WorldWideScience

Sample records for thick pack ice

  1. SPH Modelling of Sea-ice Pack Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staroszczyk, Ryszard

    2017-12-01

    The paper is concerned with the problem of sea-ice pack motion and deformation under the action of wind and water currents. Differential equations describing the dynamics of ice, with its very distinct mateFfigrial responses in converging and diverging flows, express the mass and linear momentum balances on the horizontal plane (the free surface of the ocean). These equations are solved by the fully Lagrangian method of smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH). Assuming that the ice behaviour can be approximated by a non-linearly viscous rheology, the proposed SPH model has been used to simulate the evolution of a sea-ice pack driven by wind drag stresses. The results of numerical simulations illustrate the evolution of an ice pack, including variations in ice thickness and ice area fraction in space and time. The effects of different initial ice pack configurations and of different conditions assumed at the coast-ice interface are examined. In particular, the SPH model is applied to a pack flow driven by a vortex wind to demonstrate how well the Lagrangian formulation can capture large deformations and displacements of sea ice.

  2. Simple Cloud Chambers Using Gel Ice Packs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Masahiro; Kubota, Miki

    2012-01-01

    Although cloud chambers are highly regarded as teaching aids for radiation education, school teachers have difficulty in using cloud chambers because they have to prepare dry ice or liquid nitrogen before the experiment. We developed a very simple and inexpensive cloud chamber that uses the contents of gel ice packs which can substitute for dry…

  3. Ecology of southern ocean pack ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brierley, Andrew S; Thomas, David N

    2002-01-01

    Around Antarctica the annual five-fold growth and decay of sea ice is the most prominent physical process and has a profound impact on marine life there. In winter the pack ice canopy extends to cover almost 20 million square kilometres--some 8% of the southern hemisphere and an area larger than the Antarctic continent itself (13.2 million square kilometres)--and is one of the largest, most dynamic ecosystems on earth. Biological activity is associated with all physical components of the sea-ice system: the sea-ice surface; the internal sea-ice matrix and brine channel system; the underside of sea ice and the waters in the vicinity of sea ice that are modified by the presence of sea ice. Microbial and microalgal communities proliferate on and within sea ice and are grazed by a wide range of proto- and macrozooplankton that inhabit the sea ice in large concentrations. Grazing organisms also exploit biogenic material released from the sea ice at ice break-up or melt. Although rates of primary production in the underlying water column are often low because of shading by sea-ice cover, sea ice itself forms a substratum that provides standing stocks of bacteria, algae and grazers significantly higher than those in ice-free areas. Decay of sea ice in summer releases particulate and dissolved organic matter to the water column, playing a major role in biogeochemical cycling as well as seeding water column phytoplankton blooms. Numerous zooplankton species graze sea-ice algae, benefiting additionally because the overlying sea-ice ceiling provides a refuge from surface predators. Sea ice is an important nursery habitat for Antarctic krill, the pivotal species in the Southern Ocean marine ecosystem. Some deep-water fish migrate to shallow depths beneath sea ice to exploit the elevated concentrations of some zooplankton there. The increased secondary production associated with pack ice and the sea-ice edge is exploited by many higher predators, with seals, seabirds and whales

  4. Open-Source Python Modules to Estimate Level Ice Thickness from Ice Charts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C. A.; Deliberty, T. L.; Bernstein, E. R.; Helfrich, S.

    2012-12-01

    A collaborative research effort between the University of Delaware (UD) and National Ice Center (NIC) addresses the task of providing open-source translations of sea ice stage-of-development into level ice thickness estimates on a 4km grid for the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). The characteristics for stage-of-development are quantified from remote sensing imagery with estimates of level ice thickness categories originating from World Meteorological Organization (WMO) egg coded ice charts codified since the 1970s. Conversions utilize Python scripting modules which transform electronic ice charts with WMO egg code characteristics into five level ice thickness categories, in centimeters, (0-10, 10-30, 30-70, 70-120, >120cm) and five ice types (open water, first year pack ice, fast ice, multiyear ice, and glacial ice with a reserve slot for deformed ice fractions). Both level ice thickness categories and ice concentration fractions are reported with uncertainties propagated based on WMO ice stage ranges which serve as proxy estimates for standard deviation. These products are in preparation for use by NCEP, CMC, and NAVO by 2014 based on their modeling requirements for daily products in near-real time. In addition to development, continuing research tests the value of these estimated products against in situ observations to improve both value and uncertainty estimates.

  5. Autonomous Sea-Ice Thickness Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    the conductivity of an infinitely thick slab of sea ice. Ice thickness, Hice, is then obtained by subtracting the height of the ...Thickness Survey of Sea Ice Runway” ERDC/CRREL SR-16-4 ii Abstract We conducted an autonomous survey of sea -ice thickness using the Polar rover Yeti...efficiency relative to manual surveys routinely con- ducted to assess the safety of roads and runways constructed on the sea ice. Yeti executed the

  6. Arctic Sea Ice Freeboard and Thickness

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides measurements of sea ice freeboard and sea ice thickness for the Arctic region. The data were derived from measurements made by from the Ice,...

  7. Greenland Radar Ice Sheet Thickness Measurements

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Two 150-MHz coherent radar depth sounders were developed and flown over the Greenland ice sheet to obtain ice thickness measurements in support of PARCA...

  8. Natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbons in the Antarctic pack ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemirovskaya, I.A.; Novigatsky, A.N.

    2004-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted near the Russian Antarctic stations in May, 2001 in the Pridz Bay and coastal part of the Davies Sea to examine the content of dissolved and suspended forms of aliphatic hydrocarbons in melted snow samples, pack ice and ice cores. The site included clean control areas and polluted test areas. A spill was performed by covering the bare ice surface with marine diesel fuel. The different physical characteristics of clean and polluted ice were measured. This included radiation balance, reflected solar radiation, integral albedo radiation, surface temperature, seawater temperature, salinity at depth, and ice salinity. The study showed that accumulation of natural and anthropogenic hydrocarbon took place in the ice-water barrier zone, mostly in suspended form. It was concluded that for oil spills in pack Antarctic ice, the mechanism of filtration due to convection-diffusion plays an important role in the transformation of diesel fuel. 14 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  9. Russian River Ice Thickness and Duration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of river ice thickness measurements, and beginning and ending dates for river freeze-up events from fifty stations in northern Russia. The...

  10. Thick or Thin Ice Shell on Europa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Scientists are all but certain that Europa has an ocean underneath its icy surface, but they do not know how thick this ice might be. This artist concept illustrates two possible cut-away views through Europa's ice shell. In both, heat escapes, possibly volcanically, from Europa's rocky mantle and is carried upward by buoyant oceanic currents. If the heat from below is intense and the ice shell is thin enough (left), the ice shell can directly melt, causing what are called 'chaos' on Europa, regions of what appear to be broken, rotated and tilted ice blocks. On the other hand, if the ice shell is sufficiently thick (right), the less intense interior heat will be transferred to the warmer ice at the bottom of the shell, and additional heat is generated by tidal squeezing of the warmer ice. This warmer ice will slowly rise, flowing as glaciers do on Earth, and the slow but steady motion may also disrupt the extremely cold, brittle ice at the surface. Europa is no larger than Earth's moon, and its internal heating stems from its eccentric orbit about Jupiter, seen in the distance. As tides raised by Jupiter in Europa's ocean rise and fall, they may cause cracking, additional heating and even venting of water vapor into the airless sky above Europa's icy surface. (Artwork by Michael Carroll.)

  11. Method to estimate drag coefficient at the air/ice interface over drifting open pack ice from remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, U.

    1984-01-01

    A knowledge in near real time, of the surface drag coefficient for drifting pack ice is vital for predicting its motions. And since this is not routinely available from measurements it must be replaced by estimates. Hence, a method for estimating this variable, as well as the drag coefficient at the water/ice interface and the ice thickness, for drifting open pack ice was developed. These estimates were derived from three-day sequences of LANDSAT-1 MSS images and surface weather charts and from the observed minima and maxima of these variables. The method was tested with four data sets in the southeastern Beaufort sea. Acceptable results were obtained for three data sets. Routine application of the method depends on the availability of data from an all-weather air or spaceborne remote sensing system, producing images with high geometric fidelity and high resolution.

  12. How accurate are estimates of glacier ice thickness? Results from ITMIX, the Ice Thickness Models Intercomparison eXperiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farinotti, Daniel; Brinkerhoff, Douglas J.; Clarke, Garry K. C.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the ice thickness distribution of glaciers and ice caps is an important prerequisite for many glaciological and hydrological investigations. A wealth of approaches has recently been presented for inferring ice thickness from characteristics of the surface. With the Ice Thickness Models...

  13. Determination of a Critical Sea Ice Thickness Threshold for the Central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, V.; Frauenfeld, O. W.; Nowotarski, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    While sea ice extent is readily measurable from satellite observations and can be used to assess the overall survivability of the Arctic sea ice pack, determining the spatial variability of sea ice thickness remains a challenge. Turbulent and conductive heat fluxes are extremely sensitive to ice thickness but are dominated by the sensible heat flux, with energy exchange expected to increase with thinner ice cover. Fluxes over open water are strongest and have the greatest influence on the atmosphere, while fluxes over thick sea ice are minimal as heat conduction from the ocean through thick ice cannot reach the atmosphere. We know that turbulent energy fluxes are strongest over open ocean, but is there a "critical thickness of ice" where fluxes are considered non-negligible? Through polar-optimized Weather Research and Forecasting model simulations, this study assesses how the wintertime Arctic surface boundary layer, via sensible heat flux exchange and surface air temperature, responds to sea ice thinning. The region immediately north of Franz Josef Land is characterized by a thickness gradient where sea ice transitions from the thickest multi-year ice to the very thin marginal ice seas. This provides an ideal location to simulate how the diminishing Arctic sea ice interacts with a warming atmosphere. Scenarios include both fixed sea surface temperature domains for idealized thickness variability, and fixed ice fields to detect changes in the ocean-ice-atmosphere energy exchange. Results indicate that a critical thickness threshold exists below 1 meter. The threshold is between 0.4-1 meters thinner than the critical thickness for melt season survival - the difference between first year and multi-year ice. Turbulent heat fluxes and surface air temperature increase as sea ice thickness transitions from perennial ice to seasonal ice. While models predict a sea ice free Arctic at the end of the warm season in future decades, sea ice will continue to transform

  14. STS-48 ESC Earth observation of ice pack, Antarctic Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    STS-48 Earth observation taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, is of the breakup of pack ice along the periphery of the Antarctic Ice Shelf. Strong offshore winds, probably associated with katabatic downdrafts from the interior of the continent, are seen peeling off the edges of the ice shelf into long filaments of sea ice, icebergs, bergy bits, and growlers to flow northward into the South Atlantic Ocean. These photos are used to study ocean wind, tide and current patterns. Similar views photographed during previous missions, when analyzed with these recent views may yield information about regional ice drift and breakup of ice packs. The image was captured using an electronic still camera (ESC), was stored on a removable hard disk or small optical disk, and was converted to a format suitable for downlink transmission. The ESC documentation was part of Development Test Objective (DTO) 648, Electronic Still Photography.

  15. GPR capabilities for ice thickness sampling of low salinity ice and for detecting oil in ice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalumiere, Louis [Sensors by Design Ltd. (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    This report discusses the performance and capabilities test of two airborne ground-penetrating radar (GPR) systems of the Bedford Institute of Oceanography (BIO), Noggin 1000 and Noggin 500, for monitoring low salinity snow and ice properties which was used to measure the thickness of brackish ice on Lake Melville in Labrador and on a tidal river in Prince Edward Island. The work of other researchers is documented and the measurement techniques proposed are compared to the actual GPR approach. Different plots of GPR data taken over snow and freshwater ice and over ice with changing salinity are discussed. An interpretation of brackish ice GPR plots done by the Noggin 1000 and Noggin 500 systems is given based on resolution criterion. Additionally, the capability of the BIO helicopter-borne GPR to detect oil-in-ice has been also investigated, and an opinion on the likelihood of the success of GPR as an oil-in-ice detector is given.

  16. Smoluchowski coagulation models of sea ice thickness distribution dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlovitch, D.; Illner, R.; Monahan, A.

    2011-12-01

    Sea ice thickness distributions display a ubiquitous exponential decrease with thickness. This tail characterizes the range of ice thickness produced by mechanical redistribution of ice through the process of ridging, rafting, and shearing. We investigate how well the thickness distribution can be simulated by representing mechanical redistribution as a generalized stacking process. Such processes are naturally described by a well-studied class of models known as Smoluchowski Coagulation Models (SCMs), which describe the dynamics of a population of fixed-mass "particles" which combine in pairs to form a "particle" with the combined mass of the constituent pair at a rate which depends on the mass of the interacting particles. Like observed sea ice thickness distributions, the mass distribution of the populations generated by SCMs has an exponential or quasi-exponential form. We use SCMs to model sea ice, identifying mass-increasing particle combinations with thickness-increasing ice redistribution processes. Our model couples an SCM component with a thermodynamic component and generates qualitatively accurate thickness distributions with a variety of rate kernels. Our results suggest that the exponential tail of the sea ice thickness distribution arises from the nature of the ridging process, rather than specific physical properties of sea ice or the spatial arrangement of floes, and that the relative strengths of the dynamic and thermodynamic processes are key in accurately simulating the rate at which the sea ice thickness tail drops off with thickness.

  17. Estimation of Antarctic Land-Fast Sea Ice Algal Biomass and Snow Thickness From Under-Ice Radiance Spectra in Two Contrasting Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpan, P.; Meiners, K. M.; Langhorne, P. J.; Heil, P.; Smith, I. J.; Leonard, G. H.; Massom, R. A.; Clementson, L. A.; Haskell, T. G.

    2018-03-01

    Fast ice is an important component of Antarctic coastal marine ecosystems, providing a prolific habitat for ice algal communities. This work examines the relationships between normalized difference indices (NDI) calculated from under-ice radiance measurements and sea ice algal biomass and snow thickness for Antarctic fast ice. While this technique has been calibrated to assess biomass in Arctic fast ice and pack ice, as well as Antarctic pack ice, relationships are currently lacking for Antarctic fast ice characterized by bottom ice algae communities with high algal biomass. We analyze measurements along transects at two contrasting Antarctic fast ice sites in terms of platelet ice presence: near and distant from an ice shelf, i.e., in McMurdo Sound and off Davis Station, respectively. Snow and ice thickness, and ice salinity and temperature measurements support our paired in situ optical and biological measurements. Analyses show that NDI wavelength pairs near the first chlorophyll a (chl a) absorption peak (≈440 nm) explain up to 70% of the total variability in algal biomass. Eighty-eight percent of snow thickness variability is explained using an NDI with a wavelength pair of 648 and 567 nm. Accounting for pigment packaging effects by including the ratio of chl a-specific absorption coefficients improved the NDI-based algal biomass estimation only slightly. Our new observation-based algorithms can be used to estimate Antarctic fast ice algal biomass and snow thickness noninvasively, for example, by using moored sensors (time series) or mapping their spatial distributions using underwater vehicles.

  18. IceBridge Radar L3 Tomographic Ice Thickness V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains Level-3 tomographic ice thickness measurements derived from data captured by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) Multichannel...

  19. Ice thickness measurements and volume estimates for glaciers in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Liss M.; Huss, Matthias; Melvold, Kjetil; Elvehøy, Hallgeir; Winsvold, Solveig H.

    2014-05-01

    Whereas glacier areas in many mountain regions around the world now are well surveyed using optical satellite sensors and available in digital inventories, measurements of ice thickness are sparse in comparison and a global dataset does not exist. Since the 1980s ice thickness measurements have been carried out by ground penetrating radar on many glaciers in Norway, often as part of contract work for hydropower companies with the aim to calculate hydrological divides of ice caps. Measurements have been conducted on numerous glaciers, covering the largest ice caps as well as a few smaller mountain glaciers. However, so far no ice volume estimate for Norway has been derived from these measurements. Here, we give an overview of ice thickness measurements in Norway, and use a distributed model to interpolate and extrapolate the data to provide an ice volume estimate of all glaciers in Norway. We also compare the results to various volume-area/thickness-scaling approaches using values from the literature as well as scaling constants we obtained from ice thickness measurements in Norway. Glacier outlines from a Landsat-derived inventory from 1999-2006 together with a national digital elevation model were used as input data for the ice volume calculations. The inventory covers all glaciers in mainland Norway and consists of 2534 glaciers (3143 glacier units) covering an area of 2692 km2 ± 81 km2. To calculate the ice thickness distribution of glaciers in Norway we used a distributed model which estimates surface mass balance distribution, calculates the volumetric balance flux and converts it into thickness using the flow law for ice. We calibrated this model with ice thickness data for Norway, mainly by adjusting the mass balance gradient. Model results generally agree well with the measured values, however, larger deviations were found for some glaciers. The total ice volume of Norway was estimated to be 275 km3 ± 30 km3. From the ice thickness data set we selected

  20. Retrieval of ice thickness from polarimetric SAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Yueh, S. H.; Nghiem, S. V.; Huynh, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a potential procedure for retrieving ice thickness from multi-frequency polarimetric SAR data for thin ice. This procedure includes first masking out the thicker ice types with a simple classifier and then deriving the thickness of the remaining pixels using a model-inversion technique. The technique used to derive ice thickness from polarimetric observations is provided by a numerical estimator or neural network. A three-layer perceptron implemented with the backpropagation algorithm is used in this investigation with several improved aspects for a faster convergence rate and a better accuracy of the neural network. These improvements include weight initialization, normalization of the output range, the selection of offset constant, and a heuristic learning algorithm. The performance of the neural network is demonstrated by using training data generated by a theoretical scattering model for sea ice matched to the database of interest. The training data are comprised of the polarimetric backscattering coefficients of thin ice and the corresponding input ice parameters to the scattering model. The retrieved ice thickness from the theoretical backscattering coefficients is compare with the input ice thickness to the scattering model to illustrate the accuracy of the inversion method. Results indicate that the network convergence rate and accuracy are higher when multi-frequency training sets are presented. In addition, the dominant backscattering coefficients in retrieving ice thickness are found by comparing the behavior of the network trained backscattering data at various incidence angels. After the neural network is trained with the theoretical backscattering data at various incidence anges, the interconnection weights between nodes are saved and applied to the experimental data to be investigated. In this paper, we illustrate the effectiveness of this technique using polarimetric SAR data collected by the JPL DC-8 radar over a sea ice scene.

