into the boundary condition at the end of the stress function Ф and mathematical transformations a formula is obtained to determine the ultimate torque for the multiply cross-section rod.Using the doubly connected cross-section and three-connected cross-section rods as an example the application of the formula of ultimate torque is studied.For doubly connected cross-section rod, the paper offers a formula of the torque versus the radius of the rod, the aperture radius and the distance between their centers. It also clearly demonstrates the torque dependence both on the ratio of the radii and on the displacement of hole. It is shown that the value of the torque is more influenced by the displacement of hole, rather than by the ratio of the radii.For the three-connected cross-section rod the paper shows the integration feature that consists in selection of a coordinate system. As an example, the ultimate torque is found by two methods: analytical one and 3D modeling. The method of 3D modeling is based on the Nadai
Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hetzheim, Henrik
2009-01-01
The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)
Ionization and bound-state relativistic quantum dynamics in laser-driven multiply charged ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hetzheim, Henrik
2009-01-14
The interaction of ultra-strong laser fields with multiply charged hydrogen-like ions can be distinguished in an ionization and a bound dynamics regime. Both are investigated by means of numerically solving the Dirac equation in two dimensions and by a classical relativistic Monte-Carlo simulation. For a better understanding of highly nonlinear physical processes the development of a well characterized ultra-intense relativistic laser field strength has been driven forward, capable of studying e.g. the magnetic field effects of the laser resulting in an additional electron motion in the laser propagation direction. A novel method to sensitively measure these ultra-strong laser intensities is developed and employed from the optical via the UV towards the XUV frequency regime. In the bound dynamics field, the determination of multiphoton transition matrixelements has been investigated between different bound states via Rabi oscillations. (orig.)
Design and experimental verification for optical module of optical vector-matrix multiplier.
Zhu, Weiwei; Zhang, Lei; Lu, Yangyang; Zhou, Ping; Yang, Lin
2013-06-20
Optical computing is a new method to implement signal processing functions. The multiplication between a vector and a matrix is an important arithmetic algorithm in the signal processing domain. The optical vector-matrix multiplier (OVMM) is an optoelectronic system to carry out this operation, which consists of an electronic module and an optical module. In this paper, we propose an optical module for OVMM. To eliminate the cross talk and make full use of the optical elements, an elaborately designed structure that involves spherical lenses and cylindrical lenses is utilized in this optical system. The optical design software package ZEMAX is used to optimize the parameters and simulate the whole system. Finally, experimental data is obtained through experiments to evaluate the overall performance of the system. The results of both simulation and experiment indicate that the system constructed can implement the multiplication between a matrix with dimensions of 16 by 16 and a vector with a dimension of 16 successfully.
2001-01-01
International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational
Interaction of singly and multiply charged ions with a lithium-fluoride surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wirtz, L.
2001-10-01
Charge transfer between slow ions and an ionic crystal surface still poses a considerable challenge to theory due to the intrinsic many-body character of the system. For the neutralization of multiply charged ions in front of metal surfaces, the Classical Over the Barrier (COB) model is a widely used tool. We present an extension of this model to ionic crystal surfaces where the localization of valence electrons at the anion sites and the lack of cylindrical symmetry of the ion-surface system impede a simple analytical estimate of electron transfer rates. We use a classical trajectory Monte Carlo approach to calculate electron transfer rates for different charge states of the projectile ion. With these rates we perform a Monte Carlo simulation of the neutralization of slow Ne10+ ions in vertical incidence on an LiF surface. Capture of one or several electrons may lead to a local positive charge up of the surface. The projectile dynamics depends on the balance between the repulsion due to this charge and the attraction due to the self-image potential. In a simulation that treats electronic and nuclear dynamics simultaneously, we show that the image attraction dominates over the repulsive force. Backscattering of very slow multiply charged projectiles high above the surface without touching it ('trampoline effect') does not take place. Instead, the projectile ion penetrates into the surface or is reflected due to close binary collision with surface ions. The case of a singly charged ion in front of an LiF surface is within the reach of ab-initio calculations. We use a multi-configuration self consistent field (MCSCF) and a multi-reference configuration interaction (MR-CI) method to calculate adiabatic potential energy curves for a system consisting of the projectile ion and an embedded cluster of surface ions. With increasing cluster size, the energy levels of the embedded cluster converge towards the band structure of the infinitely extended solid. Due to
Electron-electron Bremsstrahlung for bound target electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haug, E.
2008-01-01
For the process of electron-electron (e-e) Bremsstrahlung the momentum and energy distributions of the recoiling electrons are calculated in the laboratory frame. In order to get the differential cross section and the photon spectrum for target electrons which are bound to an atom, these formulae are multiplied by the incoherent scattering function and numerically integrated over the recoil energy. The effect of atomic binding is most pronounced at low energies of the incident electrons and for target atoms of high atomic numbers. The results are compared to those of previous calculations. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Lai-Sheng
2015-01-01
Electrospray ionization (ESI) has become an essential tool in chemical physics and physical chemistry for the production of novel molecular ions from solution samples for a variety of spectroscopic experiments. ESI was used to produce free multiply-charged anions (MCAs) for photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) in the late 1990 s, allowing many interesting properties of this class of exotic species to be investigated. Free MCAs are characterized by strong intramolecular Coulomb repulsions, which create a repulsive Coulomb barrier (RCB) for electron emission. The RCB endows many fascinating properties to MCAs, giving rise to meta-stable anions with negative electron binding energies. Recent development in the PES of MCAs includes photoelectron imaging to examine the influence of the RCB on the electron emission dynamics, pump-probe experiments to examine electron tunneling through the RCB, and isomer-specific experiments by coupling PES with ion mobility for biological MCAs. The development of a cryogenically cooled Paul trap has led to much better resolved PE spectra for MCAs by creating vibrationally cold anions from the room temperature ESI source. Recent advances in coupling the cryogenic Paul trap with PE imaging have allowed high-resolution PE spectra to be obtained for singly charged anions produced by ESI. In particular, the observation of dipole-bound excited states has made it possible to conduct vibrational autodetachment spectroscopy and resonant PES, which yield much richer vibrational spectroscopic information for dipolar free radicals than traditional PES
Multi-MW K-Band Harmonic Multiplier: RF Source For High-Gradient Accelerator R & D
Solyak, N. A.; Yakovlev, V. P.; Kazakov, S. Yu.; Hirshfield, J. L.
2009-01-01
A preliminary design is presented for a two-cavity harmonic multiplier, intended as a high-power RF source for use in experiments aimed at developing high-gradient structures for a future collider. The harmonic multiplier is to produce power at selected frequencies in K-band (18-26.5 GHz) using as an RF driver an XK-5 S-band klystron (2.856 GHz). The device is to be built with a TE111 rotating mode input cavity and interchangeable output cavities running in the TEn11 rotating mode, with n = 7,8,9 at 19.992, 22.848, and 25.704 GHz. An example for a 7th harmonic multiplier is described, using a 250 kV, 20 A injected laminar electron beam; with 10 MW of S-band drive power, 4.7 MW of 20-GHz output power is predicted. Details are described of the magnetic circuit, cavities, and output coupler.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewangan, S.; Sharma, D.K.; Bakhtsingh, R.I.
2013-01-01
A 3MeV, 10mA DC electron beam accelerator is in commissioning stages at EBC, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai. The accelerating potential of -3MV is generated by a Parallel Coupled Voltage Multiplier (PCVM) scheme using 74 stages of HV rectifier stacks in the 6 kg/cm 2 SF6 gas environment. The HV surges of order of 600kV, 42kA, 10ns is estimated across the rectifier stacks during sparking in the multiplier column. To limit the surge current and protect the rectifier diodes, a non inductive thick film surge limiting resistor (SLR) and protective spark gap is designed and developed. The rectifier stacks with surge limiting resistors at both the ends and protective spark gap in parallel has been successfully tested in simulated surge condition at an impulse voltage of 212kVp, 150ns FWHM and surge energy of 200J, 10ms, 20kV at 6kg/cm 2 SF6 gas environment and found satisfactorily. Subsequently the HV multiplier was installed with this surge protection scheme and is being tested at 1.2 MeV level. This paper describes the design features and test results of the non-inductive surge limiting resistor. (author)
A High-Speed Design of Montgomery Multiplier
Fan, Yibo; Ikenaga, Takeshi; Goto, Satoshi
With the increase of key length used in public cryptographic algorithms such as RSA and ECC, the speed of Montgomery multiplication becomes a bottleneck. This paper proposes a high speed design of Montgomery multiplier. Firstly, a modified scalable high-radix Montgomery algorithm is proposed to reduce critical path. Secondly, a high-radix clock-saving dataflow is proposed to support high-radix operation and one clock cycle delay in dataflow. Finally, a hardware-reused architecture is proposed to reduce the hardware cost and a parallel radix-16 design of data path is proposed to accelerate the speed. By using HHNEC 0.25μm standard cell library, the implementation results show that the total cost of Montgomery multiplier is 130 KGates, the clock frequency is 180MHz and the throughput of 1024-bit RSA encryption is 352kbps. This design is suitable to be used in high speed RSA or ECC encryption/decryption. As a scalable design, it supports any key-length encryption/decryption up to the size of on-chip memory.
Imaging moving objects from multiply scattered waves and multiple sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miranda, Analee; Cheney, Margaret
2013-01-01
In this paper, we develop a linearized imaging theory that combines the spatial, temporal and spectral components of multiply scattered waves as they scatter from moving objects. In particular, we consider the case of multiple fixed sensors transmitting and receiving information from multiply scattered waves. We use a priori information about the multipath background. We use a simple model for multiple scattering, namely scattering from a fixed, perfectly reflecting (mirror) plane. We base our image reconstruction and velocity estimation technique on a modification of a filtered backprojection method that produces a phase-space image. We plot examples of point-spread functions for different geometries and waveforms, and from these plots, we estimate the resolution in space and velocity. Through this analysis, we are able to identify how the imaging system depends on parameters such as bandwidth and number of sensors. We ultimately show that enhanced phase-space resolution for a distribution of moving and stationary targets in a multipath environment may be achieved using multiple sensors. (paper)
Multiplied effect of heat and radiation in chemical stress relaxation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, Masayuki
1981-01-01
About the deterioration of rubber due to radiation, useful knowledge can be obtained by the measurement of chemical stress relaxation. As an example, the rubber coating of cables in a reactor containment vessel is estimated to be irradiated by weak radiation at the temperature between 60 and 90 deg C for about 40 years. In such case, it is desirable to establish the method of accelerated test of the deterioration. The author showed previously that the law of time-dose rate conversion holds in the case of radiation. In this study, the chemical stress relaxation to rubber was measured by the simultaneous application of heat and radiation, and it was found that there was the multiplied effect of heat and radiation in the stress relaxation speed. Therefore the factor of multiplication of heat and radiation was proposed to describe quantitatively the degree of the multiplied effect. The chloroprene rubber used was offered by Hitachi Cable Co., Ltd. The experimental method and the results are reported. The multiplication of heat and radiation is not caused by the direct cut of molecular chains by radiation, instead, it is based on the temperature dependence of various reaction rates at which the activated species reached the cut of molecular chains through complex reaction mechanism and the temperature dependence of the diffusion rate of oxygen in rubber. (Kako, I.)
Image restorations constrained by a multiply exposed picture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Breedlove, J.R. Jr.; Kruger, R.P.; Trussell, H.J.; Hunt, B.R.
1977-01-01
There are a number of possible industrial and scientific applications of nanosecond cineradiographs. While the technology exists to produce closely spaced pulses of x rays for this application, the quality of the time-resolved radiographs is severely limited. The limitations arise from the necessity of using a fluorescent screen to convert the transmitted x rays to light and then using electro-optical imaging systems to gate and to record the images with conventional high-speed cameras. It has been proposed that in addition to the time-resolved images, a conventional multiply-exposed radiograph be obtained. Simulations are used to demonstrate that the additional information supplied by the multiply-exposed radiograph can be used to improve the quality of digital image restorations of the time-resolved pictures over what could be achieved with the degraded images alone. Because of the need for image registration and rubber sheet transformations, this problem is one which can best be solved on a digital, as opposed to an optical, computer
Subanti, S.; Hakim, A. R.; Hakim, I. M.
2018-03-01
This purpose of the current study aims is to analyze the multiplier analysis on mining sector in Indonesia. The mining sectors defined by coal and metal; crude oil, natural gas, and geothermal; and other mining and quarrying. The multiplier analysis based from input output analysis, this divided by income multiplier and output multiplier. This results show that (1) Indonesian mining sectors ranked 6th with contribute amount of 6.81% on national total output; (2) Based on total gross value added, this sector contribute amount of 12.13% or ranked 4th; (3) The value from income multiplier is 0.7062 and the value from output multiplier is 1.2426.
Implementation gap between the theory and practice of biodiversity offset multipliers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bull, Joseph William; Lloyd, Samuel P.; Strange, Niels
2017-01-01
literature on multipliers. Then, we collate data on multipliers implemented in practice, rep- resenting the most complete such assessment to date. Finally, we explore remaining design gaps relating to social, ethical, and governance considerations. Multiplier values should theoretically be tens or hundreds...... when considering, for example, ecological uncertainties. We propose even larger multipliers required to satisfy previously ignored considerations – including prospect theory, taboo trades, and power relationships. Conversely, our data analyses show that multipliers are smaller in practice, regularly...... for the implementation gap we have identified. At the same time, there is a need to explore when and where the social, ethical, and governance requirements for NNL reviewed here can be met through approaches other than multipliers....
Private Debt Overhang and the Government Spending Multiplier: Evidence for the United States
Bernardini, Marco; Peersman, Gert
2015-01-01
Using state-dependent local projection methods and historical U.S. data, we find that government spending multipliers are considerably larger in periods of private debt overhang. In particular, we find significant crowding-out of personal consumption and investment in low-debt states, resulting in multipliers that are significantly below one. Conversely, in periods of private debt overhang, there is a strong crowding-in effect, while multipliers are much larger than one. In high-debt states, ...
Deflation Expectation Financial System and Decline in Money Multiplier(in Japanese)
IIDA Yasuyuki
2005-01-01
The money multiplier is in a continuous downward trend now since the bubble burst, and, in addition, the trend has accelerated after 2000. It is said that the monetary policy is difficult because the money multiplier has declined. To think about the monetary policy for the future, we should think about the cause of the decline of the money multiplier. I want to verify two typical hypotheses "Deflation Expectation Hypothesis" and "Financial System Hypothesis" for the decision of the money mult...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Domingues M. O.
2013-12-01
Full Text Available We present a new adaptive multiresoltion method for the numerical simulation of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The governing equations, i.e., the compressible Euler equations coupled with the Maxwell equations are discretized using a finite volume scheme on a two-dimensional Cartesian mesh. Adaptivity in space is obtained via Harten’s cell average multiresolution analysis, which allows the reliable introduction of a locally refined mesh while controlling the error. The explicit time discretization uses a compact Runge–Kutta method for local time stepping and an embedded Runge-Kutta scheme for automatic time step control. An extended generalized Lagrangian multiplier approach with the mixed hyperbolic-parabolic correction type is used to control the incompressibility of the magnetic field. Applications to a two-dimensional problem illustrate the properties of the method. Memory savings and numerical divergences of magnetic field are reported and the accuracy of the adaptive computations is assessed by comparing with the available exact solution.
Hardware matrix multiplier/accumulator for lattice gauge theory calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Christ, N.H.; Terrano, A.E.
1984-01-01
The design and operating characteristics of a special-purpose matrix multiplier/accumulator are described. The device is connected through a standard interface to a host PDP11 computer. It provides a set of high-speed, matrix-oriented instructions which can be called from a program running on the host. The resulting operations accelerate the complex matrix arithmetic required for a class of Monte Carlo calculations currently of interest in high energy particle physics. A working version of the device is presently being used to carry out a pure SU(3) lattice gauge theory calculation using a PDP11/23 with a performance twice that obtainable on a VAX11/780. (orig.)
Multiplier ideal sheaves and analytic methods in algebraic geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Demailly, J.-P.
2001-01-01
Our main purpose here is to describe a few analytic tools which are useful to study questions such as linear series and vanishing theorems for algebraic vector bundles. One of the early successes of analytic methods in this context is Kodaira's use of the Bochner technique in relation with the theory of harmonic forms, during the decade 1950-60.The idea is to represent cohomology classes by harmonic forms and to prove vanishing theorems by means of suitable a priori curvature estimates. We pursue the study of L2 estimates, in relation with the Nullstellenstatz and with the extension problem. We show how subadditivity can be used to derive an approximation theorem for (almost) plurisubharmonic functions: any such function can be approximated by a sequence of (almost) plurisubharmonic functions which are smooth outside an analytic set, and which define the same multiplier ideal sheaves. From this, we derive a generalized version of the hard Lefschetz theorem for cohomology with values in a pseudo-effective line bundle; namely, the Lefschetz map is surjective when the cohomology groups are twisted by the relevant multiplier ideal sheaves. These notes are essentially written with the idea of serving as an analytic tool- box for algebraic geometers. Although efficient algebraic techniques exist, our feeling is that the analytic techniques are very flexible and offer a large variety of guidelines for more algebraic questions (including applications to number theory which are not discussed here). We made a special effort to use as little prerequisites and to be as self-contained as possible; hence the rather long preliminary sections dealing with basic facts of complex differential geometry
Multiplier ideal sheaves and analytic methods in algebraic geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Demailly, J -P [Universite de Grenoble I, Institut Fourier, Saint-Martin d' Heres (France)
2001-12-15
Our main purpose here is to describe a few analytic tools which are useful to study questions such as linear series and vanishing theorems for algebraic vector bundles. One of the early successes of analytic methods in this context is Kodaira's use of the Bochner technique in relation with the theory of harmonic forms, during the decade 1950-60.The idea is to represent cohomology classes by harmonic forms and to prove vanishing theorems by means of suitable a priori curvature estimates. We pursue the study of L2 estimates, in relation with the Nullstellenstatz and with the extension problem. We show how subadditivity can be used to derive an approximation theorem for (almost) plurisubharmonic functions: any such function can be approximated by a sequence of (almost) plurisubharmonic functions which are smooth outside an analytic set, and which define the same multiplier ideal sheaves. From this, we derive a generalized version of the hard Lefschetz theorem for cohomology with values in a pseudo-effective line bundle; namely, the Lefschetz map is surjective when the cohomology groups are twisted by the relevant multiplier ideal sheaves. These notes are essentially written with the idea of serving as an analytic tool- box for algebraic geometers. Although efficient algebraic techniques exist, our feeling is that the analytic techniques are very flexible and offer a large variety of guidelines for more algebraic questions (including applications to number theory which are not discussed here). We made a special effort to use as little prerequisites and to be as self-contained as possible; hence the rather long preliminary sections dealing with basic facts of complex differential geometry.
Multiply charged ions from solid substances with the mVINIS Ion Source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dragani, I; Nedeljkovi, T; Jovovi, J; Siljegovic, M; Dobrosavljevic, A
2007-01-01
We have used the well known metal-ions-from-volatile-compounds (MIVOC) method at the mVINIS Ion Source to produce the multiply charged ion beams form solid substances. Based on this method the very intense and stable multiply charged ion beams of several solid substances having the high melting points were extracted. The ion yields and the spectra of multiply charged ion beams obtained from solid materials like Fe and Hf will be presented. We have utilized the multiply charged ion beams from solid substances to irradiate the polymers, fullerenes and glassy carbon at the low energy channel for modification of materials
Multiply charged negative ions of hydrogen in linearly polarized laser fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
van Duijn, E.; Muller, H.G.
1997-01-01
Motivated by the prediction of the appearance of atomic multiply charged negative ions (AMCNI) of hydrogen, induced by a linearly polarized laser field, we present an analytical quantum mechanical treatment of the appearance and structure of AMCNI in a linearly polarized field, based on high-frequency Floquet theory (HFFT). For the simplest AMCNI of hydrogen, H 2- and H 3- , the values of α 0 at which the first bound state appears are α 0 =1.62x10 2 and α 0 =1.02x10 4 , where α 0 =I 1/2 /ω 2 is the amplitude of the oscillation of a free electron in the field with frequency ω and intensity I (unless stated otherwise, we use atomic units throughout this paper). Whereas in vacuum at least one of the electrons of an AMCNI autodetaches, an intense high-frequency field can change the character of the ion dramatically, such that bound states of AMCNI can appear. Due to the interaction with the field, the electrons of the AMCNI oscillate in phase along the polarization axis. This open-quotes quiverclose quotes motion enables the electrons to be spatially separated over distances of order α 0 , reducing the repulsive e-e interaction as α 0 increases. In other words, for α 0 large enough, the field enables a configuration in which the electrons, while widely separated, are bound to one proton. For the prediction of bound states of H N- with N>3, however, a relativistic description or low-frequency theory is required. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Bandurkin
2005-01-01
Full Text Available A method of organizing electron-wave interaction at the multiplied frequency of the signal wave is proposed. This type of electron-wave interaction provides multiplied-frequency electron bunching, which leads to formation of an intense harmonic of the electron current at a selected multiplied frequency of the signal wave. This effect is attractive for the use in klystron-type cyclotron masers with frequency multiplication as a way to increase the output frequency and improve the selectivity.
The Ultraviolet Surprise. Efficient Soft X-Ray High Harmonic Generation in Multiply-Ionized Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Popmintchev, Dimitar; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Dollar, Franklin; Mancuso, Christopher; Perez-Hernandez, Jose A.; Chen, Ming-Chang; Hankla, Amelia; Gao, Xiaohui; Shim, Bonggu; Gaeta, Alexander L.; Tarazkar, Maryam; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Levis, Robert J.; Gaffney, Jim A.; Foord, Mark; Libby, Stephen B.; Jaron-Becker, Agnieskzka; Becker, Andreas; Plaja, Luis; Muranane, Margaret M.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Popmintchev, Tenio
2015-01-01
High-harmonic generation is a universal response of matter to strong femtosecond laser fields, coherently upconverting light to much shorter wavelengths. Optimizing the conversion of laser light into soft x-rays typically demands a trade-off between two competing factors. Reduced quantum diffusion of the radiating electron wave function results in emission from each species which is highest when a short-wavelength ultraviolet driving laser is used. But, phase matching - the constructive addition of x-ray waves from a large number of atoms - favors longer-wavelength mid-infrared lasers. We identified a regime of high-harmonic generation driven by 40-cycle ultraviolet lasers in waveguides that can generate bright beams in the soft x-ray region of the spectrum, up to photon energies of 280 electron volts. Surprisingly, the high ultraviolet refractive indices of both neutral atoms and ions enabled effective phase matching, even in a multiply ionized plasma. We observed harmonics with very narrow linewidths, while calculations show that the x-rays emerge as nearly time-bandwidt-limited pulse trains of ~100 attoseconds
Line Emission and X-ray Line Polarization of Multiply Ionized Mo Ions
Petkov, E. E.; Safronova, A. S.; Kantsyrev, V. L.; Shlyaptseva, V. V.; Stafford, A.; Safronova, U. I.; Shrestha, I. K.; Schultz, K. A.; Childers, R.; Cooper, M. C.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Hell, N.; Brown, G. V.
2016-10-01
We present a comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the line emission from multiply ionized Mo ions produced by two different sets of experiments: at LLNL EBIT and the pulsed power generator Zebra at UNR. Mo line emission and polarization measurements were accomplished at EBIT for the first time. In particular, benchmarking experiments at the LLNL EBIT with Mo ions produced at electron beam energies from 2.75 keV up to 15 keV allowed us to break down these very complicated spectra into spectra with only few ionization stages and to select processes that influence them as well as to measure line polarization. The EBIT data were recorded using the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer and a crystal spectrometer with a Ge crystal. X-ray Mo spectra and pinhole images were collected from Z-pinch plasmas produced from various wire loads. Non-LTE modeling, high-precision relativistic atomic and polarization data were used to analyze L-shell Mo spectra. The influence of different plasma processes including electron beams on Mo line radiation is summarized. This work was supported by NNSA under DOE Grant DE-NA0002954. Experiments at the NTF/UNR were funded in part by DE-NA0002075. Work at LLNL was performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Jacobi's last multiplier and symmetries for the Kepler problem plus a lineal story
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nucci, M C; Leach, P G L
2004-01-01
We calculate the first integrals of the Kepler problem by the method of Jacobi's last multiplier using the symmetries for the equations of motion. Also we provide another example which shows that Jacobi's last multiplier together with Lie symmetries unveils many first integrals neither necessarily algebraic nor rational whereas other published methods may yield just one
The long-run relationship between the Japanese credit and money multipliers
Mototsugu Fukushige
2013-01-01
The standard argument is that while money creation and credit creation have different channels, they provide the same theoretical size of multipliers. However, there is usually some difference in practice. Consequently, in this paper we investigate the long-run relationship between the credit and money multipliers in Japan.
A microchannel plate X-ray multiplier with rising-time less than 170 ps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Shicheng; Ouyang Bin
1987-01-01
The time reponse of a microchannel plate X-ray multiplier has been improved considerably by using a coupling construction of coaxial tapers. The experimental calibration results with laser plasma X-ray source show that the rising-time of the multiplier is less than 170 ps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernigaud, V.
2009-01-01
This thesis concerns a gas phase study of the fragmentation of bio-molecular systems induced by slow collisions with multiply charged ions (in the keV-region), alkali atoms and rare gases. The main objective was to study the physical processes involved in the dissociation of highly electronically excited systems. In order to elucidate the intrinsic properties of certain biomolecules (porphyrins and amino acids) we have performed experiments in the gas phase with isolated systems. The obtained results demonstrate the high stability of porphyrins after electron removal and attachment. Furthermore, a dependence of the fragmentation pattern produced by multiply charged ions on the isomeric structure of the alanine molecule has been shown. In a second part of the thesis, a strong influence of the environment of the biomolecule on the fragmentation channels, their modification and their new opening, has been clearly proven. This phenomenon occurs in the presence of other surrounding biomolecules (clusters of nucleobases) as well as for molecules of a solvent (molecules of water, methanol and acetonitrile) in which the biomolecule is embedded. In order to extend these studies to larger systems, a new experimental set-up, based on an electro-spray ion source combined with a quadrupole mass filter has been developed. Due to the successful tests and proposed improvements of the device future experiments will become available concerning the fragmentation of large charged and solvated bio-molecular systems induced by collision processes. (author) [fr
Area efficient radix 4/sup 2/ 64 point pipeline fft architecture using modified csd multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siddiq, F.; Muhammad, T.; Iqbal, M.
2014-01-01
A modified Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) based radix 42 algorithm for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) systems is presented. When compared with similar schemes like Canonic signed digit (CSD) Constant Multiplier, the modified CSD multiplier can provide a improvement of more than 36% in terms of multiplicative complexity. In Comparison of area being occupied the amount of Full adders is reduced by 32% and amount of half adders is reduced by 42%. The modified CSD multiplier scheme is implemented on Xilinx ISE 10.1 using Spartan-III XC3S1000 FPGA as a target device. The synthesis results of modified CSD Multiplier on Xilinx show efficient Twiddle Factor ROM Design and effective area reduction in comparison to CSD constant multiplier. (author)
Multiply-Imputed Synthetic Data: Advice to the Imputer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Loong Bronwyn
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Several statistical agencies have started to use multiply-imputed synthetic microdata to create public-use data in major surveys. The purpose of doing this is to protect the confidentiality of respondents’ identities and sensitive attributes, while allowing standard complete-data analyses of microdata. A key challenge, faced by advocates of synthetic data, is demonstrating that valid statistical inferences can be obtained from such synthetic data for non-confidential questions. Large discrepancies between observed-data and synthetic-data analytic results for such questions may arise because of uncongeniality; that is, differences in the types of inputs available to the imputer, who has access to the actual data, and to the analyst, who has access only to the synthetic data. Here, we discuss a simple, but possibly canonical, example of uncongeniality when using multiple imputation to create synthetic data, which specifically addresses the choices made by the imputer. An initial, unanticipated but not surprising, conclusion is that non-confidential design information used to impute synthetic data should be released with the confidential synthetic data to allow users of synthetic data to avoid possible grossly conservative inferences.
