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Sample records for thick plate material

  1. Elastic stability of thick auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Auxetic materials and structures exhibit a negative Poisson’s ratio while thick plates encounter shear deformation, which is not accounted for in classical plate theory. This paper investigates the effect of a negative Poisson’s ratio on thick plates that are subjected to buckling loads, taking into consideration the shear deformation using Mindlin plate theory. Using a highly accurate shear correction factor that allows for the effect of Poisson’s ratio, the elastic stability of circular and square plates are evaluated in terms of dimensionless parameters, namely the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratio and Mindlin critical buckling load factors. Results for thick square plates reveal that both parameters increase as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. In the case of thick circular plates, the Mindlin-to-Kirchhoff critical buckling load ratios and the Mindlin critical buckling load factors increase and decrease, respectively, as the Poisson’s ratio becomes more negative. The results obtained herein show that thick auxetic plates behave as thin conventional plates, and therefore suggest that the classical plate theory can be used to evaluate the elastic stability of thick plates if the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. The results also suggest that materials with highly negative Poisson’s ratios are recommended for square plates, but not circular plates, that are subjected to buckling loads. (paper)

  2. Finite plate thickness effects on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in elastic-plastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polavarapu, Rinosh; Banerjee, Arindam

    2017-11-01

    The majority of theoretical studies have tackled the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (RTI) problem in solids using an infinitely thick plate. Recent theoretical studies by Piriz et al. (PRE 95, 053108, 2017) have explored finite thickness effects. We seek to validate this recent theoretical estimate experimentally using our rotating wheel RTI experiment in an accelerated elastic-plastic material. The test section consists of a container filled with air and mayonnaise (a non-Newtonian emulsion) with an initial perturbation between two materials. The plate thickness effects are studied by varying the depth of the soft-solid. A set of experiments is run by employing different initial conditions with different container dimensions. Additionally, the effect of acceleration rate (driving pressure rise time) on the instability threshold with reference to the finite thickness will also be inspected. Furthermore, the experimental results are compared to the analytical strength models related to finite thickness effects on RTI. Authors acknowledge financial support from DOE-SSAA Grant # DE-NA0003195 and LANL subcontract #370333.

  3. Buckling Response of Thick Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOUAZZA MOKHTAR

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the buckling of a functionally graded plate is studied by using first order shear deformation theory (FSDT. The material properties of the plate are assumed to be graded continuously in the direction of thickness. The variation of the material properties follows a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of constituents. The von Karman strains are used to construct the equilibrium equations of the plates subjected to two types of thermal loading, linear temperature rise and gradient through the thickness are considered. The governing equations are reduced to linear differential equation with boundary conditions yielding a simple solution procedure. In addition, the effects of temperature field, volume fraction distributions, and system geometric parameters are investigated. The results are compared with the results of the no shear deformation theory (classic plate theory, CPT.

  4. Transitional behaviour of thickness effects in shipbuilding materials (MS plate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, S. M. Ikhtiar; Razib, Amirul Hasan; Rahman, Md. Rabab Raiyatur

    2017-12-01

    Majority of the crack propagation in ships and offshore structures are caused due to fatigue. Previously, it was known that fatigue strength of notched specimen is dependent on size, but recently it came to light that fatigue strength of some welded joints depends on the thickness. Much investigation is done on the fatigue growth of welded joints. Fatigue often results in fracture accidents, which starts from the sites of structural discontinuities because of the reason that they may induce local stress concentrations. Structural discontinuities include notches, holes, sharp corners, and weld defects. Weld defects include undercut, porosity, lack of fusion, slag inclusion, incomplete weld root penetration, and misalignments. In order to investigate the effects of plate thickness on fatigue strength, semi-elliptical side notches (U and V shaped) in plates are studied in the present research. First consider a simple problem of crack emanating from notches in plates where the solution of stress intensity factor is given by an empirical formula so that the thickness effect on fatigue strength can easily be investigated for a variety of geometrical parameters. The present study aims to investigate the transitional behaviour of thickness effect in plates on fatigue strength. In order to calculate the stress, finite element analysis is carried by using ANSYS.

  5. Thickness Measurement of Surface Attachment on Plate with Lamb Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xianglong; Zhang, Yinghong; Wen, Lichao; He, Yehu

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the thickness detection of the plate surface attachment, a nondestructive testing method based on the Lamb wave is presented. This method utilizes Lamb wave propagation characteristics of signals in a bi-layer medium to measure the surface attachment plate thickness. Propagation of Lamb wave in bi-layer elastic is modeled and analyzed. The two-dimensional simulation model of electromagnetic ultrasonic plate - scale is established. The simulation is conducted by software COMSOL for simulation analysis under different boiler scale thickness wave form curve. Through this study, the thickness of the attached material can be judged by analyzing the characteristics of the received signal when the thickness of the surface of the plate is measured.

  6. Minimum Plate Thickness in High-Speed Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Zhang, Shengming

    1998-01-01

    The minimum plate thickness requirements specified by the classification societies for high-speed craft are supposed to ensure adequate resistance to impact loads such as collision with floating objects and objects falling on the deck. The paper presents analytical methods of describing such impact...... phenomena and proposes performance requirements instead of thickness requirements for hull panels in high-speed craft made of different building materials....

  7. Finite thickness effect of a zone plate on focusing hard x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, W.B.; Chrzas, J.; Viccaro, P.J.

    1992-01-01

    Spatial resolution and focusing efficiency are two important properties of a zone plate in x-ray focusing applications. A general expression of the zone plate equation describing its zone registration is derived from the interference of spherical waves emited from two mutually coherent point sources. An analytical expression of the focusing efficiency in terms of the zone plate thickness and x-ray refractive indices of the zones is also derived. Validity condition for using this expression is considered. Thickness required for obtaining adequate focusing efficiency is calculated as a function of x-ray energy for several representative materials. The spatial resolution of a finite thickness zone plate is worse than that of an infinetly thin zone plate. which is approximately equal to the smallest zone width of the zone plate. The effect of the finite thickness on the spatial resolution is considered

  8. Application of generalized function to dynamic analysis of elasto-plastic thick plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, D.; Weng, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The elasto-plastic dynamic analysis of thick plates is of great significance to the research and the design on an anti-seismic structure and an anti-explosive structure. In this paper, the derivative of δ-function is handled by using the generalized function. The dynamic influence coefficient of thick plates in deduced. A dynamic response of elasto-plastic thick plates its material has hardening behaviour considered, is analysed by using known elastic solutions. The general expressions for the dynamic response of elasto-plastic rectangular thick plates subjected arbitrary loads are given. Detailed computations are performed for the square plates of various height-span ratios. The results are compared with those obtained from the improved theory and the classical theory of plates. The modification of the classical deflection theory for plates is employed. The increment analysis is used for calculations. The yield function is considered as a function of inplane and transverse shear stresses. (orig./GL)

  9. Investigation of trapped thickness-twist waves induced by functionally graded piezoelectric material in an inhomogeneous plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng; Jin, Feng; Cao, Xiao-Shan

    2013-01-01

    The effect of functional graded piezoelectric materials on the propagation of thickness-twist waves is investigated through equations of the linear theory of piezoelectricity. The elastic and piezoelectric coefficients, dielectric permittivity, and mass density are assumed to change in a linear form but with different graded parameters along the wave propagation direction. We employ the power-series technique to solve the governing differential equations with variable coefficients attributed to the different graded parameters and prove the correction and convergence of this method. As a special case, the functional graded middle layer resulting from piezoelectric damage and material bonding is investigated. Piezoelectric damaged material can facilitate energy trapping, which is impossible in perfect materials. The increase in the damaged length and the reduction in the piezoelectric coefficient decrease the resonance frequency but increase the number of modes. Higher modes of thickness-twist waves appear periodically along the damaged length. Moreover, the displacement of the center of the damaged portion is neither symmetric nor anti-symmetric, unlike the non-graded plate. The conclusions are theoretically and practically significant for wave devices. (paper)

  10. NDE methods for determining the materials properties of silicon carbide plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenderian, Shant; Kim, Yong; Johnson, Eric; Palusinski, Iwona A.

    2009-08-01

    Two types of SiC plates, differing in their manufacturing processes, were interrogated using a variety of NDE techniques. The task of evaluating the materials properties of these plates was a challenge due to their non-uniform thickness. Ultrasound was used to estimate the Young's Modulus and calculate the thickness profile and Poisson's Ratio of the plates. The Young's Modulus profile plots were consistent with the thickness profile plots, indicating that the technique was highly influenced by the non-uniform thickness of the plates. The Poisson's Ratio is calculated from the longitudinal and shear wave velocities. Because the thickness is cancelled out, the result is dependent only on the time of flight of the two wave modes, which can be measured accurately. X-Ray was used to determine if any density variations were present in the plates. None were detected suggesting that the varying time of flight of the acoustic wave is attributed only to variations in the elastic constants and thickness profiles of the plates. Eddy Current was used to plot the conductivity profile. Surprisingly, the conductivity profile of one type of plates varied over a wide range rarely seen in other materials. The other type revealed a uniform conductivity profile.

  11. Application of generalized function to dynamic analysis of thick plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, D.; Weng, Z.

    1987-01-01

    The structures with thick plates have been used extensively in national defence, mechanical engineering, chemical engineering, nuclear engineering, civil engineering, etc.. Various theories have been established to deal with the problems of elastic plates, which include the classical theory of thin plates, the improved theory of thick plates, three-dimensional elastical theory. In this paper, the derivative of δ-function is handled by using the generalized function. The dynamic analysis of thick plates subjected the concentrated load is presented. The improved Donnell's equation of thick plates is deduced and employed as the basic equation. The generalized coordinates are solved by using the method of MWR. The general expressions for the dynamic response of elastic thick plates subjected the concentrated load are given. The numerical results for rectangular plates are given herein. The results are compared with those obtained from the improved theory and the classical theory of plates. (orig./GL)

  12. Air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission thickness measurements of steel plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waag, Grunde; Hoff, Lars; Norli, Petter

    2015-02-01

    Non-destructive ultrasonic testing of steel structures provide valuable information in e.g. inspection of pipes, ships and offshore structures. In many practical applications, contact measurements are cumbersome or not possible, and air-coupled ultrasound can provide a solution. This paper presents air-coupled ultrasonic through-transmission measurements on a steel plate with thicknesses 10.15 mm; 10.0 mm; 9.8 mm. Ultrasound pulses were transmitted from a piezoelectric transducer at normal incidence, through the steel plate, and were received at the opposite side. The S1, A2 and A3 modes of the plate are excited, with resonance frequencies that depend on the material properties and the thickness of the plate. The results show that the resonances could be clearly identified after transmission through the steel plate, and that the frequencies of the resonances could be used to distinguish between the three plate thicknesses. The S1-mode resonance was observed to be shifted 10% down compared to a simple plane wave half-wave resonance model, while the A2 and S2 modes were found approximately at the corresponding plane-wave resonance frequencies. A model based on the angular spectrum method was used to predict the response of the through-transmission setup. This model included the finite aperture of the transmitter and receiver, and compressional and shear waves in the solid. The model predicts the frequencies of the observed modes of the plate to within 1%, including the down-shift of the S1-mode. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Numerical simulation of springback of medium-thick plates in local hot rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Dong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] In order to understand the factors of springback in the local hot rolling of medium-thick steel plates,[Methods] a 3D thermal-elastic-plastic analysis is conducted to investigate the factors affecting the amount of springback. Through a series of numerical analyses,the influence of deformation temperature,temperature field distribution,plate size and local loading are examined. [Results] The results show that when the deformation temperature exceeds a certain level at which material yield stress begins to decrease significantly,the springback will reduce markedly with the increase in temperature. Due to the distribution characteristics of the deformation area,the influence of temperature distribution on springback where the local deformation scale is larger is dominated by the three dimensions of temperature field distribution. Changes in the length and width of the plate have a certain influence on the springback,in which changes to the length of a plate where the local deformation scale is larger have a more obvious influence on springback. The springback of the plate decreases with the increase of local loading. [Conclusions] The results of this study can assist in the optimization of parameters in the automatic hot rolling of thick plates,while also having a basic guiding effect on the further study of springback in the local hot rolling of thick plates.

  14. Through thickness property variations in a thick plate AA7050 friction stir welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canaday, Clinton T.; Moore, Matthew A.; Tang, Wei; Reynolds, A.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, moderately thick (32 mm) AA7050 plates were joined by friction stir welding (FSW). Various methods were used to characterize the welded joints, including nugget grain size measurements at different locations through the thickness, micro-hardness indentation through nugget, thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and heat affected zone (HAZ) at different cross section heights, and residual stress measurement using the cut compliance method with full thickness and partial thickness specimens. All testing results are consistent with the presence of a strong gradient in peak temperature through the plate thickness during FSW.

  15. Stresses and strains in thick perforated orthotropic plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Alshaya; John Hunt; R. Rowlands

    2016-01-01

    Stress and strain concentrations and in-plane and out-of-plane stress constraint factors associated with a circular hole in thick, loaded orthotropic composite plates are determined by three-dimensional finite element method. The plate has essentially infinite in-plane geometry but finite thickness. Results for Sitka Spruce wood are emphasized, although some for carbon...

  16. Failure criterion of concrete type material and punching failure analysis of thick mortar plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, T.; Kuroiwa, M.; Irobe, M.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper falure surface of concrete type material is proposed and its validity to structural analysis is examined. The study is an introductory part of evaluation for ultimate strength of reinforced and prestressed concrete structures in reactor technology. The failure surface is expressed in a linear form in terms of octahedral normal and shear stresses. Coefficient of the latter stress is given by a trigonometric series in threefold angle of similarity. Hence, its meridians are multilinear and traces of its deviatoric sections are smooth curves having periodicity of 2π/3 around space diagonal in principal stress space. The mathematical expression of the surface has an arbitraty number of parameters so that material test results are well reflected. To confirm the effectiveness of proposed failure criterion, experiment and numerical analysis by the finite element method on punching failure of thick mortar plate in axial symmetry are compared. In the numerical procedure yield surface of the material is assumed to exist mainly in compression region, since a brittle cleavage or elastic fracture occurs in the concrete type material under stress state with tension, while a ductile or plastic fracture occurs under compressive stress state. (orig.)

  17. Asymmetric Vibration of Polar Orthotropic Annular Circular Plates of Quadratically Varying Thickness with Same Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bhardwaj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, asymmetric vibration of polar orthotropic annular circular plates of quadratically varying thickness resting on Winkler elastic foundation is studied by using boundary characteristic orthonormal polynomials in Rayleigh-Ritz method. Convergence of the results is tested and comparison is made with results already available in the existing literature. Numerical results for the first ten frequencies for various values of parameters describing width of annular plate, thickness profile, material orthotropy and foundation constant for all three possible combinations of clamped, simply supported and free edge conditions are shown and discussed. It is found that (a higher elastic property in circumferential direction leads to higher stiffness against lateral vibration; (b Lateral vibration characteristics of F-Fplates is more sensitive towards parametric changes in material orthotropy and foundation stiffness than C-C and S-Splates; (c Effect of quadratical thickness variation on fundamental frequency is more significant in cases of C-C and S-S plates than that of F-Fplates. Thickness profile which is convex relative to plate center-line tends to result in higher stiffness of annular plates against lateral vibration than the one which is concave and (d Fundamental mode of vibration of C-C and S-Splates is axisymmetrical while that of F-Fplates is asymmetrical.

  18. Aeroelastic Tailoring of a Plate Wing with Functionally Graded Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Peter D.; Stanford, Bret K.; Kim, H. Alicia; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    This work explores the use of functionally graded materials for the aeroelastic tailoring of a metallic cantilevered plate-like wing. Pareto trade-off curves between dynamic stability (flutter) and static aeroelastic stresses are obtained for a variety of grading strategies. A key comparison is between the effectiveness of material grading, geometric grading (i.e., plate thickness variations), and using both simultaneously. The introduction of material grading does, in some cases, improve the aeroelastic performance. This improvement, and the physical mechanism upon which it is based, depends on numerous factors: the two sets of metallic material parameters used for grading, the sweep of the plate, the aspect ratio of the plate, and whether the material is graded continuously or discretely.

  19. Mechanical properties of F82H plates with different thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakasegawa, Hideo, E-mail: sakasegawa.hideo@jaea.go.jp; Tanigawa, Hiroyasu

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Mass effect, homogeneity, and anisotropy in mechanical properties were studied. • Thickness dependence of tensile property was not observed. • Thickness dependence of Charpy impact property was observed. • Appropriate mechanical properties were obtained using an electric furnace. - Abstract: Fusion DEMO reactor requires over 11,000 tons of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel and it is indispensable to develop the manufacturing technology for producing large-scale components of DEMO blanket with appropriate mechanical properties. This is because mechanical properties are generally degraded with increasing production volume. In this work, we focused mechanical properties of F82H–BA12 heat which was melted in a 20 tons electric arc furnace. Plates with difference thicknesses from 18 to 100 mm{sup t} were made from its ingot through forging and hot-rolling followed by heat treatments. Tensile and Charpy impact tests were then performed on plates focusing on their homogeneity and anisotropy. From the result, their homogeneity and anisotropy were not significant. No obvious differences were observed in tensile properties between the plates with different thicknesses. However, Charpy impact property changed with increasing plate thickness, i.e. the ductile brittle transition temperature of a 100 mm{sup t} thick plate was higher than that of the other thinner plates.

  20. Investigation of the Section Thickness Measurement in Tomosynthesis by Thin Metal Plate Edge Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Kaoru; Akita, Tsunemichi; Hanai, Kozo; Muramatsu, Yoshihisa

    When performing tomosynthesis, the section thickness needs to be set depending on a radiographic part and its diagnostic purpose. However, the section thickness in tomosynthesis has not been clearly defined and its measurement method has not been established yet. In this study, we devised the alternative measurement method to diagnose the section thickness using an edge of thin metal plate, and compared with the simulation results, the wire and bead method reported in the previous papers. The tomographic image of the thin metal plate positioned on the table top inclining 30 degrees, which showed the edge spread function (ESF) of each tomographic height, was taken, and then the line spread function (LSF) was obtained by differentiating the ESF image. For the next, a profile curve was plotted by maximum values of LSF of each tomographic height, and a section thickness was calculated using the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the profile curve. The edge method derived the section thickness close to the simulation results than the other methods. Further, the section thickness depends on the thickness of the metal plate and not the material. The thickness of the metal plate suitable for the evaluation of section thickness is 0.3 mm that is equivalent to pixel size of the flat panel detector (FPD). We conducted quantitative verification to establish the measurement method of the section thickness. The edge method is a useful technique as well as the wire and bead method for grasping basic characteristics of an imaging system.

  1. Refined shear correction factor for very thick simply supported and uniformly loaded isosceles right triangular auxetic plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Teik-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    For moderately thick plates, the use of First order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) with a constant shear correction factor of 5/6 is sufficient to take into account the plate deflection arising from transverse shear deformation. For very thick plates, the use of Third order Shear Deformation Theory (TSDT) is preferred as it allows the shear strain distribution to be varied through the plate thickness. Therefore no correction factor is required in TSDT, unlike FSDT. Due to the complexity involved in TSDT, this paper obtains a more accurate shear correction factor for use in FSDT of very thick simply supported and uniformly loaded isosceles right triangular plates based on the TSDT. By matching the maximum deflections for this plate according to FSDT and TSDT, a variable shear correction factor is obtained. Results show that the shear correction factor for the simplified TSDT, i.e. 14/17, is least accurate. The commonly adopted shear correction factor of 5/6 in FSDT is valid only for very thin or highly auxetic plates. This paper provides a variable shear correction for FSDT deflection that matches the plate deflection by TSDT. This variable shear correction factor allows designers to justify the use of a commonly adopted shear correction factor of 5/6 even for very thick plates as long as the Poisson’s ratio of the plate material is sufficiently negative. (paper)

  2. Thick nickel plating of spent fuel transport and storage casks CASTOR and POLLUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbuer, K.

    1991-01-01

    Spent fuel elements have to be safely handled in containers for transport and storage. These large casks (100-120 t) are made by various firms according to the specifications given by the nuclear plant operator. For shielding and protection of the hazardous material, the casks' inner surface is coated with a nickel plating about 3000 μm thick. The product and the production process are subject to very stringent requirements, due to the hazardous potential of the material to be shipped or stored. Therefore, both the extremely high quality standards to be met by the nickel plating and the dimensions and capability of the plating plant required for the process are problems that cannot be solved by a usual commercial plating plant. The new concept and process that had to be established are explained in the paper. (orig./MM) [de

  3. The technology and welding joint properties of hybrid laser-tig welding on thick plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenghai, Zhang; Yifu, Shen; Huijuan, Qiu

    2013-06-01

    The technologies of autogenous laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding are used on thick plate of high strength lower alloy structural steel 10CrNiMnMoV in this article. The unique advantages of hybrid laser-TIG welding is summarized by comparing and analyzing the process parameters and welding joints of autogenous laser welding laser welding and hybrid laser-TIG welding. With the optimal process parameters of hybrid welding, the good welding joint without visible flaws can be obtained and its mechanical properties are tested according to industry standards. The results show that the hybrid welding technology has certain advantages and possibility in welding thick plates. It can reduce the demands of laser power, and it is significant for lowering the aspect ratio of weld during hybrid welding, so the gas in the molten pool can rise and escape easily while welding thick plates. Therefore, the pores forming tendency decreases. At the same time, hybrid welding enhances welding speed, and optimizes the energy input. The transition and grain size of the microstructure of hybrid welding joint is better and its hardness is higher than base material. Furthermore, its tensile strength and impact toughness is as good as base material. Consequently, the hybrid welding joint can meet the industry needs completely.

  4. Evaluation of palatal plate thickness of maxillary prosthesis on phonation- a comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakkula, Srujana; B, Sreedevi; Anne, Gopinadh; Manne, Prakash; Bindu O, Swetha Hima; Atla, Jyothi; Deepthi, Sneha; Chaitanya A, Krishna

    2014-04-01

    Prosthodontic treatment involves clinical procedures which influence speech performance directly or indirectly. Prosthetic rehabilitation of missing teeth with partial or complete maxillary removable dentures influences the individual voice characteristics like Phonation, resonance etc. To evaluate the effect of Acrylic palatal plate thickness (1mm-3mm) of maxillary prosthesis on phonation. Twelve subjects were selected randomly between the age group of 20-25 years who have full complement of teeth and have no speech problems. Speech evaluation was done under four experimental conditions i.e. Without any experimental acrylic palatal plate (control), with experimental acrylic palatal plates of thickness 1 mm, 2 mm and 3 mm respectively. The speech material for phonation test consisted of Vowels sounds /a/, /i/, and /o/. Speech analysis to assess phonation was done using digital acoustic analysis (PRAAT software). The obtained results were statistically analyzed by One-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post-hoc for comparison of four experimental conditions with respect to different vowel sounds. Mean harmonics to noise ratio (HNR) values obtained for all the Experimental conditions did not show significant difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, an increase in the thickness of the acrylic palatal plate of maxillary prosthesis for about 1 mm - 3mm in complete or partial maxillary removable dentures resulted in no significant effect on phonation of vowel sounds /a/, /i/ and /o/. Increasing the thickness of the palatal plate from 1 mm to 3 mm has not shown any significant effect on the phonation.

  5. Crustal thickness controlled by plate tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artemieva, Irina M.; Meissner, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    /gabbro–eclogite phase transition in crustal evolution and the links between lithosphere recycling, mafic magmatism, and crustal underplating. We advocate that plate tectonics processes, togetherwith basalt/gabbro–eclogite transition, limit crustal thickness worldwide by providing effective mechanisms of crustal...

  6. On the material properties of shell plate formed by line heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kyun Lim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with investigating the plastic material properties of steel plate formed by line heating method, and is aimed at implementing more rational design considering the accidental limit states such as collision or grounding. For the present study, line heating test for marine grade steel plate has been carried out with varying plate thickness and heating speed, and then microscopic examination and tensile test have been carried out. From the microscopic, it is found that the grain refined zones like ferrite and pearlite are formed all around the heat affected zone. From the tensile test results, it is seen that yield strength, tensile strength, fracture strain, hardening exponent and strength coefficient vary with plate thickness and heat input quantity. The formulae relating the material properties and heat input parameter should be, therefore, derived for the design purpose considering the accidental impact loading. This paper ends with describing the extension of the present study.

  7. Measurement of the residual stress distribution in a thick pre-stretched aluminum plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. X.; Li, X. Q.; M, S.; Zhang, Y. C.; Gong, Y. D.

    2008-12-01

    Thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plates are widely used in aircraft, while machining distortion caused by initial residual stress release in thick plates is a common and serious problem. To reduce the distortion, the residual stress distribution in thick plate must be measured. According to the characteristics of the thick pre-stretched aluminum alloy plate, based the elastic mechanical theory, this article deduces the modified layer-removal strain method adapting two different strain situations, which are caused by tensile and compressive stress. To validate this method, the residual stresses distribution along the thick direction of plate 2D70T351 is measured by this method, it is shown that the new method deduced in this paper is simple and accurate, and is very useful in engineering.

  8. Aerodynamic sound from a sawtooth plate with different thickness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acoustic performance of an airfoil can be improved with the serrated leading or trailing edge. A sawtooth plate is one of the serration shapes. In this study, the effect of sawtooth plate thickness on the aerodynamically generated noise in wake-sawtooth plate interaction at a Reynolds number of 150 is numerically investigated ...

  9. MLEP-Fail calibration for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corona, Edmundo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-01

    The purpose of the work presented in this memo was to calibrate the Sierra material model Multilinear Elastic-Plastic Hardening Model with Failure (MLEP-Fail) for 1/8 inch thick cast plate of 17-4 steel. The calibration approach is essentially the same as that recently used in a previous memo using data from smooth and notched tensile specimens. The notched specimens were manufactured with three notch radii R = 1=8, 1/32 and 1/64 inches. The dimensions of the smooth and notched specimens are given in the prints in Appendix A. Two cast plates, Plate 3 and Plate 4, with nominally identical properties were considered.

  10. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M.

    2014-01-01

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range

  11. General analytical approach for sound transmission loss analysis through a thick metamaterial plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudich, Mourad; Zhou, Xiaoming; Badreddine Assouar, M., E-mail: Badreddine.Assouar@univ-lorraine.fr [CNRS, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy F-54506 (France); Institut Jean Lamour, University of Lorraine, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP: 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France)

    2014-11-21

    We report theoretically and numerically on the sound transmission loss performance through a thick plate-type acoustic metamaterial made of spring-mass resonators attached to the surface of a homogeneous elastic plate. Two general analytical approaches based on plane wave expansion were developed to calculate both the sound transmission loss through the metamaterial plate (thick and thin) and its band structure. The first one can be applied to thick plate systems to study the sound transmission for any normal or oblique incident sound pressure. The second approach gives the metamaterial dispersion behavior to describe the vibrational motions of the plate, which helps to understand the physics behind sound radiation through air by the structure. Computed results show that high sound transmission loss up to 72 dB at 2 kHz is reached with a thick metamaterial plate while only 23 dB can be obtained for a simple homogeneous plate with the same thickness. Such plate-type acoustic metamaterial can be a very effective solution for high performance sound insulation and structural vibration shielding in the very low-frequency range.

  12. Analysis of a Fluid-Loaded Thick Plate

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hull, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    The physics of a thick plate with fluid loading on both sides provides the theoretical basis for insertion loss and echo reduction tests, both of which are typically used to determine how efficiently...

  13. Mechanical System Analysis of C-Frame for Steel Plate Thickness Gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear base instrument is not only applied in the area of research such as medical and agriculture sciences, but also in the field of industry especially for thickness gauge. To the present at the steel industry, the gauge that is applied to cut plate thickness using infra-red ray method, it cannot result in accurately data. To solve that case, it is developed a thickness gauge of steel plate by using gamma ray method that it is named C-Frame. This thickness gauge is hoped that it could control in cutting the steel plate by on-line, accurate, and safe, therefore, it could socialize the advanced technology in the nuclear field to support the production process in domestic industries (national industries). The present study yields the calculations of mechanical system of that C-Frame including structure, detector support, source container of radioisotope, and transmission system, be also computed by running Professional Microsoft Fortran Version 5.10, NISA-II program, and AutoCAD program. From the obtained results could be known that the design meets the requirement, so that could be employed properly to measure the thickness of plate in the steel industries. (author)

  14. A new discrete Kirchhoff-Mindlin element based on Mindlin-Reissner plate theory and assumed shear strain fields. I - An extended DKT element for thick-plate bending analysis. II - An extended DKQ element for thick-plate bending analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katili, Irwan

    1993-06-01

    A new three-node nine-degree-of-freedom triangular plate bending element is proposed which is valid for the analysis of both thick and thin plates. The element, called the discrete Kirchhoff-Mindlin triangle (DKMT), has a proper rank, passes the patch test for thin and thick plates in an arbitrary mesh, and is free of shear locking. As an extension of the DKMT element, a four-node element with 3 degrees of freedom per node is developed. The element, referred to as DKMQ (discrete Kirchhoff-Mindlin quadrilateral) is found to provide good results for both thin and thick plates without any compatibility problems.

  15. Analysis technology in the thick plate free drop impact, heat and thermal stress of the cask for radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dew Hey; Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Choi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun; Kim, Seong Jong

    2002-03-01

    In this study, The regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for thick plate free drop and the results of ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for heat and thermal stress analysis is completely corresponded. And the integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology

  16. Analysis technology in the thick plate free drop impact, heat and thermal stress of the cask for radioactive material transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dew Hey [Korea Institute of Nuclear and Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Young Shin; Ryu, Chung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Su; Choi, Kyung Joo; Choi, Young Jin; Lee, Jae Hyung; Na, Jae Yun; Kim, Seong Jong [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    In this study, The regulatory condition and analysis condition is analyzed for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis to develop the safety assessment technology. Analysis is performed with finite element method which is one of the many analysis methods of the shipping cask. ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS is suitable for thick plate free drop, heat and thermal stress analysis of the shipping cask. For the analysis model, the KSC-4 that is the shipping cask to transport spent nuclear fuel is investigated. The results of both LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for thick plate free drop and the results of ANSYS, LS-DYNA3D and ABAQUS for heat and thermal stress analysis is completely corresponded. And the integrity of the shipping cask is verified. Using this study, the reliable safety assessment technology is supplied to the staff. The efficient and reliable regulatory tasks is performed using the standard safety assessment technology.

  17. Optimizing rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios in orthotropic decks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Fettahoglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthotropic decks are composed of deck plate, ribs, and cross-beams and are frequently used in industry to span long distances, due to their light structures and load carrying capacities. Trapezoidal ribs are broadly preferred as longitudinal stiffeners in design of orthotropic decks. They supply the required stiffness to the orthotropic deck in traffic direction. Trapezoidal ribs are chosen in industrial applications because of their high torsional and buckling rigidity, less material and welding needs. Rib width, height, spacing, thickness of deck plate are important parameters for designing of orthotropic decks. In the scope of this study, rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios are assessed by means of the stresses developed under different ratios of these parameters. For this purpose a FE-model of orthotropic bridge is generated, which encompasses the entire bridge geometry and conforms to recommendations given in Eurocode 3 Part 2. Afterwards necessary FE-analyses are performed to reveal the stresses developed under different rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios. Based on the results obtained in this study, recommendations regarding these ratios are provided for orthotropic steel decks occupying trapezoidal ribs.

  18. Elastoplastic Stability and Failure Analysis of FGM Plate with Temperature Dependent Material Properties under Thermomechanical Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanishk Sharma

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper explores the stability and failure response of elastoplastic Ni/Al2O3 functionally graded plate under thermomechanical load using non-linear finite element formulation based on first-order shear deformation theory and von-Karman’s nonlinear kinematics. The temperature dependent thermoelastic material properties of FGM plate are varied in the thickness direction by controlling the volume fraction of the constituent materials (i.e., ceramic and metal with a power law, and Mori-Tanaka homogenization scheme is applied to evaluate the properties at a particular thickness coordinate of FGM plate. The elastoplastic behavior of FGM plate is assumed to follow J2-plasticity with isotropic hardening, wherein the ceramic phase is considered to be elastic whereas the metal is assumed to be elastic-plastic in accordance with the Tamura-Tomota-Ozawa model. Numerical studies are conducted to examine the effects of material and geometrical parameters, viz. material in-homogeneity, slenderness and aspect ratios on the elastoplastic bucking and postbuckling behavior and the failure response of FGM plate. It is revealed that material gradation affects the stability and failure behavior of FGM plate considerably. Furthermore, it is also concluded that FGM plate with elastic material properties exhibits only stable equilibrium path, whereas the elastoplastic FGM plate shows destabilizing response after the ultimate failure point.

  19. Some aspects of thick, soft nickel plating for end shields of atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishnaswamy, R.

    1987-01-01

    Thick (55 Thou) and soft (160 vickers) hardness number nickel plating over SS for RAPP end shields presented unusual problems as the thickness required was extremely large creating adhesion problems and the extremely stringent hardness conditions. A sulfamate bath with nickel anode was found suitable. The problems in thick, soft plating, the chemical and other procedures adopted to monitor the bath and the plated specimen and the other details are presented. (author). 11 refs

  20. Thick film nickel plating - the alternative. Long-term experiences; Dickschichtvernickelung - die Alternative. Langzeiterfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senff-Wollenberg, Ralf [Baumgarte Boiler Systems GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany). Technik; Ansey, Johann-Wilhelm [Baumgarte Boiler Systems GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany). Forschung und Entwicklung; Reinmoeller, Frank [Baumgarte Boiler Systems GmbH, Bielefeld (Germany)

    2013-03-01

    The ecologic and energetic demands on modern plants fort he thermal utilization of waste materials increase continuously. Beside low costs of investment, enhanced efficiencies, an enhanced availability, long journey times as well as low costs of operation and maintenance are important factors for the investment decision. The primary and secondary measures for the shrinkage of corrosion are decisive for achieving the factors for the decision of investment and maintenance. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on long-term experiences on the thick film nickel plating. Especially, the process of galvanic nickel plating, the fields of application as well as the operational experiences are described.

  1. Computational Model for Impact-Resisting Critical Thickness of High-Speed Machine Outer Protective Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaying; Wang, Li Zhong; Wang, Yantao; Yuan, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    The blade or surface grinding blade of the hypervelocity grinding wheel may be damaged due to too high rotation rate of the spindle of the machine and then fly out. Its speed as a projectile may severely endanger the field persons. Critical thickness model of the protective plate of the high-speed machine is studied in this paper. For easy analysis, the shapes of the possible impact objects flying from the high-speed machine are simplified as sharp-nose model, ball-nose model and flat-nose model. Whose front ending shape to represent point, line and surface contacting. Impact analysis based on J-C model is performed for the low-carbon steel plate with different thicknesses in this paper. One critical thickness computational model for the protective plate of high-speed machine is established according to the damage characteristics of the thin plate to get relation among plate thickness and mass, shape and size and impact speed of impact object. The air cannon is used for impact test. The model accuracy is validated. This model can guide identification of the thickness of single-layer outer protective plate of a high-speed machine.

  2. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved...... sequential 90 deg rotations about the normal direction (ND) between passes. The microstructure in the center of these plates, and especially the extent of microstructural heterogeneity, has been characterized quantitatively and compared with that in bar samples extruded via either route A or route Bc with 90...... Bc. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012...

  3. Investigations of a type 316L steam dryer plate material suffering from IGSCC after few years in BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autio, J.M.; Ehrnsten, U.; Pakarinen, J.; Mouginot, R.; Cocco, M.

    2015-01-01

    A steam dryer plate material suffered from intergranular stress corrosion cracking after only one and two years of operation in two BWR plants. Numerous indications were observed on the inner roof plates of the steam dryers adjacent to the support beam welds. The material was Type 316L austenitic stainless steel with carbon content below 0.02%. The material was subjected to detailed investigations using optical microscopy, EBSD/SEM, TEM, hardness and nano-indentation. The material showed macro-segregation through the plate thickness. These bands coincided with the location of delta-ferrite islands indicating non-optimal solution heat treatment. α'-martensite was observed deep in the plate indicating cold deformation after solution annealing. A nonhomogeneous distribution of grain orientation was also observed through the plate thickness. Further, surface deformation, although not extending very deep, was observed using EBSD and surface hardness values above 300 HV when measured using small loads. Although the material fulfills the set requirements, the material characteristics have obviously increased the susceptibility of the material to IGSCC. The paper will discuss the possible role of changes in manufacturing over the years and the challenges in quality definitions in material specifications. (authors)

  4. Three-dimensional inverse transient heat transfer analysis of thick functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haghighi, M.R. Golbahar; Malekzadeh, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran); Eghtesad, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71348-51154 (Iran); Necsulescu, D.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-03-15

    In this paper, a three-dimensional transient inverse heat conduction (IHC) procedure is presented to estimate the unknown boundary heat flux of thick functionally graded (FG) plates. For this purpose, the conjugate gradient method (CGM) in conjunction with adjoint problem is used. A recently developed three-dimensional efficient hybrid method is employed to solve variable-coefficient initial-boundary-value differential equations of direct problem as a part of the inverse solution. The accuracy of the inverse analysis is examined by simulating the exact and noisy data for problems with different types of boundary conditions and material properties. In addition to rectangular domain, skew plates are considered. The results obtained show good accuracy for the estimation of boundary heat fluxes. (author)

  5. Resonant frequency function of thickness-shear vibrations of rectangular crystal plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji; Yang, Lijun; Pan, Qiaoqiao; Chao, Min-Chiang; Du, Jianke

    2011-05-01

    The resonant frequencies of thickness-shear vibrations of quartz crystal plates in rectangular and circular shapes are always required in the design and manufacturing of quartz crystal resonators. As the size of quartz crystal resonators shrinks, for rectangular plates we must consider effects of both length and width for the precise calculation of resonant frequency. Starting from the three-dimensional equations of wave propagation in finite crystal plates and the general expression of vibration modes, we obtained the relations between frequency and wavenumbers. By satisfying the major boundary conditions of the dominant thickness-shear mode, three wavenumber solutions are obtained and the frequency equation is constructed. It is shown the resonant frequency of thickness-shear mode is a second-order polynomial of aspect ratios. This conforms to known results in the simplest form and is applicable to further analytical and experimental studies of the frequency equation of quartz crystal resonators.

  6. Buckling Analysis of Rectangular Plates with Variable Thickness Resting on Elastic Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, K K; Aziz, Z A; Navaneethakrishnan, P V

    2015-01-01

    Buckling of rectangular plates of variable thickness resting in elastic foundation is analysed using a quintic spline approximation technique. The thickness of the plate varies in the direction of one edge and the variations are assumed to be linear, exponential and sinusoidal. The plate is subjected to in plane load of two opposite edges. The buckling load and the mode shapes of buckling are computed from the eigenvalue problem that arises. Detailed parametric studies are made with different boundary conditions and the results are presented through the diagram and discussed

  7. DYNAMIC RESPONSE OF THICK PLATES ON TWO PARAMETER ELASTIC FOUNDATION UNDER TIME VARIABLE LOADING

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgan, Korhan; Daloglu, Ayse T.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, behavior of foundation plates with transverse shear deformation under time variable loading is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of thick plates on elastic foundation is derived by using an 8-noded finite element based on Mindlin plate theory. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem which arises when smaller plate thickness is considered for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices. After comparis...

  8. Effect of Glass Thickness on Performance of Flat Plate Solar Collectors for Fruits Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadhani Bakari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at investigating the effect of thickness of glazing material on the performance of flat plate solar collectors. Performance of solar collector is affected by glaze transmittance, absorptance, and reflectance which results into major heat losses in the system. Four solar collector models with different glass thicknesses were designed, constructed, and experimentally tested for their performances. Collectors were both oriented to northsouth direction and tilted to an angle of 10° with the ground toward north direction. The area of each collector model was 0.72 m2 with a depth of 0.15 m. Low iron (extra clear glass of thicknesses 3 mm, 4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm was used as glazing materials. As a control, all collector performances were analysed and compared using a glass of 5 mm thickness and then with glass of different thickness. The results showed that change in glass thickness results into variation in collector efficiency. Collector with 4 mm glass thick gave the best efficiency of 35.4% compared to 27.8% for 6 mm glass thick. However, the use of glass of 4 mm thick needs precautions in handling and during placement to the collector to avoid extra costs due to breakage.

  9. Thickness of the Buccal Plate in Posterior Teeth: A Prospective Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Kayleigh Eaves; Schoolfield, John; Noujeim, Marcel E; Huynh-Ba, Guy; Lasho, David J; Mealey, Brian L

    Buccal plate thickness is an important clinical parameter for postextraction implant treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to assess buccal plate thickness of the posterior maxilla and mandible using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). A total of 265 patients and 934 teeth met the inclusion criteria for this study. CBCT volumes were taken and aligned for measurement at the ideal midsagittal cross-section. Buccal plate thickness was measured at 1, 3, and 5 mm apical to the alveolar crest. The frequency of thick (≥ 1 mm), thin (teeth.

  10. Shrinkage Analysis on Thick Plate Part using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isafiq M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work reported herein is about an analysis on the quality (shrinkage on a thick plate part using Response Surface Methodology (RSM. Previous researches showed that the most influential factor affecting the shrinkage on moulded parts are mould and melt temperature. Autodesk Moldflow Insight software was used for the analysis, while specifications of Nessei NEX 1000 injection moulding machine and P20 mould material were incorporated in this study on top of Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS as a moulded thermoplastic material. Mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure and packing time were selected as variable parameters. The results show that the shrinkage have improved 42.48% and 14.41% in parallel and normal directions respectively after the optimisation process.

  11. Conformity Check of Thickness to the Crystal Plate λ/4(λ/2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Syuy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates that if crystal plates are identical in thickness in the direction of radiation, the intensity at the output of the polarizer-crystal-crystal-analyzer system equals zero. This means that it is possible to control the difference in thickness between the reference crystal plate (e.g., plates of λ/4 or λ/2 and the examined plate by the intensity of the transmitted radiation. Further, it shows that if nonmonochromatic radiation is used, then the spectrum of radiation at the output is determined by the relative orientation of the optical elements and their sizes. The paper gives the theoretical model for calculations of profile of spectra for the number of important cases of orientation of elements.

  12. A Modified Kirchhoff plate theory for Free Vibration analysis of functionally graded material plates using meshfree method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen Van Do, Vuong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a modified Kirchhoff theory is presented for free vibration analyses of functionally graded material (FGM) plate based on modified radial point interpolation method (RPIM). The shear deformation effects are taken account into modified theory to ignore the locking phenomenon of thin plates. Due to the proposed refined plate theory, the number of independent unknowns reduces one variable and exists with four degrees of freedom per node. The simulated free vibration results employed by the modified RPIM are compared with the other analytical solutions to verify the effectiveness and the accuracy of the developed mesh-free method. Detail parametric studies of the proposed method are then conducted including the effectiveness of thickness ratio, boundary condition and material inhomogeneity on the sample problems of square plates. Results illustrated that the modified mesh-free RPIM can effectively predict the numerical calculation as compared to the exact solutions. The obtained numerical results are indicated that the proposed method are stable and well accurate prediction to evaluate with other published analyses.

  13. Advanced gamma spectrum processing technique applied to the analysis of scattering spectra for determining material thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Duc Tam; VNUHCM-University of Science, Ho Chi Minh City; Huynh Dinh Chuong; Tran Thien Thanh; Vo Hoang Nguyen; Hoang Thi Kieu Trang; Chau Van Tao

    2015-01-01

    In this work, an advanced gamma spectrum processing technique is applied to analyze experimental scattering spectra for determining the thickness of C45 heat-resistant steel plates. The single scattering peak of scattering spectra is taken as an advantage to measure the intensity of single scattering photons. Based on these results, the thickness of steel plates is determined with a maximum deviation of real thickness and measured thickness of about 4 %. Monte Carlo simulation using MCNP5 code is also performed to cross check the results, which yields a maximum deviation of 2 %. These results strongly confirm the capability of this technique in analyzing gamma scattering spectra, which is a simple, effective and convenient method for determining material thickness. (author)

  14. The effect of filler metal thickness on residual stress and creep for stainless-steel plate-fin structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Wenchun [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)], E-mail: jiangwenchun@126.com; Gong Jianming; Chen Hu; Tu, S.T. [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Technology, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Stainless-steel plate-fin heat exchanger (PFHE) has been used as a high-temperature recuperator in microturbine for its excellent qualities in compact structure, high-temperature and pressure resistance. Plate-fin structure, as the core of PFHE, is fabricated by vacuum brazing. The main component fins and the parting sheets are joined by fusion of a brazing alloy cladded to the surface of parting sheets. Owing to the material mismatching between the filler metal and the base metal, residual stresses can arise and decrease the structure strength greatly. The recuperator serves at high temperature and the creep would happen. The thickness of the filler metal plays an important role in the joint strength. Hence this paper presented a finite element (FE) analysis of the brazed residual stresses and creep for a counterflow stainless-steel plate-fin structure. The effect of the filler metal thickness on residual stress and creep was investigated, which provides a reference for strength design.

  15. Analysis of Shrinkage on Thick Plate Part using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najihah S.N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection moulding is the most widely used processes in manufacturing plastic products. Since the quality of injection improves plastic parts are mostly influenced by process conditions, the method to determine the optimum process conditions becomes the key to improving the part quality. This paper presents a systematic methodology to analyse the shrinkage of the thick plate part during the injection moulding process. Genetic Algorithm (GA method was proposed to optimise the process parameters that would result in optimal solutions of optimisation goals. Using the GA, the shrinkage of the thick plate part was improved by 39.1% in parallel direction and 17.21% in the normal direction of melt flow.

  16. Interference in a thick plate at large angle of incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavassoli, M.T.; Shah Shehany, F.

    1991-01-01

    A new approach to the interference in a plane parallel plate is introduced which is valid for any angle of incidence and any thickness. It is shown that the interference in a plate can be interpreted as the interference in a double-slit and the corresponding parameters are derived. It is also shown that for a particular angle of incidence, which depends only on the refractive index, the interfringes are minimum. It is proved theoretically and verified experimentally that the interference around this particular angle of incidence has several exploitable features which include: a) In thick plates large numbers of equidistant fringes are formed which are very adequate for producing interference gratings. b) It provides, in comparison to the conventional interferometric methods, an easier and more accurate means for direct measurement of wave-length. c) Multiple-beam interference at this particular angle improve the accuracy of the measurement of the fine structures of the atomic spectra, compared to other interferometric methods. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs

  17. Axisymmetric buckling analysis of laterally restrained thick annular plates using a hybrid numerical method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malekzadeh, P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Center of Excellence for Computational Mechanics, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: malekzadeh@pgu.ac.ir; Ouji, A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Persian Gulf University, Bushehr 75168 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Islamic Azad University, Larestan Branch, Larestan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    The buckling analysis of annular thick plates with lateral supports such as two-parameter elastic foundations or ring supports is investigated using an elasticity based hybrid numerical method. For this purpose, firstly, the displacement components are perturbed around the pre-buckling state, which is located using the elasticity theory. Then, by decomposing the plate into a set of sub-domain in the form of co-axial annular plates, the buckling equations are discretized through the radial direction using global interpolation functions in conjunction with the principle of virtual work. The resulting differential equations are solved using the differential quadrature method. The method has the capability of modeling the arbitrary boundary conditions either at the inner and outer edges of thin-to-thick plates and with different types of lateral restraints. The fast rate of convergence of the method is demonstrated and comparison studies are carried out to establish its accuracy and versatility for thin-to-thick plates.

  18. Measuring plate thickness using spatial local wavenumber filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, To; Han, Soon Woo; Park, Jin Ho; Lee, Jeong Han; Park, Gyu Hae; Jeon, Jun Young

    2016-01-01

    Corrosion on the surface of a structure can generate cracks or cause walls to thin. This can lead to fracturing, which can eventually lead to fatalities and property loss. In an effort to prevent this, laser imaging technology has been used over the last ten years to detect thin-plate structure, or relatively thin piping. The most common laser imaging was used to develop a new technology for inspecting and imaging a desired area in order to scan various structures for thin-plate structure and thin piping. However, this method builds images by measuring waves reflected from defects, and subsequently has a considerable time delay of a few milliseconds at each scanning point. In addition, the complexity of the system is high, due to additional required components, such as laser-focusing parts. This paper proposes a laser imaging method with an increased scanning speed, based on excitation and the measurement of standing waves in structures. The wavenumber of standing waves changes at sections with a geometrical discontinuity, such as thickness. Therefore, it is possible to detect defects in a structure by generating standing waves with a single frequency and scanning the waves at each point by with the laser scanning system. The proposed technique is demonstrated on a wall-thinned plate with a linear thickness variation

  19. Influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of piezoelectric bimorph mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libu, M.; Susanth, S.; Vasanthakumari, K. G.; Dileep Kumar, C. J.; Raghu, N.

    2012-01-01

    Piezoelectric based bimorph mirrors (PBM) find extensive use in focusing of x-ray beams. Many optical instruments require use of PBM whose radii of curvature can be tuned precisely. The 100 mm and 300 mm PBMs were fabricated with varying piezoelectric to fused silica plate thicknesses. The radii of curvature of free standing mirrors were measured as a function of voltage and it was found to decrease with increasing voltage. For a given piezoelectric plate thickness, as the fused silica thickness increases, the radii of curvature was found to increase owing to increase in stiffness of the mirror. On the other hand, for a given fused silica plate thickness, when the piezoelectric plate thickness is increased, the radii of curvature are decreased for a given electric field, due to increase in generated force. This study brings out the influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of PBM.

  20. Thickness dependence of effective critical exponents in three-dimensional Ising plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, M.I.; Gonzalo, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Phase transitions in ising plates of equal area and different thickness have been studied by the Monte Carlo approach. The evolution of the critical temperature and of the effective critical exponents with the thickness of the lattice has been numerically determined. The thickness dependence of the maximum value of the effective critical exponents is well described by an exponential decay towards the respective three-dimensional value. (author)

  1. Pitting corrosion of friction stir welded aluminum alloy thick plate in alkaline chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weifeng; Liu Jinhe; Zhu Hongqiang

    2010-01-01

    The pitting corrosion of different positions (Top, Middle and Bottom) of weld nugget zone (WNZ) along thickness plate in friction stir welded 2219-O aluminum alloy in alkaline chloride solution was investigated by using open circuit potential, cyclic polarization, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscope. The results indicate that the material presents significant passivation, the top has highest corrosion potential, pitting potential and re-passivation potential compared with the bottom and base material. With the increase of traverse speed from 60 to 100 mm/min or rotary speed from 500 to 600 rpm, the corrosion resistance decreases.

  2. Quantification of thickness loss in a liquid-loaded plate using ultrasonic guided wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Jing; Ratassepp, Madis; Fan, Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave tomography (GWT) provides an attractive solution to map thickness changes from remote locations. It is based on the velocity-to-thickness mapping employing the dispersive characteristics of selected guided modes. This study extends the application of GWT on a liquid-loaded plate. It is a more challenging case than the application on a free plate, due to energy of the guided waves leaking into the liquid. In order to ensure the accuracy of thickness reconstruction, advanced forward models are developed to consider attenuation effects using complex velocities. The reconstruction of the thickness map is based on the frequency-domain full waveform inversion (FWI) method, and its accuracy is discussed using different frequencies and defect dimensions. Validation experiments are carried out on a water-loaded plate with an irregularly shaped defect using S0 guided waves, showing excellent performance of the reconstruction algorithm.

  3. The Transition from Thick to Thin Plate Wake Physics: Whither Vortex Shedding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Man Mohan

    2016-01-01

    The near and very near wake of a flat plate with a circular trailing edge is investigated with data from direct numerical simulations. Computations were performed for six different combinations of the Reynolds numbers based on plate thickness (D) and boundary layer momentum thickness upstream of the trailing edge (theta). Unlike the case of the cylinder, these Reynolds numbers are independent parameters for the flat plate. The separating boundary layers are turbulent in all the cases investigated. One objective of the study is to understand the changes in the wake vortex shedding process as the plate thickness is reduced (increasing theta/D). The value of D varies by a factor of 16 and that of theta by approximately 5 in the computations. Vortex shedding is vigorous in the low theta/D cases with a substantial decrease in shedding intensity in the large theta/D cases. Other shedding characteristics are also significantly altered with increasing theta/D. A visualization of the shedding process in the different cases is provided and discussed. The basic shedding mechanism is explored in depth. The effect of changing theta/D on the time-averaged, near-wake velocity statistics is also discussed. A functional relationship between the shedding frequency and the Reynolds numbers mentioned above is obtained.

  4. Laser cutting of thick steel plates with 30 kW fiber laser for nuclear decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Laser cutting technologies of the thick steel plates for the nuclear decommissioning were developed with a 30 kW fiber laser. Plates of stainless steel and carbon steel more than 100 mm thick were successfully cut, indicating that this technology is promising for the application to the nuclear decommissioning. (author)

  5. Numerical investigation on the variation of welding stresses after material removal from a thick titanium alloy plate joined by electron beam welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chuan; Zhang, Jianxun; Wu, Bing; Gong, Shuili

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → After less materials removal from the top, stresses on the bottom remain unchanged. → The transverse stress within the weld decreases significantly with material removal. → Local material removal does not influence the longitudinal stress significantly. -- Abstract: The stress modification after material removal from a 50 mm thick titanium alloy plate jointed by electron beam welding (EBW) was investigated through the finite element method (FEM). The welding experiment and milling process were carried out to experimentally determine the stresses induced by EBW and their modification after local material removal. The modification of as-welded stresses due to the local material removal method and the whole layer removal method was discussed with the finite element analysis. Investigated results showed that with less materials removal from the top, the stresses on the bottom surface remain almost unchanged; after material removal from the top and bottom part, the transverse stress on the newly-formed surface decreases significantly as compared to the as-welded stresses at the same locations; however, the stress modification only occurs at the material removal region in the case of local region removal method; the longitudinal stress decreases with the whole layer removal method while remains almost unchanged with the local region removal method.

  6. Natural frequencies and an atlas of mode shapes for generally-laminated, thick, skew, trapezoidal plates

    OpenAIRE

    Lovejoy, Andrew Elwyn

    1994-01-01

    Composite materials are increasingly finding use in structures, such as aircraft components, and thus, an accurate method of predicting response is required. Even laminated structures that are considered thin can be significantly affected by transverse shear effects, and as a result, transverse shear should not be neglected. The free vibration response of generally-laminated, thick, skew, trapezoidal plates is investigated as there appears to be a lack of information in this ar...

  7. Vibration-response due to thickness loss on steel plate excited by resonance frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudus, S. A.; Suzuki, Y.; Matsumura, M.; Sugiura, K.

    2018-04-01

    The degradation of steel structure due to corrosion is a common problem found especially in the marine structure due to exposure to the harsh marine environment. In order to ensure safety and reliability of marine structure, the damage assessment is an indispensable prerequisite for plan of remedial action on damaged structure. The main goal of this paper is to discuss simple vibration measurement on plated structure to give image on overview condition of the monitored structure. The changes of vibration response when damage was introduced in the plate structure were investigated. The damage on plate was simulated in finite element method as loss of thickness section. The size of damage and depth of loss of thickness were varied for different damage cases. The plate was excited with lower order of resonance frequency in accordance estimate the average remaining thickness based on displacement response obtain in the dynamic analysis. Significant reduction of natural frequency and increasing amplitude of vibration can be observed in the presence of severe damage. The vibration analysis summarized in this study can serve as benchmark and reference for researcher and design engineer.

  8. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jian; Li, Huijun; Zhu, Zhixiong; Barbaro, Frank; Jiang, Laizhu; Xu, Haigang; Ma, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We focus on friction stir welding of 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate. • We produce high-quality joints with special tool and optimised welding parameters. • We compare microstructure and mechanical properties of steel and joint. • Friction stir welding is a method that can maintain the properties of joint. - Abstract: In this study, microstructure and mechanical properties of a friction stir welded 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate were investigated. The 5.4 mm thick plates with excellent properties were welded at a constant rotational speed and a changeable welding speed using a composite tool featuring a chosen volume fraction of cubic boron nitride (cBN) in a W–Re matrix. The high-quality welds were successfully produced with optimised welding parameters, and studied by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and standard hardness and impact toughness testing. The results show that microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints are affected greatly, which is mainly related to the remarkably fine-grained microstructure of equiaxed ferrite that is observed in the friction stir welded joint. Meanwhile, the ratios of low-angle grain boundary in the stir zone regions significantly increase, and the texture turns strong. Compared with the base material, mechanical properties of the joint are maintained in a comparatively high level

  9. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauzi, N. F. I.; Hasran, U. A.; Kamarudin, S. K.

    2015-09-01

    In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. A. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell.

  10. Effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation in a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauzi, N F I; Hasran, U A; Kamarudin, S K

    2015-01-01

    In a passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), methanol vapor is typically obtained using a pervaporation plate in a process by which liquid methanol contained in the fuel reservoir undergoes a phase change to vapor in the anodic vapor chamber. This work investigates the effect of pervaporation plate thickness on the rate of methanol evaporation using a three-dimensional simulation model developed by varying the plate thickness. A. The rate of methanol evaporation was measured using Darcy's law. The rate of methanol evaporation was found to be inversely proportional to the plate thickness, where the decrease in thickness inevitably lowers the resistance along the plate and consequently increases the methanol transport through the plate. This shows that the plate thickness has a significant influence on the rate of methanol evaporation and thereby plays an important role in improving the performance of the passive vapor-feed direct methanol fuel cell. (paper)

  11. Study on the ionization chamber for thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Shili; Miao Qiangwen

    1988-01-01

    The principle, construction and performances of ionization chambers for measuring the thickness of metal and nonmetal materials are introduced. With them the thickness of thin materials (thickness ranging from 10 to 6000 g/m 2 ), the surface layer thickness of composed materials and the thickness of steel plate (thickness ranging from 0 to 32 kg/m 2 ) are measured effectively

  12. Three-Dimensional Elasticity Solutions for Sound Radiation of Functionally Graded Materials Plates considering State Space Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tieliang Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical study for sound radiation of functionally graded materials (FGM plate based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The FGM plate is a mixture of metal and ceramic, and its material properties are assumed to have smooth and continuous variation in the thickness direction according to a power-law distribution in terms of volume fractions of the constituents. Based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity and state space method, the governing equations with variable coefficients of the FGM plate are derived. The sound radiation of the vibration plate is calculated with Rayleigh integral. Comparisons of the present results with those of solutions in the available literature are made and good agreements are achieved. Finally, some parametric studies are carried out to investigate the sound radiation properties of FGM plates.

  13. Analysis on Interfacial Performance of CFRPConcrete with Different Thickness of Adhesive Layer and CFRP Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Qingyong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The bond behavior of CFRP-concrete interface is the analysis foundation for concrete structures with external strengthening CFRP. In the paper, the influences of the thickness of CFRP plate and adhesive layer on interfacial adhesive properties are investigated through the finite element program. The influence rules of the thickness on the interfacial ultimate bearing capacity and the effective bond length are performed. The results show that the thickness of adhesive layer and CFRP plate has a significant effect on the interfacial performance of CFRP-concrete.