  1. GLERL Great Lakes Ice Thickness Data Base, 1966-1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During the winters of 1965/66 through 1976/77, NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (GLERL) collected weekly ice thickness and stratigraphy data at up...

  2. Greenland 5 km DEM, Ice Thickness, and Bedrock Elevation Grids

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Digital Elevation Model (DEM), ice thickness grid, and bedrock elevation grid of Greenland acquired as part of the PARCA program are available in ASCII text format...

  3. Length of perineal pain relief after ice pack application: A quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Bosco Paiva, Caroline; Junqueira Vasconcellos de Oliveira, Sonia Maria; Amorim Francisco, Adriana; da Silva, Renata Luana; de Paula Batista Mendes, Edilaine; Steen, Mary

    2016-04-01

    Ice pack is effective for alleviating postpartum perineal pain in primiparous women while multiparous women's levels of perineal pain appear to be poorly explored. Ice pack is a low-cost non-invasive localised treatment that can be used with no impact on breastfeeding. However, how long perineal analgesia persists after applying an ice pack is still unknown. To evaluate if perineal analgesia is maintained up to 2h after applying an ice pack to the perineum for 20min. A quasi-experimental study, using a pre and post-test design, was undertaken with a sample size of 50 multiparous women in Brazil. Data was collected by structured interview. The intervention involved a single application of an ice pack applied for 20min to the perineal area of women who reported perineal pain ≥3 by use of a numeric rating scale (0-10), with intact perineum, 1st or 2nd degree lacerations or episiotomy, between 6 and 24h after spontaneous vaginal birth. Perineal pain was evaluated at three points of time: before, immediately after and 2h after applying an ice pack. Immediately after applying an ice pack to the perineal area, there was a significant reduction in the severity of perineal pain reported (5.4 vs. 1.0, p<0.0005), which continued for 1h 35min up to 2h after the local application. Ice pack application for 20min is effective for alleviating postpartum perineal pain and continues to be effective between 1h 35min for up to 2h. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of ice thickness and surface properties on light transmission through Arctic sea ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlein, Christian; Arndt, Stefanie; Nicolaus, Marcel; Perovich, Donald K; Jakuba, Michael V; Suman, Stefano; Elliott, Stephen; Whitcomb, Louis L; McFarland, Christopher J; Gerdes, Rüdiger; Boetius, Antje; German, Christopher R

    2015-09-01

    The observed changes in physical properties of sea ice such as decreased thickness and increased melt pond cover severely impact the energy budget of Arctic sea ice. Increased light transmission leads to increased deposition of solar energy in the upper ocean and thus plays a crucial role for amount and timing of sea-ice-melt and under-ice primary production. Recent developments in underwater technology provide new opportunities to study light transmission below the largely inaccessible underside of sea ice. We measured spectral under-ice radiance and irradiance using the new Nereid Under-Ice (NUI) underwater robotic vehicle, during a cruise of the R/V Polarstern to 83°N 6°W in the Arctic Ocean in July 2014. NUI is a next generation hybrid remotely operated vehicle (H-ROV) designed for both remotely piloted and autonomous surveys underneath land-fast and moving sea ice. Here we present results from one of the first comprehensive scientific dives of NUI employing its interdisciplinary sensor suite. We combine under-ice optical measurements with three dimensional under-ice topography (multibeam sonar) and aerial images of the surface conditions. We investigate the influence of spatially varying ice-thickness and surface properties on the spatial variability of light transmittance during summer. Our results show that surface properties such as melt ponds dominate the spatial distribution of the under-ice light field on small scales (sea ice-thickness is the most important predictor for light transmission on larger scales. In addition, we propose the use of an algorithm to obtain histograms of light transmission from distributions of sea ice thickness and surface albedo.

  5. Research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in situ burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; Morrison, J.

    2005-01-01

    The severe limitations of conventional containment and recovery systems for oil spills in pack ice have been demonstrated during skimmer tests conducted in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea. In-situ burning may be one of the few viable alternatives to quickly remove oil spilled in pack ice, but the slicks are often too thin, preventing effective ignition or burning. This study examined ways to thicken the slicks to the 2- to 5-mm range so that effective burns could be carried out. Specific chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders or oil collecting agents can be used to clear and contain oil slicks on water surfaces. Since these agents can spread quickly on water, only a small quantity is needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water. Applying a chemical herder around the periphery of spilled oil can contract the oil into a thicker slick. Two chemical products were developed and tested in the 1970s and 1980s: Shell Herder and Exxon OC-5 Oil Collector. However, they are no longer used because they were effective only in very calm conditions. Corexit EC9580 which exhibits similar slick herding abilities and which has a spreading pressure of 39.5 mN/m is still commercially available. This study tested formulations of herding agents for use in pack ice. Concerns regarding the potential toxicity risk of using these agents in pack ice were also addressed. The agents should not harm the environment because they have low toxicity and only very small quantities are used. Two series of tests conducted to assess the potential for herding agents to help ignite and effectively burn thin oil slicks in loose pack ice conditions. The agents proved to be effective on cold water and on thick slicks. The composition of the oil played an important role in determining potential efficiency. It was concluded that applying herders to thin oil slicks in pack ice shows considerable promise for thickening them for in-situ burning. 12 refs., 4 tabs., 17 figs

  6. The NRL 2011 Airborne Sea-Ice Thickness Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brozena, J. M.; Gardner, J. M.; Liang, R.; Ball, D.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2011-12-01

    In March of 2011, the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) performed a study focused on the estimation of sea-ice thickness from airborne radar, laser and photogrammetric sensors. The study was funded by ONR to take advantage of the Navy's ICEX2011 ice-camp /submarine exercise, and to serve as a lead-in year for NRL's five year basic research program on the measurement and modeling of sea-ice scheduled to take place from 2012-2017. Researchers from the Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (CRREL) and NRL worked with the Navy Arctic Submarine Lab (ASL) to emplace a 9 km-long ground-truth line near the ice-camp (see Richter-Menge et al., this session) along which ice and snow thickness were directly measured. Additionally, US Navy submarines collected ice draft measurements under the groundtruth line. Repeat passes directly over the ground-truth line were flown and a grid surrounding the line was also flown to collect altimeter, LiDAR and Photogrammetry data. Five CRYOSAT-2 satellite tracks were underflown, as well, coincident with satellite passage. Estimates of sea ice thickness are calculated assuming local hydrostatic balance, and require the densities of water, ice and snow, snow depth, and freeboard (defined as the elevation of sea ice, plus accumulated snow, above local sea level). Snow thickness is estimated from the difference between LiDAR and radar altimeter profiles, the latter of which is assumed to penetrate any snow cover. The concepts we used to estimate ice thickness are similar to those employed in NASA ICEBRIDGE sea-ice thickness estimation. Airborne sensors used for our experiment were a Reigl Q-560 scanning topographic LiDAR, a pulse-limited (2 nS), 10 GHz radar altimeter and an Applanix DSS-439 digital photogrammetric camera (for lead identification). Flights were conducted on a Twin Otter aircraft from Pt. Barrow, AK, and averaged ~ 5 hours in duration. It is challenging to directly compare results from the swath LiDAR with the

  7. Scaling aspects of the sea-ice-drift dynamics and pack fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chmel

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available A study of the sea-ice dynamics in the periods of time prior to and during the cycles of basin-wide fragmentation of the ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is presented. The fractal geometry of the ice-sheets limited by leads and ridges was assessed using the satellite images, while the data on the correlated sea-ice motion were obtained in the research stations "North Pole 32" and "North Pole 33" established on the ice pack. The revealed decrease of the fractal dimension as a result of large-scale fragmentation is consistent with the localization of the fracture process (leads propagation. At the same time, the scaling properties of the distribution of amplitudes of ice-fields accelerations were insensitive to the event of sea-ice fragmentation. The temporal distribution of the accelerations was scale-invariant during "quiet" periods of sea-ice drift but disordered in the period of mechanical perturbation. The period of decorrelated (in time ice-field motion during the important fracture event was interpreted as an inter-level transition in the hierarchic dynamical system. The mechanism of the long-range correlations in the sea-ice cover, including the fracture process, is suggested to be in relation with the self-organized oscillation dynamics inherent in the ice pack.

  8. Distributed ice thickness and glacier volume in southern South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Davies, Bethan J.; James, William H. M.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Glasser, Neil F.

    2016-11-01

    South American glaciers, including those in Patagonia, presently contribute the largest amount of meltwater to sea level rise per unit glacier area in the world. Yet understanding of the mechanisms behind the associated glacier mass balance changes remains unquantified partly because models are hindered by a lack of knowledge of subglacial topography. This study applied a perfect-plasticity model along glacier centre-lines to derive a first-order estimate of ice thickness and then interpolated these thickness estimates across glacier areas. This produced the first complete coverage of distributed ice thickness, bed topography and volume for 617 glaciers between 41°S and 55°S and in 24 major glacier regions. Maximum modelled ice thicknesses reach 1631 m ± 179 m in the South Patagonian Icefield (SPI), 1315 m ± 145 m in the North Patagonian Icefield (NPI) and 936 m ± 103 m in Cordillera Darwin. The total modelled volume of ice is 1234.6 km3 ± 246.8 km3 for the NPI, 4326.6 km3 ± 865.2 km3 for the SPI and 151.9 km3 ± 30.38 km3 for Cordillera Darwin. The total volume was modelled to be 5955 km3 ± 1191 km3, which equates to 5458.3 Gt ± 1091.6 Gt ice and to 15.08 mm ± 3.01 mm sea level equivalent (SLE). However, a total area of 655 km2 contains ice below sea level and there are 282 individual overdeepenings with a mean depth of 38 m and a total volume if filled with water to the brim of 102 km3. Adjusting the potential SLE for the ice volume below sea level and for the maximum potential storage of meltwater in these overdeepenings produces a maximum potential sea level rise (SLR) of 14.71 mm ± 2.94 mm. We provide a calculation of the present ice volume per major river catchment and we discuss likely changes to southern South America glaciers in the future. The ice thickness and subglacial topography modelled by this study will facilitate future studies of ice dynamics and glacier isostatic adjustment, and will be important for projecting water resources and

  9. ICESat Observations of Seasonal and Interannual Variations of Sea-Ice Freeboard and Estimated Thickness in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica (2003-2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Donghui; Robbins, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Sea-ice freeboard heights for 17 ICESat campaign periods from 2003 to 2009 are derived from ICESat data. Freeboard is combined with snow depth from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) data and nominal densities of snow, water and sea ice, to estimate sea-ice thickness. Sea-ice freeboard and thickness distributions show clear seasonal variations that reflect the yearly cycle of growth and decay of the Weddell Sea (Antarctica) pack ice. During October-November, sea ice grows to its seasonal maximum both in area and thickness; the mean freeboards are 0.33-0.41 m and the mean thicknesses are 2.10-2.59 m. During February-March, thinner sea ice melts away and the sea-ice pack is mainly distributed in the west Weddell Sea; the mean freeboards are 0.35-0.46 m and the mean thicknesses are 1.48-1.94 m. During May-June, the mean freeboards and thicknesses are 0.26-0.29 m and 1.32-1.37 m, respectively. The 6 year trends in sea-ice extent and volume are (0.023+/-0.051) x 10(exp 6)sq km/a (0.45%/a) and (0.007+/-1.0.092) x 10(exp 3)cu km/a (0.08%/a); however, the large standard deviations indicate that these positive trends are not statistically significant.

  10. Ice shelf thickness change from 2010 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, A.; Shepherd, A.; Gilbert, L.; Muir, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Floating ice shelves fringe 74 % of Antarctica's coastline, providing a direct link between the ice sheet and the surrounding oceans. Over the last 25 years, ice shelves have retreated, thinned, and collapsed catastrophically. While change in the mass of floating ice shelves has only a modest steric impact on the rate of sea-level rise, their loss can affect the mass balance of the grounded ice-sheet by influencing the rate of ice flow inland, due to the buttressing effect. Here we use CryoSat-2 altimetry data to map the detailed pattern of ice shelf thickness change in Antarctica. We exploit the dense spatial sampling and repeat coverage provided by the CryoSat-2 synthetic aperture radar interferometric mode (SARIn) to investigate data acquired between 2010 to the present day. We find that ice shelf thinning rates can exhibit large fluctuations over short time periods, and that the improved spatial resolution of CryoSat-2 enables us to resolve the spatial pattern of thinning with ever greater detail in Antarctica. In the Amundsen Sea, ice shelves at the terminus of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers have thinned at rates in excess of 5 meters per year for more than two decades. We observe the highest rates of basal melting near to the ice sheet grounding line, reinforcing the importance of high resolution datasets. On the Antarctic Peninsula, in contrast to the 3.8 m per decade of thinning observed since 1992, we measure an increase in the surface elevation of the Larsen-C Ice-Shelf during the CryoSat-2 period.

  11. Sea-Ice Thickness Monitoring from Sensor Equipped Inuit Sleds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodwell, Shane; Jones, Bryn; Wilkinson, Jeremy

    2013-04-01

    A novel instrumentation package capable of measuring sea-ice thickness autonomously has been designed for long-term deployment upon the dog drawn sleds of the indigenous peoples of the Arctic. The device features a range of sensors that have been integrated with an electromagnetic induction device. These include a global positioning system, temperature sensor, tilt meter and accelerometer. Taken together, this system is able to provide accurate (+/-5cm) measurements of ice thickness with spatio-temporal resolution ranging from 1m to 5m every second. Autonomous data transmission capability is provided via GSM, inspired by the fact that many of the coastal communities in Greenland possess modern cell-phone infrastructure, enabling an inexpensive means of data-retrieval. Such data is essential in quantifying the sea-ice mass balance; given that existing satellite based systems are unable to measure ice-thickness directly. Field-campaign results from a prototype device, deployed in the North West of Greenland during three consecutive seasons, have demonstrated successful proof-of-concept when compared to data provided by ice mass balance (IMB) stations provided at fixed positions along the route of the sled. This project highlights not only the use of novel polar technology, but how opportunistic deployment using an existing roving platform (Inuit sledges) can provide economical, yet highly valuable, data for instrumentation development.

  12. Ice Thickness, Melting Rates and Styles of Activity in Ice-Volcano Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsson, M. T.

    2005-12-01

    In most cases when eruptions occur within glaciers they lead to rapid ice melting, jokulhlaups and/or lahars. Many parameters influence the style of activity and its impact on the environment. These include ice thickness (size of glacier), bedrock geometry, magma flow rate and magma composition. The eruptions that have been observed can roughly be divided into: (1) eruptions under several hundred meters thick ice on a relatively flat bedrock, (2) eruptions on flat or sloping bed through relatively thin ice, and (3) volcanism where effects are limitied to confinement of lava flows or melting of ice by pyroclastic flows or surges. This last category (ice-contact volcanism) need not cause much ice melting. Many of the deposits formed by Pleistocene volcanism in Iceland, British Columbia and Antarctica belong to the first category. An important difference between this type of activity and submarine activity (where pressure is hydrostatic) is that pressure at vents may in many cases be much lower than glaciostatic due to partial support of ice cover over vents by the surrounding glacier. Reduced pressure favours explosive activity. Thus the effusive/explosive transition may occur several hundred metres underneath the ice surface. Explosive fragmentation of magma leads to much higher rates of heat transfer than does effusive eruption of pillow lavas, and hence much higher melting rates. This effect of reduced pressure at vents will be less pronounced in a large ice sheet than in a smaller glacier or ice cap, since the hydraulic gradient that drives water away from an eruption site will be lower in the large glacier. This may have implications for form and type of eruption deposits and their relationship with ice thickness and glacier size.

  13. On the estimation of ice thickness from scattering observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. D.; Squire, V. A.

    2010-04-01

    This paper is inspired by the proposition that it may be possible to extract descriptive physical parameters - in particular the ice thickness, of a sea-ice field from ocean wave information. The motivation is that mathematical theory describing wave propagation in such media has reached a point where the inherent heterogeneity, expressed as pressure ridge keels and sails, leads, thickness variations and changes of material property and draught, can be fully assimilated exactly or through approximations whose limitations are understood. On the basis that leads have the major wave scattering effect for most sea-ice [Williams, T.D., Squire, V.A., 2004. Oblique scattering of plane flexural-gravity waves by heterogeneities in sea ice. Proc. R. Soc. Lon. Ser.-A 460 (2052), 3469-3497], a model two dimensional sea-ice sheet composed of a large number of such features, randomly dispersed, is constructed. The wide spacing approximation is used to predict how wave trains of different period will be affected, after first establishing that this produces results that are very close to the exact solution. Like Kohout and Meylan [Kohout, A.L., Meylan, M.H., 2008. An elastic plate model for wave attenuation and ice floe breaking in the marginal ice zone. J. Geophys. Res. 113, C09016, doi:10.1029/2007JC004434], we find that on average the magnitude of a wave transmitted by a field of leads decays exponentially with the number of leads. Then, by fitting a curve based on this assumption to the data, the thickness of the ice sheet is obtained. The attenuation coefficient can always be calculated numerically by ensemble averaging but in some cases more rapidly computed approximations work extremely well. Moreover, it is found that the underlying thickness can be determined to good accuracy by the method as long as Archimedean draught is correctly provided for, suggesting that waves can indeed be effective as a remote sensing agent to measure ice thickness in areas where pressure ridges

  14. The relation between sea ice thickness and freeboard in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Alexandrov

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrieval of Arctic sea ice thickness from CryoSat-2 radar altimeter freeboard data requires observational data to verify the relation between these two variables. In this study in-situ ice and snow data from 689 observation sites, obtained during the Sever expeditions in the 1980s, have been used to establish an empirical relation between thickness and freeboard of FY ice in late winter. Estimates of mean and variability of snow depth, snow density and ice density were produced on the basis of many field observations. These estimates have been used in the hydrostatic equilibrium equation to retrieve ice thickness as a function of ice freeboard, snow depth and snow/ice density. The accuracy of the ice thickness retrieval has been calculated from the estimated variability in ice and snow parameters and error of ice freeboard measurements. It is found that uncertainties of ice density and freeboard are the major sources of error in ice thickness calculation. For FY ice, retrieval of ≈ 1.0 m (2.0 m thickness has an uncertainty of 46% (37%, and for MY ice, retrieval of 2.4 m (3.0 m thickness has an uncertainty of 20% (18%, assuming that the freeboard error is ± 0.03 m for both ice types. For MY ice the main uncertainty is ice density error, since the freeboard error is relatively smaller than that for FY ice. If the freeboard error can be reduced to 0.01 m by averaging measurements from CryoSat-2, the error in thickness retrieval is reduced to about 32% for a 1.0 m thick FY floe and to about 18% for a 2.4 m thick MY floe. The remaining error is dominated by uncertainty in ice density. Provision of improved ice density data is therefore important for accurate retrieval of ice thickness from CryoSat-2 data.