Time-division-multiplex control scheme for voltage multiplier rectifiers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin-Han Liu
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A voltage multiplier rectifier with a novel time-division-multiplexing (TDM control scheme for high step-up converters is proposed in this study. In the proposed TDM control scheme, two full-wave voltage doubler rectifiers can be combined to realise a voltage quadrupler rectifier. The proposed voltage quadrupler rectifier can reduce transformer turn ratio and transformer size for high step-up converters and also reduce voltage stress for the output capacitors and rectifier diodes. An N-times voltage rectifier can be straightforwardly produced by extending the concepts from the proposed TDM control scheme. A phase-shift full-bridge (PSFB converter is adopted in the primary side of the proposed voltage quadrupler rectifier to construct a PSFB quadrupler converter. Experimental results for the PSFB quadrupler converter demonstrate the performance of the proposed TDM control scheme for voltage quadrupler rectifiers. An 8-times voltage rectifier is simulated to determine the validity of extending the proposed TDM control scheme to realise an N-times voltage rectifier. Experimental and simulation results show that the proposed TDM control scheme has great potential to be used in high step-up converters.
A Novel and Efficient Hardware Implementation of Scalar Point Multiplier
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Masoumi
2012-12-01
Full Text Available A new and highly efficient architecture for elliptic curve scalar point multiplication is presented. To achieve the maximum architectural and timing improvements we have reorganized and reordered the critical path of the Lopez-Dahab scalar point multiplication architecture such that logic structures are implemented in parallel and operations in the critical path are diverted to noncritical paths. The results we obtained show that with G = 55 our proposed design is able to compute GF(2163 elliptic curve scalar multiplication in 9.6 μs with the maximum achievable frequency of 250 MHz on Xilinx Virtex-4 (XC4VLX200, where G is the digit size of the underlying digit-serial finite field multiplier. Another implementation variant for less resource consumption is also proposed. With G=33, the design performs the same operation in 11.6 μs at 263 MHz on the same platform. The results of synthesis show that in the first implementation 17929 slices or 20% of the chip area is occupied which makes it suitable for speed critical cryptographic applications while in the second implementation 14203 slices or 16% of the chip area is utilized which makes it suitable for applications that may require speed-area trade-off. The new design shows superior performance compared to the previously reported designs.
DQM: Decentralized Quadratically Approximated Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers
Mokhtari, Aryan; Shi, Wei; Ling, Qing; Ribeiro, Alejandro
2016-10-01
This paper considers decentralized consensus optimization problems where nodes of a network have access to different summands of a global objective function. Nodes cooperate to minimize the global objective by exchanging information with neighbors only. A decentralized version of the alternating directions method of multipliers (DADMM) is a common method for solving this category of problems. DADMM exhibits linear convergence rate to the optimal objective but its implementation requires solving a convex optimization problem at each iteration. This can be computationally costly and may result in large overall convergence times. The decentralized quadratically approximated ADMM algorithm (DQM), which minimizes a quadratic approximation of the objective function that DADMM minimizes at each iteration, is proposed here. The consequent reduction in computational time is shown to have minimal effect on convergence properties. Convergence still proceeds at a linear rate with a guaranteed constant that is asymptotically equivalent to the DADMM linear convergence rate constant. Numerical results demonstrate advantages of DQM relative to DADMM and other alternatives in a logistic regression problem.
Configurable multiplier modules for an adaptive computing system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. A. Pfänder
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The importance of reconfigurable hardware is increasing steadily. For example, the primary approach of using adaptive systems based on programmable gate arrays and configurable routing resources has gone mainstream and high-performance programmable logic devices are rivaling traditional application-specific hardwired integrated circuits. Also, the idea of moving from the 2-D domain into a 3-D design which stacks several active layers above each other is gaining momentum in research and industry, to cope with the demand for smaller devices with a higher scale of integration. However, optimized arithmetic blocks in course-grain reconfigurable arrays as well as field-programmable architectures still play an important role. In countless digital systems and signal processing applications, the multiplication is one of the critical challenges, where in many cases a trade-off between area usage and data throughput has to be made. But the a priori choice of word-length and number representation can also be replaced by a dynamic choice at run-time, in order to improve flexibility, area efficiency and the level of parallelism in computation. In this contribution, we look at an adaptive computing system called 3-D-SoftChip to point out what parameters are crucial to implement flexible multiplier blocks into optimized elements for accelerated processing. The 3-D-SoftChip architecture uses a novel approach to 3-dimensional integration based on flip-chip bonding with indium bumps. The modular construction, the introduction of interfaces to realize the exchange of intermediate data, and the reconfigurable sign handling approach will be explained, as well as a beneficial way to handle and distribute the numerous required control signals.
Theory of Pulsed Neutron Experiments in Highly Heterogeneous Multiplying Media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Corno, S.E.
1965-01-01
In this work we investigate the time and space dependence of the neutron flux within a highly heterogeneous assembly, in which pulsed or sinusoidally modulated neutrons are injected. We consider, for the sake of simplicity, a device consisting of a cylindrical block of heavy moderator, along the axis of which a line-shaped region of fissionable material is located. The driving neutron source is assumed to be located on one of the end faces of the cylinder. The extent of the fissionable region allows us to deal with it as with an absorbing and multiplying singularity of the neutron field. As our attention is mostly concentrated on space and time variation of the neutron flux, rather crude approximations are assumed as far as the energy dependence of the neutron population is concerned. Within the limits of the age-diffusion theory, the response of the device to any neutron excitation may be found in closed form. For a sinusoidally modulated source of given frequency, it may easily be shown that, if the axial singularity were a purely absorbing one, the neutron waves being propagated along the device would possess a phase shift; a wavelength and an attenuation constant depending on the absorbing properties of the singularity. This picture becomes more and more complicated when neutron multiplication occurs. For this general case the solution derived in our paper obviously turns out to be dependent on both absorption and multiplication properties of the singularity. This circumstance suggests, among others, the idea of using a device of the type described above for testing fuel elements of heterogeneous reactors. (author) [fr
Permeability criteria for effective function of passive countercurrent multiplier.
Layton, H E; Knepper, M A; Chou, C L
1996-01-01
The urine concentrating effect of the mammalian renal inner medulla has been attributed to countercurrent multiplication of a transepithelial osmotic difference arising from passive absorption of NaCl from thin ascending limbs of long loops of Henle. This study assesses, both mathematically and experimentally, whether the permeability criteria for effective function of this passive hypothesis are consistent with transport properties measured in long loops of Henle of chinchilla. Mathematical simulations incorporating loop of Henle transepithelial permeabilities idealized for the passive hypothesis generated a steep inner medullary osmotic gradient, confirming the fundamental feasibility of the passive hypothesis. However, when permeabilities measured in chinchilla were used, no inner medullary gradient was generated. A key parameter in the apparent failure of the passive hypothesis is the long-loop descending limb (LDL) urea permeability, which must be small to prevent significant transepithelial urea flux into inner medullary LDL. Consequently, experiments in isolated perfused thin LDL were conducted to determine whether the urea permeability may be lower under conditions more nearly resembling those in the inner medulla. LDL segments were dissected from 30-70% of the distance along the inner medullary axis of the chinchilla kidney. The factors tested were NaCl concentration (125-400 mM in perfusate and bath), urea concentration (5-500 mM in perfusate and bath), calcium concentration (2-8 mM in perfusate and bath), and protamine concentration (300 micrograms/ml in perfusate). None of these factors significantly altered the measured urea permeability, which exceeded 20 x 10(-5) cm/s for all conditions. Simulation results show that this moderately high urea permeability in LDL is an order of magnitude too high for effective operation of the passive countercurrent multiplier.
Effect of the equity multiplier indicator in companies according the sectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lenka Lízalová
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Managers carry out the demand of the owners to maximise the rentability of invested capital with regards to the taken risk. The tool that evaluates the suitability to indebt in order to reach a higher rentability is the equity multiplier indicator. An analysis of the multiplier was carried out on 10 years of data from 456 Czech companies. Based on the data from these companies the influence of two components of the multiplier, which characterise the influence of indebtedness on the return on equity, was analysed. These components are “financial leverage” and “interest burden”, these having an antagonistic effect. The low variability of the equity multiplier is apparent in the companies of the administrative and support service sector and it is also relatively low in the companies of the agriculture, forestry and fishing sector; on the contrary, in for example the professional, scientific and technical activities and the sector of water, sewage and waste there are companies with higher variability of the equity multiplier. The paper identifies companies (in view of their sector specialization inclining to a larger utility of debts to increase the return on equity. The largest equity is reached in companies of the construction sector; the lowest effect of the multiplier is to be found in companies of the agriculture sector. The resulting value of the multiplier is to a large extent determined by the financial leverage indicator, to a lower extent and at the same time negatively by the interest burden indicator.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basu, C.; Gu Benyuan.
1994-12-01
We present the quantum mechanical calculations on the conductance of a quantum waveguide consisting of multiply connected mesoscopic rings with disordered ring-circumferences and ballistic lead connections between the rings with the transfer matrix approach. The profiles of the conductance as functions of the magnetic flux and the Fermi wave number of electrons depend on the number of rings as also on the geometric configuration of the system. The conductance spectrum of this system for disordered ring circumferences, disordered ring intervals and disordered magnetic flux is examined in detail. Studying the effect of geometric scattering and the two different length scales involved in the network, namely, the ring circumference and the ballistic lead connections on the conductance profile, we find that there exist two kinds of mini-bands, one originating from the bound states of the rings, i.e. the intrinsic mini-bands, and the other associated with the connecting leads between the adjacent rings, which are the extra mini-bands. These two kinds of mini-bands respond differently to external perturbations in parameters. Unlike the system of potential scatterers, this system of geometric scatterers show complete band formations at all energies even for finite systems and there is a preferential decay of the energy states depending upon the type of disorder introduced. The conductance band structures strongly depend on the geometric configuration of the network and so by controlling the geometric parameters, the conductance band structures can be artificially tailored. (author). 18 refs, 6 figs
Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pfeifer, Peter [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Gillespie, Andrew [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Stalla, David [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics; Dohnke, Elmar [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Physics
2017-02-20
The purpose of the project “Multiply Surface-Functionalized Nanoporous Carbon for Vehicular Hydrogen Storage” is the development of materials that store hydrogen (H_{2}) by adsorption in quantities and at conditions that outperform current compressed-gas H_{2} storage systems for electric power generation from hydrogen fuel cells (HFCs). Prominent areas of interest for HFCs are light-duty vehicles (“hydrogen cars”) and replacement of batteries with HFC systems in a wide spectrum of applications, ranging from forklifts to unmanned areal vehicles to portable power sources. State-of-the-art compressed H_{2} tanks operate at pressures between 350 and 700 bar at ambient temperature and store 3-4 percent of H_{2} by weight (wt%) and less than 25 grams of H_{2} per liter (g/L) of tank volume. Thus, the purpose of the project is to engineer adsorbents that achieve storage capacities better than compressed H_{2} at pressures less than 350 bar. Adsorption holds H_{2} molecules as a high-density film on the surface of a solid at low pressure, by virtue of attractive surface-gas interactions. At a given pressure, the density of the adsorbed film is the higher the stronger the binding of the molecules to the surface is (high binding energies). Thus, critical for high storage capacities are high surface areas, high binding energies, and low void fractions (high void fractions, such as in interstitial space between adsorbent particles, “waste” storage volume by holding hydrogen as non-adsorbed gas). Coexistence of high surface area and low void fraction makes the ideal adsorbent a nanoporous monolith, with pores wide enough to hold high-density hydrogen films, narrow enough to minimize storage as non-adsorbed gas, and thin walls between pores to minimize the volume occupied by solid instead of hydrogen. A monolith can be machined to fit into a rectangular tank (low pressure, conformable tank), cylindrical tank
Cornell electron beam ion source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostroun, V.O.; Ghanbari, E.; Beebe, E.N.; Janson, S.W.
1981-01-01
An electron beam ion source (EBIS) for the production of low energy, multiply charged ion beams to be used in atomic physics experiments has been designed and constructed. An external high perveance electron gun is used to launch the electron beam into a conventional solenoid. Novel features of the design include a distributed sputter ion pump to create the ultrahigh vacuum environment in the ionization region of the source and microprocessor control of the axial trap voltage supplies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostic, Lj.
2003-01-01
The influence of the stochastically pulsed Poisson source to the statistical properties of the subcritical multiplying system is analyzed in the paper. It is shown a strong dependence on the pulse period and pulse width of the source (author)
Polarization of X rays of multiply charged ions in dense high-temperature plasma
Baronova, EO; Dolgov, AN; Yakubovskii, LK
2004-01-01
The development of a method for studying the features of X-ray emission by multiply charged ions in a dense hot plasma is considered. These features are determined by the radiation polarization phenomenon.
Karatsuba-Ofman Multiplier with Integrated Modular Reduction for GF(2m
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
CUEVAS-FARFAN, E.
2013-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper a novel GF(2m multiplier based on Karatsuba-Ofman Algorithm is presented. A binary field multiplication in polynomial basis is typically viewed as a two steps process, a polynomial multiplication followed by a modular reduction step. This research proposes a modification to the original Karatsuba-Ofman Algorithm in order to integrate the modular reduction inside the polynomial multiplication step. Modular reduction is achieved by using parallel linear feedback registers. The new algorithm is described in detail and results from a hardware implementation on FPGA technology are discussed. The hardware architecture is described in VHDL and synthesized for a Virtex-6 device. Although the proposed field multiplier can be implemented for arbitrary finite fields, the targeted finite fields are recommended for Elliptic Curve Cryptography. Comparing other KOA multipliers, our proposed multiplier uses 36% less area resources and improves the maximum delay in 10%.
Beyond the static money multiplier: in search of a dynamic theory of money
Berardi, Michele
2007-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the process of money creation in a credit economy. We start from the consideration that the traditional money multiplier is a poor description of this process and present an alternative and dynamic approach that takes into account the heterogeneity of agents in the economy and their interactions. We show that this heterogeneity can account for the instability of the multiplier and that it can make the system path-dependent. By using concepts and techniques borrowed f...
Atlantic Richfield Hanford Company californium multiplier/delayed neutron counter safety analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zimmer, W.H.
1976-08-01
The Californium Multiplier (CFX) is a subcritical assembly of uranium surrounding 252 Cf spontaneously fissioning neutron sources; its function is to multiply the neutron flux to a level useful for activation analysis. This document summarizes the safety analysis aspects of the CFX, DNC, pneumatic transfer system, and instrumentation and to detail all the aspects of the total facility as a starting point for the ARHCO Safety Analysis Review. Recognized hazards and steps already taken to neutralize them are itemized
Solution of second order linear fuzzy difference equation by Lagrange's multiplier method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sankar Prasad Mondal
2016-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we execute the solution procedure for second order linear fuzzy difference equation by Lagrange's multiplier method. In crisp sense the difference equation are easy to solve, but when we take in fuzzy sense it forms a system of difference equation which is not so easy to solve. By the help of Lagrange's multiplier we can solved it easily. The results are illustrated by two different numerical examples and followed by two applications.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thingholm, Tine E; Jensen, Ole N; Robinson, Phillip J
2008-01-01
spectrometric analysis, such as immobilized metal affinity chromatography or titanium dioxide the coverage of the phosphoproteome of a given sample is limited. Here we report a simple and rapid strategy - SIMAC - for sequential separation of mono-phosphorylated peptides and multiply phosphorylated peptides from...... and an optimized titanium dioxide chromatographic method. More than double the total number of identified phosphorylation sites was obtained with SIMAC, primarily from a three-fold increase in recovery of multiply phosphorylated peptides....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffith, Candice D.; Mahadevan, Sankaran
2015-01-01
This paper develops a probabilistic approach that could use empirical data to derive values of performance shaping factor (PSF) multipliers for use in quantitative human reliability analysis (HRA). The proposed approach is illustrated with data on sleep deprivation effects on performance. A review of existing HRA methods reveals that sleep deprivation is not explicitly included at present, and expert opinion is frequently used to inform HRA model multipliers. In this paper, quantitative data from empirical studies regarding the effect of continuous hours of wakefulness on performance measures (reaction time, accuracy, and number of lapses) are used to develop a method to derive PSF multiplier values for sleep deprivation, in the context of the SPAR-H model. Data is extracted from the identified studies according to the meta-analysis research synthesis method and used to investigate performance trends and error probabilities. The error probabilities in test and control conditions are compared, and the resulting probability ratios are suggested for use in informing the selection of PSF multipliers in HRA methods. Although illustrated for sleep deprivation, the proposed methodology is general, and can be applied to other performance shaping factors. - Highlights: • Method proposed to derive performance shaping factor multipliers from empirical data. • Studies reporting the effect of sleep deprivation on performance are analyzed. • Test data using psychomotor vigilance tasks are analyzed. • Error probability multipliers computed for reaction time, lapses, and accuracy measures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Redfors, A.
1991-01-01
Magnesiumlike and aluminumlike spectra of the elements calcium - germanium have been obtained through the use of laser-produced plasmas (LPP) and a 3 m normal incidence vacuum spectrograph. The spectral analyses were mainly based on isoelectronic regularities. Intermediate ionization stages of cerium (Ce V) and silicon (SI VI) have also been studied. The light sources in these cases were a sliding spark and a modified version of the LPP. The Eagle spectrograph at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaitherburg, Maryland was used to record the cerium spectrum. Ab initio calculations and least-squares fits of the Slater energy parameters to the experimental energy levels are reported for all investigated spectra. Theoretical predictions of oscillator strengths for Y III and Zr III in the region 1150-3200 AA are presented. The oscillator strengths are needed for abundance determinations of Y 2+ and Zr 2+ in chemically peculiar stars, Cp stars. (65 refs.)
Study of the characteristics of gas electron multipliers for the FAIR experiment CBM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, S.; Abuhoza, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Hehner, J.; Schmidt, C.J.; Traeger, M.; Schmidt, H.R.; Colafranceschi, S.; Marinov, A.; Sharma, A.
2011-01-01
The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) in Darmstadt, Germany will use proton and heavy ion beams to study matter at extreme conditions. The CBM experiment at FAIR is designed to explore the QCD phase diagram in the region of high baryon densities. With CBM we will enter a new era of nuclear matter research by measuring rare diagnostic probes never observed before at FAIR energies, and thus CBM has a unique discovery potential. This will only be possible with the application of advanced instrumentation, including highly segmented and fast gaseous detectors
Testing of Track Point Resolution of Gas Electron Multiplier with Pion Beam at CERN SPS
Adak, R P; Das, S; Dubey, A K; Ganti, M S; Saini, J; Singaraju, R
2015-01-01
A muon detection system using segmented and instrumented absorber has been designed for high-energy heavy-ion collision experiments to be held at GSI, Darmstadt, Germany. The muon detector system is mounted downstream of a Silicon Tracking System. The reconstructed tracks from the STS are to be matched to the hits in the GEM detector. For reconstructing track in the GEM Detector, track point resolution is an important issue. We report her first time the track point resolution of the GEM detector.
Theoretical lifetimes and fluorescence yields for multiply-ionized fluorine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tunnell, T.W.; Can, C.; Bhalla, C.P.
1978-01-01
Theoretical lifetimes and multiplet partial fluorescence yields for various fluorine ions with a single K-shell vacancy were calculated. For few-electron systems, the lifetimes and line fluorescence yields were computed in the intermediate coupling scheme with the inclusion of the effects arising from configuration interactions. 6 references
Sul, Onejae; Kim, Kyumin; Jung, Yungwoo; Choi, Eunsuk; Lee, Seung-Beck
2017-09-15
The ambipolar band structure of graphene presents unique opportunities for novel electronic device applications. A cycle of gate voltage sweep in a conventional graphene transistor produces a frequency-doubled output current. To increase the frequency further, we used various graphene doping control techniques to produce Dirac voltage engineered graphene channels. The various surface treatments and substrate conditions produced differently doped graphene channels that were integrated on a single substrate and multiple Dirac voltages were observed by applying a single gate voltage sweep. We applied the Dirac voltage engineering techniques to graphene field-effect transistors on a single chip for the fabrication of a frequency multiplier and a logic inverter demonstrating analog and digital circuit application possibilities.
Sul, Onejae; Kim, Kyumin; Jung, Yungwoo; Choi, Eunsuk; Lee, Seung-Beck
2017-09-01
The ambipolar band structure of graphene presents unique opportunities for novel electronic device applications. A cycle of gate voltage sweep in a conventional graphene transistor produces a frequency-doubled output current. To increase the frequency further, we used various graphene doping control techniques to produce Dirac voltage engineered graphene channels. The various surface treatments and substrate conditions produced differently doped graphene channels that were integrated on a single substrate and multiple Dirac voltages were observed by applying a single gate voltage sweep. We applied the Dirac voltage engineering techniques to graphene field-effect transistors on a single chip for the fabrication of a frequency multiplier and a logic inverter demonstrating analog and digital circuit application possibilities.
Determination of stress multipliers for thin perforated plates with square array of holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharya, A.; Murli, B.; Kushwaha, H.S.
1991-01-01
The peak stress multipliers are required to determine the maximum stresses in perforated plates for the realistic evaluation of their fatigue life. The Section III of ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessels Code does not provide any information about such multipliers to be used in thin perforated plates with square penetration pattern. Although such multipliers for membrane loadings are available in literature, they were obtained either by classical analysis or by photoelastic experiments and there is no significant finite element analysis in this area. Also it has been a common practice among designers to apply the same multipliers for loads producing bending type of stress. The stress multipliers in bending are lower than those in membrane. Therefore a reduction of resultant peak stress occurs if proper stress multipliers are used for bending. The present paper is aimed at developing a finite element technique which can be used for determining the peak stress multipliers in thin plates for membrane as well as bending loads. A quarter symmetric part of a 3 x 3 square array was chosen for the analysis. The results were obtained by computer programs PAFEC and COSMOS/M using 2-D plane stress elements for the membrane and degenerated 3-D shell element for the bending part. The results for the membrane are compared with Bailey, Hicks and Hulbert and with Meijers' finite element results for the bending part. A study was made at the initial stage by analysing a 6 x 6 square array to see the effect of holes beyond one pitch, which were left out by the 3 x 3 array and the effect of additional holes was found to be negligible. Therefore it was decided to carry out further analysis with 3 x 3 square array. Photoelastic experiments were also performed to validate the results obtained by theoretical analysis. (author)
Electronic stopping in ion-fullerene collisions
Schlathölter, T.A.; Hadjar, O.; Hoekstra, R.A.; Morgenstern, R.W.H.
The electronic friction experienced by a multiply charged ion interacting with the valence electrons of a single fullerene is an important aspect of the collision dynamics. It manifests itself in a considerable loss of projectile kinetic energy transferred to the target, resulting in excitation. The
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacobs, V.L.; Davis, J.
1978-01-01
A generalization of previously reported statistical theories is developed for determining the excited-level populations and the ionization-recombination balance of multiply charged atomic ions in an optically thin high-temperature plasma. Account is taken of the most important collisional and radiative processes involving bound and autoionizing levels in three consecutive ionization stages. We obtain a set of rate equations for the population densities of the low-lying levels which contains effective excitation, ionization, and recombination rates describing indirect transitions through the more highly excited bound and autoionizing levels. The familiar corona-model equations for the ground-state populations are recovered by making the assumption that all excited states decay by only spontaneous radiative or autoionization processes. When collisional processes become efficient in depopulating the highly excited levels important in dielectronic recombination, the effective rate of recombination must be described by a collisional-dielectronic recombination coefficient. Results of calculations are presented for the collisional-dielectronic recombination rate coefficients for recombination of Fe +8 --Fe +13 ions. At an electron density of 10 16 cm -3 , dielectronic recombination is still the dominant recombination process. However, the collisional-dielectronic recombination rate coefficients are found to be reduced by about an order of magnitude from their corona-model values due to the effects of multiple-collisional excitations on the populations of the highly excited bound levels of the recombined ion. The dielectronic recombination rates into these highly excited levels are found to be enhanced by the effects of collisionally induced angular momentum redistribution on the populations of the autoionizing levels
Lagrangian relaxation technique in power systems operation planning: Multipliers updating problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ruzic, S. [Electric Power Utility of Serbia, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)
1995-11-01
All Lagrangian relaxation based approaches to the power systems operation planning have an important common part: the Lagrangian multipliers correction procedure. It is the subject of this paper. Different approaches presented in the literature are discussed and an original method for the Lagrangian multipliers updating is proposed. The basic idea of this new method is to update Lagrangian multipliers trying to satisfy Khun-Tucker optimality conditions. Instead of the dual function maximization the `distance of optimality function` is defined and minimized. If Khun-Tucker optimality conditions are satisfied the value of this function is in range (-1,0); otherwise the function has a big positive value. This method called `the distance of optimality method` takes into account future changes in planning generations due to the Lagrangian multipliers updating. The influence of changes in a multiplier associated to one system constraint to the satisfaction of some other system requirements is also considered. The numerical efficiency of the proposed method is analyzed and compared with results obtained using the sub-gradient technique. 20 refs, 2 tabs
Dissociation of multiply charged ICN by Coulomb explosion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eland, J. H. D. [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, Oxford University, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Origovägen 6B, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Singh, R.; Hult Roos, A.; Andersson, J.; Squibb, R. J.; Feifel, R. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Origovägen 6B, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Pickering, J. D.; Brouard, M. [Department of Chemistry, The Chemistry Research Laboratory, Oxford University, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Slater, C. S. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Origovägen 6B, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, The Chemistry Research Laboratory, Oxford University, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3TA (United Kingdom); Zagorodskikh, S. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, Origovägen 6B, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, SE-751 20 Uppsala (Sweden)
2016-08-21
The fragmentations of iodine cyanide ions created with 2 to 8 positive charges by photoionization from inner shells with binding energies from 59 eV (I 4d) to ca. 900 eV (I 3p) have been examined by multi-electron and multi-ion coincidence spectroscopy with velocity map imaging ion capability. The charge distributions produced by hole formation in each shell are characterised and systematic effects of the number of charges and of initial charge localisation are found.
Object-Relational Management of Multiply Represented Geographic Entities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friis-Christensen, Anders; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard
2003-01-01
Multiple representation occurs when information about the same geographic entity is represented electronically more than once. This occurs frequently in practice, and it invariably results in the occurrence of inconsistencies among the different representations. We propose to resolve this situation...... by introducing a multiple representation management system (MRMS), the schema of which includes rules that specify how to identify representations of the same entity, rules that specify consistency requirements, and rules used to restore consistency when necessary. In this paper, we demonstrate by means...
Status and problems of multiply ionized atom spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kononov, Eh.Ya.; Ryabtsev, A.N.
1984-01-01
Principal directions of investigations associated with identification of spectral lines and with determination of energy structure of high multiplicity ions are analyzed. The considered part of atomic spectroscopy is developed both in the direction of obtaining high multiplicity ion spectra and interpretation of spectral details associated with excitation conditions and in the direction of detailed study on compound energy structures of electron shells. Spectroscopy with fast ion beams is widely developed. Accumulated atomic data, developed methods of atomic calculations and improvement of observation technique permit to realize complex spectroscopic diagnostics in astrophysics and hot plasma physics
Rais, Muhammad H.
2010-06-01
This paper presents Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) implementation of standard and truncated multipliers using Very High Speed Integrated Circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL). Truncated multiplier is a good candidate for digital signal processing (DSP) applications such as finite impulse response (FIR) and discrete cosine transform (DCT). Remarkable reduction in FPGA resources, delay, and power can be achieved using truncated multipliers instead of standard parallel multipliers when the full precision of the standard multiplier is not required. The truncated multipliers show significant improvement as compared to standard multipliers. Results show that the anomaly in Spartan-3 AN average connection and maximum pin delay have been efficiently reduced in Virtex-4 device.
Design of Low Power Multiplier with Energy Efficient Full Adder Using DPTAAL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Kishore Kumar
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Asynchronous adiabatic logic (AAL is a novel lowpower design technique which combines the energy saving benefits of asynchronous systems with adiabatic benefits. In this paper, energy efficient full adder using double pass transistor with asynchronous adiabatic logic (DPTAAL is used to design a low power multiplier. Asynchronous adiabatic circuits are very low power circuits to preserve energy for reuse, which reduces the amount of energy drawn directly from the power supply. In this work, an 8×8 multiplier using DPTAAL is designed and simulated, which exhibits low power and reliable logical operations. To improve the circuit performance at reduced voltage level, double pass transistor logic (DPL is introduced. The power results of the proposed multiplier design are compared with the conventional CMOS implementation. Simulation results show significant improvement in power for clock rates ranging from 100 MHz to 300 MHz.