  14. Structural analysis of hatch cover plates on Fuels and Materials Examination Facility high bay mezzanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixson, G.E.

    1997-01-01

    In order to move the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) trailer into position for testing on the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) 42 ft level mezzanine one of the trailer's wheels will have to sit on a circular hatch cover fabricated from one-inch thick steel plate. The attached calculations verify that the hatch cover plate is strong enough to support the weight of the INEL LDUA trailer's wheel

  15. Microstructure and pitting corrosion of friction stir welded joints in 2219-O aluminum alloy thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weifeng; Liu Jinhe

    2009-01-01

    Effect of welding parameters on the microstructure and pitting corrosion of different positions along the thickness of weld nugget zone in friction stir welded 2219-O aluminum alloy plate was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarization experiment and electrochemical impedance tests (EIS). It was found that the material presents significant passivation and the top has best corrosion resistance compared to the bottom and base material. Corrosion resistance decreases with the increase of traverse speed from 60 to 100 mm/min at rotary speed 400 rpm. Corrosion resistance at rotary speed 600 rpm is lower than that at 500 rpm.

  16. Evaluation of plate type fuel elements by eddy current test method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frade, Rangel Teixeira

    2015-01-01

    Plate type fuel elements are used in MTR research nuclear reactors. The fuel plates are manufactured by assembling a briquette containing the fissile material inserted in a frame, with metal plates in both sides of the set, to act as a cladding. This set is rolled under controlled conditions in order to obtain the fuel plate. In Brazil, this type of fuel is manufactured by IPEN and used in the IEA-R1 reactor. After fabrication of three batches of fuel plates, 24 plates, one of them is taken, in order to verify the thickness of the cladding. For this purpose, the plate is sectioned and the thickness measurements are carried out by using optical microscopy. This procedure implies in damage of the plate, with the consequent cost. Besides, the process of sample preparation for optical microscopy analysis is time consuming, it is necessary an infrastructure for handling radioactive materials and there is a generation of radioactive residues during the process. The objective of this study was verify the applicability of eddy current test method for nondestructive measurement of cladding thickness in plate type nuclear fuels, enabling the inspection of all manufactured fuel plates. For this purpose, reference standards, representative of the cladding of the fuel plates, were manufactured using thermomechanical processing conditions similar to those used for plates manufacturing. Due to no availability of fuel plates for performing the experiments, the presence of the plate’s core was simulated using materials with different electrical conductivities, fixed to the thickness reference standards. Probes of eddy current testing were designed and manufactured. They showed high sensitivity to thickness variations, being able to separate small thickness changes. The sensitivity was higher in tests performed on the reference standards and samples without the presence of the materials simulating the core. For examination of the cladding with influence of materials simulating the

  17. A global limit load solution for plates with surface cracks under combined end force and cross-thickness bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Yuebao; Fox, Mike J.H.

    2011-01-01

    A global limit load solution for rectangular surface cracks in plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending is derived, which allows any combination of positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment. The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept and, therefore, gives limit load values based on the Tresca yielding criterion. Solutions for both cases with and without crack face contact are derived when whole or part of the crack is located in the compressive stress zone. From the solution, particular global limit load solutions for plates with extended surface cracks and through-thickness cracks under the same loading conditions are obtained. The solution is consistent with the limit load solution for surface cracks in plates under combined tension and positive bending due to Goodall and Webster and Lei when both the applied end force and bending moment are positive. The solution reduces to the limit load solution for plain plates under combined end force and cross-thickness bending when the crack vanishes. - Highlights: → A global limit load solution for plates with surface cracks in plates is derived. → Combined positive/negative end force and positive/negative cross-thickness moment are considered. → The solution is based on the net-section plastic collapse concept.

  18. Measurement of fluid film thickness on the valve plate in oil hydraulic axial piston pumps (I): bearing pad effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Ki; Jung, Jae Youn

    2003-01-01

    The tribological mechanism between the valve plate and the cylinder block in oil hydraulic axial piston pumps plays an important role on high power density. In this study, the fluid film thickness between the valve plate and the cylinder block was measured with discharge pressure and rotational speed by use of a gap sensor, and a slip ring system in the operating period. To investigate the effect of the valve plate shapes, we designed two valve plates with different shapes: the first valve plate was without a bearing pad, while the second valve plate had a bearing pad. It was found that both valve plates behaved differently with respect to the fluid film thickness characteristics. The leakage flow rates and the shaft torque were also experimented in order to clarify the performance difference between the valve plate without a bearing pad and the valve plate with a bearing pad. From the results of this study, we found out that in the oil hydraulic axial piston pumps, the valve plate with a bearing pad showed better film thickness contours than the valve plate without a bearing pad

  19. Laser cutting of thick steel plates and simulated steel components using a 30 kW fiber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Koji; Ishigami, Ryoya; Yamagishi, Ryuichiro

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting of thick steel plates and simulated steel components using a 30 kW fiber laser was studied for application to nuclear decommissioning. Successful cutting of carbon steel and stainless steel plates up to 300 mm in thickness was demonstrated, as was that of thick steel components such as simulated reactor vessel walls, a large pipe, and a gate valve. The results indicate that laser cutting applied to nuclear decommissioning is a promising technology. (author)

  20. Splitting diffraction peak in different thickness LL-interferometer and determination of thickness of damaged layer induced by electron irradiation of plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truni, K.G.; Sedrakyan, A.G.; Papoyan, A.A.; Bezirganyan, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    Amplitude of twice reflected beam is calculated analytically, oscillatory dependence of peak intensity in the centre of diffraction image on the small variations in thickness is shown. The expression, clearly binding the splitting value of diffraction peak with variation in thickness of the interferometer plates, is received. The effect of variation in thickness on the splitting value of focal line is studied experimentally in case of irradiation of the equal-arm Π-shaped interferometer blocks by fast electron flow, thickness of the originated damaged layers are determined

  1. Three-Dimensional Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Thick Plates on Pasternak Foundation with Arbitrary Boundary Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first known vibration characteristic of rectangular thick plates on Pasternak foundation with arbitrary boundary conditions on the basis of the three-dimensional elasticity theory. The arbitrary boundary conditions are obtained by laying out three types of linear springs on all edges. The modified Fourier series are chosen as the basis functions of the admissible function of the thick plates to eliminate all the relevant discontinuities of the displacements and their derivatives at the edges. The exact solution is obtained based on the Rayleigh–Ritz procedure by the energy functions of the thick plate. The excellent accuracy and reliability of current solutions are demonstrated by numerical examples and comparisons with the results available in the literature. In addition, the influence of the foundation coefficients as well as the boundary restraint parameters is also analyzed, which can serve as the benchmark data for the future research technique.

  2. Development method for measuring thickness of nuclei and coating of fuel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges Junior, Reinaldo

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important components of a nuclear reactor is the Nuclear Fuel. Currently, the most advanced commercial fuel, whose applicability in Brazilian reactors has been developed by IPEN since 1985, is the silicide U 3 Si 2 . This is formed by fuel plates with nuclei dispersion (where the fissile material (U 3 Si 2 ) is homogeneously dispersed in a matrix of aluminum) coated aluminum. This fuel is produced in Brazil with developed technology, the result of the efforts made by the group of manufacturing nuclear fuel (CCN - Center of Nuclear Fuel) of IPEN. Considering the necessity of increasing the power of the IEA- R1 and Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor Building (RMB), for the production of radioisotopes - mainly for the area of medicine - there will be significant increase in the production of nuclear fuel at IPEN. Given this situation, if necessary, make the development of more modern and automated classification techniques. Aiming at this goal, this work developed a new computational method for measuring thickness of core and cladding of fuel plates, which are able to perform such measurements in less time and with more meaningful statistical data when compared with the current method of measurement. (author)

  3. Light alloys as substrate material for bipolar plates; Leichtmetall-Legierungen als Substrat fuer Bipolarplatten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schicke, R. [PSFU GmbH, Wernigerode (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Light alloys as substrate material for bipolar plates in fuel cells offer a number of advantages compared to stainless steel sheets. First, the specific weight is smaller, costs are lower, but also bulk properties like thermal and electric conductivities are much better than in the case of stainless steel. Regarding graphite polymer composite materials, the electric conductivity of light alloys again is much higher leading to a considerably lower internal resistance of the cells. Metal sheets, in general, are more attractive with respect to building up compact stacks with high power densities since metal sheets can be produced easily down to thicknesses of around 0.1 mm, whereby graphite composite materials most often have a thickness of at least around 2 mm. In addition, the economics of using light alloys as bipolar plate material is advantageous also for small and medium quantities of production (for instance making use of photochemical etching), but also for high volume production where both conventional techniques like stamping and also more advanced processes like hydroforming can be employed. A major challenge is the identification and technological control and improvement of surface modification / coating processes which lead to low ohmic contact resistances and a good corrosion protection under the electrochemical conditions within a fuel cell environment. Different coating technologies and the characteristics of several coatings will be discussed. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of the x-ray fluorescence method of precious metal plating thickness measurements. Technological spinoff report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, J.S.; Hearn, N.K.; Pettie, C.B.

    1975-09-01

    It is shown that gold and silver plating thickness measurements made using an x-ray spectrograph could be closely correlated with thicknesses measured from sectional samples. Good correlations were also shown for single overlays of gold over silver when each layer was less than 0.0003 inch thick

  5. Non-destructive evaluation of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates by accurate ultrasonic scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borring, J.; Gundtoft, H.E.; Borum, K.K.; Toft, P. [Riso National Lab. (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to improve their ultrasonic scanning technique for accurate determination of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates, new equipment and modifications to the existing hardware and software have been tested and evaluated. The authors are now able to measure an aluminium thickness down to 0.25 mm instead of the previous 0.35 mm. Furthermore, they have shown how the measuring sensitivity can be improved from 0.03 mm to 0.01 mm. It has now become possible to check their standard fuel plates for DR3 against the minimum cladding thickness requirements non-destructively. Such measurements open the possibility for the acceptance of a thinner nominal cladding than normally used today.

  6. Non-destructive evaluation of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates by accurate ultrasonic scanning technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borring, J.; Gundtoft, H.E.; Borum, K.K.; Toft, P.

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve their ultrasonic scanning technique for accurate determination of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates, new equipment and modifications to the existing hardware and software have been tested and evaluated. The authors are now able to measure an aluminium thickness down to 0.25 mm instead of the previous 0.35 mm. Furthermore, they have shown how the measuring sensitivity can be improved from 0.03 mm to 0.01 mm. It has now become possible to check their standard fuel plates for DR3 against the minimum cladding thickness requirements non-destructively. Such measurements open the possibility for the acceptance of a thinner nominal cladding than normally used today

  7. Surface effects on the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate with nanoscale thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhi; Jiang Liying

    2012-01-01

    This work aims to investigate the electroelastic responses of a thin piezoelectric plate under mechanical and electrical loads with the consideration of surface effects. Surface effects, including surface elasticity, residual surface stress and surface piezoelectricity, are incorporated into the conventional Kirchhoff plate theory for a piezoelectric plate via the surface piezoelectricity model and the generalized Young-Laplace equations. Different from the results predicted by the conventional plate theory ignoring the surface effects, the proposed model predicts size-dependent behaviours of the piezoelectric thin plate with nanoscale thickness. It is found that surface effects have significant influence on the electroelastic responses of the piezoelectric nanoplate. This work is expected to provide more accurate predictions on characterizing nanofilm or nanoribbon based piezoelectric devices in nanoelectromechanical systems. (paper)

  8. Application of the Modified Vlasov Model to the Free Vibration Analysis of Thick Plates Resting on Elastic Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Modified Vlasov Model is applied to the free vibration analysis of thick plates resting on elastic foundations. The effects of the subsoil depth, plate dimensions and their ratio, the value of the vertical deformation parameter within the subsoil on the frequency parameters of plates on elastic foundations are investigated. A four-noded, twelve degrees of freedom quadrilateral finite element (PBQ4 is used for plate bending analysis based on Mindlin plate theory which is effectively applied to the analysis of thin and thick plates when selective reduced integration technique is used. The first ten natural frequency parameters are presented in tabular and graphical forms to show the effects of the parameters considered in the study. It is concluded that the effect of the subsoil depth on the frequency parameters of the plates on elastic foundation is generally larger than that of the other parameters considered in the study.

  9. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor plate performance and lifetime considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1990-03-01

    The ITER divertor plate performance during the technology phase of operation has been analyzed. High-Z materials, such as tungsten and tantalum, have been considered as plasma side materials, and refractory metal alloys, Ta-10W, TZM, Nb-1Zr, and V-15Cr-5Ti, plus copper alloys have been considered as the structural materials. The fatigue lifetime have been predicted for structural plates and for duplex plates with the plasma side material bonded to the structure. The results indicate that refractory alloys have a comparable or improved performance to copper alloys. Peak allowable heat fluxes for these analyses are in the range of 15--20 MW/m 2 for 2 mm thick structural plates and 7--11 MW/m 2 for 4 mm thick duplex plates. 4 refs., 55 figs., 6 tabs

  10. Application of the beta particles backscattering technique for determining the thickness of the cladding in nuclear fuels plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimizu, S.; Ferreira, P.I.; Lima, L.F.C.P. de; Vieira, J.M.; Perez, H.E.B.

    1984-01-01

    A prototype of an instalation to measure thickness of cladding and core of nuclear fuels plate using the beta particles backscattering technique is constructed. The method and calibration system is described. The thickness measurements of the cladding and core were done in a natural uranium fuel plate developed at IPEN. The reliability of the method is confirmed by the metalographic measures analysis. (E.G.) [pt

  11. The fatigue life and fatigue crack through thickness behavior of a surface cracked plate, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki-Woo; Fujibayashi, Shinpei; Ando, Kotoji; Ogura, Nobukazu.

    1987-01-01

    Most structures have a region where stresses concentrate, and the probability of fatigue crack initiation may be higher than in other parts. Therefore, to improve the reliability of an LBB design, it is necessary to evaluate the growth and through thickness behavior of fatigue cracks in the stress concentration part. In this paper, a fatigue crack growth test at a stress concentration region has been made on 3 % NiCrMo and HT 80 steel. Stress concentration is caused by a fillet on the plate. The main results obtained are as follows : (1) Before cracking through the plate thickness, stress concentration has a remarkable effect on the fatigue crack growth behavior and it flatens the shape of a surface crack. The crack growth behavior can be explained quantatively by using the Newman-Raju equation and the stress resolving method proposed by ASME B and P Code SecXI. (2) The da/dN-ΔK relation obtained in a stress concentration specimen shows good agreement with that obtained in a surface cracked smooth specimen. (3) It is shown that stress concentration caused by a fillet has little effect on the crack growth rate after cracking through the plate thickness. (4) By using the K value based on eq. (1), (2), particular crack growth behavior and the change in crack shape after cracking through thickness can be explained quantatively. (author)

  12. Fracture assessment of weld material from a full-thickness clad RPV shell segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.

    1996-01-01

    Fracture analysis was applied to full-thickness clad beam specimens containing shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPV) at beginning of life. The beam specimens were fabricated from a section of an RPV wall (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include gradients of material properties and residual stresses due to welding and cladding applications. Fracture toughness estimates were obtained from load vs load-line displacement and load vs crack-mouth-opening displacement data using finite-element methods and estimation schemes based on the η-factor method. One of the beams experienced a significant amount of precleavage stable ductile tearing. Effects of precleavage tearing on estimates of fracture toughness were investigated using continuum damage models. Fracture toughness results from the clad beam specimens were compared with other deep- and shallow-crack single-edge notch bend (SENB) data generated previously from A533 Grade B plate material. Range of scatter for the clad beam data is consistent with that from the laboratory-scale SENB specimens tested at the same temperature

  13. Diapir versus along-channel ascent of crustal material during plate convergence: constrained by the thermal structure of subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, M. Q.; Li, Z. H.

    2017-12-01

    Crustal rocks can be subducted to mantle depths, interact with the mantle wedge, and then exhume to the crustal depth again, which is generally considered as the mechanism for the formation of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic rocks in nature. The crustal rocks undergo dehydration and melting at subarc depths, giving rise to fluids that metasomatize and weaken the overlying mantle wedge. There are generally two ways for the material ascent from subarc depths: one is along subduction channel; the other is through the mantle wedge by diapir. In order to study the conditions and dynamics of these contrasting material ascent modes, systematic petrological-thermo-mechanical numerical models are constructed with variable thicknesses of the overriding and subducting continental plates, ages of the subducting oceanic plate, as well as the plate convergence rates. The model results suggest that the thermal structures of subduction zones control the thermal condition and fluid/melt activity at the slab-mantle interface in subcontinental subduction channels, which further strongly affect the material transportation and ascent mode. Thick overriding continental plate and low-angle subduction style induced by young subducting oceanic plate both contribute to the formation of relatively cold subduction channels with strong overriding mantle wedge, where the along-channel exhumation occurs exclusively to result in the exhumation of HP-UHP metamorphic rocks. In contrast, thin overriding lithosphere and steep subduction style induced by old subducting oceanic plate are the favorable conditions for hot subduction channels, which lead to significant hydration and metasomatism, melting and weakening of the overriding mantle wedge and thus cause the ascent of mantle wedge-derived melts by diapir through the mantle wedge. This may corresponds to the origination of continental arc volcanism from mafic to ultramafic metasomatites in the bottom of the mantle wedge. In addition, the plate

  14. Assessment of the fracture behavior of weld material from a full-thickness clad RPV shell segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Keeney, J.A.; McAfee, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    A testing program is described that utilizes full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from a section of an RPV shell (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. A summary of the testing program includes a description of the specimen geometry, material properties, the testing procedure, and the experimental results from three specimens. The yield strength of the weld material was determined to be 36% higher than the base material. The high yield strength for prototypic weld material may be implications for RPV integrity assessments. Fracture toughness data from three clad beam specimens are compared with other shallow- and deep-crack beam cruciform data generated previously from A 533 Grade B plate material. Difficulties with interpreting lower-bound fracture toughness curves constructed from the shallow-crack data are essentially resolved by adopting a single normalizing temperature parameter, namely, the nil-ductility transition temperature (NDT)

  15. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, D.K., E-mail: dkjha@barc.gov.in [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kant, Tarun [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India); Srinivas, K. [Civil Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Singh, R.K. [Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature.

  16. An accurate higher order displacement model with shear and normal deformations effects for functionally graded plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, D.K.; Kant, Tarun; Srinivas, K.; Singh, R.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We model through-thickness variation of material properties in functionally graded (FG) plates. • Effect of material grading index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates is studied. • Effect of higher order terms in displacement models is studied for plate statics. • The benchmark solutions for the static analysis and free vibration of thick FG plates are presented. -- Abstract: Functionally graded materials (FGMs) are the potential candidates under consideration for designing the first wall of fusion reactors with a view to make best use of potential properties of available materials under severe thermo-mechanical loading conditions. A higher order shear and normal deformations plate theory is employed for stress and free vibration analyses of functionally graded (FG) elastic, rectangular, and simply (diaphragm) supported plates. Although FGMs are highly heterogeneous in nature, they are generally idealized as continua with mechanical properties changing smoothly with respect to spatial coordinates. The material properties of FG plates are assumed here to vary through thickness of plate in a continuous manner. Young's modulii and material densities are considered to be varying continuously in thickness direction according to volume fraction of constituents which are mathematically modeled here as exponential and power law functions. The effects of variation of material properties in terms of material gradation index on deformations, stresses and natural frequency of FG plates are investigated. The accuracy of present numerical solutions has been established with respect to exact three-dimensional (3D) elasticity solutions and the other models’ solutions available in literature

  17. Vibrations And Deformations Of Moderately Thick Plates In Stochastic Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzywiński Maksym

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with some chosen aspects of stochastic dynamical analysis of moderately thick plates. The discretization of the governing equations is described by the finite element method. The main aim of the study is to provide the generalized stochastic perturbation technique based on classical Taylor expansion with a single random variable.

  18. Dynamic Analysis of Thick Plates Including Deep Beams on Elastic Foundations Using Modified Vlasov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korhan Ozgan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic analysis of foundation plate-beam systems with transverse shear deformation is presented using modified Vlasov foundation model. Finite element formulation of the problem is derived by using an 8-node (PBQ8 finite element based on Mindlin plate theory for the plate and a 2-node Hughes element based on Timoshenko beam theory for the beam. Selective reduced integration technique is used to avoid shear locking problem for the evaluation of the stiffness matrices for both the elements. The effect of beam thickness, the aspect ratio of the plate and subsoil depth on the response of plate-beam-soil system is analyzed. Numerical examples show that the displacement, bending moments and shear forces are changed significantly by adding the beams.

  19. Application of the Modified Vlasov Model to the Free Vibration Analysis of Thick Plates Resting on Elastic Foundations

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgan, Korhan; Daloglu, Ayse T.

    2009-01-01

    The Modified Vlasov Model is applied to the free vibration analysis of thick plates resting on elastic foundations. The effects of the subsoil depth, plate dimensions and their ratio, the value of the vertical deformation parameter within the subsoil on the frequency parameters of plates on elastic foundations are investigated. A four-noded, twelve degrees of freedom quadrilateral finite element (PBQ4) is used for plate bending analysis based on Mindlin plate theory which is effectively appli...

  20. Comparison of closed-form and finite-element solutions of thick laminated anisotropic rectangular plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, J N; Chao, W C [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg (USA). Dept. of Engineering Science and Mechanics

    1981-04-01

    In this study the effects of reduced integration, mesh size, and element type (i.e. linear or quadratic) on the accuracy of a penalty-finite element based on the theory governing thick, laminated, anisotropic composite plates are investigated. In order to assess the accuracy of the present finite element, exact closed-form solutions are developed for cross-ply and antisymmetric angle-ply rectangular plates simply supported and subjected to sinusoidally distributed mechanical and/or thermal loadings, and free vibration.

  1. Bipolar plates for PEM fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middelman, E.; Kout, W.; Vogelaar, B.; Lenssen, J.; de Waal, E.

    The bipolar plates are in weight and volume the major part of the PEM fuel cell stack, and are also a significant contributor to the stack costs. The bipolar plate is therefore a key component if power density has to increase and costs must come down. Three cell plate technologies are expected to reach targeted cost price levels, all having specific advantages and drawbacks. NedStack has developed a conductive composite materials and a production process for fuel cell plates (bipolar and mono-polar). The material has a high electric and thermal conductivity, and can be processed into bipolar plates by a proprietary molding process. Process cycle time has been reduced to less than 10 s, making the material and process suitable for economical mass production. Other development work to increase material efficiency resulted in thin bipolar plates with integrated cooling channels, and integrated seals, and in two-component bipolar plates. Total thickness of the bipolar plates is now less than 3 mm, and will be reduced to 2 mm in the near future. With these thin integrated plates it is possible to increase power density up to 2 kW/l and 2 kW/kg, while at the same time reducing cost by integrating other functions and less material use.

  2. Detailed measurements of local thickness changes for U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with Al-3.5Si matrix after irradiation at different powers in the RERTR-9B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Dennis D.; Williams, Walter; Robinson, Adam; Wachs, Dan; Moore, Glenn; Crawford, Doug

    2017-10-01

    The Materials Management and Minimization program is developing fuel designs to replace highly enriched fuel with fuels of low enrichment. Swelling is an important irradiation behavior that needs to be well understood. Data from high resolution thickness measurements performed on U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with Al-Si alloy matrices that were irradiated at high power is sparse. This paper reports the results of detailed thickness measurements performed on two dispersion fuel plates that were irradiated at relatively high power to high fission densities in the Advanced Test Reactor in the same RERTR-9B experiment. Both plates were irradiated to similar fission densities, but one was irradiated at a higher power than the other. The goal of this work is to identify any differences in the swelling behavior when fuel plates are irradiated at different powers to the same fission densities. Based on the results of detailed thickness measurments, more swelling occurs when a U-7Mo dispersion fuel with Al-3.5Si matrix is irradiated to a high fission density at high power compared to one irradiated at a lower power to high fission density.

  3. Nonlinear response arising from non self-similar crack growth in finite thickness plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sih, G.C.; Chen, C.

    1982-07-01

    Described in this report is a three-dimensional finite element procedure for finding the stresses in a finite thickness plate with a through crack. The Mode I loading is increased incrementally such that crack growth occurs in segments. The individual crack profiles are assumed to coincide with the locations of minimum strain energy density, (dW/dV)/sub min/. Its shape is found to change during growth. Each successive crack growth increment will increase even though the rising load increment is kept constant. Three different plate thickness to half crack length ratios were analyzed. An average critical crack ligament distance r/sub c/ = 0.172 in (0.437 cm) being independent of crack and specimen size was obtained. This corresponds to an analytically predicted fracture toughness S/sub c/ = r/sub c/ (dW/dV)/sub c/ = 15.489 lb/in (2708.825 N/m) for A533B steel at -10 0 F. Data at low temperature were used in order to confine crack growth within the linear elastic range

  4. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 grade B plate materials. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-02-01

    The objective of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A 302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in fabricating reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study at Materials Engineering Associates (MEA) on one particular heat of A 302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in numerous tests made on the more recent production materials of A 533 grade B and A 508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the MEA material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A 302 grade B steels or just unique to that one particular plate. Seven heats of modified A 302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A 533 grade B steel were provided to this project by the General Electric Company of San Jose, California. All plates were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550 degrees F (288 degrees C). Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, IT, 2T, and 4T). None of the seven heats of modified A 302 grade showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550 degrees F (82 to 288 degrees C) produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and mathematical curve fits to the same were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume is a compilation of all data developed

  5. Choose of standard materials in the method of β-testing new materials' mass thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhong

    2007-01-01

    To make sure of the standard mass thickness in beta radials testing mass thickness, this paper calculate using M. C. method and get the result of the relations between the beta radials' transmission rate of different energies and mass thickness in different materials. This result prove that in method of beta test mass thickness choosing materials whose elements are close as standard materials are viable. (authors)

  6. A Novel Higher-Order Shear and Normal Deformable Plate Theory for the Static, Free Vibration and Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Chao Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Closed-form solution of a special higher-order shear and normal deformable plate theory is presented for the static situations, natural frequencies, and buckling responses of simple supported functionally graded materials plates (FGMs. Distinguished from the usual theories, the uniqueness is the differentia of the new plate theory. Each individual FGM plate has special characteristics, such as material properties and length-thickness ratio. These distinctive attributes determine a set of orthogonal polynomials, and then the polynomials can form an exclusive plate theory. Thus, the novel plate theory has two merits: one is the orthogonality, where the majority of the coefficients of the equations derived from Hamilton’s principle are zero; the other is the flexibility, where the order of the plate theory can be arbitrarily set. Numerical examples with different shapes of plates are presented and the achieved results are compared with the reference solutions available in the literature. Several aspects of the model involving relevant parameters, length-to-thickness, stiffness ratios, and so forth affected by static and dynamic situations are elaborate analyzed in detail. As a consequence, the applicability and the effectiveness of the present method for accurately computing deflection, stresses, natural frequencies, and buckling response of various FGM plates are demonstrated.

  7. Characterization of a texture gradient in tantalum plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.I.; Gray, G.T. III.

    1994-01-01

    Clark et al. have shown that significant texture gradients can be produced in rolled tantalum plate and that the strength of the gradient is dependent on the processing path. Texture gradients are often ignored because they are time consuming to characterize and add significant complexity to materials modeling. The variation in texture through the thickness of rolled materials is most commonly measured by sectioning samples to different depths through the thickness of the plate and then measuring the texture from these section planes by X-ray diffraction. A new technique based on automatic indexing of electron backscatter diffraction patterns in the scanning electron microscope enables spatially specific orientations to be measured in a practical manner. This technique allows spatial variations in texture to be measured directly enabling gradients in texture to be investigated in more detail than previously possible. This data can be used directly in coupled finite-element/polycrystal-plasticity models to simulate the effects of variations in texture on the plastic behavior of polycrystals. This work examines the variation in texture through the thickness of a tantalum plate and its resultant effect on the compressive deformation of samples prepared from the plate. The characterization of the texture gradient using the automatic point-by-point measurement technique mentioned above is described in detail. The effect of the gradient on the plastic response of through-thickness compression tests is also discussed

  8. Natural Frequency of F.G. Rectangular Plate by Shear Deformation Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrjerdi, Ali; Sapuan, S M; Shahzamanian, M M; Mustapha, F; Zahari, R; Bayat, M

    2011-01-01

    Natural frequency of functionally graded (F.G.) rectangular plate is carried out by using second-order shear deformation theory (SSDT). The material properties of functionally graded rectangular plates, except the Poisson's ratio, are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness of the plate in accordance with the exponential law distribution. The equations of motion are obtained by energy method. Numerical results for functionally graded plates are given in dimensionless graphical forms and the effects of material properties on natural frequency are determined.

  9. Laser cutting of steel plates up to 100 mm in thickness with a 6-kW fiber laser for application to dismantling of nuclear facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Oh, Seong Yong; Park, Hyunmin; Chung, Chin-Man; Seon, Sangwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Lim; Lee, Jonghwan

    2018-01-01

    A cutting study with a high-power ytterbium-doped fiber laser was conducted for the dismantling of nuclear facilities. Stainless steel and carbon steel plates of various thicknesses were cut at a laser power of 6-kW. Despite the use of a low output of 6-kW, the cutting was successful for both stainless steel and carbon steel plates of up to 100 mm in thickness. In addition, the maximum cutting speeds against the thicknesses were obtained to evaluate the cutting performance. As representative results, the maximum cutting speeds for a 60-mm thickness were 72 mm/min for the stainless steel plates and 35 mm/min for the carbon steel plates, and those for a 100-mm thickness were 7 mm/min for stainless steel and 5 mm/min for carbon steel plates. These results show an efficient cutting capability of about 16.7 mm by kW, whereas other groups have shown cutting capabilities of ∼10 mm by kW. Moreover, the maximum cutting speeds were faster for the same thicknesses than those from other groups. In addition, the kerf widths of 60-mm and 100-mm thick steels were also obtained as another important parameter determining the amount of secondary waste. The front kerf widths were ∼1.0 mm and the rear kerf widths were larger than the front kerf widths but as small as a few millimeters.

  10. Facile fabrication of plate-shaped hydrohausmannite as electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun; Chai, Yao; Li, Deli; Li, Meng; Lu, Jiaxue; Li, Li; Luo, Min

    2017-08-01

    A simple and one-step solvothermal synthesis method has been developed to prepare two-dimensional (2-D) hydrohausmannite ((Mn4-2xMnx)Mn8O16-x(OH)x) nanoplates with radial length of 300 nm and thickness of about 25 nm in a binary ethanediamine/water solvent system. The formation mechanism of hydrohausmannite is suggested. As an anode material for electrochemical capacitors, the plate-shaped hydrohausmannite not only displays a high specific capacity (215 at 0.1 A g-1) and good rate capability, but also shows good stable performance along with 94% specific capacity retained after 3000 cycle tests. The method can be easily controlled and expected to be applicable for the large-scale preparation of the 2-D hydrohausmannite.

  11. Coating Thickness Measurement of the Simulated TRISO-Coated Fuel Particles using an Image Plate and a High Resolution Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woong Ki; Kim, Yeon Ku; Jeong, Kyung Chai; Lee, Young Woo; Kim, Bong Goo; Eom, Sung Ho; Kim, Young Min; Yeo, Sung Hwan; Cho, Moon Sung

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the thickness of the coating layers of 196 coated particles was measured using an Image Plate detector, high resolution scanner and digital image processing techniques. The experimental results are as follows. - An X-ray image was acquired for 196 simulated TRISO-coated fuel particles with ZrO 2 kernel using an Image Plate with high resolution in a reduced amount of time. - We could observe clear boundaries between coating layers for 196 particles. - The geometric distortion error was compensated for the calculation. - The coating thickness of the TRISO-coated fuel particles can be nondestructively measured using X-ray radiography and digital image processing technology. - We can increase the number of TRISO-coated particles to be inspected by increasing the number of Image Plate detectors. A TRISO-coated fuel particle for an HTGR (high temperature gas-cooled reactor) is composed of a nuclear fuel kernel and outer coating layers. The coating layers consist of buffer PyC (pyrolytic carbon), inner PyC (I-PyC), SiC, and outer PyC (O-PyC) layer. The coating thickness is measured to evaluate the soundness of the coating layers. X-ray radiography is one of the nondestructive alternatives for measuring the coating thickness without generating a radioactive waste. Several billion particles are subject to be loaded in a reactor. A lot of sample particles should be tested as much as possible. The acquired X-ray images for the measurement of coating thickness have included a small number of particles because of the restricted resolution and size of the X-ray detector. We tried to test many particles for an X-ray exposure to reduce the measurement time. In this experiment, an X-ray image was acquired for 196 simulated TRISO-coated fuel particles using an image plate and high resolution scanner with a pixel size of 25Χ25 μm 2 . The coating thickness for the particles could be measured on the image

  12. Finite element analysis of a solar collector plate using two plate geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Manuel Medina Carril

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The thermal behavior of an absorber plate in a solar collector is investigated using finite element analysis. The thermal behavior and efficiency of two absorber plate geometries are studied, using a typical solar collector with a rectangular profile as reference, and a proposed absorber plate with curved geometry. An analysis of the most important parameters involved in the design of the absorber plate was carried out, indicating that the curved geometry of the absorber plate yields an average efficiency ~25% higher than the conventional rectangular geometry. The results suggest that a curved profile made of materials such as aluminum with thermal conductivity higher than 200W/m°C, plate thickness of the order of 2-3mm and with a large density of tubes per unit area of the collector´s plate greatly benefits the thermal efficiency of the solar collector.

  13. The Relation Between Plate Spreading Rate, Crustal Thickness and Axial Relief at Mid-Ocean Ridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Buck, W. R.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in axial valley relief and in faulting at plate spreading centers are clearly related to magma supply and axial lithospheric structure. Previous models that consider the interaction of magmatic dikes with lithospheric stretching do not successfully reproduce both of these trends. We present the first model that reproduces these trends by making simple assumptions about the partitioning of magma between dikes, gabbros and extrusives. A key concept is that dikes open not only in the brittle axial lithosphere but also into the underlying ductile crust, where they cool to form gabbro. The amount of gabbro so intruded depends on magma pressure that is related to axial relief. The deeper the valley the less magma goes into gabbros and the more magma is available for dikes to accommodate plate separation. We define the fraction of plate separation rate accommodated by dikes as M. If Mreasonable. Finally, we describe themo-mechanical models that allow us to relate plate spreading rate and crustal thickness and to axial valley depth.

  14. The Crustal Thickness of the Philippine Sea Plate Derived from Gravity Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Yuan Yen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We constructed a new free-air gravity anomaly map of the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP using ship-tracked gravity data from the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC. Our results show that the isogals trend correlates well with the tectonic structures in the PSP. After removing the gravity induced by sea water from the free-air gravity data, we obtained the regional Bouguer gravity anomaly, which is later used to compute the Moho geometry in the PSP by applying the Parker-Oldenburg iterative method. Our results indicate that in the southern part of the West Philippine Basin (WPB the crustal thickness is nearly homogeneous with a value of about 5 km, which implies that the WPB is quite stable. The low-amplitude and near-zero free-air gravity anomalies clearly indicate that the whole WPB, except at trenches and island arcs, is nearly in a state of isostatic equilibrium. The average crustal thickness of the Palau Kyushu Ridge (PKR is more than 10 km. In the eastern PSP the crustal thickness gradually increases eastward. Our results also imply that a relatively thin and low density mantle exists beneath the Parece Vela Basin (PVB as a consequence of back-arc spreading and serpentinized upwells of the thin crustal thickness.

  15. Neutron radiography of thick hydrogenous materials with use of an imaging plate neutron detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, K.; Matsumoto, G.; Karasawa, Y.; Niimura, N.; Matsubayashi, M.; Tsuruno, A.

    1996-01-01

    The value of the neutron mass attenuation coefficient of hydrogen being very high, it is extremely difficult to image normal size, living animals with neutron radiography. However, the authors suggest the possibility of applying neutron radiography for biomedical specimens. The organs in the breast, bones and cartilages in the extremities, and the tail of mice and rats were clearly imaged by neutron radiography with Gd foils as neutron converters and X-ray films. However, no contours of the organs in the mouse abdomen were visible with neutron radiography with an exposure time of 200 s. By adding Gd or Li compounds as neutron converters to imaging X-ray plates, imaging plates have been developed for neutron detectors. A trial using these imaging plates for neutron radiography of water-filled containers and the abdomen of mice was completed. The roundness of a 100 ml-beaker was imaged with a neutron exposure of 180 s. Obscure contours of the liver and kidneys of the mouse were imaged with a neutron exposure of 100 s. (orig.)

  16. Determination of material and its thickness for Cs-137 gamma source shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukiman

    2008-01-01

    Its has been determined the shielding material and its thickness necessarily conducted due to every material will have different half-thickness characteristics, and by the selection a suitable material and its thickness will be obtained. Half-thickness of any material is the ability of the material at a certain thickness to absorb any radiation intensity so that the intensity becomes half of its source. Sample materials to be used are concrete, wood, and lead with their thickness varied. From experiment data and theoretical computation can be concluded that lead is the suitable material for shielding with the value of HVT for gamma radiation 0,732 cm. For wood and concrete will give half-thickness of 11,0 cm and 3,164 cm respectively. (author)

  17. Dependence Of The Structure And Magnetic Properties Of Cast Plate-Shaped Nd60Fe30Al10 Samples On Their Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski B.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The hard magnetic Nd-Fe-Al alloys are inferior to Nd-Fe-B magnets as far as the magnetic properties are concerned, but their great advantage is that they need no additional annealing to achieve good magnetic properties. These properties depend on the cooling rate from the melting state, and on the thickness of the sample - the best values are achieved at the quenching rates at which the samples have a thickness of 0.3-2 mm. The present study is concerned with the correlation between the magnetic properties of the plate-shaped Nd60Fe30Al10 samples and their size - thickness. Two casting ways: with the melt stream perpendicular direction and parallel to the surface of the plates were used. The plates were produced by pressure casting and suction casting. The studies have shown that the cooling rates depends on local propagation on liquid metal in the mold resulting in heterogeneity of structure and properties.

  18. Evaluation of korzincalloy prepared by Hohman Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korinko, P. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hollingshad, A. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-17

    A commercial vendor, Hohman Plating performed contract engineering work to determine the feasibility of producing pin hole free KorZincAlloy bronze material used for zinc gettering. Samples were tested for Sn plating thickness, heat treatability, and chemistry prior to being subjected to a standardized zinc exposure. The samples absorbed zinc and were examined using visual and scanning electron microscopy. Hohman Plating successfully produced KZA that met the target composition, was pin hole free, and was an effective zinc getter.

  19. Preliminary assessment of the fracture behavior of weld material in full-thickness clad beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, J.A.; Bass, B.R.; McAfee, W.J.; Iskander, S.K.

    1994-10-01

    This report describes a testing program that utilizes full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow cracks in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from a section of an RPV wall (removed from a canceled nuclear plant) that includes weld, plate, and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow cracks in the beam specimens include material gradients due to welding and cladding applications, as well as material inhomogeneities in welded regions due to reheating in multiple weld passes. A summary of the testing program includes a description of the specimen geometry, material properties, the testing procedure, and the experimental results form three specimens. The yield strength of the weld material was determined to be 36% higher than the yield strength of the base material. An irradiation-induced increase in yield strength of the weld material could result in a yield stress that exceeds the upper limit where code curves are valid. The high yield strength for prototypic weld material may have implications for RPV structural integrity assessments. Analyses of the test data are discussed, including comparisons of measured displacements with finite-element analysis results, applications of toughness estimation techniques, and interpretations of constraint conditions implied by stress-based constraint methodologies. Metallurgical conditions in the region of the cladding heat-affected zone are proposed as a possible explanation for the lower-bound fracture toughness measured with one of the shallow-crack clad beam specimens. Fracture toughness data from the three clad beam specimens are compared with other shallow- and deep-crack uniaxial beam and cruciform data generated previously from A 533 Grade B plate material

  20. The beetle elytron plate: a lightweight, high-strength and buffering functional-structural bionic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Xie, Juan; Chen, Jinxiang; Okabe, Yoji; Pan, Longcheng; Xu, Mengye

    2017-06-30

    To investigate the characteristics of compression, buffering and energy dissipation in beetle elytron plates (BEPs), compression experiments were performed on BEPs and honeycomb plates (HPs) with the same wall thickness in different core structures and using different molding methods. The results are as follows: 1) The compressive strength and energy dissipation capacity in the BEP are 2.44 and 5.0 times those in the HP, respectively, when the plates are prepared using the full integrated method (FIM). 2) The buckling stress is directly proportional to the square of the wall thickness (t). Thus, for core structures with equal wall thicknesses, although the core volume of the BEP is 42 percent greater than that of the HP, the mechanical properties of the BEP are several times higher than those of the HP. 3) It is also proven that even when the single integrated method (SIM) is used to prepare BEPs, the properties discussed above remain superior to those of HPs by a factor of several; this finding lays the foundation for accelerating the commercialization of BEPs based on modern manufacturing processes.

  1. Lamb wave extraction of dispersion curves in micro/nano-plates using couple stress theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodrati, Behnam; Yaghootian, Amin; Ghanbar Zadeh, Afshin; Mohammad-Sedighi, Hamid

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, Lamb wave propagation in a homogeneous and isotropic non-classical micro/nano-plates is investigated. To consider the effect of material microstructure on the wave propagation, three size-dependent models namely indeterminate-, modified- and consistent couple stress theories are used to extract the dispersion equations. In the mentioned theories, a parameter called 'characteristic length' is used to consider the size of material microstructure in the governing equations. To generalize the parametric studies and examine the effect of thickness, propagation wavelength, and characteristic length on the behavior of miniature plate structures, the governing equations are nondimensionalized by defining appropriate dimensionless parameters. Then the dispersion curves for phase and group velocities are plotted in terms of a wide frequency-thickness range to study the lamb waves propagation considering microstructure effects in very high frequencies. According to the illustrated results, it was observed that the couple stress theories in the Cosserat type material predict more rigidity than the classical theory; so that in a plate with constant thickness, by increasing the thickness to characteristic length ratio, the results approach to the classical theory, and by reducing this ratio, wave propagation speed in the plate is significantly increased. In addition, it is demonstrated that for high-frequency Lamb waves, it converges to dispersive Rayleigh wave velocity.

  2. PEM fuel cell bipolar plate material requirements for transportation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borup, R.L.; Stroh, K.R.; Vanderborgh, N.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Cost effective bipolar plates are currently under development to help make proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells commercially viable. Bipolar plates separate individual cells of the fuel cell stack, and thus must supply strength, be electrically conductive, provide for thermal control of the fuel stack, be a non-porous materials separating hydrogen and oxygen feed streams, be corrosion resistant, provide gas distribution for the feed streams and meet fuel stack cost targets. Candidate materials include conductive polymers and metal plates with corrosion resistant coatings. Possible metals include aluminium, titanium, iron/stainless steel and nickel.

  3. Vibration analysis of orthotropic circular and elliptical nano-plates embedded in elastic medium based on nonlocal Mindlin plate theory and using Galerkin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjomshoa, Amin; Tahani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a continuum model based on the nonlocal elasticity theory is developed for free vibration analysis of embedded ortho tropic thick circular and elliptical nano-plates rested on an elastic foundation. The elastic foundation is considered to behave like a Pasternak type of foundations. Governing equations for vibrating nano-plate are derived according to the Mindlin plate theory in which the effects of shear deformations of nano-plate are also included. The Galerkin method is then employed to obtain the size dependent natural frequencies of nano-plate. The solution procedure considers the entire nano-plate as a single super-continuum element. Effect of nonlocal parameter, lengths of nano-plate, aspect ratio, mode number, material properties, thickness and foundation on circular frequencies are investigated. It is seen that the nonlocal frequencies of the nano-plate are smaller in comparison to those from the classical theory and this is more pronounced for small lengths and higher vibration modes. It is also found that as the aspect ratio increases or the nanoplate becomes more elliptical, the small scale effect on natural frequencies increases. Further, it is observed that the elastic foundation decreases the influence of nonlocal parameter on the results. Since the effect of shear deformations plays an important role in vibration analysis and design of nano-plates, by predicting smaller values for fundamental frequencies, the study of these nano-structures using thick plate theories such as Mindlin plate theory is essential.

  4. Independency of Elasticity on Residual Stress of Room Temperature Rolled Stainless Steel 304 Plates for Structure Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parikin Parikin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical strengths of materials are widely expected in general constructions of any building. These properties depend on its formation (cold/hot forming during fabrication. This research was carried out on cold-rolled stainless steel (SS 304 plates, which were deformed to 0, 34, 84, and 152% reduction in thickness. The tests were conducted using Vickers method. Ultra micro indentation system (UMIS 2000 was used to determine the mechanical properties of the material, i.e.: hardness, modulus elasticity, and residual stresses. The microstructures showed lengthening outcropping due to stress corrosion cracking for all specimens. It was found that the tensile residual stress in a specimen was maximum, reaching 442 MPa, for a sample reducing 34% in thickness and minimum; and about 10 MPa for a 196% sample. The quantities showed that the biggest residual stress caused lowering of the proportional limit of material in stress-strain curves. The proportional modulus elasticity varied between 187 GPa and of about 215 GPa and was free from residual stresses.

  5. Investigation of free vibration analysis of functionally graded annular piezoelectric plate using COMSOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Trivendra Kumar; Parashar, Sandeep Kumar

    2018-05-01

    In the present age functionally graded piezoelectric materials (FGPM) are increasingly being used as actuators and sensors. In spite of the fact that the piezoelectric coupling coefficient for shear d15 has much higher value in comparison to d31 or d33, it is far less utilized for the applications due to complex nature of the shear induced vibrations. In this work three dimensional free vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric material annular plates with free-free boundary conditions is presented. The annular FGPM plate is polarized along the radial direction while the electric field is applied along the thickness direction inducing flexural vibrations of the plate due to d15 effect of functionally graded piezoelectric materials. The material properties are assumed to have a power law variation along the thickness. COMSOL Multiphysics is used to obtain the natural frequencies and modeshapes. Detailed numerical study is performed to ascertain the effect of variation in power law index and various geometrical parameters. The results presented shall be helpful in optimizing the existing applications and developing the new ones utilizing the FGPM annular plates.

  6. Comparative thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čukanović Dragan V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermal buckling analysis of functionally graded thick rectangular plates accord¬ing to von Karman non-linear theory is presented. The material properties of the functionally graded plate, except for the Poisson’s ratio, were assumed to be graded in the thickness direction, according to a power-law distribution, in terms of the volume fractions of the metal and ceramic constituents. Formulations of equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the high order shear deformation theory based on different types of shape functions. Analytical method for determination of the critical buckling temperature for uniform increase of temperature, linear and non-linear change of temperature across thickness of a plate is developed. Numeri¬cal results were obtained in МATLAB software using combinations of symbolic and numeric values. The paper presents comparative results of critical buckling tempera¬ture for different types of shape functions. The accuracy of the formulation presented is verified by comparing to results available from the literature.

  7. Features of propagation and recordingof the stress waves in plates of finite thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherednichenko Rostislav Andreevich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out to study at the same time the dynamics of wave propagation in plane and axisymmetric plates by finite-difference numerical calculation and by the method of dynamic photoelasticity.In many cases it is possible to carry out the investigation of the dynamic stressed state of solid structures under the impact of seismic waves in plane statement, observing the foundation and the building itself in the conditions of plane deformation. Such problems in structural mechanics are usually investigated on plates providing the conditions of generalized plane stressed condition and accounting for the necessity of the known substitution of elastic constants. In case of applying the model of generalized plane stressed state for investigating two-dimensional waves’ propagation in three-dimensional elastic medium it may be necessary to observe certain additional conditions, which for example limit the class of external impacts of high frequencies (short waves. The use of candling for wave recording in plane models explored with the method of dynamic photoelasticity in the observed cases of impulse loading of the plates with finite thickness gives satisfactory results.

  8. Application of MMC model on simulation of shearing process of thick hot-rolled high strength steel plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Shuhui [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacture for Thin-walled Structures, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yang, Bing; Gao, Yongsheng [Automotive Steel Research Institute, R and D Center, BaoShan Iron and Steel Co.,Ltd, Shanghai 201900 (China)

    2013-12-16

    Shear operation is widely used as the first step in sheet metal forming to cut the sheet or plate into the required size. The shear of thick hot-rolled High Strength Steel (HSS) requires large shearing force and the sheared edge quality is relatively poor because of the large thickness and high strength compared with the traditional low carbon steel. Bad sheared edge quality will easily lead to edge cracking during the post-forming process. This study investigates the shearing process of thick hot-rolled HSS plate metal, which is generally exploited as the beam of heavy trucks. The Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture criterion (MMC) is employed in numerical simulation to calculate the initiation and propagation of cracks during the process evolution. Tensile specimens are designed to obtain various stress states in tension. Equivalent fracture strains are measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) equipment to constitute the fracture locus. Simulation of the tension test is carried out to check the fracture model. Then the MMC model is applied to the simulation of the shearing process, and the simulation results show that the MMC model predicts the ductile fracture successfully.

  9. Application of MMC model on simulation of shearing process of thick hot-rolled high strength steel plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Liang; Li, Shuhui; Yang, Bing; Gao, Yongsheng

    2013-01-01

    Shear operation is widely used as the first step in sheet metal forming to cut the sheet or plate into the required size. The shear of thick hot-rolled High Strength Steel (HSS) requires large shearing force and the sheared edge quality is relatively poor because of the large thickness and high strength compared with the traditional low carbon steel. Bad sheared edge quality will easily lead to edge cracking during the post-forming process. This study investigates the shearing process of thick hot-rolled HSS plate metal, which is generally exploited as the beam of heavy trucks. The Modified Mohr-Coulomb fracture criterion (MMC) is employed in numerical simulation to calculate the initiation and propagation of cracks during the process evolution. Tensile specimens are designed to obtain various stress states in tension. Equivalent fracture strains are measured with Digital Image Correlation (DIC) equipment to constitute the fracture locus. Simulation of the tension test is carried out to check the fracture model. Then the MMC model is applied to the simulation of the shearing process, and the simulation results show that the MMC model predicts the ductile fracture successfully

  10. Quantitative materials analysis of micro devices using absorption-based thickness measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, L M; Wog, B S; Spowage, A C

    2006-01-01

    Preliminary work in designing an X-ray inspection machine with the capability of providing quantitative thickness analysis based on absorption measurements has been demonstrated. This study attempts to use the gray levels data to investigate the nature and thickness of occluded features and materials within devices. The investigation focused on metallic materials essential to semiconductor and MEMS technologies such as tin, aluminium, copper, silver, iron and zinc. The materials were arranged to simulate different feature thicknesses and sample geometries. The X-ray parameters were varied in-order to modify the X-ray energy spectrum with the aim of optimising the measurement conditions for each sample. The capability of the method to resolve differences in thicknesses was found to be highly dependent on the material. The thickness resolution with aluminium was the poorest due to its low radiographic density. The thickness resolutions achievable for silver and tin were significantly better and of the order of 0.015 mm and 0.025 mm respectively. From the linear relationship between the X-ray attenuation and sample thickness established, the energy dependent linear attenuation coefficient for each material was determined for a series of specific energy spectra. A decrease in the linear attenuation coefficient was observed as the applied voltage and thickness of the material increased. The results provide a platform for the development of a novel absorption-based thickness measurement system that can be optimised for a range of industrial applications

  11. Edge strength of CAD/CAM materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeilschifter, Maria; Preis, Verena; Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin

    2018-05-16

    To investigate the edge force of CAD/CAM materials as a function of (a) material, (b) thickness, and (c) distance from the margin. Materials intended for processing with CAD/CAM were investigated: eight resin composites, one resin-infiltrated ceramic, and a clinically proven lithiumdisilicate ceramic (reference). To measure edge force (that is, load to failure/crack), plates (d = 1 mm) were fixed and loaded with a Vickers diamond indenter (1 mm/min, Zwick 1446) at a distance of 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, and 1.0 mm from the edge. Edge force was defined as a loading force at a distance of 0.5 mm. The type of failure was determined. To investigate the influence of the thickness, all data were determined on 1-mm and 2-mm plates. To test the influence of bonding and an underlying dentin, individual 1-mm plates were bonded to a 1-mm-thick dentin-like (concerning modulus of elasticity) resin composite. For the 1-mm plates, edge force varied between 64.4 ± 24.2 N (Shofu Block HC) and 183.2 ± 63.3 N (ceramic reference), with significant (p ≤ 0.001) differences between the materials. For the 2-mm plates, values between 129.2 ± 32.5 N (Lava Ultimate) and 230.3 ± 67.5 N (Cerasmart) were found. Statistical comparison revealed no significant differences (p > 0.109) between the materials. Brilliant Crios (p = 0.023), Enamic (p = 0.000), Shofu Blocks HC (p = 0.009), and Grandio Bloc (p = 0.002) showed significantly different edge force between the 1-mm- and 2-mm-thick plates. The failure pattern was either cracking, (severe) chipping, or fracture. Material, material thickness, and distance from the edge impact the edge force of CAD/CAM materials. CAD/CAM materials should be carefully selected on the basis of their individual edge force and performance during milling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Process stability during fiber laser-arc hybrid welding of thick steel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunaziv, Ivan; Frostevarg, Jan; Akselsen, Odd M.; Kaplan, Alexander F. H.

    2018-03-01

    Thick steel plates are frequently used in shipbuilding, pipelines and other related heavy industries, and are usually joined by arc welding. Deep penetration laser-arc hybrid welding could increase productivity but has not been thoroughly investigated, and is therefore usually limited to applications with medium thickness (5-15 mm) sections. A major concern is process stability, especially when using modern welding consumables such as metal-cored wire and advanced welding equipment. High speed imaging allows direct observation of the process so that process behavior and phenomena can be studied. In this paper, 45 mm thick high strength steel was welded (butt joint double-sided) using the fiber laser-MAG hybrid process utilizing a metal-cored wire without pre-heating. Process stability was monitored under a wide range of welding parameters. It was found that the technique can be used successfully to weld thick sections with appropriate quality when the parameters are optimized. When comparing conventional pulsed and the more advanced cold metal transfer pulse (CMT+P) arc modes, it was found that both can provide high quality welds. CMT+P arc mode can provide more stable droplet transfer over a limited range of travel speeds. At higher travel speeds, an unstable metal transfer mechanism was observed. Comparing leading arc and trailing arc arrangements, the leading arc configuration can provide higher quality welds and more stable processing at longer inter-distances between the heat sources.

  13. Development of powder metallurgy 2XXX series Al alloy plate and sheet materials for high temperature aircraft structural applications, FY 1983/1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chellman, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to fabricate and evaluate PM 2124 Al alloy plate and sheet materials according to NASA program goals for damage tolerance and fatigue resistance. Previous research has indicated the outstanding strength-toughness relationship available with PM 2124 Al-Zr modified alloy compositions in extruded product forms. The range of processing conditions was explored in the fabrication of plate and sheet gage materials, as well as the resultant mechanical and metallurgical properties. The PM composition based on Al-3.70 Cu-1.85 Mg-0.20 Mn with 0.60 wt. pct. Zr was selected. Flat rolled material consisting of 0.250 in. thick plate was fabricated using selected thermal mechanical treatments (TMT). The schedule of TMT operations was designed to yield the extreme conditions of grain structure normally encountered in the fabrication of flat rolled products, specifically recrystallized and unrecrystallized. The PM Al alloy plate and sheet materials exhibited improved strength properties at thin gages compared to IM Al alloys, as a consequence of their enhanced ability to inhibit recrystallization and grain growth. In addition, the PM 2124 Al alloys offer much better combinations of strength and toughnessover equivalent IM Al. The alloy microstructures were examined by optical metallographic texture techniques in order to establish the metallurgical basis for these significant property improvements.

  14. Irradiation effects on weld heat-affected zone and plate materials (series 11)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanstad, R.K.; McCabe, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this task is to examine the effects of neutron irradiation on the fracture toughness (ductile and brittle) of the HAZ of welds and of A 302 grade B (A302B) plate materials typical of those used fabricating older RPVs. The initial plate material of emphasis will be A302B steel, not the A302B modified with nickel additions. This decision was made by the NRC following a survey of the materials of construction for RPBs in operating U.S. nuclear plants. Reference 1 was used for the preliminary survey, and the information from that report was revised by NRC staff based on information contained in the licensee responses to Generic Letter (GL) 92-01, open-quotes Reactor Vessel Structural Integrity, 10CFR50.54(f).close quotes The resulting survey showed a total of eight RPVs with A302B, ten with A302B (modified), and one with A302 grade A plate. Table 5.1 in the previous semiannual report provides a summary of that survey. For the HAZ portion of the program, the intent is to examine HAZ material in the A302B (i.e., with low nickel content) and in A302B (modified) or A533B-1 (i.e., with medium nickel content). During this reporting period, two specific plates were identified as being applicable to this task. One plate is A302B and the other is A302B (modified). The A302B plate (43 x 42 x 7 in.) will be prepared for welding, while the A302B (modified) plate already contains a commercially produced weld (heat 33A277, Linde 0091 flux). These plates were identified from a list of ten materials provided by Mr. E. Biemiller of Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC). The materials have been requested from YAEC for use in this irradiation task, and arrangements are being made with YAEC for procurement of the plates mentioned above

  15. Effect of matrix cracking and material uncertainty on composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayathri, P.; Umesh, K.; Ganguli, R.

    2010-01-01

    A laminated composite plate model based on first order shear deformation theory is implemented using the finite element method. Matrix cracks are introduced into the finite element model by considering changes in the A, B and D matrices of composites. The effects of different boundary conditions, laminate types and ply angles on the behavior of composite plates with matrix cracks are studied. Finally, the effect of material property uncertainty, which is important for composite material on the composite plate, is investigated using Monte Carlo simulations. Probabilistic estimates of damage detection reliability in composite plates are made for static and dynamic measurements. It is found that the effect of uncertainty must be considered for accurate damage detection in composite structures. The estimates of variance obtained for observable system properties due to uncertainty can be used for developing more robust damage detection algorithms.

  16. Retrieval of the thickness and refractive index dispersion of parallel plate from a single interferogram recorded in both spectral and angular domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jingtao; Lu, Rongsheng

    2018-04-01

    The principle of retrieving the thickness and refractive index dispersion of a parallel glass plate is reported based on single interferogram recording and phase analysis. With the parallel plate illuminated by a convergent light sheet, the transmitted light interfering in both spectral and angular domains is recorded. The phase recovered from the single interferogram by Fourier analysis is used to retrieve the thickness and refractive index dispersion without periodic ambiguity. Experimental results of an optical substrate standard show that the accuracy of refractive index dispersion is less than 2.5 × 10-5 and the relative uncertainty of thickness is 6 × 10-5 (3σ). This method is confirmed to be robust against the intensity noises, indicating the capability of stable and accurate measurement.