  15. Sympagic occurrence of Eusirid and Lysianassoid amphipods under Antarctic pack ice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krapp, Rupert H.; Berge, Jorgen; Flores, Hauke; Gulliksen, Bjorn; Werner, Iris

    2008-01-01

    During three Antarctic expeditions (2004, ANT XXI-4 and XXII-2; 2006, ANT XXIII-6) with the German research icebreaker R/V Polarstern, six different amphipod species were recorded under the pack ice of the Weddell Sea and the Lazarev Sea. These cruises covered Austral autumn (April), summer

  16. Low Density of Top Predators (Seabirds and Marine Mammals in the High Arctic Pack Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude R. Joiris

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The at-sea distribution of top predators, seabirds and marine mammals, was determined in the high Arctic pack ice on board the icebreaker RV Polarstern in July to September 2014. In total, 1,620 transect counts were realised, lasting 30 min each. The five most numerous seabird species represented 74% of the total of 15,150 individuals registered: kittiwake Rissa tridactyla, fulmar Fulmarus glacialis, puffin Fratercula arctica, Ross’s gull Rhodostethia rosea, and little auk Alle alle. Eight cetacean species were tallied for a total of 330 individuals, mainly white-beaked dolphin Lagenorhynchus albirostris and fin whale Balaenoptera physalus. Five pinniped species were represented by a total of 55 individuals and the polar bear Ursus maritimus was represented by 12 individuals. Four main geographical zones were identified: from Tromsø to the outer marginal ice zone (OMIZ, the Arctic pack ice (close pack ice, CPI, the end of Lomonosov Ridge off Siberia, and the route off Siberia and northern Norway. Important differences were detected between zones, both in species composition and in individual abundance. Low numbers of species and high proportion of individuals for some of them can be considered to reflect very low biodiversity. Numbers encountered in zones 2 to 4 were very low in comparison with other European Arctic seas. The observed differences showed strong patterns.

  17. Sea-ice thickness from field measurements in the northwestern Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jennifer; Spreen, Gunnar; Gerland, Sebastian; Haas, Christian; Hendricks, Stefan; Kaleschke, Lars; Wang, Caixin

    2017-02-01

    The Barents Sea is one of the fastest changing regions of the Arctic, and has experienced the strongest decline in winter-time sea-ice area in the Arctic, at -23±4% decade-1. Sea-ice thickness in the Barents Sea is not well studied. We present two previously unpublished helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM) ice thickness measurements from the northwestern Barents Sea acquired in March 2003 and 2014. The HEM data are compared to ice thickness calculated from ice draft measured by ULS deployed between 1994 and 1996. These data show that ice thickness varies greatly from year to year; influenced by the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that govern local formation vs long-range advection. In a year with a large inflow of sea-ice from the Arctic Basin, the Barents Sea ice cover is dominated by thick multiyear ice; as was the case in 2003 and 1995. In a year with an ice cover that was mainly grown in situ, the ice will be thin and mechanically unstable; as was the case in 2014. The HEM data allow us to explore the spatial and temporal variability in ice thickness. In 2003 the dominant ice class was more than 2 years old; and modal sea-ice thickness varied regionally from 0.6 to 1.4 m, with the thinner ice being either first-year ice, or multiyear ice which had come into contact with warm Atlantic water. In 2014 the ice cover was predominantly locally grown ice less than 1 month old (regional modes of 0.5-0.8 m). These two situations represent two extremes of a range of possible ice thickness distributions that can present very different conditions for shipping traffic; or have a different impact on heat transport from ocean to atmosphere.

  18. Biogeochemical Impact of Snow Cover and Cyclonic Intrusions on the Winter Weddell Sea Ice Pack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tison, J.-L.; Schwegmann, S.; Dieckmann, G.; Rintala, J.-M.; Meyer, H.; Moreau, S.; Vancoppenolle, M.; Nomura, D.; Engberg, S.; Blomster, L. J.; Hendrickx, S.; Uhlig, C.; Luhtanen, A.-M.; de Jong, J.; Janssens, J.; Carnat, G.; Zhou, J.; Delille, B.

    2017-12-01

    Sea ice is a dynamic biogeochemical reactor and a double interface actively interacting with both the atmosphere and the ocean. However, proper understanding of its annual impact on exchanges, and therefore potentially on the climate, notably suffer from the paucity of autumnal and winter data sets. Here we present the results of physical and biogeochemical investigations on winter Antarctic pack ice in the Weddell Sea (R. V. Polarstern AWECS cruise, June-August 2013) which are compared with those from two similar studies conducted in the area in 1986 and 1992. The winter 2013 was characterized by a warm sea ice cover due to the combined effects of deep snow and frequent warm cyclones events penetrating southward from the open Southern Ocean. These conditions were favorable to high ice permeability and cyclic events of brine movements within the sea ice cover (brine tubes), favoring relatively high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations. We discuss the timing of this algal activity showing that arguments can be presented in favor of continued activity during the winter due to the specific physical conditions. Large-scale sea ice model simulations also suggest a context of increasingly deep snow, warm ice, and large brine fractions across the three observational years, despite the fact that the model is forced with a snowfall climatology. This lends support to the claim that more severe Antarctic sea ice conditions, characterized by a longer ice season, thicker, and more concentrated ice are sufficient to increase the snow depth and, somehow counterintuitively, to warm the ice.

  19. Retrieval of sea ice thickness during Arctic summer using melt pond color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, L.; Nicolaus, M.; Heygster, G.

    2016-12-01

    The thickness of sea ice is an important climatic variable. Together with the ice concentration, it defines the total sea ice volume, is linked within the climatic feedback mechanisms and affects the Arctic energy balance greatly. During Arctic summer, the sea ice cover changes rapidly, which includes the presence of melt ponds, as well as reduction of ice albedo and ice thickness. Currently available remote sensing retrievals of sea ice thickness utilize data from altimeter, microwave, thermal infrared sensors and their combinations. All of these methods are compromised in summer in the presence of melt. This only leaves in situ and airborne sea ice thickness data available in summer. At the same time, data of greater coverage is needed for assimilation in global circulation models and correct estimation of ice mass balance.This study presents a new approach to estimate sea ice thickness in summer in the presence of melt ponds. Analysis of field data obtained during the RV "Polarstern" cruise ARK27/3 (August - October 2012) has shown a clear connection of ice thickness under melt ponds to their measured spectral albedo and to melt pond color in the hue-saturation-luminance color space from field photographs. An empirical function is derived from the HSL values and applied to aerial imagery obtained during various airborne campaigns. Comparison to in situ ice thickness shows a good correspondence to the ice thickness value retrieved in the melt ponds. A similar retrieval is developed for satellite spectral bands using the connection of the measured pond spectral albedo to the ice thickness within the melt ponds. Correction of the retrieved ice thickness in ponds to derive total thickness of sea ice is discussed. Case studies and application to very high resolution optical data are presented, as well as a concept to transfer the method to satellite data of lower spatial resolution where melt ponds become subpixel features.

  20. Unified Sea Ice Thickness Climate Data Record Collection Spanning 1947-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Unified Sea Ice Thickness Climate Data Record is the result of a concerted effort to collect as many observations as possible of Arctic sea-ice draft, freeboard,...

  1. Movements of female polar bears (Usrus maritimus) in the East Greenland pack ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiig, Øystein; Born, Erik W.; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    2003-01-01

    The movements of two adult female polar bears (Ursus maritimus) in East Greenland and the Greenland Sea area were studied by use of satellite telemetry between the fall of 1994 and the summer of 1998. One female was tracked for 621 days, the other for 1,415 days. During this time the females used...... for a closer monitoring of the effects of this change on the East Greenland polar bear population....... movement rates varied between 0.32 and 0.76km/h. Both bears had very large home ranges (242,000 and 468,000 km(2)) within the dynamic pack ice of the Greenland Sea. The facts that the bears made extensive use of the offshore sea ice and that there is a marked reduction of the Greenland Sea ice call...

  2. On the Arctic Ocean ice thickness response to changes in the external forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stranne, Christian; Bjoerk, Goeran [University of Gothenburg, Department of Earth Sciences, Box 460, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    Submarine and satellite observations show that the Arctic Ocean ice cover has undergone a large thickness reduction and a decrease in the areal extent during the last decades. Here the response of the Arctic Ocean ice cover to changes in the poleward atmospheric energy transport, F{sub wall}, is investigated using coupled atmosphere-ice-ocean column models. Two models with highly different complexity are used in order to illustrate the importance of different internal processes and the results highlight the dramatic effects of the negative ice thickness - ice volume export feedback and the positive surface albedo feedback. The steady state ice thickness as a function of F{sub wall} is determined for various model setups and defines what we call ice thickness response curves. When a variable surface albedo and snow precipitation is included, a complex response curve appears with two distinct regimes: a perennial ice cover regime with a fairly linear response and a less responsive seasonal ice cover regime. The two regimes are separated by a steep transition associated with surface albedo feedback. The associated hysteresis is however small, indicating that the Arctic climate system does not have an irreversible tipping point behaviour related to the surface albedo feedback. The results are discussed in the context of the recent reduction of the Arctic sea ice cover. A new mechanism related to regional and temporal variations of the ice divergence within the Arctic Ocean is presented as an explanation for the observed regional variation of the ice thickness reduction. Our results further suggest that the recent reduction in areal ice extent and loss of multiyear ice is related to the albedo dependent transition between seasonal and perennial ice i.e. large areas of the Arctic Ocean that has previously been dominated by multiyear ice might have been pushed below a critical mean ice thickness, corresponding to the above mentioned transition, and into a state dominated

  3. Linking Regional Winter Sea Ice Thickness and Surface Roughness to Spring Melt Pond Fraction on Landfast Arctic Sea Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha Nasonova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Arctic sea ice cover has decreased strongly in extent, thickness, volume and age in recent decades. The melt season presents a significant challenge for sea ice forecasting due to uncertainty associated with the role of surface melt ponds in ice decay at regional scales. This study quantifies the relationships of spring melt pond fraction (fp with both winter sea ice roughness and thickness, for landfast first-year sea ice (FYI and multiyear sea ice (MYI. In 2015, airborne measurements of winter sea ice thickness and roughness, as well as high-resolution optical data of melt pond covered sea ice, were collected along two ~5.2 km long profiles over FYI- and MYI-dominated regions in the Canadian Arctic. Statistics of winter sea ice thickness and roughness were compared to spring fp using three data aggregation approaches, termed object and hybrid-object (based on image segments, and regularly spaced grid-cells. The hybrid-based aggregation approach showed strongest associations because it considers the morphology of the ice as well as footprints of the sensors used to measure winter sea ice thickness and roughness. Using the hybrid-based data aggregation approach it was found that winter sea ice thickness and roughness are related to spring fp. A stronger negative correlation was observed between FYI thickness and fp (Spearman rs = −0.85 compared to FYI roughness and fp (rs = −0.52. The association between MYI thickness and fp was also negative (rs = −0.56, whereas there was no association between MYI roughness and fp. 47% of spring fp variation for FYI and MYI can be explained by mean thickness. Thin sea ice is characterized by low surface roughness allowing for widespread ponding in the spring (high fp whereas thick sea ice has undergone dynamic thickening and roughening with topographic features constraining melt water into deeper channels (low fp. This work provides an important contribution towards the parameterizations of fp in

  4. Measurement of sea ice thickness using electromagnetic sounding; Denji tansaho wo mochiita kaihyoatsu no keisoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawauchi, K; Suzuki, I; Goto, N [Muroran Institute of Technology, Hokkaido (Japan); Hoshiyama, K

    1997-10-22

    Thickness of sea ice is measured by an electromagnetic method making use of the peculiarities of sea ice. Sea ice floats on the seawater (saline water), and the result is two horizontal layers greatly different from each other in conductivity, with seawater being highly conductive and ice being non-conductive. A study is conducted on Lake Kumatori, a saline lake in Abashiri City, in which effort a board of naturally frozen sea ice and a board of sea ice allowed to form on the sea surface at a spot from which ice has been removed are examined. A portable electromagnetic probe EM38 of GEONICS Company is employed to perform measurement in a horizontal dipole mode. To determine the relationship between the obtained conductivity measurements and sea ice thickness, holes are bored in the sea ice boards for the measurement of their thickness for the formulation of an experimental regression equation. Measurements along the traverse line 1 and traverse line 3 are converted into sea ice thickness by use of the experimental regression equation, and the result is that ice thickness is the greatest near the quay growing thinner away from the shore. The study shows that sea ice thickness may be measured accurately by electromagnetic probing. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Sea-ice thickness from airborne laser altimetry over the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidegaard, Sine Munk; Forsberg, René

    2002-01-01

    We present a new method to measure ice thickness of polar sea-ice freeboard heights, using airborne laser altimetry combined with a precise geoid model, giving estimates of thickness of ice through isostatic equilibrium assumptions. In the paper we analyze a number of flights from the Polar Sea off...... Northern Greenland, and estimate accuracies of the estimated freeboard values to be at a 13 cm level, corresponding to about 1 m in absolute thickness....

  6. High interannual variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxon, Seymour; Peacock, Neil; Smith, Doug

    2003-10-30

    Possible future changes in Arctic sea ice cover and thickness, and consequent changes in the ice-albedo feedback, represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of future temperature rise. Knowledge of the natural variability of sea ice thickness is therefore critical for its representation in global climate models. Numerical simulations suggest that Arctic ice thickness varies primarily on decadal timescales owing to changes in wind and ocean stresses on the ice, but observations have been unable to provide a synoptic view of sea ice thickness, which is required to validate the model results. Here we use an eight-year time-series of Arctic ice thickness, derived from satellite altimeter measurements of ice freeboard, to determine the mean thickness field and its variability from 65 degrees N to 81.5 degrees N. Our data reveal a high-frequency interannual variability in mean Arctic ice thickness that is dominated by changes in the amount of summer melt, rather than by changes in circulation. Our results suggest that a continued increase in melt season length would lead to further thinning of Arctic sea ice.

  7. Wave scattering by an axisymmetric ice floe of varying thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Luke G.; Biggs, Nicholas R. T.; Porter, David

    2009-04-01

    The problem of water wave scattering by a circular ice floe, floating in fluid of finite depth, is formulated and solved numerically. Unlike previous investigations of such situations, here we allow the thickness of the floe (and the fluid depth) to vary axisymmetrically and also incorporate a realistic non-zero draught. A numerical approximation to the solution of this problem is obtained to an arbitrary degree of accuracy by combining a Rayleigh-Ritz approximation of the vertical motion with an appropriate variational principle. This numerical solution procedure builds upon the work of Bennets et al. (2007, J. Fluid Mech., 579, 413-443). As part of the numerical formulation, we utilize a Fourier cosine expansion of the azimuthal motion, resulting in a system of ordinary differential equations to solve in the radial coordinate for each azimuthal mode. The displayed results concentrate on the response of the floe rather than the scattered wave field and show that the effects of introducing the new features of varying floe thickness and a realistic draught are significant.

  8. Antarctic ice sheet thickness estimation based on P-receiver function and waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, P.; Li, F.; LI, Z.; Li, J.; Yang, Y.; Hao, W.

    2016-12-01

    Antarctic ice sheet thickness is key parameter and boundary condition for ice sheet model construction, which has great significance for glacial isostatic adjustment, ice sheet mass balance and global change study. Ice thickness acquired utilizing seismological receiver function method can complement and verify with results obtained by radar echo sounding method. In this paper, P-receiver functions(PRFs) are extracted for stations deployed on Antarctic ice sheet, then Vp/Vs ratio and ice thickness are obtained using H-Kappa stacking. Comparisons are made between Bedmap2 dataset and the ice thickness from PRFs, most of the absolute value of the differences are less than 200 meters, only a few reach 600 meters. Taking into account of the intensity of Bedmap2 dataset survey lines and the uncertainty of radio echo sounding, as well as the inherit complexity of the internal ice structure beneath some stations, the ice thickness obtained from receiver function method is reliable. However limitation exists when using H-Kappa stacking method for stations where sediment squeezed between the ice and the bed rock layer. For better verifying the PRF result, a global optimizing method-Neighbourhood algotithm(NA) and spline interpolation are used to modeling PRFs assuming an isotropic layered ice sheet with depth varied densities and velocities beneath the stations. Then the velocity structure and ice sheet thickness are obtained through nonlinear searching by optimally fitting the real and the theoretical PRFs. The obtained ice sheet thickness beneath the stations agree well with the former H-Kappa method, but further detailed study are needed to constrain the inner ice velocity structure.

  9. Sea-ice Thickness and Draft Statistics from Submarine ULS, Moored ULS, and a Coupled Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of estimates of mean values of sea-ice thickness and sea-ice draft in meters computed from three different input data sets: sea ice draft from...

  10. Modeling the Thickness of Perennial Ice Covers on Stratified Lakes of the Taylor Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obryk, M. K.; Doran, P. T.; Hicks, J. A.; McKay, C. P.; Priscu, J. C.

    2016-01-01

    A one-dimensional ice cover model was developed to predict and constrain drivers of long term ice thickness trends in chemically stratified lakes of Taylor Valley, Antarctica. The model is driven by surface radiative heat fluxes and heat fluxes from the underlying water column. The model successfully reproduced 16 years (between 1996 and 2012) of ice thickness changes for west lobe of Lake Bonney (average ice thickness = 3.53 m; RMSE = 0.09 m, n = 118) and Lake Fryxell (average ice thickness = 4.22 m; RMSE = 0.21 m, n = 128). Long-term ice thickness trends require coupling with the thermal structure of the water column. The heat stored within the temperature maximum of lakes exceeding a liquid water column depth of 20 m can either impede or facilitate ice thickness change depending on the predominant climatic trend (temperature cooling or warming). As such, shallow (< 20 m deep water columns) perennially ice-covered lakes without deep temperature maxima are more sensitive indicators of climate change. The long-term ice thickness trends are a result of surface energy flux and heat flux from the deep temperature maximum in the water column, the latter of which results from absorbed solar radiation.