Design of a High Linearity Four-Quadrant Analog Multiplier in Wideband Frequency Range
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdul kareem Mokif Obais
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode four quadrant analog multiplier in the wideband frequency rangeis designed using a wideband operational amplifier (OPAMP and squaring circuits. The wideband OPAMP is designed using 10 identical NMOS transistorsand operated with supply voltages of ±12V. Two NMOS transistors and two wideband OPAMP are utilized in the design of the proposed squaring circuit. All the NMOS transistors are based on 0.35µm NMOStechnology. The multiplier has input and output voltage ranges of ±10 V, high range of linearity from -10 V to +10 V, and cutoff frequency of about 5 GHz. The proposed multiplier is designed on PSpice in Orcad 16.6
Proposal for electro-optic multiplier based on dual transverse electro-optic Kerr effect.
Li, Changsheng
2008-10-20
A novel electro-optic multiplier is proposed, which can perform voltage multiplication operation by use of the Kerr medium exhibiting dual transverse electro-optic Kerr effect. In this kind of Kerr medium, electro-optic phase retardation is proportional to the square of its applied electric field, and orientations of the field-induced birefringent axes are only related to the direction of the field. Based on this effect, we can design an electro-optic multiplier by selecting the crystals of 6/mmm, 432, and m3m classes and isotropic Kerr media such as glass. Simple calculation demonstrates that a kind of glass-ceramic material with a large Kerr constant can be used for the design of the proposed electro-optic multiplier.
Economic Multipliers and Sectoral Linkages: Ghana and the New Oil Sector
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dennis Nchor
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The study seeks to assess the structure of the economy of Ghana in terms of changes in the economic structure before and after the production of oil in commercial quantities. This is viewed with regards to economic multipliers, sectoral interdependence and trade concentration. The results show that changes occurred with regards to multipliers and sectoral interdependence. The output multipliers of most sectors have declined. The results also show that the agricultural sector experienced an initial decline in its growth while industry experienced an increase. The performance of the services sector was relatively stable for the period covered by the study. There is a decline in the level of trade concentration though on a whole the concentration index is still high. The study employed input-output modeling techniques and the data was obtained from the Ghana statistical service and the World Development Indicators.
The properties of gas-phase multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newson, K.A.
1999-01-01
This thesis presents the results of a series of experiments investigating the reactivity of gas-phase molecular dications with various neutral collision partners, at collision energies between 3 and 13 eV in the laboratory frame, using a crossed-beam apparatus. The experiment involves the measurement of product ion intensities, which are determined by means of time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The experimental apparatus and methodology, together with the areas of theory important to ion chemistry, are described in the thesis. The product ions of greatest interest are those ions formed by bond-forming (chemical) reactivity. The relative intensities of such product ions, and those ions formed as a result of electron-transfer reactions, are, when recorded as a function of the collision energy, a powerful probe of the reaction mechanism. Additionally, where appropriate, the reactions are examined for isotope effects by using the isotopic analogue of the neutral collision partner. The results of the experiments indicate that no intermolecular isotope effects are present in the reactions of CF 2 2+ and CF 3 2+ with H 2 and D 2 neutral targets. In addition, the observed collision energy dependence is symptomatic of the absence of a barrier to reaction. These observations suggest that the reactions proceed via an impulsive direct reaction mechanism. Such a conclusion casts doubt on the applicability of the Landau-Zener model of H - /D - transfer reactivity. Other results presented in this thesis include the first reported observation of a bond-forming reaction between a molecular dication (CF2 2+ ) and a polyatomic neutral species (NH 3 ). Finally, the branching ratio of the products of bond-forming reactions between CF 2 2+ with HD indicates the operation of a strong intramolecular isotope effect, favouring the formation of the deuterated product. This observation points to a reaction mechanism in which the bond-formation is preceded by electron-transfer. (author)
Spectral multipliers on spaces of distributions associated with non-negative self-adjoint operators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Georgiadis, Athanasios; Nielsen, Morten
2018-01-01
and Triebel–Lizorkin spaces with full range of indices is established too. As an application, we obtain equivalent norm characterizations for the spaces mentioned above. Non-classical spaces as well as Lebesgue, Hardy, (generalized) Sobolev and Lipschitz spaces are also covered by our approach.......We consider spaces of homogeneous type associated with a non-negative self-adjoint operator whose heat kernel satisfies certain upper Gaussian bounds. Spectral multipliers are introduced and studied on distributions associated with this operator. The boundedness of spectral multipliers on Besov...
Angular distribution of 662keV multiply-Compton scattered gamma rays in copper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan
2007-01-01
The angular distribution of multiple Compton scattering of 662keV gamma photons, obtained from six Curie 137 Cs source, incident on copper scatterer of varying thickness is studied experimentally in both the forward and backward hemispheres. The scattered photons are detected by a 51mmx51mm NaI(Tl) scintillation detector. The full-energy peak corresponding to singly scattered events is reconstructed analytically. We observe that the numbers of multiply scattered events, having same energy as in the singly scattered distribution, first increases with increase in target thickness and then saturate. The optimum thickness at which the multiply scattered events saturate is determined at different scattering angles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlen, E.A.; Loffredo, M.I.
1989-01-01
We show how to obtain a complete correspondence between stochastic and quantum mechanics on multiply connected spaces. We do this by introducing a stochastic mechanical analog of the hydrodynamical circulation, relating it to the topological properties of the configuration space, and using it to constrain the stochastic mechanical variational principles. (orig.)
An Exploration of Social Media Use among Multiply Minoritized LGBTQ Youth
Lucero, Alfie Leanna
2013-01-01
This study responds to a need for research in a fast-growing and significant area of study, that of exploring, understanding, and documenting the numerous ways that multiply marginalized LGBTQ youth between the ages of 14 and 17 use social media. The primary research question examined whether social media provide safe spaces for multiply…
New Lagrange Multipliers for the Blind Adaptive Deconvolution Problem Applicable for the Noisy Case
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Monika Pinchas
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Recently, a new blind adaptive deconvolution algorithm was proposed based on a new closed-form approximated expression for the conditional expectation (the expectation of the source input given the equalized or deconvolutional output where the output and input probability density function (pdf of the deconvolutional process were approximated with the maximum entropy density approximation technique. The Lagrange multipliers for the output pdf were set to those used for the input pdf. Although this new blind adaptive deconvolution method has been shown to have improved equalization performance compared to the maximum entropy blind adaptive deconvolution algorithm recently proposed by the same author, it is not applicable for the very noisy case. In this paper, we derive new Lagrange multipliers for the output and input pdfs, where the Lagrange multipliers related to the output pdf are a function of the channel noise power. Simulation results indicate that the newly obtained blind adaptive deconvolution algorithm using these new Lagrange multipliers is robust to signal-to-noise ratios (SNR, unlike the previously proposed method, and is applicable for the whole range of SNR down to 7 dB. In addition, we also obtain new closed-form approximated expressions for the conditional expectation and mean square error (MSE.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Herman, Zdeněk
2015-01-01
Roč. 378, FEB 2015 (2015), s. 113-126 ISSN 1387-3806 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Multiply-charged ions * Dynamics of chemical reactions * Beam scattering Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.183, year: 2015
The impact of founder events on chromosomal variability in multiply mating species
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pool, John E; Nielsen, Rasmus
2008-01-01
size reductions and recent bottlenecks leading to decreased X/A diversity ratios. Here we use theory and simulation to investigate a separate demographic effect-that of founder events involving multiply mated females-and find that it leads to much stronger reductions in X/A diversity ratios than...
Strength of the reversible, garbage-free 2 ^{k} ±1 multiplier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rotenberg, Eva; Cranch, James; Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal
2013-01-01
Recently, a reversible garbage-free 2 k ±1 constant-multiplier circuit was presented by Axelsen and Thomsen. This was the first construction of a garbage-free, reversible circuit for multiplication with non-trivial constants. At the time, the strength, that is, the range of constants obtainable...
Evans, C. J.; Johnson, C. J.
1988-01-01
A blind multiply handicapped preschooler was taught to respond appropriately to two adjacency pair types ("where question-answer" and "comment-acknowledgement"). The two alternative language acquisition strategies available to blind children were encouraged: echolalia to maintain communicative interactions and manual searching…
Pointwise Multipliers on Spaces of Homogeneous Type in the Sense of Coifman and Weiss
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanchang Han
2014-01-01
homogeneous type in the sense of Coifman and Weiss, pointwise multipliers of inhomogeneous Besov and Triebel-Lizorkin spaces are obtained. We make no additional assumptions on the quasi-metric or the doubling measure. Hence, the results of this paper extend earlier related results to a more general setting.
Best approximation of the Dunkl Multiplier Operators Tk,ℓ,m
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fethi Soltani
2015-03-01
Full Text Available We study some class of Dunkl multiplier operators Tk,ℓ,m; and we give for them an application of the theory of reproducing kernels to the Tikhonov regularization,which gives the best approximation of the operators Tk,ℓ,m on a Hilbert spaces Hskℓ.
Composite Field Multiplier based on Look-Up Table for Elliptic Curve Cryptography Implementation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marisa W. Paryasto
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Implementing a secure cryptosystem requires operations involving hundreds of bits. One of the most recommended algorithm is Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC. The complexity of elliptic curve algorithms and parameters with hundreds of bits requires specific design and implementation strategy. The design architecture must be customized according to security requirement, available resources and parameter choices. In this work we propose the use of composite field to implement finite field multiplication for ECC implementation. We use 299-bit keylength represented in GF((21323 instead of in GF(2299. Composite field multiplier can be implemented using different multiplier for ground-field and for extension field. In this paper, LUT is used for multiplication in the ground-field and classic multiplieris used for the extension field multiplication. A generic architecture for the multiplier is presented. Implementation is done with VHDL with the target device Altera DE2. The work in this paper uses the simplest algorithm to confirm the idea that by dividing field into composite, use different multiplier for base and extension field would give better trade-off for time and area. This work will be the beginning of our more advanced further research that implements composite-field using Mastrovito Hybrid, KOA and LUT.
Structural brain network analysis in families multiply affected with bipolar I disorder
Forde, Natalie J.; O'Donoghue, Stefani; Scanlon, Cathy; Emsell, Louise; Chaddock, Chris; Leemans, Alexander; Jeurissen, Ben; Barker, Gareth J.; Cannon, Dara M.; Murray, Robin M.; McDonald, Colm
2015-01-01
Disrupted structural connectivity is associated with psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorder (BP). Here we use structural brain network analysis to investigate connectivity abnormalities in multiply affected BP type I families, to assess the utility of dysconnectivity as a biomarker and its
Discrete Green’s function diakoptics for stable FDTD interaction between multiply-connected domains
Hon, de B.P.; Arnold, J.M.; Graglia, R.D.
2007-01-01
We have developed FDTD boundary conditions based on discrete Green's function diakoptics for arbitrary multiply-connected 2D domains. The associated Z-domain boundary operator is symmetric, with an imaginary part that can be proved to be positive semi-definite on the upper half of the unit circle in
Composite Field Multiplier based on Look-Up Table for Elliptic Curve Cryptography Implementation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marisa W. Paryasto
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Implementing a secure cryptosystem requires operations involving hundreds of bits. One of the most recommended algorithm is Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC. The complexity of elliptic curve algorithms and parameters with hundreds of bits requires specific design and implementation strategy. The design architecture must be customized according to security requirement, available resources and parameter choices. In this work we propose the use of composite field to implement finite field multiplication for ECC implementation. We use 299-bit keylength represented in GF((21323 instead of in GF(2299. Composite field multiplier can be implemented using different multiplier for ground-field and for extension field. In this paper, LUT is used for multiplication in the ground-field and classic multiplieris used for the extension field multiplication. A generic architecture for the multiplier is presented. Implementation is done with VHDL with the target device Altera DE2. The work in this paper uses the simplest algorithm to confirm the idea that by dividing field into composite, use different multiplier for base and extension field would give better trade-off for time and area. This work will be the beginning of our more advanced further research that implements composite-field using Mastrovito Hybrid, KOA and LUT.
Time-area efficient multiplier-free recursive filter architectures for FPGA implementation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shajaan, Mohammad; Sørensen, John Aasted
1996-01-01
Simultaneous design of multiplier-free recursive filters (IIR filters) and their hardware implementation in Xilinx field programmable gate array (XC4000) is presented. The hardware design methodology leads to high performance recursive filters with sampling frequencies in the interval 15-21 MHz (...
Time-area efficient multiplier-free filter architectures for FPGA implementation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shajaan, Mohammad; Nielsen, Karsten; Sørensen, John Aasted
1995-01-01
Simultaneous design of multiplier-free filters and their hardware implementation in Xilinx field programmable gate array (XC4000) is presented. The filter synthesis method is a new approach based on cascade coupling of low order sections. The complexity of the design algorithm is 𝒪 (filter o...
Testing of money multiplier model for Pakistan: does monetary base carry any information?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Arshad Khan
2010-02-01
Full Text Available This paper tests the constancy and stationarity of mechanic version of the money multiplier model for Pakistan using monthly data over the period 1972M1-2009M2. We split the data into pre-liberalization (1972M1-1990M12 and post-liberalization (1991M1-2009M2 periods to examine the impact of financial sector reforms. We first examine the constancy and stationarity of the money multiplier and the results suggest the money multiplier remains non-stationary for the entire sample period and sub-periods. We then tested cointegration between money supply and monetary base and find the evidence of cointegration between two variables for the entire period and two sub-periods. The coefficient restrictions are satisfied only for the post-liberalization period. Two-way long-run causality between money supply and monetary base is found for the entire period and post-liberalization. For the post-liberalization period the evidence of short-run causality running from monetary base to money supply is also identified. On the whole, the results suggest that money multiplier model can serve as framework for conducting short-run monetary policy in Pakistan. However, the monetary authority may consider the co-movements between money supply and reserve money at the time of conducting monetary policy.
Implementation of neutron activation analysis in the neutron multiplier CS-ISCTN (first part)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Contreras, R.; Ixquiac, M.; Hernandez, O.; Herrera, E.F.; Diaz, O.; Lopez, R.; Alvarez, I.; Manso, M.V.; Padron, G.; D Alessandro, K.
1997-01-01
The detection limit of 32 elements are determined after experimental evaluation of the neutron flux components in the irradiation position of the neutron multiplier CS-ISCTN. The control of the thermal flux was carry up, comparing the experimental results obtained through three convention used determination of the reaction rate, with the theoretical obtained before
Counting efficiency for liquid scintillator systems with a single multiplier phototube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.
1984-01-01
In this paper counting efficiency as a function of a free parameter (the figure of merit) has been computed. The results are applicable to liquid scintillator systems with a single multiplier phototube. Tables of counting efficiency for 62 pure beta emitters are given for figures of merit in the range 0.25 to 50. (Author) 16 refs
Fourier Multipliers on Decomposition Spaces of Modulation and Triebel–Lizorkin Type
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cleanthous, G.; Georgiadis, Athanasios; Nielsen, Morten
2018-01-01
spaces in both the isotropic and an anisotropic setting. We derive a boundedness result for Fourier multipliers on anisotropic decomposition spaces of modulation and Triebel–Lizorkin type. As an application, we obtain equivalent quasi-norm characterizations for this class of decomposition spaces....
Evaluation of multiplier effect of housing investments in the city economy
Ovsiannikova, T.; Rabtsevich, O.; Yugova, I.
2017-01-01
The given study presents evaluation of the role and significance of housing investments providing stable social and economic development of a city. It also justifies multiplier impact of investments in housing construction on all the sectors of urban economy. Growth of housing investments generates multiplier effect triggering the development of other different interrelated sectors. The paper suggests approach developed by the authors to evaluate the level of city development. It involves defining gross city product on the basis of integral criterion of gross value added of types of economic activities in the city economy. The algorithm of gross value added generation in urban economy is presented as a result of multiplier effect of housing investments. The evaluation of the mentioned effect was shown on the case of the city of Tomsk (Russia). The study has revealed that multiplier effect allows obtaining four rubles of added value out of one ruble of housing investments in the city economy. Methods used in the present study include the ones of the System of National Accounts, as well as methods of statistical and structural analysis. It has been proved that priority investment in housing construction is considered to be the key factor for stable social and economic development of the city. Developed approach is intended for justification of priority directions in municipal and regional investment policy. City and regional governing bodies and potential investors are the ones to apply the given approach.
Ultra-low-power, class-AB, CMOS four-quadrant current multiplier
Sawigun, C.; Serdijn, W.A.
2009-01-01
A class-AB four-quadrant current multiplier constituted by a class-AB current amplifier and a current splitter which can handle input signals in excess of ten times the bias current is presented. The proposed circuit operation is based on the exponential characteristic of BJTs or subthreshold
Mixed Analog/Digital Matrix-Vector Multiplier for Neural Network Synapses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lehmann, Torsten; Bruun, Erik; Dietrich, Casper
1996-01-01
In this work we present a hardware efficient matrix-vector multiplier architecture for artificial neural networks with digitally stored synapse strengths. We present a novel technique for manipulating bipolar inputs based on an analog two's complements method and an accurate current rectifier...
Radiation-hardened I2L 8*8 multiplier circuit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doyle, B.R.; Kreps, S.A.; Van Vonno, N.W.; Lake, G.W.
1979-01-01
Development of improved Substrate Fed I 2 L (SFL) processing has been combined with geometry and fanout constraints to design a radiation hardened LSI 8.8 Multiplier. This study describes details of the process and circuit design and gives resultant electrical and radiation test performance
Full inelastic cross section, effective stopping and ranges of fast multiply charged ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alimov, R.A.; Arslanbekov, T.U.; Matveev, B.I.; Rakhmatov, A.S.
1994-01-01
Inelastic processes taking place in collision of fast multiply charged ions with atoms are considered on the base of mechanism of sudden momentum transfer. The simple estimations are proposed of full inelastic cross sections, effective stopping and ion ranges in gaseous medium. (author). 10 refs
The Multiplier Effect: A Strategy for the Continuing Education of School Psychologists
Lesiak, Walter; And Others
1975-01-01
Twenty-two school psychologists participated in a year long institute designed to test the use of a multiplier effect in the continuing professional development of school psychologists in Michigan. Results indicated that 550 school psychologists attended two in-service meetings with generally favorable reactions. (Author)
The net multiplier is a new key sector indicator : Reply to De Mesnard's comment
Oosterhaven, Jan
Most of the comment of de Mesnard applies to a causal interpretation of the net multiplier that is applied to economically impossible exogenous (changes in) total output. This reply shows that this interpretation is incorrect and that his further argumentation is based on a time inconsistent
Neidert, Pamela L.; Iwata, Brian A.; Dozier, Claudia L.
2005-01-01
We describe the assessment and treatment of 2 children with autism spectrum disorder whose problem behaviors (self-injury, aggression, and disruption) were multiply controlled. Results of functional analyses indicated that the children's problem behaviors were maintained by both positive reinforcement (attention) and negative reinforcement (escape…
Improved 64-bit Radix-16 Booth Multiplier Based on Partial Product Array Height Reduction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Antelo, Elisardo; Montuschi, Paolo; Nannarelli, Alberto
2016-01-01
, a reduction of one unit in the maximum height is achieved. This reduction may add flexibility during the design of the pipelined multiplier to meet the design goals, it may allow further optimizations of the partial product array reduction stage in terms of area/delay/power and/or may allow additional addends...
KAJIAN EFEK MULTIPLIER PRODUK UNGGULAN BERBASIS KLUSTER UKM PENGOLAHAN IKAN ASAP
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yusmar Ardhi Hidayat
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this research are to analyze scale of production of leading commodities and multiplier effect of cultivation and smoked fish in Wonosari, Bonang Demak. This research applies census method in collecting data from all business unit which identified as leading commodities in Wirosari Village, Bonang, Demak Regency. Regarding survey conducted, there are 18 catfish breeders and 49 smoked fish small business used as respondent. Primary data used in this research are rate of production in basis goods, land area, capital, raw materials, manpower, and income multiplier. To support empirical discussion, tools of analysis used in this research are descriptive statistics and income multiplier. Results of this research are primary commodities in Wonosari Village are smoked fish and fresh cat fish. Total production of smoked fish reaches 6.4 Ton each day for with type of smoked fish such as river cat fish, tongkol, sting-ray, cat fish, and other river fish. Meanwhile total production of catfish breeding reaches 105 Ton in first harvest after 2-3 months. Based on that number, smoked fish business promise higher profit than profits catfish breeding. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis tingkat produksi dan efek multiplier produk unggulan budidaya dan pengasapan ikan di Desa Wonosari, Bonang Kabupaten Demak. Penelitian mengunakan metode sensus dengan mencari data dari semua unit usaha yang merupakan produk unggulan di Desa Wirosari, Bonang Kecamatan Demak. Responden yang diperoleh sejumlah 18 pembudidaya ikan dan 49 usaha pengasapan ikan. Data primer yang akan digunakan yaitu data jumlah produksi komoditas unggulan, luas lahan, jumlah modal, bahan baku, tenaga kerja, dan multiplier pendapatan. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah statistik deskriptif, dan indeks multiplier pendapatan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komoditas unggulan Desa Wonosari Kecamatan Bonang Kabupaten Demak adalah Ikan Asap dan Budidaya Ikan Lele
DO PUBLIC AND PRIVATE DEBT LEVELS AFFECT THE SIZE OF FISCAL MULTIPLIERS?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chairul Adi
2017-09-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effectiveness of fiscal policies – as measured by the impact and cumulative multipliers – and how they interact with public and private debt. Harnessing the moderated panel regression approach, based on the yearly data set of several economies during the period from 1996 to 2012, the analysis is focused on the impact of spending-and-revenue-based fiscal policies on economic growth and how these fiscal instruments interact with public and private indebtedness. The result of spending stimuli advocates the basic Keynesian theory. An increase in public expenditures contemporaneously generates a positive multiplier, of around 0.29 – 0.44 and around 0.45 – 0.58 during two years. Decomposing the expenditures into their elements, this paper documents a stronger impact from public investment than that from government purchases. On the other hand, the revenue stimuli seem to follow the Ricardian Equivalence Hypothesis (REH, arguing that current tax cuts are inconsequential. The impact and cumulative multipliers for this fiscal instrument have mixed results, ranging from -0.21 to 0.05 and -0.26 to 0.06, respectively. Moreover, no robust evidence is found to support the argument that government debt moderates the effectiveness of fiscal policies. The size of the multipliers for both spending and revenue policies remain constant with the level of public debt. On the other hand, private debt appears to show a statistically significant moderating effect on spending stimuli. Its impact on spending multipliers, however, is economically insignificant. The moderation effect of private debt on the revenue stimuli does not seem to exist. Finally, this paper documents that both public and private debt exhibit a negative and statistically significant estimation for economic output.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksandr Alekseev
2015-07-01
Full Text Available We establish necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of an integrating multiplier of a special form for systems of two cubic differential equations of the first order. We further study bifurcations of such systems with the change of parameters of their integrating multipliers.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Hussain, Dil muhammed Akbar
2016-01-01
Multiplier is used for multiplication of a signal and a constant in digital signal processing (DSP). 28nm technology based Vedic multiplier is implemented with use of VHDL HDL, Xilinx ISE, Kintex-7 FPGA and XPower Analyzer. Vedic multiplier gain speed improvements by parallelizing the generation...... Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) in order to reduce the development cost. The development cost for Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs) are high in compare to FPGA. Selection of the most energy efficient IO standards in place of signal gating is the main design methodology for design of energy...... efficient Vedic multiplier.There is 68.51%, 69.86%, 74.65%, and 78.39% contraction in total power of Vedic multiplier on 28nm Kintex-7 FPGA, when we use HSTL_II in place of HSTL_II_DCI_18 at 56.7oC, 53.5oC, 40oC and 21oC respectively....
Enhancing shelf life of minimally processed multiplier onion using silicone membrane.
Naik, Ravindra; Ambrose, Dawn C P; Raghavan, G S Vijaya; Annamalai, S J K
2014-12-01
The aim of storage of minimal processed product is to increase the shelf life and thereby extend the period of availability of minimally processed produce. The silicone membrane makes use of the ability of polymer to permit selective passage of gases at different rates according to their physical and chemical properties. Here, the product stored maintains its own atmosphere by the combined effects of respiration process of the commodity and the diffusion rate through the membrane. A study was undertaken to enhance the shelf life of minimally processed multiplier onion with silicone membrane. The respiration activity was recorded at a temperature of 30 ± 2 °C (RH = 60 %) and 5 ± 1 °C (RH = 90 %). The respiration was found to be 23.4, 15.6, 10 mg CO2kg(-1)h(-1) at 5 ± 1 °C and 140, 110, 60 mg CO2kg(-1) h(-1) at 30 ± 2° for the peeled, sliced and diced multiplier onion, respectively. The respiration rate for the fresh multiplier onion was recorded to be 5, 10 mg CO2kg(-1) h(-1) at 5 ± 1 °C and 30 ± 1 ° C, respectively. Based on the shelf life studies and on the sensory evaluation, it was found that only the peeled multiplier onion could be stored. The sliced and diced multiplier onion did not have the required shelf life. The shelf life of the multiplier onion in the peel form could be increased from 4-5 days to 14 days by using the combined effect of silicone membrane (6 cm(2)/kg) and low temperature (5 ± 1 °C).
Time-resolved PHERMEX image restorations constrained with an additional multiply-exposed image
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kruger, R.P.; Breedlove, J.R. Jr.; Trussell, H.J.
1978-06-01
There are a number of possible industrial and scientific applications of nanosecond cineradiographs. Although the technology exists to produce closely spaced pulses of x rays for this application, the quality of the time-resolved radiographs is severely limited. The limitations arise from the necessity of using a fluorescent screen to convert the transmitted x rays to light and then using electro-optical imaging systems to gate and to record the images with conventional high-speed cameras. It has been proposed that, in addition to the time-resolved images, a conventional multiply exposed radiograph be obtained. This report uses both PHERMEX and conventional photographic simulations to demonstrate that the additional information supplied by the multiply exposed radiograph can be used to improve the quality of digital image restorations of the time-resolved pictures over what could be achieved with the degraded images alone
Enhanced fuel production in thorium/lithium hybrid blankets utilizing uranium multipliers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pitulski, R.H.
1979-10-01
A consistent neutronics analysis is performed to determine the effectiveness of uranium bearing neutron multiplier zones on increasing the production of U/sup 233/ in thorium/lithium blankets for use in a tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The nuclear performance of these blankets is evaluated as a function of zone thicknesses and exposure by using the coupled transport burnup code ANISN-CINDER-HIC. Various parameters such as U/sup 233/, Pu/sup 239/, and H/sup 3/ production rates, the blanket energy multiplication, isotopic composition of the fuels, and neutron leakages into the various zones are evaluated during a 5 year (6 MW.y.m/sup -2/) exposure period. Although the results of this study were obtained for a tokomak magnetic fusion device, the qualitative behavior associated with the use of the uranium bearing neutron multiplier should be applicable to all fusion-fission hybrids.
Enhanced fuel production in thorium/lithium hybrid blankets utilizing uranium multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitulski, R.H.
1979-10-01
A consistent neutronics analysis is performed to determine the effectiveness of uranium bearing neutron multiplier zones on increasing the production of U 233 in thorium/lithium blankets for use in a tokamak fusion-fission hybrid reactor. The nuclear performance of these blankets is evaluated as a function of zone thicknesses and exposure by using the coupled transport burnup code ANISN-CINDER-HIC. Various parameters such as U 233 , Pu 239 , and H 3 production rates, the blanket energy multiplication, isotopic composition of the fuels, and neutron leakages into the various zones are evaluated during a 5 year (6 MW.y.m -2 ) exposure period. Although the results of this study were obtained for a tokomak magnetic fusion device, the qualitative behavior associated with the use of the uranium bearing neutron multiplier should be applicable to all fusion-fission hybrids
Preconditioned alternating direction method of multipliers for inverse problems with constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiao, Yuling; Jin, Qinian; Lu, Xiliang; Wang, Weijie
2017-01-01
We propose a preconditioned alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve linear inverse problems in Hilbert spaces with constraints, where the feature of the sought solution under a linear transformation is captured by a possibly non-smooth convex function. During each iteration step, our method avoids solving large linear systems by choosing a suitable preconditioning operator. In case the data is given exactly, we prove the convergence of our preconditioned ADMM without assuming the existence of a Lagrange multiplier. In case the data is corrupted by noise, we propose a stopping rule using information on noise level and show that our preconditioned ADMM is a regularization method; we also propose a heuristic rule when the information on noise level is unavailable or unreliable and give its detailed analysis. Numerical examples are presented to test the performance of the proposed method. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lina Hamouche
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Bacteria adopt social behavior to expand into new territory, led by specialized swarmers, before forming a biofilm. Such mass migration of Bacillus subtilis on a synthetic medium produces hyperbranching dendrites that transiently (equivalent to 4 to 5 generations of growth maintain a cellular monolayer over long distances, greatly facilitating single-cell gene expression analysis. Paradoxically, while cells in the dendrites (nonswarmers might be expected to grow exponentially, the rate of swarm expansion is constant, suggesting that some cells are not multiplying. Little attention has been paid to which cells in a swarm are actually multiplying and contributing to the overall biomass. Here, we show in situ that DNA replication, protein translation and peptidoglycan synthesis are primarily restricted to the swarmer cells at dendrite tips. Thus, these specialized cells not only lead the population forward but are apparently the source of all cells in the stems of early dendrites. We developed a simple mathematical model that supports this conclusion.