  17. Special heavy plates and steel solutions for bridge building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehnert, Tobias

    2017-09-01

    In many European countries infrastructure, -road as well as railway infrastructure-, needs intensive investments to follow the growing demands of mobility and goods traffic. Steel or steel composite bridges offer in this context viable and very sustainable solutions. Due to its unlimited recyclability steel can in general be seen as the ideal material for such sustainable constructions, but especially when designers or fabricators exploit the nowadays available possibilities of steel industry very cost-efficient and remarkable constructions are realizable. This paper will highlight some of these newest developments in heavy plates for bridge building. For example, for small span railway bridges the so-called thick plate trough bridges have proven to be a favourable concept. Very heavy plates with single plate weights up to 42 t allow building these bridges very efficiently out of one or very few single plates. Another interesting development is the so-called longitudinally profiled plates which allow a varying plate thickness along the actual loading profile. As last point the rising entry of higher strength steels in bridge building will be discussed and it will be shown why thermomechanically rolled plates are the ideal solution for these demands.

  18. Thickness filters for gradient based multi-material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new gradient based method for performing discrete material and thickness optimization of laminated composite structures. The novelty in the new method lies in the application of so-called casting constraints, or thickness filters in this context, to control the thickness...... variation throughout the laminate. The filters replace the layerwise density variables with a single continuous through-the-thickness design variable. Consequently, the filters eliminate the need for having explicit constraints for preventing intermediate void through the thickness of the laminate....... Therefore, the filters reduce both the number of constraints and design variables in the optimization problem. Based upon a continuous approximation of a unit step function, the thickness filters are capable of projecting discrete 0/1 values to the underlying layerwise or ”physical” density variables which...

  19. Method for i.a. measuring the thickness of plate constructions and pipes; Fremgangsmaate for automatisk tilstandskontroll, inspeksjon, rengjoering og/eller overflatebehandling av strukturer, saerlig tykkelsesmaaling av platekonstruksjoner og roer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waag, Tor Inge; Olsen, Anette S.

    1998-03-11

    It is described an method for automatic state control, inspection, cleaning and/or surface treatment of structures, especially measuring the thickness of plate constructions and pipes by means of ultrasound signals from a self-propelled, remotely controllable unit. The unit is continuously moved in the measurement area, and a transmitter transmits an ultrasound signal in a direction substantially perpendicular to the surface of the construction. The thickness and material quality of the construction is determined at the measurement spot by a receiver on the basis of received reflected signal, and parameters such as transit time for the reflected signal. The unit performs self-positioning by means of previously known spots on the construction. All received data regarding waveform of the reflected signal is stored in a computer, and thickness and material quality are verified by comparing data for received signal in one spot with data for received signals in adjacent spots. The steps are repeated for collection of data for new measurement spots. 6 figs.

  20. Stress Intensity Factors of Slanted Cracks in Bi-Material Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Azhar Kamarudin, Kamarul; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the stress intensity factors (SIF) of slanted cracks in bi-material plates subjected to mode I loading is numerically solved. Based on the literature survey, tremendous amount of research works are available studying the normal cracks in both similar and dissimilar plates. However, lack of SIF behavior for slanted cracks especially when it is embedded in bi-material plates. The slanted cracks are then modelled numerically using ANSYS finite element program. Two plates of different in mechanical properties are firmly bonded obliquely and then slanted edge cracks are introduced at the lower inclined edge. Isoparametric singular element is used to model the crack tip and the SIF is determined which is based on the domain integral method. Three mechanical mismatched and four slanted angles are used to model the cracks. According to the present results, the effects of mechanical mismatch on the SIF for normal cracks are not significant. However, it is played an important role when slanted angles are introduced. It is suggested that higher SIF can be obtained when the cracks are inclined comparing with the normal cracks. Consequently, accelerating the crack growth at the interface between two distinct materials.

  1. Static bending deflection and free vibration analysis of moderate thick symmetric laminated plates using multidimensional wave digital filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chien-Hsun

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to develop a multidimensional wave digital filtering network for predicting static and dynamic behaviors of composite laminate based on the FSDT. The resultant network is, thus, an integrated platform that can perform not only the free vibration but also the bending deflection of moderate thick symmetric laminated plates with low plate side-to-thickness ratios (< = 20). Safeguarded by the Courant-Friedrichs-Levy stability condition with the least restriction in terms of optimization technique, the present method offers numerically high accuracy, stability and efficiency to proceed a wide range of modulus ratios for the FSDT laminated plates. Instead of using a constant shear correction factor (SCF) with a limited numerical accuracy for the bending deflection, an optimum SCF is particularly sought by looking for a minimum ratio of change in the transverse shear energy. This way, it can predict as good results in terms of accuracy for certain cases of bending deflection. Extensive simulation results carried out for the prediction of maximum bending deflection have demonstratively proven that the present method outperforms those based on the higher-order shear deformation and layerwise plate theories. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work that shows an optimal selection of SCF can significantly increase the accuracy of FSDT-based laminates especially compared to the higher order theory disclaiming any correction. The highest accuracy of overall solution is compared to the 3D elasticity equilibrium one.

  2. The fatigue life and fatigue-crack-through-thickness behavior of a surface-cracked plate, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ki-Woo; Matsui, Kentaro; Ando, Kotoji; Ogura, Nobukazu

    1989-01-01

    The LBB (leak-before-break) design is one of the most important subjects for the evaluation and the assurance of safety in pressure vessels, piping systems, LNG carriers and various other structures. In the LBB design, it is necessary to evaluate precisely the lifetime of steel plate. Furthermore, the change in crack shape that occurs during the propagation after through thickness is of paramount importance. For this reason, in a previous report, the authors proposed a simplified evaluation model for the stress intensity factor after cracking through thickness. Using this model, the crack propagation behavior, crack-opening displacement and crack shape change of surface-cracked smooth specimens and surface-cracked specimens with a stress concentration were evaluated quantitatively. The present study was also done to investigate the fatigue crack propagation behavior of surface cracks subjected to combined tensile and bending stress. Estimation of fatigue crack growth was done using the Newman-Raju formula before through thickness, and using formula (7) and (8) after through thickness. Crack length a r at just through thickness increases with increasing a bending stress. Calculated fatigue crack shape showed very good agreement with experimental one. It was also found that particular crack growth behavior and change in crack shape after cracking through thickness can be explained quantitatively using the K value based on Eqs. (7) and (8). (author)

  3. three dimensional photoelastic investigations on thick rectangular

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1983-09-01

    Sep 1, 1983 ... Thick rectangular plates are investigated by means of three-dimensional photoelasticity ... a thin plate theory and a higher order thick plate theory. 1. ..... number of fringes lest the accuracy of the results will be considerably.

  4. Irradiation testing of miniature fuel plates for the RERTR program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senn, R L; Martin, M M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)

    1983-08-01

    An irradiation test facility, which provides a test bed for irradiating a variety of miniature fuel plates miniplates) for the Reduced Enrichment Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) program, has been placed into operation. The objective of these tests is to screen various candidate fuel materials as to their suitability for replacing the highly enriched uranium fuel materials currently used by the world's test and research reactors with a lower enrichment fuel material, without significantly degrading reactor operating characteristics and power levels. The use of low uranium enrichment of about 20% {sup 235}U in place of highly enriched fuel for these reactors would reduce the potential for {sup 235}U diversion. Fuel materials currently being evaluated in this first phase of these screening tests include aluminum-base dispersion-type fuel plates with fuel cores of 1) high uranium content U{sup 3}){sup 8}-Al being developed by ORNL, 2) high uranium content UAI{sub x}-Al being developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and 3) very high uranium content U{sub 3}Si-Al- being developed by ANL. The miniplates are 115-mm long by 50-mm wide with overall plate thicknesses of 1.27 or 1.52 mm. The fuel core dimensions vary according to overall plate thicknesses with a minimal clad thickness requirement of 0.20 mm. Sixty such miniplates (thirty of each thickness) can be irradiated in one test facility. The irradiation test facility, designated as HFED-1 is operating in core position E-7 in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR), a 30-MW water-moderated reactor. The peak neutron flux measured for this experiment is 1.96 x 10{sup 18} neutrons m{sub -2} s{sub -1}. The various types of miniplates will achieve burnups of up to approximately 2.2x10{sup 27} fissions/m{sup 3} of fuel, which will require approximately eight full power months of irradiation. During reactor shutdown periods, the experiment is removed from the reactor, moved to a special poolside station, disassembled, and inspected

  5. The investigation of trapped thickness shear modes in a contoured AT-cut quartz plate using the power series expansion technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Jin, Feng

    2018-01-01

    The dynamic model about the anti-plane vibration of a contoured quartz plate with thickness changing continuously is established by ignoring the effect of small elastic constant c 56. The governing equation is solved using the power series expansion technique, and the trapped thickness shear modes caused by bulge thickness are revealed. Theoretically, the proposed method is more general, which can be capable of handling various thickness profiles defined mathematically. After the convergence of the series is demonstrated and the correctness is numerically validated with the aid of finite element method results, systematic parametric studies are subsequently carried out to quantify the effects of the geometry parameter upon the trapped modes, including resonant frequency and mode shape. After that, the band structures of thickness shear waves propagation in a periodically contoured quartz plate, as well as the power transmission spectra, are obtained based on the power series expansion technique. It is revealed that broad stop bands below cut-off frequency exist owing to the trapped modes excited by the geometry inhomogeneity, which has little relationship with the structural periodicity, and its physical mechanism is different from the Bragg scattering effect. The outcome is widely applicable, and can be utilized to provide theoretical and practical guidance for the design and manufacturing of quartz resonators and wave filters.

  6. Optical contrast for identifying the thickness of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Dan; Wang, Yingying; Bai, Jing; Du, Ruxia; Wu, Guoqing; Liu, Liyan

    2018-01-01

    One of the most intriguing properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials is their thickness dependent properties. A quick and precise technique to identify the layer number of 2D materials is therefore highly desirable. In this review, we will introduce the basic principle of using optical contrast to determine the thickness of 2D material and also its advantage as compared to other modern techniques. Different 2D materials, including graphene, graphene oxide, transitional metal dichalcogenides, black phosphorus, boron nitride, have been used as examples to demonstrate the capability of optical contrast methods. A simple and more efficient optical contrast image technique is also emphasized, which is suitable for quick and large-scale thickness identification. We have also discussed the factors that could affect the experimental results of optical contrast, including incident light angle, anisotropic nature of materials, and also the twisted angle between 2D layers. Finally, we give perspectives on future development of optical contrast methods for the study and application of 2D materials.

  7. Waffle Production: Influence of Baking Plate Material on Sticking of Waffles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Regina; Kalss, Georg; Schoenlechner, Regine

    2017-01-01

    Background of this study was to understand the factors that contribute to sticking of fresh egg waffles on baking plates. The aim of this study was to investigate the sticking (adhesion) behavior of waffles on 4 different baking plate materials (ductile iron, grey iron, low alloyed steel, and steel with titanium nitrite coating) at different baking parameters (temperature and time) and application of 3 different release agents (different fat compositions). Baking plates from ductile and grey iron showed lower release properties of waffles than the 2 steel baking plates. Baking parameters had to be high enough to allow rapid product crust formation but prevent burning, which again increases sticking behavior. Release agents based on short-chain fatty acids with higher degree of saturation provided better release behavior of waffles than those based on long-chain fatty acids or on emulsifier-acid combinations. Baking plates with increased hardness, good heat storage capacity, and smooth surface seemed to be best suitable. Further research on appropriate coating material might be promising for future. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. The influence of plate thickness on the welding residual stresses from submerged arc welding in offshore steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Michael Joachim; Yu, Zhenzhen; Liu, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    Welding-induced residual tensile stresses and distortion have become a major concern in relation to the structural integrity of welded structures within the offshore wind industry. The stresses have a negative impact on the integrity of the welded joint, as they promote distortion, reduce fatigue...... leading to a better understanding of the distribution and development of the welding residual stresses. This can later be used to optimize the fatigue design, providing a more efficient and improved design. In this context, the current research is expected to benefit the offshore industry by leading...... to an improved design, which consequently may be included in future norms and standards. Submerged Arc Welding (SAW) was used to make a fully penetrated butt weld in 10 mm and 40 mm thick steel plates with the same welding parameters as used in the production procedures. The base material is thermomechanical hot...

  9. Active constrained layer damping of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded plates using piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panda, Satyajit; Ray, M C

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis has been presented for functionally graded (FG) plates integrated with a patch of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment and subjected to a temperature field. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of the piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composite (PFRC) material. The temperature field is assumed to be spatially uniform over the substrate plate surfaces and varied through the thickness of the host FG plates. The temperature-dependent material properties of the FG substrate plates are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction of the plates according to a power-law distribution while the Poisson's ratio is assumed to be a constant over the domain of the plate. The constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment is modeled using the Golla–Hughes–McTavish (GHM) method. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed to model the open-loop and closed-loop nonlinear dynamics of the overall FG substrate plates under the thermal environment. The analysis suggests the potential use of the ACLD treatment with its constraining layer made of the PFRC material for active control of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates in the absence or the presence of the temperature gradient across the thickness of the plates. It is found that the ACLD treatment is more effective in controlling the geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates than in controlling their linear vibrations. The analysis also reveals that the ACLD patch is more effective for controlling the nonlinear vibrations of FG plates when it is attached to the softest surface of the FG plates than when it is bonded to the stiffest surface of the plates. The effect of piezoelectric fiber orientation in the active constraining PFRC layer on the damping characteristics of the overall FG plates is also discussed

  10. Active constrained layer damping of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of functionally graded plates using piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Satyajit; Ray, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, a geometrically nonlinear dynamic analysis has been presented for functionally graded (FG) plates integrated with a patch of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment and subjected to a temperature field. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of the piezoelectric fiber-reinforced composite (PFRC) material. The temperature field is assumed to be spatially uniform over the substrate plate surfaces and varied through the thickness of the host FG plates. The temperature-dependent material properties of the FG substrate plates are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction of the plates according to a power-law distribution while the Poisson's ratio is assumed to be a constant over the domain of the plate. The constrained viscoelastic layer of the ACLD treatment is modeled using the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method. Based on the first-order shear deformation theory, a three-dimensional finite element model has been developed to model the open-loop and closed-loop nonlinear dynamics of the overall FG substrate plates under the thermal environment. The analysis suggests the potential use of the ACLD treatment with its constraining layer made of the PFRC material for active control of geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates in the absence or the presence of the temperature gradient across the thickness of the plates. It is found that the ACLD treatment is more effective in controlling the geometrically nonlinear vibrations of FG plates than in controlling their linear vibrations. The analysis also reveals that the ACLD patch is more effective for controlling the nonlinear vibrations of FG plates when it is attached to the softest surface of the FG plates than when it is bonded to the stiffest surface of the plates. The effect of piezoelectric fiber orientation in the active constraining PFRC layer on the damping characteristics of the overall FG plates is also discussed.

  11. Damage assessment of composite plate structures with material and measurement uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekhar, M.; Ganguli, Ranjan

    2016-06-01

    Composite materials are very useful in structural engineering particularly in weight sensitive applications. Two different test models of the same structure made from composite materials can display very different dynamic behavior due to large uncertainties associated with composite material properties. Also, composite structures can suffer from pre-existing imperfections like delaminations, voids or cracks during fabrication. In this paper, we show that modeling and material uncertainties in composite structures can cause considerable problem in damage assessment. A recently developed C0 shear deformable locking free refined composite plate element is employed in the numerical simulations to alleviate modeling uncertainty. A qualitative estimate of the impact of modeling uncertainty on the damage detection problem is made. A robust Fuzzy Logic System (FLS) with sliding window defuzzifier is used for delamination damage detection in composite plate type structures. The FLS is designed using variations in modal frequencies due to randomness in material properties. Probabilistic analysis is performed using Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS) on a composite plate finite element model. It is demonstrated that the FLS shows excellent robustness in delamination detection at very high levels of randomness in input data.

  12. Study of uranium plating measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jufang; Wen Zhongwei; Wang Mei; Wang Dalun; Liu Rong; Jiang Li; Lu Xinxin

    2007-06-01

    In neutron physics experiments, the measurement for plate-thickness of uranium can directly affect uncertainties of experiment results. To measure the plate-thickness of transform target (enriched uranium plating and depleted uranium plating), the back to back ionization chamber, small solid angle device and Au-Si surface barrier semi-conductor, were used in the experiment study. Also, the uncertainties in the experiment were analyzed. Because the inhomo-geneous of uranium lay of plate can quantitively affect the result, the homogeneity of uranium lay is checked, the experiment result reflects the homogeneity of uranium lay is good. (authors)

  13. Analysis of the shrinkage at the thick plate part using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, N. M.; Azlan, M. Z.; Shayfull, Z.; Roselina, S.; Nasir, S. M.

    2017-09-01

    Injection moulding is well known for its manufacturing process especially in producing plastic products. To measure the final product quality, there are lots of precautions to be taken into such as parameters setting at the initial stage of the process. Sometimes, if these parameters were set up wrongly, defects may be occurred and one of the well-known defects in the injection moulding process is a shrinkage. To overcome this problem, a maximisation at the precaution stage by making an optimal adjustment on the parameter setting need to be done and this paper focuses on analysing the shrinkage by optimising the parameter at thick plate part with the help of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and ANOVA analysis. From the previous study, the outstanding parameter gained from the optimisation method in minimising the shrinkage at the moulded part was packing pressure. Therefore, with the reference from the previous literature, packing pressure was selected as the parameter setting for this study with other three parameters which are melt temperature, cooling time and mould temperature. The analysis of the process was obtained from the simulation by Autodesk Moldflow Insight (AMI) software and the material used for moulded part was Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS). The analysis and result were obtained and it found that the shrinkage can be minimised and the significant parameters were found as packing pressure, mould temperature and melt temperature.

  14. Creep deformation behavior of weld metal and heat affected zone on 316FR steel thick plate welded joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongo, Hiromichi; Yamazaki, Masayoshi; Watanabe, Takashi; Kinugawa, Junichi; Tanabe, Tatsuhiko; Monma, Yoshio; Nakazawa, Takanori

    1999-01-01

    Using hot-rolled 316FR stainless plate (50 mm thick) and 16Cr-8Ni-2Mo filler wire, a narrow-gap welded joint was prepared by GTAW (gas tungsten arc welding) process. In addition to conventional round bar specimens of base metals and weld metal, full-thickness joint specimens were prepared for creep test. Creep tests were conducted at 550degC in order to examine creep deformation and rupture behavior in the weld metal of the welded joint. Creep strain distribution on the surface of the joint specimen was measured by moire interferometry. In the welded joint, creep strength of the weld metal zone apart from the surface was larger than that in the vicinity of the surface due to repeating heat cycles during welding. Creep strain and creep rate within the HAZ adjacent to the weld metal zone were smaller than those within the base metal zone. Creep rate of the weld metal zone in the welded joint was smaller than that of the weld metal specimen due to the restraint of the hardened HAZ adjacent to the zone. The full-thickness welded joint specimens showed longer lives than weld metal specimens, though the lives of the latter was shorter than those of the base metal (undermatching). In the full-thickness welded joint specimen, crack started from the last pass layer of the weld metal zone and fracture occurred at the zone. From the results mentioned above, in order to evaluate the creep properties of the welded joint correctly, it is necessary to conduct the creep test using the full-thickness welded joint specimen which includes the weakest zones of the weld metal, the front and back sides of the plate. (author)

  15. Development and Technology of Large Thickness TMCP Steel Plate with 390MPA Grade Used for Engineering Machinery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoshu; Zhang, Zhijun; Zhang, Peng

    Recently, with the rapid upgrading of the equipment in the steel Corp, the rolling technology of TMCP has been rapidly developed and widely applied. A large amount of steel plate has been produced by using the TMCP technology. The TMCP processes have been used more and more widely and replaced the heat treatment technology of normalizing, quenching and tempering heat process. In this paper, low financial input is considered in steel plate production and the composition of the steel has been designed with low C component, a limited alloy element of the Nb, and certain amounts of Mn element. During the continuous casting process, the size of the continuous casting slab section is 300 mm × 2400 mm. The rolling technology of TMCP is controlled at a lower rolling and red temperature to control the transformation of the microstructure. Four different rolling treatments are chosen to test its effects on the 390MPa grade low carbon steel of bainitic microstructure and properties. This test manages to produce a proper steel plate fulfilling the standard mechanical properties. Specifically, low carbon bainite is observed in the microstructure of the steel plate and the maximum thickness of steel plate under this TMCP technology is up to 80mm. The mechanical property of the steel plate is excellent and the KV2 at -40 °C performs more than 200 J. Moreover, the production costs are greatly reduced when the steel plate is produced by this TMCP technology when replacing the current production process of quenching and tempering. The low cost steel plate could well meet the requirements of producing engineering machinery in the steel market.

  16. Nondestructive testing technology for measurement coatings thickness on material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Mingtai; Wu Lunqiang; Zhang Lianping

    2008-01-01

    The principle, applicability range, advantage and disadvantage of electromagnetic, eddy current method, β backscatter method and XRF methods for nondestructive testing coating thickness of material have been reviewed. The relevant apparatus and manufacturers have been summarized. And the application and developmental direction of manufacturers for nondestructive testing coatings thickness has been foreshowed. (authors)

  17. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 Grade B Plate materials, data analysis. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study on one heat of A302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in tests made on recent production materials of A533 grade B and A508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A302 grade B steels or unique to that particular plate. Seven heats of modified A302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A533 grade B steel were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550F. Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, 1T, 2T, and 4T). The fracture mechanics-based evaluation method covered three test orientations and three test temperatures (80, 400, and 550F). However, the coverage of these variables was contingent upon the amount of material provided. Drop-weight NDT temperature was determined for the T-L orientation only. None of the heats of modified A302 grade B showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550F produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and curve fits were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume deals with the evaluation of data and the discussion of technical findings. 8 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs.

  18. Ductile fracture toughness of modified A 302 Grade B Plate materials, data analysis. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D.E.; Manneschmidt, E.T.; Swain, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop ductile fracture toughness data in the form of J-R curves for modified A302 grade B plate materials typical of those used in reactor pressure vessels. A previous experimental study on one heat of A302 grade B plate showed decreasing J-R curves with increased specimen thickness. This characteristic has not been observed in tests made on recent production materials of A533 grade B and A508 class 2 pressure vessel steels. It was unknown if the departure from norm for the material was a generic characteristic for all heats of A302 grade B steels or unique to that particular plate. Seven heats of modified A302 grade B steel and one heat of vintage A533 grade B steel were tested for chemical content, tensile properties, Charpy transition temperature curves, drop-weight nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature, and J-R curves. Tensile tests were made in the three principal orientations and at four temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 550F. Charpy V-notch transition temperature curves were obtained in longitudinal, transverse, and short transverse orientations. J-R curves were made using four specimen sizes (1/2T, 1T, 2T, and 4T). The fracture mechanics-based evaluation method covered three test orientations and three test temperatures (80, 400, and 550F). However, the coverage of these variables was contingent upon the amount of material provided. Drop-weight NDT temperature was determined for the T-L orientation only. None of the heats of modified A302 grade B showed size effects of any consequence on the J-R curve behavior. Crack orientation effects were present, but none were severe enough to be reported as atypical. A test temperature increase from 180 to 550F produced the usual loss in J-R curve fracture toughness. Generic J-R curves and curve fits were generated to represent each heat of material. This volume deals with the evaluation of data and the discussion of technical findings. 8 refs., 18 figs., 8 tabs

  19. Free Vibration Analyses of FGM Thin Plates by Isogeometric Analysis Based on Classical Plate Theory and Physical Neutral Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuohui Yin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The isogeometric analysis with nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS based on the classical plate theory (CPT is developed for free vibration analyses of functionally graded material (FGM thin plates. The objective of this work is to provide an efficient and accurate numerical simulation approach for the nonhomogeneous thin plates and shells. Higher order basis functions can be easily obtained in IGA, thus the formulation of CPT based on the IGA can be simplified. For the FGM thin plates, material property gradient in the thickness direction is unsymmetrical about the midplane, so effects of midplane displacements cannot be ignored, whereas the CPT neglects midplane displacements. To eliminate the effects of midplane displacements without introducing new unknown variables, the physical neutral surface is introduced into the CPT. The approximation of the deflection field and the geometric description are performed by using the NURBS basis functions. Compared with the first-order shear deformation theory, the present method has lower memory consumption and higher efficiency. Several numerical results show that the present method yields highly accurate solutions.

  20. Waveguiding in supported phononic crystal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasseur, J; Hladky-Hennion, A-C; Deymier, P; Djafari-Rouhani, B; Duval, F; Dubus, B; Pennec, Y

    2007-01-01

    We investigate, with the help of the finite element method, the existence of absolute band gaps in the band structure of a free-standing phononic crystal plate and of a phononic crystal slab deposited on a substrate. The two-dimensional phononic crystal is constituted by a square array of holes drilled in an active piezoelectric (PZT5A or AlN) matrix. For both matrix materials, an absolute band gap occurs in the band structure of the free-standing plate provided the thickness of the plate is on the order of magnitude of the lattice parameter. When the plate is deposited on a Si substrate, the absolute band gap still remains when the matrix of the phononic crystal is made of PZT5A. The AlN phononic crystal plate losses its gap when supported by the Si substrate. In the case of the PZT5A matrix, we also study the possibility of localized modes associated with a linear defect created by removing one row of air holes in the deposited phononic crystal plate

  1. Advanced engineering materials and thick film hybrid circuit technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, S.; Aslam, M.; Mehmood, K.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Thick Film hybrid Technology to manufacture electronic circuits and passive components continues to grow at rapid rate. Thick Film Technology can be viewed as a means of packaging active devices, spanning the gap between monolithic integrated circuit chips and printed circuit boards with attached active and passive components. An advancement in engineering materials has moved from a formulating art to a base of greater understanding of relationship of material chemistry to the details of electrical and mechanical performance. This amazing advancement in the field of engineering materials has brought us up to a magnificent standard that we are able to manufacture small size, low cost and sophisticated electronic circuits of Military, Satellite systems, Robotics, Medical and Telecommunications. (author)

  2. Size-dependent axisymmetric vibration of functionally graded circular plates in bifurcation/limit point instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashoori, A. R.; Vanini, S. A. Sadough; Salari, E.

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper, vibration behavior of size-dependent functionally graded (FG) circular microplates subjected to thermal loading are carried out in pre/post-buckling of bifurcation/limit-load instability for the first time. Two kinds of frequently used thermal loading, i.e., uniform temperature rise and heat conduction across the thickness direction are considered. Thermo-mechanical material properties of FG plate are supposed to vary smoothly and continuously throughout the thickness based on power law model. Modified couple stress theory is exploited to describe the size dependency of microplate. The nonlinear governing equations of motion and associated boundary conditions are extracted through generalized form of Hamilton's principle and von-Karman geometric nonlinearity for the vibration analysis of circular FG plates including size effects. Ritz finite element method is then employed to construct the matrix representation of governing equations which are solved by two different strategies including Newton-Raphson scheme and cylindrical arc-length method. Moreover, in the following a parametric study is accompanied to examine the effects of the several parameters such as material length scale parameter, temperature distributions, type of buckling, thickness to radius ratio, boundary conditions and power law index on the dimensionless frequency of post-buckled/snapped size-dependent FG plates in detail. It is found that the material length scale parameter and thermal loading have a significant effect on vibration characteristics of size-dependent circular FG plates.

  3. VIBRATION CONTROL OF RECTANGULAR CROSS-PLY FRP PLATES USING PZT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DILEEP KUMAR K

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric materials are extensively employed in the field of structures for condition monitoring, smart control and testing applications. The piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. The coupling effects between the mechanical and electric properties of piezoelectric materials have drawn significant attention for their potential applications. In the present work, an analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and a concept is developed for an approximate dynamic model to the vibration response of the simply supported orthotropic rectangular plates excited by a piezoelectric patch of variable rectangular geometry and location. A time harmonic electric voltages with the same magnitude and opposite sign are applied to the two symmetric piezoelectric actuators, which results in the bending moment on the plate. The main objective of the work is to obtain an analytical solution for the vibration amplitude of composite plate predicted from plate theory. The results demonstrate that the vibration modes can be selectively excited and the geometry of the PZTactuator shape remarkably affects the distribution of the response among modes. Thus according to the desired degree shape control it is possible to tailor the shape, size and properly designed control algorithm of the actuator to either excite or suppress particular modes.

  4. Influence of material anisotropy on the hydroelastic response of composite plates in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcabay, Deniz Tolga; Young, Yin Lu

    2018-03-01

    Flexible lightweight plate-like lifting surfaces in external flows have a diverse range of use from propelling and controlling marine and aerospace vehicles to converting wind and ocean energy to electrical energy. Design and analysis of such structures are complex for underwater applications where the water density is much higher than air. The hydrodynamic loads, which vary with the inflow speed, can significantly alter the dynamic response and stability. This paper focuses on the hydroelastic response of composite plates in water. The results show that the dynamics and stability of the structure can be significantly modified by taking advantage of the material anisotropic; on the contrary, careless composite material designs may lead to unwanted dynamic instability failures. The resonance frequencies, divergence speeds, and fluid loss coefficients change with material anisotropy and hydrodynamic loads. The resonance frequencies are much lower in water than in air. The critical divergence speed increases, if the principal fiber direction is oriented towards the inflow. Hydrodynamic damping is shown to be much higher than the material damping, and tend to increase with flow speed and to decrease with increasing modal frequency. The paper derives Response Amplitude Operators (RAOs) for sample composite plates in water and use them to predict the motion response when subject to stochastic flow excitations. We show how material anisotropy can be used to passively tailor the plate vibration response spectrum to limit or enhance flow-induced vibrations of the plate depending on the desired applications.

  5. Application of Generalized Fractional Thermoelasticity Theory with Two Relaxation Times to an Electromagnetothermoelastic Thick Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Abd El-Latief

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fractional mathematical model of Maxwell’s equations in an electromagnetic field and the fractional generalized thermoelastic theory associated with two relaxation times are applied to a 1D problem for a thick plate. Laplace transform is used. The solution in Laplace transform domain has been obtained using a direct method and its inversion is calculated numerically using a method based on Fourier series expansion technique. Finally, the effects of the two fractional parameters (thermo and magneto on variable fields distributions are made. Numerical results are represented graphically.

  6. Analytical Modeling of Hard-Coating Cantilever Composite Plate considering the Material Nonlinearity of Hard Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the material nonlinearity of hard coating, the coated structure produces the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of variable stiffness and damping, which make the modeling of hard-coating composite structure become a challenging task. In this study, the polynomial was adopted to characterize this material nonlinearity and an analytical modeling method was developed for the hard-coating composite plate. Firstly, to relate the hard-coating material parameters obtained by test and the analytical model, the expression of equivalent strain of composite plate was derived. Then, the analytical model of hard-coating composite plate was created by energy method considering the material nonlinearity of hard coating. Next, using the Newton-Raphson method to solve the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate and a specific calculation procedure was also proposed. Finally, a cantilever plate coated with MgO + Al2O3 hard coating was chosen as study case; the vibration response and resonant frequencies of composite plate were calculated using the proposed method. The calculation results were compared with the experiment and general linear calculation, and the correctness of the created model was verified. The study shows the proposed method can still maintain an acceptable precision when the material nonlinearity of hard coating is stronger.

  7. Versatile technique for assessing thickness of 2D layered materials by XPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Jespersen, Michael; Zakharov, Dmitry N.; Hu, Jianjun; Paul, Rajib; Kumar, Anurag; Pacley, Shanee; Glavin, Nicholas; Saenz, David; Smith, Kyle C.; Fisher, Timothy S.; Voevodin, Andrey A.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been utilized as a versatile method for thickness characterization of various two-dimensional (2D) films. Accurate thickness can be measured simultaneously while acquiring XPS data for chemical characterization of 2D films having thickness up to approximately 10 nm. For validating the developed technique, thicknesses of few-layer graphene (FLG), MoS2 and amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) layer, produced by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD), plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) respectively, were accurately measured. The intensity ratio between photoemission peaks recorded for the films (C 1s, Mo 3d, B 1s) and the substrates (Cu 2p, Al 2p, Si 2p) is the primary input parameter for thickness calculation, in addition to the atomic densities of the substrate and the film, and the corresponding electron attenuation length (EAL). The XPS data was used with a proposed model for thickness calculations, which was verified by cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurement of thickness for all the films. The XPS method determines thickness values averaged over an analysis area which is orders of magnitude larger than the typical area in cross-sectional TEM imaging, hence provides an advanced approach for thickness measurement over large areas of 2D materials. The study confirms that the versatile XPS method allows rapid and reliable assessment of the 2D material thickness and this method can facilitate in tailoring growth conditions for producing very thin 2D materials effectively over a large area. Furthermore, the XPS measurement for a typical 2D material is non-destructive and does not require special sample preparation. Therefore, after XPS analysis, exactly the same sample can undergo further processing or utilization.

  8. Topological material layout in plates for vibration suppression and wave propagation control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Astrup; Laksafoss, B.; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard

    2009-01-01

    We propose a topological material layout method to design elastic plates with optimized properties for vibration suppression and guided transport of vibration energy. The gradient-based optimization algorithm is based on a finite element model of the plate vibrations obtained using the Mindlin...

  9. Propagation law of impact elastic wave based on specific materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmin CHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to explore the propagation law of the impact elastic wave on the platform, the experimental platform is built by using the specific isotropic materials and anisotropic materials. The glass cloth epoxy laminated plate is used for anisotropic material, and an organic glass plate is used for isotropic material. The PVDF sensors adhered on the specific materials are utilized to collect data, and the elastic wave propagation law of different thick plates and laminated plates under impact conditions is analyzed. The Experimental results show that in anisotropic material, transverse wave propagation speed along the fiber arrangement direction is the fastest, while longitudinal wave propagation speed is the slowest. The longitudinal wave propagation speed in anisotropic laminates is much slower than that in the laminated thick plates. In the test channel arranged along a particular angle away from the central region of the material, transverse wave propagation speed is larger. Based on the experimental results, this paper proposes a material combination mode which is advantageous to elastic wave propagation and diffusion in shock-isolating materials. It is proposed to design a composite material with high acoustic velocity by adding regularly arranged fibrous materials. The overall design of the barrier material is a layered structure and a certain number of 90°zigzag structure.

  10. A Comparison of Vibroacoustic Response of Isotropic Plate with Attached Discrete Patches and Point Masses Having Different Thickness Variation with Different Taper Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparison of sound radiation behavior of plate in air medium with attached discrete patches/point masses having different thickness variations with different taper ratio of 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 is analysed. Finite element method is used to find the vibration characteristics while Rayleigh integral is used to predict the sound radiation characteristics. Minimum peak sound power level obtained is at a taper ratio of 0.6 with parabolic increasing-decreasing thickness variation for plate with four discrete patches. At higher taper ratio, linearly increasing-decreasing thickness variation is another alternative for minimum peak sound power level suppression with discrete patches. It is found that, in low frequency range, average radiation efficiency remains almost the same, but near first peak, four patches or four point masses cause increase in average radiation efficiency; that is, redistribution of point masses/patches does have effect on average radiation efficiency at a given taper ratio.

  11. Equivalent material properties of perforated plate with triangular or square penetration pattern for dynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhung, Myung Jo; Jo, Jong Chull

    2006-01-01

    For a perforated plate, it is challenging to develop a finite element model due to the necessity of the fine meshing of the plate, especially if it is submerged in fluid. This necessitates the use of a solid plate with equivalent material properties. Unfortunately, the effective elastic constants suggested by the ASME code are deemed not valid for a model analysis. Therefore, in this study the equivalent material properties of a perforated plate are suggested by performing several finite element analyses with respect to the ligament efficiencies

  12. Finite Element Analysis of the Deformation of Functionally Graded Plates under Thermomechanical Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Alshorbagy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The first-order shear deformation plate model, accounting for the exact neutral plane position, is exploited to investigate the uncoupled thermomechanical behavior of functionally graded (FG plates. Functionally graded materials are mainly constructed to operate in high temperature environments. Also, FG plates are used in many applications (such as mechanical, electrical, and magnetic, where an amount of heat may be generated into the FG plate whenever other forms of energy (electrical, magnetic, etc. are converted into thermal energy. Several simulations are performed to study the behavior of FG plates, subjected to thermomechanical loadings, and focus the attention on the effect of the heat source intensity. Most of the previous studies have considered the midplane neutral one, while the actual position of neutral plane for functionally graded plates is shifted and should be firstly determined. A comparative study is performed to illustrate the effect of considering the neutral plane position. The volume fraction of the two constituent materials of the FG plate is varied smoothly and continuously, as a continuous power function of the material position, along the thickness of the plate.

  13. Laminated exfoliated graphite composite-metal compositions for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamu, Aruna; Shi, Jinjun; Guo, Jiusheng; Jang, Bor Z

    2014-05-20

    An electrically conductive laminate composition for fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate applications. The laminate composition comprises at least a thin metal sheet having two opposed exterior surfaces and a first exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the first of the two exterior surfaces of the metal sheet wherein the exfoliated graphite composite sheet comprises: (a) expanded or exfoliated graphite and (b) a binder or matrix material to bond the expanded graphite for forming a cohered sheet, wherein the binder or matrix material is between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet. Preferably, the first exfoliated graphite composite sheet further comprises particles of non-expandable graphite or carbon in the amount of between 3% and 60% by weight based on the total weight of the non-expandable particles and the expanded graphite. Further preferably, the laminate comprises a second exfoliated graphite composite sheet bonded to the second surface of the metal sheet to form a three-layer laminate. Surface flow channels and other desired geometric features can be built onto the exterior surfaces of the laminate to form a flow field plate or bipolar plate. The resulting laminate has an exceptionally high thickness-direction conductivity and excellent resistance to gas permeation.

  14. Inhomogeneity of Microstructure and Properties of 7085-T651 Aluminum Alloy Extra-thick Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Chengbo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhomogeneity of microstructure and properties of 7085-T651 aluminum alloy extra-thick plate were investigated by tensile properties, exfoliation corrosion, optical microscopy(OM, composition analysis, scanning electron microscopy(SEM,differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results show that the microstructure, tensile property and exfoliation corrosion in different layers of 7085-T651 aluminum alloy of 110 mm thick are inhomogeneous. For the 1/4 thickness layer, the tensile strength is the minimum, 540 MPa, and the resistance to exfoliation corrosion of this layer is the worst, with exfoliation corrosion classification of EB. For the core layer, the tensile strength is the maximum, 580 MPa. The resistance to exfoliation corrosion of the surface layer is the best, with exfoliation corrosion classification of EA. For the 1/4 thickness layer, it has the largest recrystallized fraction up to about 47.7% and the grain size is about 105 μm; there are equilibrium phase particles precipitated on grain boundaries or within grains; the size of aging precipitates is small; and thus both mechanical properties and resistance to exfoliation corrosion are the worst. For the core layer, it has the smallest recrystallized fraction of about 14.8% and there are a large amount of sub-grains; the fraction of residual phase Al7Cu2Fe almost reaches up to about 1.43%; the size of the equilibrium phase on grain boundaries, the size of aging precipitates and the width of PFZ are large, and therefore good mechanical properties and bad resistance to exfoliation corrosion are obtained.

  15. Finite element analysis of functionally graded bone plate at femur bone fracture site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satapathy, Pravat Kumar; Sahoo, Bamadev; Panda, L. N.; Das, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper focuses on the analysis of fractured Femur bone with functionally graded bone plate. The Femur bone is modeled by using the data from the CT (Computerized Tomography) scan and the material properties are assigned using Mimics software. The fracture fixation plate used here is composed of Functionally Graded Material (FGM). The functionally graded bone plate is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous materials. Finite element method approach is adopted for analysis. The volume fraction of the material is calculated by considering its variation along the thickness direction (z) according to a power law and the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated. The model developed is validated by comparing numerical results available in the literature. Static analysis has been performed for the bone plate system by considering both axial compressive load and torsional load. The investigation shows that by introducing FG bone plate instead of titanium, the stress at the fracture site increases by 63 percentage and the deformation decreases by 15 percentage, especially when torsional load is taken into consideration. The present model yields better results in comparison with the commercially available bone plates.

  16. First wall and divertor plate disposed facing to plasma of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Masanori; Suzuki, Satoshi; Akiba, Masato; Hayata, Yoshiho; Inoue, Taiji; Hayashi, Yukihiro; Kude, Yukinori

    1998-01-01

    In order to make the most of characteristics of each ingredient of carbon fiber-reinforced composite materials, carbon fiber unidirectionally reinforced materials and a carbon fiber three-directionally reinforced material are laminated in the direction of the thickness to form a carbon fiber-reinforced carbon composite material. In this case, the carbon fibers are continuously oriented in the direction of the thickness to constitute the carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materials integrally. In addition, a carbon fiber-reinforced carbon composite material prepared by bonding a metal on one surface in adjacent with the unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced portion and substantially in perpendicular to the direction of the thickness of the unidirectional carbon fiber reinforced portion is used as a main constitutional material. Further, a metal tube is buried in the carbon fiber three-directionally reinforced carbon composite material. Then, a first wall and a divertor plate excellent in thermal impact resistance to be disposed facing to plasmas of a thermonuclear device can be provided. (N.H.)

  17. Investigations on the corrosion resistance of metallic bipolar plates (BPP) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) - understanding the effects of material, coating and manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dur, Ender

    Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) systems are promising technology for contributing to meet the deficiency of world`s clean and sustainable energy requirements in the near future. Metallic bipolar plate (BPP) as one of the most significant components of PEMFC device accounts for the largest part of the fuel cell`s stack. Corrosion for metallic bipolar plates is a critical issue, which influences the performance and durability of PEMFC. Corrosion causes adverse impacts on the PEMFC`s performance jeopardizing commercialization. This research is aimed at determining the corrosion resistance of metallic BPPs, particularly stainless steels, used in PEMFC from different aspects. Material selection, coating selection, manufacturing process development and cost considerations need to be addressed in terms of the corrosion behavior to justify the use of stainless steels as a BPP material in PEMFC and to make them commercially feasible in industrial applications. In this study, Ti, Ni, SS304, SS316L, and SS 430 blanks, and BPPs comprised of SS304 and SS316L were examined in terms of the corrosion behavior. SS316L plates were coated to investigate the effect of coatings on the corrosion resistance performance. Stamping and hydroforming as manufacturing processes, and three different coatings (TiN, CrN, ZrN) applied via the Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) method in three different thicknesses were selected to observe the effects of manufacturing processes, coating types and coating thicknesses on the corrosion resistance of BPP, respectively. Uncoated-coated blank and formed BPP were subjected to two different corrosion tests: potentiostatic and potentiodynamic. Some of the substantial results: 1- Manufacturing processes have an adverse impact on the corrosion resistance. 2- Hydroformed plates have slightly higher corrosion resistance than stamped samples. 3- BPPs with higher channel size showed better corrosion resistance. 4- Since none of the uncoated samples

  18. IFMIF Li target back-plate design integration and thermo-mechanical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccardi, B.; Roccella, S.; Micciche, G.

    2006-01-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator-driven intense neutron source where fusion reactor candidate materials will be tested. The neutron flux is produced by means of a deuteron beam (current 250 mA, energy 40 MeV) that strikes a liquid lithium target circulating in a lithium loop. The support on which the liquid lithium flows, i.e. the back-plate, is the most heavily exposed component to neutron flux. A '' bayonet '' concept solution for the back-plate was proposed by ENEA with the objectives of improving the back-plate reliability and simplifying the remote handling procedures. On the base of this concept, a back-plate mock-up was fabricated and validated. Starting from the findings of the mock up design, a back-plate design integration exercise was carried out in order to check if the back-plate geometrical features are compatible with the target assembly and the Vertical Test Assemblies (VTA). The work carried out has demonstrated that even with the changes operated for the design integration (increase of in-plane dimensions and reduction of thickness) the bayonet concept is able to guarantee a tight connection to the target assembly. A thermo-mechanical analysis of the back-plate has been carried out by means of ABAQUS code. The thermal load used as input for the calculations, i.e. the neutron heat generation, has been estimated by means of Monte Carlo Mc-Delicious code. The two boundary constraint cases (full and minimum contact with target assembly) considered for each back-plate geometry option represent the extreme cases of the real operating condition of the plate. The influence of the contact heat exchange coefficient and the back-plate thickness has been also evaluated. For all these reasons, the results of the analysis can be considered as the domain of variability of the real working conditions. The results show that AISI 316L steel is not suitable as black-plate material: the stress induced in the plate, in

  19. Calculation analysis of the thickness of radiation shield for the RIA equipment IP10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benar Bukit; Kristiyanti; Hari Nurcahyadi

    2011-01-01

    Calculation Analysis has been performed on the thickness of radiation shield for the design of the Radioimmunoassay (RIA) IP10 counters using five detectors arranged in parallel. The calculation is intended to ensure that the radiation on each detector does not influence each other. The radiation shield is made of lead. The calculation of lead thickness was based on the principle of the lead plates absorptive power toward the gamma ray of a certain energy. which is the function of linear absorption coefficient and the material thickness. Assuming the use of Iodium-125(I-125) source with an activity 10 µCi, and expecting an absorptive power of 95%, calculations showed that the required lead thickness is equal to 0,013 cm. Since lead is soft and its availability in the market is limited, lead plate of 2 mm thickness are used instead, so that counting result for the detectors do not influence each other. (author)

  20. Optimal Super Dielectric Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    plate capacitor will reduce the net field to an unprecedented extent. This family of materials can form materials with dielectric values orders of... Capacitor -Increase Area (A)............8 b. Multi-layer Ceramic Capacitor -Decrease Thickness (d) .......10 c. Super Dielectric Material-Increase...circuit modeling, from [44], and B) SDM capacitor charge and discharge ...................................................22 Figure 15. Dielectric

  1. Free Vibration Analysis of Composite Plates via Refined Theories Accounting for Uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Giunta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The free vibration analysis of composite thin and relatively thick plates accounting for uncertainty is addressed in this work. Classical and refined two-dimensional models derived via Carrera's Unified Formulation (CUF are considered. Material properties and geometrical parameters are supposed to be random. The fundamental frequency related to the first bending eigenmode is stochastically described in terms of the mean value, the standard deviation, the related confidence intervals and the cumulative distribution function. The Monte Carlo Method is employed to account for uncertainty. Cross-ply, simply supported, orthotropic plates are accounted for. Symmetric and anti-symmetric lay-ups are investigated. Displacements based and mixed two-dimensional theories are adopted. Equivalent single layer and layer wise approaches are considered. A Navier type solution is assumed. The conducted analyses have shown that for the considered cases, the fundamental natural frequency is not very sensitive to the uncertainty in the material parameters, while uncertainty in the geometrical parameters should be accounted for. In the case of thin plates, all the considered models yield statistically matching results. For relatively thick plates, the difference in the mean value of the natural frequency is due to the different number of degrees of freedom in the model.

  2. Two dimensional dynamic analysis of sandwich plates with gradient foam cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mu, Lin; Xiao, Deng Bao; Zhao, Guiping [State Key Laboratory for Mechanical structure Strength and Vibration, School of AerospaceXi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Cho, Chong Du [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Present investigation is concerned about dynamic response of composite sandwich plates with the functionally gradient foam cores under time-dependent impulse. The analysis is based on a model of the gradient sandwich plate, in which the face sheets and the core adopt the Kirchhoff theory and a [2, 1]-order theory, respectively. The material properties of the gradient foam core vary continuously along the thickness direction. The gradient plate model is validated with the finite element code ABAQUS®. And the results show that the proposed model can predict well the free vibration of composite sandwich plates with gradient foam cores. The influences of gradient foam cores on the natural frequency, deflection and energy absorbing of the sandwich plates are also investigated.

  3. Hydrodynamics of a flexible plate between pitching rigid plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Junyoung; Kim, Daegyoum

    2017-11-01

    The dynamics of a flexible plate have been studied as a model problem in swimming and flying of animals and fluid-structure interaction of plants and flags. Motivated by fish schooling and an array of sea grasses, we investigate the dynamics of a flexible plate closely placed between two pitching rigid plates. In most studies on passive deformation of the flexible plate, the plate is immersed in a uniform flow or a wavy flow. However, in this study, the flexible plate experiences periodic deformation by the oscillatory flow generated by the prescribed pitching motion of the rigid plates. In our model, the pitching axes of the rigid plates and the clamping position of the flexible plate are aligned on the same line. The flexible plate shows various responses depending on length and pitching frequency of rigid plates, thickness of a flexible plate, and free-stream velocity. To find the effect of each variable on the response of the flexible plate, amplitude of a trailing edge and modal contribution of a flapping motion are compared, and flow structure around the flexible plate is examined.

  4. Static and Monoharmonic Acoustic Impact on a Laminated Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paimushin, V. N.; Gazizullin, R. K.

    2017-07-01

    A discrete layered damping model of a multilayer plate at small displacements and deformations, with account of the internal damping of layers according to the Thompson-Kelvin-Voight model, is presented. Based on the equations derived, an analytical solution to the static deformation problem for single-layer rectangular plate hinge-supported along its contour and subjected of a uniformly distributed pressure applied to one of its boundary planes is obtained. Its convergence to the three-dimensional solution is analyzed in relation to the dimension of mesh in the thickness direction of the plate. It is found that, for thin plates, the dimension of the problem formulated can be reduced on the basis of simplified hypotheses applied to each layer. An analytical solutions is also constructed for the forced vibrations of two- and three-layer rectangular plates hinged in the opening of an absolutely stiff dividing wall upon transmission of a monoharmonic sound wave through them. It was assumed that the dividing wall is situated between two absolutely stiff barriers; one of them, owing to the harmonic vibration with a given displacement amplitude of the plate, forms an incident sound wave, and the other is stationary and is coated by a energy-absorbing material with high damping properties. Behavior of the acoustic media in spaces between the deformable plate and the barriers is described by the classical wave equations based on the model of an ideal compressible fluid. To describe the process of dynamic deformation of the energy-absorbing coating of the fixed barrier, two-dimensional equations of motion are derived based on the model of a transversely soft layer, a linear approximation of displacement fields in the thickness direction of the coating, and the account of damping properties of its material by using the hysteresis model. The effect of physical and mechanical parameters of the mechanical system considered and of frequency of the incident sound wave on the

  5. Implant Material, Type of Fixation at the Shaft, and Position of Plate Modify Biomechanics of Distal Femur Plate Osteosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Utku; Augat, Peter; Konowalczyk, Stefanie; Wipf, Felix; von Oldenburg, Geert; Schmidt, Ulf

    2017-08-01

    To investigate whether (1) the type of fixation at the shaft (hybrid vs. locking), (2) the position of the plate (offset vs. contact) and (3) the implant material has a significant effect on (a) construct stiffness and (b) fatigue life in a distal femur extraarticular comminuted fracture model using the same design of distal femur periarticular locking plate. An extraarticular severely comminuted distal femoral fracture pattern (OTA/AO 33-A3) was simulated using artificial bone substitutes. Ten-hole distal lateral femur locking plates were used for fixation per the recommended surgical technique. At the distal metaphyseal fragment, all possible locking screws were placed. For the proximal diaphyseal fragment, different types of screws were used to create 4 different fixation constructs: (1) stainless steel hybrid (SSH), (2) stainless steel locked (SSL), (3) titanium locked (TiL), and (4) stainless steel locked with 5-mm offset at the diaphysis (SSLO). Six specimens of each construct configuration were tested. First, each specimen was nondestructively loaded axially to determine the stiffness. Then, each specimen was cyclically loaded with increasing load levels until failure. Construct Stiffness: The fixation construct with a stainless steel plate and hybrid fixation (SSH) had the highest stiffness followed by the construct with a stainless steel plate and locking screws (SSL) and were not statistically different from each other. Offset placement (SSLO) and using a titanium implant (TiL) significantly reduced construct stiffness. Fatigue Failure: The stainless steel with hybrid fixation group (SSH) withstood the most number of cycles to failure and higher loads, followed by the stainless steel plate and locking screw group (SSL), stainless steel plate with locking screws and offset group (SSLO), and the titanium plate and locking screws group (TiL) consecutively. Offset placement (SSLO) as well as using a titanium implant (TiL) reduced cycles to failure. Using the

  6. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on.

  7. Analyzing the effects of size of hole on Plate failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behzad, Mohammadzadeh; Noh, Hyukchun

    2013-01-01

    The load at critical point in which an infinitesimal increase in load can make the plate to buckle, is buckling load. When a plate element is subjected to direct compression, bending, shear, or a combination of these stresses in its plane, the plate may buckle locally before the member as a whole becomes unstable or before the yield stress of the material is reached. Holes can either increase or decrease critical load of a plate depending on its position and geometry. The presence of holes in plates will change the strength and stiffness, so the amounts of stress and its distribution which induce strain and buckling will be changed. This study deals with studying the buckling of plate with holes using finite element method(FEM). Buckling is one of the main reasons for steel members to fail during service life time. As plates are frequently used in the structures of nuclear power plants and in some cases making holes in plates is necessary, it is necessary to assay the capacity of the plates especially in terms of buckling. FEM is a useful approach which makes the plate analysis be performed with ease. This study relates the buckling load of plates with through-thickness holes to a dimensionless parameter (D/a). By increasing D/a ratio, the amount of plate strength is observed to be decreased. After D/a=0.5, the rate of decreasing is observed to be increased drastically. Therefore, it is better to use ratio D/a less than or equal to 0.5. As a further study, it is possible to investigate other aspects such as different thickness, different positions and so on

  8. Free Vibration Analysis of Fiber Metal Laminate Annular Plate by State-Space Based Differential Quadrature Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. Rahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional elasticity theory by means of a state-space based differential quadrature method is presented for free vibration analysis of fiber metal laminate annular plate. The kinds of composite material and metal layers are considered to be S2-glass and aluminum, respectively. A semianalytical approach which uses state-space in the thickness and differential quadrature in the radial direction is implemented for evaluating the nondimensional natural frequencies of the annular plates. The influences of changes in boundary condition, plate thickness, and lay-up direction on the natural frequencies are studied. A comparison is also made with the numerical results reported by ABAQUS software which shows an excellent agreement.

  9. Numerical modeling of the thickness dependence of zinc die-cast materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Maria Angeles Martinez; Ruf, Matthias; Hartmann, Stefan

    2017-11-01

    Zinc die casting alloys show varying material properties over the thickness in their final solid state, which causes a change in the mechanical response for specimens with different thicknesses. In this article, we propose a modeling concept to account for the varying porosity in the constitutive modeling. The material properties are effectively incorporated by combining a partial differential equation describing the distribution of the pores by a structural parameter with the Mori-Tanaka approach for linear elasticity. The distribution of the porosity is determined by polished cut images, for which the procedure is explained in detail. Finite element simulations of the coupled system incorporating the thickness dependence show the applicability of this approach.

  10. Analysis of optical thickness determination of materials by THz-TDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushko, O; Dubrovka, R; Donnan, R S

    2013-01-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectrometry (THz TDS) is a sensitive probe of the complex dielectric response of materials. Methods vary for converting time-domain response into final material optical parameters together with estimation of associated uncertainties. Here we point out the importance of using an accurate extraction procedure with particular emphasis on the error introduced by associated inaccuracy in thickness determination of a sample. The Total Variation (TV) method is used to estimate sample thickness to sub-micron accuracy, by constructively using the phenomena of multiple internal reflections ('ringing') within a sample. The applicability and performance of the TV methodology is discussed

  11. Inspection of Defect Detection Trials Plate 3 by the Materials Physics Department, RNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogerson, A.; Poulter, L.N.J.; Dyke, A.V.; Tickle, H.

    1983-11-01

    In January 1982, Risley Nuclear Laboratories (RNL) performed an inspection of Plate 3 of the UKAEA sponsored Defect Detection Trials. A detailed description is given of the ultrasonic techniques and procedures adopted by RNL for this inspection. 0 0 and 70 0 longitudinal twin crystal probes and 70 0 shear probes were used for flaw detection and lateral dimensioning of defects. The time of flight technique was used for through thickness flaw sizing. Comparison is made of the reported inspection results and flaw sizes and locations obtained from destructive examination. All flaws were detected and the reported through thickness sizes were within +- 2 mm of the intended values. (author)

  12. Transmission loss of plates with embedded acoustic black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feurtado, Philip A; Conlon, Stephen C

    2017-09-01

    In recent years acoustic black holes (ABHs) have been developed and demonstrated as an effective method for developing lightweight, high loss structures for noise and vibration control. ABHs employ a local thickness change to tailor the speed and amplitude of flexural bending waves and create concentrated regions of high strain energy which can be effectively dissipated through conventional damping treatments. These regions act as energy sinks which allow for effective broadband vibration absorption with minimal use of applied damping material. This, combined with the reduced mass from the thickness tailoring, results in a treated structure with higher loss and less mass than the original. In this work, the transmission loss (TL) of plates with embedded ABHs was investigated using experimental and numerical methods in order to assess the usefulness of ABH systems for TL applications. The results demonstrated that damped ABH plates offer improved performance compared to a uniform plate despite having less mass. The result will be useful for applying ABHs and ABH systems to practical noise and vibration control problems.

  13. Plating on difficult-to-plate metals: what's new

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    Some of the changes since 1970 in procedures for plating on such materials as titanium, molybdenum, silicon, aluminum, and gallium arsenide are summarized. While basic procedures for plating some of these materials were developed as many as 30 to 40 years ago, changes in the end uses of the plated products have necessitated new plating processes. In some cases, vacuum techniques - such as ion bombardment, ion implantation, and vacuum metallization - have been introduced to improve the adhesion of electrodeposits. In other cases, these techniques have been used to deposit materials upon which electrodeposits are required

  14. Study on production mechanism of welding residual stress at the juncture of a pipe penetrating a thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Masahito; Enomoto, Kunio; Okamoto, Noriaki; Saitoh, Hideyo; Hayashi, Eisaku.

    1994-01-01

    This paper studies welding residual stresses at the intersection of a small diameter pipe penetrating a thick plate. The pipe is welded to the plate, and Tungsten Innert Gas (TIG) cladding is melted on the inner surface of the pipe to protect it from stress corrosion cracking due to long operation in nuclear power plants. Stresses are calculated by heat conduction analysis and thermal elasto-plastic analysis, and also measured by strain gauges. Welding residual stresses are shown to have no corrosive influence on the inner pipe surface, and the stresses are compressed enough to protect the pipe against stress corrosion cracking on the outer surface. It was also studied to make clear the production mechanism of the residual stresses which were generated by welding processes at the pipe. (author)

  15. Voltage-current characteristics of a pin-plate system with different plate configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Zhuangbo; Long, Zhengwei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of a pin-plate system with four types of collection plate configurations are studied experimentally. The collection plates consider a single metal plate, a metal plate with a fly ash cake layer, a metal plate with a clean filter media and a metal plate with a dirty filter media. The results show that the clean filter media has no obvious effect on the V-I characteristics. But the dirty filter media reduces the current density because of its high resistance. The thick fly ash cake layer increase current density because of the anti-corona effect but the increment is not very obvious.