  11. High-resolution ice thickness and bed topography of a land-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindbäck, K.; Pettersson, R.; Doyle, S. H.

    2014-01-01

    We present ice thickness and bed topography maps with high spatial resolution (250 to 500 m) of a and-terminating section of the Greenland Ice Sheet derived from combined ground-based and airborne radar surveys. The data have a total area of ~12000 km2 and cover the whole ablation area of the out...

  12. Experimental Investigation of the Resistance Performance and Heave and Pitch Motions of Ice-Going Container Ship Under Pack Ice Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chun-yu; Xie, Chang; Zhang, Jin-zhao; Wang, Shuai; Zhao, Da-gang

    2018-04-01

    In order to analyze the ice-going ship's performance under the pack ice conditions, synthetic ice was introduced into a towing tank. A barrier using floating cylinder in the towing tank was designed to carry out the resistance experiment. The test results indicated that the encountering frequency between the ship model and the pack ice shifts towards a high-velocity point as the concentration of the pack ice increases, and this encountering frequency creates an unstable region of the resistance, and the unstable region shifts to the higher speed with the increasing concentration. The results also showed that for the same speed points, the ratio of the pack ice resistance to the open water resistance increases with the increasing concentration, and for the same concentrations, this ratio decreases as the speed increases. Motion characteristics showed that the mean value of the heave motion increases as the speed increases, and the pitch motion tends to increase with the increasing speed. In addition, the total resistance of the fullscale was predicted.

  13. A glimpse beneath Antarctic sea ice: observation of platelet-layer thickness and ice-volume fraction with multifrequency EM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppmann, Mario; Hunkeler, Priska A.; Hendricks, Stefan; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Gerdes, Rüdiger

    2016-04-01

    In Antarctica, ice crystals (platelets) form and grow in supercooled waters below ice shelves. These platelets rise, accumulate beneath nearby sea ice, and subsequently form a several meter thick, porous sub-ice platelet layer. This special ice type is a unique habitat, influences sea-ice mass and energy balance, and its volume can be interpreted as an indicator of the health of an ice shelf. Although progress has been made in determining and understanding its spatio-temporal variability based on point measurements, an investigation of this phenomenon on a larger scale remains a challenge due to logistical constraints and a lack of suitable methodology. In the present study, we applied a lateral constrained Marquardt-Levenberg inversion to a unique multi-frequency electromagnetic (EM) induction sounding dataset obtained on the ice-shelf influenced fast-ice regime of Atka Bay, eastern Weddell Sea. We adapted the inversion algorithm to incorporate a sensor specific signal bias, and confirmed the reliability of the algorithm by performing a sensitivity study using synthetic data. We inverted the field data for sea-ice and platelet-layer thickness and electrical conductivity, and calculated ice-volume fractions within the platelet layer using Archie's Law. The thickness results agreed well with drillhole validation datasets within the uncertainty range, and the ice-volume fraction yielded results comparable to other studies. Both parameters together enable an estimation of the total ice volume within the platelet layer, which was found to be comparable to the volume of landfast sea ice in this region, and corresponded to more than a quarter of the annual basal melt volume of the nearby Ekström Ice Shelf. Our findings show that multi-frequency EM induction sounding is a suitable approach to efficiently map sea-ice and platelet-layer properties, with important implications for research into ocean/ice-shelf/sea-ice interactions. However, a successful application of this

  14. Impact of prescribed Arctic sea ice thickness in simulations of the present and future climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krinner, Gerhard [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam (Germany); INSU-CNRS and UJF Grenoble, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE), 54 rue Moliere, BP 96, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Rinke, Annette; Dethloff, Klaus [Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam (Germany); Gorodetskaya, Irina V. [INSU-CNRS and UJF Grenoble, Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Geophysique de l' Environnement (LGGE), 54 rue Moliere, BP 96, Saint Martin d' Heres Cedex (France)

    2010-09-15

    This paper describes atmospheric general circulation model climate change experiments in which the Arctic sea-ice thickness is either fixed to 3 m or somewhat more realistically parameterized in order to take into account essentially the spatial variability of Arctic sea-ice thickness, which is, to a first approximation, a function of ice type (perennial or seasonal). It is shown that, both at present and at the end of the twenty-first century (under the SRES-A1B greenhouse gas scenario), the impact of a variable sea-ice thickness compared to a uniform value is essentially limited to the cold seasons and the lower troposphere. However, because first-year ice is scarce in the Central Arctic today, but not under SRES-A1B conditions at the end of the twenty-first century, and because the impact of a sea-ice thickness reduction can be masked by changes of the open water fraction, the spatial and temporal patterns of the effect of sea-ice thinning on the atmosphere differ between the two periods considered. As a consequence, not only the climate simulated at a given period, but also the simulated Arctic climate change over the twenty-first century is affected by the way sea-ice thickness is prescribed. (orig.)

  15. Thin Sea Ice, Thick Snow, and Widespread Negative Freeboard Observed During N-ICE2015 North of Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösel, Anja; Itkin, Polona; King, Jennifer; Divine, Dmitry; Wang, Caixin; Granskog, Mats A.; Krumpen, Thomas; Gerland, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    In recent years, sea-ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean changed substantially toward a younger and thinner sea-ice cover. To capture the scope of these changes and identify the differences between individual regions, in situ observations from expeditions are a valuable data source. We present a continuous time series of in situ measurements from the N-ICE2015 expedition from January to June 2015 in the Arctic Basin north of Svalbard, comprising snow buoy and ice mass balance buoy data and local and regional data gained from electromagnetic induction (EM) surveys and snow probe measurements from four distinct drifts. The observed mean snow depth of 0.53 m for April to early June is 73% above the average value of 0.30 m from historical and recent observations in this region, covering the years 1955-2017. The modal total ice and snow thicknesses, of 1.6 and 1.7 m measured with ground-based EM and airborne EM measurements in April, May, and June 2015, respectively, lie below the values ranging from 1.8 to 2.7 m, reported in historical observations from the same region and time of year. The thick snow cover slows thermodynamic growth of the underlying sea ice. In combination with a thin sea-ice cover this leads to an imbalance between snow and ice thickness, which causes widespread negative freeboard with subsequent flooding and a potential for snow-ice formation. With certainty, 29% of randomly located drill holes on level ice had negative freeboard.

  16. Ice Roughness and Thickness Evolution on a Swept NACA 0012 Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClain, Stephen T.; Vargas, Mario; Tsao, Jen-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Several recent studies have been performed in the Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) at NASA Glenn Research Center focusing on the evolution, spatial variations, and proper scaling of ice roughness on airfoils without sweep exposed to icing conditions employed in classical roughness studies. For this study, experiments were performed in the IRT to investigate the ice roughness and thickness evolution on a 91.44-cm (36-in.) chord NACA 0012 airfoil, swept at 30-deg with 0deg angle of attack, and exposed to both Appendix C and Appendix O (SLD) icing conditions. The ice accretion event times used in the study were less than the time required to form substantially three-dimensional structures, such as scallops, on the airfoil surface. Following each ice accretion event, the iced airfoils were scanned using a ROMER Absolute Arm laser-scanning system. The resulting point clouds were then analyzed using the self-organizing map approach of McClain and Kreeger to determine the spatial roughness variations along the surfaces of the iced airfoils. The resulting measurements demonstrate linearly increasing roughness and thickness parameters with ice accretion time. Further, when compared to dimensionless or scaled results from unswept airfoil investigations, the results of this investigation indicate that the mechanisms for early stage roughness and thickness formation on swept wings are similar to those for unswept wings.

  17. SEA ICE THICKNESS MEASUREMENT BY GROUND PENETRATING RADAR FOR GROUND TRUTH OF MICROWAVE REMOTE SENSING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Matsumoto

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Observation of sea ice thickness is one of key issues to understand regional effect of global warming. One of approaches to monitor sea ice in large area is microwave remote sensing data analysis. However, ground truth must be necessary to discuss the effectivity of this kind of approach. The conventional method to acquire ground truth of ice thickness is drilling ice layer and directly measuring the thickness by a ruler. However, this method is destructive, time-consuming and limited spatial resolution. Although there are several methods to acquire ice thickness in non-destructive way, ground penetrating radar (GPR can be effective solution because it can discriminate snow-ice and ice-sea water interface. In this paper, we carried out GPR measurement in Lake Saroma for relatively large area (200 m by 300 m, approximately aiming to obtain grand truth for remote sensing data. GPR survey was conducted at 5 locations in the area. The direct measurement was also conducted simultaneously in order to calibrate GPR data for thickness estimation and to validate the result. Although GPR Bscan image obtained from 600MHz contains the reflection which may come from a structure under snow, the origin of the reflection is not obvious. Therefore, further analysis and interpretation of the GPR image, such as numerical simulation, additional signal processing and use of 200 MHz antenna, are required to move on thickness estimation.

  18. Sea Ice Thickness Measurement by Ground Penetrating Radar for Ground Truth of Microwave Remote Sensing Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, M.; Yoshimura, M.; Naoki, K.; Cho, K.; Wakabayashi, H.

    2018-04-01

    Observation of sea ice thickness is one of key issues to understand regional effect of global warming. One of approaches to monitor sea ice in large area is microwave remote sensing data analysis. However, ground truth must be necessary to discuss the effectivity of this kind of approach. The conventional method to acquire ground truth of ice thickness is drilling ice layer and directly measuring the thickness by a ruler. However, this method is destructive, time-consuming and limited spatial resolution. Although there are several methods to acquire ice thickness in non-destructive way, ground penetrating radar (GPR) can be effective solution because it can discriminate snow-ice and ice-sea water interface. In this paper, we carried out GPR measurement in Lake Saroma for relatively large area (200 m by 300 m, approximately) aiming to obtain grand truth for remote sensing data. GPR survey was conducted at 5 locations in the area. The direct measurement was also conducted simultaneously in order to calibrate GPR data for thickness estimation and to validate the result. Although GPR Bscan image obtained from 600MHz contains the reflection which may come from a structure under snow, the origin of the reflection is not obvious. Therefore, further analysis and interpretation of the GPR image, such as numerical simulation, additional signal processing and use of 200 MHz antenna, are required to move on thickness estimation.

  19. Integration of airborne altimetry and in situ radar measurements to estimate marine ice thickness beneath the Larsen C ice shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, D.; Steffen, K.; Rodriguez Lagos, J.

    2010-12-01

    Observed atmospheric and oceanic warming is driving significant retreat and / or collapse of ice shelves along the Antarctic Peninsula totaling over 25,000 km2 in the past five decades. Basal melting of meteoric ice can occur near the grounding line of deep glacier inflows if the ocean water is above the pressure melting point. Buoyant meltwater will develop thermohaline circulation, rising beneath the ice shelf, where it may become supercooled and subsequently refreeze in ice draft minima. Marine ice, due to its warm and thus relatively viscous nature, is hypothesized to suture parallel flow bands, increasing ice shelf stability by arresting fracture propagation and controlling iceberg calving dimensions. Thus efforts to model ice shelf stability require accurate estimates of marine ice location and thickness. Ice thickness of a floating ice shelf can be determined in two manners: (1) from measurements of ice elevation above sea level and the calculation of ice thickness from assumptions of hydrostatic equilibrium, and (2) from radar echo measurements of the ice-water interface. Marine ice can confound the latter because its high dielectric constant and strong absorptive properties attenuate the radar energy, often preventing a return signal from the bottom of the ice shelf. These two methods are complementary for determining the marine ice component though because positive anomalies in (1) relative to (2) suggest regions of marine ice accretion. Nearly 350 km of ice penetrating radar (25 MHz) surveys were collected on the Larsen C ice shelf, in conjunction with kinematic GPS measurements and collocated with surface elevation data from the NASA Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) as part of the ICE Bridge mission in 2009. Basal ice topography and total ice thickness is accurately mapped along the survey lines and compared with calculated ice thickness from both the kinematic GPS and ATM elevation data. Positive anomalies are discussed in light of visible imagery and

  20. Effects of lead structure in Bering Sea pack ice on the flight costs of wintering spectacled eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bump, Joseph K.; Lovvorn, James R.

    2004-10-01

    In polar regions, sea ice is critical habitat for many marine birds and mammals. The quality of pack ice habitat depends on the duration and spacing of leads (openings in the ice), which determine access to water and air for diving endotherms, and how often and how far they must move as leads open and close. Recent warming trends have caused major changes in the extent and nature of sea ice at large scales used in climate models. However, no studies have analyzed lead structure in terms of habitat for ice-dependent endotherms, or effects of climate on ice habitat at scales relevant to their daily movements. Based on observations from an icebreaker and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images, we developed methods to describe the dynamics and thermodynamics of lead structure relative to use by spectacled eiders ( Somateria fischeri) wintering in pack ice of the Bering Sea. By correlating lead structure with weather variables, we then used these methods to estimate changes in lead dynamics from 1945 to 2002, and effects of such changes on flight costs of the eiders. For 1991-1992, when images were available about every 3 days throughout winter, SAR images were divided among five weather regimes defined by wind speed, wind direction, and air temperature. Based on 12.5-m pixels, lead shape, compass orientation, and fetch across leads did not differ among the weather regimes. However, the five regimes differed in total area of open water, leads per unit area, and distance between leads. Lead duration was modeled based on air temperature, wind, and fetch. Estimates of mean daily flight time for eiders, based on lead duration and distance between neighboring leads, differed among regimes by 0 to 15 min. Resulting flight costs varied from 0 to 158 kJ day -1, or from 0% to 11% of estimated field metabolic rate. Over 57 winters (1945-2002), variation among years in mean daily flight time was most influenced by the north-south wind component, which determined pack divergence

  1. Sea ice thickness measurements collected during the LOMROG 2007 and 2009 expeditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skourup, Henriette; Forsberg, René; Hanson, Susanne

    and 2009 we have collected a unique data set of late summer sea ice thickness, freeboard height and snow depth from the high Arctic Ocean during the time of the annual minimum sea ice extent. The data were collected by on-the-ground drilling and EM measurements. Here we give a brief overview of the data......According to scientific measurements, the Arctic sea ice extent has declined dramatically over the past thirty years, with the most extreme decline seen in the summer melt season. Other observations indicate that the sea ice has become thinner and perennial ice less widely distributed...... collection, as well as the results including the freeboard-to-sea-ice thickness conversion factor, which is used when interpreting freeboard heights measured by remote sensing....

  2. Landfast ice thickness in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago from observations and models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Stephen E. L.; Laliberté, Frédéric; Kwok, Ron; Derksen, Chris; King, Joshua

    2016-07-01

    Observed and modelled landfast ice thickness variability and trends spanning more than 5 decades within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) are summarized. The observed sites (Cambridge Bay, Resolute, Eureka and Alert) represent some of the Arctic's longest records of landfast ice thickness. Observed end-of-winter (maximum) trends of landfast ice thickness (1957-2014) were statistically significant at Cambridge Bay (-4.31 ± 1.4 cm decade-1), Eureka (-4.65 ± 1.7 cm decade-1) and Alert (-4.44 ± 1.6 cm -1) but not at Resolute. Over the 50+-year record, the ice thinned by ˜ 0.24-0.26 m at Cambridge Bay, Eureka and Alert with essentially negligible change at Resolute. Although statistically significant warming in spring and fall was present at all sites, only low correlations between temperature and maximum ice thickness were present; snow depth was found to be more strongly associated with the negative ice thickness trends. Comparison with multi-model simulations from Coupled Model Intercomparison project phase 5 (CMIP5), Ocean Reanalysis Intercomparison (ORA-IP) and Pan-Arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) show that although a subset of current generation models have a "reasonable" climatological representation of landfast ice thickness and distribution within the CAA, trends are unrealistic and far exceed observations by up to 2 orders of magnitude. ORA-IP models were found to have positive correlations between temperature and ice thickness over the CAA, a feature that is inconsistent with both observations and coupled models from CMIP5.

  3. Measurements of bubble size spectra within leads in the Arctic summer pack ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Norris

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The first measurements of bubble size spectra within the near-surface waters of open leads in the central Arctic pack ice were obtained during the Arctic Summer Cloud-Ocean Study (ASCOS in August 2008 at 87–87.6° N, 1–11° W. A significant number of small bubbles (30–100 μm diameter were present, with concentration decreasing rapidly with size from 100–560 μm; no bubbles larger than 560 μm were observed. The bubbles were present both during periods of low wind speed (U<6 m s−1 and when ice covered the surface of the lead. The low wind and short open-water fetch precludes production of bubbles by wave breaking suggesting that the bubbles are generated by processes below the surface. When the surface water was open to the atmosphere bubble concentrations increased with increasing heat loss to the atmosphere. The presence of substantial numbers of bubbles is significant because the bursting of bubbles at the surface provides a mechanism for the generation of aerosol and the ejection of biological material from the ocean into the atmosphere. Such a transfer has previously been proposed as a potential climate feedback linking marine biology and Arctic cloud properties.

  4. SMOS brightness data indicate ice thickness hence bedrock topography in east antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2017-01-01

    In order to evaluate a potential calibration target for spaceborne L-band radiometer systems, a 350 × 350 km area near the Concordia station on the East Antarctica plateau was mapped by an airborne L-band radiometer. Unexpectedly, the area showed significant brightness temperature spatial...... variations, well correlated with bedrock topography, hence ice thickness. Using SMOS data over a poorly known part of Antarctica, ice thickness in this area has been assessed, and an existing bedrock map has been improved....