On the design of a radix-10 online floating-point multiplier
McIlhenny, Robert D.; Ercegovac, Milos D.
2009-08-01
This paper describes an approach to design and implement a radix-10 online floating-point multiplier. An online approach is considered because it offers computational flexibility not available with conventional arithmetic. The design was coded in VHDL and compiled, synthesized, and mapped onto a Virtex 5 FPGA to measure cost in terms of LUTs (look-up-tables) as well as the cycle time and total latency. The routing delay which was not optimized is the major component in the cycle time. For a rough estimate of the cost/latency characteristics, our design was compared to a standard radix-2 floating-point multiplier of equivalent precision. The results demonstrate that even an unoptimized radix-10 online design is an attractive implementation alternative for FPGA floating-point multiplication.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.
2008-01-01
The gamma photons continue to soften in energy as the number of scatterings increases in the target having finite dimensions both in depth and lateral dimensions. The number of multiply scattered photons increases with an increase in target thickness, and saturates at a particular value of the target thickness known as saturation thickness (depth). The present measurements are carried out to study the energy dependence of saturation thickness of multiply scattered gamma photons from targets of various thicknesses. The scattered photons are detected by a properly shielded NaI(Tl) gamma ray detector placed at 90 deg. to the incident beam. We observe that the saturation thickness increases with increasing incident gamma photon energy. Monte Carlo calculations based upon the package developed by Bauer and Pattison [Compton scattering experiments at the HMI (1981), HMI-B 364, pp. 1-106] support the present experimental results
Moura, Ricardo; Sinha, Bimal; Coelho, Carlos A.
2017-06-01
The recent popularity of the use of synthetic data as a Statistical Disclosure Control technique has enabled the development of several methods of generating and analyzing such data, but almost always relying in asymptotic distributions and in consequence being not adequate for small sample datasets. Thus, a likelihood-based exact inference procedure is derived for the matrix of regression coefficients of the multivariate regression model, for multiply imputed synthetic data generated via Posterior Predictive Sampling. Since it is based in exact distributions this procedure may even be used in small sample datasets. Simulation studies compare the results obtained from the proposed exact inferential procedure with the results obtained from an adaptation of Reiters combination rule to multiply imputed synthetic datasets and an application to the 2000 Current Population Survey is discussed.
Effect of cooling on the efficiency of Schottky varactor frequency multipliers at millimeter waves
Louhi, Jyrki; Raiesanen, Antti; Erickson, Neal
1992-01-01
The efficiency of the Schottky diode multiplier can be increased by cooling the diode to 77 K. The main reason for better efficiency is the increased mobility of the free carriers. Because of that the series resistance decreases and a few dB higher efficiency can be expected at low input power levels. At high output frequencies and at high power levels, the current saturation decreases the efficiency of the multiplication. When the diode is cooled the maximum current of the diode increases and much more output power can be expected. There are also slight changes in the I-V characteristic and in the diode junction capacitance, but they have a negligible effect on the efficiency of the multiplier.
Effects of layer-multiplying and interface on the content of β-transcrystallization in PP
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lei, Fan; Li, Jiang; Guo, Shaoyun
2015-01-01
The alternating multilayered polypropylene (PP layer)/β-nucleating agent filled-polypropylene (β-PP layer) were prepared through layer-multiplying extrusion combined with an assembly of layer-multiplying elements (LM Es). The content of β-crystal was firstly evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), which indicated that the relative amount of the β-crystal increased from 38.67% to 81.22% with the increase of layer numbers from 2-layer to 128-layer. It was well consistent with the results of X-ray diffraction (XRD). The morphology observation of β-crystal by polarizing microscope (POM) revealed that the closely packed nuclei in the interface could induce numerous β-transcrystallization in pure PP layer due to the confinement effect. The non-isothermal crystallization kinetic analysis via Mozhishen’s methods manifested that the crystallization rate was greatly enhanced by the augment of the layered interface
Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Mahloojifar, Ali; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Orooji, Mahdi
2017-01-01
Delay and sum (DAS) is the most common beamforming algorithm in linear-array photoacoustic imaging (PAI) as a result of its simple implementation. However, it leads to a low resolution and high sidelobes. Delay multiply and sum (DMAS) was used to address the incapabilities of DAS, providing a higher image quality. However, the resolution improvement is not well enough compared to eigenspace-based minimum variance (EIBMV). In this paper, the EIBMV beamformer has been combined with DMAS algebra...
Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Mahloojifar, Ali; Orooji, Mahdi; Adabi, Saba; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza
2018-01-01
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging medical imaging modality capable of providing high spatial resolution of Ultrasound (US) imaging and high contrast of optical imaging. Delay-and-Sum (DAS) is the most common beamforming algorithm in PAI. However, using DAS beamformer leads to low resolution images and considerable contribution of off-axis signals. A new paradigm namely Delay-Multiply-and-Sum (DMAS), which was originally used as a reconstruction algorithm in confocal microwave imaging...
New holographic limit of AdS5(multiply-in-circle sign)S5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatsuda, Machiko; Siegel, Warren
2003-01-01
We reexamine the projective light cone limit of the gauge-invariant Green-Schwarz action on five-dimensional anti-de Sitter (multiply-in-circle sign) the five-sphere. It implies the usual holography for AdS 5 , but also (a complex) one for S 5 . The result is N=4 projective superspace, which unlike N=4 harmonic superspace can describe N=4 super Yang-Mills theory off shell
Controlled G-Frames and Their G-Multipliers in Hilbert spaces
Rahimi, Asghar; Fereydooni, Abolhassan
2012-01-01
Multipliers have been recently introduced by P. Balazs as operators for Bessel sequences and frames in Hilbert spaces. These are operators that combine (frame-like) analysis, a multiplication with a fixed sequence (called the symbol) and synthesis. Weighted and controlled frames have been introduced to improve the numerical efficiency of iterative algorithms for inverting the frame operator Also g-frames are the most popular generalization of frames that include almost all of the frame extens...
Limitations in THz Power Generation with Schottky Diode Varactor Frequency Multipliers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krozer, Viktor; Loata, G.; Grajal, J.
2002-01-01
, at increasing frequencies the power drops with f-3 instead of the f-2 predicted by theory. In this contribution we provide an overview of state-of-the-art results. A comparison with theoretically achievable multiplier performance reveals that the devices employed at higher frequencies are operating...... inefficiently and the design and fabrication capabilities have not reached the maturity encountered at lower THz frequencies....
Ad Hoc Microphone Array Beamforming Using the Primal-Dual Method of Multipliers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tavakoli, Vincent Mohammad; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Heusdens, Richard
2016-01-01
In the recent years, there have been increasing amount of researches aiming at optimal beamforming with ad hoc microphone arrays, mostly with fusion-based schemes. However, huge amount of computational complexity and communication overhead impede many of these algorithms from being useful in prac...... the distributed linearly-constrained minimum variance beamformer using the the state of the art primal-dual method of multipliers. We study the proposed algorithm with an experiment....
The Growth Points of Regional Economy and Regression Estimation for Branch Investment Multipliers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nina Pavlovna Goridko
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The article develops the methodology of using investment multipliers to identify growth points for a regional economy. The paper discusses various options for the assessment of multiplicative effects caused by investments in certain sectors of the economy. All calculations are carried out on the example of economy of the Republic of Tatarstan for the period 2005–2015. The instrument of regression modeling using the method of least squares, permits to estimate sectoral and cross-sectoral investment multipliers in the economy of the Republic of Tatarstan. Moreover, this method allows to assess the elasticity of gross output of regional economy and its individual sectors depending on investment in various sectors of the economy. Calculations results allowed to identify three growth points of the economy of the Republic of Tatarstan. They are mining industry, manufacturing industry and construction. The success of a particular industry or sub-industry in a country or a region should be measured not only by its share in macro-system’s gross output or value added, but also by the multiplicative effect that investments in the industry have on the development of other industries, on employment and on general national or regional product. In recent years, the growth of the Russian was close to zero. Thus, it is crucial to understand the structural consequences of the increasing investments in various sectors of the Russian economy. In this regard, the problems solved in the article are relevant for a number of countries and regions with a similar economic situation. The obtained results can be applied for similar estimations of investment multipliers as well as multipliers of government spending, and other components of aggregate demand in various countries and regions to identify growth points. Investments in these growth points will induce the greatest and the most evident increment of the outcome from the macro-system’s economic activities.
Relations between bilinear multipliers on Rn,Tn Rn,Tn Rn,Tn and Zn
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Since then the study of bilinear multiplier operators which commute with simultaneous translations have attracted a great deal of ... Unlike in the linear case, the boundedness of the symbol ψC is not known. In this article we will be dealing with .... For the converse, let ψ ∈ M p3 p1,p2 (Z). For f, g ∈ C∞ c (R), we have.
ROLE OF AGRO-INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH ECONOMY: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF LINKAGES AND MULTIPLIERS
Quddus, Md. Abdul
2009-01-01
The study was undertaken to evaluate the contribution of agro-industry in the Bangladesh economy. The latest two input-output tables of the year 1993-94 and 2001-2002 in Bangladesh were used to calculate inter-industry linkage indices and multiplier effects. Agroindustry contributes a significant portion of national income and the prospect of employment generation is increasing at the higher extent for the sectors food processing, tanning and leather finishing, leather industry, saw milling a...
The validity of PPP: evidence from Lagrange multiplier unit root tests for ASEAN countries
Alper ASLAN
2010-01-01
The univariate and panel Lagrange Multiplier (LM) unit root tests with one and two structural breaks proposed by Lee and Strazicich (2003, 2004) which are considerably more powerful than traditional tests are employed to investigate whether the purchasing power parity (PPP) theory holds true for ASEAN countries by using both black market and official exchange rates. We find strong evidence in favour of long-run PPP for six ASEAN countries namely, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Sin...
Understanding the size of the government spending multiplier: It's in the sign
Barnichon, Régis; Matthes, Christian
2016-01-01
Despite intense scrutiny, estimates of the government spending multiplier remain highly uncertain, with values ranging from 0.5 to 2. While an increase in government spending is generally assumed to have the same (mirror-image) effect as a decrease in government spending, we show that relaxing this assumption is important to understand the effects of fiscal policy. Regardless of whether we identify government spending shocks from (i) a narrative approach, or (ii) a timing restr...
Enhanced fuel production in thorium fusion hybrid blankets utilizing uranium multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pitulski, R.H.; Chapin, D.L.; Klevans, E.
1979-01-01
The multiplication of 14 MeV D-T fusion neutrons via (n,2n), (n,3n), and fission reactions by 238 U is well known and established. This study consistently evaluates the effectiveness of a depleted (tails) UO 2 multiplier on increasing the production of 233 U and tritium in a thorium/lithium fusion--fission hybrid blanket. Nuclear performance is evaluated as a function of exposure and zone thickness
Multiplier effects and government assistance to energy megaprojects: An application to Hibernia
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feehan, J.P.; Locke, L.W.
1993-01-01
Energy megaprojects typically require several years to construct and entail substantial costs. These costs, in the forms of employment, capital equipment and material inputs, are sometimes viewed as benefits. Moreover, the expenditures on these inputs can induce further increases in employment and income. On the basis of these project-specific and induced effects, government assistance is sometimes sought. The very limiting circumstances under which such government aid is justified are described. Multiplier effects only become relevant if private expenditure would not otherwise occur in some form in the economy. There are contractionary multiplier effects associated with the imposition of taxes to finance the project, and so the two opposing forces may be largely offsetting. Government assistance can only be justified in the presence of unemployment, and where the multiplier effects are large. When these criteria are applied to the Hibernia project, it is found that the project does not generate employment and income effects that are large relative to the total expenditure, or even relative to the level of federal government assistance. The job creation argument for the justification of government assistance to the Hibernia project is very weak. 18 refs., 1 tab
Inference on the reliability of Weibull distribution with multiply Type-I censored data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia, Xiang; Wang, Dong; Jiang, Ping; Guo, Bo
2016-01-01
In this paper, we focus on the reliability of Weibull distribution under multiply Type-I censoring, which is a general form of Type-I censoring. In multiply Type-I censoring in this study, all units in the life testing experiment are terminated at different times. Reliability estimation with the maximum likelihood estimate of Weibull parameters is conducted. With the delta method and Fisher information, we propose a confidence interval for reliability and compare it with the bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap confidence interval. Furthermore, a scenario involving a few expert judgments of reliability is considered. A method is developed to generate extended estimations of reliability according to the original judgments and transform them to estimations of Weibull parameters. With Bayes theory and the Monte Carlo Markov Chain method, a posterior sample is obtained to compute the Bayes estimate and credible interval for reliability. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrates that the proposed confidence interval outperforms the bootstrap one. The Bayes estimate and credible interval for reliability are both satisfactory. Finally, a real example is analyzed to illustrate the application of the proposed methods. - Highlights: • We focus on reliability of Weibull distribution under multiply Type-I censoring. • The proposed confidence interval for the reliability is superior after comparison. • The Bayes estimates with a few expert judgements on reliability are satisfactory. • We specify the cases where the MLEs do not exist and present methods to remedy it. • The distribution of estimate of reliability should be used for accurate estimate.
Design, implementation and performance comparison of multiplier topologies in power-delay space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mansi Jhamb
2016-03-01
Full Text Available With the advancements in the semiconductor industry, designing a high performance processor is a prime concern. Multiplier is one of the most crucial parts in almost every digital signal processing applications. This paper addresses the implementation of an 8-bit multiplier design employing CMOS full adder, full adder using Double Pass Transistor (DPL and multioutput carry Lookahead logic (CLA. DPL adder avoids the noise margin problem and speed degradation at low value of supply voltages associated with complementary pass transistor (CPL logic circuits. Multioutput carry lookahead adder leads to significant improvement in the speed of the overall circuitry. The investigation is carried out with simulation runs on HSPICE environment using 90 nm process technology at 25 °C. Finally, the design guidelines are derived to select the most suitable topology for the desired applications. Investigation reveals that multiplier design using multioutput carry lookahead adder proves to be more speed efficient in comparison with the other two considered design strategies.
Low rank alternating direction method of multipliers reconstruction for MR fingerprinting.
Assländer, Jakob; Cloos, Martijn A; Knoll, Florian; Sodickson, Daniel K; Hennig, Jürgen; Lattanzi, Riccardo
2018-01-01
The proposed reconstruction framework addresses the reconstruction accuracy, noise propagation and computation time for magnetic resonance fingerprinting. Based on a singular value decomposition of the signal evolution, magnetic resonance fingerprinting is formulated as a low rank (LR) inverse problem in which one image is reconstructed for each singular value under consideration. This LR approximation of the signal evolution reduces the computational burden by reducing the number of Fourier transformations. Also, the LR approximation improves the conditioning of the problem, which is further improved by extending the LR inverse problem to an augmented Lagrangian that is solved by the alternating direction method of multipliers. The root mean square error and the noise propagation are analyzed in simulations. For verification, in vivo examples are provided. The proposed LR alternating direction method of multipliers approach shows a reduced root mean square error compared to the original fingerprinting reconstruction, to a LR approximation alone and to an alternating direction method of multipliers approach without a LR approximation. Incorporating sensitivity encoding allows for further artifact reduction. The proposed reconstruction provides robust convergence, reduced computational burden and improved image quality compared to other magnetic resonance fingerprinting reconstruction approaches evaluated in this study. Magn Reson Med 79:83-96, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Lower-Order Compensation Chain Threshold-Reduction Technique for Multi-Stage Voltage Multipliers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Dell’ Anna
2018-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a novel threshold-compensation technique for multi-stage voltage multipliers employed in low power applications such as passive and autonomous wireless sensing nodes (WSNs powered by energy harvesters. The proposed threshold-reduction technique enables a topological design methodology which, through an optimum control of the trade-off among transistor conductivity and leakage losses, is aimed at maximizing the voltage conversion efficiency (VCE for a given ac input signal and physical chip area occupation. The conducted simulations positively assert the validity of the proposed design methodology, emphasizing the exploitable design space yielded by the transistor connection scheme in the voltage multiplier chain. An experimental validation and comparison of threshold-compensation techniques was performed, adopting 2N5247 N-channel junction field effect transistors (JFETs for the realization of the voltage multiplier prototypes. The attained measurements clearly support the effectiveness of the proposed threshold-reduction approach, which can significantly reduce the chip area occupation for a given target output performance and ac input signal.
Formation of molecules in interstellar clouds from singly and multiply ionized atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langer, W.D.; and NASA, Institute for Space Studies, Goddard Space Flight Center, New York)
1978-01-01
Soft X-ray and cosmic rays produce multiply ionized atoms which may initiate molecule production in interstellar clouds. This molecule production can occur via ion-molecule reactions with H 2 , either directly from the multiply ionized atom (e.g.,C ++ + H 2 →CH + + H + ), or indirectly from the singly ionized atoms (e.g., N + + H 2 →NH + + H) that are formed from the recombination or charge transfer of the highly ionized atom (e.g., N ++ + e→N + + hv). We investigate the contribution of these reactions to the abundances of carbon-, nitrogen-, and oxygen-bearing molecules in isobaric models of diffuse clouds. In the presence of the average flux estimated for the diffuse soft X-ray background, multiply ionized atoms contribute only minimally (a few percent) to carbon-bearing molecules such as CH. In the neighborhood of diffuse structures or discrete sources, however, where the X-ray flux is enhanced, multiple ionization is considerably more important for molecule production
Lower-Order Compensation Chain Threshold-Reduction Technique for Multi-Stage Voltage Multipliers.
Dell' Anna, Francesco; Dong, Tao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Azadmehr, Mehdi; Casu, Mario; Berg, Yngvar
2018-04-17
This paper presents a novel threshold-compensation technique for multi-stage voltage multipliers employed in low power applications such as passive and autonomous wireless sensing nodes (WSNs) powered by energy harvesters. The proposed threshold-reduction technique enables a topological design methodology which, through an optimum control of the trade-off among transistor conductivity and leakage losses, is aimed at maximizing the voltage conversion efficiency (VCE) for a given ac input signal and physical chip area occupation. The conducted simulations positively assert the validity of the proposed design methodology, emphasizing the exploitable design space yielded by the transistor connection scheme in the voltage multiplier chain. An experimental validation and comparison of threshold-compensation techniques was performed, adopting 2N5247 N-channel junction field effect transistors (JFETs) for the realization of the voltage multiplier prototypes. The attained measurements clearly support the effectiveness of the proposed threshold-reduction approach, which can significantly reduce the chip area occupation for a given target output performance and ac input signal.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beucher, J.
2007-10-01
PIM (Parallel Ionization Multiplier) is a multi-stage micro-pattern gaseous detector using micro-meshes technology. This new device, based on Micromegas (micro-mesh gaseous structure) detector principle of operation, offers good characteristics for minimum ionizing particles track detection. However, this kind of detectors placed in hadron environment suffers discharges which degrade sensibly the detection efficiency and account for hazard to the front-end electronics. In order to minimize these strong events, it is convenient to perform charges multiplication by several successive steps. Within the framework of a European hadron physics project we have investigated the multi-stage PIM detector for high hadrons flux application. For this part of research and development, a systematic study for many geometrical configurations of a two amplification stages separated with a transfer space operated with the gaseous mixture Ne + 10% CO 2 has been performed. Beam tests realised with high energy hadrons at CERN facility have given that discharges probability could be strongly reduced with a suitable PIM device. A discharges rate lower to 10 9 by incident hadron and a spatial resolution of 51 μm have been measured at the beginning efficiency plateau (>96 %) operating point. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
V. Baturin; V. Burkert; W. Kim; S. Majewsky; D. Nekrasov; K. Park; V. Popov; E. S. Smith; D. Son; S. S. Stepanyan; C. Zorn
2005-06-01
The CLAS detector will require improvements in its particle identification system to take advantage of the higher energies provided by the Jefferson Laboratory accelerator upgrade to 12 GeV. To this end, we have studied the timing characteristics of the micro-channel plate photo-multiplier 85001 from Burle, which can be operated in a high magnetic field environment. For reference and comparison, measurements were also made using the standard PMT R2083 from Hamamatsu using two timing methods. The cosmic ray method, which utilizes three identical scintillating counters 2cm x 3cm x 50cm with PMs at the ends, yields 59.1(0.7)ps. The location method of particles from radiative source with known coordinates has been used to compare timing resolutions of R2083 and Burle-85001. This ''coordinate method'' requires only one counter instrumented with two PMs and it yields 59.5(0.7)ps. For the micro-channel plate photomultiplier from Burle with an external amplification of 10 to the signals, the co ordinate method yields 130(4)ps. This method also makes it possible to estimate the number of primary photo-electrons.
The impact of locally multiply damaged sites (LMDS) induced by ionizing radiation in mammalian cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Averbeck, D.; Boucher, D.
2006-01-01
Monte Carlo calculations have shown that ionising radiations produce a specific type of clustered cell damage called locally multiply damaged sites or LMDS. These lesions consist of closely positioned single-strand breaks, (oxidative) base damage and DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in between one helical turn of DNA. As specific markers of radiation-induced damage these lesions are likely to condition biological responses and are thus of great interest for radiation protection. Calculations indicate that there should be more LMDS induced by high than by low LET radiation, and they should be absent in un-irradiated cells. Processes like K-shell activation and local Auger electron emission can be expected to add complex DSB or LMDS, producing significant chromosomal damage. In the discussion of the specificity of ionising radiation in comparison to other genotoxic agents, many arguments have been put forward that these lesions should be particularly deleterious for living cells. Complex lesions of that type should represent big obstacles for DNA repair and give rise to high lethality. Moreover, cellular attempts to repair them could accentuate harm, leading to mutations, genetic instability and cancer. In vitro experiments with oligonucleotides containing an artificially introduced set of base damage and SSB in different combinations have shown that depending on the close positioning of the damage on DNA, repair enzymes, and even whole cell extracts, are unable to repair properly and may stimulate mis-repair. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in conjunction with enzymatic treatments has been used to detect LMDS in mammalian cells after high and low LET radiation. In order to further define the importance of LMDS for radiation induced cellular responses, we studied the induction of LMDS as a function of radiation dose and dose rate in mammalian cells (CHO and MRC5) using 137 Cs gamma-radiation. Using PFGE and specific glycosylases to convert oxidative damage into
The impact of locally multiply damaged sites (LMDS) induced by ionizing radiation in mammalian cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Averbeck, D.; Boucher, D. [Institut Curie-Section de Recherche, UMR2027 CNRS, LCR-V28 du CEA, Centre Universitaire, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)
2006-07-01
Monte Carlo calculations have shown that ionising radiations produce a specific type of clustered cell damage called locally multiply damaged sites or LMDS. These lesions consist of closely positioned single-strand breaks, (oxidative) base damage and DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in between one helical turn of DNA. As specific markers of radiation-induced damage these lesions are likely to condition biological responses and are thus of great interest for radiation protection. Calculations indicate that there should be more LMDS induced by high than by low LET radiation, and they should be absent in un-irradiated cells. Processes like K-shell activation and local Auger electron emission can be expected to add complex DSB or LMDS, producing significant chromosomal damage. In the discussion of the specificity of ionising radiation in comparison to other genotoxic agents, many arguments have been put forward that these lesions should be particularly deleterious for living cells. Complex lesions of that type should represent big obstacles for DNA repair and give rise to high lethality. Moreover, cellular attempts to repair them could accentuate harm, leading to mutations, genetic instability and cancer. In vitro experiments with oligonucleotides containing an artificially introduced set of base damage and SSB in different combinations have shown that depending on the close positioning of the damage on DNA, repair enzymes, and even whole cell extracts, are unable to repair properly and may stimulate mis-repair. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in conjunction with enzymatic treatments has been used to detect LMDS in mammalian cells after high and low LET radiation. In order to further define the importance of LMDS for radiation induced cellular responses, we studied the induction of LMDS as a function of radiation dose and dose rate in mammalian cells (CHO and MRC5) using {sup 137}Cs gamma-radiation. Using PFGE and specific glycosylases to convert oxidative damage
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.
2007-01-01
An inverse response matrix converts the observed pulse-height distribution of a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector to a photon spectrum. This also results in extraction of intensity distribution of multiply scattered events originating from interactions of 0.279 MeV photons with thick targets of soldering material. The observed pulse-height distributions are a composite of singly and multiply scattered events in addition to bremmstrahlung-and Rayleigh-scattered events. To evaluate the contribution of multiply scattered events, the spectrum of singly scattered events contributing to inelastic Compton peak is reconstructed analytically. The optimum thickness (saturation depth), at which the number of multiply scattered events saturates, has been measured. Monte Carlo calculations also support the present results
Shyu, H. C.; Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Chang, J. J.
1987-01-01
A quadratic-polynomial Fermat residue number system (QFNS) has been used to compute complex integer multiplications. The advantage of such a QFNS is that a complex integer multiplication requires only two integer multiplications. In this article, a new type Fermat number multiplier is developed which eliminates the initialization condition of the previous method. It is shown that the new complex multiplier can be implemented on a single VLSI chip. Such a chip is designed and fabricated in CMOS-Pw technology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zavodnik, L.B.; Buko, V.U.
2009-01-01
The aim of the work was the studying the effect of multiply low doses of gamma-irradiation in a total doze 1 and 2 Gy on processes lipid peroxidation and xenobiotics metabolizing in rat liver. It was shown the multiply irradiation causes the expressed activation of lipid peroxidation, by increase of TBARS level and dien conjugates. The system of microsomal oxidations was broken at the same time. (authors)
PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS STUDIES OF TURBULENCE IN OPTICALLY THICK GAS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Correia, C.; Medeiros, J. R. De [Departamento de Física Teórica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal (Brazil); Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 475 N. Charter St., WI 53711 (United States); Burkhart, B. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, MS-20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Pogosyan, D., E-mail: caioftc@dfte.ufrn.br [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada)
2016-02-20
In this work we investigate the sensitivity of principal component analysis (PCA) to the velocity power spectrum in high-opacity regimes of the interstellar medium (ISM). For our analysis we use synthetic position–position–velocity (PPV) cubes of fractional Brownian motion and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, post-processed to include radiative transfer effects from CO. We find that PCA analysis is very different from the tools based on the traditional power spectrum of PPV data cubes. Our major finding is that PCA is also sensitive to the phase information of PPV cubes and this allows PCA to detect the changes of the underlying velocity and density spectra at high opacities, where the spectral analysis of the maps provides the universal −3 spectrum in accordance with the predictions of the Lazarian and Pogosyan theory. This makes PCA a potentially valuable tool for studies of turbulence at high opacities, provided that proper gauging of the PCA index is made. However, we found the latter to not be easy, as the PCA results change in an irregular way for data with high sonic Mach numbers. This is in contrast to synthetic Brownian noise data used for velocity and density fields that show monotonic PCA behavior. We attribute this difference to the PCA's sensitivity to Fourier phase information.
PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS STUDIES OF TURBULENCE IN OPTICALLY THICK GAS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correia, C.; Medeiros, J. R. De; Lazarian, A.; Burkhart, B.; Pogosyan, D.