  16. Dynamic Response of Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Sandwich Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehar, Kulmani; Panda, Subrata Kumar

    2018-03-01

    In this article, the dynamic response of the carbon nanotube-reinforced functionally graded sandwich composite plate has been studied numerically with the help of finite element method. The face sheets of the sandwich composite plate are made of carbon nanotube- reinforced composite for two different grading patterns whereas the core phase is taken as isotropic material. The final properties of the structure are calculated using the rule of mixture. The geometrical model of the sandwich plate is developed and discretized suitably with the help of available shell element in ANSYS library. Subsequently, the corresponding numerical dynamic responses computed via batch input technique (parametric design language code in ANSYS) of ANSYS including Newmark’s integration scheme. The stability of the sandwich structural numerical model is established through the proper convergence study. Further, the reliability of the sandwich model is checked by comparison study between present and available results from references. As a final point, some numerical problems have been solved to examine the effect of different design constraints (carbon nanotube distribution pattern, core to face thickness ratio, volume fractions of the nanotube, length to thickness ratio, aspect ratio and constraints at edges) on the time-responses of sandwich plate.

  17. Brazing open cell reticulated copper foam to stainless steel tubing with vacuum furnace brazed gold/indium alloy plating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Stanley R [Windsor, SC; Korinko, Paul S [Aiken, SC

    2008-05-27

    A method of fabricating a heat exchanger includes brush electroplating plated layers for a brazing alloy onto a stainless steel tube in thin layers, over a nickel strike having a 1.3 .mu.m thickness. The resultant Au-18 In composition may be applied as a first layer of indium, 1.47 .mu.m thick, and a second layer of gold, 2.54 .mu.m thick. The order of plating helps control brazing erosion. Excessive amounts of brazing material are avoided by controlling the electroplating process. The reticulated copper foam rings are interference fit to the stainless steel tube, and in contact with the plated layers. The copper foam rings, the plated layers for brazing alloy, and the stainless steel tube are heated and cooled in a vacuum furnace at controlled rates, forming a bond of the copper foam rings to the stainless steel tube that improves heat transfer between the tube and the copper foam.

  18. High precision refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from phase plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Naraghi, Roxana Rezvani; Nahal, Arashmid; Hassani, Khosrow

    2012-05-01

    When a transparent plane-parallel plate is illuminated at a boundary region by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, Fresnel diffraction occurs because of the abrupt change in phase imposed by the finite change in refractive index at the plate boundary. The visibility of the diffraction fringes varies periodically with changes in incident angle. The visibility period depends on the plate thickness and the refractive indices of the plate and the surrounding medium. Plotting the phase change versus incident angle or counting the visibility repetition in an incident-angle interval provides, for a given plate thickness, the refractive index of the plate very accurately. It is shown here that the refractive index of a plate can be determined without knowing the plate thickness. Therefore, the technique can be utilized for measuring plate thickness with high precision. In addition, by installing a plate with known refractive index in a rectangular cell filled with a liquid and following the described procedures, the refractive index of the liquid is obtained. The technique is applied to measure the refractive indices of a glass slide, distilled water, and ethanol. The potential and merits of the technique are also discussed.

  19. Study of high-Z target plate materials in the divertor of ASDEX-Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, S; Asmussen, K; Engelhardt, W; Field, A R; Fussmann, G; Lieder, G; Naujoks, D; Neu, R; Radtke, R; Wenzel, U [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    The reduction of divertor tile erosion is a challenging problem in present and future tokamaks. Until now, graphite has almost exclusively been used for divertor plates, and it is estimated that unacceptable amounts of material would be eroded under reactor relevant conditions where power fluxes to the target plates as high as 20 MW/m{sup 2} are expected. In a high-recycling divertor with relatively low temperature (5 eVmaterials, e.g. tungsten, offer a possible solution to the target erosion problem. The reason is that the sputtering rates for these materials are extremely low under low temperature conditions. In addition, at high density the ionization lengths can be smaller than the gyro-radius leading to a high probability for prompt redeposition of the eroded ions. To provide a test of the suitability of high-Z materials for the divertor plates, in-situ studies of the erosion of various divertor target materials have been performed by means of passive spectroscopy. From our spectroscopic observations we infer that under high density divertor conditions the advantages of high-Z materials become fully efficient. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  20. A Study on Changes in Thickness of STS304 Material in the Progressive Drawing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C.K.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the drawing process, the roundness of corners in the punch and the die are very important factors in determining the thicknesses of the product. The results clearly revealed that the thickness of a flange was increased and the thickness of body parts reduced when the roundness of the die entrance was small. The material thickness of the top part was decreased when the corner roundness of the punch was large. The smooth inflow of materials was found to have a significant effect on the thickness during the post-process. The compressive strength of STS 304 material exhibited a higher value compared with other processing methods. Moreover, we clearly observed the corner roundness of the punch and the die to be a very important factor for STS 304 materials.

  1. Fabrication and mechanical test data for the four 6-inch-thick intermediate test vessels made from steel plate for the Heavy Section Steel Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childress, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    The HSST Program has among its goals the objective of demonstrating the capability to predict safe behavior of thick-walled pressure vessels containing flaws of known dimensions under frangible, transitional, and tough loading regimes. To accomplish these objectives the program is conducting a series of tests involving 6-in.-thick pressure vessels which will serve as test specimens for assisting in the characterization of failure under these loading conditions. Among the vessels a number of parameters, such as weld type, weld location, flaw size and shape, and test temperature and pressure, will be selectively varied to show that a rationale exists for dealing with the varied stress and metallurgical states which normally exist in commercial nuclear reactor vessels. Each vessel will serve as a go, no-go determination of critical flaw size for a specific set of test parameters. Item 4 of the previous issues in this series covers the fabrication details of the first six 6-in.-thick test vessels, which were fabricated from ASTM A-508 Cl 2 forging materials. This report covers the fabrication details of four additional 6-in.-thick intermediate test vessels having shell courses fabricated from ASTM A-533 Gr B Cl 1 plate. The remaining components were made from forgings. Essentially this report is a continuation of ORNL-TM-4351; it describes the manufacturing details of the individual parts and their ultimate assembly into finished vessels. Details concerning chemical composition and mechanical and nondestructive test data are presented

  2. Estimates of elastic plate thicknesses beneath large volcanos on Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.

    1992-01-01

    Megellan radar imaging and topography data are now available for a number of volcanos on Venus greater than 100 km in radius. These data can be examined to reveal evidence of the flexural response of the lithosphere to the volcanic load. On Earth, flexure beneath large hotspot volcanos results in an annual topographic moat that is partially to completely filled in by sedimentation and mass wasting from the volcano's flanks. On Venus, erosion and sediment deposition are considered to be negligible at the resolution of Magellan images. Thus, it may be possible to observe evidence of flexure by the ponding of recent volcanic flows in the moat. We also might expect to find topographic signals from unfilled moats surrounding large volcanos on Venus, although these signals may be partially obscured by regional topography. Also, in the absence of sedimentation, tectonic evidence of deformation around large volcanos should be evident except where buried by very young flows. We use analytic solutions in axisymmetric geometry for deflections and stresses resulting from loading of a plate overlying an inviscid fluid. Solutions for a set of disk loads are superimposed to obtain a solution for a conical volcano. The deflection of the lithosphere produces an annular depression or moat, the extent of which can be estimated by measuring the distance from the volcano's edge to the first zero crossing or to the peak of the flexural arch. Magellan altimetry data records (ARCDRs) from data cycle 1 are processed using the GMT mapping and graphics software to produce topographic contour maps of the volcanos. We then take topographic profiles that cut across the annular and ponded flows seen on the radar images. By comparing the locations of these flows to the predicted moat locations from a range of models, we estimate the elastic plate thickness that best fits the observations, together with the uncertainty in that estimate.

  3. Experimental investigation of critical velocity in a parallel plate research reactor fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Alfredo J.A.; Scuro, Nikolas L.; Andrade, Delvonei A., E-mail: ajcastro@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The fuel elements of a MTR (Material Testing Reactor) type nuclear reactor are mostly composed of aluminum coated fuel plates containing the core of uranium silica (U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) dispersed in an aluminum matrix. These plates have a thickness of the order of millimeters and are much longer in relation to their thickness. They are arranged in parallel in the assembly of the fuel element to form channels between them a few millimeters in thickness, through which there is a flow of the coolant. This configuration, combined with the need for a flow at high flow rates to ensure the cooling of the fuel element in operation, may create problems of mechanical failure of fuel plate due to the vibration induced by the flow in the channels. In the case of critical velocity excessive permanent deflections of the plates can cause blockage of the flow channel in the reactor core and lead to overheating in the plates. For this study an experimental bench capable of high volume flows and a test section that simulates a plate-like fuel element with three cooling channels were developed. The dimensions of the test section were based on the dimensions of the Fuel Element of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB), whose project is being coordinated by the National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN). The experiments performed attained the objective of reaching Miller's critical velocity condition. The critical velocity was reached with 14.5 m/s leading to the consequent plastic deformation of the flow channel plates. (author)

  4. Large deflection analysis of a pre-stressed annular plate with a rigid boss under axisymmetric loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y. H.; Chen, K. S.; Roberts, D. C.; Spearing, S. M.

    2001-11-01

    The large deflection analysis of a pre-stressed annular plate with a central rigid boss subjected to axisymmetric loading is presented. The factors affecting the transition from plate behaviour to membrane behaviour (e.g. thickness, in-plane tension and material properties) are studied. The effect of boss size and pre-tension on the effective stiffness of the plate are investigated. The extent of the bending boundary layers at the edges of the plate are quantified. All results are presented in non-dimensional form. The design implications for microelectromechanical system components are assessed.

  5. Application of an improved model for the identification of material parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Per S.

    1997-01-01

    Elastic material constants of thick plates can be identified by combining a range of measured natural frequencies with an accurate numerical model for the theoretical predictions. To deal with thick plates, a model that takes transverse shear effects into account is necessary. Since modeling errors...... affect the estimates in a systematic way, an accurate numerical model is of primary importance. Compared to a model used previously, an improved more accurate plate model is studied here for the purpose of identification. This new advanced model is used to assess the systematic errors...

  6. Vibration of functionally graded plate resting on viscoelastic elastic foundation subjected to moving loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duy Hien, Ta; Lam, Nguyen Ngoc

    2018-04-01

    The dynamics of plates subjected to a moving load must be considered by engineering mechanics and design structures. This paper deals with the dynamic responses of functionally graded (FG) rectangular plates resting on a viscoelastic foundation under moving loads. It is assumed that material properties of the plate vary continuously in the thickness direction according to the power-law. The governing equations are derived by using Hamilton’s principle, which considers the effect of the higher-order shear deformation in the plate. Transient responses of simply supported FG rectangular plates are employed by using state-space methods. Several examples are given for displacement and stresses in the plates with various structural parameters, and the effects of these parameters are discussed.

  7. Thermo-visco-plasticity and creep in structural-material response of folded-plate structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milašinović Dragan D.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many structural parts are exposed to high temperatures and loading. It is then important to have data about material inelastic behaviour under such exploiting conditions. Influence of temperature on mechanical characteristics of a material may be inserted via the creep coefficient in the range of visco-elasto-plastic (VEP strains. This damage parameter is implemented in this paper in conjunction with mathematical material modelling approach named rheological-dynamical analogy (RDA in order to address structural stiffness reduction due to inelastic material behaviour. The aim of this paper is to define structural-material internal damping based on both the RDA dynamic modulus and modal damping ratio, by modelling critically damped dynamic systems in the steady-state response. These systems are credible base for explanation of the phenomenon of thermo-visco-plasticity and creep in structural-material response due to high temperatures and loading. Though elastic buckling information for folded-plate structures is not a direct predictor of capacity or collapse behaviour on its own, both the mode and the load (moment are important proxies for the actual behaviour. In current design codes, such as AISI S100, New Zealand/Australia, and European Union, the design formulae are calibrated through the calculation of elastic critical buckling loads (or moments to predict the ultimate strength, thus the ability to calculate the associated elastic buckling loads (or moments has great importance. Moreover, the buckling mode shapes are commonly employed into non-linear collapse modelling as initial geometric imperfections and thermal performance of folded-plate structures in fire. To examine the buckling behaviour of folded-plate structures, the main numerical solution methods are used such as the finite element method (FEM and finite strip method (FSM. This paper aims at providing a unified frame for quasi-static inelastic buckling and thermal loading of

  8. Phase-conjugate interferometer to estimate refractive index and thickness of transparent plane parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrana-Sanchez, R.; Rodriguez-Zurita, G.; Vazquez-Castillo, J. F. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    A technique to estimate the refractive index and thickness of homogeneous plane parallel dielectric plates is proposed using a phase-conjugate interferometer, in which counting of interference fringes is employed. The light beam impinges a tilted plate before it enters a phase-conjugate interferometer, and a count of the fringes passing through a given reference at the observing plane gives the phase changes as a function of tilting angle. The obtained data is fitted to a mathematical model, which leads to the determination of both refractive index and thickness simultaneously. In this letter, experimental data from two interferometers are also discussed for comparison. One with an externally-pumped phase-conjugate mirror achieved with a BSO photorefractive crystal and another one with conventional mirrors. Results show that the phase sensitivity of the phase-conjugate interferometer is not simply twice the corresponding sensitivity of the conventional version. [Spanish] Se propone una tecnica para medir indices de refraccion y espesores de placas dielectricas plano paralelas homogeneas empleando un interferometro con fase conjugada, en el cual se usa el conteo de franjas. El haz luminoso incide en una placa inclinada bajo inspeccion antes de entrar en un interferometro equipado con un espejo conjugador de fase, y se realiza un conteo de las franjas que pasan por determinada referencia en el plano de observacion, proporcionando los cambios de fase en funcion del angulo de inclinacion. Los datos obtenidos se ajustan a un modelo, el cual conduce a la determinacion, tanto del indice de refraccion como del espesor, simultaneamente. En este trabajo se discuten datos experimentales provenientes de dos interferometros para su comparacion. Uno de ellos tiene un espejo conjugador basado en un cristal BSO fotorrefractivo, mientras que el otro es una variante con espejos convencionales. Se muestra que la sensibilidad de fase del interferometro con conjugador de fase no

  9. DETERMINATION OF CRITICAL ROTATIONAL SPEED OF CIRCULAR SAWS FROM NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF ANNULAR PLATE WITH ANALOGOUS DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Skoblar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is suitable to reduce thickness of circular saw when trying to enhance usability of wood raw material, but reducing thickness also causes reduction of permissible rotational speed which reduces sawing speed. If one increase circular saw rotational speed over permissible one the quality of machined surfaces will reduce because of enhanced vibrations. Permissible rotational speed can be calculated from critical rotational speed which can be defined from natural frequencies of the saw. In this article critical rotational speeds of standard clamped saws (with flat disk surface and without slots are calculated by using finite element method and classical theory of thin plates on annular plates. Mode shapes and natural frequencies of annular plates are determined by using Bessel functions and by using polynomial functions. Obtained results suggest that standard clamped circular saws without slots and with relatively small teeth can be determined from classical theory of thin plates for annular plates with accuracy depending on clamping ratio.

  10. Role of material properties and mechanical constraint on stress-assisted diffusion in plate electrodes of lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Yicheng; Zhang Junqian; Shao Xianjun; Guo Zhansheng

    2013-01-01

    This work investigates the stress-assisted diffusion of lithium ions in layered electrodes of Li-ion batteries. Decoupled diffusion governing equations are obtained. Material properties, which are characterized by a single dimensionless parameter, and mechanical constraint between a current collector and an active layer, which is characterized by the elastic modulus ratio and thickness ratio between the layers, are identified as key factors that govern the stress-assisted diffusion. For a symmetric plate electrode, stress is induced by the Li-ion concentration gradient, and stress-assisted diffusion therefore depends only on the material properties. For an asymmetric bilayer electrode, mechanical constraint plays a very important role in the diffusion via generation of bending stress. Diffusion may be facilitated, or inversely impeded, according to the constraint. By summarizing the coupling factors of common active materials and investigating the concentration variation induced by stress-assisted diffusion in various electrodes, this work provides insights on stress-assisted diffusion in a layered electrode, as well as suggestions for relevant modelling works on whether the stress-assisted diffusion should be taken into account according to the selection of material and structure. (paper)

  11. Methodical Specifics of Thermal Experiments with Thin Carbon Reinforced Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Denisov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Polymer composite materials (CM are widely used in creation of large space constructions, especially reflectors of space antennas. Composite materials should provide high level of specific stiffness and strength for space structures. Thermal conductivity in reinforcement plane is a significant factor in case of irregular heating space antennas. Nowadays, data on CM reinforcement plane thermal conductivity are limited and existing methods of its defining are imperfect. Basically, traditional methods allow us to define thermal conductivity in perpendicular direction towards the reinforcement plane on the samples of round or rectangular plate. In addition, the thickness of standard samples is larger than space antenna thickness. Consequently, new methods are required. Method of contact heating, which was developed by BMSTU specialists with long hollow carbon beam, could be a perspective way. This article is devoted to the experimental method of contact heating on the thin carbon plates.Thermal tests were supposed to provide a non-stationary temperature field with a gradient being co-directional with the plane reinforcement in the material sample. Experiments were conducted in vacuum chamber to prevent unstructured convection. Experimental thermo-grams processing were calculated by 1-d thermal model for a thin plate. Influence of uncertainty of experimental parameters, such as (radiation emission coefficients of sample surface, glue, temperature sensors and uncertainty of sensors placement on the result of defined thermal conductivity has been estimated. New data on the thermal conductivity in reinforcement plane were obtained within 295 - 375 K temperature range, which can be used to design and develop reflectors of precision space antennas. In the future it is expedient to conduct tests of thin-wall plates from carbon fiber-reinforced plastic in wide temperature range, especially in the low-range temperatures.

  12. Calibrated expressions for welding and their application to isotherm width in a thick plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gentry Wood

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper introduces a possible solution to the limitations of modern trial and error solutions to welding procedure development. The difficulties of finding generalized solutions to Rosenthal´s equation are discussed and the Minimal Representation and Calibration approach is introduced as a promising procedure for developing these solutions. Dominant factors are identified, with effects from secondary phenomena being taken into account by correction factors. These correction factors are then calibrated and presented in a form that can be easily computed, and therefore be amendable to industry. The approach is then demonstrated by determining the isotherm width from Rosenthal´s thick plate solution. Comparison of the calibrated scaling equations to Rosenthal´s exact solution showed a maximum error of less than 0.8% for any isotherm.

  13. Biomechanical properties of an advanced new carbon/flax/epoxy composite material for bone plate applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Zahra S; El Sawi, Ihab; Schemitsch, Emil H; Zdero, Rad; Bougherara, Habiba

    2013-04-01

    This work is part of an ongoing program to develop a new carbon fiber/flax/epoxy (CF/flax/epoxy) hybrid composite material for use as an orthopaedic long bone fracture plate, instead of a metal plate. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of this new novel composite material. The composite material had a "sandwich structure", in which two thin sheets of CF/epoxy were attached to each outer surface of the flax/epoxy core, which resulted in a unique structure compared to other composite plates for bone plate applications. Mechanical properties were determined using tension, three-point bending, and Rockwell hardness tests. Also, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the failure mechanism of specimens in tension and three-point bending tests. The results of mechanical tests revealed a considerably high ultimate strength in both tension (399.8MPa) and flexural loading (510.6MPa), with a higher elastic modulus in bending tests (57.4GPa) compared to tension tests (41.7GPa). The composite material experienced brittle catastrophic failure in both tension and bending tests. The SEM images, consistent with brittle failure, showed mostly fiber breakage and fiber pull-out at the fractured surfaces with perfect bonding at carbon fibers and flax plies. Compared to clinically-used orthopaedic metal plates, current CF/flax/epoxy results were closer to human cortical bone, making the material a potential candidate for use in long bone fracture fixation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alternative bipolar plates design and manufacturing for PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chang Chuan; Norhamidi Muhamad; Jaafar Sahari

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar plates is one of the important components in fuel cell stack, it comprise up to 80% of the stack volume. Traditionally, these plates have been fabricated from graphite, owing to its chemical nobility, and high electrical and thermal conductivity; but these plates are brittle and relatively thick. Therefore increasing the stack volume and size. Alternatives to graphite are carbon-carbon composite, carbon-polymer composite and metal (aluminum, stainless steel, titanium and nickel based alloy). The use of coated and uncoated metal bipolar plates has received attention recently due to the simplicity of plate manufacturing. The thin nature of the metal substrate allows for smaller stack design with reduced weight. Lightweight coated metals as alternative to graphite plate is being developed. Beside the traditional method of machining and slurry molding, metal foam for bipolar plates fabrication seems to be a good alternative. The plates will be produced with titanium powder by Powder Metallurgy method using space holders technique to produce the meal foam flow-field. This work intends to facilitate the materials and manufacturing process requirements to produce cost effective foamed bipolar plates for fuel cell

  15. In situ measurement of low-Z material coating thickness on high Z substrate for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, D., E-mail: dmueller@pppl.gov; Roquemore, A. L.; Jaworski, M.; Skinner, C. H.; Miller, J.; Creely, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Raman, P.; Ruzic, D. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, Center for Plasma Material Interaction, University of Illinois, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Rutherford backscattering of energetic particles can be used to determine the thickness of a coating of a low-Z material over a heavier substrate. Simulations indicate that 5 MeV alpha particles from an {sup 241}Am source can be used to measure the thickness of a Li coating on Mo tiles between 0.5 and 15 μm thick. Using a 0.1 mCi source, a thickness measurement can be accomplished in 2 h of counting. This technique could be used to measure any thin, low-Z material coating (up to 1 mg/cm{sup 2} thick) on a high-Z substrate, such as Be on W, B on Mo, or Li on Mo. By inserting a source and detector on a moveable probe, this technique could be used to provide an in situ measurement of the thickness of Li coating on NSTX-U Mo tiles. A test stand with an alpha source and an annular solid-state detector was used to investigate the measurable range of low-Z material thicknesses on Mo tiles.

  16. New positron annihilation spectroscopy techniques for thick materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, F.A.; Wells, D.P.; Harmon, J.F.; Kwofie, J.; Erikson, G.; Roney, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC) has developed new techniques for positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) by using highly penetrating γ-rays to create positrons inside the material via pair production. Two sources of γ-rays have been employed. Bremsstrahlung beams from small-electron linacs (6 MeV) were used to generate positrons inside the material to perform Doppler-broadening spectroscopy. A 2 MeV proton beam was used to obtain coincident γ-rays from 27 Al target and enable lifetime and Doppler-broadening spectroscopy. This technique successfully measured stress/strain in thick samples, and showed promise to extend PAS into a variety of applications

  17. Progress in the fabrication of high aspect ratio zone plates by soft x-ray lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divan, R.; Mancini, D. C.; Moldovan, N. A.; Lai, B.; Assoufid, L.; Leondard, Q.; Cerrina, F.

    2002-01-01

    Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for the hard x-ray spectral region combines the challenge of high lateral resolution (∼100 nm) with a large thickness requirement for the phase-shifting material (0.5-3 (micro)m). For achieving a high resolution, the initial mask was fabricated by e-beam lithography and gold electroforming. To prevent the collapse of the structures between the developing and electroforming processes, drying was completely eliminated. Fabrication errors, such as nonuniform gold electroplating and collapse of structures, were systematically analyzed and largely eliminated. We optimized the exposure and developing processes for 950k and 2200k polymethylmethacrylate of different thicknesses and various adhesion promoters. We discuss the effects of these fabrication steps on the zone plate's resolution and aspect ratio. Fresnel zone plates with 110 nm outermost zone width, 150 (micro)m diameter, and 1.3 (micro)m gold thickness were fabricated. Preliminary evaluation of the FZPs was done by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The FZP focusing performance was characterized at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

  18. The problem of the black plate with zero thickness and finite width in neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, Pierre.

    1979-08-01

    A black plate with zero thickness, finite width and infinite height, imbedded in an infinite and homogeneous medium which scatters and absorbs neutrons, is considered. The problem is time-independent and the neutrons, which are supposed to have a unique speed, are issued, either from a current at infinity (problem A), or from a uniform source (problem B). It is shown that the Csub(N) method seems to be particularly well suited to the resolution of this 'two-dimensional Milne problem'. A particular interest is attached to the determination of the radius R of the black cylinder leading to the same polar behaviour of the flux at infinity as the plate (criterion 1), or absorbing the same number of neutrons as the plate (criterion 2). In this preliminary report, values of R are calculated in various limit cases: the width of the plate being taken equal to one, l being the mean free path and c the number of secondaries par collision in the outer medium, R is calculated at first in the limit l → 0 (for c = 1) by the theory of Musklelishvili, and then in the limit l → infinity (whatever c is) and c → 0 (whatever l is). In the limit c → 1 (whatever l is), R is shown to be the same in problems A and B and criteria 1 and 2. On the other hand, whatever l and c are; the values of R obtained in the problem A with the criterion 2 and in the problem B with the criterion 1 are shown to be equal. All these results allow henceforth a reasonable interpolation which can be useful in the practice [fr

  19. BEPLATE emdash simulation of electrochemical plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giles, G.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA)); Gray, L.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bullock, J.S. IV (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (USA))

    1990-09-01

    BEPLATE is a FORTRAN code that uses the boundary element method to simulate the electrochemical plating of material on parts, primarily rotating axisymmetric parts. A boundary element technique is used to solve for the local current density and thus the plating rate on the part, which is used to calculate the growth in the plated layer over a user-specified time step. The surface is moved to reflect this growth, and the new surface is used to generate the local current density. This cycle is repeated until the final time specified by the analyst, producing the final plated thickness. BEPLATE includes models for the polarization effects at both the part (cathode) and anode and allows the use of symmetry planes and nonconducting shields. For electroplating simulations, the part shape is normally assumed to be axisymmetric with a centerline along the z-axis. More general part shapes can be analyzed by BEPLATE if the surface growth simulation is not needed. In either case, the shield, anode, and tank geometries are not restricted to specific shapes. This report includes the information required to run BEPLATE, specifically, a brief description of the BEPLATE system including hardware and software requirements, a description of the complete simulation process, discussion of rules for generating models, and additional reference material. This system of codes consists of model generators (PIGS or PATRAN), input processor (BEPIN), the simulation code (BEPLATE) and postprocessing codes (PATRAN or CONPLOT).

  20. Ceramic materials for porcelain veneers: part II. Effect of material, shade, and thickness on translucency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barizon, Karine T L; Bergeron, Cathia; Vargas, Marcos A; Qian, Fang; Cobb, Deborah S; Gratton, David G; Geraldeli, Saulo

    2014-10-01

    Information regarding the differences in translucency among new ceramic systems is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the relative translucency of the different types of ceramic systems indicated for porcelain veneers and to evaluate the effect of shade and thickness on translucency. Disk specimens 13 mm in diameter and 0.7-mm thick were fabricated for the following 9 materials (n=5): VITA VM9, IPS Empress Esthetic, VITA PM9, Vitablocks Mark II, Kavo Everest G-Blank, IPS Empress CAD, IPS e.max CAD, IPS e.maxPress, and Lava Zirconia. VITA VM9 served as the positive control and Lava as the negative control. The disks were fabricated with the shade that corresponds to A1. For IPS e.maxPress, additional disks were made with different shades (BL2, BL4, A1, B1, O1, O2, V1, V2, V3), thickness (0.3 mm), and translucencies (high translucency, low translucency). Color coordinates (CIE L∗ a∗ b∗) were measured with a tristimulus colorimeter. The translucency parameter was calculated from the color difference of the material on a black versus a white background. One-way ANOVA, the post hoc Tukey honestly significant difference, and the Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range tests were used to analyze the data (α=.05). Statistically significant differences in the translucency parameter were found among porcelains (PPM9, Empress Esthetic>Empress CAD>Mark II, Everest, e.max CAD>e.max Press>Lava. Significant differences also were noted when different shades and thickness were compared (Pceramic systems designed for porcelain veneers present varying degrees of translucency. The thickness and shade of lithium disilicate ceramic affect its translucency. Shade affects translucency parameter less than thickness. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Heavy gauge plates for nuclear application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheviet, A.; Roux, J.-H.

    1977-01-01

    The production of energy from nuclear sources leads to the building of very large vessels working under pressure at elevated temperatures, requiring very thick steel plate (from 50 mm to 300 mm). The plates necessary for the production of these vessels have to be as large as possible in order to reduce the length of welds on the vessels. Those two requirements lead to the manufacture of heavy products from 10 to 80 tons unit weight. These products are special, because their fabrication requires very big facilities and also extremely high quality of the steel. The main points are: high cleanliness; properties as homogeneous as possible. The tests carried out on industrially produced plates (especially on a plate of 200 mm thick show the level of quality that can be reached [fr

  2. Experiment and simulation of double-layered RC plates under impact loadings. Part 1: Impact tests for double-layered RC plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, T.; Ueda, M.; Taniguchi, H.; Kambayashi, A.; Ohno, T.; Ishikawa, N.

    1993-01-01

    At a nuclear power plant facility, it should be of interest and important problem to ensure structures against impact loads induced by projectile impacts or plant-internal accidents. It has been well known that local damage consists of spalling of concrete from the impacted area and scabbing of concrete from the back face of the target together with projectile penetration into the target. There are several techniques for improving the impact resistance of RC slabs, that is, lining with a steel plate on the impacted and/or rear face of the slab, making the slab a double-layered composite slab with an elastic absorber and employing a fiber reinforced concrete or a high-strength concrete as the slab materials. Of the many measures available for withstanding impact loads, the use of a double-layered reinforced concrete (RC) slab with absorber is expected to have the higher resistance in reducing or preventing local damage. This paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the impact resistance of double-layered RC plates subjected to the impact of projectile. In the experiment, the effects of two parameters; the combination of two RC plates having different thicknesses and the existence of an absorber in the middle layer, are mainly investigated. And, the effects of the concrete thickness (7,9 and 11 cm) and the concrete strength (a normal-:35MPa, a lightweight-:40MPa and a high-strength:57MPa) of target were also examined. RC plates, 0.6m-square, were used for test specimens. The projectile has a mass of 0.43kg, made of steel with a flat nose. An average projectile velocity was about 170m/sec. A rubber plate shaped into a square with the same size of RC plate was used for a double-layered specimen as an absorber which was put between two RC plates. It could be concluded that double-layering and presence of an absorber had a considerable effect on the increase of impact resistance of RC plate. In order to reduce local damage, it is more effective to

  3. Generating Quasi-Isentropic Loading to Targets via Flier-Plate Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qiang; Su Xiaopeng; Wang Chuanbin; Zhang Lianmeng; Hua Jinsong; Tan Hua

    2008-01-01

    The quasi-isentropic loading technique allows investigation of material properties in a high-pressure, low-temperature regime that is inaccessible by conventional shock wave experiments. In the present paper, the layered flier-plate and graded density flier-plate, which have different variations in the density gradient along the thickness direction but the same density range, were designed and fabricated. Impact experiments were then performed on a two-stage light gas gun. VISAR-measured results show that wave profiles with an initial jump followed by a slowly-rising front to the peak velocity amplitude are generated by using both types of the flier-plate, indicating that quasi-isentropic loading to the targets have been successfully realized. The process of quasi-isentropic loading can be seen as the successive overlap of a series of small shock waves by the transient layers in the flier-plate. It is obvious that the graded density flier-plate creates a more smoothly rising front, and the compression effect must be closer to isentropic loading than that of the layered flier-plate with the same density range

  4. Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-zheng Ai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.

  5. Results from low cycle fatigue testing of 316L plate and weld material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellstroem, R.; Josefsson, B.; Haag, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Specimens for low cycle fatigue testing from the second heat of the CEC reference 316L plate and from Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) weld material have been neutron irradiated near room temperature to a displacement dose of approximately 0.3 dpa. The low cycle fatigue testing of both irradiated and unirradiated specimens was performed at 75, 250 and 450 degrees C, and with strain ranges of 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5%. There is no clear effect of the irradiation on low cycle fatigue properties. For the weld material the endurance is shorter than for plate, and the dependences on temperature and strain range are not clear

  6. Development of stress correction formulae for heat formed steel plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung Kyun Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The heating process such as line heating, triangular heating and so on is widely used in plate forming of shell plates found in bow and stern area of outer shell in a ship. Local shrinkage during heating process is main physical phenomenon used in plate forming process. As it is well appreciated, the heated plate undergoes the change in material and mechanical properties around heated area due to the harsh thermal process. It is, therefore, important to investigate the changes of physical and mechanical properties due to heating process in order to use them plate the design stage of shell plates. This study is concerned with the development of formula of plastic hardening constitutive equation for steel plate on which line heating is applied. In this study the stress correction formula for the heated plate has been developed based on the numerical simulation of tension test with varying plate thickness and heating speed through the regression analysis of multiple variable case. It has been seen the developed formula shows very good agreement with results of numerical simulation. This paper ends with usefulness of the present formula in examining the structural characteristic of ship's hull. Keywords: Heat input, Heat transfer analysis, Line heating, Shell plate, Stress correction, Thermo-elasto-plastic analysis

  7. Absolute Thickness Measurements on Coatings Without Prior Knowledge of Material Properties Using Terahertz Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Cosgriff, Laura M.; Harder, Bryan; Zhu, Dongming; Martin, Richard E.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the applicability of a novel noncontact single-sided terahertz electromagnetic measurement method for measuring thickness in dielectric coating systems having either dielectric or conductive substrate materials. The method does not require knowledge of the velocity of terahertz waves in the coating material. The dielectric coatings ranged from approximately 300 to 1400 m in thickness. First, the terahertz method was validated on a bulk dielectric sample to determine its ability to precisely measure thickness and density variation. Then, the method was studied on simulated coating systems. One simulated coating consisted of layered thin paper samples of varying thicknesses on a ceramic substrate. Another simulated coating system consisted of adhesive-backed Teflon adhered to conducting and dielectric substrates. Alumina samples that were coated with a ceramic adhesive layer were also investigated. Finally, the method was studied for thickness measurement of actual thermal barrier coatings (TBC) on ceramic substrates. The unique aspects and limitations of this method for thickness measurements are discussed.

  8. Acoustic impact on the laminated plates placed between barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paimushin, V. N.; Gazizullin, R. K.; Fedotenkov, G. V.

    2016-11-01

    On the basis of previously derived equations, analytical solutions are established on the forced vibrations of two-layer and three-layers rectangular plates hinged in an opening of absolutely rigid walls during the transmission of monoharmonic sound waves. It is assumed that the partition wall is situated between two absolutely rigid barriers, one of them by harmonic oscillation with a given displacements amplitude on the plate forms the incident sound wave, and the other is stationary and has a coating of deformable energy absorbing material with high damping properties. The behavior of acoustic environments in the spaces between the deformable plate and the barriers described by classical wave equation based on the ideal compressible fluid model. To describe the process of dynamic deformation of the energy absorbing coating of fixed barrier, two-dimensional equations of motion based on the use of models transversely soft layer are derived with a linear approximation of the displacement field in the thickness direction of the coating and taking into account the damping properties of the material and the hysteresis model for it. The influence of the physical and mechanical properties of the concerned mechanical system and the frequency of the incident sound wave on the parameters of its insulation properties of the plate, as well as on the parameters of the stress-strain state of the plate has been analyzed.

  9. Influence of ceramic thickness and ceramic materials on fracture resistance of posterior partial coverage restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakeman, E M; Rego, N; Chaiyabutr, Y; Kois, J C

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of ceramic thickness and ceramic materials on fracture resistance of posterior partial coverage ceramic restorations. Forty extracted molars were allocated into four groups (n=10) to test for two variables: 1) the thickness of ceramic (1 mm or 2 mm) and 2) the ceramic materials (a lithium disilicate glass-ceramic [IPS e.max] or leucite-reinforced glass ceramic [IPS Empress]). All ceramic restorations were luted with resin cement (Variolink II) on the prepared teeth. These luted specimens were loaded to failure in a universal testing machine, in the compression mode, with a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/min. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and the Tukey Honestly Significantly Different multiple comparison test (α =0.05). The fracture resistance revealed a significant effect for materials (pceramic was not significant (p=0.074), and the interaction between the thickness of ceramic and the materials was not significant (p=0.406). Mean (standard deviation) fracture resistance values were as follows: a 2-mm thickness of a lithium disilicate bonded to tooth structure (2505 [401] N) revealed a significantly higher fracture resistance than did a 1-mm thickness of leucite-reinforced (1569 [452] N) and a 2-mm thickness of leucite-reinforced ceramic bonded to tooth structure (1716 [436] N) (pceramic at 1-mm thickness (2105 [567] N) and at 2-mm thickness. Using a lithium disilicate glass ceramic for partial coverage restoration significantly improved fracture resistance compared to using a leucite-reinforced glass ceramic. The thickness of ceramic had no significant effect on fracture resistance when the ceramics were bonded to the underlying tooth structure.

  10. Investigation on a-C:H:Me coated substrates as an alternative bipolar plate material in all-vanadium redox-flow batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, Justin Frederick

    2015-01-01

    A crucial aspect of advancing in renewable energies is the development of affordable decentralized storage systems for the local or regional distribution grid. A technology with great potential is the all-vanadium redox-flow battery (VRFB) with the distinct feature of individual scalable power and capacity. The present work focusses on one of the essential parts in the redox-flow cell; the bipolar plates. By the application of metallic substrates instead of state-of-the-arte graphite composite plates, the design of the cell isn't limited anymore to the mechanical properties or fabrication process of the material. Although metals possess high ductility, which eases the production of such plates, they are prone to corrosion in the high acidic environment of the battery electrolyte. Therefore in this study amorphous carbon coatings (a-C:H) are investigated for corrosion protection. To attain the need of high electrical conductivity the carbon matrices is doped with a metallic element. Preferably refractory metals such as titanium, vanadium, chromium and tungsten were investigated as possible dopants. The electrochemical tests of the samples revealed less degradation the higher the coating thickness was. This can be found on all metallic substrates (material number: 1.4301, 3.7165 and 3.3535). Regarding the hydrogen overpotential, which is an essential value for the suppression of side reactions on the anode, the dominating factor was found to be the sort of doping material as well as the composition of the metallic adhesive layer between coating and substrate. Pores in the coating originate from defects in the substrates as well as from contaminations during the coating process. To understand the degradation mechanism an in-situ-corrosion cell was developed. By the means of these results, delamination could be found to be the predominant factor concerning degradation mechanisms at cathodic potentials. The degradation is initialized at the defects or at the edges

  11. Thickness optimization of various moderator materials for maximization of thermal neutron fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhang, Prosenjit; Verma, Rishi; Shyam, Anurag

    2015-01-01

    Plasma focus device is widely being used as pulsed neutron source for variety of applications. Measurements of neutron yield by largely preferred Helium-3 proportional counter and Silver activation counter are mainly sensitive to thermal neutrons and are typically used with a neutron moderator. Thermalization of neutron is based on scattering reaction and hydrogenous materials are the best thermalizing medium. The efficiency of aforementioned neutron detectors is considerably affected by physical and geometrical properties of thermalizing medium i.e. moderator material, its thickness and shape. In view of the same, simulations have been performed to explore the effective utilization of Polyethylene, Perspex and Light water as moderating mediums for cylindrical and spherical geometry. In this study, estimated thermal fluence value up to 0.5 eV has been considered as the benchmark factor for comparing efficient thermalization by specific material, its thickness and shape. In either of the shapes being cylindrical or spherical, use of Polyethylene as moderating medium has resulted in minimum optimum thickness along with highest thermal fluence. (author)

  12. Full thickness crack arrest investigations on compact specimens and a heavy wide-plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kussmaul, K.; Gillot, R.; Elenz, T.

    1993-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of specimen size and testing procedure on the crack arrest toughness K Ia at various temperatures, investigations were carried out on a wide-plate and compact specimens using a highly brittle material. Test interpretation included static as well as dynamic methods. The comparison of the measured K Ia -values shows good agreement although there is a distinct difference in specimen size. In general, the (static) ASTM test method yields a lower and thus conservative estimate of the crack arrest toughness K Ia . 14 refs., 27 figs., 3 tabs

  13. The lead equivalence of plate glass for diagnostic x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, B.F.; Morris, N.D.

    1983-01-01

    The effectiveness of plate glass as a radiation protection barrier was determined. For x ray energies between 80 and 140 kVp, the lead equivalence of plate glass is energy independent, but below 80 kVp there is an apparent dependence. A thickness of plate glass of 25 mm for radiation energies between 80 and 140 kVp is equivalent to lead of .3mm thickness. There could be a limited application for the use of plate glass in viewing panels

  14. Fuel cell end plate structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  15. Assessment of Theories for Free Vibration Analysis of Homogeneous and Multilayered Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmo Carrera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper assesses classical and advanced theories for free vibrational response of homogeneous and multilayered simply supported plates. Closed form solutions are given for thick and thin geometries. Single layer and multilayered plates made of metallic, composite and piezo-electric materials, are considered. Classical theories based on Kirchhoff and Reissner-Mindlin assumptions are compared with refined theories obtained by enhancing the order of the expansion of the displacement fields in the thickness direction z. The effect of the Zig-Zag form of the displacement distribution in z as well as of the Interlaminar Continuity of transverse shear and normal stresses at the layer interface were evaluated. A number of conclusions have been drawn. These conclusions could be used as desk-bed in order to choose the most valuable theories for a given problem.

  16. Optimal beta-ray shielding thicknesses for different therapeutic radionuclides and shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong In; Kim, Ja Mee; Kim, Jung Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the distribution of deposited energy of beta and gamma rays according to changes in shielding materials and thicknesses when radionuclides are used for therapeutic nuclear medicine, a simulation was conducted. The results showed that due to the physical characteristics of each therapeutic radionuclide, the thicknesses of shielding materials at which beta-ray shielding takes place varied. Additional analysis of the shielding of gamma ray was conducted for radionuclides that emit both beta and gamma rays simultaneously with results showing shielding effects proportional to the atomic number and density of the shielding materials. Also, analysis of bremsstrahlung emission after beta-ray interactions in the simulation revealed that the occurrence of bremsstrahlung was relatively lower than theoretically calculated and varied depending on different radionuclides. (authors)

  17. Buckling transition and boundary layer in non-Euclidean plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efrati, Efi; Sharon, Eran; Kupferman, Raz

    2009-07-01

    Non-Euclidean plates are thin elastic bodies having no stress-free configuration, hence exhibiting residual stresses in the absence of external constraints. These bodies are endowed with a three-dimensional reference metric, which may not necessarily be immersible in physical space. Here, based on a recently developed theory for such bodies, we characterize the transition from flat to buckled equilibrium configurations at a critical value of the plate thickness. Depending on the reference metric, the buckling transition may be either continuous or discontinuous. In the infinitely thin plate limit, under the assumption that a limiting configuration exists, we show that the limit is a configuration that minimizes the bending content, among all configurations with zero stretching content (isometric immersions of the midsurface). For small but finite plate thickness, we show the formation of a boundary layer, whose size scales with the square root of the plate thickness and whose shape is determined by a balance between stretching and bending energies.

  18. Nonlinear analysis of piezoelectric nanocomposite energy harvesting plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafiee, M; He, X Q; Liew, K M

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the nonlinear analysis of energy harvesting from piezoelectric functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates under combined thermal and mechanical loadings. The excitation, which derives from harmonically varying mechanical in-plane loading, results in parametric excitation. The governing equations of the piezoelectric functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates are derived based on classical plate theory and von Kármán geometric nonlinearity. The material properties of the nanocomposite plate are assumed to be graded in the thickness direction. The single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are assumed to be aligned, straight and have a uniform layout. The linear buckling and vibration behavior of the nanocomposite plates is obtained in the first step. Then, Galerkin’s method is employed to derive the nonlinear governing equations of the problem with cubic nonlinearities associated with mid-plane stretching. Periodic solutions are determined by using the Poincaré–Lindstedt perturbation scheme with movable simply supported boundary conditions. The effects of temperature change, the volume fraction and the distribution pattern of the SWCNTs on the parametric resonance, in particular the amplitude of vibration and the average harvested power of the smart functionally graded carbon nanotube reinforced composite plates, are investigated through a detailed parametric study. (paper)

  19. The development of a JCH-3a intelligent precision thickness meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Fengqi; Chen Lin

    1988-12-01

    Plating and coating technique are more widely used along with the development of the material science and industry. A precision, real-time and non-distructive testing method is established and a digitized and intelligent thickness meter JCH-3a is developed for measuring the layer thickness. The JCH-3a meter consists of a high accurate probe, very large scale integrated circuits and a built-in microcomputer. Its special features are: 1. digital display of the measured data; 2. preseting the limitation of warning values and automatic storing the measured data; 3. output of printing data; 4. broad measuring range; 5. small in size and light in weight. It can be also used in the thickness measuring of the reactor components

  20. High-speed fiber laser cutting of thick stainless steel for dismantling tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Oh, Seong Yong; Park, Hyunmin; Chung, Chin-Man; Seon, Sangwoo; Kim, Taek-Soo; Lee, Lim; Choi, Byung-Seon; Moon, Jei-Kwon

    2017-09-01

    A high-speed fiber laser cutting technology of thick steels for dismantling tasks was achieved using a 6-kW fiber laser system. At first, a new cutting head for efficient cutting of thick steels was developed, which was composed by a collimator with a focal length of 160 mm and mirror-type focusing objects with a long focal length of 600 mm. The long focal length of the focusing object made it possible for the beam size to be small through the thick cutting material and the cutting efficiency was expected to increase compared with the short focal length. In addition, folding the beam facilitated the compact cutting head with a size of 160 mm (width) × 80 mm (height) × 640 mm (length) and a weight of 6.9 kg. In the cutting experiment, the laser beam was delivered to the cutting head by a 25-m long process fiber with a core diameter of 100 μm. The cutting performances were studied against the thicknesses of stainless steel plates. A maximum cutting speed of 72 mm/min was obtained for the 60-mm thick stainless steel plate cutting and the cut specimen showed an excellent kerf shape and a narrow kerf width. To the best of our knowledge, this cutting speed was higher than other previously reported results when cutting with a 6-kW laser power.

  1. Propagation of flexural waves in inhomogeneous plates exhibiting hysteretic nonlinearity: Nonlinear acoustic black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Vitalyi E; Ni, Chenyin; Lomonosov, Alexey; Shen, Zhonghua

    2015-08-01

    Theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous material on flexural wave in the plates of continuously varying thickness is developed. For the wedges with thickness increasing as a power law of distance from its edge strong modifications of the wave dynamics with propagation distance are predicted. It is found that nonlinear absorption progressively disappearing with diminishing wave amplitude leads to complete attenuation of acoustic waves in most of the wedges exhibiting black hole phenomenon. It is also demonstrated that black holes exist beyond the geometrical acoustic approximation. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous materials and vibrations damping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermal performance of a phase change material on a nickel-plated surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurmawati, M.H.; Siow, K.S.; Rasiah, I.J.

    2004-01-01

    Thermal control becomes increasingly vital with IC chips becoming faster and smaller. The need to keep chips within acceptable operating temperatures is a growing challenge. Thermal interface materials (TIM) form the interfaces that improve heat transfer from the heat-generating chip to the heat dissipating thermal solution. One of the most commonly used materials in today's electronics industry is phase change material (PCM). Typically, the heat spreader is a nickel-plated copper surface. The compatibility of the PCM to this surface is crucial to the performance of the TIM. In this paper, we report on the performance of this interface. To that end, an instrument to suitably measure critical parameters, like the apparent and contact thermal resistance of the TIM, is developed according to the ASTM D5470 and calibrated. A brief theory of TIM is described and the properties of the PCM were investigated using the instrument. Thermal resistance measurements were made to investigate the effects of physical parameters like pressure, temperature and supplied power on the thermal performance of the material on nickel-plated surface. Conclusions were drawn on the effectiveness of the interface and their application in IC packages

  3. Evaluation and reduction of magnetic resonance imaging artifacts induced by distinct plates for osseous fixation: an in vitro study @ 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendenbach, Carsten; Schoellchen, Maximilian; Bueschel, Julie; Gauer, Tobias; Sedlacik, Jan; Kutzner, Daniel; Vallittu, Pekka K; Heiland, Max; Smeets, Ralf; Fiehler, Jens; Siemonsen, Susanne

    2018-05-02

    To analyze Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) artifact induced at 3 Tesla by bioresorbable, titanium and glass fiber reinforced composite (GFRC) plates for osseous reconstruction. Fixation plates including bioresorbable polymers (Inion CPS, Inion Oy, Tampere, Finland; Rapidsorb, DePuy Synthes, Umkirch, Germany; Resorb X, Gebrueder KLS Martin GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany), Glass fiber reinforced composite (Skulle Implants Oy, Turku, Finland) and titanium plates of varying thickness and design (DePuy Synthes, Umkirch, Germany) were embedded in agarose gel and a 3T MRI was performed using a standard protocol for head and neck imaging including T1w and T2w sequences. Additionally, different artifact reducing sequence techniques (slice encoding for metal artifact reduction (SEMAC) & ultrashort echotime (UTE)) were used and their impact on the extent of artifacts evaluated for each material. All titanium plates induced significantly more artefacts than resorbable plates in T1w and T2w sequences. Glass fiber-reinforced composites induced the least artefacts in both sequences. The total extent of artefacts increased with plate thickness and height. Plate thickness had no influence on the percentage of overestimation in all three dimensions. Titanium induced artefacts were significantly reduced by both artifact reducing sequence techniques. Polylactide, glass fiber-reinforced composite and magnesium plates produce less susceptibility artefacts in MRI compared to titanium, while the dimensions of titanium plates directly influence artifact extension. SEMAC and UTE significantly reduce metal artefacts at the expense of image resolution.

  4. Material and welding development of anchor plates to build nuclear power plant by blue arc process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibelli, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    To build nuclear power plants, anchor plates are plenty used. These anchor plates serve as a system with the purpose to fix many heavy components or a simple stair. Considering the necessity of element fabrication fastly, with reasonable economy and quality, the arc study welding process (blue arc) was used. A special development of the material concept as well as a welding procedure and a subsuppliers qualification of the raw material was necessary. (Author) [pt

  5. The determination of uranium distribution homogeneity in the fuel plates with the uranium loading of 4.80 and 5.20 g/cm3 by X-Ray attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardjo; Rojak, A.; Boybul; Suyoto; Datam, A. S.

    2000-01-01

    The calibration of X-Ray intensity of the U 3 Si 2 -AI fuel plates with the uranium loading between 3.60 up to 5.20 g/cm 3 and varied thickness of AIMgSi1 reference block have been performed. The measurement with changing variable slit diameter and energy of X-Ray attenuation, are produced enough representative X-Ray intensity at 18 mm slit diameter and energy of 43 kV. From the correlation of X-ray intensities vs variation of uranium loading in the fuel plates and thickness of the AIMgSi1 materials, the equivalence of thickness of the AIMgSi1 block to the uranium loading of fuel plates are determined. By assuming that the tolerance of the homogeneity measurement is + 20 % from normal thickness staircase of the AIMgSi1 standard could be determined and than together with fuel plate were scanned to determine the uranium homogeneity. The test result on the U 3 Si 2 -AI fuel plates with uranium loading of 4.80 and 5.20 g/cm 3 (each 4 fuel plates) indicated that uranium distribution in the fuel plates is relatively homogeneous, with each maximum deviation being 6.30 % and 6.90%. It is showed that measurement method is relatively good, easy, and fast so that this method is suitable to control the uranium homogeneity in the fuel plate. (author)

  6. EXACT SOLUTION FOR TEMPERATURE-DEPENDENT BUCKLING ANALYSIS OF FG-CNT-REINFORCED MINDLIN PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the buckling analysis of nanocomposite polymeric temperature-dependent plates reinforced by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs. For the carbon-nanotube reinforced composite (CNTRC plate, uniform distribution (UD and three types of functionally graded (FG distribution patterns of SWCNT reinforcements are assumed. The material properties of FG-CNTRC plate are graded in the thickness direction and estimated based on the rule of mixture. The CNTRC is located in a elastic medium which is simulated with temperature-dependent Pasternak medium. Based on orthotropic Mindlin plate theory, the governing equations are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved by Navier method. The influences of the volume fractions of carbon nanotubes, elastic medium, temperature and distribution type of CNTs are considered on the buckling of the plate. Results indicate that CNT distribution close to top and bottom are more efficient than those distributed nearby the mid-plane for increasing the stiffness of plates.

  7. Radiographic testing methods for welds of thin titanium plates and thin wall tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This standard stipulates the testing method by X-ray radiography for the welded parts of titanium plates and titanium tubes with thickness not exceeding 8 mm. The other items than those stipulated here shall be in accordance with JIS Z 3107-1973 ''Testing method by radiography for the welded part of titanium and method of grade classification of radiographs''. As the photographing method of radiographs, the performance of the equipment and materials for testing, the direction of X-ray irradiation, the thickness of parent materials and welds, the use of penetrameters, the arrangement for photographing, the requirement for radiographs and the observation of radiographs are specified. The X-ray apparatuses, photo-sensitive materials and the tools for photographing and observation must be such that the radiographs clearly showing the defects in the welds being tested can be taken or observed. The JIS Z 3107 is insufficient for the test of thin materials like titanium, therefore, this standard was set down. As the thickness of welds, the thickness of parent materials was taken. In this standard, the titanium penetrameters were adopted because they can be made and they conform to practical state. If magnified photographing is carried out with microfocus X-ray apparatuses, precise photographing can be made. (Kako, I.)

  8. Quantitative tectonic reconstructions of Zealandia based on crustal thickness estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grobys, Jan W. G.; Gohl, Karsten; Eagles, Graeme

    2008-01-01

    Zealandia is a key piece in the plate reconstruction of Gondwana. The positions of its submarine plateaus are major constraints on the best fit and breakup involving New Zealand, Australia, Antarctica, and associated microplates. As the submarine plateaus surrounding New Zealand consist of extended and highly extended continental crust, classic plate tectonic reconstructions assuming rigid plates and narrow plate boundaries fail to reconstruct these areas correctly. However, if the early breakup history shall be reconstructed, it is crucial to consider crustal stretching in a plate-tectonic reconstruction. We present a reconstruction of the basins around New Zealand (Great South Basin, Bounty Trough, and New Caledonia Basin) based on crustal balancing, an approach that takes into account the rifting and thinning processes affecting continental crust. In a first step, we computed a crustal thickness map of Zealandia using seismic, seismological, and gravity data. The crustal thickness map shows the submarine plateaus to have a uniform crustal thickness of 20-24 km and the basins to have a thickness of 12-16 km. We assumed that a reconstruction of Zealandia should close the basins and lead to a most uniform crustal thickness. We used the standard deviation of the reconstructed crustal thickness as a measure of uniformity. The reconstruction of the Campbell Plateau area shows that the amount of extension in the Bounty Trough and the Great South Basin is far smaller than previously thought. Our results indicate that the extension of the Bounty Trough and Great South Basin occurred simultaneously.

  9. The resistive plate WELL detector as a single stage thick gaseous multiplier detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bressler, Shikma; Breskin, Amos; Moleri, Luca; Kumar, Ashwini; Pitt, Michael [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) (Israel); Kudella, Simon [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), KIT (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detector use high electric fields inside the h ole of a foil to achieve a high charge multiplication. As a thicker version of G EMs based on printed circuit board (PCB) structures, Thick Gaseous Electron Multiplier (THGEM) detectors combine the high gain of a GEM foil with the robustness, stability and low production costs of a PCB and allow a large quantity of applications that require the coverage of a large area at low cost and moderate spatial resolution. One application the Weizmann Institute of Science (WIS) develops as a member of the RD51 framework is the Resistive Plate WELL (RPWELL) detector. This single stage detector allows a very stable, discharge free operation at high gain (10{sup 5}). The single stage operation allows a low total height and make s the RPWELL a candidate for the Digital Hadronic Calorimeter (DHCAL) of the International Large Detector (ILD) at the International Linear Collider (ILC). The talk gives an insight into the way the RPWELL works and shows results from the last test beam.

  10. Determination of optimum parameters of the technological process for plates forming from V95 and V-1461 alloys in creep applied in aircrafts constructed by “Sukhoi design bureau”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raevskaya, G. A.; Zakharchenko, K.; Larichkin, A.

    2017-10-01

    The research is devoted to the scientific justification of metal processing by pressure with the help of thick monolithic plates forming (thickness 40 mm) from the V95 (analog 7475) (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) and V-1461 (analog 2099) (Al-Cu-Li-Zn) alloys in creep and close-to-superplasticity. Optimum parameters of the technological process of plate forming are described. The effect of temperature on the magnitude of mechanical stresses (relaxation) during the tests of materials on pure bending is experimentally determined. Forming of thick plates (40 mm) on the UFP-1M unit, and the control of the obtained surface, in comparison with the given electronic model, made it possible to experimentally determine the time and number of forming stages. Mechanical properties of the material after the technological process and heat treatment are preliminary evaluated. The efficiency of using the obtained parameters of the technological process and treatment of metals by pressure in such methods in general is shown.

  11. Acoustic parameters of sound insulating materials investigation in small reverberation rooms on rubber plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.О. Козлітін

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available  The new method of sound insulating materials acoustic characteristics investigation in small reverberation rooms was elaborated. The research of sound insulating materials on rubber plates was done. The analysis of obtained results of acoustic parameters of materials being a part of the composite real structures of airplane was carried out.

  12. Spatial Evolution of the Thickness Variations over a CFRP Laminated Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Yves; Crouzeix, Laurent; Douchin, Bernard; Collombet, Francis; Grunevald, Yves-Henri

    2017-10-01

    Ply thickness is one of the main drivers of the structural performance of a composite part. For stress analysis calculations (e.g., finite element analysis), composite plies are commonly considered to have a constant thickness compared to the reality (coefficients of variation up to 9% of the mean ply thickness). Unless this variability is taken into account reliable property predictions cannot be made. A modelling approach of such variations is proposed using parameters obtained from a 16-ply quasi-isotropic CFRP plate cured in an autoclave. A discrete Fourier transform algorithm is used to analyse the frequency response of the observed ply and plate thickness profiles. The model inputs, obtained by a mathematical representation of the ply thickness profiles, permit the generation of a representative stratification considering the spatial continuity of the thickness variations that are in good agreement with the real ply profiles spread over the composite part. A residual deformation FE model of the composite plate is used to illustrate the feasibility of the approach.

  13. Influence of implant abutment material and ceramic thickness on optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirajariyavej, Bundhit; Wanapirom, Peeraphorn; Anunmana, Chuchai

    2018-05-01

    Anterior shade matching is an essential factor influencing the esthetics of a ceramic restoration. Dentists face a challenge when the color of an implant abutment creates an unsatisfactory match with the ceramic restoration or neighboring teeth. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of abutment material and ceramic thickness on the final color of different ceramic systems. Four experimental and control ceramic specimens in shade A3 were cut from IPS e.max CAD, IPS Empress CAD, and VITA Suprinity PC blocks. These specimens had thicknesses of 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, 2.0 mm, and 2.5 mm, respectively, for the experimental groups, and 4 mm for the controls. Background abutment specimens were fabricated to yield 3 different shades: white zirconia, yellow zirconia, and titanium at a 3-mm thickness. All 3 ceramic specimens in each thickness were placed in succession on different abutment backgrounds with glycerin optical fluid in between, and the color was measured. A digital spectrophotometer was used to record the specimen color value in the Commission Internationale De L'éclairage (CIELab) color coordinates system and to calculate the color difference (ΔE) between the control and experimental groups. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to analyze the effect of ceramic thickness on different abutments, and the pair-wise test was used to evaluate within the group (α=.05). The color differences between the test groups and the control decreased with increasing ceramic thickness for every background material. In every case, significant differences were found between 1.0- and 2.5-mm ceramic thicknesses. Only certain 2.5-mm e.max CAD, VITA Suprinity PC, and Empress CAD specimens on yellow-shade zirconia or VITA Suprinity PC on titanium were identified as clinically acceptable (ΔEabutment background decreased the color mismatch. Increasing the thickness of ceramic on a yellow-shaded zirconia abutment rather than on titanium or white zirconia yielded a more

  14. Material and Thickness Grading for Aeroelastic Tailoring of the Common Research Model Wing Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    This work quantifies the potential aeroelastic benefits of tailoring a full-scale wing box structure using tailored thickness distributions, material distributions, or both simultaneously. These tailoring schemes are considered for the wing skins, the spars, and the ribs. Material grading utilizes a spatially-continuous blend of two metals: Al and Al+SiC. Thicknesses and material fraction variables are specified at the 4 corners of the wing box, and a bilinear interpolation is used to compute these parameters for the interior of the planform. Pareto fronts detailing the conflict between static aeroelastic stresses and dynamic flutter boundaries are computed with a genetic algorithm. In some cases, a true material grading is found to be superior to a single-material structure.