  5. Semi-automated Digital Imaging and Processing System for Measuring Lake Ice Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preetpal

    Canada is home to thousands of freshwater lakes and rivers. Apart from being sources of infinite natural beauty, rivers and lakes are an important source of water, food and transportation. The northern hemisphere of Canada experiences extreme cold temperatures in the winter resulting in a freeze up of regional lakes and rivers. Frozen lakes and rivers tend to offer unique opportunities in terms of wildlife harvesting and winter transportation. Ice roads built on frozen rivers and lakes are vital supply lines for industrial operations in the remote north. Monitoring the ice freeze-up and break-up dates annually can help predict regional climatic changes. Lake ice impacts a variety of physical, ecological and economic processes. The construction and maintenance of a winter road can cost millions of dollars annually. A good understanding of ice mechanics is required to build and deem an ice road safe. A crucial factor in calculating load bearing capacity of ice sheets is the thickness of ice. Construction costs are mainly attributed to producing and maintaining a specific thickness and density of ice that can support different loads. Climate change is leading to warmer temperatures causing the ice to thin faster. At a certain point, a winter road may not be thick enough to support travel and transportation. There is considerable interest in monitoring winter road conditions given the high construction and maintenance costs involved. Remote sensing technologies such as Synthetic Aperture Radar have been successfully utilized to study the extent of ice covers and record freeze-up and break-up dates of ice on lakes and rivers across the north. Ice road builders often used Ultrasound equipment to measure ice thickness. However, an automated monitoring system, based on machine vision and image processing technology, which can measure ice thickness on lakes has not been thought of. Machine vision and image processing techniques have successfully been used in manufacturing

  6. Comparison of sea-ice freeboard and thickness distributions from aircraft data and cryosat-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    accurate range measurements. During the CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) 2011 in the Lincoln Sea, Cryosat-2 underpasses were accomplished with two aircraft, which carried an airborne laser-scanner, a radar altimeter and an electromagnetic induction device for direct sea-ice thickness retrieval. Both...... aircraft flew in close formation at the same time of a CryoSat-2 overpass. This is a study about the comparison of the sea-ice freeboard and thickness distribution of airborne validation and CryoSat-2 measurements within the multi-year sea-ice region of the Lincoln Sea in spring, with respect...

  7. Effect of Ice-Shell Thickness Variations on the Tidal Deformation of Enceladus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choblet, G.; Cadek, O.; Behounkova, M.; Tobie, G.; Kozubek, T.

    2015-12-01

    Recent analysis of Enceladus's gravity and topography has suggested that the thickness of the ice shell significantly varies laterally - from 30-40 km in the south polar region to 60 km elsewhere. These variations may influence the activity of the geysers and increase the tidal heat production in regions where the ice shell is thinned. Using a model including a regional or global subsurface ocean and Maxwell viscoelasticity, we investigate the impact of these variations on the tidal deformation of the moon and its heat production. For that purpose, we use different numerical approaches - finite elements, local application of 1d spectral method, and a generalized spectral method. Results obtained with these three approaches for various models of ice-shell thickness variations are presented and compared. Implications of a reduced ice shell thickness for the south polar terrain activity are discussed.

  8. Characteristics and processing of seismic data collected on thick, floating ice: Results from the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Bruce C.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Stern, Tim A.

    1992-01-01

    Coincident reflection and refraction data, collected in the austral summer of 1988/89 by Stanford University and the Geophysical Division of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Zealand, imaged the crust beneath the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The Ross Ice Shelf is a unique acquisition environment for seismic reflection profiling because of its thick, floating ice cover. The ice shelf velocity structure is multilayered with a high velocity‐gradient firn layer constituting the upper 50 to 100 m. This near surface firn layer influences the data character by amplifying and frequency modulating the incoming wavefield. In addition, the ice‐water column introduces pervasive, high energy seafloor, intra‐ice, and intra‐water multiples that have moveout velocities similar to the expected subseafloor primary velocities. Successful removal of these high energy multiples relies on predictive deconvolution, inverse velocity stack filtering, and frequency filtering. Removal of the multiples reveals a faulted, sedimentary wedge which is truncated at or near the seafloor. Beneath this wedge the reflection character is diffractive to a two‐way traveltime of ∼7.2 s. At this time, a prominent reflection is evident on the southeast end of the reflection profile. This reflection is interpreted as Moho indicating that the crust is ∼21-km thick beneath the profile. These results provide seismic evidence that the extensional features observed in the Ross Sea region of the Ross Embayment extend beneath the Ross Ice Shelf.

  9. Ice thickness, volume and subglacial topography of Urumqi Glacier ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4 m. 3 in 1981, 2001 and 2006, respectively. It has decreased by 21.2% during the past 25 years, which is .... all cases, a velocity of 169 m µs ... of ice volume calculation using this method is quite ..... industry, and agriculture in Xinjiang Uygur.

  10. Geothermal Heating, Convective Flow and Ice Thickness on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, N. D.; Travis, B. J.; Cuzzi, J.

    2001-01-01

    Our 3D calculations suggest that hydrothermal circulation may occur in the martian regolith and may significantly thin the surface ice layer on Mars at some locations due to the upwelling of warm convecting fluids driven solely by background geothermal heating. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Two new ways of mapping sea ice thickness using ocean waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhams, P.

    2010-12-01

    TWO NEW METHODS OF MAPPING SEA ICE THICKNESS USING OCEAN WAVES. P. Wadhams (1,2), Martin Doble (1,2) and F. Parmiggiani (3) (1) Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WA, UK. (2) Laboratoire d’Océanographie de Villefranche, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 06234 Villefranche-sur-Mer, France (2) ISAC-CNR, Bologna, Italy Two new methods of mapping ice thickness have been recently developed and tested, both making use of the dispersion relation of ocean waves in ice of radically different types. In frazil-pancake ice, a young ice type in which cakes less than 5 m across float in a suspension of individual ice crystals, the propagation of waves has been successfully modelled by treating the ice layer as a highly viscous fluid. The model predicts a shortening of wavelengths within the ice. Two-dimensional Fourier analysis of successive SAR subscenes to track the directional spectrum of a wave field as it enters an ice edge shows that waves do indeed shorten within the ice, and the change has been successfully used to predict the thickness of the frazil-pancake layer. Concurrent shipborne sampling in the Antarctic has shown that the method is accurate, and we now propose its use throughout the important frazil-pancake regimes in the world ocean (Antarctic circumpolar ice edge zone, Greenland Sea, Bering Sea and others). A radically different type of dispersion occurs when ocean waves enter the continuous icefields of the central Arctic, when they couple with the elastic ice cover to propagate as a flexural-gravity wave. A two-axis tiltmeter array has been used to measure the resulting change in the dispersion relation for long ocean swell (15-30 s) originating from storms in the Greenland Sea. The dispersion relation is slightly different from swell in the open ocean, so if two such arrays are placed a substantial distance (100s of km) apart and used to observe the changing wave period of arrivals from a given

  12. Validation of Airborne FMCW Radar Measurements of Snow Thickness Over Sea Ice in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galin, Natalia; Worby, Anthony; Markus, Thorsten; Leuschen, Carl; Gogineni, Prasad

    2012-01-01

    Antarctic sea ice and its snow cover are integral components of the global climate system, yet many aspects of their vertical dimensions are poorly understood, making their representation in global climate models poor. Remote sensing is the key to monitoring the dynamic nature of sea ice and its snow cover. Reliable and accurate snow thickness data are currently a highly sought after data product. Remotely sensed snow thickness measurements can provide an indication of precipitation levels, predicted to increase with effects of climate change in the polar regions. Airborne techniques provide a means for regional-scale estimation of snow depth and distribution. Accurate regional-scale snow thickness data will also facilitate an increase in the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite altimeter freeboard estimates. The airborne data sets are easier to validate with in situ measurements and are better suited to validating satellite algorithms when compared with in situ techniques. This is primarily due to two factors: better chance of getting coincident in situ and airborne data sets and the tractability of comparison between an in situ data set and the airborne data set averaged over the footprint of the antennas. A 28-GHz frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar loaned by the Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets to the Australian Antarctic Division is used to measure snow thickness over sea ice in East Antarctica. Provided with the radar design parameters, the expected performance parameters of the radar are summarized. The necessary conditions for unambiguous identification of the airsnow and snowice layers for the radar are presented. Roughnesses of the snow and ice surfaces are found to be dominant determinants in the effectiveness of layer identification for this radar. Finally, this paper presents the first in situ validated snow thickness estimates over sea ice in Antarctica derived from an FMCW radar on a helicopterborne platform.

  13. Inferring Ice Thickness from a Glacier Dynamics Model and Multiple Surface Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Y.; Haran, M.; Pollard, D.

    2017-12-01

    The future behavior of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) may have a major impact on future climate. For instance, ice sheet melt may contribute significantly to global sea level rise. Understanding the current state of WAIS is therefore of great interest. WAIS is drained by fast-flowing glaciers which are major contributors to ice loss. Hence, understanding the stability and dynamics of glaciers is critical for predicting the future of the ice sheet. Glacier dynamics are driven by the interplay between the topography, temperature and basal conditions beneath the ice. A glacier dynamics model describes the interactions between these processes. We develop a hierarchical Bayesian model that integrates multiple ice sheet surface data sets with a glacier dynamics model. Our approach allows us to (1) infer important parameters describing the glacier dynamics, (2) learn about ice sheet thickness, and (3) account for errors in the observations and the model. Because we have relatively dense and accurate ice thickness data from the Thwaites Glacier in West Antarctica, we use these data to validate the proposed approach. The long-term goal of this work is to have a general model that may be used to study multiple glaciers in the Antarctic.

  14. Estimating Summer Ocean Heating in the Arctic Ice Pack Using High-Resolution Satellite Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    8 D. THE BEAUFORT SEA ICE MARGINAL ICE ZONE ...............................9 1. Sea Ice - Albedo Feedback...seasonal evolution of sea ice albedo for MYI (blue) and FYI (red). Plot (c) is the daily solar heat input. Plot (d) is the time averaged solar heat... ice cover has decreased extensively, particularly in the summer months (from Lee et al. 2012). 13 1. Sea Ice - Albedo Feedback Albedo is a

  15. Ice thickness profile surveying with ground penetrating radar at Artesonraju Glacier, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisolm, Rachel; Rabatel, Antoine; McKinney, Daene; Condom, Thomas; Cochacin, Alejo; Davila Roller, Luzmilla

    2014-05-01

    Tropical glaciers are an essential component of the water resource systems in the mountainous regions where they are located, and a warming climate has resulted in the accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades. The shrinkage of Andean glaciers influences the flood risk for communities living downstream as new glacial lakes have begun to form at the termini of some glaciers. As these lakes continue to grow in area and volume, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Ice thickness measurements have been a key missing link in studying the tropical glaciers in Peru and how climate change is likely to impact glacial melt and the growth of glacial lakes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has rarely been applied to glaciers in Peru to measure ice thickness, and these measurements can tell us a lot about how a warming climate will affect glaciers in terms of thickness changes. In the upper Paron Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Peru), an emerging lake has begun to form at the terminus of the Artesonraju Glacier, and this lake has key features, including overhanging ice and loose rock likely to create slides, that could trigger a catastrophic GLOF if the lake continues to grow. Because the glacier mass balance and lake mass balance are closely linked, ice thickness measurements and measurements of the bed slope of the Artesonraju Glacier and underlying bedrock can give us an idea of how the lake is likely to evolve in the coming decades. This study presents GPR data taken in July 2013 at the Artesonraju Glacier as part of a collaboration between the Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos (UGRH) of Peru, the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of France and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) of the United States of America. Two different GPR units belonging to UGRH and UT were used for subsurface imaging to create ice thickness profiles and to characterize the total volume of ice in the glacier. A common midpoint

  16. Consequences of long-distance swimming and travel over deep-water pack ice for a female polar bear during a year of extreme sea ice retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Whiteman, J.P.; Harlow, H.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Regehr, E.V.; Ben-David, M.

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) prefer to live on Arctic sea ice but may swim between ice floes or between sea ice and land. Although anecdotal observations suggest that polar bears are capable of swimming long distances, no data have been available to describe in detail long distance swimming events or the physiological and reproductive consequences of such behavior. Between an initial capture in late August and a recapture in late October 2008, a radio-collared adult female polar bear in the Beaufort Sea made a continuous swim of 687 km over 9 days and then intermittently swam and walked on the sea ice surface an additional 1,800 km. Measures of movement rate, hourly activity, and subcutaneous and external temperature revealed distinct profiles of swimming and walking. Between captures, this polar bear lost 22% of her body mass and her yearling cub. The extraordinary long distance swimming ability of polar bears, which we confirm here, may help them cope with reduced Arctic sea ice. Our observation, however, indicates that long distance swimming in Arctic waters, and travel over deep water pack ice, may result in high energetic costs and compromise reproductive fitness.

  17. Arctic Sea Ice: Using Airborne Topographic Mapper Measurements (ATM) to Determine Sea Ice Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-10

    Track Distance (Km) E le v a ti o n ( m ) ATM Elevation Profile Elevation 18 Figure 13: Geoid shape of earth’s equipotential surface , which is...inferred for the region between successive leads. Therefore, flying over a lead in the ice is very important for determining the exact sea surface elevation...inferred for the region between successive leads. Therefore, flying over a lead in the ice is very important for determining the exact sea surface

  18. Thermodynamic and dynamic ice thickness contributions in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in NEMO-LIM2 numerical simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xianmin; Sun, Jingfan; Chan, Ting On; Myers, Paul G.

    2018-04-01

    Sea ice thickness evolution within the Canadian Arctic Archipelago (CAA) is of great interest to science, as well as local communities and their economy. In this study, based on the NEMO numerical framework including the LIM2 sea ice module, simulations at both 1/4 and 1/12° horizontal resolution were conducted from 2002 to 2016. The model captures well the general spatial distribution of ice thickness in the CAA region, with very thick sea ice (˜ 4 m and thicker) in the northern CAA, thick sea ice (2.5 to 3 m) in the west-central Parry Channel and M'Clintock Channel, and thin ( Program data at first-year landfast ice sites except at the northern sites with high concentration of old ice. At 1/4 to 1/12° scale, model resolution does not play a significant role in the sea ice simulation except to improve local dynamics because of better coastline representation. Sea ice growth is decomposed into thermodynamic and dynamic (including all non-thermodynamic processes in the model) contributions to study the ice thickness evolution. Relatively smaller thermodynamic contribution to ice growth between December and the following April is found in the thick and very thick ice regions, with larger contributions in the thin ice-covered region. No significant trend in winter maximum ice volume is found in the northern CAA and Baffin Bay while a decline (r2 ≈ 0.6, p < 0.01) is simulated in Parry Channel region. The two main contributors (thermodynamic growth and lateral transport) have high interannual variabilities which largely balance each other, so that maximum ice volume can vary interannually by ±12 % in the northern CAA, ±15 % in Parry Channel, and ±9 % in Baffin Bay. Further quantitative evaluation is required.

  19. Ice thickness estimations based on multi-temporal glacier inventories - potential and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfricht, Kay; Huss, Matthias; Otto, Jan-Christoph

    2016-04-01

    The ongoing glacier retreat exposes a large number of surface depressions in the former glacier bed that can be filled with water or act as sediment traps. This has already been observed at various sites in Austria and in other mountain areas worldwide. The formation of glacial lakes can constitute an important environmental and socio-economic impact on high mountain systems including water resource management, sediment delivery, natural hazards, energy production and tourism. In general, information on ice thickness distribution is the basis for simulating future glacier change. We used the approach proposed by Huss and Farinotti (2012) to model the ice thickness distribution and potential locations of subglacial depressions. The study is part of the FUTURELAKE project that seeks to model the formation of new glacier lakes and their possible future evolution in the Austria Alps. The required data on glacier extent, surface elevation and slope were taken from the Austrian Glacier Inventories GI1 from 1969, GI2 from 1998 and GI3 from2006 (Fischer et al., 2015). The different glacier outlines and surface elevations from the inventories enable us to evaluate (i) the robustness of the modelled bedrock depressions with respect to different glacier settings, (ii) the power of the model to simulate recently formed glacial lakes, (iii) the similarities in calculated ice thickness distributions across the inventories and (iv) the feasibility of simulating observed changes in ice thickness and glacier volume. In general, the modelled localization of large potential depressions was relatively stable using the observed glacier settings. A number of examples show that recently formed glacial lakes could be detected by the model based on previous glacier extents. The locations of maximum ice depths within different elevation zones appeared to be sensitive to changes in glacier width. However, observed ice thickness changes and, thus, volume changes between the inventories could

  20. Bedmap2: improved ice bed, surface and thickness datasets for Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fretwell, P.; Pritchard, H. D.; Vaughan, D

    2013-01-01

    the original Bedmap compilation (Bedmap1) in 2001. In particular, the Bedmap2 ice thickness grid is made from 25 million measurements, over two orders of magnitude more than were used in Bedmap1. In most parts of Antarctica the subglacial landscape is visible in much greater detail than was previously...

  1. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 23 Appendix V - Forecast Sea Ice Thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-04-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  2. County-Level Climate Uncertainty for Risk Assessments: Volume 22 Appendix U - Historical Sea Ice Thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Jones, Shannon M; Walker, La Tonya Nicole; Roberts, Barry L; Malczynski, Leonard A.

    2017-06-01

    This report uses the CMIP5 series of climate model simulations to produce country- level uncertainty distributions for use in socioeconomic risk assessments of climate change impacts. It provides appropriate probability distributions, by month, for 169 countries and autonomous-areas on temperature, precipitation, maximum temperature, maximum wind speed, humidity, runoff, soil moisture and evaporation for the historical period (1976-2005), and for decadal time periods to 2100. It also provides historical and future distributions for the Arctic region on ice concentration, ice thickness, age of ice, and ice ridging in 15-degree longitude arc segments from the Arctic Circle to 80 degrees latitude, plus two polar semicircular regions from 80 to 90 degrees latitude. The uncertainty is meant to describe the lack of knowledge rather than imprecision in the physical simulation because the emphasis is on unfalsified risk and its use to determine potential socioeconomic impacts. The full report is contained in 27 volumes.

  3. Teste do gelo no diagnóstico de miastenia gravis Ice pack test in the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Lopes da Fonseca Junior

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Demonstrar a sensibilidade e especificidade do teste do gelo no diagnóstico diferencial de ptose palpebral por miastenia gravis. MÉTODOS: Estudo prospectivo tipo ensaio clínico com grupo controle. Foi realizado o teste do gelo em pacientes portadores de ptose palpebral. Os pacientes foram divididos em 2 grupos, sendo o grupo I constituído por pacientes com miastenia gravis e o grupo II (controle formado por pacientes portadores de ptose congênita, miogênica não-miastênica ou aponeurótica. RESULTADOS: Todos os pacientes do grupo I tiveram aumento da fenda palpebral de, no mínimo, 3 mm após a aplicação do gelo. Nenhum paciente do grupo II apresentou incremento da fenda palpebral após o teste. CONCLUSÃO: O teste do gelo mostrou-se específico para detecção de ptose palpebral de causa miastênica.PURPOSE: To demonstrate the sensitivity and the specificity of the ice test in the differential diagnosis of ptosis in myasthenia gravis. METHODS: Prospective trial with a control group. The patients were instructed to hold a frozen ice pack on the closed ptotic eyelid. They were divided into 2 groups, with group I consisting of patients with myasthenia gravis and group II (control consisting of patients with congenital, non-myasthenic myogenic or aponeurotic ptosis. RESULTS: All patients in group I had increased palpebral fissure for at least 3 mm after the application of ice pack. No patient in group II showed increased palpebral fissure after the ice test. CONCLUSION: Ice test proved to be specific for the detection of myasthenic ptosis.