2016-01-01
In this work we investigate the sensitivity of principal component analysis (PCA) to the velocity power spectrum in high-opacity regimes of the interstellar medium (ISM). For our analysis we use synthetic position–position–velocity (PPV) cubes of fractional Brownian motion and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, post-processed to include radiative transfer effects from CO. We find that PCA analysis is very different from the tools based on the traditional power spectrum of PPV data cubes. Our major finding is that PCA is also sensitive to the phase information of PPV cubes and this allows PCA to detect the changes of the underlying velocity and density spectra at high opacities, where the spectral analysis of the maps provides the universal −3 spectrum in accordance with the predictions of the Lazarian and Pogosyan theory. This makes PCA a potentially valuable tool for studies of turbulence at high opacities, provided that proper gauging of the PCA index is made. However, we found the latter to not be easy, as the PCA results change in an irregular way for data with high sonic Mach numbers. This is in contrast to synthetic Brownian noise data used for velocity and density fields that show monotonic PCA behavior. We attribute this difference to the PCA's sensitivity to Fourier phase information
Kumar Kailasa, Suresh; Hasan, Nazim; Wu, Hui-Fen
2012-08-15
The development of liquid nitrogen assisted spray ionization mass spectrometry (LNASI MS) for the analysis of multiply charged proteins (insulin, ubiquitin, cytochrome c, α-lactalbumin, myoglobin and BSA), peptides (glutathione, HW6, angiotensin-II and valinomycin) and amino acid (arginine) clusters is described. The charged droplets are formed by liquid nitrogen assisted sample spray through a stainless steel nebulizer and transported into mass analyzer for the identification of multiply charged protein ions. The effects of acids and modifier volumes for the efficient ionization of the above analytes in LNASI MS were carefully investigated. Multiply charged proteins and amino acid clusters were effectively identified by LNASI MS. The present approach can effectively detect the multiply charged states of cytochrome c at 400 nM. A comparison between LNASI and ESI, CSI, SSI and V-EASI methods on instrumental conditions, applied temperature and observed charge states for the multiply charged proteins, shows that the LNASI method produces the good quality spectra of amino acid clusters at ambient conditions without applied any electric field and heat. To date, we believe that the LNASI method is the most simple, low cost and provided an alternative paradigm for production of multiply charged ions by LNASI MS, just as ESI-like ions yet no need for applying any electrical field and it could be operated at low temperature for generation of highly charged protein/peptide ions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Shape Analysis of Planar Multiply-Connected Objects Using Conformal Welding.
Lok Ming Lui; Wei Zeng; Shing-Tung Yau; Xianfeng Gu
2014-07-01
Shape analysis is a central problem in the field of computer vision. In 2D shape analysis, classification and recognition of objects from their observed silhouettes are extremely crucial but difficult. It usually involves an efficient representation of 2D shape space with a metric, so that its mathematical structure can be used for further analysis. Although the study of 2D simply-connected shapes has been subject to a corpus of literatures, the analysis of multiply-connected shapes is comparatively less studied. In this work, we propose a representation for general 2D multiply-connected domains with arbitrary topologies using conformal welding. A metric can be defined on the proposed representation space, which gives a metric to measure dissimilarities between objects. The main idea is to map the exterior and interior of the domain conformally to unit disks and circle domains (unit disk with several inner disks removed), using holomorphic 1-forms. A set of diffeomorphisms of the unit circle S(1) can be obtained, which together with the conformal modules are used to define the shape signature. A shape distance between shape signatures can be defined to measure dissimilarities between shapes. We prove theoretically that the proposed shape signature uniquely determines the multiply-connected objects under suitable normalization. We also introduce a reconstruction algorithm to obtain shapes from their signatures. This completes our framework and allows us to move back and forth between shapes and signatures. With that, a morphing algorithm between shapes can be developed through the interpolation of the Beltrami coefficients associated with the signatures. Experiments have been carried out on shapes extracted from real images. Results demonstrate the efficacy of our proposed algorithm as a stable shape representation scheme.
Analyzing the changing gender wage gap based on multiply imputed right censored wages
Gartner, Hermann; Rässler, Susanne
2005-01-01
"In order to analyze the gender wage gap with the German IAB-employment register we have to solve the problem of censored wages at the upper limit of the social security system. We treat this problem as a missing data problem. We regard the missingness mechanism as not missing at random (NMAR, according to Little and Rubin, 1987, 2002) as well as missing by design. The censored wages are multiply imputed by draws of a random variable from a truncated distribution. The multiple imputation is b...
Analyzing the changing gender wage gap based on multiply inputed right censored wages
Gartner, Hermann; Rässler, Susanne
2005-01-01
In order to analyze the gender wage gap with the German IAB-employment sample we have to solve the problem of censored wages at the upper limit of the social security system. We treat this problem as a missing data problem. We regard the missingness mechanism as not missing at random (NMAR, according to Little and Rubin, 1987, 2002) as well as missing by design. The censored wages are multiply imputed by draws of a random variable from a truncated distribution. The multiple imputation is base...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakajo, T [Department of Mathematics, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Sawamura, Y; Yokoyama, T, E-mail: sakajo@math.kyoto-u.ac.jp [JST CREST, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012 (Japan)
2014-06-01
This study considers the flow of incompressible and inviscid fluid in two-dimensional multiply connected domains. For such flows, encoding algorithms to assign a unique sequence of words to any structurally stable streamline topology based on the theory presented by Yokoyama and Sakajo (2013 Proc. R. Soc. A 469 20120558) are proposed. As an application, we utilize the algorithms to characterize the evolution of an incompressible and viscid flow around a flat plate inclined to the uniform flow in terms of the change of the word representations for their instantaneous streamline topologies. (papers)
Silicon photo-multiplier radiation hardness tests with a beam controlled neutron source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Faccini, R.; Pinci, D.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Malaguti, R.; Pozzati, M.
2010-01-01
Radiation hardness tests were performed at the Frascati Neutron Generator on silicon Photo-Multipliers that were made of semiconductor photon detectors built from a square matrix of avalanche photo-diodes on a silicon substrate. Several samples from different manufacturers have been irradiated, integrating up to 7x10 10 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm 2 . Detector performance was recorded during the neutron irradiation, and a gradual deterioration of their properties began after an integrated fluence of the order of 10 8 1-MeV-equivalent neutrons per cm 2 was reached.
The Early Exercise Premium Representation for American Options on Multiply Assets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klimsiak, Tomasz; Rozkosz, Andrzej
2016-01-01
In the paper we consider the problem of valuation of American options written on dividend-paying assets whose price dynamics follow the classical multidimensional Black and Scholes model. We provide a general early exercise premium representation formula for options with payoff functions which are convex or satisfy mild regularity assumptions. Examples include index options, spread options, call on max options, put on min options, multiply strike options and power-product options. In the proof of the formula we exploit close connections between the optimal stopping problems associated with valuation of American options, obstacle problems and reflected backward stochastic differential equations
Extension of meshless Galerkin/Petrov-Galerkin approach without using Lagrange multipliers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamitani, Atsushi; Takayama, Teruou; Itoh, Taku; Nakamura, Hiroaki
2011-01-01
By directly discretizing the weak form used in the finite element method, meshless methods have been derived. Neither the Lagrange multiplier method nor the penalty method is employed in the derivation of the methods. The resulting methods are divided into two groups, depending on whether the discretization is based on the Galerkin or the Petrov-Galerkin approach. Each group is further subdivided into two groups, according to the method for imposing the essential boundary condition. Hence, four types of the meshless methods have been formulated. The accuracy of these methods is illustrated for two-dimensional Poisson problems. (author)
DCXE, Time-Dependent Xe Diffusion in Non-Multiplying Slab
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horikami, K.; Kawasaki, S.
1969-01-01
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Programme DCXE was designed for the analysis of the diffusion phenomena of xenon in non-multiplying media (slab geometry) and solves the Fick's second diffusion equation with boundary conditions. Initial distribution of xenon in the media at time 0 and 0 value of distribution at both ends of media at any positive time. 2 - Method of solution: Difference approximation is used to solve Fick's second diffusion equation. Strict stability condition is chosen between time and spatial intervals
Recent measurements on the Hamamatsu 13 in., R8055, PhotoMultiplier Tubes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsagli, S.; Aggouras, G.; Anassontzis, E.G.; Ball, A.E.; Chinowsky, W.; Fahrun, E.; Grammatikakis, G.; Green, C.; Grieder, P.; Katrivanos, P.; Koske, P.; Ludvig, J.; Markopoulos, E.; Minkowsky, P.; Nygren, D.; Papageorgiou, K.; Przybylski, G.; Resvanis, L.K.; Siotis, I.; Sopher, J.; Staveris, T.; Tsagli, V.; Zhukov, V.A.
2006-01-01
The key component of NESTOR, the deep-sea Cherenkov neutrino telescope, built in the Mediterranean, NW of Greece, is the optical module. The NESTOR Optical Module employs a PhotoMultiplier Tube (PMT) in a transparent glass pressure housing. The Hamamatsu PMT R8055-01, 13 in. photomultiplier was selected for NESTOR to replace the old 15'' Hamamatsu PMTs (R2018-03). Extensive tests have been made on the sensitivity, uniformity, time resolution and noise rates of 162 R8055-01 13 in. PMTs
DCXE, Time-Dependent Xe Diffusion in Non-Multiplying Slab
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Horikami, K; Kawasaki, S [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)
1969-01-01
1 - Nature of physical problem solved: Programme DCXE was designed for the analysis of the diffusion phenomena of xenon in non-multiplying media (slab geometry) and solves the Fick's second diffusion equation with boundary conditions. Initial distribution of xenon in the media at time 0 and 0 value of distribution at both ends of media at any positive time. 2 - Method of solution: Difference approximation is used to solve Fick's second diffusion equation. Strict stability condition is chosen between time and spatial intervals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.
1990-04-01
We consider the motion of free relativistic particles in multiply connected spaces. We show that if one of the spatial dimensions has the topology of a circle then the D dimensional spacetime is compactified to D-1 dimensions and the particle mass increases by an amount which is proportional to a quantum phase factor and inversely proportional to the radius of the circle. We also consider the relativistic Aharonov-Bohm effect and we show that the interference pattern is a universal characteristic due only to the topological properties of the experimental situation and not to the intrinsic properties of the particle. The propagators are calculated in both situations. (author) [pt
Electronic zero-point oscillations in the strong-interaction limit of density functional theory
Gori Giorgi, P.; Vignale, G.; Seidl, M.
2009-01-01
The exchange-correlation energy in Kohn-Sham density functional theory can be expressed exactly in terms of the change in the expectation of the electron-electron repulsion operator when, in the many-electron Hamiltonian, this same operator is multiplied by a real parameter λ varying between 0
Maximum entropy theory of recoil charge distributions in electron-capture collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aberg, T.; Blomberg, A.; Tulkki, J.; Goscinski, O.
1984-01-01
A generalized Fermi-Dirac distribution is derived and applied to charge-state distributions in single collisions between multiply charged ions and rare-gas atoms. It relates multiple electron loss in single-electron capture to multiple ionization in multiphoton absorption and discloses inner-shell vacancy formation in double- and triple-electron capture
Qing, Guangyan; Lu, Qi; Li, Xiuling; Liu, Jing; Ye, Mingliang; Liang, Xinmiao; Sun, Taolei
2017-09-06
Multisite phosphorylation is an important and common mechanism for finely regulating protein functions and subsequent cellular responses. However, this study is largely restricted by the difficulty to capture low-abundance multiply phosphorylated peptides (MPPs) from complex biosamples owing to the limitation of enrichment materials and their interactions with phosphates. Here we show that smart polymer can serve as an ideal platform to resolve this challenge. Driven by specific but tunable hydrogen bonding interactions, the smart polymer displays differential complexation with MPPs, singly phosphorylated and non-modified peptides. Importantly, MPP binding can be modulated conveniently and precisely by solution conditions, resulting in highly controllable MPP adsorption on material surface. This facilitates excellent performance in MPP enrichment and separation from model proteins and real biosamples. High enrichment selectivity and coverage, extraordinary adsorption capacities and recovery towards MPPs, as well as high discovery rates of unique phosphorylation sites, suggest its great potential in phosphoproteomics studies.Capture of low-abundance multiply phosphorylated peptides (MPPs) is difficult due to limitation of enrichment materials and their interactions with phosphates. Here the authors show, a smart polymer driven by specific but tunable hydrogen bonding interactions can differentially complex with MPPs, singly phosphorylated and non-modified peptides.
IMPORT COMPONENTS AND IMPORT MULTIPLIERS IN INDONESIAN ECONOMY: WORLD INPUT-OUTPUT ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muchdie Muchdie
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This paper calculates, presents and discusses on import components and the impact of final demand change on Indonesian imports using Indonesian 36 sector input-output tables of years: 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014 from World Input-Output Tables. The results showed that firstly, Indonesian import components of input were, on average, more than 20 percent; meaning that input that locally provided were less than 80 percent. Secondly, Indonesian import of input had increased significantly from US$ 36,011 million in 2000 to US$ 151,505 million in 2014. Thirdly, Indonesian imports have been dominated by Sector-3: Manufacture of food products, beverages and tobacco products, Sector-4: Manufacture of textiles, wearing apparel and leather products, Sector-24: Construction, Sector-25: Wholesale and retail trade and repair, and Sector-26: Transportation and post services. Fourthly, by country of origin, Indonesian imports have been dominated by Japan, Korea, the USA, Australia, and China. Imports from Australia, Japan, and the US have been decreased significantly, but import from China has steadily increased. Finally, highest sectoral import multipliers occurred if final demands change in Sector-1: Crop and animal production, forestry, fishing and aquaculture, Sector-2: Mining and quarrying, Sector-23: Water collection; sewerage; waste collection, treatment and disposal activities, and Sector-30: Real estate activities, but there was no significant difference of import multipliers for country origin of import.
Aiding the search: Examining individual differences in multiply-constrained problem solving.
Ellis, Derek M; Brewer, Gene A
2018-07-01
Understanding and resolving complex problems is of vital importance in daily life. Problems can be defined by the limitations they place on the problem solver. Multiply-constrained problems are traditionally examined with the compound remote associates task (CRAT). Performance on the CRAT is partially dependent on an individual's working memory capacity (WMC). These findings suggest that executive processes are critical for problem solving and that there are reliable individual differences in multiply-constrained problem solving abilities. The goals of the current study are to replicate and further elucidate the relation between WMC and CRAT performance. To achieve these goals, we manipulated preexposure to CRAT solutions and measured WMC with complex-span tasks. In Experiment 1, we report evidence that preexposure to CRAT solutions improved problem solving accuracy, WMC was correlated with problem solving accuracy, and that WMC did not moderate the effect of preexposure on problem solving accuracy. In Experiment 2, we preexposed participants to correct and incorrect solutions. We replicated Experiment 1 and found that WMC moderates the effect of exposure to CRAT solutions such that high WMC participants benefit more from preexposure to correct solutions than low WMC (although low WMC participants have preexposure benefits as well). Broadly, these results are consistent with theories of working memory and problem solving that suggest a mediating role of attention control processes. Published by Elsevier Inc.
A high linearity current mode multiplier/divider with a wide dynamic range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao Pengfei; Luo Ping; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji
2012-01-01
A high linearity current mode multiplier/divider (CMM/D) with a wide dynamic range is presented. The proposed CMM/D is based on the voltage—current characteristic of the diode, thus wide dynamic range is achieved. In addition, high linearity is achieved because high accuracy current mirrors are adopted and the output current is insensitive to the temperature and device parameters of the fabrication process. Furthermore, no extra bias current for all input signals is required and thus power saving is realized. With proper selection of establishing the input terminal, the proposed circuit can perform as a multifunction circuit to be operated as a multiplier/divider, without changing its topology. The proposed circuit is implemented in a 0.25 μm BCD process and the chip area is 0.26 × 0.24 mm 2 . The simulation and measurement results show that the maximum static linearity error is ±1.8% and the total harmonic distortion is 0.4% while the input current ranges from 0 to 200 μA. (semiconductor integrated circuits)
Tomaschitz, R
1994-01-01
We investigate scattering effects in open Robertson-Walker cosmologies whose spacelike slices are multiply connected hyperbolic manifolds. We work out an example in which the 3-space is infinite and has the topology of a solid torus. The world-lines in these cosmologies are unstable, and classical probability densities evolving under the horospherical geodesic flow show dispersion, as do the densities of scalar wave packets. The rate of dispersion depends crucially on the expansion factor, and we calculate the time evolution of their widths. We find that the cosmic expansion can confine dispersion: The diameter of the domain of chaoticity in the 3-manifold provides the natural, time-dependent length unit in an infinite, multiply connected universe. In a toroidal 3-space manifold this diameter is just the length of the limit cycle. On this scale we find that the densities take a finite limit width in the late stage of the expansion. In the early stage classical densities and conformally coupled fields approach...
Kang, Sonia K; Chasteen, Alison L; Cadieux, Jonathan; Cary, Lindsey A; Syeda, Maisha
2014-09-01
Individuals can be simultaneously categorized into multiple social groups (e.g., racial, gender, age), and stereotypes about one social group may conflict with another. Two such conflicting stereotype sets are those associated with older adults (e.g., frail, kind) and with Black people (e.g., violent, hostile). Recent research shows that young adult perceivers evaluate elderly Black men more positively than young Black men, suggesting that components of the elderly stereotype moderate the influence of conflicting Black stereotypes (Kang & Chasteen, 2009). The current research begins to examine whether this pattern of perceiving multiply-categorizable individuals is maintained among older adults or altered, perhaps due to aging-related cognitive and motivational changes. In three studies using different targets and evaluative tasks, both young and older participants showed evidence of an interplay between Black and elderly stereotypes, such that they perceived elderly Black targets more positively than young Black targets. A similar pattern was observed when assessing emotion change (Study 1), making ratings of warmth and power in the past, present, and future (Study 2), and when directly comparing young and old Black and White targets on traits related to warmth and power (Study 3). The absence of age differences suggests that evaluation of multiply-categorizable targets follows comparable underlying patterns of stereotype activation and inhibition in younger and older adults. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Enhanced ground bounce noise reduction in a low-leakage CMOS multiplier
Verma, Bipin Kumar; Akashe, Shyam; Sharma, Sanjay
2015-09-01
In this paper, various parameters are used to reduce leakage power, leakage current and noise margin of circuits to enhance their performance. A multiplier is proposed with low-leakage current and low ground bounce noise for the microprocessor, digital signal processors (DSP) and graphics engines. The ground bounce noise problem appears when a conventional power-gating circuit transits from sleep-to-active mode. This paper discusses a reduction in leakage current in the stacking power-gating technique by three modes - sleep, active and sleep-to-active. The simulation results are performed on a 4 × 4 carry-save multiplier for leakage current, active power, leakage power and ground bounce noise, and comparison made for different nanoscales. Ground bounce noise is limited to 90%. The leakage current of the circuit is decimated up to 80% and the active power is reduced to 31%. We performed simulations using cadence virtuoso 180 and 45 nm at room temperature at various supply voltages.
THEORY AND PRACTICE IN THE WORKSHOP OF EXPRESSION VISUAL-GRAPHICS FOR MULTIPLIERS - DAC / UFSC.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Perassi Sousa
2010-12-01
Full Text Available This paper presents theoretical reasons and procedures that structure the practices of free artistic expression in working with adolescents and adults. The goal is to identify and justify the theory, pedagogical methods and the practical activities developed with the multipliers for the release of graphic and plastic expression, as an exercise in personal expression within a social context. The method adopted provides a theoretical justification and development activities of artistic expression-visual graph, as a field of significant interaction between subject and his inner universe. These activities are motivated by the need for expression, which is inherent in human beings, requiring the participants' ministrator and planning and organization. Therefore, beyond the scope of self-expressive, the proposed activities serve as the organizing principle subject to significant social and working life. Here are the relevant issues included the theoretical and practical theories "Free Expression" and "Education through Art." The procedures described here were developed with teachers, artists and other participants of "Workshop of expression visual-graphics for multipliers" held at the Departamento de Arte e Cultura (DAC / UFSC within the Project Arte na Escola in the years 2008 and 2009.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gujar, R.B.; Ansari, S.A.; Mohapatra, P.K.; Verboom, W.
2016-01-01
Solvent extraction studies with multiply diglycolamide-functionalized extractants such as tripodal diglycolamide (T-DGA) or diglycolamide-functionalized calix(4)arene (C4DGA) ligands have shown excellent results as compared to those of normal DGA ligands such as TODGA. A very high selectivity for Am(III) has been reported with these ligands with respect to U(VI) and Pu(IV). High selectivities and large extraction efficiencies of these ligands towards trivalent f elements were ascribed to a co-operative complexation mechanism. Furthermore, the extraction efficiency of these ligands increased several folds in ionic liquid medium as compared to paraffinic solvents. It was of interest, therefore, to prepare extraction chromatographic resins by impregnation of solvent systems containing these ligands in an ionic liquid. In the present work, solid phase extraction studies were carried out using these two multiply diglycolamide-functionalized extractants, viz. T-DGA (resin I) and C4DGA (resin-II) containing the ionic liquid C 4 mim. NTf 2 impregnated on Chromosorb-W
Investigation of lanthanides as neutron multipliers for hybrid and fusion reactor blankets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahin, Sumer
1982-01-01
The neutronic performance of three lanthanides ( 149 Sm, europium, and gadolinium) as neutron multiplier for the blanket of a fusion-fission (hybrid) and a pure fusion reactor has been evaluated and compared with that of beryllium and lead. During the calculations, the fission zone is made up of UO 2 rods from the LOTUS experimental hybrid facility now under construction at the Nuclear Engineering Laboratory of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne. In fusion blanket the fuel zone is replaced by pure lithium. The calculations were performed for two different boundary conditions for the left boundary: (a) reflecting, representative of a typical confinement geometry, and (b) vacuum, which represents a typical blanket experiment in plane geometry. For a vacuum left boundary, threshold reactions are reduced by a factor of about 2 while 1/v-type reactions are decreased by a factor of between 5 and 10, as a consequence of the softer spectrum produced by a reflecting left boundary. In general, the results, notably tritium breeding and energy multiplication, are comparable for the lanthanide multipliers and for beryllium and lead if the left boundary is a vacuum. The use of 149 Sm is slightly less effective than europium or gadolinium and all of the lanthanides perform better for a vacuum left boundary than for the reflecting case. The analyses presented here also illustrate the importance of potential spectral shifts that can occur as the result of experimental exigencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burdisso, R.A.; Singh, M.P.
1987-01-01
The results indicate that various ad hoc approaches used for calculating the dynamic and pseudo static responses of a multiply supported secondary system do not provide the correct estimates of the response. The approaches can under- or over-estimate the true response. Also, the contribution of the dynamic, pseudo static responses to the total response is likely to vary with the type of response, member in which the response is calculated, characteristics of the two systems and the input. No generalizations can be made about the relative contribution of these components. Furthermore, the contribution of the correlation between the dynamic and pseudo static response component to the total response can be very significant. It can not be correctly included by the currently used approximate rules for the combination of dynamic and pseudo static responses. In summary, to obtain the correct response for a multiply supported secondary system, one must use proper inputs at the support as well as employ analytically rational approach to calculate the response from the inputs. (orig./HP)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudha Ellison Mathe
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Multiplication in finite fields is used in many applications, especially in cryptography. It is a basic and the most computationally intensive operation from among all such operations. Several systolic multipliers are proposed in the literature that offer low hardware complexity or high speed. In this paper, a bit‐parallel polynomial basis systolic multiplier for generic irreducible polynomials is proposed based on a modified interleaved multiplication method. The hardware complexity and delay of the proposed multiplier are estimated, and a comparison with the corresponding multipliers available in the literature is presented. Of the corresponding multipliers, the proposed multiplier achieves a reduction in the hardware complexity of up to 20% when compared to the best multiplier for m = 163. The synthesis results of application‐specific integrated circuit and field‐programmable gate array implementations of the proposed multiplier are also presented. From the synthesis results, it is inferred that the proposed multiplier achieves low power consumption and low area complexitywhen compared to the best of the corresponding multipliers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bedilov, M.R.; Bedilov, R.M.; Beysembaeva, H.B.; Sabitov, M.S.; Kamalova, J.O.
2006-01-01
Full text: The results of study features of formation multiply charged ions spectra of single-component solids depending on a target element composition in an interval of laser radiation power density q = 10 7 / 10 12 W/cm 2 with using of the laser multiply charged mass spectrometer [1] are given in this work. As single-component targets are used Be, B, C, Al, Ti, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Ag, Ta, W, Pt, Au as tablets in diameter of 10 mm and thickness of 3-5 mm. Analysis of the obtained mass-charge and energy spectra of multiply charged ions depending on a target element composition has allowed us to find features of formation spectra and escape multiply charged ions of a single-component targets. These features consist in characteristic changes: a threshold produced of ions; formation of mass-charge and energy spectra of multiply charged ions; nonlinear dependence of maximal charge number (Z max ) of ions from power density (q) of the laser; etc. Experimentally it was found that, with target atomic weight increase, threshold power of ions occurrence, nonlinearity ionization target structure, and intensity of ions, and energy spectra of ions increase. Let's note that, in case of targets Be, B, C, Al by laser radiation it is completely ionized and multiply charged ions and nuclei Be 4+ , B 5+ , C 6+ , Al 13+ are formed. The major level of ionization is attained in case of targets from Ti (Ti 17+ ) and Co (Co 18+ ). It is peculiar that structure formation and escape of multiply charged ion flows with Z max and nuclei depending on target element composition corresponds to various maximal values q of the laser. Increase of the maximal charge number of ions (atoms) observed with increase q of the laser for all investigated targets has nonlinear dependence in various levels that is especially shown beginning from q≥ 10 11 W/cm 2 . It is found that depending on target element composition multiply charged ions have a wide energy range with a maximum of allocation. With increase
Electron emission from materials at low excitation energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Urma, N.; Kijek, M.; Millar, J.J.
1996-01-01
Full text: An experimental system has been designed and developed with the purpose of measuring the total electron emission yield from materials at low energy excitation. In the first instance the reliability of the system was checked by measuring the total electron emission yield for a well defined surface (aluminium 99.45%). The obtained data was in the expected range given by the literature, and consequently the system will be used further for measuring the total electron yield for a range of materials with interest in the instrumentation industry. We intend to measure the total electron emission yield under electron bombardment as a function of incident electron energy up to 1200 eV, angle of incidence, state of the surface and environment to which the surface has been exposed. Dependence of emission on total electron irradiated dose is also of interest. For many practical application of the 'Secondary Electron Emission', the total electron yield is desired to be as large as possible. The above phenomenon has practical applicability in electron multiplier tube and Scanning electron microscopy - when by means of the variation of the yield of the emitted electrons one may produce visible images of small sample areas. The electron multiplier tube, is a device which utilises the above effect to detect and amplify both single particles and low currents streams of charged particles. The majority of electron tubes use electrons with low energy, hundreds of eV. Not a lot has been published in the literature about this regime and also about the emission when the impinging electrons have small energy, up to 1 KeV. The information obtained from the experimental measurements concerning the total electron emission yield is used to asses the investigated materials as a potential electron emitting surfaces or dynodes in an electron multiplier tube
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goswami, Kavita; Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kumar, Tanesh
2017-01-01
and that eventually decrease power dissipation of wireless communications systems. In order to study the effect of different process technology (40, 65, 90 nm) on our design, a novel design is implemented on 40, 65 and 90 nm based FPGA. In this work, we are integrating thermal aware design approach for energy......This paper deals with low power multiplier design that plays a significant role in green wireless communications systems. Over the period of time, researchers have proposed various multiplier designs in order to get high speed. Vedic multiplier is considered as one of the low power multiplier along...... with high speed as compared with traditional array and booth multipliers. Vedic Multiplier contains a total of sixteen algorithms/sutras for predominantly logical operations. This research focuses on thermal aspects and energy efficiency of wireless communications systems with the thermal aware low power...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Purav M. Badani
2011-12-01
Full Text Available Present work reports significantly high levels of ionization, eventually leading to Coulomb explosion of Tetramethyl silane (TMS clusters, on interaction with laser pulses of intensity ∼109 W/cm2. Tetramethyl silane clusters, prepared by supersonic expansion were photoionized at 266, 355 or 532 nm and the resultant ions were detected using time-of-flight mass spectrometer. It is observed that wavelength of irradiation and the size of the cluster are crucial parameters which drastically affect the nature of charge species generated upon photoionization of cluster. The results show that clusters absorb significantly higher energy from the laser field at longer wavelengths (532 nm and generate multiply charged silicon and carbon ions which have large kinetic energies. Further, laser-cluster interaction at different wavelengths has been quantified and charge densities at 266, 355 and 532 nm are found to be 4x 1010, 5x 1010 and 5x 1011 charges/cm3 respectively. These unusual results have been rationalized based on dominance of secondary ionization processes at 532 nm ultimately leading to Coulomb explosion of clusters. In another set of experiments, multiply charged ions of Ar (up to +5 state and Kr (up to +6 state were observed when TMS doped inert gas clusters were photoionized at 532 and 355 nm. The extent of energy absorption at these two wavelengths is clearly manifested from the charge state of the atomic ions generated upon Coulomb disintegration of the doped cluster. These experiments thus demonstrate a novel method for generation of multiply charged atomic ions of inert gases at laser intensity of ∼ 109 W/cm2. The average size of the cluster exhibiting Coulomb explosion phenomena under giga watt intensity conditions has been estimated to be ∼ 6 nm. Experimental results obtained in the present work agree qualitatively with the model proposed earlier [D. Niu, H. Li, F. Liang, L. Wen, X. Luo, B. Wang, and H. Qu, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 151103
Optimized GF(2k) ONB type I multiplier architecture based on the Massey-Omura multiplication pattern
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fournaris, A P; Koufopavlou, O
2005-01-01
Multiplication in GF(2 k ) finite fields is becoming rapidly a very promising solution for fast, small, efficient binary algorithms designed for hardware applications. GF(2 k ) finite fields defined over optimal normal bases (ONB) can be very advantageous in term of gates number and multiplication time delay. Many ONB multipliers works have been proposed that use the Massey-Omura multiplication pattern. In this paper, a method for designing type I optimal normal basis multipliers and an optimal normal basis (ONB) type I multiplier hardware architecture is proposed that, through parallelism and pairing categorization of the ONB multiplication table matrix, achieves very interesting results in terms of gate number and multiplication time delay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, Gurvinderjit; Singh, Manpreet; Singh, Bhajan; Sandhu, B.S.