  15. Performance analysis of smart laminated composite plate integrated with distributed AFC material undergoing geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, J.; Ashok, M. H.; Khadakbhavi, Vishwanath; Pujari, Sanjay; Nandurkar, Santosh

    2018-02-01

    The present work focuses on geometrically nonlinear transient analysis of laminated smart composite plates integrated with the patches of Active fiber composites (AFC) using Active constrained layer damping (ACLD) as the distributed actuators. The analysis has been carried out using generalised energy based finite element model. The coupled electromechanical finite element model is derived using Von Karman type nonlinear strain displacement relations and a first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT). Eight-node iso-parametric serendipity elements are used for discretization of the overall plate integrated with AFC patch material. The viscoelastic constrained layer is modelled using GHM method. The numerical results shows the improvement in the active damping characteristics of the laminated composite plates over the passive damping for suppressing the geometrically nonlinear transient vibrations of laminated composite plates with AFC as patch material.

  16. Application of Lamb waves for the characterization of composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, Valentina; Delsanto, Pier P.; Olivero, Dimitri; Baboux, Jean-C.; Monnier, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    In order to detect and evaluate flaws in thin composite structures, such as skins on aircraft wings or sail boat bodies, Lamb waves are the preferred tool of ultrasonic excitation. In the framework of a European Brite EuRam project, we have been involved in the problem of damage assessment in smart composite plates. Our goal is to predict the system signature and to identify optimal signal extraction routines. Given the wave frequency, thickness and physical properties of the materials, we simulate, using the Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA), the propagation of Lamb waves in carbon fiber reinforced plates and their interaction with defects and compare the numerical results with the experimental data

  17. Free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanak Kalita

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A nine-node isoparametric plate element in conjunction with first-order shear deformation theory is used for free vibration analysis of rectangular plates with central cutouts. Both thick and thin plate problems are solved for various aspect ratios and boundary conditions. In this article, primary focus is given to the effect of rotary inertia on natural frequencies of perforated rectangular plates. It is found that rotary inertia has significant effect on thick plates, while for thin plates the rotary inertia term can be ignored. It is seen that the numerical convergence is very rapid and based on comparison with experimental and analytical data from literature, it is proposed that the present formulation is capable of yielding highly accurate results. Finally, some new numerical solutions are provided here, which may serve as benchmark for future research on similar problems.

  18. Assessment of delta ferrite in multipass TIG welds of 40 mm thick SS 316L plates: a comparative study of ferrite number (FN) prediction and experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Shaikh, Shamsuddin; Raole, Prakash M.; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2015-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in the fabrication of fusion reactor major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, cryostat and other major structural components development. AISI SS316L materials of different thicknesses are utilized due to the superior mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, fatigue and stability at high temperature operation. The components are developed by using welding techniques like TIG welding with suitable filler material. Like in case of vacuum vessel, the multipass welding is unavoidable due to the use of high thickness plates (like in case of ITER and DEMO reactors). In general austenitic welds contains fraction of delta ferrite phase in multipass welds. The quantification depends on the weld thermal cycles like heat input and cooling rates associated with process conditions and chemical composition of the welds. Due to the repeated weld thermal passes, the microstructure adversely alters due to the presence of complex phases like austenite, ferrite and delta ferrite and subsequently influence the mechanical properties like tensile and impact toughness of joints. Control of the delta ferrite is necessary to hold the compatible final properties of the joints and hence its evaluation vital before the fabrication process. The present paper reports the detail analysis of delta ferrite phase in welded region and heat affected zones of 40 mm thick SS316L plates welded by special design multipass narrow groove TIG welding process under three different heat input conditions (1.67 kJ/mm, 1.78 kJ/mm, 1.87 kJ/mm). The correlation of delta ferrite microstructure with optical microscope and high resolution SEM has been carried out and different type of acicular and vermicular delta ferrite structures is observed. This is further correlated with the non destructive magnetic measurement using Ferrite scope. The measured ferrite number (FN) is correlated with the formed delta ferrite phase. The chemical composition of weld samples is

  19. Preparation of actinide targets by molecular plating for Coulomb excitation studies at ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, J. P.

    1998-01-01

    Molecular plating is now routinely used to prepare sources and targets of actinide elements. Although the technique is simple and fairly reproducible, because of the radioactive nature of the target it is very useful to record various parameters in the preparation of such targets. At Argonne, ∼200 microg/cm 2 thick targets of Pu and Cm were required for Coulomb Excitation (COULEX) Studies with the Argonne-Notre Dame BGO gamma ray facility and later with the GAMMASPHERE. These targets were plated on 50 mg/cm 2 Au backing and were covered with 150 microg/cm 2 Au foil. Targets of 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 242 Pu, 244 Pu and 248 Cm were prepared by dissolving the material in isopropyl alcohol and electroplating the actinide ions by applying 600 volts. The amount of these materials on the target was determined by alpha particle counting and gamma ray counting. Details of the molecular plating and counting will be discussed

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF 6061 T651 ALUMINUM PLATES SUBJECTED TO HIGH-VELOCITY IMPACT LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evren ÖZŞAHİN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Ballistic response of single or multi-layered metal armor systems subjected to kinetic energy pro-jectiles was investigated in many experimental, theoretical and numerical studies.In this study, 6061 T651 aluminum plates impacted by 9 mm bullets were investigated. Microstructural investigations have been carried out using optical microscopy. Microhardness values were used to determine the strength behavior of the plates. Influence of the plate thickness and impact velocity on the microstructure has been evaluated. It was concluded from the study that thinner plates are more prone to deformation hardening with high penetration depth values even at low impact velocities while thick plates are more susceptible to thermal softening with less penetration depths. Maximum hardness values were obtained just below the impact zone in both plate thicknesses.

  1. Sound Radiation of Aerodynamically Excited Flat Plates into Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Osterziel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow-induced vibrations and the sound radiation of flexible plate structures of different thickness mounted in a rigid plate are experimentally investigated. Therefore, flow properties and turbulent boundary layer parameters are determined through measurements with a hot-wire anemometer in an aeroacoustic wind tunnel. Furthermore, the excitation of the vibrating plate is examined by laser scanning vibrometry. To describe the sound radiation and the sound transmission of the flexible aluminium plates into cavities, a cuboid-shaped room with adjustable volume and 34 flush-mounted microphones is installed at the non flow-excited side of the aluminium plates. Results showed that the sound field inside the cavity is on the one hand dependent on the flow parameters and the plate thickness and on the other hand on the cavity volume which indirectly influences the level and the distribution of the sound pressure behind the flexible plate through different excited modes.

  2. Nuclear reactor fuel structure containing uranium alloy wires embedded in a metallic matrix plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travelli, Armando

    1988-01-01

    A flat or curved plate structure, to be used as fuel in a nuclear reactor, comprises elongated fissionable wires or strips embedded in a metallic continuous non-fissionable matrix plate. The wires or strips are made predominantly of a malleable uranium alloy, such as uranium silicide, uranium gallide or uranium germanide. The matrix plate is made predominantly of aluminum or an aluminum alloy. The wires or strips are located in a single row at the midsurface of the plate, parallel with one another and with the length dimension of the plate. The wires or strips are separated from each other, and from the surface of the plate, by sufficient thicknesses of matrix material, to provide structural integrity and effective fission product retention, under neutron irradiation. This construction makes it safely feasible to provide a high uranium density, so that the uranium enrichment with uranium 235 may be reduced below about 20%, to deter the reprocessing of the uranium for use in nuclear weapons.

  3. Electro-mechanical vibration analysis of functionally graded piezoelectric porous plates in the translation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Qing

    2018-02-01

    To provide reference for aerospace structural design, electro-mechanical vibrations of functionally graded piezoelectric material (FGPM) plates carrying porosities in the translation state are investigated. A modified power law formulation is employed to depict the material properties of the plates in the thickness direction. Three terms of inertial forces are taken into account due to the translation of plates. The geometrical nonlinearity is considered by adopting the von Kármán non-linear relations. Using the d'Alembert's principle, the nonlinear governing equation of the out-of-plane motion of the plates is derived. The equation is further discretized to a system of ordinary differential equations using the Galerkin method, which are subsequently solved via the harmonic balance method. Then, the approximate analytical results are validated by utilizing the adaptive step-size fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique. Additionally, the stability of the steady state responses is examined by means of the perturbation technique. Linear and nonlinear vibration analyses are both carried out and results display some interesting dynamic phenomenon for translational porous FGPM plates. Parametric study shows that the vibration characteristics of the present inhomogeneous structure depend on several key physical parameters.

  4. Electricity generation in low cost microbial fuel cell made up of earthenware of different thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, M; Ghangrekar, M M

    2011-01-01

    Performance of four microbial fuel cells (MFC-1, MFC-2, MFC-3 and MFC-4) made up of earthen pots with wall thicknesses of 3, 5, 7 and 8.5 mm, respectively, was evaluated. The MFCs were operated in fed batch mode with synthetic wastewater having sucrose as the carbon source. The power generation decreased with increase in the thickness of the earthen pot which was used to make the anode chamber. MFC-1 generated highest sustainable power density of 24.32 mW/m(2) and volumetric power of 1.04 W/m(3) (1.91 mA, 0.191 V) at 100 Ω external resistance. The maximum Coulombic efficiencies obtained in MFC-1, MFC-2, MFC-3 and MFC-4 were 7.7, 7.1, 6.8 and 6.1%, respectively. The oxygen mass transfer and oxygen diffusion coefficients measured for earthen plate of 3 mm thickness were 1.79 × 10(-5) and 5.38 × 10(-6) cm(2)/s, respectively, which implies that earthen plate is permeable to oxygen as other polymeric membranes. The internal resistance increased with increase in thickness of the earthen pot MFCs. The thickness of the earthen material affected the overall performance of MFCs.

  5. Thickness resonances dispersion characteristics of a lossy piezoceramic plate with electrodes of arbitrary conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezheritsky, Alex A; Mezheritsky, Alex V

    2007-12-01

    A theoretical description of the dissipative phenomena in the wave dispersion related to the "energytrap" effect in a thickness-vibrating, infinite thicknesspolarized piezoceramic plate with resistive electrodes is presented. The three-dimensional (3-D) equations of linear piezoelectricity were used to obtain symmetric and antisymmetric solutions of plane harmonic waves and investigate the eigen-modes of thickness longitudinal (TL) up to third harmonic and shear (TSh) up to ninth harmonic vibrations of odd- and even-orders. The effects of internal and electrode energy dissipation parameters on the wave propagation under regimes ranging from a short-circuit (sc) condition through RC-type relaxation dispersion to an opencircuit (oc) condition are examined in detail for PZT piezoceramics with three characteristic T -mode energy-trap figure-of-merit c-(D)(33)/c-(E)(44) values - less, near equal and higher 4 - when the second harmonic spurious TSh resonance lies below, inside, and above the fundamental TL resonanceantiresonance frequency interval. Calculated complex lateral wave number dispersion dependences on frequency and electrode resistance are found to follow the universal scaling formula similar to those for dielectrics characterization. Formally represented as a Cole-Cole diagram, the dispersion branches basically exhibit Debye-like and modified Davidson Cole dependences. Varying the dissipation parameters of internal loss and electrode conductivity, the interaction of different branches was demonstrated by analytical and numerical analysis. For the purposes of dispersion characterization of at least any thickness resonance, the following theorem was stated: the ratio of two characteristic determinants, specifically constructed from the oc and sc boundary conditions, in the limit of zero lateral wave number, is equal to the basic elementary-mode normalized admittance. As was found based on the theorem, the dispersion near the basic and nonbasic TL and TSh

  6. Broadband one-dimensional photonic crystal wave plate containing single-negative materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yihang

    2010-09-13

    The properties of the phase shift of wave reflected from one-dimensional photonic crystals consisting of periodic layers of single-negative (permittivity- or permeability-negative) materials are demonstrated. As the incident angle increases, the reflection phase shift of TE wave decreases, while that of TM wave increases. The phase shifts of both polarized waves vary smoothly as the frequency changes across the photonic crystal stop band. Consequently, the difference between the phase shift of TE and that of TM wave could remain constant in a rather wide frequency range inside the stop band. These properties are useful to design wave plate or retarder which can be used in wide spectral band. In addition, a broadband photonic crystal quarter-wave plate is proposed.

  7. Oscillations of a spring-magnet system damped by a conductive plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladera, C. L.; Donoso, G.

    2013-09-01

    We study the motion of a spring-magnet system that oscillates with very low frequencies above a circular horizontal non-magnetizable conductive plate. The magnet oscillations couple with the plate via the Foucault currents induced therein. We develop a simple theoretical model for this magneto-mechanical oscillator, a model that leads to the equation of a damped harmonic oscillator, whose weak attenuation constant depends upon the system parameters, e.g. the electrical conductivity of the constituent material of the plate and its thickness. We present a set of validating experiments, the results of which are predicted with good accuracy by our analytical model. Additional experiments can be performed with this oscillating system or its variants. This oscillator is simple and low-cost, easy to assemble, and can be used in experiments or project works in physics teaching laboratories at the undergraduate level.

  8. Oscillations of a spring–magnet system damped by a conductive plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladera, C L; Donoso, G

    2013-01-01

    We study the motion of a spring–magnet system that oscillates with very low frequencies above a circular horizontal non-magnetizable conductive plate. The magnet oscillations couple with the plate via the Foucault currents induced therein. We develop a simple theoretical model for this magneto-mechanical oscillator, a model that leads to the equation of a damped harmonic oscillator, whose weak attenuation constant depends upon the system parameters, e.g. the electrical conductivity of the constituent material of the plate and its thickness. We present a set of validating experiments, the results of which are predicted with good accuracy by our analytical model. Additional experiments can be performed with this oscillating system or its variants. This oscillator is simple and low-cost, easy to assemble, and can be used in experiments or project works in physics teaching laboratories at the undergraduate level. (paper)

  9. Influence of mesh density, cortical thickness and material properties on human rib fracture prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zuoping; Kindig, Matthew W; Subit, Damien; Kent, Richard W

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the sensitivity of the structural responses and bone fractures of the ribs to mesh density, cortical thickness, and material properties so as to provide guidelines for the development of finite element (FE) thorax models used in impact biomechanics. Subject-specific FE models of the second, fourth, sixth and tenth ribs were developed to reproduce dynamic failure experiments. Sensitivity studies were then conducted to quantify the effects of variations in mesh density, cortical thickness, and material parameters on the model-predicted reaction force-displacement relationship, cortical strains, and bone fracture locations for all four ribs. Overall, it was demonstrated that rib FE models consisting of 2000-3000 trabecular hexahedral elements (weighted element length 2-3mm) and associated quadrilateral cortical shell elements with variable thickness more closely predicted the rib structural responses and bone fracture force-failure displacement relationships observed in the experiments (except the fracture locations), compared to models with constant cortical thickness. Further increases in mesh density increased computational cost but did not markedly improve model predictions. A ±30% change in the major material parameters of cortical bone lead to a -16.7 to 33.3% change in fracture displacement and -22.5 to +19.1% change in the fracture force. The results in this study suggest that human rib structural responses can be modeled in an accurate and computationally efficient way using (a) a coarse mesh of 2000-3000 solid elements, (b) cortical shells elements with variable thickness distribution and (c) a rate-dependent elastic-plastic material model. Copyright © 2010 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental investigations of the influence of material and thickness on fracture under pure mode II loading

    OpenAIRE

    Dong H.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental investigation to the effects of thickness and material on mode II fracture were performed. Tension-shear specimens made of aluminium alloy LC4CS and 7050-T7452 with thicknesses of 2, 4, 8 and 14 mm were used. All crack tip appearances and fracture profiles of the specimens were observed. Mode II fracture toughness were calculated. It is shown that material and thickness play an important role in mode II fracture. The fracture of LC4CS appears shear fracture under all kinds ...

  11. Fabrication of high-uranium-loaded U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al developmental fuel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, G L; Martin, M M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1983-08-01

    A common plate-type fuel for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) is U{sub 3}0{sub 8} dispersed in aluminum and clad with an aluminum alloy. There is an impetus to reduce the {sup 235}U enrichment from above 90% to below 20% for these fuels to lessen the risk of diversion of the uranium for non-peaceful uses. Thus, the uranium content of the fuel plates has to be increased to maintain the performance of the reactors. This paper describes work at ORNL to determine the maximal uranium loading for these fuels that can be fabricated with commercially proven materials and techniques and that can be expected to perform satisfactorily in service. We fabricated developmental fuel plates with cores containing from 60 to 100 wt U{sub 3}0{sub 8} in aluminum encapsulated in 6061 aluminum alloy and evaluated them for aspects of fabricability, nondestructive testing, and expected performance. We recommend 75 wt U{sub 3}0{sub 8}-Al 3.1 Mg U/m{sup 3}) as the highest loading in the initial irradiation test. This upper limit is based on a qualitative assessment of the mechanical integrity of the core made by using current fabrication techniques and materials. As the oxide loading is increased beyond this point, planar areas and extensive stringers of oxide and voids develop, which leave little strength in the thickness direction. Fuel plates may then blister over these areas as fission gases collect during irradiation. Current size plates are easily fabricable to the 75 wt % U{sub 3}0{sub 8}-Al core loading by current fabrication techniques. Dogboning is a potential problem at this loading for some applications; however, this can be easily solved by using tapered compact ends. Current nondestructive radiography and transmission x-ray scanning are applicable to the highly loaded plates. Ultrasonic testing for non-bonds is marginal because of the abrupt change in conductance at the cladding-core interface. Plate thickness can be increased if desired; we fabricated 75 wt % plates with

  12. The Effect of Material Property on the Critical Velocity of Randomly Excited Nonlinear Axially Travelling Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abedi

    Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, the critical axial speeds of three types of sigmoid, power law and exponential law functionally graded plates for both isotropic and orthotropic cases are obtained via a completely analytic method. The plates are subjected to lateral white noise excitation and show evidence of large deformations. Due to randomness, the conventional deterministic methods fail and a statistical approach must be selected. Here, the probability density function is evaluated analytically for prescribed plates and used to investigate the critical axial velocity of them. Specifically the effect of in-plane forces, mean value of lateral load and the material property on the critical axial speed are studied and discussed for both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates. Since the governing equation is transformed to a non dimensional format, the results can be used for a wide range of plate dimensions. It is shown that the material heterogeneity palys an essential and significant role in increasing or decreasing the critical speed of both isotropic and orthotropic functionally graded plates.

  13. Static Analysis of Laminated Composite Plate using New Higher Order Shear Deformation Plate Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibtehal Abbas Sadiq

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the present work a theoretical analysis depending on the new higher order . element in shear deformation theory for simply supported cross-ply laminated plate is developed. The new displacement field of the middle surface expanded as a combination of exponential and trigonometric function of thickness coordinate with the transverse displacement taken to be constant through the thickness. The governing equations are derived using Hamilton’s principle and solved using Navier solution method to obtain the deflection and stresses under uniform sinusoidal load. The effect of many design parameters such as number of laminates, aspect ratio and thickness ratio on static behavior of the laminated composite plate has been studied. The modal of the present work has been verified by comparing the results of shape functions with that were obtained by other workers. Result shows the good agreement with 3D elasticity solution and that published by other researchers.

  14. Production of neutron shielding material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roszler, J.J.

    1979-01-01

    A neutron-absorbing material consisting of a layer of boron carbide sandwiched between layers of aluminum is produced by constructing a rectangular box from aluminum plate leaving one end open. The box is filled with a uniform mixture of finely-divided boron carbide and anodized aluminum powders and the open end is sealed by welding an aluminum plate in place. The box is then heated to 800-850 deg F and rolled to reduce its thickness to the desired amount. The hot rolling bonds or sinters the particles of metal powder or boron carbide. (LL)

  15. Asymptotical construction of a fully coupled, Reissner–Mindlin model for piezoelectric composite plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Lin; Yu Wenbin

    2008-01-01

    The variational asymptotic method is used to construct a fully coupled Reissner–Mindlin model for piezoelectric composite plates with some surfaces parallel to the reference surface coated with electrodes. Taking advantage of the smallness of the plate thickness, we asymptotically split the original three-dimensional electromechanical problem into a one-dimensional through-the-thickness analysis and a two-dimensional plate analysis. The through-the-thickness analysis serves as a link between the original three-dimensional analysis and the plate analysis by providing a constitutive model for the plate analysis and recovering the three-dimensional field variables in terms of two-dimensional plate global responses. The present theory is implemented into the computer program VAPAS (variational asymptotic plate and shell analysis). The resulting model is as simple as an equivalent single-layer, first-order shear deformation theory with accuracy comparable to higher-order layerwise theories. Various numerical examples have been used to validate the present model

  16. Plating laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seamster, A.G.; Weitkamp, W.G.

    1984-01-01

    The lead plating of the prototype resonator has been conducted entirely in the plating laboratory at SUNY Stony Brook. Because of the considerable cost and inconvenience in transporting personnel and materials to and from Stony Brook, it is clearly impractical to plate all the resonators there. Furthermore, the high-beta resonator cannot be accommodated at Stony Brook without modifying the set up there. Consequently the authors are constructing a plating lab in-house

  17. Notched Strength of Woven Fabric Kenaf Composite Plates with Different Stacking Sequences and Hole Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Romayne Anders

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Advantages of using kenaf fibres over synthetic fibres in composites manufacturing are relatively cheap, less abrasive and hazardous during handling, and renewable materials. Current work investigates parametric effects on notched strength of woven fabric kenaf polymer composites plates with variation of lay-up types, notch sizes and plate thickness. Testing coupons are prepared using hand lay-up technique and circular notch were drilled prior to mechanical testing. Stress concentration at the notch edge promotes micro-damage event as tensile loading was applied leading to crack initiation and propagations across the plate width. It is suggested that woven fabric kenaf polymer composites are potentially used in low and medium load bearing applications.

  18. Free and Forced Vibration of the Moderately Thick Laminated Composite Rectangular Plate on Various Elastic Winkler and Pasternak Foundations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongyan Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved Fourier series method (IFSM is applied to study the free and forced vibration characteristics of the moderately thick laminated composite rectangular plates on the elastic Winkler or Pasternak foundations which have elastic uniform supports and multipoints supports. The formulation is based on the first-order shear deformation theory (FSDT and combined with artificial virtual spring technology and the plate-foundation interaction by establishing the two-parameter foundation model. Under the framework of this paper, the displacement and rotation functions are expressed as a double Fourier cosine series and two supplementary functions which have no relations to boundary conditions. The Rayleigh-Ritz technique is applied to solve all the series expansion coefficients. The accuracy of the results obtained by the present method is validated by being compared with the results of literatures and Finite Element Method (FEM. In this paper, some results are obtained by analyzing the varying parameters, such as different boundary conditions, the number of layers and points, the spring stiffness parameters, and foundation parameters, which can provide a benchmark for the future research.

  19. Sensitivity Characterization of Pressed Energetic Materials using Flyer Plate Mesoscale Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nirmal; Udaykumar, H. S.

    Heterogeneous energetic materials like pressed explosives have complicated microstructure and contain various forms of heterogeneities such as pores, micro-cracks, energetic crystals etc. It is widely accepted that the presence of these heterogeneities can affect the sensitivity of these materials under shock load. The interaction of shock load with the microstructural heterogeneities may leads to the formation of local heated regions known as ``hot spots''. Chemical reaction may trigger at the hot spot regions depending on the hot spot temperature and the duration over which the temperature can be maintained before phenomenon like heat conduction, rarefaction waves withdraws energy from it. There are different mechanisms which can lead to the formation of hot spots including void collapse. The current work is focused towards the sensitivity characterization of two HMX based pressed energetic materials using flyer plate mesoscale simulations. The aim of the current work is to develop mesoscale numerical framework which can perform simulations by replicating the laboratory based flyer plate experiments. The current numerical framework uses an image processing approach to represent the microstructural heterogeneities incorporated in a massively parallel Eulerian code SCIMITAR3D. The chemical decomposition of HMX is modeled using Henson-Smilowitz reaction mechanism. The sensitivity characterization is aimed towards obtaining James initiation threshold curve and comparing it with the experimental results.

  20. The Structure Characteristics and Air Permeability of PA and PES Plain and Plated Knits Influenced of Antimicrobial Treatment Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agne MICKEVIČIENĖ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Textile materials are usually exposed to thermal, physical and mechanical effects during treatment processes. These influence the changes of material dimensions. Designing knitted products it is important to predict direction and rate of dimensions change, because this can affect physical properties such as air permeability of knits. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of antimicrobial treatment conditions on the structure characteristics, thickness and air permeability of plain and plaited knits. The investigations were carried out with two groups of plain and plated single jersey knits. The face yarns of these groups were cotton, bamboo viscose yarn and polyester (Dacron® thread. 10 tex × 2 textured polyamide (PA and 20 tex textured polyester (PES threads were used as the base threads in plated knits. Knitted samples were treated with antimicrobial material Isys AG and organic-inorganic binder Isys MTX (CHT, Germany. It was established that blank and antimicrobial treated knits changed structure parameters, thickness and air permeability. The changes of structure parameters, thickness and air permeability were more associated with conditions of treatment (temperature, treatment in solution, mechanical action rather than with antimicrobial and sol-gel substances used in treatment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.3.3196

  1. Obtención de una placa fotosensible como material de registro holográfico

    OpenAIRE

    García, C.; Pascual, I.; Fimia, A.

    2000-01-01

    In this article was showed the procedure of obtaining and depositing of photosensitive dry films uses as holographic recording materials. We compare the thickness and the uniformity of plates obtained with two different depositing method, with a manual depositor and an automatic depositor. The influence of the thickness on the behaviour of the material as holographic recording material has been studied.

    En este artículo se presenta, en primer lugar, el procedimiento de obte...

  2. Determination of the elastic and stiffness characteristics of cross-laminated timber plates from flexural wave velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Andrea; Schoenwald, Stefan; Van Damme, Bart; Fausti, Patrizio

    2017-07-01

    Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is an engineered wood with good structural properties and it is also economically competitive with the traditional building construction materials. However, due to its low volume density combined with its high stiffness, it does not provide sufficient sound insulation, thus it is necessary to develop specific acoustic treatments in order to increase the noise reduction performance. The material's mechanical properties are required as input data to perform the vibro-acoustic analyses necessary during the design process. In this paper the elastic constants of a CLT plate are derived by fitting the real component of the experimental flexural wave velocity with Mindlin's dispersion relation for thick plates, neglecting the influence of the plate's size and boundary conditions. Furthermore, its apparent elastic and stiffness properties are derived from the same set of experimental data, for the plate considered to be thin. Under this latter assumption the orthotropic behaviour of an equivalent thin CLT plate is described by using an elliptic model and verified with experimental results.

  3. Measurement of biofilm thickness. An effective Legionella risk assessment tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foret, Christophe [BKG France, Arnage (France); Martemianov, Serguei [Poitiers Univ. (FR). Lab. of Thermal Study (LET); Moscow Univ. (Russian Federation). Frumkin Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry; Hater, Wolfgang [BK Giulini GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); Merlet, Nicole; Chaussec, Guenole; Tribollet, Bernard

    2010-02-15

    The best way to prevent the risk of bacterial growth in water systems is to monitor and control the microorganisms (biofilm) attached to pipe walls. Three years of laboratory research led two Centre National de Recherche Scientifique (French National Center for Scientific Research) teams (UMR 6008 and UPR 15) to develop a tool designed to determine the average biofilm thickness. The average biofilm thickness measurements carried out on pilot plants fed with natural water were sufficiently accurate and sensitive to monitor the formation and development of biofilm in a water system and to determine the efficiency of the applied treatments. The implementation of appropriate treatments (type and dose of the treatment product) leads to a significant reduction in or even complete removal of the porous layer on the material surface. A reduction of the attached biomass, measured by the sensor, is connected to a decrease in the density of the bacterial attached to the material (viable flora in the plate count agar environment). (orig.)

  4. Summary of HSST wide-plate crack-arrest tests and analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Bass, B.R.; Keeney-Walker, J.; Fields, R.J.; DeWit, R.; Low, S.R. III

    1988-01-01

    Eleven wide-plate crack-arrest tests have been completed to date, seven utilizing specimens fabricated from A533B class 1 material (WP-1 series), and four fabricated from a low upper-shelf base material (WP-2 series). With the exception of one test in the WP-1 series and two tests in the WP-2 series which utilized 152-mm-thick specimens, each test utilized a single-edge notched (SEN) plate specimen 1 by 1 by 0.1 m that was subjected to a linear thermal gradient along the plane of crack propagation. Test results exhibit an increase in crack-arrest toughness with temperature, with the rate of increase becoming greater as the temperature increases. When the wide-place test results are combined with other large-specimen results (Japanese ESSO, thermal-shock experiments and pressurized-thermal-shock experiments) the data show a consistent trend in which the K Ia data extends above the limit provided in ASME Section XI. (author)

  5. NICKEL PLATING PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, T.B.; Zava, T.E.

    1959-05-12

    A simplified process is presented for plating nickel by the vapor decomposition of nickel carbonyl. In a preferred form of the invention a solid surface is nickel plated by subjecting the surface to contact with a mixture containing by volume approximately 20% nickel carbonyl vapor, 2% hydrogen sulfide and .l% water vapor or 1% oxygen and the remainder carbon dioxide at room temperature until the desired thickness of nickel is obtained. The advantage of this composition over others is that the normally explosive nickel carbonyl is greatly stabilized.

  6. Recent advances in seismic non-destructive testing of concrete plate like structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryden, N.; Kristensen, A.; Jovall, O.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes recent advances in seismic/acoustic non-destructive testing of concrete containment walls. The presented technique is focused on the characterization of the mean stiffness (seismic velocities) and thickness of the containment wall. The Impact Echo (IE) method is a well-established technique to measure the thickness of concrete plates or to locate defects in concrete plate like structures. The method relies on a good estimate of the mean velocity through the thickness of the plate and a precisely measured thickness resonant frequency. Recently the underlying theory of the IE method has been redefined and improved based on Lamb waves in a free plate. Based on this theory we have developed a new data processing technique where both propagating and standing Lamb waves are analysed in a combined manner using multichannel data. With this approach the mean velocity through the plate thickness is evaluated by using the fundamental mode Lamb wave dispersion curves. The accuracy and detection ability of the measured resonant frequency is improved by utilizing both amplitude and phase information from the multichannel record. The method has been tested on several nuclear power plants in Sweden and Finland and proved to be more robust compared to conventional IE and surface wave measurements

  7. Development of improved SGV480 steel plate for containment vessel in PWR plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murakami, Norioki [Advanced Nuclear Equipment Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Morikage, Yasushi; Okayama, Yutaka; Higashikubo, Tomohiro

    2001-01-01

    When a nuclear containment vessel made of steel plate at PWR plants in Japan is produced, SGV480 steel plate made by annealing method according to JIS G3118 is usually used in main. And, when thickness of welding portion of the vessel is larger than 38 mm, as heat treatment after welding is regulated to carry out according to the ministerial ordinance, it is difficult in actual to carry out the heat treatment of the actual welded portions. In a leading plant, approval of welding using a special method without heat treatment less than 47.25 mm of SGV480 carbon steel plate for JIS G3118 middle and ordinary pressure vessel was carried out to supply it for actual use. And, it is required for protection of welding fracture to carry out pre-heat treatment before welding. Because of increasing plate thickness requiring for lower temperature and more seismic resistance in construction condition, in order to produce a containment vessel without heat treatment after welding, more toughness is required for using material and welded portion. Therefore, a new SGV480 steel plate was developed by using TMCP method of modern steel manufacturing technology, to establish lower carbon equivalence and finer texture with upgrading of both toughness and weldability, without heat treatment after welding and pre-heat treatment before welding, at the Shin-Nippon Steel Co, Ltd. and Kawasaki Steel, Co. Ltd., respectively. (G.K.)

  8. Study of the Variation of Material layer Compotition and Thickness Related Neutron Flux and Gamma Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalasari, Yuliana Dian; Suparmi; Sardjono, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Optimation of simulation design of collimator is corresponding to 30 MeV cyclotron generator. The simulation has used the variation of the thickness materials layers that was applied at treatment room’s door. The purpose of the variation and thickness of the material in this simulation to obtain optimum results for the shielding design in the irradiation chamber. The layers that we used are Pb-Fe and Pb-SS312. Simulation on cancer treatment is used with monte carlo simaulation MCNPX. The spesifications that we used for cyclotron is the spesification of the HM-30 Proton Cyclotron from Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd. The variation of the thickness materials layers that was applied at treatment room’s door are Pb remains 4cm while Fe and SS312 varies between 2 cm, 4 cm, 6 cm respectively. This simulation of Fe layer on Pb was give good result in measurement simulation at 4 cm thickness.

  9. Nanomechanical testing of circular freestanding polymer films with sub-micron thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maner, Kyle C.; Begley, Matthew R.; Oliver, Warren C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes techniques to create freestanding films over perfectly circular spans (windows) and measure their mechanical properties using instrumented nanoindentation. Test samples were created by spin-casting polymer films over glass plates with embedded fibers, which were subsequently etched using a relatively weak acid to leave freestanding circular spans. The freestanding spans were tested using an instrumented nanoindenter over a wide range of applied loads and displacements. Material properties can be extracted from measured load-deflection responses using straightforward models for point-loads on circular plates or membranes. Results are presented for poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(2,6,dimethyl,1,4,phenylene ether) films with thickness ranging from 350 to 750 nm. The properties derived from freestanding tests are compared with traditional nanoindentation of films on intact substrates. The freestanding approach has key advantages for characterizing micron-scale behavior of compliant materials, notably greater ease and applicability of sample preparation over other micro-fabrication techniques and straightforward analytical or numerical models

  10. Refined Modeling of Flexural Deformation of Layered Plates with a Regular Structure Made from Nonlinear Hereditary Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yankovskii, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    On the basis of constitutive equations of the Rabotnov nonlinear hereditary theory of creep, the problem on the rheonomic flexural behavior of layered plates with a regular structure is formu-lated. Equations allowing one to describe, with different degrees of accuracy, the stress-strain state of such plates with account of their weakened resistance to transverse shear were ob-tained. From them, the relations of the nonclassical Reissner- and Reddytype theories can be found. For axially loaded annular plates clamped at one edge and loaded quasistatically on the other edge, a simplified version of the refined theory, whose complexity is comparable to that of the Reissner and Reddy theories, is developed. The flexural strains of such metal-composite annular plates in shortterm and long-term loadings at different levels of heat action are calcu-lated. It is shown that, for plates with a relative thickness of order of 1/10, neither the classical theory, nor the traditional nonclassical Reissner and Reddy theories guarantee reliable results for deflections even with the rough 10% accuracy. The accuracy of these theories decreases at elevated temperatures and with time under long-term loadings of structures. On the basic of relations of the refined theory, it is revealed that, in bending of layered metal-composite heat-sensitive plates under elevated temperatures, marked edge effects arise in the neighborhood of the supported edge, which characterize the shear of these structures in the transverse direction

  11. METHOD OF MAKING AND PLATE CONNECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriarca, P.; Shubert, C.E.; Slaughter, G.M.

    1963-02-26

    This invention relates to a method of joining, by welding or brazing, a tube to a plate, particularly where the tube and the plate are of different thickness or have different thermal conductivities and are subject to high temperatures. In this method the tube is inserted in the core of a plate containing an annular groove in its back face concentric with the bore and in communication with the bore. One end of the tube is welded substantially flush with the front end of the plate. Brazing alloy is placed in the groove on the back face of the plate and heat is applied to the plate and tube to melt the brazing alloy to permit the alloy to flow into the bore and bond the tube to the plate. (AEC)

  12. Non-contact radiation thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, T.; Okino, T.

    1983-01-01

    A noncontact thickness gauge system for measuring the thickness of a material comprising a source of radiation, a detector for detecting the amount of radiation transmitted through the material which is a function of the absorptance and thickness of the material, a memory for storing the output signals of the detector and curve-defining parameters for a plurality of quadratic calibration curves which correspond to respective thickness ranges, and a processor for processing the signals and curve defining parameters to determine the thickness of the material. Measurements are made after precalibration to obtain calibration curves and these are stored in the memory, providing signals representative of a nominal thickness and an alloy compensation coefficient for the material. The calibration curve corresponding to a particular thickness range is selected and the curve compensated for drift; the material is inserted into the radiation path and the detector output signal processed with the compensated calibration curve to determine the thickness of the material. (author)

  13. Characteristics of fundamental acoustic wave modes in thin piezoelectric plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S G; Zaitsev, B D; Kuznetsova, I E; Teplykh, A A; Pasachhe, A

    2006-12-22

    The characteristics of the three lowest order plate waves (A(0), S(0), and SH(0)) propagating in piezoelectric plates whose thickness h is much less than the acoustic wavelength lambda are theoretically analyzed. It is found that these waves can provide much higher values of electromechanical coupling coefficient K(2) and lower values of temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) than is possible with surface acoustic waves (SAWs). For example, in 30Y-X lithium niobate, the SH(0) mode has K(2)=0.46 and TCD=55 ppm/degrees C. The corresponding values for SAW in the widely used, strong coupling material of 128Y-X lithium niobate are K(2)=0.053 and TCD=75 ppm/degrees C. Another important advantage of plate waves is that, unlike the case of SAWs, they can operate satisfactorily in contact with a liquid medium, thus making possible their use in liquid phase sensors.

  14. Effect of Thickness on Oxidation Behavior of Cr coated Zircaloy-4 using Arc Ion Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jung; Kim, Sun Jin [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Ever since the Fukushima accident, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) has been widely studied. To increase the life time and safety of nuclear claddings, there are increasing demands for protective coatings exhibiting excellent oxidation resistance. Many metal and oxide films are produced by using this method because of the high kinetic energy of the ions, ionization efficiency and deposition rate. Candidate materials for a protective layer have higher thermal neutron absorption cross sections than Zr. However, there is no systematic study of thickness effect on oxidation resistance of protective layer. In this study, Cr films with different thickness (from 1 μm to 50 μm) were deposited on the cladding surfaces by AIP. The high temperature oxidation resistance of Cr films with different thicknesses has been investigated. Uniform oxide layer with nanoporous structures have been fabricated on the surface of Zr-Nb-Sn alloy. Oxidation behavior of the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy and the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer evaluated by measuring weight gain (TGA).

  15. Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization of laminated composite structures including failure criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This work extends the Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization approach to structural optimization problems where strength considerations in the form of failure criteria are taken into account for laminated composite structures. It takes offset in the density approaches applied for stress...... constrained topology optimization of single-material problems and develops formulations for multi-material topology optimization problems applied for laminated composite structures. The method can be applied for both stress- and strain-based failure criteria. The large number of local constraints is reduced...

  16. Thin-plate-type embedded ultrasonic transducer based on magnetostriction for the thickness monitoring of the secondary piping system of a nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heo, Tae Hoon; Cho, Seung Hyun [Center for Safety Measurement, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Pipe wall thinning in the secondary piping system of a nuclear power plant is currently a major problem that typically affects the safety and reliability of the nuclear power plant directly. Regular in-service inspections are carried out to manage the piping system only during the overhaul. Online thickness monitoring is necessary to avoid abrupt breakage due to wall thinning. To this end, a transducer that can withstand a high-temperature environment and should be installed under the insulation layer. We propose a thin plate type of embedded ultrasonic transducer based on magnetostriction. The transducer was designed and fabricated to measure the thickness of a pipe under a high-temperature condition. A number of experimental results confirmed the validity of the present transducer.

  17. Dynamic temperature field in the ferromagnetic plate induced by moving high frequency inductor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević-Mitić Vesna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the paper is the temperature distribution in the thin metallic ferromagnetic plate influenced by moving linear high frequency induction heater. As a result of high frequency electromagnetic field, conducting currents appear in the part of the plate. Distribution of the eddy-current power across the plate thickness is obtained by use of complex analysis. The influences of the heater frequency, magnetic field intensity and plate thickness on the heat power density were discussed. By treating this power as a moving heat source, differential equations governing distribution of the temperature field are formulated. Temperature across the plate thickness is assumed to be in linear form. Differential equations are analytically solved by using integral-transform technique, Fourier finite-sine and finite-cosine transform and Laplace transform. The influence of the heater velocity to the plate temperature is presented on numerical examples based on theoretically obtained results. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 35040 i br. TR 35011

  18. Lorestan Bronze Plate Design Identification by Nondestructive Radiography Method and Image Processing by Means of Histogram Matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaghi, E.; Movafeghi, A.; Ahmadi, S.; Rokrok, B.; Mohammadzadeh, N.; Rastkhah, N.

    2013-01-01

    Radiography is known as one of the oldest and most widely used nondestructive testing techniques, where it introduces the most appreciated technique by producing images which are acting as unique fingerprint records of samples of interest. Among the interesting applications of radiography are archaeological and art applications. In this research, radiography was implemented for identification of a damaged art-historical material. The sample was a brass plate belonging to Iran cultural heritage. The estimated age of the plate was about 3500 years. The plate was discovered in Lorestan province, where it is generally called L orestan bronze . The plate was damaged seriously due to serious corrosion environmental attacks, and recognition of the sample was considered as the major problem. The simple radiography method was quite helpful for the plate determination but the method suffered from some major drawbacks due to contrast and thickness measurements. The thickness measurement and corrosion/erosion evaluation were the vital components of the inspection. The image processing techniques and precise thickness measurement method were added to the digitized radiographs. For the digital image processing, a histogram matching algorithm and an edge detection method were used. After all, the resulted image showed an enhanced quality image of the original traces of the hammered design. The results showed that a good experimental setup of radiography along with the image processing technique can give a high quality radiographic image which is able to be used effectively for the identification of art antiques. The human evaluation results also confirmed the ability of the proposed method with a high degree of certainty.

  19. Vibration and buckling of orthotropic functionally graded micro-plates on the basis of a re-modified couple stress theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihao Yang

    Full Text Available A microstructure-dependent model for the free vibration and buckling analysis of an orthotropic functionally graded micro-plate was proposed on the basis of a re-modified couple stress theory. The macro- and microscopic anisotropy were simultaneously taken into account by introducing two material length scale parameters. The material attributes were assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction by a power law. The governing equations and corresponding boundary conditions were derived through Hamilton’s principle. The Navier method was used to calculate the natural frequencies and buckling loads of a simply supported micro-plate. The numerical results indicated that the present model predicts higher natural frequencies and critical buckling loads than the classical model, particular when the geometric size of the micro-plates is comparable to the material length scale parameters, i.e., the scale effect is well represented. The scale effect becomes more noticeable as the material length scale parameters increase, the anisotropy weaken or the power law index increases, and vice versa. Keywords: Free vibration, Buckling, Functionally graded materials, Modified couple stress theory, Scale effect

  20. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 2: Silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-10-01

    The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstate the technology for the low cost production of silicon of suitable purity to be used as the basic material for the manufacture of terrestrial photovoltaic solar cells. Summarized are 11 different processes for the production of silicon that were investigated and developed to varying extent by industrial, university, and Government researchers. The silane production section of the Union Carbide Corp. (UCC) silane process was developed completely in this program. Coupled with Siemens-type chemical vapor deposition reactors, the process was carried through the pilot stage. The overall UCC process involves the conversion of metallurgical-grade silicon to silane followed by decomposition of the silane to purified silicon. The other process developments are described to varying extents. Studies are reported on the effects of impurities in silicon on both silicon-material properties and on solar cell performance. These studies on the effects of impurities yielded extensive information and models for relating specific elemental concentrations to levels of deleterious effects.

  1. Flat-plate solar array project. Volume 2: Silicon material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutwack, R.

    1986-01-01

    The goal of the Silicon Material Task, a part of the Flat Plate Solar Array (FSA) Project, was to develop and demonstate the technology for the low cost production of silicon of suitable purity to be used as the basic material for the manufacture of terrestrial photovoltaic solar cells. Summarized are 11 different processes for the production of silicon that were investigated and developed to varying extent by industrial, university, and Government researchers. The silane production section of the Union Carbide Corp. (UCC) silane process was developed completely in this program. Coupled with Siemens-type chemical vapor deposition reactors, the process was carried through the pilot stage. The overall UCC process involves the conversion of metallurgical-grade silicon to silane followed by decomposition of the silane to purified silicon. The other process developments are described to varying extents. Studies are reported on the effects of impurities in silicon on both silicon-material properties and on solar cell performance. These studies on the effects of impurities yielded extensive information and models for relating specific elemental concentrations to levels of deleterious effects.

  2. Two-dimensional linear elasticity theory of magneto-electro-elastic plates considering surface and nonlocal effects for nanoscale device applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjun; Li, Peng; Jin, Feng

    2016-09-01

    A novel two-dimensional linear elastic theory of magneto-electro-elastic (MEE) plates, considering both surface and nonlocal effects, is established for the first time based on Hamilton’s principle and the Lee plate theory. The equations derived are more general, suitable for static and dynamic analyses, and can also be reduced to the piezoelectric, piezomagnetic, and elastic cases. As a specific application example, the influences of the surface and nonlocal effects, poling directions, piezoelectric phase materials, volume fraction, damping, and applied magnetic field (i.e., constant applied magnetic field and time-harmonic applied magnetic field) on the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling effects are first investigated based on the established two-dimensional plate theory. The results show that the ME coupling coefficient has an obvious size-dependent characteristic owing to the surface effects, and the surface effects increase the ME coupling effects significantly when the plate thickness decreases to its critical thickness. Below this critical thickness, the size-dependent effect is obvious and must be considered. In addition, the output power density of a magnetic energy nanoharvester is also evaluated using the two-dimensional plate theory obtained, with the results showing that a relatively larger output power density can be achieved at the nanoscale. This study provides a mathematical tool which can be used to analyze the mechanical properties of nanostructures theoretically and numerically, as well as evaluating the size effect qualitatively and quantitatively.

  3. Pulse reverse plating for integrated magnetics on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, S.; Connell, A.; Ludwig, M.; Wang, N.; O'Donnell, T.; Brunet, M.; McCloskey, P.; OMathuna, C.; Barman, A.; Hicken, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Thin film microtransformers have been fabricated on silicon with Ni 45 Fe 55 as a core material. Fractal/dendritic growths are observed in the patterned cores in DC electroplating due to the enhancement of localized current density at defect/nucleation sites. A 'pulser' device was made in house to produce forward and reverse current of the required amplitude for a particular duration. The combination of a low amplitude long (millisecond) forward pulse and a short (microsecond) high-amplitude reverse pulse gave dendrite-free plated cores with a uniform thickness and alloy composition over a 3D topology of a microrough substrate surface. Finally, we characterized the material in situ by small signal electrical measurements, and with MOKE hysteresis loops measured on a complete device

  4. High-throughput characterization of film thickness in thin film materials libraries by digital holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Yiuwai; Hofmann, Martin R; Ludwig, Alfred; Krause, Michael; Savan, Alan; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Koukourakis, Nektarios

    2011-01-01

    A high-throughput characterization technique based on digital holography for mapping film thickness in thin-film materials libraries was developed. Digital holographic microscopy is used for fully automatic measurements of the thickness of patterned films with nanometer resolution. The method has several significant advantages over conventional stylus profilometry: it is contactless and fast, substrate bending is compensated, and the experimental setup is simple. Patterned films prepared by different combinatorial thin-film approaches were characterized to investigate and demonstrate this method. The results show that this technique is valuable for the quick, reliable and high-throughput determination of the film thickness distribution in combinatorial materials research. Importantly, it can also be applied to thin films that have been structured by shadow masking.

  5. High-throughput characterization of film thickness in thin film materials libraries by digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yiu Wai; Krause, Michael; Savan, Alan; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Hofmann, Martin R; Ludwig, Alfred

    2011-10-01

    A high-throughput characterization technique based on digital holography for mapping film thickness in thin-film materials libraries was developed. Digital holographic microscopy is used for fully automatic measurements of the thickness of patterned films with nanometer resolution. The method has several significant advantages over conventional stylus profilometry: it is contactless and fast, substrate bending is compensated, and the experimental setup is simple. Patterned films prepared by different combinatorial thin-film approaches were characterized to investigate and demonstrate this method. The results show that this technique is valuable for the quick, reliable and high-throughput determination of the film thickness distribution in combinatorial materials research. Importantly, it can also be applied to thin films that have been structured by shadow masking.

  6. Biomechanical Analysis of Implanted Clavicle Hook Plates With Different Implant Depths and Materials in the Acromioclavicular Joint: A Finite Element Analysis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Hung; Shih, Cheng-Min; Huang, Kui-Chou; Chen, Kun-Hui; Hung, Li-Kun; Su, Kuo-Chih

    2016-11-01

    Clinical implantation of clavicle hook plates is often used as a treatment for acromioclavicular joint dislocation. However, it is not uncommon to find patients that have developed acromion osteolysis or had peri-implant fracture after hook plate fixation. With the aim of preventing complications or fixation failure caused by implantation of inappropriate clavicle hook plates, the present study investigated the biomechanics of clavicle hook plates made of different materials and with different hook depths in treating acromioclavicular joint dislocation, using finite element analysis (FEA). This study established four parts using computer models: the clavicle, acromion, clavicle hook plate, and screws, and these established models were used for FEA. Moreover, implantations of clavicle hook plates made of different materials (stainless steel and titanium alloy) and with different depths (12, 15, and 18 mm) in patients with acromioclavicular joint dislocation were simulated in the biomechanical analysis. The results indicate that deeper implantation of the clavicle hook plate reduces stress on the clavicle, and also reduces the force applied to the acromion by the clavicle hook plate. Even though a clavicle hook plate made of titanium alloy (a material with a lower Young's modulus) reduces the force applied to the acromion by the clavicle hook plate, slightly higher stress on the clavicle may occur. The results obtained in this study provide a better reference for orthopedic surgeons in choosing different clavicle hook plates for surgery. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Viscoelastic material properties' identification using high speed full field measurements on vibrating plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraudeau, A.; Pierron, F.

    2010-06-01

    The paper presents an experimental application of a method leading to the identification of the elastic and damping material properties of isotropic vibrating plates. The theory assumes that the searched parameters can be extracted from curvature and deflection fields measured on the whole surface of the plate at two particular instants of the vibrating motion. The experimental application consists in an original excitation fixture, a particular adaptation of an optical full-field measurement technique, a data preprocessing giving the curvature and deflection fields and finally in the identification process using the Virtual Fields Method (VFM). The principle of the deflectometry technique used for the measurements is presented. First results of identification on an acrylic plate are presented and compared to reference values. Details about a new experimental arrangement, currently in progress, is presented. It uses a high speed digital camera to over sample the full-field measurements.

  8. Determining frustum depth of 304 stainless steel plates with various diameters and thicknesses by incremental forming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golabi, Sa' id [University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khazaali, Hossain [Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamedan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    Nowadays incremental forming is more popular because of its flexibility and cost saving. However, no engineering data is available for manufacturers for forming simple shapes like a frustum by incremental forming, and either expensive experimental tests or finite element analysis (FEA) should be employed to determine the depth of a frustum considering: thickness, material, cone diameter, wall angle, feed rate, tool diameter, etc. In this study, finite element technique, confirmed by experimental study, was employed for developing applicable curves for determining the depth of frustums made from 304 stainless steel (SS304) sheet with various cone angles, thicknesses from 0.3 to 1 mm and major diameters from 50 to 200 mm using incremental forming. Using these curves, the frustum angle and its depth knowing its thickness and major diameter can be predicted. The effects of feed rate, vertical pitch and tool diameter on frustum depth and surface quality were also addressed in this study.

  9. An overview of the HSST Full-Thickness Shallow-Crack Clad Beam Testing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, J.A.; Theiss, T.J.; McAfee, W.J.; Bass, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    A testing program is described that will utilize full-thickness clad beam specimens to quantify fracture toughness for shallow flaws in material for which metallurgical conditions are prototypic of those found in reactor pressure vessels (RPVs). The beam specimens are fabricated from a section of an RPV wall that includes weld, plate and clad material. Metallurgical factors potentially influencing fracture toughness for shallow flaws in the beam specimen include material gradients due to welding and cladding applications, as well as material inhomogeneities in welded regions due to reheating in multiple weld passes. Fracture toughness tests focusing on shallow flaws in plate and weld material will also provide data for evaluating the relative influence of absolute and normalized crack depth on constraint conditions. Pretest finite-element analyses are described that provide near-tip stress and strain fields for characterization of constraint in the shallow-crack specimens in terms of the Q-stress. Analysis results predict a constraint loss in the shallow-crack clad beam specimen similar to that determined for a previously tested shallow-crack single-edge notch homogeneous bend specimen with the same normalized crack depth

  10. End plates made of a composite material for the revolving drum of a centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, T.; Onishi, H.; Fujiwara, M.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to improvement of the end plates of centrifuges, especially those for centrifugal gas separators. End plates made of a composite material for the revolving drum of a centrifuge consists of a carbon-fiber-reinforced plastic layer. This layer consists of carbon fibers either wound helically at an angle greater than 75 0 and less than 90 0 to the center line of revolution, or wound in a hoop, and a matrix of a thermosetting resin in which the carbon fibers are buried, which [matrix] is laminated with metal layers

  11. Investigation of vertebral ''end plate sclerosis''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.W.; Mathie, A.G.; Jackson, J.E.; Hughes, S.P.F.

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the association between vertebral ''end plate sclerosis'' and neck pain. A retrospective study was carried out of lateral cervical spine radiographs with a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS). Two hundred patients' files were randomly assessed, comprising four equal groups, A to D. The mean ages of the patients were 62±7.4 years, 61±7.5 years, 40±5.6 years and 23±5.6 years respectively. In group A, all patients had symptoms of neck pain and a radiographic diagnosis of ''end plate sclerosis'' of the cervical spine. In groups B to D, asymptomatic patients were recruited and their age groups were 50-69, 30-49 and 10-29 years respectively. Using the PACS, the radiographic density and the sagittal diameter, thickness and area of the end plates at the C5 level were measured. Results and conclusions: No significant differences were found in the radiographic density of the end plates either between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (groups A and B), or between different age groups (groups B, C and D). A significant increase in end plate area and thickness was found, however, in both group B (P<0.005) and group C (P<0.01) in comparison with group D. This indicates that the extent of end plate sclerosis increases with age. Our results suggest that the radiographic density of cervical vertebral end plates correlates neither with neck pain nor with increasing age. The radiological sign of ''end plate sclerosis'' may be over-reported, further limiting its value in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylosis. (orig.)

  12. A unified nonlocal strain gradient plate model for nonlinear axial instability of functionally graded porous micro/nano-plates reinforced with graphene platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahmani, Saeid; Aghdam, Mohammad Mohammadi; Rabczuk, Timon

    2018-04-01

    By gradually changing of the porosity across a specific direction, functionally graded porous materials (FGPMs) are produced which can impart desirable mechanical properties. To enhance these properties, it is common to reinforce FGPMs with nanofillers. The main aim of the current study is to investigate the size-dependent nonlinear axial postbuckling characteristics of FGPM micro/nano-plates reinforced with graphene platelets. For this purpose, the theory of nonlocal strain gradient elasticity incorporating the both stiffness reduction and stiffness enhancement mechanisms of size effects is applied to the refined exponential shear deformation plate theory. Three different patterns of porosity dispersion across the plate thickness in conjunction with the uniform one are assumed for FGPM as an open-cell metal foam is utilized associated with the coefficients of the relative density and porosity. With the aid of the virtual work’s principle, the non-classical governing differential equations are constructed. Thereafter, an improved perturbation technique is employed to capture the size dependencies in the nonlinear load-deflection and load-shortening responses of the reinforced FGPM micro/nano-plates with and without initial geometric imperfection. It is indicated that by increasing the value of porosity coefficient, the size-dependent critical buckling loads of reinforced FGPM micro/nano-plates with all types of porosity dispersion pattern reduce, but the associated shortening may increase or decrease which depends on the type of dispersion pattern.

  13. Vacuum Die Casting Process and Simulation for Manufacturing 0.8 mm-Thick Aluminum Plate with Four Maze Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chul Kyu Jin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Using vacuum die casting, 0.8 mm-thick plates in complicated shapes are manufactured with the highly castable aluminum alloy Silafont-36 (AlSi9MgMn. The sizes and shapes of the cavities, made of thin plates, feature four different mazes. To investigate formability and mechanical properties by shot condition, a total of six parameters (melt temperatures of 730 °C and 710 °C; plunger speeds of 3.0 m/s and 2.5 m/s; vacuum pressure of 250 mbar and no vacuum are varied in experiments, and corresponding simulations are performed. Simulation results obtained through MAGMA software show similar tendencies to those of the experiments. When the melt pouring temperature is set to 730 °C rather than 710 °C, formability and mechanical properties are superior, and when the plunger speed is set to 3.0 m/s rather than to 2.5 m/s, a fine, even structure is obtained with better mechanical properties. The non-vacuumed sample is half unfilled. The tensile strength and elongation of the sample fabricated under a melt temperature of 730 °C, plunger speed of 3.0 m/s, and vacuum pressure of 250 mbar are 265 MPa and 8.5%, respectively.

  14. Heat analysis of the magnetic limiter plate for JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Shimizu, Masatsugu; Ohta, Mitsuru

    1977-03-01

    Heat analysis has been made of the magnetic limiter plate for JT-60. Test materials of the magnetic limiter plate are molybdenum, graphite, pyrolytic graphite and silicon carbide. It is assumed in calculation of the heat analysis that 10MW is deposited on the 2 cm wide surface of the magnetic limiter plate in about 10 sec. The magnetic limiter plate of pyrolytic graphite is a stack of pyrolytic graphite sheets, heat input is in the deposition plane to take advantage of the large heat conductivity along this plane. Pyrolytic graphite is the best in terms of temperature rise. The temperature of molybdenum and graphite rise up to 1800 0 C and 620 0 C, respectively, in an deposition of 10 MWx10sec. Silicon carbide is not suitable for the magnetic limiter plate. Because the plasma of the JT-60 discharges every 10 min, the average heat flux decreases to 17 w/cm 2 during the each interval. When the magnetic limiter plate has the above heat inflow, a maximum of above 1000 0 C occurs at the edge far from the joint to the thick ring of the vacuum vessel. To reduce heat load of the magnetic limiter plate, an alternating current (2 -- 5Hz) is superposed on the magnetic limiter coil current. The intersection of separatrix line and magnetic limiter plate then moves cyclically more than 10 cm. Concerning temperature distribution of the multi-groove magnetic limiter plate, its dimensions are determined by the limitation in vapor pressure to prevent the impurity inflow. (auth.)