  4. Effect of cryotherapy on the ankle temperature in athletes: ice pack and cold water immersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Batista da Costa Santos

    Full Text Available Introduction Cryotherapy is often used for rehabilitation of injured athletes. Objective To compare the effectiveness of ice pack (IP and cold water immersion (CWI on lowering the ankle skin surface temperature in athletes. Materials and methods Thirteen athletes (seven women and six men, age 19.53 (± 2.9 years. IP and CWI were applied on the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL of the dominant leg for 30 minutes. The skin surface temperature was measured with an infrared digital thermometer prior to the application and during cryotherapy (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 minutes and up to two hours of rewarming. During rewarming, the athletes remained at rest and the temperature was measured every 1 minute until 10 minutes, every 5 minutes for up to an hour and every 15 minutes until 2 hours. Results The two types of cold application were effective in lowering the skin surface temperature after the 30-minute procedure. Significant differences were observed among the following temperatures: pre-application (IP = 29.8 ± 2.4 °C and CWI = 27.5 ± 3 °C – P < 0.05; after 30 minutes (IP = 5 ± 2.4 °C and CWI = 7.8 ± 3 °C – P < 0.01. For rewarming, after 25 minutes (IP = 20.8 ± 3.3 °C and CWI = 18.2 ± 2.7 °C – P < 0.04; after 45 minutes (IP = 24.5 ± 2.3 °C and IP = 22.1 ± 3.5 °C – P < 0.05; after 75 minutes (IP = 26.4 ± 2.2 °C and CWI = 24 ± 2.7 °C – P < 0.02. Conclusion After the 30-minute application, both IP and CWI produced the appropriate temperature; however the application of CWI produced the lowest temperature during rewarming.

  5. Evaluation of the limit ice thickness for the hull of various Finnish-Swedish ice class vessels navigating in the Russian Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pentti Kujala

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Selection of suitable ice class for ships operation is an important but not simple task. The increased exploitation of the Polar waters, both seasonal periods and geographical areas, as well as the introduction of new international design standards such as Polar Code, reduces the relevancy of using existing experience as basis for the selection, and new methods and knowledge have to be developed. This paper will analyse what can be the limiting ice thickness for ships navigating in the Russian Arctic and designed according to the Finnish-Swedish ice class rules. The permanent deformations of ice-strengthened shell structures for various ice classes is determined using MT Uikku as the typical size of a vessel navigating in ice. The ice load in various conditions is determined using the ARCDEV data from the winter 1998 as the basic database. By comparing the measured load in various ice conditions with the serviceability limit state of the structures, the limiting ice thickness for various ice classes is determined. The database for maximum loads includes 3-weeks ice load measurements during April 1998 on the Kara Sea mainly by icebreaker assistance. Gumbel 1 distribution is fitted on the measured 20 min maximum values and the data is divided into various classes using ship speed, ice thickness and ice concentration as the main parameters. Results encouragingly show that present designs are safer than assumed in the Polar Code suggesting that assisted operation in Arctic conditions is feasible in rougher conditions than indicated in the Polar Code. Keywords: Loads, Serviceability, Limit ice thickness, Polar code

  6. In situ ice and structure thickness monitoring using integrated and flexible ultrasonic transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q; Wu, K-T; Kobayashi, M; Jen, C-K; Mrad, N

    2008-01-01

    Two types of ultrasonic sensors are presented for in situ capability development of ice detection and structure thickness measurement. These piezoelectric film based sensors have been fabricated by a sol–gel spray technique for aircraft environments and for temperatures ranging from −80 to 100 °C. In one sensor type, piezoelectric films of thickness greater than 40 µm are deposited directly onto the interior of a 1.3 mm thick aluminum (Al) alloy control surface (stabilizer) of an aircraft wing structure as integrated ultrasonic transducers (UTs). In the other sensor type, piezoelectric films are coated onto a 50 µm thick polyimide membrane as flexible UTs. These were subsequently glued onto similar locations at the same control surfaces. In situ monitoring of stabilizer outer skin thickness was performed. Ice build-up ranging from a fraction of 1 mm to less than 1.5 mm was also detected on a 3 mm thick Al plate. Measurements using these ultrasonic sensors agreed well with those obtained by a micrometer. Tradeoffs of these two approaches are presented

  7. A glimpse beneath Antarctic sea ice: observation of platelet-layer thickness and ice-volume fraction with multi-frequency EM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, S.; Hoppmann, M.; Hunkeler, P. A.; Kalscheuer, T.; Gerdes, R.

    2015-12-01

    In Antarctica, ice crystals (platelets) form and grow in supercooled waters below ice shelves. These platelets rise and accumulate beneath nearby sea ice to form a several meter thick sub-ice platelet layer. This special ice type is a unique habitat, influences sea-ice mass and energy balance, and its volume can be interpreted as an indicator for ice - ocean interactions. Although progress has been made in determining and understanding its spatio-temporal variability based on point measurements, an investigation of this phenomenon on a larger scale remains a challenge due to logistical constraints and a lack of suitable methodology. In the present study, we applied a lateral constrained Marquardt-Levenberg inversion to a unique multi-frequency electromagnetic (EM) induction sounding dataset obtained on the ice-shelf influenced fast-ice regime of Atka Bay, eastern Weddell Sea. We adapted the inversion algorithm to incorporate a sensor specific signal bias, and confirmed the reliability of the algorithm by performing a sensitivity study using synthetic data. We inverted the field data for sea-ice and sub-ice platelet-layer thickness and electrical conductivity, and calculated ice-volume fractions from platelet-layer conductivities using Archie's Law. The thickness results agreed well with drill-hole validation datasets within the uncertainty range, and the ice-volume fraction also yielded plausible results. Our findings imply that multi-frequency EM induction sounding is a suitable approach to efficiently map sea-ice and platelet-layer properties. However, we emphasize that the successful application of this technique requires a break with traditional EM sensor calibration strategies due to the need of absolute calibration with respect to a physical forward model.

  8. An integrated approach to the remote sensing of floating ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W. J.; Ramseier, R. O.; Weeks, W. F.; Gloersen, P.

    1976-01-01

    Review article on remote sensing applications to glaciology. Ice parameters sensed include: ice cover vs open water, ice thickness, distribution and morphology of ice formations, vertical resolution of ice thickness, ice salinity (percolation and drainage of brine; flushing of ice body with fresh water), first-year ice and multiyear ice, ice growth rate and surface heat flux, divergence of ice packs, snow cover masking ice, behavior of ice shelves, icebergs, lake ice and river ice; time changes. Sensing techniques discussed include: satellite photographic surveys, thermal IR, passive and active microwave studies, microwave radiometry, microwave scatterometry, side-looking radar, and synthetic aperture radar. Remote sensing of large aquatic mammals and operational ice forecasting are also discussed.

  9. Plume Activity and Tidal Deformation on Enceladus Influenced by Faults and Variable Ice Shell Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Běhounková, Marie; Souček, Ondřej; Hron, Jaroslav; Čadek, Ondřej

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effect of variations in ice shell thickness and of the tiger stripe fractures crossing Enceladus' south polar terrain on the moon's tidal deformation by performing finite element calculations in three-dimensional geometry. The combination of thinning in the polar region and the presence of faults has a synergistic effect that leads to an increase of both the displacement and stress in the south polar terrain by an order of magnitude compared to that of the traditional model with a uniform shell thickness and without faults. Assuming a simplified conductive heat transfer and neglecting the heat sources below the ice shell, we computed the global heat budget of the ice shell. For the inelastic properties of the shell described by a Maxwell viscoelastic model, we show that unrealistically low average viscosity of the order of 10 13 Pa s is necessary for preserving the volume of the ocean, suggesting the important role of the heat sources in the deep interior. Similarly, low viscosity is required to predict the observed delay of the plume activity, which hints at other delaying mechanisms than just the viscoelasticity of the ice shell. The presence of faults results in large spatial and temporal heterogeneity of geysering activity compared to the traditional models without faults. Our model contributes to understanding the physical mechanisms that control the fault activity, and it provides potentially useful information for future missions that will sample the plume for evidence of life. Key Words: Enceladus-Tidal deformation-Faults-Variable ice shell thickness-Tidal heating-Plume activity and timing. Astrobiology 17, 941-954.

  10. Plume Activity and Tidal Deformation on Enceladus Influenced by Faults and Variable Ice Shell Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Běhounková, Marie; Souček, Ondřej; Hron, Jaroslav; Čadek, Ondřej

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effect of variations in ice shell thickness and of the tiger stripe fractures crossing Enceladus' south polar terrain on the moon's tidal deformation by performing finite element calculations in three-dimensional geometry. The combination of thinning in the polar region and the presence of faults has a synergistic effect that leads to an increase of both the displacement and stress in the south polar terrain by an order of magnitude compared to that of the traditional model with a uniform shell thickness and without faults. Assuming a simplified conductive heat transfer and neglecting the heat sources below the ice shell, we computed the global heat budget of the ice shell. For the inelastic properties of the shell described by a Maxwell viscoelastic model, we show that unrealistically low average viscosity of the order of 10^{13} Pa s is necessary for preserving the volume of the ocean, suggesting the important role of the heat sources in the deep interior. Similarly, low viscosity is required to predict the observed delay of the plume activity, which hints at other delaying mechanisms than just the viscoelasticity of the ice shell. The presence of faults results in large spatial and temporal heterogeneity of geysering activity compared to the traditional models without faults. Our model contributes to understanding the physical mechanisms that control the fault activity, and it provides potentially useful information for future missions that will sample the plume for evidence of life.

  11. Radar attenuation in Europa's ice shell: obstacles and opportunities for constraining shell thickness and thermal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousova, Klara; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Soderlund, Krista M.; Sotin, Christophe

    2016-10-01

    With its strikingly young surface and possibly recent endogenic activity, Europa is one of the most exciting bodies within our Solar System and a primary target for spacecraft exploration. Future missions to Europa are expected to carry ice penetrating radar instruments which are powerful tools to investigate the subsurface thermophysical structure of its ice shell.Several authors have addressed the 'penetration depth' of radar sounders at icy moons, however, the concept and calculation of a single value penetration depth is a potentially misleading simplification since it ignores the thermal and attenuation structure complexity of a realistic ice shell. Here we move beyond the concept of a single penetration depth by exploring the variation in two-way radar attenuation for a variety of potential thermal structures of Europa's ice shell as well as for a low loss and high loss temperature-dependent attenuation model. The possibility to detect brines is also investigated.Our results indicate that: (i) for all ice shell thicknesses investigated (5-30 km), a nominal satellite-borne radar sounder will penetrate between 15% and 100% of the total thickness, (ii) the maximum penetration depth strongly varies laterally with the deepest penetration possible through the cold downwellings, (iii) the direct detection of the ice/ocean interface might be possible for shells of up to 15 km if the radar signal travels through the cold downwelling, (iv) even if the ice/ocean interface is not detected, the penetration through most of the shell could constrain the deep shell structure through the loss of signal, and (v) for all plausible ice shells the two-way attenuation to the eutectic point is ≤30 dB which shows a robust potential for longitudinal investigation of the ice shell's shallow structure.Part of this work has been performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA. K.K. acknowledges support by the Grant Agency of the

  12. Ice-Rich Yedoma Permafrost: A Synthesis of Circum-Arctic Distribution and Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, J.; Fedorov, A. N.; Fortier, D.; Froese, D. G.; Fuchs, M.; Grosse, G.; Günther, F.; Harden, J. W.; Hugelius, G.; Kanevskiy, M. Z.; Kholodov, A. L.; Kunitsky, V.; Laboor, S.; Lapointe Elmrabti, L.; Rivkina, E.; Robinson, J. E.; Schirrmeister, L.; Shmelev, D.; Shur, Y.; Spektor, V.; Ulrich, M.; Veremeeva, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Zimov, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Vast portions of Arctic and sub-Arctic Siberia, Alaska and the Yukon Territory are covered by ice-rich silts that are penetrated by large ice wedges, resulting from syngenetic sedimentation and freezing. Accompanied by wedge-ice growth, the sedimentation process was driven by cold continental climatic and environmental conditions in unglaciated regions during the late Pleistocene, inducing the accumulation of the unique Yedoma permafrost deposits up to 50 meter thick. Because of fast incorporation of organic material into permafrost during formation, Yedoma deposits include low-decomposed organic matter. Moreover, ice-rich permafrost deposits like Yedoma are especially prone to degradation triggered by climate changes or human activity. When Yedoma deposits degrade, large amounts of sequestered organic carbon as well as other nutrients are released and become part of active biogeochemical cycling. This could be of global significance for the climate warming, as increased permafrost thaw is likely to cause a positive feedback loop. Therefore, a detailed assessment of the Yedoma deposit volume is of importance to estimate its potential future climate response. Moreover, as a step beyond the objectives of this synthesis study, our coverage (see figure for the Yedoma domain) and thickness estimation will provide critical data to refine the Yedoma permafrost organic carbon inventory, which is assumed to have freeze-locked between 83±12 and 129±30 gigatonnes (Gt) of organic carbon. Hence, we here synthesize data on the circum-Arctic and sub-Arctic distribution and thickness of Yedoma permafrost (see figure for the Yedoma domain) in the framework of an Action Group funded by the International Permafrost Association (IPA). The quantification of the Yedoma coverage is conducted by the digitization of geomorphological and Quaternary geological maps. Further data on Yedoma thickness is contributed from boreholes and exposures reported in the scientific literature.

  13. Firn thickness variations across the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream margins indicating nonlinear densification rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riverman, K. L.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Alley, R. B.; Peters, L. E.; Christianson, K. A.; Muto, A.

    2013-12-01

    Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the largest ice stream in Greenland, draining approximately 8.4% of the ice sheet's area. The flow pattern and stability mechanism of this ice stream are unique to others in Greenland and Antarctica, and merit further study to ascertain the sensitivity of this ice stream to future climate change. Geophysical methods are valuable tools for this application, but their results are sensitive to the structure of the firn and any spatial variations in firn properties across a given study region. Here we present firn data from a 40-km-long seismic profile across the upper reaches of NEGIS, collected in the summer of 2012 as part of an integrated ground-based geophysical survey. We find considerable variations in firn thickness that are coincident with the ice stream shear margins, where a thinner firn layer is present within the margins, and a thicker, more uniform firn layer is present elsewhere in our study region. Higher accumulation rates in the marginal surface troughs due to drift-snow trapping can account for some of this increased densification; however, our seismic results also highlight enhanced anisotropy within the firn and upper ice column that is confined to narrow bands within the shear margins. We thus interpret these large firn thickness variations and abrupt changes in anisotropy as indicators of firn densification dependent on the effective stress state as well as the overburden pressure, suggesting that the strain rate increases nonlinearly with stress across the shear margins. A GPS strain grid maintained for three weeks across both margins observed strong side shearing, with rapid stretching and then compression along particle paths, indicating large deviatoric stresses in the margins. This work demonstrates the importance of developing a high-resolution firn densification model when conducting geophysical field work in regions possessing a complex ice flow history; it also motivates the need for a more

  14. About uncertainties in sea ice thickness retrieval from satellite radar altimetry: results from the ESA-CCI Sea Ice ECV Project Round Robin Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, S.; Khvorostovsky, K.; Skourup, H.; Rinne, E.; Parsakhoo, Z. S.; Djepa, V.; Wadhams, P.; Sandven, S.

    2014-03-01

    One goal of the European Space Agency Climate Change Initiative sea ice Essential Climate Variable project is to provide a quality controlled 20 year long data set of Arctic Ocean winter-time sea ice thickness distribution. An important step to achieve this goal is to assess the accuracy of sea ice thickness retrieval based on satellite radar altimetry. For this purpose a data base is created comprising sea ice freeboard derived from satellite radar altimetry between 1993 and 2012 and collocated observations of snow and sea ice freeboard from Operation Ice Bridge (OIB) and CryoSat Validation Experiment (CryoVEx) air-borne campaigns, of sea ice draft from moored and submarine Upward Looking Sonar (ULS), and of snow depth from OIB campaigns, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E) and the Warren Climatology (Warren et al., 1999). An inter-comparison of the snow depth data sets stresses the limited usefulness of Warren climatology snow depth for freeboard-to-thickness conversion under current Arctic Ocean conditions reported in other studies. This is confirmed by a comparison of snow freeboard measured during OIB and CryoVEx and snow freeboard computed from radar altimetry. For first-year ice the agreement between OIB and AMSR-E snow depth within 0.02 m suggests AMSR-E snow depth as an appropriate alternative. Different freeboard-to-thickness and freeboard-to-draft conversion approaches are realized. The mean observed ULS sea ice draft agrees with the mean sea ice draft computed from radar altimetry within the uncertainty bounds of the data sets involved. However, none of the realized approaches is able to reproduce the seasonal cycle in sea ice draft observed by moored ULS satisfactorily. A sensitivity analysis of the freeboard-to-thickness conversion suggests: in order to obtain sea ice thickness as accurate as 0.5 m from radar altimetry, besides a freeboard estimate with centimetre accuracy, an ice-type dependent sea ice density is as mandatory

  15. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Ice Thickness and Age Environmental Data Records (EDRs) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Ice Thickness and Age from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS)...

  16. Sea-ice monitoring by ship-based visual observation during JARE ―Simplification of observation method based on the ASPeCt protocol―

    OpenAIRE

    Kay I. Ohshima; Shuki Ushio; Akihisa S. Otsuki

    2006-01-01

    A protocol for ship-based visual observation of sea ice is proposed for the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE). The protocol is a simplified version of the ASPeCt protocol, used for extracting quantitative information on sea ice. The ship-based visual observations started from JARE-46. In the pack ice region, ice thickness, ratio of deformed ice, and total ice volume increased toward the coast. Continuous monitoring of sea ice, particularly its thickness, by ship-based observation ...