2006-01-01
The gamma photons continue to soften in energy as the number of scatterings increases in the sample having finite dimensions both in depth and lateral dimensions. The number of multiply scattered photons increases with an increase in target thickness and saturates at a particular value of the target thickness known as saturation depth. The present experiment is undertaken to study the effect of atomic number of the target on saturation depth of 0.662 MeV incident gamma photons multiply scattered from targets of various thicknesses. The scattered photons are detected by an HPGe gamma detector placed at 90 o to the incident beam direction. We observe that with an increase in target thickness, the number of multiply scattered photons also increases and saturates at a particular value of the target thickness. The saturation depth decreases with increasing atomic number. The double Compton scattered peak is also observed in the experimental spectra
A new approach to obtaining the roots of the dispersion equation for slab geometry multiplying media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silva, Davi J.M.; Barros, Ricardo C.; Alves Filho, Hermes
2013-01-01
In this work we describe an alternative approach for obtaining the roots of the dispersion equation. For the mathematical model, we used the slab-geometry neutron transport equation in the discrete ordinates (S N ), formulation, considering isotropic scattering and monoenergetic model. The basic idea is to find a basis for the kernel of the S N differential operator, whose elements are exponential eigenfunctions corresponding to distinct eigenvalues which are the roots of the dispersion equation. That strategy yields a gain in programming computational codes, including the strategy used to obtain the purely imaginary eigenvalues and their associated complex eigenfunctions, that appear in the spectral analysis of the S N equations in multiplying media. These eigenvalues and corresponding eigenfunctions are used to obtain the parameters of the auxiliary equations of the spectral nodal methods, e.g., the spectral diamond (SD) auxiliary equation. (author)
Dahya, Kevin
2004-01-01
Analysis of GLAST ACD Photo-Multiplier Tube (PMT) assembly under thermal loading demonstrates that the glass tube experiences high stresses due to Coefficient of Thermal Expansion mismatch, as well as increased stress due to high stiffness and incompressibility of potting compound. Further investigation shows adverse loading effects due to the magnetic shield, a thin piece of steel wrapped around the PMT. This steel, Mu Metal, contained an overlap region that directly attributed to crack propagation in the outside surface of the tube. Sensitivities to different configurations were studied to reduce the stress and provide a more uniform loading throughout the PMT to ensure mission success. Studies indicate substituting a softer and more compressible potting compound and moving the Mu metal from the glass tube to the outside wall of the aluminum housing yields lower stress.
Optimum development of a thin box-shaped reservoir with multiply fractured horizontal wells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lietard, O.; Hegeman, P.
1998-12-31
An improved definition of the productivity index of multiply fractured wells is proposed, based on the use of Dietz`s shape factors for vertical wells centered in independent box-shaped drainage areas of equal size in a reservoir. Pseudo-radial flow around each fracture is taken into account and pressure drops in the reservoir are accurately estimated. By using the corrected Gringarten mathematical approach, it is confirmed that orthogonal fractures provide much better productivity than a single collinear fracture even at constant material usage. Up to five-fold improvements have been registered when the number of fractures was equal to 1.8 times the reservoir shape ratio (length over width). For best results, the well should be cased and cemented, and hydraulic fractures should be propagated one by one through short perforation clusters. 18 refs., 10 figs., 1 appendix.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaeen Kalathil
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A novel approach for the efficient realization of digital channelizers in software defined radios using recombination filter banks is proposed in this paper. Digital channelizer is the core of software defined radio. Computationally efficient design supporting multiple channels with different bandwidths and low complexity are inevitable requirements for the digital channelizers. Recombination filter banks method is used to obtain non-uniform filter banks with rational sampling factors, using a two stage structure. It consists of a uniform filter bank and trans-multiplexer. In this work, the uniform filter bank and trans-multiplexer are designed using cosine modulated filter banks. The prototype filter design is made simple, efficient and fast, using window method. The multiplier-less realization of recombination filter banks in the canonic signed digit space using nature inspired optimization algorithms, results in reduced implementation complexity.
Truss Structure Optimization with Subset Simulation and Augmented Lagrangian Multiplier Method
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Feng Du
2017-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a global optimization method for structural design optimization, which integrates subset simulation optimization (SSO and the dynamic augmented Lagrangian multiplier method (DALMM. The proposed method formulates the structural design optimization as a series of unconstrained optimization sub-problems using DALMM and makes use of SSO to find the global optimum. The combined strategy guarantees that the proposed method can automatically detect active constraints and provide global optimal solutions with finite penalty parameters. The accuracy and robustness of the proposed method are demonstrated by four classical truss sizing problems. The results are compared with those reported in the literature, and show a remarkable statistical performance based on 30 independent runs.
Cherri, Abdallah K.; Alam, Mohammed S.
1998-07-01
Highly-efficient two-step recoded and one-step nonrecoded trinary signed-digit (TSD) carry-free adders subtracters are presented on the basis of redundant-bit representation for the operands digits. It has been shown that only 24 (30) minterms are needed to implement the two-step recoded (the one-step nonrecoded) TSD addition for any operand length. Optical implementation of the proposed arithmetic can be carried out by use of correlation- or matrix-multiplication-based schemes, saving 50% of the system memory. Furthermore, we present four different multiplication designs based on our proposed recoded and nonrecoded TSD adders. Our multiplication designs require a small number of reduced minterms to generate the multiplication partial products. Finally, a recently proposed pipelined iterative-tree algorithm can be used in the TSD adders multipliers; consequently, efficient use of all available adders can be made.
Estudi i modificació d’un difusor de ventilador tipus Dyson Air Multiplier
Soler Calderé, Roger
2014-01-01
[CATALÀ] El Dyson Air Multiplier és un tipus de ventilador de sobre taula sense aspes, que produeix un corrent d’aire continu. Per crear aquest corrent, l’aire és accelerat a través d’una obertura anular creant un cabal d’aire a alta velocitat. Aquest flux d’aire passa per una superfície aerodinàmica que canalitza la seva direcció i genera zones de baixa pressió. Aquest canvi de pressió aspira l’aire de l’entorn cap al corrent d’aire, augmentant el cabal mobilitzat. Per a realitzar el seu est...
The Strip Silicon Photo-Multiplier: An innovation for enhanced time and position measurement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doroud, K., E-mail: Katayoun.Doroud@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Williams, M.C.S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Yamamoto, K. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu (Japan)
2017-05-01
There is considerable R&D concerning precise time measurement from a variety of detectors, and in particular for the Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM). In this paper we discuss a new geometry for the SiPM in the form of a strip. A strip can be read out at both end, with each end coupled to an individual TDC (time to digital converter). The time difference is related to the position of the firing SPAD along the length of the strip, while the average of the two times gives the time of the hit. Results from the testing of the first prototype Strip SiPMs are presented in this paper.
Performance of 8- and 12-dynode stage multianode photo-multipliers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bibby, J.H. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Buckley, A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chamonal, R.J.U. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: chamonal@ph.ed.ac.uk; Easo, S. [CCLRC, Rutherford Aplleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Eisenhardt, S. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Gibson, V. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Harnew, N. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Muheim, F. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Howard, A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Lawrence, J. [University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Pickford, A. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Plackett, R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Price, D.R. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Rademacker, J. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Smale, N. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Soler, F.J.P. [University of Glasgow, Glasgow (United Kingdom); CCLRC, Rutherford Aplleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Somerville, L. [University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Storey, J. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Websdale, D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Wotton, S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)
2006-11-01
We report on studies of 64-channel Multianode Photo-Multiplier Tubes (MaPMTs) as photo-detectors for Ring Imaging CHerenkov (RICH) counters. The newly available 8-dynode stage MaPMT was tested in particle beams at CERN. The MaPMT signals were read out directly with the Beetle1.2 chip which was designed for the LHCb environment and operates at 40MHz. The photon yield and signal losses were determined for a cluster of 3x3 close-packed MaPMTs. The performance of the 8-dynode stage MaPMT was compared to that of the 12-dynode stage MaPMT which has a larger intrinsic gain.
Characterization of RNS multiply-add units for power efficient DSP
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Nannarelli, Alberto; Petricca, Massimo
2015-01-01
) for a fused multiply-add unit by taking into account four metrics: area, delay, power consumption, and switching activity. The results of the DSE are verified against the TCS and RNS implementation of parallel FIR filters of different characteristics. In both the DSE and the filter implementation, we consider......In the past decades, the Residue Number System (RNS) has been adopted in DSP as an alternative to the traditional two's complement number system (TCS) because of the savings in area, higher speed and reduced power dissipation. In this work, we perform a comprehensive Design Space Exploration (DSE...... two design corners: maximum speed and minimum area. The experimental results demonstrate that for high data rates and high order filters, the RNS implementation is more power efficient than the TCS because of the reduced switching activity and the larger amount of low-power cells placed in the unit....
Determination of the f and alpha parameters in the neutron multiplier CS-ISCTN
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez, O.; Ixquiac, M.; Contreras, R.; Herrera, E.; Diaz, O.; Lopez, R.; Alvarez, P.; Manso, M.V.; Padron, G.; D Alessandro, K.
1997-01-01
The values of the f and alpha parameters are determined in the irradiation position of the neutron multiplier CS-ISCTN, with the aim to show the possibility to applied the parametric neutron activation analysis. The more used conventions to calculate the reaction rate; Hogdhal, Modified Stoughton-Halpering and Modified Wescott, the last is presents with some new variations. This comparison is combined with R-Cd multi monitors method, Cd-Cover Multi monitor Methods and a new method introduced in the present paper to reduce the errors in the alpha parameter determination named Minimal Difference Method. This last method show better results, according to the epithermal hardeners of the CS-ISCT
Double-Stage Delay Multiply and Sum Beamforming Algorithm Applied to Ultrasound Medical Imaging.
Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Sadeghi, Masume; Mahloojifar, Ali; Orooji, Mahdi
2018-03-01
In ultrasound (US) imaging, delay and sum (DAS) is the most common beamformer, but it leads to low-quality images. Delay multiply and sum (DMAS) was introduced to address this problem. However, the reconstructed images using DMAS still suffer from the level of side lobes and low noise suppression. Here, a novel beamforming algorithm is introduced based on expansion of the DMAS formula. We found that there is a DAS algebra inside the expansion, and we proposed use of the DMAS instead of the DAS algebra. The introduced method, namely double-stage DMAS (DS-DMAS), is evaluated numerically and experimentally. The quantitative results indicate that DS-DMAS results in an approximately 25% lower level of side lobes compared with DMAS. Moreover, the introduced method leads to 23%, 22% and 43% improvement in signal-to-noise ratio, full width at half-maximum and contrast ratio, respectively, compared with the DMAS beamformer. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Development of a New Multiplying Assembly for Research, Validation, Evaluation, and Learning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
David L. Chichester
2012-10-01
A new multiplying test assembly is under development at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to support research, validation, evaluation, and learning. The item is comprised of two stacked highly-enriched uranium (HEU) cylinders each 11.4 cm in diameter and having a combined height of 8.4 cm. The combined mass is 14.4 kg of HEU. Calculations for the bare configuration of the assembly indicate a multiplication level of >2.5 (keff = 0.62). Reflected configurations of the assembly, using either polyethylene or tungsten, are possible and have the capability of raising its multiplication level to approximately 8. This paper will describe the MCNP calculations performed to assess the assembly's multiplication level under different conditions and describe the resource available at INL to support visiting researchers in their use of the material. We will also describe some preliminary calculations and test activities using the assembly to study neutron multiplicity.
Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Mahloojifar, Ali; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza; Orooji, Mahdi
2018-02-01
Delay and sum (DAS) is the most common beamforming algorithm in linear-array photoacoustic imaging (PAI) as a result of its simple implementation. However, it leads to a low resolution and high sidelobes. Delay multiply and sum (DMAS) was used to address the incapabilities of DAS, providing a higher image quality. However, the resolution improvement is not well enough compared to eigenspace-based minimum variance (EIBMV). In this paper, the EIBMV beamformer has been combined with DMAS algebra, called EIBMV-DMAS, using the expansion of DMAS algorithm. The proposed method is used as the reconstruction algorithm in linear-array PAI. EIBMV-DMAS is experimentally evaluated where the quantitative and qualitative results show that it outperforms DAS, DMAS and EIBMV. The proposed method degrades the sidelobes for about 365 %, 221 % and 40 %, compared to DAS, DMAS and EIBMV, respectively. Moreover, EIBMV-DMAS improves the SNR about 158 %, 63 % and 20 %, respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holder, J.P.; Church, D.A.; Gruber, L.; DeWitt, H.E.; Beck, B.R.; Schneider, D.
2000-01-01
Molecular dynamics simulations are used to help design new experiments by modeling the cooling of small numbers of trapped multiply charged ions by Coulomb interactions with laser-cooled Be + ions. A Verlet algorithm is used to integrate the equations of motion of two species of point ions interacting in an ideal Penning trap. We use a time step short enough to follow the cyclotron motion of the ions. Axial and radial temperatures for each species are saved periodically. Direct heating and cooling of each species in the simulation can be performed by periodically rescaling velocities. Of interest are Fe 11+ due to a EUV-optical double resonance for imaging and manipulating the ions, and Ca 14+ since a ground state fine structure transition has a convenient wavelength in the tunable laser range
Input-constrained model predictive control via the alternating direction method of multipliers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sokoler, Leo Emil; Frison, Gianluca; Andersen, Martin S.
2014-01-01
This paper presents an algorithm, based on the alternating direction method of multipliers, for the convex optimal control problem arising in input-constrained model predictive control. We develop an efficient implementation of the algorithm for the extended linear quadratic control problem (LQCP......) with input and input-rate limits. The algorithm alternates between solving an extended LQCP and a highly structured quadratic program. These quadratic programs are solved using a Riccati iteration procedure, and a structure-exploiting interior-point method, respectively. The computational cost per iteration...... is quadratic in the dimensions of the controlled system, and linear in the length of the prediction horizon. Simulations show that the approach proposed in this paper is more than an order of magnitude faster than several state-of-the-art quadratic programming algorithms, and that the difference in computation...
A New Resonant Capacitor Diode Voltage Multiplier Topology for Pulsed Power Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Kebriaei
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Today, the pulsed power systems have been employed in many applications. To meet the requirement of user, the pulse generator should enjoy the advantages of compactness, high flexibility, high pulse repetition rate and cost efficiency. Among all of converters that can be used to generate high voltage pulses, capacitance diode voltage multiplier (CDVM is a good candidate to meet the mentioned requirements. In this paper a new converter that is combination of full-bridge inverter, CDVM and resonant circuit is proposed. The performance of developed converter is compared with the conventional circuits and is demonstrated via simulation in MATLAB/SIMULINK. Experimental tests on a prototype setup have verified the capability of this topology.
Generation of symmetry coordinates for crystals using multiplier representations of the space groups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Flemming Yssing
1978-01-01
Symmetry coordinates play an important role in the normal-mode calculations of crystals. It is therefore of great importance to have a general method, which may be applied for any crystal at any wave vector, to generate these. The multiplier representations of the space groups as given by Kovalev...... and the projection-operator technique provide a basis for such a method. The method is illustrated for the nonsymmorphic D36 space group, and the theoretical background for the representations of space groups in general is reviewed and illustrated on the example above. It is desirable to perform the projection...... of symmetry coordinates in such a way that they may be used for as many wave vectors as possible. We discuss how to achieve this goal. The detailed illustrations should make it simple to apply the theory in any other case....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Yanjun; Duanmu Qingduo; Wang Guozheng; Li Ye; Tian Jingquan
2009-01-01
A semiconductor PEC etching method is applied to fabricate the n-type silicon deep micropore channel array. In this method, it is important to arrange the direction of the micropore array along the crystal orientation of the Si substrate. Otherwise, serious lateral erosion will happen. The etching process is also relative to the light intensity and HF concentration. 5% HF concentration and 10-15 cm distance between the light source and the silicon wafer are demonstrated to be the best in our experiments. The n-type silicon deep micropore channel array with aperture of 3 μm and aspect ratio of 40-60, whose inner walls are smooth, is finally obtained.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bastug, T.; Kuerpick, P.; Meyer, J.; Sepp, W.; Fricke, B.; Rosen, A.
1997-01-01
Using a self-consistent relativistic molecular Dirac-Fock-Slater method we have determined the geometric structures and ionization energies of C 60 x t (x=0 endash 7). The lengths of the bonds for the pentagonal edge (single bonds) and the bonds shared by hexagonal rings (double bonds) are found to increase as a function of charge state with an expansion of the cage. The binding energy per atom of C 60 x t (x=0 endash 7) shows a quadratic dependence on the charge state of the C 60 cluster and an extrapolation to higher charge states reveals that C 60 x t should still be bound up to x=13. Charging of the clusters are analyzed using a classical capacitance model and compared with results from other calculations. Calculated ionization potentials are found to increase linearly with the charge while the available experimental data with comparatively big uncertainties indicate a small quadratic dependence. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Zubrzycka, W.; Kasinski, K.
2018-04-01
Leakage current flowing into the charge sensitive amplifier (CSA) is a common issue in many radiation detection systems as it can increase overall system noise, shift a DC baseline or even lead a recording channel to instability. The commonly known leakage current contributor is a detector, however other system components like wires or an input protection circuit may become a serious problem. Compensation of the leakage current resulting from the electrostatic discharge (ESD) protection circuit by properly sizing its components is possible only for a narrow temperature range. Moreover, the leakage current from external sources can be significantly larger. Many applications, especially High Energy Physics (HEP) experiments, require a fast baseline restoration for high input hit rates by applying either a low-value feedback resistor or a high feedback resistance combined with a pulsed reset circuit. Leakage current flowing in the feedback in conjunction with a large feedback resistance supplied with a pulsed reset results in a significant voltage offset between the CSA input and output which can cause problems (e.g. fake hits or instability). This paper shows an issue referred to the leakage current of the ESD protection circuit flowing into the input amplifier. The following analysis and proposed solution is a result of the time and energy readout ASIC project realization for the Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) in Darmstadt, Germany. This chip is purposed to work with microstrip and gaseous detectors, with high average input pulses frequencies (250 kHit/s per channel) and the possibility to process input charge of both polarities. We present measurements of the test structure fabricated in UMC 180 nm technology and propose a solution addressing leakage current related issues. This work combines the leakage current compensation capabilities at the CSA level with high, controllable value of the amplifier feedback resistor independent of the leakage current level and polarity. The simulation results of the double, switchable, Krummenacher circuit-based feedback application in the CSA with a pulsed reset functionality are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Nardo, L., E-mail: laura.denardo@unipd.it [University of Padova, Physics and Astronomy Department and PD-INFN, via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy); Farahmand, M., E-mail: majid.farahmand@rivm.nl [Centre for Environmental Safety and Security, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), PO Box 1, NL-3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands)
2016-05-21
A Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), based on a single GEM foil of standard geometry, has been tested with pure propane gas at low pressure, in order to simulate a tissue site of about 1 µm equivalent size. In this work, the performance of GEM with propane gas at a pressure of 21 and 28 kPa will be presented. The effective gas gain was measured in various conditions using a {sup 244}Cm alpha source. The dependence of effective gain on the electric field strength along the GEM channel and in the drift and induction region was investigated. A maximum effective gain of about 5×10{sup 3} has been reached. Results obtained in pure propane gas are compared with gas gain measurements in gas mixtures commonly employed in microdosimetry, that is propane and methane based Tissue-Equivalent gas mixtures.
Status of the European R and D on beryllium as multiplier material for breeder blankets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moeslang, A.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Rabaglino, E.; Piazza, G.; Cardella, A.; Sannen, L.; Scibetta, M.; Laan, J. van der; Hegeman, J.B.J.W.
2004-01-01
Within the international fusion community a variety of breeding blanket concepts are being considered, ranging from more conservative concepts to higher-risk concepts for fusion power reactors. In Europe, the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket is one of the two reference concepts which will also be tested as Test Blanket Module (TBM) in ITER. In addition to the R and D for structural parts of the HCPB blanket, a considerable effort is devoted to the production and qualification of ceramic breeder and neutron multiplier (beryllium or beryllide) pebble beds. Since in the HCPB blanket pebbles made of lithium ceramics are foreseen, a high volume fraction of beryllium as a neutron multiplier to Li-based ceramic of about 4: l is needed. The typical loading conditions for beryllium are, with a neutron wall load of ∼12.5 MWa/m 2 and in ∼5 years lifetime: T min ∼300degC, T max ∼600-900degC, displacement damage ∼80 dpa, peak 4 He production ∼26000 appm and peak 3 H production ∼700 appm at the End-Of-Life. The behaviour of beryllium under irradiation is considered to be a key issue of the HCPB blanket, because of swelling due to helium bubbles and tritium retention. A large R and D programme on beryllium has been implemented in Europe, aimed at characterising and predicting the material behaviour before and under irradiation. An overview on experimental and modelling activities performed during the past 2 years is given with typical results on non-irradiated and irradiated Beryllium materials and pebble beds and the relevance of major results on future beryllium R and D is addressed. (author)
Orengo, D J; Puerma, E; Papaceit, M; Segarra, C; Aguadé, M
2015-06-01
Genome sequence comparison across the Drosophila genus revealed that some fixed inversion breakpoints had been multiply reused at this long timescale. Cytological studies of Drosophila inversion polymorphism had previously shown that, also at this shorter timescale, some breakpoints had been multiply reused. The paucity of molecularly characterized polymorphic inversion breakpoints has so far precluded contrasting whether cytologically shared breakpoints of these relatively young inversions are actually reused at the molecular level. The E chromosome of Drosophila subobscura stands out because it presents several inversion complexes. This is the case of the E1+2+9+3 arrangement that originated from the ancestral Est arrangement through the sequential accumulation of four inversions (E1, E2, E9 and E3) sharing some breakpoints. We recently identified the breakpoints of inversions E1 and E2, which allowed establishing reuse at the molecular level of the cytologically shared breakpoint of these inversions. Here, we identified and sequenced the breakpoints of inversions E9 and E3, because they share breakpoints at sections 58D and 64C with those of inversions E1 and E2. This has allowed establishing that E9 and E3 originated through the staggered-break mechanism. Most importantly, sequence comparison has revealed the multiple reuse at the molecular level of the proximal breakpoint (section 58D), which would have been used at least by inversions E2, E9 and E3. In contrast, the distal breakpoint (section 64C) might have been only reused once by inversions E1 and E2, because the distal E3 breakpoint is displaced >70 kb from the other breakpoint limits.
Wagner, Pablo; Standard, Shawn C; Herzenberg, John E
The multiplier method (MM) is frequently used to predict limb-length discrepancy and timing of epiphysiodesis. The traditional MM uses complex formulae and requires a calculator. A mobile application was developed in an attempt to simplify and streamline these calculations. We compared the accuracy and speed of using the traditional pencil and paper technique with that using the Multiplier App (MA). After attending a training lecture and a hands-on workshop on the MM and MA, 30 resident surgeons were asked to apply the traditional MM and the MA at different weeks of their rotations. They were randomized as to the method they applied first. Subjects performed calculations for 5 clinical exercises that involved congenital and developmental limb-length discrepancies and timing of epiphysiodesis. The amount of time required to complete the exercises and the accuracy of the answers were evaluated for each subject. The test subjects answered 60% of the questions correctly using the traditional MM and 80% of the questions correctly using the MA (P=0.001). The average amount of time to complete the 5 exercises with the MM and MA was 22 and 8 minutes, respectively (P<0.0001). Several reports state that the traditional MM is quick and easy to use. Nevertheless, even in the most experienced hands, performing the calculations in clinical practice can be time-consuming. Errors may result from choosing the wrong formulae and from performing the calculations by hand. Our data show that the MA is simpler, more accurate, and faster than the traditional MM from a practical standpoint. Level II.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pál, L.; Pázsit, I.
2015-01-01
The signals of fission chambers are usually evaluated with the help of the co-called Campbelling techniques. These are based on the Campbell theorem, which states that if the primary incoming events, generating the detector pulses, are independent, then relationships exist between the moments of various orders of the signal in the current mode. This gives the possibility to determine the mean value of the intensity of the detection events, which is proportional to the static flux, from the higher moments of the detector current, which has certain advantages. However, the main application area of fission chambers is measurements in power reactors where, as is well known, the individual detection events are not independent, due to the branching character of the neutron chains (neutron multiplication). Therefore it is of interest to extend the Campbelling-type theory for the case of correlated neutron events. Such a theory could address two questions: partly, to investigate the bias when the traditional Campbell techniques are used for correlated incoming events; and partly, to see whether the correlation properties of the detection events, which carry information on the multiplying medium, could be extracted from the measurements. This paper is devoted to the investigation of these questions. The results show that there is a potential possibility to extract the same information from fission chamber signals in the current mode as with the Rossi- or Feynman-alpha methods, or from coincidence and multiplicity measurements, which so far have required detectors working in the pulse mode. It is also shown that application of the standard Campbelling techniques to neutron detection in multiplying systems does not lead to an error for estimating the stationary flux as long as the detector is calibrated in in situ measurements
Abbiati, Giuseppe; La Salandra, Vincenzo; Bursi, Oreste S.; Caracoglia, Luca
2018-02-01
Successful online hybrid (numerical/physical) dynamic substructuring simulations have shown their potential in enabling realistic dynamic analysis of almost any type of non-linear structural system (e.g., an as-built/isolated viaduct, a petrochemical piping system subjected to non-stationary seismic loading, etc.). Moreover, owing to faster and more accurate testing equipment, a number of different offline experimental substructuring methods, operating both in time (e.g. the impulse-based substructuring) and frequency domains (i.e. the Lagrange multiplier frequency-based substructuring), have been employed in mechanical engineering to examine dynamic substructure coupling. Numerous studies have dealt with the above-mentioned methods and with consequent uncertainty propagation issues, either associated with experimental errors or modelling assumptions. Nonetheless, a limited number of publications have systematically cross-examined the performance of the various Experimental Dynamic Substructuring (EDS) methods and the possibility of their exploitation in a complementary way to expedite a hybrid experiment/numerical simulation. From this perspective, this paper performs a comparative uncertainty propagation analysis of three EDS algorithms for coupling physical and numerical subdomains with a dual assembly approach based on localized Lagrange multipliers. The main results and comparisons are based on a series of Monte Carlo simulations carried out on a five-DoF linear/non-linear chain-like systems that include typical aleatoric uncertainties emerging from measurement errors and excitation loads. In addition, we propose a new Composite-EDS (C-EDS) method to fuse both online and offline algorithms into a unique simulator. Capitalizing from the results of a more complex case study composed of a coupled isolated tank-piping system, we provide a feasible way to employ the C-EDS method when nonlinearities and multi-point constraints are present in the emulated system.