  15. Electroplated thick-film cobalt platinum permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Qi, Bin; Arnold, David P.

    2016-01-01

    The material and magnetic properties of multi-micron-thick (up to 6 μm) L1 0 CoPt magnetic films electroplated onto silicon substrates are investigated as candidate materials for integration in silicon-based microsystems. The influence of various process conditions on the structure and magnetic properties of electroplated CoPt thick-films is studied in order to better understand the complex process/structure/property relationships associated with the electroplated films. Process variables studied here include different seed layers, electroplating current densities (ranging from 25–200 mA/cm 2 ), deposition times (up to 60 min), and post-deposition annealing times and temperatures. Analyses include film morphology, film thickness, composition, surface roughness, grain size, phase volume fractions, and L1 0 ordering parameter. Key correlations are found relating process and structure variations to the extrinsic magnetic properties (remanence, coercivity, squareness, and energy product). Strong hard magnetic properties (B r ~0.8 T, H ci ~800 kA/m, squareness close to 0.9, and BH max of 100 kJ/m 3 ) are obtained for films deposited on Si/TiN/Ti/Cu at current densities of 100 mA/cm 2 , pH of 7, and subsequently annealed at 675 °C for 30 min. - Highlights: • CoPt films plated up to 6 μm thick on silicon substrates. • A1 to L1 0 phase transformation by annealing in forming gas. • Various process–structure–property relationships explored. • Key results: B r ~0.8 T, H ci ~800 kA/m, squareness 0.9, and BH max ~100 kJ/m 3 .

  16. Preliminary study for development of low dose radiation shielding material using liquid silicon and metallic compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seo Goo; Lee, Sung Soo [Dept. of Medical Science, Graduate School of Soonchunhyang University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Han, Su Chul [Div. of Medical Radiation Equipment, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sung Jin [SoonChunHyang University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Sung Wook [Graduate school of SeJong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    This study measured and compared the protective clothing using Pb used for shielding in a diagnostic X-ray energy range, and the shielding rates of X-ray fusion shielding materials using Si and TiO{sub 2}. For the experiment, a pad type shielding with a thickness of 1 mm was prepared by mixing Si-TiO{sub 2}, and the X-ray shielding rate was compared with 0.5 mmPb plate of The shielding rate of shielding of 0.5 mmPb plate 95.92%, 85.26 % based on the case of no shielding under each 60kVp, 100kVp tube voltage condition. When the shielding of Si-TiO{sub 2} pad was applied, the shielding rate equal to or greater than 0.5 mmPb plate was obtained at a thickness of 11 mm or more, and the shielding rate of 100% or more was confirmed at a thickness of 13 nn in 60kVp condition. When the shielding of Si-TiO{sub 2} pad was applied, the shielding rate equal to or greater than 0.5 mmPb plate was obtained at a thickness of 17 mm or more, and a shielding rate of 0.5 mmPb plate was observed at a thickness of 23 mm in 100kVp condition. Through the results of this study, We could confirm the possibility of manufacturing radiation protective materials that does not contain lead hazard using various metallic compound and liquid Si. This study shows that possibility of liquid Si and other metallic compound can harmonize easily. Beside, It is flexible and strong to physical stress than Pb obtained radiation protective clothes. But additional studies are needed to increase the shielding rate and reduce the weight.

  17. Corrosion Behaviour of Nickel Plated Low Carbon Steel in Tomato Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleke OLUWOLE

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This research work investigated the corrosion resistance of nickel plated low carbon steel in tomato fluid. It simulated the effect of continuous use of the material in a tomato environment where corrosion products are left in place. Low carbon steel samples were nickel electroplated at 4V for 20, 25, 30 and 35 mins using Watts solution.The plated samples were then subjected to tomato fluid environment for for 30 days. The electrode potentials mV (SCE were measured every day. Weight loss was determined at intervals of 5 days for the duration of the exposure period. The result showed corrosion attack on the nickel- plated steel, the severity decreasing with the increasing weight of nickel coating on substrate. The result showed that thinly plated low carbon steel generally did not have any advantage over unplated steel. The pH of the tomato solution which initially was acidic was observed to progress to neutrality after 4 days and then became alkaline at the end of the thirty days test (because of corrosion product contamination of the tomatocontributing to the reduced corrosion rates in the plated samples after 10 days. Un-plated steel was found to be unsuitable for the fabrication of tomato processing machinery without some form of surface treatment - thick nickel plating is suitable as a protective coating in this environment.

  18. Predictions and measurements of residual stress in repair welds in plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.B. [Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited, Technology and Engineering, Porterfield Road, Renfrew, PA4 8DJ, Scotland (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bbrown@mitsuibabcock.com; Dauda, T.A. [Mitsui Babcock Energy Limited, Technology and Engineering, Porterfield Road, Renfrew, PA4 8DJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Truman, C.E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR, England (United Kingdom); Smith, D.J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Memhard, D. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg (Germany); Pfeiffer, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents the work, from the European Union FP-5 project ELIXIR, on a series of rectangular repair welds in P275 and S690 steels to validate the numerical modelling techniques used in the determination of the residual stresses generated during the repair process. The plates were 1,000 mm by 800 mm with thicknesses of 50 and 100 mm. The repair welds were 50%, 75% and 100% through the plate thickness. The repair welds were modelled using the finite element method to make predictions of the as-welded residual stress distributions. These predictions were compared with surface-strain measurements made on the parent plates during welding and found to be in good agreement. Through-thickness residual stress measurements were obtained from the test plates through, and local to, the weld repairs using the deep hole drilling technique. Comparisons between the measurements and the finite element predictions generally showed good agreement, thus providing confidence in the method.

  19. Predictions and measurements of residual stress in repair welds in plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.B.; Dauda, T.A.; Truman, C.E.; Smith, D.J.; Memhard, D.; Pfeiffer, W.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the work, from the European Union FP-5 project ELIXIR, on a series of rectangular repair welds in P275 and S690 steels to validate the numerical modelling techniques used in the determination of the residual stresses generated during the repair process. The plates were 1,000 mm by 800 mm with thicknesses of 50 and 100 mm. The repair welds were 50%, 75% and 100% through the plate thickness. The repair welds were modelled using the finite element method to make predictions of the as-welded residual stress distributions. These predictions were compared with surface-strain measurements made on the parent plates during welding and found to be in good agreement. Through-thickness residual stress measurements were obtained from the test plates through, and local to, the weld repairs using the deep hole drilling technique. Comparisons between the measurements and the finite element predictions generally showed good agreement, thus providing confidence in the method

  20. Simulation of the transient eddy current measurement for the characterization of depth and conductivity of a plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Weiying; Komura, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    A transient eddy current measurement method is presented to determine the thickness and conductivity of a conductive plate. The conductive plate is induced by an air-cored coil, the magnetic flux density along the axial is measured and the various signals corresponding to plates with different thickness and conductivity are calculated using a 3D transient eddy current simulator. Characteristic features are obtained from the transient response. A similarity-based modeling method is utilized in this study to estimate the thickness and conductivity of the conductive plate. (author)

  1. Investigation of the decolorization efficiency of two pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system for industrial wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tayeb, A., E-mail: ahmed.khalil@ejust.edu.eg; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F. [Egypt−Japan University of Science and Technology, Chemicals and Petrochemicals Engineering Department (Egypt); Abdel-Rahman, A. B. [Egypt−Japan University of Science and Technology, Electronics and Communications Engineering Department (Egypt)

    2016-09-15

    In this article, a dual pin-to-plate high-voltage corona discharge system is introduced to study experimentally the gap distance, the contact time, the effect of pin and plate materials, the thickness of ground plate and the conductivity on the amount of Acid Blue 25 dye color removal efficiency from polluted water. A study for the optimum air gap distance between dual pin and surface of Acid Blue 25 dye solution is carried out using 3D-EM simulator to find maximum electric field intensity at the tip of both pins. The outcomes display that the best gap for corona discharge is approximately 5 mm for 15-kV source. This separation is constant during the study of other factors. In addition, an investigation of the essential reactive species responsible for oxidation of the dye organic compounds (O{sub 3} in air discharge, O{sub 3} in water, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) during the experimental time is conducted. Three various materials such as: stainless steel, copper and aluminum are used for pins and plate. The maximum color removal efficiencies of Acid Blue 25 dyes are 99.03, 82.04, and 90.78% after treatment time 15 min for stainless steel, copper, and aluminum, respectively. Measurement results for the impact of thickness of an aluminum ground plate on color removal competence show color removal efficiencies of 86.3, 90.78, and 98.06% after treatment time 15 min for thicknesses of 2, 0.5, and 0.1 mm, respectively. The increasing of the solution conductivity leads to the reduction of decolorization efficiency. A kinetic model is used to define the performance of corona discharge system. The models of pseudo-zero-order, pseudo-first-order, and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics are utilized to investigate the decolorization of Acid Blue 25 dye. The rate of degradation of Acid Blue 25 dye follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics in the dye concentration.

  2. Investigation of the decolorization efficiency of two pin-to-plate corona discharge plasma system for industrial wastewater treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tayeb, A.; El-Shazly, A. H.; Elkady, M. F.; Abdel-Rahman, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, a dual pin-to-plate high-voltage corona discharge system is introduced to study experimentally the gap distance, the contact time, the effect of pin and plate materials, the thickness of ground plate and the conductivity on the amount of Acid Blue 25 dye color removal efficiency from polluted water. A study for the optimum air gap distance between dual pin and surface of Acid Blue 25 dye solution is carried out using 3D-EM simulator to find maximum electric field intensity at the tip of both pins. The outcomes display that the best gap for corona discharge is approximately 5 mm for 15-kV source. This separation is constant during the study of other factors. In addition, an investigation of the essential reactive species responsible for oxidation of the dye organic compounds (O 3 in air discharge, O 3 in water, and H 2 O 2 ) during the experimental time is conducted. Three various materials such as: stainless steel, copper and aluminum are used for pins and plate. The maximum color removal efficiencies of Acid Blue 25 dyes are 99.03, 82.04, and 90.78% after treatment time 15 min for stainless steel, copper, and aluminum, respectively. Measurement results for the impact of thickness of an aluminum ground plate on color removal competence show color removal efficiencies of 86.3, 90.78, and 98.06% after treatment time 15 min for thicknesses of 2, 0.5, and 0.1 mm, respectively. The increasing of the solution conductivity leads to the reduction of decolorization efficiency. A kinetic model is used to define the performance of corona discharge system. The models of pseudo-zero-order, pseudo-first-order, and pseudo-second-order reaction kinetics are utilized to investigate the decolorization of Acid Blue 25 dye. The rate of degradation of Acid Blue 25 dye follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics in the dye concentration.

  3. An examination of the potential for 9%Cr1%Mo steel as thick section tubeplates in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, J.; Sanderson, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    The steam generator units of future commercial demonstration fast reactors are likely to have a requirement for heavy section tubeplates (up to 500mm thick) with good elevated temperature strength and creep-fatigue resistance. A comparison of the mechanical properties available for ferritic steels has suggested that 9%Cr1%Mo steel would be a strong candidate material for this application. Although this steel is covered in some national specifications for tubes, pipes, plates and forgings and is also well established in the UK nuclear industry, international experience to date is confined to sections less than ca 150mm. The potential of 9%Cr1%Mo steel for use in thick sections has therefore been assessed in the present study by using simulation heat treatments. The work reported here involved the laboratory-scale cooling of bar samples to simulate water-quenching rates in cylindrical sections up to 720mm diameter (ie: equivalent to 500mm thick plate). The tensile properties at ambient and 525 0 C and impact fracture appearance transition temperatures were determined for material tempered after cooling at simulated thick section rates; the transformation characteristics as influenced by the net chromium equivalent were also established. The results of this work show that 9%Cr1%Mo steel may be fully hardened in the equivalent of the section sizes examined,and the mechanical properties of tempered material show only a small reduction from those of thin section normalised and tempered 9%Cr1%Mo steel. These findings support the potential usage of heavy section 9%Cr1%Mo steel envisaged for fast reactor steam generator tubeplates

  4. Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from deformable steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woong; Lee, Heon-Joo; Shin, Hyunho

    2002-01-01

    Ricochet of a tungsten heavy alloy long-rod projectile from oblique steel plates with a finite thickness was investigated numerically using a full three-dimensional explicit finite element method. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated for various impact velocities and strengths of the target plates. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocities and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models. Experiments were also carried out and the results supported the predictions of the numerical analysis

  5. Mathematical model of temperature field distribution in thin plates during polishing with a free abrasive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avilov Alex

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to estimate the dynamic characteristics of the heating process of thin plates during polishing with a free abrasive. A mathematical model of the temperature field distribution in space and time according to the plate thickness is based on Lagrange equation of the second kind in the thermodynamics of irreversible processes (variation principle Bio. The research results of thermo elasticity of thin plates (membranes will allow to correct the modes of polishing with a free abrasive to receive the exact reflecting surfaces of satellites reflector, to increase temperature stability and the ability of radio signal reflection, satellite precision guidance. Calculations of temperature fields in thin plates of different thicknesses (membranes is held in the Excel, a graphical characteristics of temperature fields in thin plates (membranes show non-linearity of temperature distribution according to the thickness of thin plates (membranes.

  6. Thin film plasma coatings from dielectric free-flowing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timofeeva, L.A.; Katrich, S.A.; Solntsev, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film plasma coatings from insulating free-flowing materials is considered. Molybdenum-tart ammonium coating of 3...5 μ thickness deposited on glassy carbon, aluminium, silicon, nickel, cast iron and steel substrates in 'Bulat-ZT' machine using insulating free-flowing materials cathod was found to form due to adsorption, absorption and dissuasion processes. The use of insulating free-flowing materials coatings allow to exclude pure metals cathods in plasma-plating process

  7. Flexible screen printed thick film thermoelectric generator with reduced material resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Z; Koukharenko, E; Torah, R N; Tudor, J; Beeby, S P

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a flexible thick-film Bismuth Tellurium/Antimony Tellurium (BiTe/SbTe) thermoelectric generator (TEG) with reduced material resistivity fabricated by screen printing technology. Cold isostatic pressing (CIP) was introduced to lower the resistivity of the printed thermoelectric materials. The Seebeck coefficient (α) and the resistivity (ρ) of printed materials were measured as a function of applied pressure. A prototype TEG with 8 thermocouples was fabricated on flexible polyimide substrate. The dimension of a single printed element was 20 mm × 2 mm × 78.4 pm. The coiled-up prototype produced a voltage of 36.4 mV and a maximum power of 40.3 nW from a temperature gradient of 20 °C

  8. Peri-Elastodynamic Simulations of Guided Ultrasonic Waves in Plate-Like Structure with Surface Mounted PZT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subir Patra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure. Lamb wave modes are generated using a surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT transducer which is actuated from the top surface. The proposed generalized Peri-elastodynamics method is not only capable of simulating two dimensional (2D in plane wave under plane strain condition formulated previously but also capable of accurately simulating the out of plane Symmetric and Antisymmetric Lamb wave modes in plate like structures in 3D. For structural health monitoring (SHM of plate-like structures and nondestructive evaluation (NDE of MEMS devices, it is necessary to simulate the 3D wave-damage interaction scenarios and visualize the different wave features due to damages. Hence, in addition, to simulating the guided ultrasonic wave modes in pristine material, Lamb waves were also simulated in a damaged plate. The accuracy of the proposed technique is verified by comparing the modes generated in the plate and the mode shapes across the thickness of the plate with theoretical wave analysis.

  9. Peri-Elastodynamic Simulations of Guided Ultrasonic Waves in Plate-Like Structure with Surface Mounted PZT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Subir; Ahmed, Hossain; Banerjee, Sourav

    2018-01-18

    Peridynamic based elastodynamic computation tool named Peri-elastodynamics is proposed herein to simulate the three-dimensional (3D) Lamb wave modes in materials for the first time. Peri-elastodynamics is a nonlocal meshless approach which is a scale-independent generalized technique to visualize the acoustic and ultrasonic waves in plate-like structure, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) and nanodevices for their respective characterization. In this article, the characteristics of the fundamental Lamb wave modes are simulated in a sample plate-like structure. Lamb wave modes are generated using a surface mounted piezoelectric (PZT) transducer which is actuated from the top surface. The proposed generalized Peri-elastodynamics method is not only capable of simulating two dimensional (2D) in plane wave under plane strain condition formulated previously but also capable of accurately simulating the out of plane Symmetric and Antisymmetric Lamb wave modes in plate like structures in 3D. For structural health monitoring (SHM) of plate-like structures and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of MEMS devices, it is necessary to simulate the 3D wave-damage interaction scenarios and visualize the different wave features due to damages. Hence, in addition, to simulating the guided ultrasonic wave modes in pristine material, Lamb waves were also simulated in a damaged plate. The accuracy of the proposed technique is verified by comparing the modes generated in the plate and the mode shapes across the thickness of the plate with theoretical wave analysis.

  10. Maximum material thickness for extreme ultra-violet and X-ray backlighter probing of dense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Tallents, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lasers, X-ray lasers and other backlighter sources can be used to probe high-energy density materials if their brightness can overcome self-emission from the material. We investigate the maximum plasma thickness of aluminum, silicon and iron that can be probed with EUV or X-ray photons of energy 89-1243 eV before self-emission from the plasma overwhelms the backlighter output. For a uniform plasma, backlighter transmission decreases exponentially with increasing thickness of the material following Beer's law at a rate dependent on the plasma opacity. We evaluate the plasma opacity with the Los Alamos TOPS opacity data. The self-emission is assumed to be either that of a black body to arise from a plasma in LTE or to only consist of free-free and free-bound emission. It is shown that at higher plasma temperature (≥40 eV), EUV radiation (e.g. photon energy=89 eV) can probe a greater thickness of plasma than X-ray radiation (e.g. photon energy=1243 eV)

  11. Assessment of the applicability of AWJ technique for dismantling the reactor of Fugen. Performance of underwater-cutting thick plate and testing of sound-based monitoring for underwater-cutting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Shin-ichiro; Nishio, Shin-ichi

    2010-01-01

    The reactor of Fugen is characterized by its double-walled pressure tube construction that is composed of pressure tubes and calandria tubes. The reactor dismantlement has been planning on dismantling it under water and the abrasive water jet (AWJ) underwater-cutting method is chosen as an option among simultaneous double tubes cutting technologies. For assessing the applicability of the AWJ cutting technology, a thick plate was cut under water by the small AWJ cutting machine. In addition, since cutting causes muddiness in water, cutting was monitored by the sound-based monitoring system which was adopted as a secondary cutting monitoring method. As a results, it was demonstrated that one-phase cutting was possible under water for a stainless-steel plate with 150mm thickness and that the relationship between cutting depth and capable cutting speed could be predictable. As for the sound-based cutting monitoring, the predictability whether or not cutting would be successful was verified by checking the change of sounds level. (author)

  12. EFFECTS OF GEOMETRIC RATIOS AND FIBRE ORIENTATION ON THE NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF LAMINATED COMPOSITE PLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Attaf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation aims to examine the influence of geometric ratios and fibre orientation on the natural frequencies of fibre-reinforced laminated composite plates using finite element method based on Yang’s theory and his collaborators. The transverse shear and rotatory inertia effects were taken into consideration in the developed Fortran computer program. It has been shown that the use of first-order displacement field provides the same accuracy as higher-order displacement field when the number of elements representing the plate structure is increased (refined mesh. However, poor precision may appear for plates with high thickness-to-side ratio h/a (thickness/side length. This discrepancy limits the application of the developed theory to thick plates (h/a<0.5. The various curves show the evolution of the dimensionless frequency (w* versus fibre orientation angle (q and illustrate the apparition of a “triple-point” phenomenon engendered by the increase of the plate aspect ratio a/b (length/width for a specific value of h/a. This point defines the maximum natural frequency and the associated fibre orientation. Also, results show that for high and/or low aspect ratios, the triple-point phenomenon does not occur. This latter is rapidly reached for thick plates than thin plates when the plate aspect ratio a/b is progressively increased.

  13. Identification of material properties of orthotropic composite plate using experimental frequency response function data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Jun Hui; Ong, Zhi Chao; Ismail, Zubaidah; Ang, Bee Chin; Khoo, Shin Yee

    2018-05-01

    The demand for composite materials is increasing due to their great superiority in material properties, e.g., lightweight, high strength and high corrosion resistance. As a result, the invention of composite materials of diverse properties is becoming prevalent, and thus, leading to the development of material identification methods for composite materials. Conventional identification methods are destructive, time-consuming and costly. Therefore, an accurate identification approach is proposed to circumvent these drawbacks, involving the use of Frequency Response Function (FRF) error function defined by the correlation discrepancy between experimental and Finite-Element generated FRFs. A square E-glass epoxy composite plate is investigated under several different configurations of boundary conditions. It is notable that the experimental FRFs are used as the correlation reference, such that, during computation, the predicted FRFs are continuously updated with reference to the experimental FRFs until achieving a solution. The final identified elastic properties, namely in-plane elastic moduli, Ex and Ey, in-plane shear modulus, Gxy, and major Poisson's ratio, vxy of the composite plate are subsequently compared to the benchmark parameters as well as with those obtained using modal-based approach. As compared to the modal-based approach, the proposed method is found to have yielded relatively better results. This can be explained by the direct employment of raw data in the proposed method that avoids errors that might incur during the stage of modal extraction.

  14. Fracture Characteristics Analysis of Double-layer Rock Plates with Both Ends Fixed Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to research on the fracture and instability characteristics of double-layer rock plates with both ends fixed, the three-dimension computational model of double-layer rock plates under the concentrated load was built by using PFC3D technique (three-dimension particle flow code, and the mechanical parameters of the numerical model were determined based on the physical model tests. The results showed the instability process of the double-layer rock plates had four mechanical response phases: the elastic deformation stage, the brittle fracture of upper thick plate arching stage, two rock-arch bearing stage and two rock-arch failure stage; moreover, with the rock plate particle radius from small to large change, the maximum vertical force of double rock-arch appeared when the particle size was a certain value. The maximum vertical force showed an upward trend with the increase of the rock plate temperature, and in the case of the same thickness the maximum vertical force increased with the increase of the upper rock plate thickness. When the boundary conditions of double-layer rock plates changed from the hinged support to the fixed support, the maximum horizontal force observably decreased, and the maximum vertical force showed small fluctuations and then tended towards stability with the increase of cohesive strength of double-layer rock plates.

  15. Damage detection in submerged plates using ultrasonic guided waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    eddy currents. Most of the ... istics, Lamb waves were used for damage detection and inspection on a variety of applications like strips and ...... wide and 0.5 mm deep (12.5% of the plate thickness) was machined on the plate (figure 17) and.

  16. Simulation and Experimental Study on Effect of Phase Change Material Thickness to Reduce Temperature of Photovoltaic Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indartono, Y. S.; Prakoso, S. D.; Suwono, A.; Zaini, I. N.; Fernaldi, B.

    2015-09-01

    Solar energy is promising renewable energy which can be applied in Indonesia. Average solar radiation in the country is 4.8 kWh/day/m2. Weakness of silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) is efficiency reduction caused by temperature increase. Many attempts have been done to reduce PV temperature. In previous study, palm oil, which is widely available in Indonesia, is suitable to be used as phase change material (PCM) to reduce PV temperature. In this study, thickness of aluminium rectangular-tube containing phase change material oil is varied. The tube is placed at back part of PV. Numerical and experimental study was done to evaluate the effect of tube thickness to the temperature reduction of the PV. Variation of tube thickness used in the experiment is 50.8mm, 76.2 mm, 101.6 mm. Both studies show that increase of PCM thickness reduces PV temperature. Higher PCM thickness cause large reduction on PV temperature. Simulation result shows there is an optimum thickness of the PCM which is applied to the PV.

  17. Simulation and Experimental Study on Effect of Phase Change Material Thickness to Reduce Temperature of Photovoltaic Panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indartono, Y S; Prakoso, S D; Suwono, A; Zaini, I N; Fernaldi, B

    2015-01-01

    Solar energy is promising renewable energy which can be applied in Indonesia. Average solar radiation in the country is 4.8 kWh/day/m2. Weakness of silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) is efficiency reduction caused by temperature increase. Many attempts have been done to reduce PV temperature. In previous study, palm oil, which is widely available in Indonesia, is suitable to be used as phase change material (PCM) to reduce PV temperature. In this study, thickness of aluminium rectangular-tube containing phase change material oil is varied. The tube is placed at back part of PV. Numerical and experimental study was done to evaluate the effect of tube thickness to the temperature reduction of the PV. Variation of tube thickness used in the experiment is 50.8mm, 76.2 mm, 101.6 mm. Both studies show that increase of PCM thickness reduces PV temperature. Higher PCM thickness cause large reduction on PV temperature. Simulation result shows there is an optimum thickness of the PCM which is applied to the PV. (paper)

  18. Development of Optimum Manufacturing Technologies of Radial Plates for the ITER Toroidal Field Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, H.; Hamada, K.; Okuno, K.; Abe, K.; Kakui, H.; Yamaoka, H.; Maruyama, N.

    2006-01-01

    A stainless steel structure called a radial plate is used in the toroidal field (TF) coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) in order to support large electromagnetic force generated in the conductors. It is a 13.7 m x 8.7 m D-shaped plate having 11 grooves on each side in which conductors are wound. Although severe dimensional accuracy, for example flatness within 2 mm, and tight schedule that all radial plates for 9 TF coils (63 plates) have to be manufactured in about 4 years are required in manufacture of the radial plates, there are no industries in the world who have manufactured a large complicated structure like the radial plate with high accuracy. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has been studying rational manufacturing method and developing the optimum manufacturing technologies of the radial plates in order to satisfy the above requirements in collaboration with the Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. (IHI). Several trial manufactures of radial plates have been performed to clarify the following key points: · Effect of nitrogen content in material on machinability · Effect of cutting direction of a piece on deformation caused by machining · Effect of machining shape (curve or straight) on machining condition · Effect of laser welding technique on penetration and welding deformation Three different 316LN materials having nitrogen content of 0.12 %, 0.17%, and 0.20% were used to investigate nitrogen content effect on machinability. Machinability of lower nitrogen content material was slightly better than that of higher nitrogen content material. Three sectoral pieces were cut by plasma cutting technique from a hot rolled plate without any difficulties and one of them was machined to a curved segment of the radial plate having the same size as actual one. However, unacceptable large deformation over 5 mm flatness was found during machining which would be caused by curved shape of grooves and/or cutting direction

  19. DMTO – a method for Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization of laminated composite structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Nørgaard; Sørensen, Rene; Lund, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a gradient based topology optimization method for Discrete Material and Thickness Optimization of laminated composite structures, labelled the DMTOmethod. The capabilities of the proposed method are demonstrated on mass minimization, subject to constraints on the structural...... criteria; buckling load factors, eigenfrequencies, and limited displacements. Furthermore, common design guidelines or rules, referred to as manufacturing constraints, are included explicitly in the optimization problem as series of linear inequalities. The material selection and thickness variation...... to manufacturability. The results will thus give insight into the relation between potential weight saving and design complexity. The results show that the DMTO method is capable of solving the problems robustly with only few intermediate valued design variables....

  20. Tailoring diffraction technique Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-can oiled 304 stainless steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikin; Killen, P.; Anis, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tailoring of diffraction technique-Rietveld method on residual stress measurements of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates assuming the material is isotopic, the residual stress measurements using X-ray powder diffraction is just performed for a plane lying in a large angle. For anisotropic materials, the real measurements will not be represented by the methods. By Utilizing of all diffraction peaks in the observation region, tailoring diffraction technique-Rietveld analysis is able to cover the limitations. The residual stress measurement using X-ray powder diffraction tailored by Rietveld method, in a series of cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates deforming; 0, 34, 84, 152, 158, 175, and 196 % reduction in thickness, have been reported. The diffraction data were analyzed by using Rietveld structure refinement method. Also, for all cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates cuplikans, the diffraction peaks are broader than the uncanailed one, indicating that the strains in these cuplikans are inhomogeneous. From an analysis of the refined peak shape parameters, the average root-mean square strain, which describes the distribution of the inhomogeneous strain field, was calculated. Finally, the average residual stresses in cold-canailed stainless steel 304 plates were shown to be a combination effect of hydrostatic stresses of martensite particles and austenite matrix. The average residual stresses were evaluated from the experimentally determined average lattice strains in each phase. It was found the tensile residual stress in a cuplikan was maximum, reaching 442 MPa, for a cuplikan reducing 34% in thickness and minimum for a 196% cuplikan

  1. Development of background reduced Fresnel phase zone plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamari, Yohei; Azechi, Hiroshi

    2004-01-01

    In study of hot and dense plasma, a high spatial resolution (a few microns) x-ray imaging is very important to observe these plasmas. The Fresnel phase zone plate (FPZP) consists of alternately material and transparent circular annuli placed concentrically, which image x rays using diffraction x rays from all annuli. FPZP have imaged 4.7-4.77 keV x rays with 2.2 μm spatial resolution. However FPZP has a problem that background level is comparable to signal level. In subtraction of background, the error of 10% is caused. For the accurate background subtraction, we designed new FPZP, which consist of three β layers of a transparent zone and two material zones. The new design FPZP parameters (thickness of material zones, each zone width) have been optimized, and in that optimum design signal-to-background ratio is 4 times better than conventional two layers FPZP

  2. Scintillating plate calorimeter optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, R.; Fazely, A.; Gunasingha, R.; Imlay, R.; Lim, J.

    1990-01-01

    A major technical challenge facing the builder of a general purpose detector for the SSC is to achieve an optimum design for the calorimeter. Because of its fast response and good energy resolution, scintillating plate sampling calorimeters should be considered as a possible technology option. The work of the Scintillating Plate Calorimeter Collaboration is focused on compensating plate calorimeters. Based on experimental and simulation studies, it is expected that a sampling calorimeter with alternating layers of high-Z absorber (Pb, W, DU, etc.) and plastic scintillator can be made compensating (e/h = 1.00) by suitable choice of the ratio of absorber/scintillator thickness. Two conceptual designs have been pursued by this subsystem collaboration. One is based on lead as the absorber, with read/out of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter fibers. The other design is based on depleted uranium as the absorber with wavelength shifter (WLS) plate readout. Progress on designs for the optical readout of a compensating scintillator plate calorimeter are presented. These designs include readout of the scintillator plates via wavelength shifter plates or fiber readout. Results from radiation damage studies of the optical components are presented

  3. Studies on mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture morphology details of laser beam welded thick SS304L plates for fusion reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buddu, Ramesh Kumar, E-mail: buddu@ipr.res.in [Fusion Reactor Materials Development and Characterization Division, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Chauhan, N.; Raole, P.M. [Fusion Reactor Materials Development and Characterization Division, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Natu, Harshad [Magod Laser Machining Pvt. Ltd, Jigani, Bengaluru 560105 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • CO{sub 2} laser welding of 8 mm thick SS304L plates has been carried out and full penetration welds fabricated and characterized for mechanical properties and microstructure details. • Welded samples have shown tensile properties comparable to base indicating good weld quality joints. • Impact fracture tests of weld zone and heat affected zone samples have shown poor toughness compared to the base metal. • SEM analysis of fracture samples of tensile and impact specimens indicated the complex microstructure features in weld zone and combined ductile and brittle fracture features. • Combined features of dendrite and cellular structures are observed in weld microstructures with narrow HAZ and delta ferrite is found in the welds and further confirmed by higher Ferrite Number data. - Abstract: Austenitic stainless steel is widely used structural material for the fabrication of the fusion reactor components. Laser welding is high power density process which offers several advantages over the other conventional processes like Tungsten Inert Gas welding. The features like low distortion, narrow heat affected zone, deep penetration in single pass, good mechanical properties are some of the advantages of laser welding process. The laser weld process parameters optimization has several challenges in terms of overcoming the weld defects like voids due to lack of penetration over depth, undercuts and porosity. The present paper reports the studies carried out with CO{sub 2} laser welding of 8 mm thick austenitic stainless steel SS304L plates and their characterization of mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture morphology details. The weld process parameter optimization towards defect free welds with full penetration welding has been carried out. The welded samples have shown tensile properties comparable to base metal, bend tests are successfully passed. The hardness measurements have shown slightly higher for weld zone compared to base metal

  4. Studies on mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture morphology details of laser beam welded thick SS304L plates for fusion reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buddu, Ramesh Kumar; Chauhan, N.; Raole, P.M.; Natu, Harshad

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • CO 2 laser welding of 8 mm thick SS304L plates has been carried out and full penetration welds fabricated and characterized for mechanical properties and microstructure details. • Welded samples have shown tensile properties comparable to base indicating good weld quality joints. • Impact fracture tests of weld zone and heat affected zone samples have shown poor toughness compared to the base metal. • SEM analysis of fracture samples of tensile and impact specimens indicated the complex microstructure features in weld zone and combined ductile and brittle fracture features. • Combined features of dendrite and cellular structures are observed in weld microstructures with narrow HAZ and delta ferrite is found in the welds and further confirmed by higher Ferrite Number data. - Abstract: Austenitic stainless steel is widely used structural material for the fabrication of the fusion reactor components. Laser welding is high power density process which offers several advantages over the other conventional processes like Tungsten Inert Gas welding. The features like low distortion, narrow heat affected zone, deep penetration in single pass, good mechanical properties are some of the advantages of laser welding process. The laser weld process parameters optimization has several challenges in terms of overcoming the weld defects like voids due to lack of penetration over depth, undercuts and porosity. The present paper reports the studies carried out with CO 2 laser welding of 8 mm thick austenitic stainless steel SS304L plates and their characterization of mechanical properties, microstructure and fracture morphology details. The weld process parameter optimization towards defect free welds with full penetration welding has been carried out. The welded samples have shown tensile properties comparable to base metal, bend tests are successfully passed. The hardness measurements have shown slightly higher for weld zone compared to base metal and the

  5. Flat plate vs. concentrator solar photovoltaic cells - A manufacturing cost analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granon, L. A.; Coleman, M. G.

    1980-01-01

    The choice of which photovoltaic system (flat plate or concentrator) to use for utilizing solar cells to generate electricity depends mainly on the cost. A detailed, comparative manufacturing cost analysis of the two types of systems is presented. Several common assumptions, i.e., cell thickness, interest rate, power rate, factory production life, polysilicon cost, and direct labor rate are utilized in this analysis. Process sequences, cost variables, and sensitivity analyses have been studied, and results of the latter show that the most important parameters which determine manufacturing costs are concentration ratio, manufacturing volume, and cell efficiency. The total cost per watt of the flat plate solar cell is $1.45, and that of the concentrator solar cell is $1.85, the higher cost being due to the increased process complexity and material costs.

  6. Characterization of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag Alloy RX226-T8 Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Cynthia L.; Domack, Marcia S.

    2003-01-01

    aircraft wing and fuselage skin materials through the addition of silver to Al-Cu-Mg alloys based on Al 2519 chemistry [2]. Thermal stability of the resulting Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys, C415-T8 and C416-T8, was due to co-precipitation of the thermally stable . (AlCu) and ' (Al2Cu) strengthening phases [1-4]. The strength and toughness behavior was investigated for these alloys produced as 0.090-inch thick rolled sheet in the T8 condition and after various thermal exposures. The mechanical properties were shown to be competitive with conventional aircraft alloys, 2519-T8 and 2618-T8 [2]. During the Integral Airframe Structure (IAS) program, advanced aluminum alloys were examined for use in an integrally stiffened airframe structure where the skin and stiffeners would be machined from plate and extruded frames would be mechanically attached (see Figure 1) [5]. Advantages of integrally stiffened structure include reduced part count, and reduced assembly times compared to conventional built-up airframe structure. The near-surface properties of a thick plate are of significance for a machined integrally stiffened airframe structure since this represents the skin location. Properties measured at the mid-plane of the plate are more representative of the stiffener web. RX226 was developed to exploit strength-toughness improvements and thermal stability benefits of Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloys in plate gages. This study evaluated the microstructure and properties of three gages of plate produced in the T8 condition.

  7. Fabrication techniques of X-ray spiral zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Nan; Zhu Xiaoli; Li Hailiang; Xie Changqing

    2010-01-01

    The techniques to make X-ray spiral zone plates using electron beam and X-ray lithography were studied. A master mask was fabricated on polyimide membrane by E-beam lithography and micro-electroplating. Spiral zone plates were efficiently replicated by X-ray lithography and micro-electroplating. By combining the techniques, spiral zone plates at 1 keV were successfully fabricate. With an outermost zone width of the 200 nm, and the gold absorbers thickness of 700 nm, the high quality zone plates can be used for X-ray phase contrast microscopy.(authors)

  8. Research on shielding neutron efficiency of some boron-bearing fabric and transparent resin materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Changmao; Liu Jinhua; Su Jingling; Wang Zheng

    1995-01-01

    The shielding neutron efficiency of boron-bearing materials developed recently is introduced. The thermal neutron shield ratios for two kinds of non-woven cloth with thickness of 58 mg/cm 2 and 153 mg/cm 2 are 51% and 79% respectively. Their mass attenuation coefficient for 0.186, 24.4 and 144 keV neutron are 1.56, 1.29 and 0.9 cm 2 /g respectively. The thermal neutron shield ratio is 85% for the natural boron-bearing transparent resin plate with the thickness of 0.59 g/cm 2 , and 97% for enriched boron or gadolinium bearing resin plate. The shield ratios of all three materials for 24.4 keV neutrons are 38%. The transparence of natural light for enriched boron-bearing resin plates shows no considerable change after they were exposed to thermal neutrons up to 6 Sv. After they were exposed up to 20 Sv, the transparence decreases to 50% but thermal neutron shield ratio does not change. The gadolinium-bearing plate has a very strong thermal neutron-capture gamma radiation and its dose-equivalent is greater than that of incident thermal neutrons

  9. Analyzing the scale of the bainitic ferrite plates by XRD, SEM and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Mateo, Carlos; Jimenez, Jose A.; Lopez-Ezquerra, Belen; Rementeria, Rosalia; Morales-Rivas, Lucia; Kuntz, Matthias; Caballero, Francisca G.

    2016-01-01

    Since the major strengthening mechanisms in nanocrystalline bainitic steels arise from the exceptionally small size of the bainitc ferrite plate, accurate determination of this parameter is fundamental for quantitative relating the microstructure to the mechanical properties. In this work, the thickness of the bainitic ferrite subunits obtained by different bainitic heat treatments was determined in two steels, with carbon contents of 0.3 and 0.7 wt.%, from SEM and TEM micrographs. As these measurements were made on 2D images taken from random sections, the method includes some stereological correction factors to obtain accurate information. Finally, the determined thicknesses of bainitic ferrite plates were compared with the crystallite size calculated from the analysis of X-ray diffraction peak broadening. Although in some case the values obtained for crystallite size and plate thickness can be similar, this study confirms that indeed they are two different parameters. - Highlights: •Bainitic microstructure in a nanostructured and sub-micron steel •Bainitic ferrite plate thickness measured by SEM and TEM •Crystallite size determined by X-ray analysis

  10. Analyzing the scale of the bainitic ferrite plates by XRD, SEM and TEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Mateo, Carlos, E-mail: cgm@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez, Jose A.; Lopez-Ezquerra, Belen; Rementeria, Rosalia; Morales-Rivas, Lucia [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Kuntz, Matthias [Robert-Bosch GmbH, Materials and Process Engineering Metals, Renningen, 70465 Stuttgart (Germany); Caballero, Francisca G. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, Spanish National Center for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Avda. Gregorio del Amo 8, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    Since the major strengthening mechanisms in nanocrystalline bainitic steels arise from the exceptionally small size of the bainitc ferrite plate, accurate determination of this parameter is fundamental for quantitative relating the microstructure to the mechanical properties. In this work, the thickness of the bainitic ferrite subunits obtained by different bainitic heat treatments was determined in two steels, with carbon contents of 0.3 and 0.7 wt.%, from SEM and TEM micrographs. As these measurements were made on 2D images taken from random sections, the method includes some stereological correction factors to obtain accurate information. Finally, the determined thicknesses of bainitic ferrite plates were compared with the crystallite size calculated from the analysis of X-ray diffraction peak broadening. Although in some case the values obtained for crystallite size and plate thickness can be similar, this study confirms that indeed they are two different parameters. - Highlights: •Bainitic microstructure in a nanostructured and sub-micron steel •Bainitic ferrite plate thickness measured by SEM and TEM •Crystallite size determined by X-ray analysis.

  11. Nickel-plating for active metal dissolution resistance in molten fluoride salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, Luke [Department of Engineering Physics, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Sridharan, Kumar, E-mail: kumar@engr.wisc.edu [Department of Engineering Physics, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Anderson, Mark; Allen, Todd [Department of Engineering Physics, 1500 Engineering Drive, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-04-15

    Ni electroplating of Incoloy-800H was investigated with the goal of mitigating Cr dissolution from this alloy into molten 46.5%LiF-11.5%NaF-42%KF eutectic salt, commonly referred to as FLiNaK. Tests were conducted in graphite crucibles at a molten salt temperature of 850 deg. C. The crucible material graphite accelerates the corrosion process due to the large activity difference between the graphite and the alloy. For the purposes of providing a baseline for this study, un-plated Incoloy-800H and a nearly pure Ni-alloy, Ni-201 were also tested. Results indicate that Ni-plating has the potential to significantly improve the corrosion resistance of Incoloy-800H in molten fluoride salts. Diffusion of Cr from the alloy through the Ni-plating does occur and if the Ni-plating is thin enough this Cr eventually dissolves into the molten salt. The post-corrosion test microstructure of the Ni-plating, particularly void formation was also observed to depend on the plating thickness. Diffusion anneals in a helium environment of Ni-plated Incoloy-800H and an Fe-Ni-Cr model alloy were also investigated to understand Cr diffusion through the Ni-plating. Further enhancements in the efficacy of the Ni-plating as a protective barrier against Cr dissolution from the alloy into molten fluoride salts can be achieved by thermally forming a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier film on the surface of the alloy prior to Ni electroplating.

  12. Microstructure and Mechanical Property of Aluminum Alloy Plate AA 7055

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Junzhou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Through-thickness microstructure and mechanical property of AA 7055-T7751 aluminum alloy plate were investigated by using electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD, transmission electron microscope (TEM and small angle X-ray scattering(SAXS. The results indicate an inhomogeneous distribution of microstructure through the thickness. The degree of recrystallization decreases gradually from 69% to 19.1%, as deepening from the surface to the center of the plate. The size of subgrains decreases from 10 μm at the surface to around 2 μm at the center. Strong texture of rolling type is observed near the center but the intensity decreases gradually as nearing the surface and the shear texture becomes the dominant. High density of plate-like η' phases are observed in the alloy, indicating the sufficient precipitation. η' precipitates of this condition are around 3.7 nm in radius, 1-3 nm in thickness and are found coherent with the Al matrix with a coherent strain of 0.0133, showing a strong strengthening effect. The heterogeneity in grain scale does not influence the distribution and the morphology of precipitates. The yield strength (L direction varies linearly along the thickness direction of the plate, fitting an equation of σy=-38.7S+604.8 (0≤S≤1. The variation of yield strength is related to the heterogeneity of grain structure.

  13. Preliminary results for the Co-Rolling process fabrication of plate-type nuclear fuel based in U-10Mo monolithic meat and zircaloy-4 cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, Tercio A.; Brina, Jose Giovanni M.; Paula, Joao Bosco de; Lameiras, Fernando S.; Ferraz, Wilmar B.

    2013-01-01

    The fabrication process of plate-type nuclear fuel with monolithic meat is under development at CDTN. The U-10Mo alloy was chosen as the meat material due to its high density, corrosion resistance and the higher dimensional stability proportioned by the metastable gamma phase, which presents a lesser extension of the breakaway swelling phenomena occurrence during irradiation tests. The monolithic meat was cut from an U-10Mo ingot, that was induction melted at CDTN. The co-rolling process was adopted due to the higher mechanical properties and melting point of the Zircalloy-4 cladding material, which presents a lesser discrepancy in relation to the meat material properties, when compared to the aluminum 6061 alloy. Preliminary plates were obtained by means of the co-rolling process, performed at 650, 800, 950 deg C with total thickness reduction of 80%, followed by a pickling step and cold co-rolling passes. The plates were characterized through bending tests, optical microscopy and radiography. The co-rolling temperature of 800 deg C presented the best results, with a homogeneous distribution of the total thickness reduction between the cover plates and the meat, and the absence of delamination in the bending test samples. It was observed the occurrence of meat thickening in its ends, according to its longitudinal axle, parallel to the rolling direction, that is known as the d og bone , for the three co-rolling temperatures. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Bone Atrophy After Treatment of Forearm Fracture Using Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis: A Comparative Study of Locking Plates and Conventional Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Takane; Thoreson, Andrew Ryan; An, Kai-Nan; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki

    2017-08-01

    Forearm diaphysis fractures are usually managed by open reduction internal fixation. Recently, locking plates have been used for treatment. In the long-term period after surgery, some patients present with bone atrophy adjacent to the plate. However, a comparison of locking and conventional plates as a cause of atrophy has not been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate long-term bone atrophy associated with use of locking and conventional plates for forearm fracture treatment. In this study we included 15 patients with forearm fracture managed by either locking or conventional plates and with more than 5 years of follow-up. Computed tomographic imaging of both forearms was performed to assess bone thickness and local bone mineral density and to predict bone strength without plate reinforcement based on finite element analysis. Mean patient age at surgery was 48.0 years. Eight patients underwent reduction with fixed locking plates and were followed up for a mean of 79.5 months; the remaining 7 patients were treated with conventional plates and were followed up for a mean of 105.0 months. Compared with the conventional plate group, the locking plate group had the same fractured limb-contralateral limb ratio of cortex bone thickness, but had significantly lower ratios of mineral density adjacent to the plate and adjusted bone strength. This study demonstrated bone atrophy after locking plate fixation for forearm fractures. Treatment plans for forearm fracture should take into consideration the impact of bone atrophy long after plate fixation. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Target Plate Material Influence on Fullerene-C60 Laser Desorption/Ionization Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeegers, Guido P.; Günthardt, Barbara F.; Zenobi, Renato

    2016-04-01

    Systematic laser desorption/ionization (LDI) experiments of fullerene-C60 on a wide range of target plate materials were conducted to gain insight into the initial ion formation in matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry. The positive and negative ion signal intensities of precursor, fragment, and cluster ions were monitored, varying both the laser fluence (0-3.53 Jcm-2) and the ion extraction delay time (0-950 ns). The resulting species-specific ion signal intensities are an indication for the ionization mechanisms that contribute to LDI and the time frames in which they operate, providing insight in the (MA)LDI primary ionization. An increasing electrical resistivity of the target plate material increases the fullerene-C60 precursor and fragment anion signal intensity. Inconel 625 and Ti90/Al6/V4, both highly electrically resistive, provide the highest anion signal intensities, exceeding the cation signal intensity by a factor ~1.4 for the latter. We present a mechanism based on transient electrical field strength reduction to explain this trend. Fullerene-C60 cluster anion formation is negligible, which could be due to the high extraction potential. Cluster cations, however, are readily formed, although for high laser fluences, the preferred channel is formation of precursor and fragment cations. Ion signal intensity depends greatly on the choice of substrate material, and careful substrate selection could, therefore, allow for more sensitive (MA)LDI measurements.

  16. Characterization of a material by probability of linear scattering using effect of target thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nghiep, T.D.; Khai, N.T.; Cong, N.T.; Minh, D.T.N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on an experimental test with 662 keV gamma photons scattered from a set of samples from 6 C, 13 Al, 26 Fe, 29 Cu, 47 Ag, 82 Pb and stainless steel for determination of probability of linear scattering, which can be used for characterization of a material. The results show that for the given target and scattering angle, the effect of target thickness in gamma photons scattering relates to single and multiple scattering and that the scattered events exponentially increase with an increase in target thickness and saturation at some values of thickness. The experimental results correlate with the typical function of energy transfer model. (author)

  17. Electroplated thick-film cobalt platinum permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Qi, Bin; Arnold, David P., E-mail: darnold@ufl.edu

    2016-10-15

    The material and magnetic properties of multi-micron-thick (up to 6 μm) L1{sub 0} CoPt magnetic films electroplated onto silicon substrates are investigated as candidate materials for integration in silicon-based microsystems. The influence of various process conditions on the structure and magnetic properties of electroplated CoPt thick-films is studied in order to better understand the complex process/structure/property relationships associated with the electroplated films. Process variables studied here include different seed layers, electroplating current densities (ranging from 25–200 mA/cm{sup 2}), deposition times (up to 60 min), and post-deposition annealing times and temperatures. Analyses include film morphology, film thickness, composition, surface roughness, grain size, phase volume fractions, and L1{sub 0} ordering parameter. Key correlations are found relating process and structure variations to the extrinsic magnetic properties (remanence, coercivity, squareness, and energy product). Strong hard magnetic properties (B{sub r} ~0.8 T, H{sub ci} ~800 kA/m, squareness close to 0.9, and BH{sub max} of 100 kJ/m{sup 3}) are obtained for films deposited on Si/TiN/Ti/Cu at current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, pH of 7, and subsequently annealed at 675 °C for 30 min. - Highlights: • CoPt films plated up to 6 μm thick on silicon substrates. • A1 to L1{sub 0} phase transformation by annealing in forming gas. • Various process–structure–property relationships explored. • Key results: B{sub r} ~0.8 T, H{sub ci} ~800 kA/m, squareness 0.9, and BH{sub max} ~100 kJ/m{sup 3}.

  18. Preparation of actinide targets by molecular plating for coulomb excitation studies at ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Greene, J P; Ahmad, I

    1999-01-01

    Molecular plating is now routinely used to prepare sources and targets of actinide elements. Although the technique is simple and fairly reproducible, because of the radioactive nature of the targets, it is very useful to record various parameters in the preparation process. At Argonne, approx 200 mu g/cm sup 2 thick targets of Pu and Cm were required for Coulomb Excitation (COULEX) studies with the Argonne-Notre Dame boron germanate (BGO) gamma-ray facility and later with the GAMMASPHERE. These targets were plated on 50 mg/cm sup 2 Au backings and were covered with 150 mu g/cm sup 2 Au foil. Targets of sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 0 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 2 Pu, sup 2 sup 4 sup 4 Pu and sup 2 sup 4 sup 8 Cm were prepared by dissolving the material in isopropyl alcohol and electroplating the actinide ions by applying 600 V. The amount of these materials on the target was determined by alpha particle counting and gamma-ray counting. Details of the molecular plating and counting will be discussed.

  19. New pulsed YAG laser performances in cutting thick metallic materials for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfille, J.P.; Prunele, D. de; Pilot, G.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the capacities of the pulsed YAG laser thick cutting on metallic material and to compare with the CO 2 laser capacities. Stainless steel (304L) cutting tests were made in air and underwater using CO 2 and YAG lasers. A performance assessment was made for each laser and the wastes produced in the cutting operation were measured and the gases and the aerosols analyzed. The results show that the pulsed YAG laser is high performance tool for thick cutting and particularly attractive for nuclear applications

  20. Numerical Study on Ultimate Behaviour of Bolted End-Plate Steel Connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.E.S. Ismail

    Full Text Available Abstract Bolted end-plate steel connections have become more popular due to ease of fabrication. This paper presents a three dimension Finite Element Model (FEM, using the multi-purpose software ABAQUS, to study the effect of different geometrical parameters on the ultimate behavior of the connection. The proposed model takes into account material and geometrical non-linearities, initial imperfection, contact between adjacent surfaces and the pretension force in the bolts. The Finite Element results are calibrated with published experimental results ''briefly reviewed in this paper'' and verified that the numerical model can simulate and analyze the overall and detailed behavior of different types of bolted end-plate steel connections. Using verified FEM, parametric study is then carried out to study the ultimate behavior with variations in: bolt diameter, end-plate thickness, length of column stiffener, angle of rib stiffener. The results are examined with respect to the failure modes, the evolution of the resistance, the initial stiffness, and the rotation capacity. Finally, the ultimate behavior of the bolted end-plate steel connection is discussed in detail, and recommendations for the design purpose are made.

  1. Fabrication of plate for special applications by USIMINAS (Usinas Siderurgicas de Minas Gerais S/A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, S.L. de; Miyashita, T.; Hanan, I.

    1982-01-01

    Some aspects of the development of plate for applications in off-shore platforms, hydroelectric and nuclear industry, pressure vessels, heavy equipment and linepipe, have been discussed. Also dealt with are materials with special charateristics such as through-thickness ductility, tensile and impact properties after stress relief and ageing heat treatments, low temperature impact properties together with guaranteed ultrasonic quality that have been developed by USIMINAS in recent years. (Author) [pt

  2. Thickness optimization of fiber reinforced laminated composites using the discrete material optimization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Nørgaard; Lund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This work concerns a novel large-scale multi-material topology optimization method for simultaneous determination of the optimum variable integer thickness and fiber orientation throughout laminate structures with fixed outer geometries while adhering to certain manufacturing constraints....... The conceptual combinatorial/integer problem is relaxed to a continuous problem and solved on basis of the so-called Discrete Material Optimization method, explicitly including the manufacturing constraints as linear constraints....

  3. Radioactivity distribution measurement of various natural material surfaces with imaging plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, C.; Suzuki, T.; Koido, S.; Uritani, A.; Yanagida, K.; Wu, Y.; Nishizawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    Distribution images of natural radioactivity in natural materials such as vegetables were obtained by using Imaging Platc. In ssuch cases, it is necessary to reduce background radiation intensity by one order or more. Graded shielding is very important. Espacially, the innermost surface of a shielding box sshould be covered with acrylic rein plate. We obtained natural radioactivity distribution images of vegetable, sea food, mea etc. Most β-rays emitted from 40 K print the radioactivity distribution image. Comparison between γ-ray intensity of KCL solution measured with HPGe detector and that of natural material specimen gave the radioactivity around 0.06- 0.04Bq/g depending on the kind and the part of specimens. (author). 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Using photons for non-destructive testing of thick materials: a simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Ryutaro; Nagai, Hideki

    2004-01-01

    Positron annihilation spectroscopy using positron annihilation lifetimes has been successfully studied for non-destructive material testing. A positron inspection probe is annihilated with an electron at the front of the material. The application of the positron lifetime method is restricted to thin materials. A photon with energy exceeding 1.02MeV reaches the materials' depth and can produce a positron through γ-conversion. Such a photon-produced positron is a probe for thick materials. The probability of γ-conversion, however, is low. The method of photon-produced positron annihilation lifetimes is restricted by statistics. We estimated the expected number of events and the statistical uncertainties of the lifetime measurements for a non-destructive test, such as an SUS316 fatigue monitoring, to construct a fatigue-monitoring system

  5. CRUSTAL THICKNESS VARIATIONS AND SEISMICITY OF NORTHWESTERN SOUTH AMERICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Kim Jeong

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Any uncompensated mass of the northern Andes Mountains is presumably under pressure to adjust within the Earth to its ideal state of isostatic equilibrium. Isostasy is the ideal state that any
    uncompensated mass seeks to achieve in time. These pressures interact with the relative motions between adjacent plates that give rise to earthquakes along the plate boundaries. By combining the
    gravity MOHO estimates and crustal discontinuities with historical and instrumental seismological catalogs the correlation between isostatically disturbed terrains and seismicity has been established.
    The thinner and thicker crustal regions were mapped from the zero horizontal curvature of the crustal thickness estimates. These boundaries or edges of crustal thickness variations were compared to
    crustal discontinuities inferred from gravity and magnetic anomalies and the patterns of seismicity that have been catalogued for the last 363 years. The seismicity is very intense along the Nazca-North
    Andes, Caribbean-North American and North Andes-South American collision zones and associated with regional tectonic compressional stresses that have locally increased and/or diminished by
    compressional and tensional stress, respectively, due to crustal thickness variations. High seismicity is also associated with the Nazca-Cocos diverging plate boundary whereas low seismicity is associated with the Panama-Nazca Transform Fault and the South American Plate.

  6. Static stability analysis of smart magneto-electro-elastic heterogeneous nanoplates embedded in an elastic medium based on a four-variable refined plate theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Farzad; Barati, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    In this article, a nonlocal four-variable refined plate theory is developed to examine the buckling behavior of nanoplates made of magneto-electro-elastic functionally graded (MEE-FG) materials resting on Winkler-Pasternak foundation. Material properties of nanoplate change in spatial coordinate based on power-law distribution. The nonlocal governing equations are deduced by employing the Hamilton principle. For various boundary conditions, the analytical solutions of nonlocal MEE-FG plates for buckling problem will be obtained based on an exact solution approach. Finally, dependency of buckling response of MEE-FG nanoplate on elastic foundation parameters, magnetic potential, external electric voltage, various boundary conditions, small scale parameter, power-law index, plate side-to-thickness ratio and aspect ratio will be figure out. These results can be advantageous for the mechanical analysis and design of intelligent nanoscale structures constructed from magneto-electro-thermo-elastic functionally graded materials.

  7. The contact heat transfer between the heating plate and granular materials in rotary heat exchanger under overloaded condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luanfang Duan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the contact heat transfer between the granular materials and heating plates inside plate rotary heat exchanger (PRHE was investigated. The heat transfer coefficient is dominated by the contact heat transfer coefficient at hot wall surface of the heating plates and the heat penetration inside the solid bed. A plot scale PRHE with a diameter of Do = 273 mm and a length of L = 1000 mm has been established. Quartz sand with dp = 2 mm was employed as the experimental material. The operational parameters were in the range of ω = 1 – 8 rpm, and F = 15, 20, 25, 30%, and the effect of these parameters on the time-average contact heat transfer coefficient was analyzed. The time-average contact heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase of rotary speed, but decreases with the increase of the filling degree. The measured data of time-average heat transfer coefficients were compared with theoretical calculations from Schlünder’s model, a good agreement between the measurements and the model could be achieved, especially at a lower rotary speed and filling degree level. The maximum deviation between the calculated data and the experimental data is approximate 10%. Keywords: Rotary heat exchanger, Contact heat transfer, Granular material, Heating plate, Overloaded

  8. Measuring coating thicknesses on continuously moving material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holler, J.H.; Stanton, W.B.; Spongr, J.J.; Joffe, B.B.; Raffelsberger, P.W.; Tiebor, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus using radiation techniques for measuring coating thicknesses on continuously moving strip material without altering a predetermined path along which it travels. A shuttle carrying a measuring probe having a radioactive isotope source and a detection device is provided for reciprocation along a preselected segment of the path of the strip. The shuttle and the probe are releasably engaged with the strip and carried thereby for synchronous movement therewith in the forward direction during a measurement cycle, and are disengaged from the strip when no measurement is being made, the movement of the shuttle then being controlled by an independent drive mechanism, shown as a belt drive, which reciprocates the shuttle along the rails. A belt drives it forward more slowly than the strip, which then engages the shuttle to pull it at strip speed, allowed by a pulley clutch. (author)

  9. Test Methods for Measuring Material Properties of Composite Materials in all Three Material Axes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    eccentricities in the test setup. Therefore, the research team purchased a special test fixture for performing out-of-plane tension testing in which the...coated wheels as shown in Figure 6. The 15.2 cm long by 2.54 cm thick blocks were separated into five pieces, each with a length of 2.67 cm using the...composite plate. Figure 6. Blocks reduced to a thickness of 2.54 cm using surface grinder and custom electro plated diamond coated wheels Figure 7

  10. Charge Distribution Dependency on Gap Thickness of CMS Endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung K.; Lee, Kyongsei

    2016-01-01

    We report a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness. Prototypes of double-gap RPCs with six different gap thickness ranging from from 1.0 to 2.0 mm in 0.2-mm steps have been built with 2-mm-thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated plates. The efficiencies of the six gaps are measured as a function of the effective high voltages. We report that the strength of the electric fields of the gap is decreased as the gap thickness is increased. The distributions of charges in six gaps are measured. The space charge effect is seen in the charge distribution at the higher voltages. The logistic function is used to fit the charge distribution data. Smaller charges can be produced within smaller gas gap. But the digitization threshold should be also lowered to utilize these smaller charges.