  17. Modeling and analysis of Off-beam lidar returns from thick clouds, snow, and sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varnai, T.; Cahalan, R. F.

    2009-01-01

    A group of recently developed lidar (laser ranging and detection) systems can detect signals returning from several wide field-of-views, allowing them to observe the way laser pulses spread in thick media. The new capability enabled accurate measurements of cloud geometrical thickness and promises improved measurements of internal cloud structure as well as snow and sea ice thickness. This paper presents a brief overview of radiation transport simulation techniques and data analysis methods that were developed for multi-view lidar applications and for and considering multiple scattering effects in single-view lidar data. In discussing methods for simulating the three-dimensional spread of lidar pulses, we present initial results from Phase 3 of the Intercomparison of 3-D Radiation Codes (I3RC) project. The results reveal some differences in the capabilities of participating models, while good agreement among several models provides consensus results suitable for testing future models. Detailed numerical results are available at the I3RC web site at http://i3rc.gsfc.nasa. gov. In considering data analysis methods, we focus on the Thickness from Off-beam Returns (THOR) lidar. THOR proved successful in measuring the geometrical thickness of optically thick clouds; here we focus on its potential for retrieving the vertical profile of scattering coefficient in clouds and for measuring snow thickness. Initial observations suggest considerable promise but also reveal some limitations, for example that the maximum retrievable snow thickness drops from about 0.5 m in pristine areas to about 0.15 m in polluted regions. (authors)

  18. Acquisition of Ice Thickness and Ice Surface Characteristics in the Seasonal Ice Zone by CULPIS-X during the US Coast Guard’s Arctic Domain Awareness Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    OBJECTIVES • What is the volume of sea ice in the Beaufort Sea Seasonal Ice Zone (SIZ) and how does this evolve during summer as the ice edge...retreats? Recent observations suggest that the remaining ice in the Beaufort Sea is younger and thinner in recent years in part because even the oldest...surrounding ice . Recent analyses have indicated that ponds on thinner ice are often darker, accelerating the ice - albedo feedback over thin ice in summer

  19. Radar attenuation in Europa's ice shell: Obstacles and opportunities for constraining the shell thickness and its thermal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousová, Klára; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Soderlund, Krista M.

    2017-03-01

    Young surface and possible recent endogenic activity make Europa one of the most exciting solar system bodies and a primary target for spacecraft exploration. Future Europa missions are expected to carry ice-penetrating radar instruments designed to investigate its subsurface thermophysical structure. Several authors have addressed the radar sounders' performance at icy moons, often ignoring the complex structure of a realistic ice shell. Here we explore the variation in two-way radar attenuation for a variety of potential thermal structures of Europa's shell (determined by reference viscosity, activation energy, tidal heating, surface temperature, and shell thickness) as well as for low and high loss temperature-dependent attenuation model. We found that (i) for all investigated ice shell thicknesses (5-30 km), the radar sounder will penetrate between 15% and 100% of the total thickness, (ii) the maximum penetration depth varies laterally, with deepest penetration possible through cold downwellings, (iii) direct ocean detection might be possible for shells of up to 15 km thick if the signal travels through cold downwelling ice or the shell is conductive, (iv) even if the ice/ocean interface is not directly detected, penetration through most of the shell could constrain the deep shell structure through returns from deep non-ocean interfaces or the loss of signal itself, and (v) for all plausible ice shells, the two-way attenuation to the eutectic point is ≲30 dB which shows a robust potential for longitudinal investigation of the ice shell's shallow thermophysical structure.

  20. Evaluation of the limit ice thickness for the hull of various Finnish-Swedish ice class vessels navigating in the Russian Arctic

    OpenAIRE

    Pentti Kujala; Mihkel Kõrgesaar; Jorma Kämäräinen

    2018-01-01

    Selection of suitable ice class for ships operation is an important but not simple task. The increased exploitation of the Polar waters, both seasonal periods and geographical areas, as well as the introduction of new international design standards such as Polar Code, reduces the relevancy of using existing experience as basis for the selection, and new methods and knowledge have to be developed. This paper will analyse what can be the limiting ice thickness for ships navigating in the Russia...

  1. Radio Echo Sounding (RES investigations at Talos Dome (East Antarctica: bedrock topography and ice thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Tabacco

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Radio echo sounding measurements were collected during two Antarctic expeditions to determine the ice thickness and the sub-glacial morphology of Talos Dome in the region around 72°48'S; 159°06'E (about 6400 km2 on the edge of the East Antarctic plateau adjacent to Victoria Land in the western Ross Sea sector. The increasing interest in this region is due to the fact that in this area the ice accumulation is higher than in other sites in East Antarctica. Because of this, Talos Dome could be a new site for a project of a deep ice core drilling to obtain information on climate changes near the coast of Antarctica. In this frame, the knowledge of the bedrock topography is of great importance to choose the best location for the drilling site. In this paper, airborne radio echo sounding results from two Antarctic expeditions (1997 and 1999 are presented. Bedrock topography in bi- and three-dimensions for the Talos Dome region are discussed.

  2. Sea ice-albedo climate feedback mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J.L.; Curry, J.A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Ebert, E.E. [Bureau of Meterology Research Center, Melbourne (Australia)

    1995-02-01

    The sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism over the Arctic Ocean multiyear sea ice is investigated by conducting a series of experiments using several one-dimensional models of the coupled sea ice-atmosphere system. In its simplest form, ice-albedo feedback is thought to be associated with a decrease in the areal cover of snow and ice and a corresponding increase in the surface temperature, further decreasing the area cover of snow and ice. It is shown that the sea ice-albedo feedback can operate even in multiyear pack ice, without the disappearance of this ice, associated with internal processes occurring within the multiyear ice pack (e.g., duration of the snow cover, ice thickness, ice distribution, lead fraction, and melt pond characteristics). The strength of the ice-albedo feedback mechanism is compared for several different thermodynamic sea ice models: a new model that includes ice thickness distribution., the Ebert and Curry model, the Mayjut and Untersteiner model, and the Semtner level-3 and level-0 models. The climate forcing is chosen to be a perturbation of the surface heat flux, and cloud and water vapor feedbacks are inoperative so that the effects of the sea ice-albedo feedback mechanism can be isolated. The inclusion of melt ponds significantly strengthens the ice-albedo feedback, while the ice thickness distribution decreases the strength of the modeled sea ice-albedo feedback. It is emphasized that accurately modeling present-day sea ice thickness is not adequate for a sea ice parameterization; the correct physical processes must be included so that the sea ice parameterization yields correct sensitivities to external forcing. 22 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Changes in ice cover thickness and lake level of Lake Hoare, Antarctica - Implications for local climatic change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Mckay, Christopher P.; Clow, Gary D.; Andersen, Dale T.; Simmons, George M., Jr.; Love, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    Results are reported from 10 years of ice-thickness measurements at perennially ice-covered Lake Hoare in southern Victoria Land, Antarctica. The ice cover of this lake had been thinning steadily at a rate exceeding 20 cm/yr during the last decade but seems to have recently stabilized at a thickness of 3.3 m. Data concerning lake level and degree-days above freezing are presented to show the relationship between peak summer temperatures and the volume of glacier-derived meltwater entering Lake Hoare each summer. From these latter data it is inferred that peak summer temperatures have been above 0 C for a progressively longer period of time each year since 1972. Possible explanations for the thinning of the lake ice are considered. The thickness of the ice cover is determined by the balance between freezing during the winter and ablation that occurs all year but maximizes in summer. It is suggested that the term most likely responsible for the change in the ice cover thickness at Lake Hoare is the extent of summer melting, consistent with the rising lake levels.

  4. Numerical prediction with `DMDF` model of pack ice motion in the Okhotsk sea; DMDF model ni yoru Okhotsk kai ryuhyo undo no suchi yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuzawa, T.; Yamaguchi, H.; Suzuki, S.; Kato, H. [The University of Tokyo (Japan); Rheem, C. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1996-12-31

    A simulation was performed on pack ice motion in the Okhotsk Sea in winter by using the distributed mass/discrete floe (DMDF) method that carries out a dynamic numerical calculation of pack ice motion. Several kinds of cases were compared and calculated. As a result, effectiveness was verified on a DMDF model with boundary conditions which are relatively large in range and complex in nature. At the same time, it was possible to estimate part of the characteristics of pack ice motion in this sea area. The numerical calculation used the floe distribution on February 1, 1994 as the initial condition, and performed calculations on conditions until February 8 giving considerations on meteorological and hydrographic data. As a result, the calculation result showed the same movements as those in the observed ice conditions. If an ocean current is hypothesized steady, the calculation is affected more than necessarily by the ocean current, and it derives a result departed from reality. From these findings, it was elucidated that floe motions are governed mainly by wind; and in making a numerical modeling, a consideration including composition with the ocean current is necessary. Shear stress of wind has its acting direction displaced from the wind direction because of effect of the Corioli`s force. 6 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Estimation from CryoSat-2 Satellite Data Using Machine Learning-Based Lead Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanggyun Lee

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Satellite altimeters have been used to monitor Arctic sea ice thickness since the early 2000s. In order to estimate sea ice thickness from satellite altimeter data, leads (i.e., cracks between ice floes should first be identified for the calculation of sea ice freeboard. In this study, we proposed novel approaches for lead detection using two machine learning algorithms: decision trees and random forest. CryoSat-2 satellite data collected in March and April of 2011–2014 over the Arctic region were used to extract waveform parameters that show the characteristics of leads, ice floes and ocean, including stack standard deviation, stack skewness, stack kurtosis, pulse peakiness and backscatter sigma-0. The parameters were used to identify leads in the machine learning models. Results show that the proposed approaches, with overall accuracy >90%, produced much better performance than existing lead detection methods based on simple thresholding approaches. Sea ice thickness estimated based on the machine learning-detected leads was compared to the averaged Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM-bird data collected over two days during the CryoSat Validation experiment (CryoVex field campaign in April 2011. This comparison showed that the proposed machine learning methods had better performance (up to r = 0.83 and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 0.29 m compared to thickness estimation based on existing lead detection methods (RMSE = 0.86–0.93 m. Sea ice thickness based on the machine learning approaches showed a consistent decline from 2011–2013 and rebounded in 2014.

  6. The impact of the snow cover on sea-ice thickness products retrieved by Ku-band radar altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.; Perovich, D. K.

    2015-12-01

    Snow on sea ice is a relevant polar climate parameter related to ocean-atmospheric interactions and surface albedo. It also remains an important factor for sea-ice thickness products retrieved from Ku-band satellite radar altimeters like Envisat or CryoSat-2, which is currently on its mission and the subject of many recent studies. Such satellites sense the height of the sea-ice surface above the sea level, which is called sea-ice freeboard. By assuming hydrostatic equilibrium and that the main scattering horizon is given by the snow-ice interface, the freeboard can be transformed into sea-ice thickness. Therefore, information about the snow load on hemispherical scale is crucial. Due to the lack of sufficient satellite products, only climatological values are used in current studies. Since such values do not represent the high variability of snow distribution in the Arctic, they can be a substantial contributor to the total sea-ice thickness uncertainty budget. Secondly, recent studies suggest that the snow layer cannot be considered as homogenous, but possibly rather featuring a complex stratigraphy due to wind compaction and/or ice lenses. Therefore, the Ku-band radar signal can be scattered at internal layers, causing a shift of the main scattering horizon towards the snow surface. This alters the freeboard and thickness retrieval as the assumption that the main scattering horizon is given by the snow-ice interface is no longer valid and introduces a bias. Here, we present estimates for the impact of snow depth uncertainties and snow properties on CryoSat-2 sea-ice thickness retrievals. We therefore compare CryoSat-2 freeboard measurements with field data from ice mass-balance buoys and aircraft campaigns from the CryoSat Validation Experiment. This unique validation dataset includes airborne laser scanner and radar altimeter measurements in spring coincident to CryoSat-2 overflights, and allows us to evaluate how the main scattering horizon is altered by the

  7. Applying High Resolution Imagery to Understand the Role of Dynamics in the Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    describe contemporary ice pack thickness, MODIS , AVHRR, RadarSat-2 (satellite imagery) that describe ice pack deformation features on large scales, as well...high-resolution visible-band images of the Arctic ice pack that are available at the GFL, USGS. The statistics related to the available images are...University of Maryland team as a Faculty Research Assistant, working under the guidance of Co-PI Farrell. Ms. Faber is responsible for analysis of MODIS

  8. Antarctic ice sheet thickness estimation using the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio method with single-station seismic ambient noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Yan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on a successful application of the horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (H / V method, generally used to investigate the subsurface velocity structures of the shallow crust, to estimate the Antarctic ice sheet thickness for the first time. Using three-component, five-day long, seismic ambient noise records gathered from more than 60 temporary seismic stations located on the Antarctic ice sheet, the ice thickness measured at each station has comparable accuracy to the Bedmap2 database. Preliminary analysis revealed that 60 out of 65 seismic stations on the ice sheet obtained clear peak frequencies (f0 related to the ice sheet thickness in the H / V spectrum. Thus, assuming that the isotropic ice layer lies atop a high velocity half-space bedrock, the ice sheet thickness can be calculated by a simple approximation formula. About half of the calculated ice sheet thicknesses were consistent with the Bedmap2 ice thickness values. To further improve the reliability of ice thickness measurements, two-type models were built to fit the observed H / V spectrum through non-linear inversion. The two-type models represent the isotropic structures of single- and two-layer ice sheets, and the latter depicts the non-uniform, layered characteristics of the ice sheet widely distributed in Antarctica. The inversion results suggest that the ice thicknesses derived from the two-layer ice models were in good concurrence with the Bedmap2 ice thickness database, and that ice thickness differences between the two were within 300 m at almost all stations. Our results support previous finding that the Antarctic ice sheet is stratified. Extensive data processing indicates that the time length of seismic ambient noise records can be shortened to two hours for reliable ice sheet thickness estimation using the H / V method. This study extends the application fields of the H / V method and provides an effective and independent way to measure

  9. Aerial surveys of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) on fast and pack ice in the central Beaufort Sea of Alaska, 1985-1987 and 1996-1999 (NODC Accession 0000931)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These datasets include counts of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) and other marine mammals made during aerial surveys of ringed seals on fast and pack ice of the central...

  10. Comparative study on the resistance performance of an icebreaking cargo vessel according to the variation of waterline angles in pack ice conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moon-Chan Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The resistance performance of an icebreaking cargo vessel according to the variation of waterline angles is investigated numerically and experimentally. A recently developed Finite Element (FE model is used in our analysis. A resistance test with synthetic ice is performed in the towing tank at Pusan National University (PNU to compare and validate the computed results. We demonstrate good agreement between the experimental and numerical results. Ship-ice interaction loads are numerically calculated based on the Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method in the commercial FE package LS-DYNA. Test results from model testing with synthetic ice at the PNU towing tank are used to compare and validate the numerical simulations. For each waterline angle, numerical and experimental comparisons were made for three concentrations (90%, 80%, and 60% of pack ice. Ice was modeled as a rigid body, but the ice density was the same as that used in the experiments. A comparative study according to the variation of stem angles is expected to be conducted in the near future.

  11. Relative influences of the metocean forcings on the drifting ice pack and estimation of internal ice stress gradients in the Labrador Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, I. D.; Torbati, R. Z.; Taylor, R. S.

    2017-07-01

    Understanding the relative influences of the metocean forcings on the drift of sea ice floes is a crucial component to the overall characterization of an ice environment and to developing an understanding of the factors controlling the ice dynamics. In addition, estimating the magnitude of the internal stress gradients on drifting sea ice floes generated by surrounding ice cover is important for modeling operations, informing the design of offshore structures and vessels in ice environments, and for the proper calibration of Discrete Element Models (DEM) of fields of drifting ice floes. In the spring of 2015 and 2016, four sea ice floes offshore Makkovik, Labrador were tagged with satellite-linked ice tracking buoys along with one satellite-linked weather station on each floe to transmit wind speed and direction. Twenty satellite-linked Lagrangian surface ocean current tracking buoys were also deployed in the open water adjacent to the targeted ice floes. In this paper, the dynamics of the four ice floes are explored in terms of the relative proportions which were forced by the wind, current, sea surface topography, Coriolis, and internal stress gradients. The internal ice stress gradients are calculated as residuals between the observed accelerations of the floes as measured by the tracking buoys and the sums of the other metocean forcings. Results show that internal ice stress gradients accounted for up to 50% of the observed forcing on the floes, and may have reached up to around 0.19 kPa.

  12. MIZMAS: Modeling the Evolution of Ice Thickness and Floe Size Distributions in the Marginal Ice Zone of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    ITD theory of Thorndike et al. (1975) in order to explicitly simulate the evolution of FSD and ITD jointly. The FSD theory includes a FSD function and...et al., 2015). 4 RESULTS Modeling: A FSD theory is developed and coupled to the ITD theory of Thorndike et al. (1975) in order to... Thorndike , A.S., D.A. Rothrock, G.A. Maykut, and R. Colony (1975), The thickness distribution of sea ice. J. Geophys. Res., 80, 4501–4513. Zhang

  13. Exploring the utility of quantitative network design in evaluating Arctic sea ice thickness sampling strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Kaminski, T.; Kauker, F.; Eicken, H.; Karcher, M.

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative network design (QND) study of the Arctic sea ice-ocean system using a software tool that can evaluate hypothetical observational networks in a variational data assimilation system. For a demonstration, we evaluate two idealised flight transects derived from NASA's Operation IceBridge airborne ice surveys in terms of their potential to improve ten-day to five-month sea-ice forecasts. As target regions for the forecasts we select the Chukchi Sea, a...

  14. Long-Term Observations of Atmospheric CO2, O3 and BrO over the Transitioning Arctic Ocean Pack-ice: The O-Buoy Chemical Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrai, P.