The South African wildlife ranching sector: A Social Accounting Matrix Leontief multiplier analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philippus C. Cloete
2014-10-01
Research purpose: The purpose of this article is to put into context the relative economic contribution of the wildlife ranching sector, as opposed to other land-use options in South Africa. Motivation for the study: Growth in the wildlife ranching sector at the cost of other traditional farming practices resulted in disagreements amongst various role players about the impact thereof on the national economy. The controversy can most probably be explained by different beliefs, coupled with the lack of a proper understanding and quantification of the wildlife ranching sector’s contribution toward the economy. Research methodology: The study employed a Social Accounting Matrix-based Leontief multiplier analysis for South Africa. Main findings: Results from the multiplier analysis revealed that developments within the wildlife ranching sector are likely to make a relatively more superior contribution towards the economy, especially when compared to similar land-use options such as extensive livestock production. Practical/managerial implications: It has been acknowledged by both academia and private sector that a major need exists for more research on the South African wildlife ranching industry, specifically looking at issues such as the industries, economic and social contributions, potentials and constraints. The research, therefore, contributes toward the depth of economic information and research regarding the South African wildlife sector. Contribution/value added: The research provides valuable information in dealing with the ‘popular belief’, especially amongst some of South Africa’s decision makers, namely, that growth in the wildlife ranching sector is not or does not have the ability to contribute significantly toward economic and socioeconomic factors.
Observed travel times for Multiply-reflected ScS waves from a deep-focus earthquake
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. F. ESPISOSA
1966-06-01
Full Text Available Tlie deep-focus Argentinean earthquake of December 8
1962, generated multiply reflected ScS phases which were recorded very
clearly at stations of the IGY and the TJSC&GS standardized worldwide
networks and at Canadian stations. The data gathered from this earthquake
for the multiply-reflected ScS and sScS were used to construct the
travel times and to extend them to shorter epicentral distances. These
new data brought to light an error in published travel times for the 2(ScS
phase.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrés Blancas
2003-11-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the financial unlinkage in Mexico through an accounting multiplier analysis derived from a SAM for a one-sector economy. Such an analysis provides a useful tool to quantify processes of structural financial change in terms of "stylized parameters". We identify and measure the financial unlinkage with financial backward and forward linkage indices derived from the accounting multipliers. The results can also help to the quality of policy decisions by identifying key and weak financial institutions and by giving a better understanding of how an impact of an initial financial injection travels within a structure.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabharwal, Arvind D.; Sandhu, B.S.; Singh, Bhajan
2009-01-01
The present studies aimed to investigate the effects of detector collimation and target thickness on multiply backscattered gamma photons. The numbers of multiply backscattered events, having energy the same as in singly scattered distribution, are found to be increasing with target thickness, and saturate for a particular thickness known as saturation thickness. The saturation thickness is not altered by the variation in the collimator opening. The number and energy albedos, characterizing the reflection probability of a material, are also evaluated. Monte Carlo calculations support the present experimental work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bedilov, M R; Beisembaeva, Kh B; Tsoi, T G; Satybaldiev, T B; Sabitov, M S
2000-01-01
Mass spectrometry is used to investigate the emission behaviour and the characteristics of multiply charged ions in a plasma produced at small angles of incidence of laser radiation (α∼20 0 ) and also at grazing incidence (α∼85 0 ). It is found that upon grazing incidence of the laser radiation onto a target, the efficiency of production of multiply charged ions is reduced compared to that for α∼20 0 . However, this geometry of laser irradiation of solids can be used for the elemental analysis of surface layers of a sample. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, Ying; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei
2011-01-01
We present a digital predistortion technique to effectively compensate high nonlinearity of a sextuple multiplier operating at 99.6GHz. An 18.9dB adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) improvement is guaranteed and a W-band fiber-wireless system is experimentally investigated.......We present a digital predistortion technique to effectively compensate high nonlinearity of a sextuple multiplier operating at 99.6GHz. An 18.9dB adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) improvement is guaranteed and a W-band fiber-wireless system is experimentally investigated....
Auger electron and X-ray spectroscopy of hollow atoms
Morgenstern, R; Johnson, RL; Schmidtbocking, H; Sonntag, BF
1997-01-01
Hollow atoms as formed during collisions of multiply charged ions on metallic, semiconducting and insulating surfaces have in recent years successfully been investigated by various spectroscopic methods: low- and high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy as well as high resolution Auger electron
Beam-ripple monitor with secondary electrons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, Shinji; Kanazawa, Mitsutaka; Noda, Koji; Takada, Eiichi; Komiyama, Akihito; Ichinohe, Ken-ichi; Sano, Yoshinobu
1997-01-01
To replace the scintillation-ripple monitor, we have developed a new monitor with a smaller destructive effect on the beam. In this monitor, we use secondary electrons emitted from an aluminum foil with a thickness of 2 μm. The signals of secondary electrons are amplified by an electron multiplier having a maximum gain of 10 6 . By using the new monitor, we could clearly observe the beam ripple with a beam intensity of 3.6x10 8 pps (particle per second). This monitor can also be used as an intensity monitor in the range of 10 4 - 10 9 pps. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Chen
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Rate-distortion optimization (RDO plays an essential role in substantially enhancing the coding efficiency. Currently, rate-distortion optimized mode decision is widely used in scalable video coding (SVC. Among all the possible coding modes, it aims to select the one which has the best trade-off between bitrate and compression distortion. Specifically, this tradeoff is tuned through the choice of the Lagrange multiplier. Despite the prevalence of conventional method for Lagrange multiplier selection in hybrid video coding, the underlying formulation is not applicable to 3-D wavelet-based SVC where the explicit values of the quantization step are not available, with on consideration of the content features of input signal. In this paper, an efficient content adaptive Lagrange multiplier selection algorithm is proposed in the context of RDO for 3-D wavelet-based SVC targeting quality scalability. Our contributions are two-fold. First, we introduce a novel weighting method, which takes account of the mutual information, gradient per pixel, and texture homogeneity to measure the temporal subband characteristics after applying the motion-compensated temporal filtering (MCTF technique. Second, based on the proposed subband weighting factor model, we derive the optimal Lagrange multiplier. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm enables more satisfactory video quality with negligible additional computational complexity.
Zhou, X.; Solberger, M.
2013-01-01
We consider an exact factor model and derive a Lagrange multiplier-type test for unit roots in the idiosyncratic components. The asymptotic distribution of the statistic is derived under the misspecification that the differenced factors are white noise. We prove that the asymptotic distribution is
Habiby, Sarry F.; Collins, Stuart A., Jr.
1987-01-01
The design and implementation of a digital (numerical) optical matrix-vector multiplier are presented. A Hughes liquid crystal light valve, the residue arithmetic representation, and a holographic optical memory are used to construct position coded optical look-up tables. All operations are performed in effectively one light valve response time with a potential for a high information density.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bedilov, M.R.; Bedilov, R.M.; Kamalova, J.O.; Davletov, I.Yu.; Matnazarov, A.R.
2007-01-01
Full text: The interest to study of the oxygen multiply charged ions spectra produced at interaction laser radiation with one and two-element solids, is associate with possibility of creating laser and inertial thermonuclear syntheses, effective sources of multiply charged ions and nuclei atoms elements, plasma lasers, lasers on multiply charged transition, design of radiation-resistant materials and others. The present time many works is devoted to multiply charged ions, obtained from one element targets. Experimental results of study charge and energy spectra multiply charged ions of the oxygen, formed at interaction laser radiation with one and two-element solids are given in this work. Our experiments, we used installation, which is described in [1]. Neodymium laser had following parameters: wavelength 1.06 μm; intensity q = (0.1 h 1000) GW/sm 2 ; angle of incidence = 180. Were study one element Al, and two-element Al 2 O 3 , Y 2 O 3 targets by a diameter of 10 mm and thickness of 3 mm. Analysis obtained charge and energy spectra of multiply charged ions one (Al) and two-element (Al 2 O 3 , Y 2 O 3 ) targets depending on intensity of laser radiation and targets components reveal the following: - maximal charge number one element target (Al) at q 500 GW/sm 2 is equal Z max = 6 and all peaks corresponding to charge numbers Z = 1 - 6 well resolved, but two-element targets (Al 2 O 3 ) Z max ions Al decrease before 3. Also it is necessary to note that, Z max ions of the oxygen depend on target components. In case Al 2 O 3 and Y 2 O 3 maximal charge number of oxygen ions are equal Z max = 6 and 3, accordingly; - obtained charge and energy spectra of oxygen ions being included in two-element targets, are indicative of that, general regularities of the change Z max , E max and structures charge and energy spectra depending on q laser are saved. However they hang by target components; - common features and some differences of energy spectra multiply charged oxygen ions
ELECTRON-CAPTURE IN HIGHLY-CHARGED ION-ATOM COLLISIONS
MORGENSTERN, R
1993-01-01
An attempt is made to identify the most important mechanisms responsible for the rearrangement of electrons during collisions between multiply charged ions and atoms at keV energies. It is discussed to which extent the influence of binding energy, angular momentum of heavy particles and electrons,
Gun power source for electron gun of 3 MeV DC accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewangan, S.; Sharma, D.K.; Nanu, K.
2011-01-01
In DC electron beam accelerator electron gun is situated at high voltage terminal which requires constant power irrespective of beam energy. Floating power source is required for gun. This paper describes the scheme of static gun power source derived from parallel coupled voltage multiplier column. (author)
Linear and Quadratic Interpolators Using Truncated-Matrix Multipliers and Squarers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. George Walters III
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a technique for designing linear and quadratic interpolators for function approximation using truncated multipliers and squarers. Initial coefficient values are found using a Chebyshev-series approximation and then adjusted through exhaustive simulation to minimize the maximum absolute error of the interpolator output. This technique is suitable for any function and any precision up to 24 bits (IEEE single precision. Designs for linear and quadratic interpolators that implement the 1/x, 1/ √ x, log2(1+2x, log2(x and 2x functions are presented and analyzed as examples. Results show that a proposed 24-bit interpolator computing 1/x with a design specification of ±1 unit in the last place of the product (ulp error uses 16.4% less area and 15.3% less power than a comparable standard interpolator with the same error specification. Sixteen-bit linear interpolators for other functions are shown to use up to 17.3% less area and 12.1% less power, and 16-bit quadratic interpolators are shown to use up to 25.8% less area and 24.7% less power.
An exact solution of the extinction problem in supercritical multiplying systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, M.M.R.
1979-01-01
Using the point model approximation and one-speed theory with no delayed neutrons a probability balance equation for neutrons by the backward method has been constructed. This probability gives the distribution of neutrons in a multiplying medium at a given time and also the distribution that a chain will have generated a specified number of neutrons before extinction. We consider the limit of this probability for super and subcritical systems for long times after the initial triggering neutron. This leads to the extinction probability and to the individual probabilities of neutron population. To obtain specific results we have used a variety of models for the neutron multiplicity in the fission process, ie Poisson, birth and death, geometric and binomial. Exact solutions for the extinction probability have been obtained and its sensitivity to various parameters examined. Finally, we use the 'quadratic approximation' and assess its accuracy; it is found to overestimate the extinction probability and to be useful only for multiplication factors near unity. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rieger, J.; Linsenmaier, U.; Rock, C.; Pfeifer, K.J.; Euler, E.
1999-01-01
Purpose: Presentation of temporary balloon occlusion as an interventional radiological method for managing hemorrhage in multiply injured patients with uncontrollable loss of blood. Method: Temporary, non-selective arterial occlusion by introduction of a balloon catheter contralaterally to the source of bleeding has been performed since 1992 on 7 patients with multiple injuries, hemorrhagic shock requiring reanimation, and angiographic demonstration of an arterial hemorrhage in the supply region of the internal iliac artery with complex pelvic fracture. In each case a PTA balloon catheter was introduced transfemorally, non-selectively positioned proximal to the bleeding source, and left in place for 24-48 h under manometric control. Control angiographies were performed prior to catheter removal. Results: The bleeding was stopped immediately in all 7 patients. The hemodynamic stability made transport and thus further surgical management and/or a short-term treatment in the intensive-care station possible. Control angiographies confirmed that the bleeding had stopped in all patients. Conclusions: We recommend temporary balloon occlusion as a rapid and effective method for the management of bleeding in otherwise uncontrollable traumatic hemorrhages in the supply region of the internal iliac artery. (orig.) [de
Energy Multiplier Module (EM{sup 2}) - advanced small modular reactor for electricity generation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bertch, T.; Schleicher, R.; Choi, H.; Rawls, J., E-mail: timothy.bertch@ga.com [General Atomics, San Diego, California (United States)
2013-07-01
In order to provide cost effective nuclear energy in other than large reactor, large grid applications, fission technology needs to make further advances. 'Convert and burn' fast reactors offer long life cores, improved fuel utilization, reduced waste and other benefits while achieving cost effective energy production in a smaller reactor. General Atomics' Energy Multiplier Module (EM{sup 2}), a helium-cooled compact fast reactor that augments its fissile fuel load with either depleted uranium (DU) or used nuclear fuel (UNF). The convert and burn in-situ provides 250 MWe with a 30 year core life. High temperature provides a simple, high efficiency direct cycle gas turbine which along with modular construction, fewer systems, road shipment and minimum on site construction support cost effectiveness. Additional advantages in fuel cycle, non-proliferation and siting flexibility and its ability to meet all safety requirements make for an attractive power source, especially in remote and small grid regions. (author)
Uncertainties of Predictions from Parton Distribution Functions 1, the Lagrange Multiplier Method
Stump, D R; Brock, R; Casey, D; Huston, J; Kalk, J; Lai, H L; Tung, W K
2002-01-01
We apply the Lagrange Multiplier method to study the uncertainties of physical predictions due to the uncertainties of parton distribution functions (PDFs), using the cross section for W production at a hadron collider as an archetypal example. An effective chi-squared function based on the CTEQ global QCD analysis is used to generate a series of PDFs, each of which represents the best fit to the global data for some specified value of the cross section. By analyzing the likelihood of these "alterative hypotheses", using available information on errors from the individual experiments, we estimate that the fractional uncertainty of the cross section due to current experimental input to the PDF analysis is approximately 4% at the Tevatron, and 10% at the LHC. We give sets of PDFs corresponding to these up and down variations of the cross section. We also present similar results on Z production at the colliders. Our method can be applied to any combination of physical variables in precision QCD phenomenology, an...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Kuldeep
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Fractional calculus has recently been identified as a very important mathematical tool in the field of signal processing. Digital filters designed by fractional derivatives give more accurate frequency response in the prescribed frequency region. Digital filters are most important part of multi-rate filter bank systems. In this paper, an improved method based on fractional derivative constraints is presented for the design of two-channel quadrature mirror filter (QMF bank. The design problem is formulated as minimization of L2 error of filter bank transfer function in passband, stopband interval and at quadrature frequency, and then Lagrange multiplier method with fractional derivative constraints is applied to solve it. The proposed method is then successfully applied for the design of two-channel QMF bank with higher order filter taps. Performance of the QMF bank design is then examined through study of various parameters such as passband error, stopband error, transition band error, peak reconstruction error (PRE, stopband attenuation (As. It is found that, the good design can be obtained with the change of number and value of fractional derivative constraint coefficients.
Impact of Selected Parameters on the Fatigue Strength of Splices on Multiply Textile Conveyor Belts
Bajda, Mirosław; Błażej, Ryszard; Hardygóra, Monika
2016-10-01
Splices are the weakest points in the conveyor belt loop. The strength of these joints, and thus their design as well as the method and quality of splicing, determine the strength of the whole conveyor belt loop. A special zone in a splice exists, where the stresses in the adjacent plies or cables differ considerably from each other. This results in differences in the elongation of these elements and in additional shearing stresses in the rubber layer. The strength of the joints depends on several factors, among others on the parameters of the joined belt, on the connecting layer and the technology of joining, as well as on the materials used to make the joint. The strength of the joint constitutes a criterion for the selection of a belt suitable for the operating conditions, and therefore methods of testing such joints are of great importance. This paper presents the method of testing fatigue strength of splices made on multi-ply textile conveyor belts and the results of these studies.
Taylor coefficients and coefficient multipliers of Hardy and Bergman-type spaces
Jevtić, Miroljub; Arsenović, Miloš
2016-01-01
This book provides a systematic overview of the theory of Taylor coefficients of functions in some classical spaces of analytic functions and especially of the coefficient multipliers between spaces of Hardy type. Offering a comprehensive reference guide to the subject, it is the first of its kind in this area. After several introductory chapters covering the basic material, a large variety of results obtained over the past 80 years, including the most recent ones, are treated in detail. Several chapters end with discussions of practical applications and related topics that graduate students and experts in other subjects may find useful for their own purposes. Thus, a further aim of the book is to communicate to non-specialists some concrete facts that may be of value in their own work. The book can also be used as a textbook or a supplementary reference for an advanced graduate course. It is primarily intended for specialists in complex and functional analysis, graduate students, and experts in other related...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Y.K.; Subudhi, M.; Bezler, P.
1983-01-01
In the past decade, several investigators have studied the problem of independent support excitation of a multiply supported piping system to identify the real need for such an analysis. This approach offers an increase in accuracy at a small increase in computational costs. To assess the method, studies based on the response spectrum approach using independent support motions for each group of commonly connected supports were performed. The results obtained from this approach were compared with the conventional envelope spectrum and time history solutions. The present study includes a mathematical formulation of the independent support motion analysis method suitable for implementation into an existing all purpose piping code PSAFE2 and a comparison of the solutions for some typical piping system using both Time History and Response Spectrum Methods. The results obtained from the Response Spectrum Methods represent the upper bound solution at most points in the piping system. Similarly, the Seismic Anchor Movement analysis based on the SRP method over predicts the responses near the support points and under predicts at points away from the supports
Charge exchange of hydrogen atoms with multiply charged ions in a hot plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramov, V.A.; Baryshnikov, F.F.; Lisitsa, V.S.
1980-08-01
The symmetry properties of the hydrogen atom are used to calculate the charge exchange cross-sections sigma of hydrogen with the nuclei of multiply charged ions, allowance being made for the degeneration of final states. If the transitions between these states produced by rotation of the internuclear axis are taken into account, there is a qualitative change in the dependence of sigma on v for low values of v (a gradual decrease in the cross-section instead of the exponential one in the Landau-Zener model) and also a considerable increase in the peak cross-section. The cross-sections are calculated for a wide range of velocities and charge values Z. It is shown that the cross-section may be approximated to within approximately 9 /v).10 -15 cm 2 for Z>=18 (v in cm/s). A detailed comparison with the calculations of various authors is performed. The distribution of final states over orbital angular momenta is found. A calculation is made of variation in the spectral line intensities of the ion O +7 with injection of a neutral hydrogen beam in conditions similar to the experimental conditions on the ORMAK facility. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hong, Ser Gi; Lee, Young Ouk; Song, Jae Seung
2009-01-01
This paper analyzes the convergence of the rebalance iteration methods for the discrete ordinates transport equation in the multiplying finite slab problem. The finite slab is assumed to be homogeneous and it has the periodic boundary conditions. A general formulation is used to include three well-known rebalance methods of the linearized form in a unified way. The rebalance iteration methods considered in this paper are the CMR (Coarse-Mesh Rebalance), the CMFD (Coarse-Mesh Finite Difference), and p-CMFD (Partial Current-Based Coarse Mesh Finite Difference) methods which have been popularly used in the reactor physics. The convergence analysis is performed with the well-known Fourier analysis through a linearization. The analyses are applied for one-group problems. The theoretical analysis shows that there are one fundamental mode and N-1 Eigen-modes which determine the convergence if the finite slab is divided into N uniform meshes. The numerical tests show that the Fourier convergence analysis provides the reasonable estimate of the numerical spectral radii for the model problems and the spectral radius for the finite slab approaches the one for the infinite slab as the thickness of the slab increases. (author)
Proceedings of the 'INS workshop on ECR ion sources for multiply-charged heavy ions'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-02-01
This workshop was held on December 1 and 2, 1994 at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. The performance of ion sources is crucial for all researches and applications that use ion beam. The performance of ECR ion sources is strongly dependent on heuristic knowledge and innovation. From these viewpoints, it is useful to exchange information on the status of the existing sources, the performance of the new sources, and the design of the future sources between the source builders and the users. There were unexpected more than 70 participants and 20 contributions. The lectures were given on the present status of NIRS-ECR, SF-ECR, INS ISOL-ECR, RCNP ECR and EBIS ion sources, the production of multiply charged metallic ions with Hyper ECR or by plasma cathode method, the processing of ceramic rods and the ion production with OCTOPUS, the modeling of multi-charged ion production, the design of an advanced minimum B for ECR multi-charged ion source, the design, construction and operation of 18 GHz HiECR ion source, the construction and test operation of JAERI 18 GHz ion source, the design of an ECR ion source for the HIMAC, a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source at RIKEN, TMU 14 GHz ECR ion source, ''NANOGAN'' ECR ion source and its irradiation system, the optimization of the ECR ion source for optically pumped polarized ion source and so on. (K.I.)
Proceedings of the `INS workshop on ECR ion sources for multiply-charged heavy ions`
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-02-01
This workshop was held on December 1 and 2, 1994 at the Institute for Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo. The performance of ion sources is crucial for all researches and applications that use ion beam. The performance of ECR ion sources is strongly dependent on heuristic knowledge and innovation. From these viewpoints, it is useful to exchange information on the status of the existing sources, the performance of the new sources, and the design of the future sources between the source builders and the users. There were unexpected more than 70 participants and 20 contributions. The lectures were given on the present status of NIRS-ECR, SF-ECR, INS ISOL-ECR, RCNP ECR and EBIS ion sources, the production of multiply charged metallic ions with Hyper ECR or by plasma cathode method, the processing of ceramic rods and the ion production with OCTOPUS, the modeling of multi-charged ion production, the design of an advanced minimum B for ECR multi-charged ion source, the design, construction and operation of 18 GHz HiECR ion source, the construction and test operation of JAERI 18 GHz ion source, the design of an ECR ion source for the HIMAC, a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source at RIKEN, TMU 14 GHz ECR ion source, ``NANOGAN`` ECR ion source and its irradiation system, the optimization of the ECR ion source for optically pumped polarized ion source and so on. (K.I.).
Structural brain network analysis in families multiply affected with bipolar I disorder.
Forde, Natalie J; O'Donoghue, Stefani; Scanlon, Cathy; Emsell, Louise; Chaddock, Chris; Leemans, Alexander; Jeurissen, Ben; Barker, Gareth J; Cannon, Dara M; Murray, Robin M; McDonald, Colm
2015-10-30
Disrupted structural connectivity is associated with psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorder (BP). Here we use structural brain network analysis to investigate connectivity abnormalities in multiply affected BP type I families, to assess the utility of dysconnectivity as a biomarker and its endophenotypic potential. Magnetic resonance diffusion images for 19 BP type I patients in remission, 21 of their first degree unaffected relatives, and 18 unrelated healthy controls underwent tractography. With the automated anatomical labelling atlas being used to define nodes, a connectivity matrix was generated for each subject. Network metrics were extracted with the Brain Connectivity Toolbox and then analysed for group differences, accounting for potential confounding effects of age, gender and familial association. Whole brain analysis revealed no differences between groups. Analysis of specific mainly frontal regions, previously implicated as potentially endophenotypic by functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis of the same cohort, revealed a significant effect of group in the right medial superior frontal gyrus and left middle frontal gyrus driven by reduced organisation in patients compared with controls. The organisation of whole brain networks of those affected with BP I does not differ from their unaffected relatives or healthy controls. In discreet frontal regions, however, anatomical connectivity is disrupted in patients but not in their unaffected relatives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quantum oscillation and the Aharonov-Bohm effect in a multiply connected normal-conductor loop
Takai, Daisuke; Ohta, Kuniichi
1994-12-01
The magnetostatic and electrostatic Aharonov-Bohm (AB) effects in multiply connected normal-conductor rings are studied. A previously developed model of a single mesoscopic ring is generalized to include an arbitrary number of rings, and the oscillatory behavior of the total transmission coefficients for the serially connected N (N is equal to integer) rings are derived as a function of the magnetic flux threading each ring and as a function of the electrostatic potential applied to the rings. It is shown that quantum oscillation of multiple rings exhibits greater variety of behavior than in periodic superlattices. We investigate the influence of the scattering at a junction and the number of atoms in the ring in both magnetostatic and electrostatic oscillation of multiring systems. For the electrostatic AB effects, when scattering occurs at the junctions between the connecting wire and the ring, the conductance in the AB oscillation is modified to an N-1 peaked shape. It is shown that this oscillatory behavior is greatly influenced by the number of atoms in the ring and is controlled by the electrostatic potential or magnetic flux that is applied to the ring. We discuss the behavior of the quantum oscillations upon varying the number of connected rings and the number of minibands.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lang Thierry
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammal macrophages (MΦ display a wide range of functions which contribute to surveying and maintaining tissue integrity. One such function is phagocytosis, a process known to be subverted by parasites like Leishmania (L. Indeed, the intracellular development of L. amazonensis amastigote relies on the biogenesis and dynamic remodelling of a phagolysosome, termed the parasitophorous vacuole, primarily within dermal MΦ. Results Using BALB/c mouse bone marrow-derived MΦ loaded or not with amastigotes, we analyzed the transcriptional signatures of MΦ 24 h later, when the amastigote population was growing. Total RNA from MΦ cultures were processed and hybridized onto Affymetrix Mouse430_2 GeneChips®, and some transcripts were also analyzed by Real-Time quantitative PCR (RTQPCR. A total of 1,248 probe-sets showed significant differential expression. Comparable fold-change values were obtained between the Affymetrix technology and the RTQPCR method. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software® pinpointed the up-regulation of the sterol biosynthesis pathway (p-value = 1.31e-02 involving several genes (1.95 to 4.30 fold change values, and the modulation of various genes involved in polyamine synthesis and in pro/counter-inflammatory signalling. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the amastigote growth relies on early coordinated gene expression of the MΦ lipid and polyamine pathways. Moreover, these MΦ hosting multiplying L. amazonensis amastigotes display a transcriptional profile biased towards parasite-and host tissue-protective processes.
A multiply-add engine with monolithically integrated 3D memristor crossbar/CMOS hybrid circuit.
Chakrabarti, B; Lastras-Montaño, M A; Adam, G; Prezioso, M; Hoskins, B; Payvand, M; Madhavan, A; Ghofrani, A; Theogarajan, L; Cheng, K-T; Strukov, D B
2017-02-14
Silicon (Si) based complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology has been the driving force of the information-technology revolution. However, scaling of CMOS technology as per Moore's law has reached a serious bottleneck. Among the emerging technologies memristive devices can be promising for both memory as well as computing applications. Hybrid CMOS/memristor circuits with CMOL (CMOS + "Molecular") architecture have been proposed to combine the extremely high density of the memristive devices with the robustness of CMOS technology, leading to terabit-scale memory and extremely efficient computing paradigm. In this work, we demonstrate a hybrid 3D CMOL circuit with 2 layers of memristive crossbars monolithically integrated on a pre-fabricated CMOS substrate. The integrated crossbars can be fully operated through the underlying CMOS circuitry. The memristive devices in both layers exhibit analog switching behavior with controlled tunability and stable multi-level operation. We perform dot-product operations with the 2D and 3D memristive crossbars to demonstrate the applicability of such 3D CMOL hybrid circuits as a multiply-add engine. To the best of our knowledge this is the first demonstration of a functional 3D CMOL hybrid circuit.
Neutron density decay constant in a non-multiplying lattice of finite size
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deniz, V.C.