  11. Highly conductive, multi-layer composite precursor composition to fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z [Centerville, OH; Zhamu, Aruna [Centerville, OH; Guo, Jiusheng [Centerville, OH

    2011-02-15

    This invention provides a moldable, multiple-layer composite composition, which is a precursor to an electrically conductive composite flow field plate or bipolar plate. In one preferred embodiment, the composition comprises a plurality of conductive sheets and a plurality of mixture layers of a curable resin and conductive fillers, wherein (A) each conductive sheet is attached to at least one resin-filler mixture layer; (B) at least one of the conductive sheets comprises flexible graphite; and (C) at least one resin-filler mixture layer comprises a thermosetting resin and conductive fillers with the fillers being present in a sufficient quantity to render the resulting flow field plate or bipolar plate electrically conductive with a conductivity no less than 100 S/cm and thickness-direction areal conductivity no less than 200 S/cm.sup.2.

  12. Application of low energy electron beam to precoated steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshiishi, Kenji

    1989-01-01

    Recently in the fields of home electric appliances, machinery and equipment and interior building materials, the needs for the precoated steel plates having the design and function of high class increase rapidly. In order to cope with such needs, the authors have advanced the examination on the application of electron beam hardening technology to precoated steel plates, and developed the precoated steel plates of high grade and high design 'Super Tecstar EB Series' by utilizing low energy electron beam. The features of this process are (1) hardening can be done at room temperature in a short time-thermally weak films can be adhered, (2) high energy irradiation-the hardening of thick enamel coating and the adhesion of colored films are feasible, (3) the use of monomers of low molecular weight-by high crosslinking, the performance of high sharpness, high hardness, anti-contamination property and so on can be given. The application to precoated steel plate production process is the coating and curing of electron beam hardening type paints, the coating of films with electron beam hardening type adhesives, and the reforming of surface polymer layers by impregnating monomers and causing graft polymerization with electron beam irradiation. The outline of the Super Tecstar EB Series is described. (K.I.)

  13. Modeling and Characterization of Capacitive Elements With Tissue as Dielectric Material for Wireless Powering of Neural Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfani, Reza; Marefat, Fatemeh; Sodagar, Amir M; Mohseni, Pedram

    2018-05-01

    This paper reports on the modeling and characterization of capacitive elements with tissue as the dielectric material, representing the core building block of a capacitive link for wireless power transfer to neural implants. Each capacitive element consists of two parallel plates that are aligned around the tissue layer and incorporate a grounded, guarded, capacitive pad to mitigate the adverse effect of stray capacitances and shield the plates from external interfering electric fields. The plates are also coated with a biocompatible, insulating, coating layer on the inner side of each plate in contact with the tissue. A comprehensive circuit model is presented that accounts for the effect of the coating layers and is validated by measurements of the equivalent capacitance as well as impedance magnitude/phase of the parallel plates over a wide frequency range of 1 kHz-10 MHz. Using insulating coating layers of Parylene-C at a thickness of and Parylene-N at a thickness of deposited on two sets of parallel plates with different sizes and shapes of the guarded pad, our modeling and characterization results accurately capture the effect of the thickness and electrical properties of the coating layers on the behavior of the capacitive elements over frequency and with different tissues.

  14. Performance of a parallel plate volume cell prototype for a fast iron/gas calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzeti, A.; Civinini, C.; D'alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.

    1993-01-01

    We present the first test of the application of the parallel plate chamber principles for the design of a very fast and radiation-hard iron/gas sampling calorimeter, suitable for very forward regions in detectors for LBC; based on the use of thick iron plates as electrodes. We have built a one cell prototype consisting of three parallel thick iron plates (117 mn each). Results on efficiencies and mean collected charge for minimum ionizing particles with different gases are presented. (Author)

  15. Performance of a parallel plate volume cell prototype for a fast iron/gas calorimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzeti, A.; Civinini, C.; D' Alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.; Malinin, A.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Pojidaev, V.

    1993-07-01

    We present the first test of the application of the parallel plate chamber principles for the design of a very fast and radiation-hard iron/gas sampling calorimeter, suitable for very forward regions in detectors for LHC, based on the use of thick iron plates as electrodes. We have built a one cell prototype consisting of three parallel thick iron plates (17 mm each). Results on efficiencies and mean collected charge for minimum ionizing particles with different gases are presented. (Author) 7 refs.

  16. Performance of a parallel plate volume cell prototype for a fast iron/gas calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizzeti, A.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Ferrando, A.; Malinin, A.; Martinez-Laso, L.; Pojidaev, V.

    1993-01-01

    We present the first test of the application of the parallel plate chamber principles for the design of a very fast and radiation-hard iron/gas sampling calorimeter, suitable for very forward regions in detectors for LHC, based on the use of thick iron plates as electrodes. We have built a one cell prototype consisting of three parallel thick iron plates (17 mm each). Results on efficiencies and mean collected charge for minimum ionizing particles with different gases are presented. (Author) 7 refs

  17. Ultrasonic tests on materials with protective coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, H.L.

    1977-01-01

    Protective coatings are applied to some nuclear components such as reactor vessels to inhibit surface corrosion. Since in-service ultrasonic inspection is required for such components, a study was performed to determine whether the use of protective coatings can affect ultrasonic tests. Two 2 in. thick steel plates were uniformly machined, sandblasted, and used as bases for two types of protective coatings. The type and thickness of the coating and the presence of contamination, such as fingerprints or mild oxidation under the paint, were the independent variables associated with the coating. Tests were run to determine the effects of the protective coatings on ultrasonic tests conducted on the steel plates. Significant variations in ultrasonic test sensitivity occurred as a function of the type and thickness of protective coating, couplant (material that conducts the ultrasound from the transducer into the test part, normally water or some type of oil), transducer wear plate, and ultrasonic test frequency. Ultrasonic tests can be strongly affected by a protective coating on the component to be inspected. As compared to the test sensitivity for an uncoated reference sample, the sensitivity may be dramatically shifted up or down on the coated surface. In certain coating thickness ranges, the sensitivity can fluctuate widely with small changes in coating thickness. If a coating is chosen properly, however, components with protective coatings can be tested ultrasonically with valid results. These results are for the case of ultrasonic input on the coated surface. It is not expected that an ultrasonic test conducted from the front surface would be appreciably affected by a coating on the rear surface

  18. Effect of adhesive thickness on adhesively bonded T-joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullah, A R; Afendi, Mohd; Majid, M S Abdul

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to analyze the effect of adhesive thickness on tensile strength of adhesively bonded stainless steel T-joint. Specimens were made from SUS 304 Stainless Steel plate and SUS 304 Stainless Steel perforated plate. Four T-joint specimens with different adhesive thicknesses (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm) were made. Experiment result shows T-joint specimen with adhesive thickness of 1.0 mm yield highest maximum load. Identical T-joint specimen jointed by spot welding was also tested. Tensile test shows welded T-Joint had eight times higher tensile load than adhesively bonded T-joint. However, in low pressure application such as urea granulator chamber, high tensile strength is not mandatory. This work is useful for designer in fertilizer industry and others who are searching for alternative to spot welding

  19. Ultrasonic diagnosis of spot welding in thin plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, No You; Hong, Min Sung

    2005-01-01

    Spot welding widely used in automotive and aerospace industries has made it possible to produce more precise and smaller electric part by robotization and systemization of welding process. The quality of welding depends upon the size of nugget between the overlapped steel plates. Recently, the thickness of the steel plates becomes much thinner and hence, it introduces the smaller size of nugget. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the criterion to evaluate the quality of weld in order to obtain the optimal welding conditions for the better performance. In this paper, a thin steel plates, 0.1 mm through 0.3 mm thickness, have been spot-welded at different welding conditions and the nugget sizes are examined by defocused scanning microscopy. The relationships between nugget sizes and weldability have been investigated experimentally. The result of ultrasonic technique shows the good agreement with that of the tensile test.

  20. Analysis of sweeping heat loads on divertor plate materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.

    1991-01-01

    The heat flux on the divertor plate of a fusion reactor is probably one of the most limiting constraints on its lifetime. The current heat flux profile on the outer divertor plate of a device like ITER is highly peaked with narrow profile. The peak heat flux can be as high as 30--40 MW/m 2 with full width at half maximum (FWHM) is in the order of a few centimeters. Sweeping the separatrix along the divertor plate is one of the options proposed to reduce the thermomechanical effects of this highly peaked narrow profile distribution. The effectiveness of the sweeping process is investigated parametrically for various design values. The optimum sweeping parameters of a particular heat load will depend on the design of the divertor plate as well as on the profile of such a heat load. In general, moving a highly peaked heat load results in substantial reduction of the thermomechanical effects on the divertor plate. 3 refs., 8 figs

  1. EMI Shielding Performance For Varies Frequency by Metal Plating on Mold Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Fee Tai

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Conformal metalization on mold compound offers new possibility for IC package design to improve features such as rigidization of the flexible core, heat sink capability, 3D-circuit patterning and the electromagnetic interference (EMI shielding. With the unique processes, the fabrication technology had enabled to achieve the high reliable performance and had passed the electrical test. Following research after the reliability concern, this paper further study the shielding effectiveness of varying coating thickness with respect to laboratory simulated EMI condition, using radio frequency from 10MHz to 5.8 GHz. Different metal namely pure nickel, nickel-phosphorous and pure plated copper are studied for their effectiveness of EMI sheilding. Our first result showed over 35-40dB of shielding effectiveness is achievable on high frequency 868-5800MHz. Nevertheless on low frequency of 10MHz, the shielding effectiveness achievement is below than 25dB. To overcome the shielding need for lower frequency, we further expanded our test by choosing ferromagentic material Nicke/Ironl-alloy in combination with thick copper plating. With this new metal combination, EMI shielding effectiveness for lower frequency is improved to 40dB.

  2. Optimum stacking sequence design of laminated composite circular plates with curvilinear fibres by a layer-wise optimization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenanou, A.; Houmat, A.

    2018-05-01

    The optimum stacking sequence design for the maximum fundamental frequency of symmetrically laminated composite circular plates with curvilinear fibres is investigated for the first time using a layer-wise optimization method. The design variables are two fibre orientation angles per layer. The fibre paths are constructed using the method of shifted paths. The first-order shear deformation plate theory and a curved square p-element are used to calculate the objective function. The blending function method is used to model accurately the geometry of the circular plate. The equations of motion are derived using Lagrange's method. The numerical results are validated by means of a convergence test and comparison with published values for symmetrically laminated composite circular plates with rectilinear fibres. The material parameters, boundary conditions, number of layers and thickness are shown to influence the optimum solutions to different extents. The results should serve as a benchmark for optimum stacking sequences of symmetrically laminated composite circular plates with curvilinear fibres.

  3. Plate-type metamaterials for extremely broadband low-frequency sound insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaopeng; Guo, Xinwei; Chen, Tianning; Yao, Ge

    2018-01-01

    A novel plate-type acoustic metamaterial with a high sound transmission loss (STL) in the low-frequency range ( ≤1000 Hz) is designed, theoretically proven and then experimentally verified. The thin plates with large modulus used in this paper mean that we do not need to apply tension to the plates, which is more applicable to practical engineering, the achievement of noise reduction is better and the installation of plates is more user-friendly than that of the membranes. The effects of different structural parameters of the plates on the sound-proofed performance at low-frequencies were also investigated by experiment and finite element method (FEM). The results showed that the STL can be modulated effectively and predictably using vibration theory by changing the structural parameters, such as the radius and thickness of the plate. Furthermore, using unit cells of different geometric sizes which are responsible for different frequency regions, the stacked panels with thickness ≤16 mm and weight ≤5 kg/m2 showed high STL below 2000 Hz. The acoustic metamaterial proposed in this study could provide a potential application in the low-frequency noise insulation.

  4. Aluminum cathode plates in zinc electrowinning cells: microstructural and failure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buarzaiga, M.; Dreisinger, D.; Tromans, D.; Gonzalez, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure of aluminum cathode plates used in zinc electrowinning was analyzed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Three principal phases dominated the microstructure: primary aluminum, uniformly distributed intermetallic particles, and round rosettes. The intermetallics exhibited blade shape morphology, light gray color, and were aligned in the rolling direction. The chemical composition of the intermetallic particles was consistent with FeAl 3 . Angular particles of elemental silicon were also detected. Failure characteristics of industrial cathode plates were analyzed using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, and x-ray diffraction analysis. Three distinct corrosion zones were identified on failed plates: Zone I below the electrolyte/air interface, Zone II 0-40 mm above the electrolyte/air interface, and Zone III 40-140 mm above the electrolyte/air interface. After 24 months in service, the corrosion damage in Zones I and III was equivalent to ca. 10% reduction in plate thickness. Zone II experienced the greatest corrosion damage; the reduction in plate thickness was ca. 80%. Some plates exhibited severe thinning and perforation, which occurred preferentially near the electrical contact edge. Plates often fail in service by fracture in Zone II. (author)

  5. Free vibration analysis of corroded steel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eslami-Majd, Alireza; Rahbar-Ranji, Ahmad [AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Vibration analysis of unstiffened/stiffened plates has long been studied due to its importance in the design and condition assessments of ship and offshore structures. Corrosion is inevitable in steel structures and has been so far considered in strength analysis of structures. We studied the free vibration of pitted corroded plates with simply supported boundary conditions. Finite element analysis, with ABAQUS, was used to determine the natural frequencies and mode shapes of corroded plates. Influential parameters including plate aspect ratio, degree of pit, one-sided/both-sided corroded plate, and different corrosion patterns were investigated. By increasing the degree of corrosion, reduction of natural frequency increases. Plate aspect ratio and plate dimensions have no influence on reduction of natural frequency. Different corrosion patterns on the surface of one-sided corroded plates have little influence on reduction of natural frequency. Ratio of pit depth over plate thickness has no influence on the reduction of natural frequency. The reduction of natural frequency in both-sided corroded plates is higher than one-sided corroded plates with the same amount of total corrosion loss. Mode shapes of vibration would change due to corrosion, except square mode shapes.

  6. Status of high-density fuel plate fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiencek, T.C.; Domagala, R.F.; Thresh, H.R.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has continued on the fabrication of fuel plates with equivalent fuel zone loadings approaching 9 gU/cm 3 . Through hot isostatic pressing (HIP), successful diffusion bonds have been made with 1100 Al and 6061 Al alloys. Although additional study is necessary to optimize the procedure, these bonds demonstrated the most critical processing step for proof-of-concept hardware. Two types of prototype highly loaded fuel plates have been fabricated. The first is a fuel plate in which 0.030-in. (0.76-mm) uranium compound wires are bonded within an aluminum cladding; the second, a dispersion fuel plate with uniform cladding and fuel zone thickness. The successful fabrication of these fuel plates derives from the unique ability of the HIP process to produce diffusion bonds with minimal deformation. (orig.)

  7. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Patrice F; Coltice, Nicolas; Flament, Nicolas

    2014-09-18

    Stresses acting on cold, thick and negatively buoyant oceanic lithosphere are thought to be crucial to the initiation of subduction and the operation of plate tectonics, which characterizes the present-day geodynamics of the Earth. Because the Earth's interior was hotter in the Archaean eon, the oceanic crust may have been thicker, thereby making the oceanic lithosphere more buoyant than at present, and whether subduction and plate tectonics occurred during this time is ambiguous, both in the geological record and in geodynamic models. Here we show that because the oceanic crust was thick and buoyant, early continents may have produced intra-lithospheric gravitational stresses large enough to drive their gravitational spreading, to initiate subduction at their margins and to trigger episodes of subduction. Our model predicts the co-occurrence of deep to progressively shallower mafic volcanics and arc magmatism within continents in a self-consistent geodynamic framework, explaining the enigmatic multimodal volcanism and tectonic record of Archaean cratons. Moreover, our model predicts a petrological stratification and tectonic structure of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle, two predictions that are consistent with xenolith and seismic studies, respectively, and consistent with the existence of a mid-lithospheric seismic discontinuity. The slow gravitational collapse of early continents could have kick-started transient episodes of plate tectonics until, as the Earth's interior cooled and oceanic lithosphere became heavier, plate tectonics became self-sustaining.

  8. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) flow field plate: design, materials and characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, P.J.; Pollet, B.G. [PEM Fuel Cell Research Group, School of Chemical Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2010-08-15

    This review describes some recent developments in the area of flow field plates (FFPs) for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The function, parameters and design of FFPs in PEM fuel cells are outlined and considered in light of their performance. FFP materials and manufacturing methods are discussed and current in situ and ex situ characterisation techniques are described. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Bipolar plate materials in molten carbonate fuel cells. Final CRADA report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumpelt, M.

    2004-06-01

    Advantages of implementation of power plants based on electrochemical reactions are successfully demonstrated in the USA and Japan. One of the msot promising types of fuel cells (FC) is a type of high temperature fuel cells. At present, thanks to the efforts of the leading countries that develop fuel cell technologies power plants on the basis of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) are really close to commercialization. One of the problems that are to be solved for practical implementation of MCFC and SOFC is a problem of corrosion of metal components of stacks that are assembled of a number of fuel cells. One of the major components of MCFC and SOFC stacks is a bipolar separator plate (BSP) that performs several functions - it is separation of reactant gas flows sealing of the joints between fuel cells, and current collection from the surface of electrodes. The goal of Task 1 of the project is to develop new cost-effective nickel coatings for the Russian 20X23H18 steel for an MCFC bipolar separator plate using technological processes usually implemented to apply corrosion stable coatings onto the metal parts for products in the defense. There was planned the research on production of nickel coatings using different methods, first of all the galvanic one and the explosion cladding one. As a result of the works, 0.4 x 712 x 1296 mm plates coated with nickel on one side were to be made and passed to ANL. A line of 4 galvanic baths 600 liters was to be built for the galvanic coating applications. The goal of Task 2 of the project is the development of a new material of an MCFC bipolar separator plate with an upgraded corrosion stability, and development of a technology to produce cold roll sheets of this material the sizes of which will be 0.8 x 712x 1296 mm. As a result of these works, a pilot batch of the rolled material in sheets 0.8 x 712 x 1296 mm in size is to be made (in accordance with the norms and standards of the Russian

  10. TH-C-19A-09: Quantification of Transmission and Backscatter Factors as a function of Distance to Inhomogeneity Interface for Three Types of Surgical Implant Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D; Mills, M; Wang, B [University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Carbon fiber materials have been increasingly used clinically, mainly in orthopedics, as an alternative to metallic implants because of their minimal artifacts on CT and MRI images. This study characterizes the transmission and backscatter property of carbon fiber plates (CarboFix Orthopedics, Herzeliya, Israel) with measurements for radiation therapy applications, and compares them to traditional Stainless Steel (SS) and Titanium (Ti) metal materials. Methods: For the transmission measurements, 1-mm-thick test plate was placed upstream from a plane parallel Markus chamber, separated by various thicknesses of polystyrene plates in 0.5 cm increments between 0 and 5 cm. With this setup, we quantified the radiation transmission as a function of distance to the inhomogeneity interface. The LINAC source to detector distance was maintained at 100 cm and 200 MU was delivered for each measurement. Two 3-cm solid water phantoms were placed at the top and bottom to provide build up. All the measurements were performed for 6 MV and 18 MV photons. The backscatter measurements had the identical setup, except that the test plate was downstream of the chamber from radiation. Results: The carbon fiber plates did not introduce any measureable inhomogeneity effect on the transmission and backscatter factor because of its low atomic number. In contrast, traditional metal implant materials caused up to 15% dose difference at upstream and 25% backscatter at downstream from radiation. Such differences decrease as the distance to the inhomogeneity interface increases and become unmeasurable at distance of 3 cm and 1 cm for upstream and downstream, respectively. Conclusion: A new type of carbon fiber implant plate was evaluated and found to have minimal inhomogeneity effect in MV radiation beams. Patients would benefit from a carbon based implant over metal for radiation therapy due to their minimal backscatter and imaging artifacts.

  11. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  12. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Byung Joon; Ji Tae Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  13. Ultrasonic Testing of NIF Amplifier FAU Top Plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinn, D.J.; Huber, R.D.; Haskins, J.J.; Rodriguez, J.A.; Souza, P.R.; Le, T.V.

    2002-01-01

    A key component in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser optic system is the amplifier frame assembly unit (FAU). The cast aluminum top plate that supports the FAU is required to withstand loads that would occur during an earthquake with a recurrence period of 1000 years. The stringent seismic requirements placed on the FAU top plate induced a study of the cast aluminum material used in the top plate. Ultrasonic testing was used to aid in characterizing the aluminum material used in the plates. This report documents the work performed using contact ultrasonic testing to characterize the FAU top plate material. The ultrasonic work reported here had 3 objectives: (1) inspect the plate material before cyclic testing conducted at the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER); (2) determine the overall quality of individual plates; and (3) detect large defects in critical areas of individual plates. Section III, ''Pre-cyclic test inspection'', describes work performed in support of Objective 1. Section IV, ''Ultrasonic field measurements'', describes work performed in support of Objectives 2 and 3

  14. Stress analyses of flat plates with attached nozzles. Vol. 2: Experimental stress analyses of a flat plate with one nozzle attached

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiste, R.L.; Peters, W.H.; Ranson, W.F.; Swinson, W.F.

    1975-07-01

    Vol. 1 of this report compares experimental results with theoretical stress distributions for a flat plate with one nozzle configuration and for a flat plate with two closely spaced nozzles attached. This volume contains the complete test results for a flat plate with one nozzle attached that was subjected to 1:1 and 1:2 biaxial planar loadings on the plate, to a thrust loading on the nozzle, and to a moment loading on the nozzle. The plate tested was 36 x 36 x 0.375 in., and the attached nozzle had an outer dia of 2.625 in. and a 0.250-in.-thick wall. The nozzle was located in the center of the plate and was considered to be free of weld distortions and irregularities in the junction area. (U.S.)

  15. Imaging of soft and hard materials using a Boersch phase plate in a transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alloyeau, D., E-mail: alloyeau.damien@gmail.com [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS/72, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hsieh, W.K. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS/72, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Anderson, E.H.; Hilken, L. [Center for X-ray Optics, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 (United States); Benner, G. [Carl Zeiss NTS GmbH, Oberkochen 73447 (Germany); Meng, X. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, UC Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1770 (United States); Chen, F.R. [Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Kisielowski, C. [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, MS/72, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Using two levels of electron beam lithography, vapor phase deposition techniques, and FIB etching, we have fabricated an electrostatic Boersch phase plate for contrast enhancement of weak phase objects in a transmission electron microscope. The phase plate has suitable dimensions for the imaging of small biological samples without compromising the high-resolution capabilities of the microscope. A micro-structured electrode allows for phase tuning of the unscattered electron beam, which enables the recording of contrast enhanced in-focus images and in-line holograms. We have demonstrated experimentally that our phase plate improves the contrast of carbon nanotubes while maintaining high-resolution imaging performance, which is demonstrated for the case of an AlGaAs heterostructure. The development opens a new way to study interfaces between soft and hard materials.

  16. KNEE CARTILAGE AND SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE STRUCTURAL CHANGES DURING TIBIA DISTRACTION WITH PLATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Stupina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the study — to analyze the changes in knee articular cartilage and synovial membrane during distraction external fixation of the tibia in combination with plating.Material and methods. Articular cartilage and synovial membrane of the knee joint were studied using histomorphometry methods in 9 mongrel dogs during distraction external fixation of the tibia combined with plating. Tibia and fibula osteotomies were performed at the border of middle and upper third, plate was fixed on tibia diaphysis. Lengthening was achieved at rate of 1 mm per day in four stages during 21–28 days. Animals were withdrawn from experiment in 30 and 90 days. After autopsy of knee joints the authors excised sections of synovial membrane from suprapatellar area, articular cartilage with underlying subchondral bone from loadable surface of femoral condyles. Thickness of articular cartilage, its area and volumetric density of chondrocytes was measured, proportion of chondrocytes within isogenic groups from the overall number of chondrocytes as well as proportion of empty lacunae. In synovial membrane the authors measured thickness of surface layer and numeric density of micro vessels. Articular cartilage of 5 intact animals was used as a control group.Results. After 30 days of plate fixation a hyperplasia of the integument layer, mild synovitis, and hypervascularization were observed in synovial membrane. Density of micro vessels increased to 363.93±33.71 (control group — 335.05±28.88. The authors also observed subperineural and endoneural edema as well as destruction of nerve fibers in subsynovial layer. Articular cartilage retained the zonal structure. Destructive changes were manifested by fibers separation in the superficial part of surface zone and by partial loss of chondrocytes. The following parameters were reduced: cartilage thickness, area and volumetric density of chondrocytes, proportion of isogenic groups; empty lacunae exceeded the values in

  17. Underwater Shock Response of Circular HSLA Steel Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajendran

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on shock response of circular plates subjected to underwater explosion is of interest to ship designers. Non-contact underwater explosion experiments were carried out on air backed circular High Strength Low Alloy (HSLA steel plates of 4 mm thickness and 290 mm diameter. The experiments were carried out in two phases. In the first phase, strain gauges were fixed at intervals of 30 mm from the centre of the plate and strains were recorded for the shock intensity gradually increasing to yielding. Semi-analytical models were derived for the elastic strain prediction which showed good agreement with the experiments. Dynamic yield stress and the shock factor for yielding were established. In the second phase, individual plates were subjected to increasing shock severity until fracture and the apex bulge depth and the thickness strains were measured. Empirical models were derived to predict the plastic deformation which were validated through a fresh set of experiments. Analysis of the fractured surface by visual examination showed that there was slant fracture indicating ductile mode of failure and the same was corroborated by Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM examination.

  18. TOSGAGETM-8000A series X-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    X-ray thickness gauges are widely used for online measurement of the thickness of plates in a steel roiling line. As the thickness of the steel has a direct effect on the yield rate of the rolling line, thickness gauge measurement data are necessary for accuracy and reliability. In recent years, there have also been increasing requirements for rapid delivery, flexible interface specifications, and low cost. To meet these market requirements. Toshiba has developed the TOSGAGE TM -8000A series X-ray thickness gauge, which is the first release of a new series of measuring instruments for rolling applications with a new interface and employing an industrial computer for data processing. (author)

  19. Analysis of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modak, Partha; Hossain, M. Jamil, E-mail: jamil917@gmail.com; Ahmed, S. Reaz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    An accurate stress analysis has been carried out to investigate the suitability of a hybrid balanced laminate as a structural material for thick composite beams with axial stiffeners. Three different balanced laminates composed of dissimilar ply material as well as fiber orientations are considered for a thick beam on simple supports with stiffened lateral ends. A displacement potential based elasticity approach is used to obtain the numerical solution of the corresponding elastic fields. The overall laminate stresses as well as individual ply stresses are analysed mainly in the perspective of laminate hybridization. Both the fiber material and ply angle of individual laminas are found to play dominant roles in defining the design stresses of the present composite beam.

  20. Thickness measurement of multilayered samples by Kα/Kβ or Lα/Lβ X-ray ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio, E-mail: roberto.cesareo@gmail.com, E-mail: brunetti@uniss.it [Universita di Sassari (UNISS), Sassari, (Italy); Assis, Joaquim T. de, E-mail: rcbarros@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Objects composed of two or more layers are relatively common among industrial and electronic materials, works of art and common tools. For example plated objects (with zinc, nickel, silver, gold) are composed of two or three layers, a painting is generally composed of several layers, a decorated vase is composed of two or three layers, just as a stone, marble or bronze covered with a protective layer. In this paper a general method and some results are described to reconstruct structure and to determine thicknesses of multilayered material, when energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence is employed to analyze the material: the X-ray ratios of Kα/Kβ and Lα/Lβ for elements present in the multilayered samples are employed. (author)

  1. Thickness measurement of multilayered samples by Kα/Kβ or Lα/Lβ X-ray ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, Roberto; Brunetti, Antonio; Assis, Joaquim T. de

    2013-01-01

    Objects composed of two or more layers are relatively common among industrial and electronic materials, works of art and common tools. For example plated objects (with zinc, nickel, silver, gold) are composed of two or three layers, a painting is generally composed of several layers, a decorated vase is composed of two or three layers, just as a stone, marble or bronze covered with a protective layer. In this paper a general method and some results are described to reconstruct structure and to determine thicknesses of multilayered material, when energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence is employed to analyze the material: the X-ray ratios of Kα/Kβ and Lα/Lβ for elements present in the multilayered samples are employed. (author)

  2. Thermal Stress Cracking of Slide-Gate Plates in Steel Continuous Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyoung-Jun; Thomas, Brian G.; Kim, Seon-Hyo

    2016-04-01

    The slide-gate plates in a cassette assembly control the steel flow through the tundish nozzle, and may experience through-thickness cracks, caused by thermal expansion and/or mechanical constraint, leading to air aspiration and safety concerns. Different mechanisms for common and rare crack formation are investigated with the aid of a three-dimensional finite-element model of thermal mechanical behavior of the slide-gate plate assembly during bolt pretensioning, preheating, tundish filling, casting, and cooling stages. The model was validated with previous plant temperature measurements of a ladle plate during preheating and casting, and then applied to a typical tundish-nozzle slide-gate assembly. The formation mechanisms of different types of cracks in the slide-gate plates are investigated using the model and evaluated with actual slide-gate plates at POSCO. Common through-thickness radial cracks, found in every plate, are caused during casting by high tensile stress on the outside surfaces of the plates, due to internal thermal expansion. In the upper plate, these cracks may also arise during preheating or tundish filling. Excessive bolt tightening, combined with thermal expansion during casting may cause rare radial cracks in the upper and lower plates. Rare radial and transverse cracks in middle plate appear to be caused during tundish filling by impingement of molten steel on the middle of the middle plate that generates tensile stress in the surrounding refractory. The mechanical properties of the refractory, the bolt tightening conditions, and the cassette/plate design are all important to service life.

  3. Preliminary results for HIP bonding Ta to W targets for the materials test station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dombrowski, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Maloy, Stuart A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten targets for the Materials Test Station (MTS) were clad with thin tantalum cover plates and a tantalum frame using hot isostatic pressing (HIP). A preliminary HIP parameter study showed good bonding and intimate mechanical contact for Ta cover plate thicknesses of 0.25 mm (0.010 inch) and 0.38 mm (0.015 inch). HIP temperatures of full HIP runs were 1500 C (2732 F). HIP pressure was 203 MPa (30 ksi).

  4. Splitting in Dual-Phase 590 high strength steel plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Chao, Yuh J.; Li Xiaodong; Tan Jinzhu

    2008-01-01

    Charpy V-notch impact tests on 5.5 mm thick, hot-rolled Dual-Phase 590 (DP590) steel plate were evaluated at temperatures ranging from 90 deg. C to -120 deg. C. Similar tests on 2.0 mm thick DP590 HDGI steel plate were also conducted at room temperature. Splitting or secondary cracks was observed on the fractured surfaces. The mechanisms of the splitting were then investigated. Fracture surfaces were analyzed by optical microscope (OM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Composition of the steel plates was determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Micro Vickers hardness of the steel plates was also surveyed. Results show that splitting occurred on the main fractured surfaces of hot-rolled steel specimens at various testing temperatures. At temperatures above the ductile-brittle-transition-temperature (DBTT), -95 deg. C, where the fracture is predominantly ductile, the length and amount of splitting decreased with increasing temperature. At temperatures lower than the DBTT, where the fracture is predominantly brittle, both the length and width of the splitting are insignificant. Splitting in HDGI steel plates only appeared in specimens of T-L direction. The analysis revealed that splitting in hot-rolled plate is caused by silicate and carbide inclusions while splitting in HDGI plate results from strip microstructure due to its high content of manganese and low content of silicon. The micro Vickers hardness of either the inclusions or the strip microstructures is higher than that of the respective base steel

  5. Microchannel plate special nuclear materials sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feller, W.B.; White, P.L.; White, P.B.; Siegmund, O.H.W.; Martin, A.P.; Vallerga, J.V.

    2011-01-01

    Nova Scientific Inc., is developing for the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office (DNDO SBIR no. HSHQDC-08-C-00190), a solid-state, high-efficiency neutron detection alternative to 3 He gas tubes, using neutron-sensitive microchannel plates (MCPs) containing 10 B and/or Gd. This work directly supports DNDO development of technologies designed to detect and interdict nuclear weapons or illicit nuclear materials. Neutron-sensitized MCPs have been shown theoretically and more recently experimentally, to be capable of thermal neutron detection efficiencies equivalent to 3 He gas tubes. Although typical solid-state neutron detectors typically have an intrinsic gamma sensitivity orders of magnitude higher than that of 3 He gas detectors, we dramatically reduce gamma sensitivity by combining a novel electronic coincidence rejection scheme, employing a separate but enveloping gamma scintillator. This has already resulted in a measured gamma rejection ratio equal to a small 3 He tube, without in principle sacrificing neutron detection efficiency. Ongoing improvements to the MCP performance as well as the coincidence counting geometry will be described. Repeated testing and validation with a 252 Cf source has been underway throughout the Phase II SBIR program, with ongoing comparisons to a small commercial 3 He gas tube. Finally, further component improvements and efforts toward integration maturity are underway, with the goal of establishing functional prototypes for SNM field testing.

  6. Charge distribution dependency on gap thickness of CMS endcap RPC

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Sung Keun

    2016-01-01

    We present a systematic study of charge distribution dependency of CMS Resistive Plate Chamber (RPC) on gap thickness.Prototypes of double-gap with five different gap thickness from 1.8mm to 1.0mm in 0.2mm steps have been built with 2mm thick phenolic high-pressure-laminated (HPL) plates. The charges of cosmic-muon signals induced on the detector strips are measured as a function of time using two four-channel 400-MHz fresh ADCs. In addition, the arrival time of the muons and the strip cluster sizes are measured by digitizing the signal using a 32-channel voltage-mode front-end-electronics and a 400-MHz 64-channel multi-hit TDC. The gain and the input impedance of the front-end-electronics were 200mV/mV and 20 Ohm, respectively.

  7. Characterization of impact behaviour of armour plate materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassim, M. N.; Bolduc, M.; Nazimuddin, G.; Delorme, J.; Polyzois, I.

    2012-08-01

    Three armour plate materials, including two steels, namely HHA and Mars 300, and an aluminium alloy 5083, were studied under impact loading to determine their behaviour and the mechanisms of deformation that lead to failure. The experimental testing was carried out using either a direct impact compression Split Hopkinson Bar or a torsion Hopkinson Bar. The impact properties and stress-strain cures were obtained as a function of the impact momentum in compression and the angle of twist in torsion. It was found that at the high strain rates developed in the specimen during the tests, the deformation occurs by the formation of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs) which may lead to the formation of cracks within the bands and the ultimate failure of the specimens. It was also found that below a certain impact momentum, the deformation is more uniform and no ASBs are formed. Also, ASBs are more likely to form in the BCC metals such as the two steels while diffuse ASBs associated with plastic flow are exhibited in the 5083 aluminum alloy. Microstructural techniques ranging from optical microscopy to atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to study the topography of the ASBs. Also, modelling of the formation was performed. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of ASBs in the failure of these materials.

  8. Characterization of impact behaviour of armour plate materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazimuddin G.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Three armour plate materials, including two steels, namely HHA and Mars 300, and an aluminium alloy 5083, were studied under impact loading to determine their behaviour and the mechanisms of deformation that lead to failure. The experimental testing was carried out using either a direct impact compression Split Hopkinson Bar or a torsion Hopkinson Bar. The impact properties and stress-strain cures were obtained as a function of the impact momentum in compression and the angle of twist in torsion. It was found that at the high strain rates developed in the specimen during the tests, the deformation occurs by the formation of adiabatic shear bands (ASBs which may lead to the formation of cracks within the bands and the ultimate failure of the specimens. It was also found that below a certain impact momentum, the deformation is more uniform and no ASBs are formed. Also, ASBs are more likely to form in the BCC metals such as the two steels while diffuse ASBs associated with plastic flow are exhibited in the 5083 aluminum alloy. Microstructural techniques ranging from optical microscopy to atomic force microscopy (AFM were used to study the topography of the ASBs. Also, modelling of the formation was performed. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of ASBs in the failure of these materials.

  9. The effect of plate thickness, surface tension and fluid flow on detachment of drops from a plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.S.; Geld, van der C.W.M.; Celata, G.P.

    2004-01-01

    The pinch-off of drops from the downstream end of plates is an important re-entrainment mechanism of condensate in compact condensers. The present experimental study complements a previous one [1], in which ethanol and water drops were created for various mass densities and gas velocities at the

  10. Thick film laser induced forward transfer for deposition of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattamis, Nicholas T.; Purnick, Priscilla E.; Weiss, Ron; Arnold, Craig B.

    2007-01-01

    Laser forward transfer processes incorporating thin absorbing films can be used to deposit robust organic and inorganic materials but the deposition of more delicate materials has remained elusive due to contamination and stress induced during the transfer process. Here, we present the approach to high resolution patterning of sensitive materials by incorporating a thick film polymer absorbing layer that is able to dissipate shock energy through mechanical deformation. Multiple mechanisms for transfer as a function of incident laser energy are observed and we show viable and contamination-free deposition of living mammalian embryonic stem cells

  11. Presence and absence of a water film between moving air bubbles and a plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remenyik, C.J.

    1990-01-01

    The thickness of water films between an inclined Lucite plate submerged in water and air bubbles moving beneath it was measured with a small impedance probe. The instrument was calibrated with a laser interferometer built for this purpose. The bubbles released beneath the plate varied in size from 10 cc to 100 cc. At a plate inclination angle of 0.98 degree, and in tap water, an uninterrupted water film covered most of the bubbles. Some bubbles, however, dewetted the plate, and the water film covered only a forward part of the bubble. When the film was uninterrupted, its thickness was very uniform from front to rear. When the bubble dewetted the plate, a large forward section of the film had the same uniform thickness, but this was followed by a hump on the film the rear slope of which ended at the plate surface. For some of the experiments, the surface tension of the water was reduced by admixing a detergent. In these experiments, dewetting was not observed. In a second set of experiments, a hand held transparent container filled with water and a 1.3 cm3 air bubble was used to observe visually the behavior of the moving bubble and its associated water film

  12. Development plates for stable internal fixation: Study of mechanical resistance in simulated fractures of the mandibular condyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celegatti Filho, Tóride Sebastião; Rodrigues, Danillo Costa; Lauria, Andrezza; Moreira, Roger William Fernandes; Consani, Simonides

    2015-01-01

    To develop Y-shaped plates with different thicknesses to be used in simulated fractures of the mandibular condyle. Ten plates were developed in Y shape, containing eight holes, and 30 synthetic polyurethane mandible replicas were developed for the study. The load test was performed on an Instron Model 4411 universal testing machine, applying load in the mediolateral and anterior-posterior positions on the head of the condyle. Two-way ANOVA with Tukey testing with a 5% significance level was used. It was observed that when the load was applied in the medial-lateral plate of greater thickness (1.5 mm), it gave the highest strength, while in the anteroposterior direction, the plate with the highest resistance was of the lesser thickness (0.6 mm). A plate with a thickness of 1.5 mm was the one with the highest average value for all displacements. In the anteroposterior direction, the highest values of resistance were seen in the displacement of 15 mm. After comparing the values of the biomechanical testing found in the scientific literature, it is suggested that the use of Y plates are suitable for use in subcondylar fractures within the limitations of the study. Copyright © 2014 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Viscoelastic material properties’ identification using high speed full field measurements on vibrating plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierron F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental application of a method leading to the identification of the elastic and damping material properties of isotropic vibrating plates. The theory assumes that the searched parameters can be extracted from curvature and deflection fields measured on the whole surface of the plate at two particular instants of the vibrating motion. The experimental application consists in an original excitation fixture, a particular adaptation of an optical full-field measurement technique, a data preprocessing giving the curvature and deflection fields and finally in the identification process using the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. The principle of the deflectometry technique used for the measurements is presented. First results of identification on an acrylic plate are presented and compared to reference values. Details about a new experimental arrangement, currently in progress, is presented. It uses a high speed digital camera to over sample the full-field measurements.

  14. Technical report: technical development on the silicide plate-type fuel experiment at nuclear safety research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, Kazuaki; Soyama, Kazuhiko; Ichikawa, Hiroki

    1991-08-01

    According to a reduction of fuel enrichment from 45 w/o 235 U to 20 w/o, an aluminide plate-type fuel used currently in the domestic research and material testing reactors will be replaced by a silicide plate-type one. One of the major concern arisen from this alternation is to understand the fuel behavior under simulated reactivity initiated accident (RIA) conditions, this is strongly necessary from the safety and licensing point of view. The in-core RIA experiments are, therefore, carried out at Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR) in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI). The silicide plate-type fuel consisted of the ternary alloy of U-Al-Si as a meat with uranium density up to 4.8 g/cm 3 having thickness by 0.51 mm and the binary alloy of Al-3%Mg as a cladding by thickness of 0.38 mm. Comparison of the physical properties of this metallic plate fuel with the UO 2 -zircaloy fuel rod used conventionally in commercial light water reactors shows that the heat conductivity of the former is of the order of about 13 times greater than the latter, however the melting temperature is only one-half (1570degC). Prior to in-core RIA experiments, there were some difficulties lay in our technical path. This report summarized the technical achievements obtained through our four years work. (J.P.N.)

  15. Research on Continuous Injection Direct Rolling Process for PMMA Optical Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HaiXiong Wang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Continuous injection direct rolling (CIDR combined intermittent injection and rolling process is a new technology for molding optical polymer plates with microstructured patterns; research on forming PMMA optical plates is an aspect of it in this paper. The equipment of CIDR process consists of plastic injection module, precision rolling module, and automatic coiling module. Based on the establishing mathematical CIDR models, numerical analysis was used to explode the distribution of velocity, temperature, and pressure in injection-rolling zone. The simulation results show that it is feasible to control the temperature, velocity, and injection-rolling force, so it can form polymer plate under certain process condition. CIDR experiment equipment has been designed and produced. PMMA optical plate was obtained by CIDR experiments, longitudinal thickness difference is 0.005 mm/200 mm, horizontal thickness difference is 0.02/200 mm, transmittance is 86.3%, Haze is 0.61%, and the difference is little compared with optical glasses. So it can be confirmed that CIDR process is practical to produce PMMA optical plates.

  16. Analysis and experimental validation of through-thickness cracked large-scale biaxial fracture tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesner, C.S.; Goldthorpe, M.R.; Andrews, R.M.; Garwood, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1984 TWI has been involved in an extensive series of tests investigating the effects of biaxial loading on the fracture behaviour of A533B steel. Testing conditions have ranged from the lower to upper shelf regions of the transition curve and covered a range of biaxiality ratios. In an attempt to elucidate the trends underlying the experimental results, finite element-based mechanistic models were used to analyse the effects of biaxial loading. For ductile fracture, a modified Gunson model was used and important effects on tearing behaviour were found for through thickness cracked wide plates, as observed in upper shelf tests. For cleavage fracture, both simple T-stress methods and the Anderson-Dodds and Beremin models were used. Whilst the effect of biaxiality on surface cracked plates was small, a marked effect of biaxial loading was found for the through-thickness crack. To further validate the numerical predictions for cleavage fracture, TWI have performed an additional series of lower shelf through thickness cracked biaxial wide plate fracture tests. These tests were performed using various biaxiality loading conditions varying from simple uniaxial loading, through equibiaxial loading, to a biaxiality ratio equivalent to a circumferential crack in a pressure vessel. These tests confirmed the predictions that there is a significant effect of biaxial loading on cleavage fracture of through thickness cracked plate. (orig.)

  17. High Power Laser Beam Welding of Thick-walled Ferromagnetic Steels with Electromagnetic Weld Pool Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, André; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Hilgenberg, Kai; Rethmeier, Michael

    The development of modern high power laser systems allows single pass welding of thick-walled components with minimal distortion. Besides the high demands on the joint preparation, the hydrostatic pressure in the melt pool increases with higher plate thicknesses. Reaching or exceeding the Laplace pressure, drop-out or melt sagging are caused. A contactless electromagnetic weld support system was used for laser beam welding of thick ferromagnetic steel plates compensating these effects. An oscillating magnetic field induces eddy currents in the weld pool which generate Lorentz forces counteracting the gravity forces. Hysteresis effects of ferromagnetic steels are considered as well as the loss of magnetization in zones exceeding the Curie temperature. These phenomena reduce the effective Lorentz forces within the weld pool. The successful compensation of the hydrostatic pressure was demonstrated on up to 20 mm thick plates of duplex and mild steel by a variation of the electromagnetic power level and the oscillation frequency.

  18. The Experiment Production And Examination Of The U3Si2-AI Mini plates For Irradiation Test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supardjo; Boybul; Yowono; Susworo; Permana, S.

    1998-01-01

    The fuel plates containing U 3 Si 2 -AI dispersion fuel having respective loading of 3.55; 4.20; and 4.80 g/cm 3 were prepared by dispersing certain amount of U 3 Si 2 powder in the AI powder as matrix. The weight ratio of U 3 Si 2 and AI at different loading was chosen based on the 19.23 cm 3 volume basis fuel core calculation. Each fuel mixture was pressed into a fuel core having dimension of 100.20 x 60.35 x 3.15 +- (0.05) mm, which was then cut into mini fuel core having dimension of 16 x 8 x 3.15 +- (0.05) mm. The mini plates were prepared by picture and frame technique using AIMg2 as cladding material. The mini plates have been tested for blister, homogeneity, white spots, surface defects and their cladding thickness, revealing that out of 74 mini plates, they are ten (10) mini plates that have to be rejected due to blisters and white spots, thus of 64 mini plates can be further fabricated as samples for irradiation test

  19. Cold-rolled steel strip X-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Jianmin; Cong Peng; Li Litao

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a cold-rolled steel strip X-ray thickness gauge. This gauge uses two-detector construction including penetrating ionization chamber and measuring ionization chamber. Standard magazine box is composed of three rotating plates driving by stepper motor, including 13 pieces of standard sample to build up 154 thickness value, obtaining standard sample curve covering thickness range of 0.1 mm to 5 mm. Automation system include Siemens S7-200 PLC as key controlling unit, embedded controlling system for data acquisition and computing, and PC as man-machine interface, and employ Ethernet (TCP/IP) or RS485/232 as communication protocol. Reversing Cold mill AGC closed-loop control operation test demonstrates that the gauge can adapt to the severe production environment, operate stably and reliably, measurement precision can reached to ±0.19%, reproducibility to ±0.09%, and stability to ±0.06%, response time range from 4 ms to 200 ms and be adjustable. So it can meet the high demanding of cold-rolled plate/strip production. (authors)

  20. Real weld geometry determining mechanical properties of high power laser welded medium plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sang; Mi, Gaoyang; Yan, Fei; Wang, Chunming; Li, Peigen

    2018-06-01

    Weld width is commonly used as one of main factors to assess joint performances in laser welding. However, it changes significantly through the thickness direction in conditions of medium or thick plates. In this study, high-power autogenous laser welding was conducted on 7 mm thickness 201 stainless steel to elucidate the factor of whole weld transverse shape critically affecting the mechanical properties with the aim of predicting the performance visually through the weld appearance. The results show that single variation of welding parameters could result in great changes of weld pool figures and subsequently weld transverse shapes. All the obtained welds are composed of austenite containing small amount of cellular dendritic δ-Ferrite. The 0.2% proof stresses of Nail- and Peanut-shaped joint reach 458 MPa and 454 MPa, 88.2% and 87.5% of the base material respectively, while that of Wedge-shaped joint only comes to 371 MPa, 71.5% of the base material. The deterioration effect is believed to be caused by the axial grain zone in the weld center. The fatigue strength of joint P is a bit lower than N, but much better than W. Significant deformation incompatibility through the whole thickness and microstructure resistance to crack initiation should be responsible for the poor performance of W-shaped joints.

  1. The effect of plate thickness, surface tension and fluid flow on detachment of drops from a plate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.S.; Geld, C.W.M. van der

    2005-01-01

    The pinch-off of drops from the downstream end of plates is an important re-entrainment mechanism of condensate in compact condensers. The present experimental study complements a previous one [A.S. Lexmond, C.W.M. van der Geld, The effect of fluid flow on detachment of drops from the downstream end

  2. Optimal design of sandwich ribbed flat baffle plates of a circular cylindrical tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinowski, Marek; Magnucki, Krzysztof

    2005-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a sandwich ribbed flat baffle plate of a circular cylindrical tank. The paper deals with a problem of optimal thickness of this construction with a soft core. The construction is distinguished by a local axisymmetric pre-springing. The mathematical description is based on the theory of shells with analysis of disturbance of the stress membrane state. The sandwich ribbed flat baffle plate divides the tank into two chambers. One of them is loaded by uniform pressure, while the other is empty and unloaded. Dimensions of ribs, faces and the entire baffle plate have been determined with a view to minimize the mass under strength constraints. The effect of optimal thickness of this sandwich plate has been examined by means of the finite element method

  3. Thermal flexural analysis of cross-ply laminated plates using trigonometric shear deformation theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwaraj Marotrao Ghugal

    Full Text Available Thermal stresses and displacements for orthotropic, two-layer antisymmetric, and three-layer symmetric square cross-ply laminated plates subjected to nonlinear thermal load through the thickness of laminated plates are presented by using trigonometric shear deformation theory. The in-plane displacement field uses sinusoidal function in terms of thickness co-ordinate to include the shear deformation effect. The theory satisfies the shear stress free boundary conditions on the top and bottom surfaces of the plate. The present theory obviates the need of shear correction factor. Governing equations and boundary conditions of the theory are obtained using the principle of virtual work. The validity of present theory is verified by comparing the results with those of classical plate theory and first order shear deformation theory and higher order shear deformation theory.

  4. The addition of red lead to flat plate and tubular valve regulated miners cap lamp lead-acid batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferg, E.E.; Loyson, P. [Department of Chemistry, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, P.O. Box 77000, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Poorun, A. [Willard Batteries, P.O. Box 1844, Port Elizabeth 6000 (South Africa)

    2006-04-21

    The study looked at the use of red lead in the manufacturing of valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) miners cap lamp (MCL) batteries that were made with either flat plate or tubular positive electrodes. A problem with using only grey oxide in the manufacture of thick flat plate or tubular electrodes is the poor conversion of the active material to the desired lead dioxide. The addition of red lead to the initial starting material improves the formation efficiency but is considerably more expensive thereby increasing the cost of manufacturing. The study showed that by carefully controlling the formation conditions in terms of the voltage and temperature of a battery, good capacity performance can be achieved for cells made with flat plate electrodes that contain up to 25% red lead. The small amount of red lead in the active cured material reduces the effect of electrode surface sulphate formation and allows the battery to achieve its rated capacity within the first few cycles. Batteries made with flat plate positive electrodes that contained more that 50% red lead showed good initial capacity but had poor structural active material bonding. The study showed that MCL batteries made with tubular positive electrodes that contained less than 75% red lead resulted in a poorly formed electrode with limited capacity utilization. Pickling and soaking times of the tubular electrodes should be kept at a minimum thereby allowing higher active material utilization during subsequent capacity cycling. The study further showed that it is beneficial to use higher formation rates in order to reduce manufacturing time and to improve the active material characteristics. (author)

  5. Light fireproof insulating plate-formed material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plum, B.A.; Juhl, L.F.

    1981-02-23

    Light fireproof insulating plates were produced by pressure processing of a mixture of rice-husk ashes with pearlite aluminium phosphate and glass wool. The corn size of pearlite is 0-5 mm., of rice-husk ashes 0-5 mm. and the fiber length of fibrous additive is about 25 mm.

  6. Fabrication of open-top microchannel plate using deep X-ray exposure mask made with silicon on insulator substrate

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimura, T; Etoh, S I; Hattori, R; Kuroki, Y; Chang, S S

    2003-01-01

    We propose a high-aspect-ratio open-top microchannel plate structure. This type of microchannel plate has many advantages in electrophoresis. The plate was fabricated by deep X-ray lithography using synchrotron radiation (SR) light and the chemical wet etching process. A deep X-ray exposure mask was fabricated with a silicon on insulator (SOI) substrate. The patterned Si microstructure was micromachined into a thin Si membrane and a thick Au X-ray absorber was embedded in it by electroplating. A plastic material, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) was used for the plate substrate. For reduction of the exposure time and high-aspect-ratio fast wet development, the fabrication condition was optimized with respect to not the exposure dose but to the PMMA mean molecular weight (M.W.) changing after deep X-ray exposure as measured by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Decrement of the PMMA M.W. and increment of the wet developer temperature accelerated the etching rate. Under optimized fabrication conditions, a microc...

  7. Analysis of viscoplastic plates with material degradation using influence functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fotiu, P.; Irschik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Influence functions are well-known from the computational analysis of linear elastic plates. For inelastic plates, unfortunately, this convenient Green's function method does not apply in its classical sense, because superposition of imposed loadings is not possible. However, following a complete elastic-inelastic analogy for small deflections of beams and plates, the inelastic part of strain may be treated as an additional source of self-stress in the linear elastic structure with fixed (initial) stiffness. Hence, the inelastic plate is analogous to the linear elastic one, but subjected to the imposed loadings as well as to fictitious additional sources of self-stress, likewise to a given thermal loading. (orig./GL)

  8. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  9. Free vibration analysis of a rotary smart two directional functionally graded piezoelectric material in axial symmetry circular nanoplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahinzare, Mohammad; Ranjbarpur, Hosein; Ghadiri, Majid

    2018-02-01

    In this article, free vibration of a rotating circular nanoplate made of two directional functionally graded piezo materials (two directional FGPM) is modeled based on the first shear deformation theory (FSDT). Based on the power-law model, electro-elastic properties of two directional FGP rotating circular nanoplates are supposed to change continuously along the thickness and radius. Employing the modified couple stress theory, the small size effect of the equations of the plate is considered. The governing equations of the first shear deformation theory (FSDT) for the studied plate are obtained based on Hamilton's principle; these equations are solved using differential quadrature method (DQM). It is shown that the vibration behavior of the plate is significantly affected by angular velocity, external electric voltage, size dependency and power-law index (thickness and radial directions).

  10. [Research Progress and Development Prospect of Biomedical Plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Liu, Jing; Wu, Qiang; Wang, Yanjie; Xiao, Tao; Liu, Lihong; Yu, Shu

    2016-12-01

    Different generations of biomedical materials are analyzed in this paper.The current clinical uses of plates made of metals,polymers or composite materials are evaluated,and nano hydroxyapatite/polylactic acid composites and carbon/carbon composite plates are introduced as emphasis.It is pointed out that the carbon/carbon composites are of great feasibility and advantage as a new generation of biomedical materials,especially in the field of bone plate.Compared to other biomaterials,carbon/carbon composites have a good biocompatibility and mechanical compatibility because they have similar elastic modulus,porosity and density to that of human bones.With the development of the technology in knitting and material preparation,carbon/carbon composite plates have a good application prospect.

  11. Contributions to indoor gamma dose rate from building materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xionghua; Li Guangming; Yang Xiangdong

    1990-01-01

    In the coures of construction of a building structured with bricks and concrets, the indoor gamma air absorbed dose rates were seperately measured from the floors, brick walls and prefabricated plates of concrets, etc.. It suggested that the indoor gamma dose rates from building materials are mainly attributed to the brick walls and the floors. A little contribution comes from other brilding materials. The dose rates can be calculated through a 4π-infinite thick model with a correction factor of 0.52

  12. Linking plate reconstructions with deforming lithosphere to geodynamic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, R. D.; Gurnis, M.; Flament, N.; Seton, M.; Spasojevic, S.; Williams, S.; Zahirovic, S.

    2011-12-01

    While global computational models are rapidly advancing in terms of their capabilities, there is an increasing need for assimilating observations into these models and/or ground-truthing model outputs. The open-source and platform independent GPlates software fills this gap. It was originally conceived as a tool to interactively visualize and manipulate classical rigid plate reconstructions and represent them as time-dependent topological networks of editable plate boundaries. The user can export time-dependent plate velocity meshes that can be used either to define initial surface boundary conditions for geodynamic models or alternatively impose plate motions throughout a geodynamic model run. However, tectonic plates are not rigid, and neglecting plate deformation, especially that of the edges of overriding plates, can result in significant misplacing of plate boundaries through time. A new, substantially re-engineered version of GPlates is now being developed that allows an embedding of deforming plates into topological plate boundary networks. We use geophysical and geological data to define the limit between rigid and deforming areas, and the deformation history of non-rigid blocks. The velocity field predicted by these reconstructions can then be used as a time-dependent surface boundary condition in regional or global 3-D geodynamic models, or alternatively as an initial boundary condition for a particular plate configuration at a given time. For time-dependent models with imposed plate motions (e.g. using CitcomS) we incorporate the continental lithosphere by embedding compositionally distinct crust and continental lithosphere within the thermal lithosphere. We define three isostatic columns of different thickness and buoyancy based on the tectonothermal age of the continents: Archean, Proterozoic and Phanerozoic. In the fourth isostatic column, the oceans, the thickness of the thermal lithosphere is assimilated using a half-space cooling model. We also

  13. The effect of electrode vertex angle on automatic tungsten-inert-gas welds for stainless steel 304L plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maarek, V.; Sharir, Y.; Stern, A.

    1980-03-01

    The effect of electrode vertex angle on penetration depth and weld bead width, in automatic tungsten-inert-gas (TIG) dcsp bead-on-plate welding with different currents, has been studied for stainless steel 304L plates 1.5 mm and 8 mm thick. It has been found that for thin plates, wider and deeper welds are obtained when using sharper electrodes while, for thick plates, narrower and deeper welds are produced when blunt electrodes (vertex angle 180 deg) are used. An explanation of the results, based on a literature survey, is included

  14. Fabricating feeding plate in CLP infants with two different material: A series of case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding is a family′s biggest concerns when a child is born with cleft lip and/or palate. The goal for that child is to have as near normal feeding as possible. This report presents fabrication of feeding plates in two infants born with cleft lip and palate using two different materials.