1965-01-01
This report presents a general theory, using the integral transport method, for obtaining the neutron density decay constant in a finite non-multiplying lattice. The theory is applied to obtain the expression for the diffusion coefficient. The case of a homogeneous medium with 1/v absorption and of finite size in all directions is treated in detail, assuming an isotropic scattering law. The decay constant is obtained up to the B 6 term. The expressions for the diffusion coefficient and for the diffusion cooling coefficient are the same as those obtained for a slab geometry by Nelkin, using the expansion in spherical harmonics of the Fourier transform in the spatial variable. Furthermore, explicit forms are obtained for the flux and the current. It is shown that the deviation of the actual flux from a Maxwellian is the flux generated in the medium, extended to infinity and deprived of its absorbing power, by various sources, each of which has a zero integral over all velocities. The study of the current permits the generalization of Fick's law. An independent integral method, valid for homogeneous media, is also presented. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao, Hao
2016-01-01
For the treatment planning during intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), beam fluence maps can be first optimized via fluence map optimization (FMO) under the given dose prescriptions and constraints to conformally deliver the radiation dose to the targets while sparing the organs-at-risk, and then segmented into deliverable MLC apertures via leaf or arc sequencing algorithms. This work is to develop an efficient algorithm for FMO based on alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM). Here we consider FMO with the least-square cost function and non-negative fluence constraints, and its solution algorithm is based on ADMM, which is efficient and simple-to-implement. In addition, an empirical method for optimizing the ADMM parameter is developed to improve the robustness of the ADMM algorithm. The ADMM based FMO solver was benchmarked with the quadratic programming method based on the interior-point (IP) method using the CORT dataset. The comparison results suggested the ADMM solver had a similar plan quality with slightly smaller total objective function value than IP. A simple-to-implement ADMM based FMO solver with empirical parameter optimization is proposed for IMRT or VMAT. (paper)
Hydrogen/deuterium exchange of multiply-protonated cytochrome c ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wood, T.D.; Guan, Ziqiang; O'Connor, P.B.
1995-01-01
Low resolution measurements show gaseous multiply-protonated cytochrome c ions undergo hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange with pseudo first-order kinetics at three distinct exchange levels, suggesting the co-existence of gaseous protein conformations. Although exchange levels first increase with increasing charge values, they decrease at the highest charge values, consistent with solution-phase behavior of cytochrome c, where the native structure unfolds with decreasing pH until folding into a compact A-state at lowest pH. High resolution measurements indicate the presence of at least six H/D exchange levels. Infrared (IR) laser heating and fast collisions via quadrupolar excitation (QE) increase H/D exchange levels (unfolding) while charge-stripping ions to lower charge values can increase or decrease H/D exchange levels (unfolding or folding). Wolynes has suggested studying proteins in vacuo could play an important role in delineating the contributions various forces play in the protein folding process, provided appropriate comparisons can be made between gas-phase and solution-phase structures
A Statistical Study of Multiply Imaged Systems in the Lensing Cluster Abell 68
Richard, Johan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Jullo, Eric; Covone, Giovanni; Limousin, Marceau; Ellis, Richard; Stark, Daniel; Bundy, Kevin; Czoske, Oliver; Ebeling, Harald; Soucail, Geneviève
2007-06-01
We have carried out an extensive spectroscopic survey with the Keck and VLT telescopes, targeting lensed galaxies in the background of the massive cluster Abell 68. Spectroscopic measurements are obtained for 26 lensed images, including a distant galaxy at z=5.4. Redshifts have been determined for 5 out of 7 multiple-image systems. Through a careful modeling of the mass distribution in the strongly lensed regime, we derive a mass estimate of 5.3×1014 Msolar within 500 kpc. Our mass model is then used to constrain the redshift distribution of the remaining multiply imaged and singly imaged sources. This enables us to examine the physical properties for a subsample of 7 Lyα emitters at 1.7financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Also based on observations collected at the Very Large Telescope (Antu/UT1 and Melipal/UT3), European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile (ESO programs 070.A-0643 and 073.A-0774), the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (program 8249) obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by AURA under NASA contract NAS5-26555, and the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), which is operated by the National Research Council of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique of France, and the University of Hawaii.
Rydberg-state reionization of multiply charged ions escaping from solid surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nedeljkovic, Lj.D.; Nedeljkovic, N.N.
2003-01-01
Reionization rates of Rydberg states (n>>1 and l=0, 1, and 2) of multiply charged ionic projectiles escaping solid surfaces are calculated. These rates are obtained in an analytic form as a function of the ion-surface distance R. A phenomenological model of the reionization process, based on two-state quantum dynamics, is adopted for the vicinity of the potential barrier top. The results of calculations show that ionization rates for different Rydberg states are strictly localized and relatively separated. Universality of the reionization rate as a function of the scaling parameter α, describing the turning point configurations, is demonstrated. The reionization is discussed within the framework of a nonresonant population-reionization process at intermediate ionic velocities (v∼1 a.u.). The influence of reionization on the population of ionic Rydberg states is expressed in terms of a renormalized neutralization rate. It is demonstrated that the reionization effect significantly changes the population curves for all Rydberg states. The population curves obtained correlate with beam-foil experimental data concerning the S VI, Cl VII, and Ar VIII ions
Uncertainties of predictions from parton distribution functions. I. The Lagrange multiplier method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stump, D.; Pumplin, J.; Brock, R.; Casey, D.; Huston, J.; Kalk, J.; Lai, H. L.; Tung, W. K.
2002-01-01
We apply the Lagrange multiplier method to study the uncertainties of physical predictions due to the uncertainties of parton distribution functions (PDF's), using the cross section σ W for W production at a hadron collider as an archetypal example. An effective χ 2 function based on the CTEQ global QCD analysis is used to generate a series of PDF's, each of which represents the best fit to the global data for some specified value of σ W . By analyzing the likelihood of these 'alterative hypotheses', using available information on errors from the individual experiments, we estimate that the fractional uncertainty of σ W due to current experimental input to the PDF analysis is approximately ±4% at the Fermilab Tevatron, and ±8-10% at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. We give sets of PDF's corresponding to these up and down variations of σ W . We also present similar results on Z production at the colliders. Our method can be applied to any combination of physical variables in precision QCD phenomenology, and it can be used to generate benchmarks for testing the accuracy of approximate methods based on the error matrix
Bryden, Francesca; Maruani, Antoine; Rodrigues, João M M; Cheng, Miffy H Y; Savoie, Huguette; Beeby, Andrew; Chudasama, Vijay; Boyle, Ross W
2018-01-17
Exploitation of photosensitizers as payloads for antibody-based anticancer therapeutics offers a novel alternative to the small pool of commonly utilized cytotoxins. However, existing bioconjugation methodologies are incompatible with the requirement of increased antibody loading without compromising antibody function, stability, or homogeneity. Herein, we describe the first application of dendritic multiplier groups to allow the loading of more than 4 porphyrins to a full IgG antibody in a site-specific and highly homogeneous manner. Photophysical evaluation of UV-visible absorbance and singlet oxygen quantum yields highlighted porphyrin-dendron 14 as the best candidate for bioconjugation; with subsequent bioconjugation producing a HER2-targeted therapeutic with average loading ratios of 15.4:1. In vitro evaluation of conjugate 18 demonstrated a nanomolar photocytotoxic effect in a target cell line, which overexpresses HER2, with no observed photocytotoxicity at the same concentration in a control cell line which expresses native HER2 levels, or in the absence of irradiation with visible light.
The economic impact and multiplier effect of a family practice clinic on an academic medical center.
Schneeweiss, R; Ellsbury, K; Hart, L G; Geyman, J P
1989-07-21
Academic medical centers are facing the need to expand their primary care referral base in an increasingly competitive medical environment. This study describes the medical care provided during a 1-year period to 6304 patients registered with a family practice clinic located in an academic medical center. The relative distribution of primary care, secondary referrals, inpatient admissions, and their associated costs are presented. The multiplier effect of the primary care clinic on the academic medical center was substantial. For every $1 billed for ambulatory primary care, there was $6.40 billed elsewhere in the system. Each full-time equivalent family physician generated a calculated sum of $784,752 in direct, billed charges for the hospital and $241,276 in professional fees for the other specialty consultants. The cost of supporting a primary care clinic is likely to be more than offset by the revenues generated from the use of hospital and referral services by patients who received care in the primary care setting.
Malviya, Devesh; Borage, Mangesh Balkrishna; Tiwari, Sunil
2017-12-01
This paper investigates the possibility of application of Resonant Immittance Converters (RICs) as a current source for the current-fed symmetrical Capacitor-Diode Voltage Multiplier (CDVM) with LCL-T Resonant Converter (RC) as an example. Firstly, detailed characterization of the current-fed symmetrical CDVM is carried out using repeated simulations followed by the normalization of the simulation results in order to derive the closed-form curve fit equations to predict the operating modes, output voltage and ripple in terms of operating parameters. RICs, due to their ability to convert voltage source into a current source, become a possible candidate for the realization of current source for the current-fed symmetrical CDVM. Detailed analysis, optimization and design of LCL-T RC with CDVM is performed in this paper. A step by step design procedure for the design of CDVM and the converter is proposed. A 5-stage prototype symmetrical CDVM driven by LCL-T RC to produce 2.5 kV, 50 mA dc output voltage is designed, built and tested to validate the findings of the analysis and simulation.
Cross section sensitivity study for fusion blankets incorporating lead neutron multiplier
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pelloni, S.; Cheng, E.T.
1983-01-01
In the recent European INTOR design, lead has been considered for incorporation in the blanket as either an explicit or implicit neutron multiplier. The blanket employs either Li 2 SiO 3 or Li 17 Pb 83 as tritium breeding material. Nucleonic analysis was performed for this blanket using the DLC37 and DLC41 cross section libraries. The reaction rates were estimated using the reaction cross sections provided with both libraries. In addition to that, they were estimated using the MACKLIB-IV response library. The calculated tritium breeding ratio was found to be 5% less and 15% more in the calculations with DLC41 and DLC41 plus MACKLIB-IV libraries, respectively, than in the calculation with the DLC37 library. The Fe, Pb, and Li cross sections given by the ENDF/B-IV and V were reviewed. A sensitivity study of these cross section uncertainties shows that the tritium breeding ratio is relatively insensitive to the above mentioned partial cross sections. The calculated tritium breeding ratio can be known within +-2%. (Auth.)
Distributed-Lagrange-Multiplier-based computational method for particulate flow with collisions
Ardekani, Arezoo; Rangel, Roger
2006-11-01
A Distributed-Lagrange-Multiplier-based computational method is developed for colliding particles in a solid-fluid system. A numerical simulation is conducted in two dimensions using the finite volume method. The entire domain is treated as a fluid but the fluid in the particle domains satisfies a rigidity constraint. We present an efficient method for predicting the collision between particles. In earlier methods, a repulsive force was applied to the particles when their distance was less than a critical value. In this method, an impulsive force is computed. During the frictionless collision process between two particles, linear momentum is conserved while the tangential forces are zero. Thus, instead of satisfying a condition of rigid body motion for each particle separately, as done when particles are not in contact, both particles are rigidified together along their line of centers. Particles separate from each other when the impulsive force is less than zero and after this time, a rigidity constraint is satisfied for each particle separately. Grid independency is implemented to ensure the accuracy of the numerical simulation. A comparison between this method and previous collision strategies is presented and discussed.
Electronics and electronic systems
Olsen, George H
1987-01-01
Electronics and Electronic Systems explores the significant developments in the field of electronics and electronic devices. This book is organized into three parts encompassing 11 chapters that discuss the fundamental circuit theory and the principles of analog and digital electronics. This book deals first with the passive components of electronic systems, such as resistors, capacitors, and inductors. These topics are followed by a discussion on the analysis of electronic circuits, which involves three ways, namely, the actual circuit, graphical techniques, and rule of thumb. The remaining p
First observation of liquid-xenon proportional electroluminescence in THGEM holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arazi, L; Itay, R; Landsman, H; Levinson, L; Pasmantirer, B; Rappaport, M L; Vartsky, D; Breskin, A; Coimbra, A E C
2013-01-01
Radiation-induced proportional-electroluminescence UV signals, emitted from the holes of a Thick Gas Electron Multiplier (THGEM) electrode immersed in liquid xenon, were recorded with a PMT for the first time. Significant photon yields were observed with gamma photons and alpha particles using a 0.4 mm thick electrode with 0.3 mm diameter holes; at 2 kV across the THGEM the photon yield was estimated to be ∼ 600 UV photons/electron over 4π. This may pave the way towards the realization of novel single-phase noble-liquid radiation detectors incorporating liquid hole-multipliers (LHM); their concept is presented
Linear-algebraic approach to electronic excitation of atoms and molecules by electron impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, L.A.; Schneider, B.I.
1983-01-01
A linear-algebraic method, based on an integral equations formulation, is applied to the excitation of atoms and molecules by electron impact. Various schemes are devised for treating the one-electron terms that sometimes cause instabilities when directly incorporated into the solution matrix. These include introducing Lagrange undetermined multipliers and correlation terms. Good agreement between the method and other computational techniques is obtained for electron scattering for hydrogenic and Li-like atomic ions and for H 2 + in two- to five-state close-coupling calculations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Taek Lee
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Multifractal (or singularity spectra widths w allow diagnosing cascade structure through comparing original series’ widths wOrig to surrogate series’ widths wSurr. However, interpretations of 0
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, Ying; Deng, Lei; Pang, Xiaodan
2011-01-01
be effectively pre-compensated. Without using costly W-band components, a transmission system with 26km fiber and 4m wireless transmission operating at 99.6GHz is experimentally validated. Adjacent-channel power ratio (ACPR) improvements for IQ-modulated vector signals are guaranteed and transmission......We present a W-band fiber-wireless transmission system based on a nonlinear frequency multiplier for high-speed wireless short range access applications. By implementing a baseband digital signal predistortion scheme, intensive nonlinear distortions induced in a sextuple frequency multiplier can...... performances for fiber and wireless channels are studied. This W-band predistortion technique is a promising candidate for applications in high capacity wireless-fiber access systems....
Optimization of multiply acquired magnetic flux density Bz using ICNE-Multiecho train in MREIT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nam, Hyun Soo; Kwon, Oh In
2010-01-01
The aim of magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) is to visualize the electrical properties, conductivity or current density of an object by injection of current. Recently, the prolonged data acquisition time when using the injected current nonlinear encoding (ICNE) method has been advantageous for measurement of magnetic flux density data, Bz, for MREIT in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, the ICNE method results in undesirable side artifacts, such as blurring, chemical shift and phase artifacts, due to the long data acquisition under an inhomogeneous static field. In this paper, we apply the ICNE method to a gradient and spin echo (GRASE) multi-echo train pulse sequence in order to provide the multiple k-space lines during a single RF pulse period. We analyze the SNR of the measured multiple B z data using the proposed ICNE-Multiecho MR pulse sequence. By determining a weighting factor for B z data in each of the echoes, an optimized inversion formula for the magnetic flux density data is proposed for the ICNE-Multiecho MR sequence. Using the ICNE-Multiecho method, the quality of the measured magnetic flux density is considerably increased by the injection of a long current through the echo train length and by optimization of the voxel-by-voxel noise level of the B z value. Agarose-gel phantom experiments have demonstrated fewer artifacts and a better SNR using the ICNE-Multiecho method. Experimenting with the brain of an anesthetized dog, we collected valuable echoes by taking into account the noise level of each of the echoes and determined B z data by determining optimized weighting factors for the multiply acquired magnetic flux density data.
Timing of isoclinal folds in multiply deformed high metamorphic grade region using FIA succession
Cao, Hui; Cai, Zhihui
2013-04-01
Multiply deformed and isoclinally folded interlayered high metamorphic grade gneisses and schists can be very difficult rocks for resolving early formed stratigraphic and structural relationships. When such rocks contain porphyroblasts a new approach is possible because of the way in which porphyroblast growth is affected by crenulation versus reactivation of compositional layering. The asymmetries of the overprinting foliations preserved as inclusion trails that define the FIAs can be used to investigate whether an enigmatic isoclinal fold is an antiform or synform. This approach also reveals when the fold first formed during the tectonic history of the region. Isoclinally folded rocks in the Arkansas River region of Central Colorado contain relics of fold hinges that have been very difficult to ascertain whether they are antiforms or synforms because of younger refolding effects and the locally truncated nature of coarse compositional layering. With the realization that rocks with a schistosity parallel to bedding (S0 parallel S1) have undergone lengthy histories of deformation that predate the obvious first deformation came recognition that large scale regional folds can form early during this process and be preserved throughout orogenesis. This extensive history is lost within the matrix because of reactivational shear on the compositional layering. However, it can be extracted by measuring FIAs. Recent work using this approach has revealed that the trends of axial planes of all map scale folds, when plotted on a rose diagram, strikingly reflect the FIA trends. That is, although it was demonstrated that the largest scale regional folds commonly form early in the total history, other folds can form and be preserved from subsequent destruction in the strain shadows of plutons or through the partitioning of deformation due to heterogeneities at depth.
Douglas, P. M. J.; Stolper, D. A.; Smith, D. A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Winterdahl, M.; Eiler, J. M.; Sessions, A. L.
2016-09-01
Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and there are concerns that its natural emissions from the Arctic could act as a substantial positive feedback to anthropogenic global warming. Determining the sources of methane emissions and the biogeochemical processes controlling them is important for understanding present and future Arctic contributions to atmospheric methane budgets. Here we apply measurements of multiply-substituted isotopologues, or clumped isotopes, of methane as a new tool to identify the origins of ebullitive fluxes in Alaska, Sweden and the Arctic Ocean. When methane forms in isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotope measurements indicate the formation temperature. In some microbial methane, however, non-equilibrium isotope effects, probably related to the kinetics of methanogenesis, lead to low clumped isotope values. We identify four categories of emissions in the studied samples: thermogenic methane, deep subsurface or marine microbial methane formed in isotopic equilibrium, freshwater microbial methane with non-equilibrium clumped isotope values, and mixtures of deep and shallow methane (i.e., combinations of the first three end members). Mixing between deep and shallow methane sources produces a non-linear variation in clumped isotope values with mixing proportion that provides new constraints for the formation environment of the mixing end-members. Analyses of microbial methane emitted from lakes, as well as a methanol-consuming methanogen pure culture, support the hypothesis that non-equilibrium clumped isotope values are controlled, in part, by kinetic isotope effects induced during enzymatic reactions involved in methanogenesis. Our results indicate that these kinetic isotope effects vary widely in microbial methane produced in Arctic lake sediments, with non-equilibrium Δ18 values spanning a range of more than 5‰.
Walker, Rosie May; Christoforou, Andrea Nikie; McCartney, Daniel L; Morris, Stewart W; Kennedy, Nicholas A; Morten, Peter; Anderson, Susan Maguire; Torrance, Helen Scott; Macdonald, Alix; Sussmann, Jessika Elizabeth; Whalley, Heather Clare; Blackwood, Douglas H R; McIntosh, Andrew Mark; Porteous, David John; Evans, Kathryn Louise
2016-01-01
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, familial psychiatric condition. Progress in understanding the aetiology of BD has been hampered by substantial phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. We sought to mitigate these confounders by studying a multi-generational family multiply affected by BD and major depressive disorder (MDD), who carry an illness-linked haplotype on chromosome 4p. Within a family, aetiological heterogeneity is likely to be reduced, thus conferring greater power to detect illness-related changes. As accumulating evidence suggests that altered DNA methylation confers risk for BD and MDD, we compared genome-wide methylation between (i) affected carriers of the linked haplotype (ALH) and married-in controls (MIs), (ii) well unaffected haplotype carriers (ULH) and MI, (iii) ALH and ULH and (iv) all haplotype carriers (LH) and MI. Nominally significant differences in DNA methylation were observed in all comparisons, with differences withstanding correction for multiple testing when the ALH or LH group was compared to the MIs. In both comparisons, we observed increased methylation at a locus in FANCI, which was accompanied by increased FANCI expression in the ALH group. FANCI is part of the Fanconi anaemia complementation (FANC) gene family, which are mutated in Fanconi anaemia and participate in DNA repair. Interestingly, several FANC genes have been implicated in psychiatric disorders. Regional analyses of methylation differences identified loci implicated in psychiatric illness by genome-wide association studies, including CACNB2 and the major histocompatibility complex. Gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment for methylation differences in neurologically relevant genes. Our results highlight altered DNA methylation as a potential mechanism by which the linked haplotype might confer risk for mood disorders. Differences in the phenotypic outcome of haplotype carriers might, in part, arise from additional changes in DNA methylation that converge on
The rates and time-delay distribution of multiply imaged supernovae behind lensing clusters
Li, Xue; Hjorth, Jens; Richard, Johan
2012-11-01
Time delays of gravitationally lensed sources can be used to constrain the mass model of a deflector and determine cosmological parameters. We here present an analysis of the time-delay distribution of multiply imaged sources behind 17 strong lensing galaxy clusters with well-calibrated mass models. We find that for time delays less than 1000 days, at z = 3.0, their logarithmic probability distribution functions are well represented by P(log Δt) = 5.3 × 10-4Δttilde beta/M2502tilde beta, with tilde beta = 0.77, where M250 is the projected cluster mass inside 250 kpc (in 1014M⊙), and tilde beta is the power-law slope of the distribution. The resultant probability distribution function enables us to estimate the time-delay distribution in a lensing cluster of known mass. For a cluster with M250 = 2 × 1014M⊙, the fraction of time delays less than 1000 days is approximately 3%. Taking Abell 1689 as an example, its dark halo and brightest galaxies, with central velocity dispersions σ>=500kms-1, mainly produce large time delays, while galaxy-scale mass clumps are responsible for generating smaller time delays. We estimate the probability of observing multiple images of a supernova in the known images of Abell 1689. A two-component model of estimating the supernova rate is applied in this work. For a magnitude threshold of mAB = 26.5, the yearly rate of Type Ia (core-collapse) supernovae with time delays less than 1000 days is 0.004±0.002 (0.029±0.001). If the magnitude threshold is lowered to mAB ~ 27.0, the rate of core-collapse supernovae suitable for time delay observation is 0.044±0.015 per year.
Performance of Energy Multiplier Module (EM2) with long-burn thorium fuel cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Hangbok; Schleicher, Robert; Gupta, Puja
2015-01-01
Energy Multiplier Module (EM 2 ) is a helium-cooled fast reactor being developed by General Atomics for the 21 st century grid. It is designed as a modular plant with a net electric output of 265 MWe with an evaporative heat sink and 240 MWe with an air-cooled heat sink. EM 2 core performance is examined for the baseline loading of low-enriched uranium (LEU) as fissile material with depleted uranium (DU) as fertile material and compared to the alternate LEU with thorium loading. The latter has two options: a heterogeneous loading of thorium fuel in the place of DU that produces a longer fuel cycle, and homogeneously mixed thorium-uranium fuel loading. Compared to the baseline LEU/DU core, the cycle length of both thorium options is reduced due to higher neutron absorptions by thorium. However, for both, heterogeneous and homogenous thorium loading options, the fuel cycle length is over 24 years without refueling or reshuffling of fuel assemblies. The physics properties of the EM 2 thorium core are close to those of the baseline core which constitute low excess reactivity, negative fuel temperature coefficient, and very small void reactivity. However, unlike the case of baseline EM 2 , the homogeneous thorium fuel loading provides additional advantage in reducing the power peaking of the core, which in turn reduces the cladding material neutron damage rate by 23%. It is interpreted that the relatively slow 233 U buildup as compared to 239 Pu for baseline core retards reactivity increase without the need for a complicated fuel loading pattern of the heterogeneous fuel loading, while maintaining the peak power density low. Therefore both the heterogeneous and homogeneous thorium loading options will be feasible in the EM 2
Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Mahloojifar, Ali; Orooji, Mahdi; Adabi, Saba; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza
2018-01-01
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging medical imaging modality capable of providing high spatial resolution of Ultrasound (US) imaging and high contrast of optical imaging. Delay-and-Sum (DAS) is the most common beamforming algorithm in PAI. However, using DAS beamformer leads to low resolution images and considerable contribution of off-axis signals. A new paradigm namely delay-multiply-and-sum (DMAS), which was originally used as a reconstruction algorithm in confocal microwave imaging, was introduced to overcome the challenges in DAS. DMAS was used in PAI systems and it was shown that this algorithm results in resolution improvement and sidelobe degrading. However, DMAS is still sensitive to high levels of noise, and resolution improvement is not satisfying. Here, we propose a novel algorithm based on DAS algebra inside DMAS formula expansion, double stage DMAS (DS-DMAS), which improves the image resolution and levels of sidelobe, and is much less sensitive to high level of noise compared to DMAS. The performance of DS-DMAS algorithm is evaluated numerically and experimentally. The resulted images are evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using established quality metrics including signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) and contrast ratio (CR). It is shown that DS-DMAS outperforms DAS and DMAS at the expense of higher computational load. DS-DMAS reduces the lateral valley for about 15 dB and improves the SNR and FWHM better than 13% and 30%, respectively. Moreover, the levels of sidelobe are reduced for about 10 dB in comparison with those in DMAS.
Nuclear retention of multiply spliced HIV-1 RNA in resting CD4+ T cells.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kara G Lassen
2006-07-01
Full Text Available HIV-1 latency in resting CD4+ T cells represents a major barrier to virus eradication in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. We describe here a novel post-transcriptional block in HIV-1 gene expression in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART. This block involves the aberrant localization of multiply spliced (MS HIV-1 RNAs encoding the critical positive regulators Tat and Rev. Although these RNAs had no previously described export defect, we show that they exhibit strict nuclear localization in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART. Overexpression of the transcriptional activator Tat from non-HIV vectors allowed virus production in these cells. Thus, the nuclear retention of MS HIV-1 RNA interrupts a positive feedback loop and contributes to the non-productive nature of infection of resting CD4+ T cells. To define the mechanism of nuclear retention, proteomic analysis was used to identify proteins that bind MS HIV-1 RNA. Polypyrimidine tract binding protein (PTB was identified as an HIV-1 RNA-binding protein differentially expressed in resting and activated CD4+ T cells. Overexpression of PTB in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART allowed cytoplasmic accumulation of HIV-1 RNAs. PTB overexpression also induced virus production by resting CD4+ T cells. Virus culture experiments showed that overexpression of PTB in resting CD4+ T cells from patients on HAART allowed release of replication-competent virus, while preserving a resting cellular phenotype. Whether through effects on RNA export or another mechanism, the ability of PTB to reverse latency without inducing cellular activation is a result with therapeutic implications.
Mozaffarzadeh, Moein; Mahloojifar, Ali; Orooji, Mahdi; Kratkiewicz, Karl; Adabi, Saba; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza
2017-01-01
In Photoacoustic imaging (PA), Delay-and-Sum (DAS) beamformer is a common beamforming algorithm having a simple implementation. However, it results in a poor resolution and high sidelobes. To address these challenges, a new algorithm namely Delay-Multiply-and-Sum (DMAS) was introduced having lower sidelobes compared to DAS. To improve the resolution of DMAS, a novel beamformer is introduced using Minimum Variance (MV) adaptive beamforming combined with DMAS, so-called Minimum Variance-Based D...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jong-Wuu Wu
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We propose the weighted moments estimators (WMEs of the location and scale parameters for the extreme value distribution based on the multiply type II censored sample. Simulated mean squared errors (MSEs of best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE and exact MSEs of WMEs are compared to study the behavior of different estimation methods. The results show the best estimator among the WMEs and BLUE under different combinations of censoring schemes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gardner, John; Skumatz, Lisa
2007-01-01
Research indicates that the value of omitted program effects - specifically non-energy benefits (NEBs) - represent a significant share of overall program impacts. One of the largest components of societal benefits is the direct and indirect economic and job creation effects stimulated by the investment in conservation on behalf of the program. The literature has indicated that the valuations assigned to this category of these categories can be large, but much of the literature overstates the impact of economic NEBs. We conducted extensive research to develop reliable and defensible estimates of these benefits categories. This study used input-output analysis to update the economic multipliers for NEBs in several ways. Net: Developed 'net' estimates of the multipliers (rather than 'gross' factors)Variations by Region: Estimated multipliers for multiple states and for the entire US; Variations by Program Type: Developed estimates based on different types or categories of programs (e.g weatherization vs. new construction vs. appliance programs, etc.), Variations in Baseline Assumptions: Different assumptions about where the expenditures are transferred 'from' for the net analysis (e.g. from 'generation', from a mixed market basket, etc.); and Variations over Time: Used data from multiple time periods to examine changes in the size of multipliers over time. We examined the results by state, by program type, and over time and found dramatic differences in the economic impacts by program type and territory under consideration. The results provide estimates of the economic impacts derived from the program; however, for communities or utilities with economic development goals, the results can be used to help select between program alternatives. The results are new, and the revised figures have been used to compute more reliable and tailored estimates of economic non-energy benefits that can be applied in regulatory tests