  15. Thick-section weldments in 21-6-9 and 316LN stainless steel for fusion energy applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, D.J.; Goodwin, G.M.

    1991-01-01

    The Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), formerly known as the Compact Ignition Tokomak, will be a major advance in the design of a fusion reactor. The successful construction of fusion reactors will require extensive welding of thick-section stainless steel plates. Severe service conditions will be experienced by the structure. Operating temperatures will range from room temperature (300 K) to liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K), and perhaps even lower. The structure will be highly stressed, and subject to sudden impact loads if plasma disruptions occur. This demands a combination of high strength and high toughness from the weldments. Significant portions of the welding will be done in the field, so preweld and postweld heat treatments will be difficult. The thick sections to be welded will require a high deposition rate process, and will result in significant residual stresses in the materials. Inspection of these thick sections in complex geometries will be very difficult. All of these constraints make it essential that the welding procedures and alloys be well understood, and the mechanical properties of the welds and their heat-affected zones must be adequately characterized. The candidate alloy for structural applications in the BPX such as the magnet cases was initially selected as 21-6-9 austenitic stainless steel, and later changed to 316LN stainless steel. This study examined several possible filler materials for thick-section (25 to 50 mm) weldments in these two materials. The tensile and Charpy V-notch properties were measured at room temperature and 77 K. The fracture toughness was measured for promising materials

  16. Behavior of four-bolt extended end-plate connection subjected to lateral loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsayed Mashaly

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A considerable number of literatures have been published on the behavior of end-plate connections in ordinary moment-resisting frames. It was found, experimentally, that this type of connection might act as either a fully-rigid or a semi-rigid connection depending mainly on the thickness of the end plate and the diameter of bolts. In recent years, due to their good ductility and their good ability of energy dissipation, extended end-plate connections are recommended to be widely used in special moment-resisting frames subjected to lateral loads. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of both the material and geometric properties of four-bolt extended end-plate connections upon their behavior when subjected to lateral loading. This is done through a parametric study upon a finite element model using the multi-purpose software package ANSYS. The parametric study takes into account 12 parameters which are expected to be effective on the behavior of the studied connection. The results are presented by the relation between the storey drift, which represents the rotation of the connection and the applied lateral load, which simulates the moment on the connection. The results verify that the chosen parameters are considered effective depending on the energy dissipation of the connection.

  17. A New Hyperbolic Shear Deformation Theory for Bending Analysis of Functionally Graded Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Hassaine Daouadji

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical formulation, Navier’s solutions of rectangular plates based on a new higher order shear deformation model are presented for the static response of functionally graded plates. This theory enforces traction-free boundary conditions at plate surfaces. Shear correction factors are not required because a correct representation of transverse shearing strain is given. Unlike any other theory, the number of unknown functions involved is only four, as against five in case of other shear deformation theories. The mechanical properties of the plate are assumed to vary continuously in the thickness direction by a simple power-law distribution in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents. Numerical illustrations concern flexural behavior of FG plates with metal-ceramic composition. Parametric studies are performed for varying ceramic volume fraction, volume fractions profiles, aspect ratios, and length to thickness ratios. Results are verified with available results in the literature. It can be concluded that the proposed theory is accurate and simple in solving the static bending behavior of functionally graded plates.

  18. Morphology Analysis of Cu Film Fractures in Sandwiched Methylmethacrylate Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Fidani

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Cu were evaporated on solid plates of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA. A polymerization process was made to realize sandwiched structure to protect the Cu films. Fracturing of the metal film surface was observed with several morphologies showing two different fracture systems. Surface film morphology was analysed in terms of the distribution area of the islands and contour fractal dimension. The island areas showed a maximum corresponding to 42 nm of the Cu thickness, it was also the threshold to observe the second fracture system. The fractures pattern resulted to be scale invariant with fractal dimensions between 1.55 and 1.7. The minimum fractal dimension also occurred at the film thickness corresponding to the maximum island area. The reported effects can be understood on the basis of different thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials and their thermally induced adhesion.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.2.6518

  19. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B. Ramesh; Gangradey, R.

    2012-11-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  20. Thick SS316 materials TIG welding development activities towards advanced fusion reactor vacuum vessel applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, B Ramesh; Gangradey, R

    2012-01-01

    Advanced fusion reactors like ITER and up coming Indian DEMO devices are having challenges in terms of their materials design and fabrication procedures. The operation of these devices is having various loads like structural, thermo-mechanical and neutron irradiation effects on major systems like vacuum vessel, divertor, magnets and blanket modules. The concept of double wall vacuum vessel (VV) is proposed in view of protecting of major reactor subsystems like super conducting magnets, diagnostic systems and other critical components from high energy 14 MeV neutrons generated from fusion plasma produced by D-T reactions. The double walled vacuum vessel is used in combination with pressurized water circulation and some special grade borated steel blocks to shield these high energy neutrons effectively. The fabrication of sub components in VV are mainly used with high thickness SS materials in range of 20 mm- 60 mm of various grades based on the required protocols. The structural components of double wall vacuum vessel uses various parts like shields, ribs, shells and diagnostic vacuum ports. These components are to be developed with various welding techniques like TIG welding, Narrow gap TIG welding, Laser welding, Hybrid TIG laser welding, Electron beam welding based on requirement. In the present paper the samples of 20 mm and 40 mm thick SS 316 materials are developed with TIG welding process and their mechanical properties characterization with Tensile, Bend tests and Impact tests are carried out. In addition Vickers hardness tests and microstructural properties of Base metal, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and Weld Zone are done. TIG welding application with high thick SS materials in connection with vacuum vessel requirements and involved criticalities towards welding process are highlighted.

  1. Influence of plating parameters on mechanical and microstructural properties of electroplated micro-spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Etienne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this PhD Thesis is to study the gold-copper cyanide electrochemical system and finally to realize gold-copper microspheres with a diameter of 800 μm and a thickness between 20 and 40 μm. The composition, the microstructure and the roughness of these shells must be perfectly controlled. To synthesise such a material, electrodeposition from a gold-copper alkaline cyanide bath has been chosen. Initially, the influence of the principal electrochemical parameters (temperature of the plating bath, stirring, etc.) was studied. This study showed that it is possible to realize 5 μm thick gold-copper alloys with various compositions. Actually, it was shown that the copper content of deposits varies with the applied potential. When increasing the copper content of coatings, the nucleation and growth mechanisms change. As a result, the grain size and the microhardness of the coatings are modified. An increase in the copper content reduces the grain size which increases the microhardness until a critical grain size of 6 nm. This increase of copper content also affects the microstructure: columnar, nodular even dendritic structures were observed. Then, 20 μm thick gold-copper coatings were realized using the same electrochemical parameters. As expected, these coatings were very difficult to plate because of the instability of the electro crystallization process resulting in the development of columnar and nodular structures. Moreover, for thicknesses above 10 μm, all deposits are free from copper. The microstructure change of deposits can be explained by inhibition phenomena generated by free cyanide. Actually, the reduction of gold-copper generates free cyanide at the cathode surface which inhibits the electro crystallization and promotes instantaneous nucleation. This production of free cyanide also modifies the electrolyte chemistry promoting the formation of Cu(CN)_4"3"- instead of Cu(CN)_3"2"-. Cu(CN)_4"3"- complexes have lower diffusion coefficients and

  2. Introduction to Analysis and Design of Plate Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Lützen, Marie

    , composite materials as glass-fibre-reinforced plates, sandwich plates and reinforced concrete plates are not included as they are topics for other courses. The present notes are mainly based on Pedersen and Jensen (1983), written in Danish. The first version of the notes was prepared by Marie L......The present notes cover plate theory dealing with bending, vibrations, elastic buckling and ultimate strength. The plate structures considered are isotropic, orthotropic and stiffened plates made of metallic materials. The main objective of the notes is to give an introduction to plates and plate...... panels and to present some fairly easy methods and results to be used in the design phase to judge, whether a plate panel can be considered safe from a structural point of view or requires a more detailed numerical analysis, typically using the Finite Element Method. Furthermore, a short introduction...

  3. Origami-Inspired Folding of Thick, Rigid Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trease, Brian P.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Zirbel, Shannon; Howell, Larry; Lang, Robert

    2014-01-01

    To achieve power of 250 kW or greater, a large compression ratio of stowed-to-deployed area is needed. Origami folding patterns were used to inspire the folding of a solar array to achieve synchronous deployment; however, origami models are generally created for near-zero-thickness material. Panel thickness is one of the main challenges of origami-inspired design. Three origami-inspired folding techniques (flasher, square twist, and map fold) were created with rigid panels and hinges. Hinge components are added to the model to enable folding of thick, rigid materials. Origami models are created assuming zero (or near zero) thickness. When a material with finite thickness is used, the panels are required to bend around an increasingly thick fold as they move away from the center of the model. The two approaches for dealing with material thickness are to use membrane hinges to connect the panels, or to add panel hinges, or hinges of the same thickness, at an appropriate width to enable folding.

  4. Optimal Design, Reliability And Sensitivity Analysis Of Foundation Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tvrdá Katarína

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the optimal design of thickness of a plate rested on Winkler’s foundation. First order method was used for the optimization, while maintaining different restrictive conditions. The aim is to obtain a minimum volume of the foundation plate. At the end some probabilistic and safety analysis of the deflection of the foundation using LHS Monte Carlo method are presented.

  5. An Experimental Evaluation of Electron Beam Welded Thixoformed 7075 Aluminum Alloy Plate Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ava Azadi Chegeni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Two plates of thixoformed 7075 aluminum alloy were joined using Electron Beam Welding (EBW. A post-welding-heat treatment (PWHT was performed within the semi-solid temperature range of this alloy at three temperatures, 610, 617 and 628 °C, for 3 min. The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of EB welded plates, as well as the heat-treated specimens, were investigated in the Base Metal (BM, Heat Affected Zone (HAZ, and Fusion Zone (FZ, using optical microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis, and Vickers hardness test. Results indicated that after EBW, the grain size substantially decreased from 67 µm in both BM and HAZ to 7 µm in the FZ, and a hardness increment was observed in the FZ as compared to the BM and HAZ. Furthermore, the PWHT led to grain coarsening throughout the material, along with a further increase in hardness in the FZ.

  6. Electroless nickel plating on abs plastics from nickel chloride and nickel sulfate baths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inam-ul-haque; Ahmad, S.; Khan, A.

    2005-01-01

    Aqueous acid nickel chloride and alkaline nickel sulphate bath were studied for electroless nickel planting on acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) plastic. Before electroless nickel plating, specimens were etched, sensitized and activated. Effects of sodium hypophosphite and sodium citrate concentration on the electroless nickel plating thickness were discussed. Aqueous acid nickel chloride bath comprising, nickel chloride 10 g/L, sodium hypophosphite 40 g/L, sodium citrate 40g/L at pH 5.5, temperature 85 deg. C and density of 1 Be/ for thirty minutes gave best coating thickness in micrometer. It was found that acid nickel chloride bath had a greater stability, wide operating range and better coating thickness results than alkaline nickel sulphate bath. Acid nickel chloride bath gave better coating thickness than alkaline nickel sulfate bath

  7. Evaluation of materials for bipolar plates in simulated PEM fuel-cell cathodic environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, S.V.; Belmonte, M.R.; Moron, L.E.; Torres, J.; Orozco, G. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Technologico en Electroquimica S.C. Parcque Sanfandila, Queretaro (Mexico); Perez-Quiroz, J.T. [Mexican Transport Inst., Queretaro (Mexico); Cortes, M. A. [Mexican Petroleum Inst., Mexico City (Mexico)

    2008-04-15

    The bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are exposed to an oxidizing environment on the cathodic side, and therefore are susceptible to corrosion. Corrosion resistant materials are needed for the bipolar plates in order to improve the lifespan of fuel cells. This article described a study in which a molybdenum (Mo) coating was deposited over austenitic stainless steel 316 and carbon steel as substrates in order to evaluate the resulting surfaces with respect to their corrosion resistance in simulated anodic and cathodic PEMFC environments. The molybdenum oxide films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The article presented the experiment and discussed the results of the corrosion behaviour of coated stainless steel. In general, the electrochemical characterization of bare materials and coated steel consisted of slow potentiodynamic polarization curves followed by a constant potential polarization test. The test medium was 0.5M sulfuric acid with additional introduction of oxygen to simulate the cathodic environment. All tests were performed at ambient temperature and at 50 degrees Celsius. The potentiostat used was a Gamry instrument. It was concluded that it is possible to deposit Mo-oxides on steel without using another alloying metal. The preferred substrate for corrosion prevention was found to be an alloy with high chromium content. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Attenuation characteristics of materials used in radiation protection as radiation shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Junior, Airton T.; Araujo, F.G.S.; Nogueira, M.S.; Santos, M.A.P.

    2013-01-01

    Crystal glass has been widely used as shielding material in gamma radiation sources as well as x-ray generating equipment to replace the plumbiferous glass, in order to minimize exposure to individuals. In this work, ten plates of crystal glass, with dimensions of 20cm x 20cm and range of thicknesses from 0.5 to 2.0 cm, and barite concrete were irradiated with potential constants of 60kV, 80kV, 110kV, 150kV and gamma radiation of 60 Co. The curves of attenuation and of transmission were obtained for crystal glass, barite plaster and barite concrete (mGy/mA.min) at 1 meter as a function of thickness.Crystal glass has been widely used as shielding material in gamma radiation sources as well as x-ray generating equipment to replace the plumbiferous glass, in order to minimize exposure to individuals. In this work, ten plates of crystal glass, with dimensions of 20cm x 20cm and range of thicknesses from 0.5 to 2.0 cm, and barite concrete were irradiated with potential constants of 60kV, 80kV, 110kV, 150kV and gamma radiation of 60 Co. The curves of attenuation and of transmission were obtained for crystal glass, barite plaster and barite concrete (mGy/mA.min) at 1 meter as a function of thickness. (author)

  9. Fabrication of tubed functionally graded material by slurry dipping process. Thickness control of dip-coated layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ryuzo

    1997-03-01

    In order to obtain long life fuel cladding tubes for the fast breeder reactor, the concept of functionally graded material was applied for the material combination of Molybdenum/stainless steel/Titanium, in which Titanium and Molybdenum were placed at the inner and outer sides, respectively. Slurry dipping method was employed because of its capability of shape forming and microstructural control. We have hitherto reported the design criteria for the graded layers, preparation of the slurry, and microstructural control of the dip-coated layers. In the present report, the thickness control of the dip-coated layer is described in detail. The thickness of the dip-coated layer depends primarily on the viscosity of the slurry. Nevertheless, for the stable dispersion of the powder in the slurry, which dominates the microstructural homogeneity, an optimum viscosity value is present for the individual slurries. With stable slurries of Ti, Mo, stainless steel powders and their mixtures, the thicknesses of dip-coated layers were controlled in dependence of their viscosities and yield values. For Ti and stainless steel powders and their mixture a PAANa was used as a dispersing agent. A NaHMP was found to be effective for the dispersion of Mo powder and Mo/stainless steel powder mixture. For all slurries tested in the present investigation PVA addition was helpful for the viscosity control. Dip-coating maps have been drawn for the stabilization of the slurries and for the formation of films with a sufficient strength for further manipulation for the slurries with low viscosity (∼10 mPa s). The final film thickness for the low-viscosity slurry with the optimum condition was about 200 μm. The slurries with high viscosities of several hundreds mPa s had a good stability and the yield value was easy to be controlled. The film thickness was able to be adjusted in the size range between several tens and several hundreds μm. The final thickness of the graded layer was determined

  10. Kapton charging characteristics: Effects of material thickness and electron-energy distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, W. S.; Dulgeroff, C. R.; Hymann, J.; Viswanathan, R.

    1985-01-01

    Charging characteristics of polyimide (Kapton) of varying thicknesses under irradiation by a very-low-curent-density electron beam, with the back surface of the sample grounded are reported. These charging characteristics are in good agreement with a simple analytical model which predicts that in thin samples at low current density, sample surface potential is limited by conduction leakage through the bulk material. The charging of Kapton in a low-current-density electron beam in which the beam energy was modulated to simulate Maxwellian and biMaxwellian distribution functions is measured.

  11. Heat insulating plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, J.A.F.

    1976-10-28

    Micro-porous insulation plates are dealt with, for example, how they are used in the insulation of heat storage devices. Since one side of such plates is exposed to a temperature of over 700/sup 0/C, a shrinkage of the glass texture of the covering can occur, which can exceed the shrinkage of the inner micro-porous material, so that cracks and splits in the high temperature side of the covering can come about. The task of the invention is to design the plate in such a way as to prevent this from happening. For this purpose the plate is provided, according to invention specifications, with flutes, waves, ribs, waffle or grid patterns and the covering is set into the recesses originating from this.

  12. Non-linear finite element analyses of wide plate fracture mechanics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrop, L.P.; Gibson, S.

    1988-06-01

    A series of centre-cracked, wide plate fracture mechanics tests is being conducted with plates made from 0.36% carbon steel. This report gives an account of post-test finite element analyses performed to compare with the results of one of these tests (designated CSTP4) and a pre-test analysis of the next test which has a slightly different geometry (CSTP5). The plates are relatively thick (75mm) and have a width of 1.62m. The finite element analyses use a two-dimensional plane stress mesh. The work shows good agreement between the post-test analysis results and the overall experimental results for CSTP4. It is not expected that the analysis results will be accurate within the dimensions of the process zone ahead of the crack tip; the mesh is not sufficient for this. A vital ingredient in attaining the good overall agreement is the representation of the actual stress-strain curve of the material. The predicted response of test CSTP5 is markedly different from that of CSTP4 even though the only change is the increase in the height of the plate. In particular the shape and size of the plastic zone ahead of the crack tip is quite different in the two tests at the same nominal remote applied load. (author)

  13. Paper microzone plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Emanuel; Phillips, Scott T; Vella, Sarah J; Martinez, Andres W; Whitesides, George M

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes 96- and 384-microzone plates fabricated in paper as alternatives to conventional multiwell plates fabricated in molded polymers. Paper-based plates are functionally related to plastic well plates, but they offer new capabilities. For example, paper-microzone plates are thin (approximately 180 microm), require small volumes of sample (5 microL per zone), and can be manufactured from inexpensive materials ($0.05 per plate). The paper-based plates are fabricated by patterning sheets of paper, using photolithography, into hydrophilic zones surrounded by hydrophobic polymeric barriers. This photolithography used an inexpensive formulation photoresist that allows rapid (approximately 15 min) prototyping of paper-based plates. These plates are compatible with conventional microplate readers for quantitative absorbance and fluorescence measurements. The limit of detection per zone loaded for fluorescence was 125 fmol for fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, and this level corresponds to 0.02 the quantity of analyte per well used to achieve comparable signal-to-noise in a 96-well plastic plate (using a solution of 25 nM labeled protein). The limits of detection for absorbance on paper was approximately 50 pmol per zone for both Coomassie Brilliant Blue and Amaranth dyes; these values were 0.4 that required for the plastic plate. Demonstration of quantitative colorimetric correlations using a scanner or camera to image the zones and to measure the intensity of color, makes it possible to conduct assays without a microplate reader.

  14. Radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, E. S.; Frels, T.; Miller, E. H.; Schnee, R. W.; Street, J.

    2018-01-01

    Radiopure materials for detector components in rare event searches may be contaminated after manufacturing with long-lived 210Pb produced by the decay of atmospheric radon. Charged radon daughters deposited on the surface or implanted in the bulk of detector materials have the potential to cause noticeable backgrounds within dark matter regions of interest. Understanding the mechanics governing these background signals is therefore a paramount concern in dark matter experiments in order to distinguish a real signal from internal detector backgrounds. Teflon (i.e. PTFE) is a specific material of interest because it makes up the walls of the inner detector of many liquid noble detectors such as the LUX-ZEPLIN experiment. The rate of radon daughter plate-out onto Teflon can be orders of magnitude larger than the plate-out rate onto other materials. Mitigation of plate-out onto Teflon and steel by proximity to other materials is demonstrated.

  15. α spectrometer of parallel plate grid ionization chamber of high energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Boting; Wang Jianqing; Dong Mingli; Tang Peijia; Wang Xiaorong; Lin Cansheng

    2000-01-01

    Parallel plate grid ionization chamber with cathode area of 300 cm 2 was developed and applied to detect minimum α-emitters. It consist of a vacuum system, a gas cycle system of the parallel plate grid ionization chamber, electronics (a high voltage supply, a pre-amplifier and a main amplifier) and a computer-multichannel analyzer. The energy resolution is 23 keV FWHM for the 244 Cm electrostatic precipitated source. The integral background is typically 10 counts/h between 4 and 6 MeV. The detector efficiency is 50%. The minimum detecting activity is 3 x 10 -4 Bq (3σ, 30 hours). This spectrometer is suitable for detecting various samples, such as samples of the soil, water, air, bion, food, structural material, geology, archaeology, α-emitters of after processing and measuring α activity of accounting for and control of nuclear material and monitoring the artificial radioactivity nuclides of environment samples around nuclear facilities. The spectrometer is equipped with apparatus for preparing large area α source by using vacuum deposition or ultrasonic pulverization. The operating program of preparing source is simple. The source thickness can be kept in 40-60 μm/cm 2

  16. Biomechanical evaluation of a new MatrixMandible plating system on cadaver mandibles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gateno, Jaime; Cookston, Christopher; Hsu, Sam Sheng-Pin; Stal, Drew N; Durrani, Salim K; Gold, Jonathan; Ismaily, Sabir; Alexander, Jerry W; Noble, Philip C; Xia, James J

    2013-11-01

    Current mandibular plating systems contain a wide range of plates and screws needed for the treatment of mandibular reconstruction and mandibular fractures. The authors' hypothesis was that a single diameter screw could be used in all applications in a plating system. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to test if the 2.0-mm locking screws could replace the 2.4-mm screws to stabilize a 2.5-mm-thick reconstruction plate in the treatment of mandibular discontinuity. Thirty-six fresh human cadaveric mandibles were used: 18 were plated using 2.0-mm locking screws (experimental) and the other 18 were plated using 2.4-mm locking screws (control). Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups based on the site of loading application: the ipsilateral (right) second premolar region, the central incisal region, and the contralateral (left) first molar region. The same ipsilateral (right) mandibular angular discontinuity was created by the same surgeon. The mandible was mounted on a material testing machine. The micromotions between the 2 segments, permanent and elastic displacements, were recorded after incremental ramping loads. The magnitude of screw back-out and the separation between plate and bone were recorded using a laser scanner (resolution, 0.12 mm) before and after the loading applications. The data were processed. Descriptive analyses and a general linear model for repeated measures analysis of variance were performed. There was no statistically significant difference in permanent displacement (mean, 1.16 and 0.82 mm, respectively) between the 2.0-mm and 2.4-mm screw groups. There also was no statistically significant difference in elastic displacement between the 2 groups (mean, 1.48 and 1.21 mm, respectively). Finally, there were no statistically significant differences in screw back-out or separation between plate and bone between the 2 groups. All means for screw back-out and separation between screw and bone for each group were judged within the

  17. Thickness measurement by using cepstrum ultrasonic signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Young Chul; Yoon, Chan Hoon; Choi, Heui Joo; Park, Jong Sun

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic thickness measurement is a non-destructive method to measure the local thickness of a solid element, based on the time taken for an ultrasound wave to return to the surface. When an element is very thin, it is difficult to measure thickness with the conventional ultrasonic thickness method. This is because the method measures the time delay by using the peak of a pulse, and the pulses overlap. To solve this problem, we propose a method for measuring thickness by using the power cepstrum and the minimum variance cepstrum. Because the cepstrums processing can divides the ultrasound into an impulse train and transfer function, where the period of the impulse train is the traversal time, the thickness can be measured exactly. To verify the proposed method, we performed experiments with steel and, acrylic plates of variable thickness. The conventional method is not able to estimate the thickness, because of the overlapping pulses. However, the cepstrum ultrasonic signal processing that divides a pulse into an impulse and a transfer function can measure the thickness exactly.

  18. A Novel Continuous Extrusion Process to Fabricate Wedge-Shaped Light Guide Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tse Hsiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Backlight modules are key components in thin-film transistor liquid crystal displays (TFT-LCD. Among the components of a backlight module, the light guide plate (LGP plays the most important role controlling the light projected to the eyes of users. A wedge-shaped LGP, with its asymmetrical structure, is usually fabricated by an injection proces, but the fabrication time of this process is long. This study proposes a continuous extrusion process to fabricate wedge-shaped LGPs. This continuous process has advantages for mass production. Besides a T-die and rollers, this system also has an in situ monitor of the melt-bank that forms during the extrusion process, helping control the plate thickness. Results show that the melt bank has a close relationship with the plate thickness. The temperature of the bottom heater and roller was adjusted to reduce the surface deformation of the wedge-shaped plate. This continuous extrusion system can successfully manufacture wedge-shaped LGPs for mass production.

  19. New method for thickness determination and microscopic imaging of graphene-like two-dimensional materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Xudong; Chen Yonghai; Liu Yu; Zhu Laipan; Li Yuan; Wu Qing; Huang Wei

    2016-01-01

    We employed the microscopic reflectance difference spectroscopy (micro-RDS) to determine the layer-number and microscopically image the surface topography of graphene and MoS 2 samples. The contrast image shows the efficiency and reliability of this new clipping technique. As a low-cost, quantifiable, no-contact and non-destructive method, it is not concerned with the characteristic signal of certain materials and can be applied to arbitrary substrates. Therefore it is a perfect candidate for characterizing the thickness of graphene-like two-dimensional materials. (paper)

  20. Tensile Stress-Strain Results for 304L and 316L Stainless-Steel Plate at Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. K. Blandford; D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl

    2007-01-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is conducting moderate strain rate (10 to 200 per second) research on stainless steel materials in support of the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP). For this research, strain rate effects are characterized by comparison to quasi-static tensile test results. Considerable tensile testing has been conducted resulting in the generation of a large amount of basic material data expressed as engineering and true stress-strain curves. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of quasi-static tensile testing of 304/304L and 316/316L stainless steels in order to add to the existing data pool for these materials and make the data more readily available to other researchers, engineers, and interested parties. Standard tensile testing of round specimens in accordance with ASTM procedure A 370-03a were conducted on 304L and 316L stainless-steel plate materials at temperatures ranging from -20 F to 600 F. Two plate thicknesses, eight material heats, and both base and weld metal were tested. Material yield strength, Young's modulus, ultimate strength, ultimate strain, failure strength and failure strain were determined, engineering and true stress-strain curves to failure were developed, and comparisons to ASME Code minimums were made. The procedures used during testing and the typical results obtained are described in this paper

  1. 3D electroplated inductors with thickness variation for improved broadband performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farm-Guoo Tseng, Victor; Bedair, Sarah S.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    The performance of an RF spiral inductor is based on the balance between ohmic losses in the outer turns and eddy current losses dominant in the inner turns where the magnetic field is the strongest. In this work, air-core spiral inductors with winding trace thicknesses decreasing towards the center are demonstrated, achieving quality factor improvement over a wide frequency range compared to uniform thickness inductors. A custom 3D copper electroplating process was used to produce spiral inductors with varying winding thicknesses in a single plating step, with patterned gaps in a seed layer used to create delays in the vertical plating. The fabricated center-lowered coil inductors were 80 nH within a one square millimeter area with thickness varying from 60 µm to 10 µm from outer to inner winding. Within the 16 MHz-160 MHz range, the center-lowered inductors were shown to have a maximum to minimum quality factor improvement of 90%-10% when compared to uniform thickness inductors with thicknesses ranging from 60 µm to 10 µm. Compared to the 20 µm uniform thickness inductor which has the optimal performance among all uniform thickness inductors in this frequency range, the center-lowered inductors were shown to achieve a maximum quality factor improvement of 20% at the edge frequencies of 16 MHz and 160 MHz, and a minimum quality factor improvement of 10% near the geometric mean center frequency of 46 MHz.

  2. The magma ocean as an impediment to lunar plate tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary impediment to plate tectonics on the moon was probably the great thickness of its crust and particularly its high crust/lithosphere thickness ratio. This in turn can be attributed to the preponderance of low-density feldspar over all other Al-compatible phases in the lunar interior. During the magma ocean epoch, the moon's crust/lithosphere thickness ratio was at the maximum theoretical value, approximately 1, and it remained high for a long time afterwards. A few large regions of thin crust were produced by basin-scale cratering approximately contemporaneous with the demise of the magma ocean. However, these regions probably also tend to have uncommonly thin lithosphere, since they were directly heated and indirectly enriched in K, Th, and U by the same cratering process. Thus, plate tectonics on the moon in the form of systematic lithosphere subduction was impeded by the magma ocean.

  3. Soft X-ray imaging of thick carbon-based materials using the normal incidence multilayer optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukov, I A; Feschenko, R M; Vinogradov, A V; Bugayev, Ye A; Devizenko, O Y; Kondratenko, V V; Kasyanov, Yu S; Hatano, T; Yamamoto, M; Saveliev, S V

    2010-10-01

    The high transparency of carbon-containing materials in the spectral region of "carbon window" (lambda approximately 4.5-5nm) introduces new opportunities for various soft X-ray microscopy applications. The development of efficient multilayer coated X-ray optics operating at the wavelengths of about 4.5nm has stimulated a series of our imaging experiments to study thick biological and synthetic objects. Our experimental set-up consisted of a laser plasma X-ray source generated with the 2nd harmonics of Nd-glass laser, scandium-based thin-film filters, Co/C multilayer mirror and X-ray film UF-4. All soft X-ray images were produced with a single nanosecond exposure and demonstrated appropriate absorption contrast and detector-limited spatial resolution. A special attention was paid to the 3D imaging of thick low-density foam materials to be used in design of laser fusion targets.

  4. Simulation analysis of impact tests of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs against aircraft impact and its validation with experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadiq, Muhammad; Xiu Yun, Zhu; Rong, Pan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Simulation analysis is carried out with two constitutive concrete models. • Winfrith model can better simulate nonlinear response of concrete than CSCM model. • Performance of steel plate concrete is better than reinforced concrete. • Thickness of safety related structures can be reduced by adopting steel plates. • Analysis results, mainly concrete material models should be validated. - Abstract: The steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete structures are used in nuclear power plants for protection against impact of an aircraft. In order to compare the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slabs panels, simulation analysis of 1/7.5 scale model impact tests is carried out by using finite element code ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The damage modes of all finite element models, velocity time history curves of the aircraft engine and damage to aircraft model are compared with the impact test results of steel plate reinforced concrete and reinforced concrete slab panels. The results indicate that finite element simulation results correlate well with the experimental results especially for constitutive winfrith concrete model. Also, the impact resistance performance of steel plate reinforced concrete slab panels is better than reinforced concrete slab panels, particularly the rear face steel plate is very effective in preventing the perforation and scabbing of concrete than conventional reinforced concrete structures. In this way, the thickness of steel plate reinforced concrete structures can be reduced in important structures like nuclear power plants against impact of aircraft. It also demonstrates the methodology to validate the analysis procedure with experimental and analytical studies. It may be effectively employed to predict the precise response of safety related structures against aircraft impact

  5. The influence of flow maldistribution on the performance of inhomogeneous parallel plate heat exhangers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian R.H.

    2013-01-01

    of 50 random stacks having equal average channel thicknesses with 20 channels each are used to provide a statistical base. The standard deviation of the stacks is varied as are the flow rate (Reynolds number) and the thermal conductivity of the solid heat exchanger material. It is found that the heat...... transfer performance of inhomogeneous stacks of parallel plates may be reduced significantly due to the maldistribution of the fluid flow compared to the ideal homogeneous case. The individual channels experience different flow velocities and this further induces an inter-channel thermal cross talk.......The heat transfer performance of inhomogeneous parallel plate heat exchangers in transient operation is investigated using an established model. A performance parameter, denoted the Nusselt-scaling factor, is used as benchmark and calculated using a well-established single blow technique. A sample...

  6. Improvement of Plating Characteristics Between Nickel and PEEK by Plasma Treatment and Chemical Etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye W.; Lee, Jong K.; Park, Ki Y.

    2009-01-01

    Surface of PEEK(poly-ether-ether-ketone) was modified by chemical etching, plasma treatment and mechanical grinding to improve the plating adhesion. The plating characteristics of these samples were studied by the contact angle, plating thickness, gloss and adhesion. Chemical etching and plasma treatment increased wettability, adhesion and gloss. The contact angle of as-received PEEK was 61 .deg. . The contact angles of chemical etched, plasma treated or both were improved to the range of 15∼33 .deg. . In the case of electroless plating, the thickest layer without blister was 1.6 μm. The adhesion strengths by chemical etching, plasma treatment or both chemical etching and plasma treatment were 75 kgf/cm 2 , 102 kgf/cm 2 , 113 kgf/cm 2 , respectively, comparing to the 24 kgf/cm 2 of as-received. In the case of mechanically ground PEEKs, the adhesion strengths were higher than those unground, with the sacrifice of surface gloss. The gloss of untreated PEEK were greater than mechanically ground PEEKs. Plating thickness increased linearly with the plating times

  7. Experimental tests of irradiation-anneal-reirradiation effects on mechanical properties of RPV plate and weld materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawthorne, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Charpy-V (C V ) notch ductility and tension test properties of three reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel materials were determined for the 288 degree C (550 degree F) irradiated (I), 288 degree C (550 degree F) irradiated + 454 degree C (850 degree F)-168 h postirradiation annealed (IA), and 288 degree C (550 degree F) reirradiated (IAR) conditions. Total fluences of the I condition and the IAR condition were, respectively, 3.33 x 10 19 n/cm 2 and 4.18 x 10 19 n/cm 2 , E > 1 MeV. The irradiation portion of the IAR condition represents an incremental fluence increase of 1. 05 x 10 19 n/cm 2 , E > 1 MeV, over the I-condition fluence. The materials (specimens) were supplied by the Yankee Atomic Electric Company and represented high and low nickel content plates and a high nickel, high copper content weld deposit prototypical of the Yankee-Rowe reactor vessel. The promise of the IAR method for extending the fluence tolerance of radiation-sensitive steels and welds is clearly shown by the results. The annealing treatment produced full C V upper shelf recovery and full or nearly full recovery in the C V 41 J (30 ft-lb) transition temperature. The C V transition temperature increases produced by the reirradiation exposure were 22% to 43% of the increase produced by the first cycle irradiation exposure. A somewhat greater radiation embrittlement sensitivity and a somewhat greater reirradiation embrittlement sensitivity was exhibited by the low nickel content plate than the high nickel content plate. Its high phosphorus content is believed to be responsible. The IAR-condition properties of the surface vs. interior regions of the low nickel content plate are also compared

  8. Investigation of vertebral ''end plate sclerosis''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.W. [Dept. of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Hung Hom (Hong Kong); Mathie, A.G.; Jackson, J.E. [Diagnostic Radiology, Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Hughes, S.P.F. [Div. of Surgery, Anaesthetics and Intensive Care, London (United Kingdom)

    2001-08-01

    To evaluate the association between vertebral ''end plate sclerosis'' and neck pain. A retrospective study was carried out of lateral cervical spine radiographs with a Picture Archive and Communication System (PACS). Two hundred patients' files were randomly assessed, comprising four equal groups, A to D. The mean ages of the patients were 62{+-}7.4 years, 61{+-}7.5 years, 40{+-}5.6 years and 23{+-}5.6 years respectively. In group A, all patients had symptoms of neck pain and a radiographic diagnosis of ''end plate sclerosis'' of the cervical spine. In groups B to D, asymptomatic patients were recruited and their age groups were 50-69, 30-49 and 10-29 years respectively. Using the PACS, the radiographic density and the sagittal diameter, thickness and area of the end plates at the C5 level were measured. Results and conclusions: No significant differences were found in the radiographic density of the end plates either between the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups (groups A and B), or between different age groups (groups B, C and D). A significant increase in end plate area and thickness was found, however, in both group B (P<0.005) and group C (P<0.01) in comparison with group D. This indicates that the extent of end plate sclerosis increases with age. Our results suggest that the radiographic density of cervical vertebral end plates correlates neither with neck pain nor with increasing age. The radiological sign of ''end plate sclerosis'' may be over-reported, further limiting its value in the assessment of patients with cervical spondylosis. (orig.)

  9. Characterization of liquid metal reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuk, I. H.; Ryu, W. S.; Kim, H. H. and others

    1999-03-01

    The objectives of this report were to assess the material requirements for LMR environment, to select the optimum candidates for KALIMER components, to characterize the performance for establishing a database of the structural materials for KALIMER, and to develop the basic material technologies for the localization of the advanced materials. Stainless steel ingots were melted by VIM and hot-rolled to plate with the thickness of 15mm. The plate was solution-treated for 1 hr at 1100 deg C and then water-quenched. Specimens were taken parallel to the rolling direction of the plate. The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus were analyzed on the high temperature mechanical properties of 316MRP (Liquid Metal Reactor, Primary candidate material) stainless steels with the different nitrogen content from 0.04 to 0.15% and with the different phosphorus content from 0.002 to 0.02%. Heat treatment was performed to investigate the changes in microstructure and mechanical properties of Cr-Mo steels for LMR heat transfer tube materials and core materials. The Cr-Mo steels were normalized at the temperatures between 900 deg C and 1200 deg C for 1hrs and tempered at the temperatures between 500 deg C and 800 deg C for 2hrs. Conventional optical and electron micrographic studies were carried out to investigate the martensite lath structure, carbide indentification and carbide shape. Vickers microhardness was measured at room temperature using 10g load. Tensile properties were tested at high temperature. Charpy V-notch impact tests were also carried out at temperature between -120 deg C and +180 deg C. (author). 72 refs., 28 tabs., 244 figs

  10. Asymmetric free vibrations of laminated annular cross-ply circular plates including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Spline method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, K.K.; Kim, Kyung Su; Lee, Jang Hyun [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea). Dept. of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering

    2009-12-15

    Asymmetric free vibrations of annular cross-ply circular plates are studied using spline function approximation. The governing equations are formulated including the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia. Assumptions are made to study the cross-ply layered plates. A system of coupled differential equations are obtained in terms of displacement functions and rotational functions. These functions are approximated using Bickley- type spline functions of suitable order. Then the system is converted into the eigenvalue problem by applying the point collocation technique and suitable boundary conditions. Parametric studies have been made to investigate the effect of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia on frequency parameter with respect to the circumferential node number, radii ratio and thickness to radius ratio for both symmetric and anti-symmetric cross-ply plates using various types of material properties. (orig.)

  11. Effect of length to thickness ratio on free vibration analysis of thick fiber reinforced plastic skew cross-ply laminate with circular cutout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srividya, K.; Reddy, Ch. Kishore; Sumanth, Ch. Mohan; Krishnaiah, P. Gopala; Kishan, V. Mallikharjuna

    2018-04-01

    The present investigation deals with the free vibration analysis of a thick four-layered symmetric cross-ply skew laminated composite plate with a circular cutout. Three dimensional finite element models (FEM) which use the elasticity theory for the determination of stiffness matrices are modeled in ANSYS software to evaluate first five natural frequencies of the laminate. The variations of the first five natural frequencies with respect to length to thickness ratio (S) for different diameter to length ratios (d/l) are presented. It is observed that, the natural frequencies decreases with increase of thickness ratio(S).

  12. Development of a portable PEM fuel cell system with bipolar plates consisting an electronically conductive thermoplastic Compound material; Entwicklung eines portablen PEM-Brennstoffzellensystems mit Bipolarplatten aus einem elektronisch leitfaehigen thermoplastischen Compound-Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemzig, O.C.

    2005-07-18

    In order to meet the cost targets of PEM fuel cells for commercialization significant cost reductions of cell stack components like membrane/electrode assemblies and bipolar plates have become key aspects of research and development. Central topics of his work are the bipolar plates and humidification for portable applications. Best results concerning conductivity of an extensive screening of a variety of carbon polymer compounds with polypropylene as matrix could be achieved with the carbon black/graphite/polypropylene-base system. Successful tests of this material in a fuel cell stack could be performed as well as the proof of suitability concerning material- and manufacturing costs. Dependent on application a decrease of material cost to 2 Euro/kg to 1,8 Euro/kW seems to be possible. Finally bipolar plates consisting of a selected carbon polymer compound were successfully integrated and tested in a 20-cell stack which was implemented in a portable PEFC-demonstrator unit with a power output between 50 and 150 W. (orig.)

  13. Propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Il [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Bok Kyoung [Maritime Security Research Center, KIOST, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    The present study aims to investigate the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom. The velocities of the guided waves in a 5-mm-thick acrylic plate were measured by using the axial transmission technique. A pure A0 Lamb mode could be successfully launched in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate through a time reversal process of Lamb waves, consistent with the fact that the time reversal process can automatically compensate for the dispersive nature of Lamb waves. The experimental velocities of the slow guided wave (SGW) and the time-reversed Lamb wave were found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretical group velocity of the A0 Lamb mode, suggesting that both the SGW and the time-reversed Lamb wave excited in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate correspond to the A0 Lamb mode. These results suggest that the time reversal process of Lamb waves can be usefully applied to noninvasive characterization of long cortical bones.

  14. Propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Il; Choi, Bok Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom. The velocities of the guided waves in a 5-mm-thick acrylic plate were measured by using the axial transmission technique. A pure A0 Lamb mode could be successfully launched in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate through a time reversal process of Lamb waves, consistent with the fact that the time reversal process can automatically compensate for the dispersive nature of Lamb waves. The experimental velocities of the slow guided wave (SGW) and the time-reversed Lamb wave were found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretical group velocity of the A0 Lamb mode, suggesting that both the SGW and the time-reversed Lamb wave excited in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate correspond to the A0 Lamb mode. These results suggest that the time reversal process of Lamb waves can be usefully applied to noninvasive characterization of long cortical bones.

  15. Automated ultrasonic scanning of flat plate nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    One of the most challenging problems in Non-Destructive Testing lies in making the inspection as rapid, precise, cost effective and operator independent as possible. Only by optimizing these four factors can a technology take full advantage of the quality control possible with NDT. This paper describes a highly complex application of high frequency ultrasonics to image extremely small and difficult to detect flaws in a production line environment. The objects of interest are flat plate nuclear fuel used in the Advanced Test Reactor at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The plates are fabricated by hot rolling a sandwich of alloyed uranium fuel and aluminum cladding. After rolling, the block is flattened to a long thin plate approximately 1.27 m (55 inches) long, 102 mm (4 inches) wide and 1.25 mm (0.050 inches) thick. The core, or fuel area is nominally 0.75 mm (0.030 inches) thick with 0.25 mm (0.010 inches) of aluminum bonded to both sides. As might be expected the fabrication is a sensitive process which can introduce several flaws detrimental to the reactor operation if they are undetected. Two of the characteristics that must be examined are the cladding thickness of the aluminum left over the fuel and the quality of bond between the cladding and the fuel. If either the cladding is too thin or the bonding inadequate thermal and/or corrosive activity can crack the protective cladding

  16. Conservative method for determination of material thickness used in shielding of veterinary facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lava, Deise D.; Borges, Diogo da S.; Affonso, Renato R.W.; Moreira, Maria de L.; Guimaraes, Antonio C.F.

    2014-01-01

    For determination of an effective method for shielding of veterinary rooms, was provided shielding methods generally used in rooms which works with X-ray production and radiotherapy. Every calculation procedure is based in traditional variables used to transmission calculation. The thickness of the materials used for primary and secondary shieldings are obtained to respect the limits set by the Brazilian National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN). This work presents the development of a computer code in order to serve as a practical tool for determining rapid and effective materials and their thicknesses to shield veterinary facilities. The code determines transmission values of the shieldings and compares them with data from transmission 'maps' provided by NCRP-148 report. These 'maps' were added to the algorithm through interpolation techniques of curves of materials used for shielding. Each interpolation generates about 1,000,000 points that are used to generate a new curve. The new curve is subjected to regression techniques, which makes possible to obtain nine degree polynomial, and exponential equations. These equations whose variables consist of transmission of values, enable trace all the points of this curve with high precision. The data obtained from the algorithm were satisfactory with official data presented by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and can contribute as a practical tool for verification of shielding of veterinary facilities that require using Radiotherapy techniques and X-ray production

  17. An aluminium evaporation source for ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walley, P.A.; Cross, K.B.

    1977-01-01

    Ion plating with aluminium is becoming increasingly accepted as a method of anti-corrosion surface passivation, the usual requirements being for a layer between 12 and 50 microns in thickness, (0.0005 to 0.002). The evaporation system described here offers a number of advantages over high power electron beam sources when used for aluminium ion plating. The source consists of a resistively heated, specially shaped, boron nitride-titanium diboride boat and a metering feed system. Its main features are small physical size, soft vacuum compatibility, low power consumption and metered evaporation output. (author)

  18. Fluorescence x-ray analyzer for plating-bath solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Shigemi; Hato, Yoshio; Tono, Miki; Ishijima, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    This analyzer was developed for the analysis of plating solution composition and the measurement of plating thickness at the same time in the noble and base metal plating applied to electronic components. The analyzer operates on the principle of fluorescence X-ray measurement which features the capability of high accuracy, non-destructive and multi-element simultaneous analysis. In this paper, the principle of measurement, the configuration of a model SFA 875 analyzer and also the main specifications and measurement examples are described. As the measurement examples, it is described in detail that the model SFA 875 achieved the expansion of the range of application and the improvement of accuracy and the accuracy of simply repeated measurement by combining a digital filter with the linear method of least squares. The digital filter method is that for eliminating noise in data, smoothing spectra and subtracting background. The linear method of least squares is the method for separating the spectra with overlapping peaks into individual peaks. The combination of them allows the analyzer to perform various analyses even by using the spectra obtained with proportional counters. The analysis of the elements whose atomic numbers are close to each other is also possible. The accuracy of measurement of plating thickness is about 0.2 to 2.0 μm, and that of solution composition is about 0.4 to 0.7 g/l. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  19. Experimental investigation of thermal loading of a horizontal thin plate using infrared camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Y. Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the results of experimental investigations of the characteristics of thermal loading of a thin plate by discrete radiative heat sources. The carbon–steel thin plate is horizontally located above the heat sources. Temperature distribution of the plate is measured using an infrared camera. The effects of various parameters, such as the Rayleigh number, from 107 to 1011, the aspect ratio, from 0.05 to 0.2, the distance ratio, from 0.05 to 0.2, the number of heaters, from 1 to 24, the thickness ratio, from 0.003 to 0.005, and the thermal radiative emissivity, from 0.567 to 0.889 on the maximum temperature and the length of uniform temperature region on a thin plate are explored. The results indicate that the most effective parameters on the order of impact on the maximum temperature is Rayleigh number, the number of heat sources, the distance ratio, the aspect ratio, the surface emissivity, and the plate thickness ratio. Finally, the results demonstrated that there is an optimal distance ratio to maximize the region of uniform temperature on the plate.

  20. Thermal modelling of normal distributed nanoparticles through thickness in an inorganic material matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latré, S.; Desplentere, F.; De Pooter, S.; Seveno, D.

    2017-10-01

    Nanoscale materials showing superior thermal properties have raised the interest of the building industry. By adding these materials to conventional construction materials, it is possible to decrease the total thermal conductivity by almost one order of magnitude. This conductivity is mainly influenced by the dispersion quality within the matrix material. At the industrial scale, the main challenge is to control this dispersion to reduce or even eliminate thermal bridges. This allows to reach an industrially relevant process to balance out the high material cost and their superior thermal insulation properties. Therefore, a methodology is required to measure and describe these nanoscale distributions within the inorganic matrix material. These distributions are either random or normally distributed through thickness within the matrix material. We show that the influence of these distributions is meaningful and modifies the thermal conductivity of the building material. Hence, this strategy will generate a thermal model allowing to predict the thermal behavior of the nanoscale particles and their distributions. This thermal model will be validated by the hot wire technique. For the moment, a good correlation is found between the numerical results and experimental data for a randomly distributed form of nanoparticles in all directions.

  1. {sup 10}B areal density: A novel approach for design and fabrication of B{sub 4}C/6061Al neutron absorbing materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuli [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Wang, Wenxian, E-mail: wangwenxian@tyut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhou, Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University Erie, The Behrend College, Erie, PA 16563 (United States); Chen, Hongsheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhang, Peng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper, a novel approach to evaluate the neutron shielding performance of a boron-containing neutron absorbing material was proposed for the first time through the establishment of a direct relationship between {sup 10}B areal density ({sup 10}BAD) of the material and its neutron absorption ratio. It is found when the {sup 10}BAD of a material is greater than 0.034 g/cm{sup 2}, the material will achieve a good neutron shielding performance. Based on this proposed approach, B{sub 4}C/6061Al composite plates with different B{sub 4}C content (10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%) were successfully fabricated using vacuum hot pressing followed by hot-extrusion. The characteristics of the B{sub 4}C/Al interface were studied in details using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the effects of B{sub 4}C particle content on microstructure and mechanical properties of the Al matrix were investigated. Through current studies, B{sub 4}C/6061Al composite plates possessing good neutron shielding performance and tensile strength are found to be able to be fabricated using either 20 wt% of B{sub 4}C content with a plate thickness of 4.5 mm or 30 wt% B{sub 4}C content with a plate thickness of 3 mm. - Graphical abstract: In this paper, a novel approach to evaluate the neutron shielding ability of a boron-containing neutron shielding material was proposed for the first time through the establishment of a direct relationship between {sup 10}B area density ({sup 10}BAD) of the material and its neutron shielding ratio. - Highlights: •{sup 10}BAD was proposed to evaluate the boron-containing neutron absorber material’s neutron shielding performance. •The direct relationship between the {sup 10}BAD and neutron shielding performance was firstly established. •TEM analysis of the composites reveals that an amorphous layer exists at the Al/B{sub 4}C interface. •Suitable B{sub 4}C contents and thickness for the fabrication of B{sub 4}C/6061A1 NAC plate were given in the

  2. Highly conductive composites for fuel cell flow field plates and bipolar plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Bor Z; Zhamu, Aruna; Song, Lulu

    2014-10-21

    This invention provides a fuel cell flow field plate or bipolar plate having flow channels on faces of the plate, comprising an electrically conductive polymer composite. The composite is composed of (A) at least 50% by weight of a conductive filler, comprising at least 5% by weight reinforcement fibers, expanded graphite platelets, graphitic nano-fibers, and/or carbon nano-tubes; (B) polymer matrix material at 1 to 49.9% by weight; and (C) a polymer binder at 0.1 to 10% by weight; wherein the sum of the conductive filler weight %, polymer matrix weight % and polymer binder weight % equals 100% and the bulk electrical conductivity of the flow field or bipolar plate is at least 100 S/cm. The invention also provides a continuous process for cost-effective mass production of the conductive composite-based flow field or bipolar plate.

  3. Stress analysis of two-dimensional cellular materials with thick cell struts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Do Hyung; Kim, Han Sung; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Al-Hassani, S.T.S.

    2008-01-01

    Finite element analyses (FEA) were performed to thoroughly validate the collapse criteria of cellular materials presented in our previous companion paper. The maximum stress (von-Mises stress) on the cell strut surface and the plastic collapse stress were computed for two-dimensional (2D) cellular materials with thick cell struts. The results from the FEA were compared with those from theoretical criteria of authors. The FEA results were in good agreement with the theoretical results. The results indicate that when bending moment, axial and shear forces are considered, the maximum stress on the strut surface gives significantly different values in the tensile and compressive parts of the cell wall as well as in the two loading directions. Therefore, for the initial yielding of ductile cellular materials and the fracture of brittle cellular materials, in which the maximum stress on the strut surface is evaluated, it is necessary to consider not only the bending moment but also axial and shear forces. In addition, this study shows that for regular cellular materials with the identical strut geometry for all struts, the initial yielding and the plastic collapse under a biaxial state of stress occur not only in the inclined cell struts but also in the vertical struts. These FEA results support the theoretical conclusion of our previous companion paper that the anisotropic 2D cellular material has a truncated yield surface not only on the compressive quadrant but also on the tensile quadrant

  4. Testing and modeling the dynamic response of foam materials for blast protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitek, John H.

    The pressure wave released from an explosion can cause injury to the lungs. A personal armor system concept for blast lung injury protection consists of a polymer foam layer behind a rigid armor plate to be worn over the chest. This research develops a method for testing and modeling the dynamic response of foam materials to be used for down-selection of materials for this application. Constitutive equations for foam materials are incorporated into a lumped parameter model of the combined armor plate and foam system. Impact testing and shock tube testing are used to measure the foam model parameters and validate the model response to a pressure wave load. The plate and foam armor model is then coupled to a model of the human thorax. With a blast pressure wave input, the armor model is evaluated based on how it affects the injury-causing mechanism of chest wall motion. Results show that to reduce chest wall motion, the foam must compress at a relatively constant stress level, which requires a sufficient foam thickness.

  5. Gradient nanostructured surface of a Cu plate processed by incremental frictional sliding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Chuanshi; Huang, Xiaoxu; Hansen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    The flat surface of a Cu plate was processed by incremental frictional sliding at liquid nitrogen temperature. The surface treatment results in a hardened gradient surface layer as thick as 1 mm in the Cu plate, which contains a nanostructured layer on the top with a boundary spacing of the order...

  6. Advances and Trends in Plate Buckling Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    Hydrostatic State of In- Plane Stress. Instituto de Mecanica Aplicada No. 79-21 (Puerto Belgrano, Argentina), June 1979, 10 pp. (to be published). 38. Leissa...and Elastic Stability of Circular Plates With Thickness Varying in a Bilinear Fashion. Instituto de Mecanica Aplicada No. 81-23 (Puerto Belgrano

  7. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to MTR environment measurements. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to Material Testing Reactor environment measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very, F.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Combette, P.; Ferrandis, J.Y.; Fourmentel, D.; Destouches, C.; Villard, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The development of advanced instrumentation for in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor constitutes a main goal for the improvement of the nuclear fuel behavior knowledge. An acoustic method for fission gas release detection was tested with success during a first experiment called REMORA 3 in 2010 and 2011, and the results were used to differentiate helium and fission gas release kinetics under transient operating conditions. This experiment was lead at OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay, France). The maximal temperature on the sensor during the irradiation was about 150 deg. C. In this paper we present a thick film transducer produce by screen printing process. The screen printing of piezoelectric offers a wide range of possible applications for the development of acoustic sensors and piezoelectric structure for measurements in high temperature environment. We firstly produced a Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based paste composed of Pz27 powder from Ferroperm, CF7575 glass, and organic solvent ESL 400. Likewise a Bismuth Titanate based paste synthesized in our laboratory was produced. With these inks we produced thick film up to 130 μm by screen printing process. Material properties characterizations of these thick-film resonators are essential for device design and applications. The piezoelectric coefficients d33 and pyro-electric P(T) coefficient are investigated. The highest P(T) and d33 are respectively 80 μC.m -2 .K -1 and 130 μC.N -1 for the PZT transducer -which validates the fabrication process-. In view of the development of this transducer oriented for high temperature and irradiation environment, we investigated the electrical properties of the transducers for different ranges of frequencies and temperature - from 20 Hz up to 40 MHz between 30 and 400 deg. C. We highlight the evolution of the impedance response and piezoelectric parameters of screen printed piezoelectric structures on alumina. Shortly an irradiation will be realized in order to

  8. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to MTR environment measurements. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to Material Testing Reactor environment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Very, F.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Combette, P.; Ferrandis, J.Y. [University Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); Fourmentel, D.; Destouches, C.; Villard, J.F. [CEA, DEN, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    The development of advanced instrumentation for in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor constitutes a main goal for the improvement of the nuclear fuel behavior knowledge. An acoustic method for fission gas release detection was tested with success during a first experiment called REMORA 3 in 2010 and 2011, and the results were used to differentiate helium and fission gas release kinetics under transient operating conditions. This experiment was lead at OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay, France). The maximal temperature on the sensor during the irradiation was about 150 deg. C. In this paper we present a thick film transducer produce by screen printing process. The screen printing of piezoelectric offers a wide range of possible applications for the development of acoustic sensors and piezoelectric structure for measurements in high temperature environment. We firstly produced a Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based paste composed of Pz27 powder from Ferroperm, CF7575 glass, and organic solvent ESL 400. Likewise a Bismuth Titanate based paste synthesized in our laboratory was produced. With these inks we produced thick film up to 130 μm by screen printing process. Material properties characterizations of these thick-film resonators are essential for device design and applications. The piezoelectric coefficients d33 and pyro-electric P(T) coefficient are investigated. The highest P(T) and d33 are respectively 80 μC.m{sup -2}.K{sup -1} and 130 μC.N{sup -1} for the PZT transducer -which validates the fabrication process-. In view of the development of this transducer oriented for high temperature and irradiation environment, we investigated the electrical properties of the transducers for different ranges of frequencies and temperature - from 20 Hz up to 40 MHz between 30 and 400 deg. C. We highlight the evolution of the impedance response and piezoelectric parameters of screen printed piezoelectric structures on alumina. Shortly an irradiation will be realized in

  9. Measurement of the Microwave Refractive Index of Materials Based on Parallel Plate Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, F.; Pei, J.; Kan, J. S.; Zhao, Q.

    2017-12-01

    An electrical field scanning apparatus based on a parallel plate waveguide method is constructed, which collects the amplitude and phase matrices as a function of the relative position. On the basis of such data, a method for calculating the refractive index of the measured wedge samples is proposed in this paper. The measurement and calculation results of different PTFE samples reveal that the refractive index measured by the apparatus is substantially consistent with the refractive index inferred with the permittivity of the sample. The proposed refractive index calculation method proposed in this paper is a competitive method for the characterization of the refractive index of materials with positive refractive index. Since the apparatus and method can be used to measure and calculate arbitrary direction of the microwave propagation, it is believed that both of them can be applied to the negative refractive index materials, such as metamaterials or “left-handed” materials.

  10. Year-round performance of a modified single-basin solar still with mica plate as a suspended absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sebaii, A.A.; Aboul-Enein, S.; Ramadan, M.R.I.; El-Bialy, E. [Tanta University (Egypt). Faculty of Science

    2000-01-01

    In a previous study, a single-basin solar still with suspended absorber (SBSSBA) made from aluminium was constructed and investigated experimentally and theoretically. It was found that the daily productivity of the still was about 20% higher than that of the conventional single-basin solar still (SBSS). In this paper, the effect of thermal conductivity of the suspended absorber on the daily productivity of the still is investigated experimentally using aluminium, copper, stainless steel and mica plates as suspended absorbers. The results obtained are compared with those obtained for the SBSS tested under the same climatic conditions of Tanta (lat. 30{sup o} 47' N). The results indicate that it is advisable to use suspended plates made from insulating materials, such as mica, plastic, glass, etc. The daily productivity of the modified still with mica is found to be 42% higher than that of SBSS. Further, the effect of thickness of the suspended absorber on the productivity as well as the year-round performances of both SBSSBA and SBSS for the year 1996 are studied by computer simulation. There is good evidence that the productivity of SBSSBA is less dependent on the thickness of the suspended plate. The annual average productivities of the modified still with mica are found to be 23 and 15.8% higher than those of the conventional still when the basin water masses are 80 and 40 kg, respectively. This indicates that the suspended plate becomes more effective at higher masses of basin water. (author)