    2016-02-01

    Autonomous, sea ice-tethered O-Buoys have been deployed (2009-2016) across the Arctic sea ice for long-term atmospheric measurements (http://www.o-buoy.org). O-Buoys (15) provide in-situ concentrations of three sentinel atmospheric chemicals, ozone, CO2 and BrO, as well as meteorological parameters and imagery, over the frozen ocean. O-Buoys were designed to transmit daily data over a period of 2 years while deployed in sea ice, as part of automated ice-drifting stations that include snow/ice measurement systems (e.g. Ice Mass Balance buoys) and oceanographic measurements (e.g. Ice Tethered Profilers). Seasonal changes in Arctic atmospheric chemistry are influenced by changes in the characteristics and presence of the sea ice vs. open water as well as air mass trajectories, especially during the winter-spring and summer-fall transitions when sea ice is melting and freezing, respectively. The O-Buoy Chemical Network provides the unique opportunity to observe these transition periods in real-time with high temporal resolution, and to compare them with those collected on land-based monitoring stations located. Due to the logistical challenges of measurements over the Arctic Ocean region, most long term, in-situ observations of atmospheric chemistry have been made at coastal or island sites around the periphery of the Arctic Ocean, leaving large spatial and temporal gaps that O-Buoys overcome. Advances in floatation, communications, power management, and sensor hardware have been made to overcome the challenges of diminished Arctic sea ice. O-Buoy data provide insights into enhanced seasonal, interannual and spatial variability in atmospheric composition, atmospheric boundary layer control on the amount of halogen activation, enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 signal over the more variable and porous pack ice, and to develop an integrated picture of the coupled ocean/ice/atmosphere system. As part of the Arctic Observing Network, we provide data to the community (www.aoncadis.org).

  15. Ultra-Wideband Radiometry Remote Sensing of Polar Ice Sheet Temperature Profile, Sea Ice and Terrestrial Snow Thickness: Forward Modeling and Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, L.; Tan, S.; Sanamzadeh, M.; Johnson, J. T.; Jezek, K. C.; Durand, M. T.

    2017-12-01

    The recent development of an ultra-wideband software defined radiometer (UWBRAD) operating over the unprotected spectrum of 0.5 2.0 GHz using radio-frequency interference suppression techniques offers new methodologies for remote sensing of the polar ice sheets, sea ice, and terrestrial snow. The instrument was initially designed for remote sensing of the intragalcial temperature profile of the ice sheet, where a frequency dependent penetration depth yields a frequency dependent brightness temperature (Tb) spectrum that can be linked back to the temperature profile of the ice sheet. The instrument was tested during a short flight over Northwest Greenland in September, 2016. Measurements were successfully made over the different snow facies characteristic of Greenland including the ablation, wet snow and percolation facies, and ended just west of Camp Century during the approach to the dry snow zone. Wide-band emission spectra collected during the flight have been processed and analyzed. Results show that the spectra are highly sensitive to the facies type with scattering from ice lenses being the dominant reason for low Tbs in the percolation zone. Inversion of Tb to physical temperature at depth was conducted on the measurements near Camp Century, achieving a -1.7K ten-meter error compared to borehole measurements. However, there is a relatively large uncertainty in the lower part possibly due to the large scattering near the surface. Wideband radiometry may also be applicable to sea ice and terrestrial snow thickness retrieval. Modeling studies suggest that the UWBRAD spectra reduce ambiguities inherent in other sea ice thickness retrievals by utilizing coherent wave interferences that appear in the Tb spectrum. When applied to a lossless medium such as terrestrial snow, this coherent oscillation turns out to be the single key signature that can be used to link back to snow thickness. In this paper, we report our forward modeling findings in support of instrument

  16. THE EFFECT OF THE THICKNESS OF A PACKED BED ON THE DYNAMIC AND THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A SOLAR DRYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S KHALDI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying food in the sun is a safe, easy and economical way to preserve food, especially fruits. Cabinet dryers are the most popular equipment for fruit drying. Because of intermittent nature of solar energy, storage is required for uninterrupted supply in order to match the needs. The main objective of this study is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with packed bed as thermal storage with natural airflow for drying figs (Ficuscarica. The cabinet dryer were envisaged theoretically (computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The distribution of the velocity and temperature of air within the solar dryer were presented during one day of August and under the climate conditions of Tlemcen (Algeria.  The effects of presence of a packed bed on the distribution of velocity and temperature of airflow and on the temperature of figs were analyzed. The results show that the solar dryer design, incorporating a packed bed enhances the capabilities and performance of the solar dryer, through increasing time of drying.

  17. Estimating the top altitude of optically thick ice clouds from thermal infrared satellite observations using CALIPSO data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Yost, Chris R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Chen, Yan

    2008-06-01

    The difference between cloud-top altitude Z top and infrared effective radiating height Z eff for optically thick ice clouds is examined using April 2007 data taken by the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) and the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). For even days, the difference ΔZ between CALIPSO Z top and MODIS Z eff is 1.58 +/- 1.26 km. The linear fit between Z top and Z eff , applied to odd-day data, yields a difference of 0.03 +/- 1.21 km and can be used to estimate Z top from any infrared-based Z eff for thick ice clouds. Random errors appear to be due primarily to variations in cloud ice-water content (IWC). Radiative transfer calculations show that ΔZ corresponds to an optical depth of ~1, which based on observed ice-particle sizes yields an average cloud-top IWC of ~0.015 gm-3, a value consistent with in situ measurements. The analysis indicates potential for deriving cloud-top IWC using dual-satellite data.

  18. Kinetic investigation of narrow-bore columns packed with prototype sub-2 μm superficially porous particles with various shell thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritti, Fabrice; Omamogho, Jesse; Guiochon, Georges

    2011-10-07

    The recent successful breakthrough of sub-3 μm shell particles in HPLC has triggered considerable research efforts toward the design of new brands of core-shell particles. We investigated the mass transfer mechanism of a few analytes in narrow-bore columns packed with prototype 1.7 μm shell particles, made of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 μm solid nonporous cores surrounded by porous shells 350, 250, and 150 nm thick, respectively. Three probe solutes, uracil, naphthalene, and insulin, were chosen to assess the kinetic performance of these columns. Inverse size exclusion chromatography, peak parking experiments, and the numerical integration of the experimental peak profiles were carried out in order to measure the external, internal, and total column porosities, the true bulk diffusion coefficients of these analytes, the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, the longitudinal diffusion term, and the trans-particle mass transfer resistance term. The residual eddy diffusion term was measured by difference. The results show the existence of important trans-column velocity biases (7%) possibly due to the presence of particle multiplets in the slurry mixture used during the packing process. Our results illustrates some of the difficulties encountered by scientists preparing and packing shell particles into narrow-bore columns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Field research on using oil herding surfactants to thicken oil slicks in pack ice for in-situ burning. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S.; Nedwed, T.; Mullin, J.

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have been performed in recent years to determine the capability of herding agents to thicken oil slicks among loose pack ice for the purpose of in situ burning. In loose pack ice conditions where booms are not practical, effective in situ burns may be possible if thin slicks could be thickened to the 2 to 5 mm range. However, specific chemical surface-active agents known as herders are need to clear and contain oil slicks on an open water surface. The agents spread quickly over a water surface into a monomolecular layer due to their high spreading coefficients. The best agents have spreading pressures in the mid 40 mN/m range. As such, only small quantities of these surfactants are needed to clear thin films of oil from large areas of water surface, and to contract it into thicker slicks. This paper summarized the previous studies that evaluated shoreline-cleaning agents with oil herding properties. However, the main focus of this paper was on the final phase of testing conducted at the Prudhoe Bay Fire Training Grounds in November 2006 in which a series of outdoor burns were conducted at the scale of 30 m 2 with herders and crude oil in a test pool containing pieces of ice. The tests revealed that when a herder was used on crude oil slicks that were otherwise unignitable, the slicks could be ignited and burned in situ in brash and slush ice conditions at temperatures as low as -17 degrees C. Both the removal rate and efficiencies for the herded slicks were comparable to the theoretical maximum achievable for mechanically contained slicks on open water. 13 refs., 1 tab., 18 figs

  20. An Ultra-Wideband, Microwave Radar for Measuring Snow Thickness on Sea Ice and Mapping Near-Surface Internal Layers in Polar Firn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzer, Ben; Gomez-Garcia, Daniel; Leuschen, Carl; Paden, John; Rodriguez-Morales, Fernando; Patel, Azsa; Markus, Thorsten; Holt, Benjamin; Gogineni, Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Sea ice is generally covered with snow, which can vary in thickness from a few centimeters to >1 m. Snow cover acts as a thermal insulator modulating the heat exchange between the ocean and the atmosphere, and it impacts sea-ice growth rates and overall thickness, a key indicator of climate change in polar regions. Snow depth is required to estimate sea-ice thickness using freeboard measurements made with satellite altimeters. The snow cover also acts as a mechanical load that depresses ice freeboard (snow and ice above sea level). Freeboard depression can result in flooding of the snow/ice interface and the formation of a thick slush layer, particularly in the Antarctic sea-ice cover. The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an ultra-wideband, microwave radar capable of operation on long-endurance aircraft to characterize the thickness of snow over sea ice. The low-power, 100mW signal is swept from 2 to 8GHz allowing the air/snow and snow/ ice interfaces to be mapped with 5 c range resolution in snow; this is an improvement over the original system that worked from 2 to 6.5 GHz. From 2009 to 2012, CReSIS successfully operated the radar on the NASA P-3B and DC-8 aircraft to collect data on snow-covered sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic for NASA Operation IceBridge. The radar was found capable of snow depth retrievals ranging from 10cm to >1 m. We also demonstrated that this radar can be used to map near-surface internal layers in polar firn with fine range resolution. Here we describe the instrument design, characteristics and performance of the radar.

  1. Winter sea ice export from the Laptev Sea preconditions the local summer sea ice cover and fast ice decay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Itkin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ice retreat in the eastern Eurasian Arctic is a consequence of atmospheric and oceanic processes and regional feedback mechanisms acting on the ice cover, both in winter and summer. A correct representation of these processes in numerical models is important, since it will improve predictions of sea ice anomalies along the Northeast Passage and beyond. In this study, we highlight the importance of winter ice dynamics for local summer sea ice anomalies in thickness, volume and extent. By means of airborne sea ice thickness surveys made over pack ice areas in the south-eastern Laptev Sea, we show that years of offshore-directed sea ice transport have a thinning effect on the late-winter sea ice cover. To confirm the preconditioning effect of enhanced offshore advection in late winter on the summer sea ice cover, we perform a sensitivity study using a numerical model. Results verify that the preconditioning effect plays a bigger role for the regional ice extent. Furthermore, they indicate an increase in volume export from the Laptev Sea as a consequence of enhanced offshore advection, which has far-reaching consequences for the entire Arctic sea ice mass balance. Moreover we show that ice dynamics in winter not only preconditions local summer ice extent, but also accelerate fast-ice decay.

  2. Early Winter Sea Ice Dynamics in the Ross Sea from In Situ and Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, T.; Ackley, S. F.; Stammerjohn, S. E.; Tison, J. L.; Hoeppner, K.

    2017-12-01

    The Ross Sea sea ice cover is one of the few regions of the cryosphere that have been expanding in recent decades. However, 2017 saw a significantly delayed autumn ice advance and record low early winter sea ice extent. Understanding the causes and impacts of this variability has been hampered by a lack of in situ observations. A winter cruise into the Ross Sea in April-June 2017 provided some of the only in situ winter observations of sea ice processes in this region in almost 20 years. We present a first look at data from arrays of drifting buoys deployed in the ice pack and outflow from these polynyas, supplemented by a suite of high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data. Additional observations included high-resolution sonar imagery of ice deformation features from an autonomous underwater vehicle, shipboard visual observations of sea ice properties, and in situ measurements of snow and thickness and structural properties. These data show that the delay in ice advance led to a thin, highly dynamic sea ice pack, with substantial ice production and export from the Ross Ice Shelf and Terra Nova Bay polynyas. Despite these high rates of ice production, the pack ice remained thin due to rapid export and northward drift. Compared to the only prior winter observations made in 1995 and 1998, the ice was thinner, with less ridging and snow cover, reflecting a younger ice cover. Granular ice was less prevalent than in these prior cruises, particularly in the outer pack, likely due to less snow ice formation and less pancake ice formation at the advancing ice edge. Despite rapid basal ice growth, the buoy data suggest that deformation may be the dominant mechanism for sea ice thickening in the pack once an initial ice cover forms.

  3. Constraining the thickness of polar ice deposits on Mercury using the Mercury Laser Altimeter and small craters in permanently shadowed regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Ariel N.; Head, James W.; Chabot, Nancy L.; Neumann, Gregory A.

    2018-05-01

    Radar-bright deposits at the poles of Mercury are located in permanently shadowed regions, which provide thermally stable environments for hosting and retaining water ice on the surface or in the near subsurface for geologic timescales. While the areal distribution of these radar-bright deposits is well characterized, their thickness, and thus their total mass and volume, remain poorly constrained. Here we derive thickness estimates for selected water-ice deposits using small, simple craters visible within the permanently shadowed, radar-bright deposits. We examine two endmember scenarios: in Case I, these craters predate the emplacement of the ice, and in Case II, these craters postdate the emplacement of the ice. In Case I, we find the difference between estimated depths of the original unfilled craters and the measured depths of the craters to find the estimated infill of material. The average estimated infilled material for 9 craters assumed to be overlain with water ice is ∼ 41-14+30 m, where 1-σ standard error of the mean is reported as uncertainty. Reported uncertainties are for statistical errors only. Additional systematic uncertainty may stem from georeferencing the images and topographic datasets, from the radial accuracy of the altimeter measurements, or from assumptions in our models including (1) ice is flat in the bowl-shaped crater and (2) there is negligible ice at the crater rims. In Case II, we derive crater excavation depths to investigate the thickness of the ice layer that may have been penetrated by the impact. While the absence of excavated regolith associated with the small craters observed suggests that impacts generally do not penetrate through the ice deposit, the spatial resolution and complex illumination geometry of images may limit the observations. Therefore, it is not possible to conclude whether the small craters in this study penetrate through the ice deposit, and thus Case II does not provide a constraint on the ice thickness

  4. Estimating the ice thickness of mountain glaciers with an inverse approach using surface topography and mass-balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michel, Laurent; Picasso, Marco; Farinotti, Daniel; Bauder, Andreas; Funk, Martin; Blatter, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    We present a numerical method to estimate the ice thickness distribution within a two-dimensional, non-sliding mountain glacier, given a transient surface geometry and a mass-balance distribution, which are relatively easy to obtain for a large number of glaciers. The inverse approach is based on the shallow ice approximation (SIA) of ice flow and requires neither filtering of the surface topography with a lower slope limit nor approximation of constant basal shear stress. We first address this problem for a steady-state surface geometry. Next, we use an apparent surface mass-balance description that makes the transient evolution quasi-stationary. Then, we employ a more elaborated fixed-point method in which the bedrock solution is iteratively obtained by adding the difference between the computed and known surface geometries at the end of the considered time interval. In a sensitivity study, we show that the procedure is much more susceptible to small perturbations in surface geometry than mass-balance. Finally, we present preliminary results for bed elevations in three space dimensions. (paper)

  5. Simultaneous retrieval of sea ice thickness and snow depth using concurrent active altimetry and passive L-band remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Xu, S.; Liu, J.

    2017-12-01

    The retrieval of sea ice thickness mainly relies on satellite altimetry, and the freeboard measurements are converted to sea ice thickness (hi) under certain assumptions over snow loading. The uncertain in snow depth (hs) is a major source of uncertainty in the retrieved sea ice thickness and total volume for both radar and laser altimetry. In this study, novel algorithms for the simultaneous retrieval of hi and hs are proposed for the data synergy of L-band (1.4 GHz) passive remote sensing and both types of active altimetry: (1) L-band (1.4GHz) brightness temperature (TB) from Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite and sea ice freeboard (FBice) from radar altimetry, (2) L-band TB data and snow freeboard (FBsnow) from laser altimetry. Two physical models serve as the forward models for the retrieval: L-band radiation model, and the hydrostatic equilibrium model. Verification with SMOS and Operational IceBridge (OIB) data is carried out, showing overall good retrieval accuracy for both sea ice parameters. Specifically, we show that the covariability between hs and FBsnow is crucial for the synergy between TB and FBsnow. Comparison with existing algorithms shows lower uncertainty in both sea ice parameters, and that the uncertainty in the retrieved sea ice thickness as caused by that of snow depth is spatially uncorrelated, with the potential reduction of the volume uncertainty through spatial sampling. The proposed algorithms can be applied to the retrieval of sea ice parameters at basin-scale, using concurrent active and passive remote sensing data based on satellites.

  6. On the retrieval of sea ice thickness and snow depth using concurrent laser altimetry and L-band remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lu; Xu, Shiming; Liu, Jiping; Wang, Bin

    2018-03-01

    The accurate knowledge of sea ice parameters, including sea ice thickness and snow depth over the sea ice cover, is key to both climate studies and data assimilation in operational forecasts. Large-scale active and passive remote sensing is the basis for the estimation of these parameters. In traditional altimetry or the retrieval of snow depth with passive microwave remote sensing, although the sea ice thickness and the snow depth are closely related, the retrieval of one parameter is usually carried out under assumptions over the other. For example, climatological snow depth data or as derived from reanalyses contain large or unconstrained uncertainty, which result in large uncertainty in the derived sea ice thickness and volume. In this study, we explore the potential of combined retrieval of both sea ice thickness and snow depth using the concurrent active altimetry and passive microwave remote sensing of the sea ice cover. Specifically, laser altimetry and L-band passive remote sensing data are combined using two forward models: the L-band radiation model and the isostatic relationship based on buoyancy model. Since the laser altimetry usually features much higher spatial resolution than L-band data from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite, there is potentially covariability between the observed snow freeboard by altimetry and the retrieval target of snow depth on the spatial scale of altimetry samples. Statistically significant correlation is discovered based on high-resolution observations from Operation IceBridge (OIB), and with a nonlinear fitting the covariability is incorporated in the retrieval algorithm. By using fitting parameters derived from large-scale surveys, the retrievability is greatly improved compared with the retrieval that assumes flat snow cover (i.e., no covariability). Verifications with OIB data show good match between the observed and the retrieved parameters, including both sea ice thickness and snow depth. With

  7. Mixed ice accretion on aircraft wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjua, Zaid A.; Turnbull, Barbara; Hibberd, Stephen; Choi, Kwing-So

    2018-02-01

    Ice accretion is a problematic natural phenomenon that affects a wide range of engineering applications including power cables, radio masts, and wind turbines. Accretion on aircraft wings occurs when supercooled water droplets freeze instantaneously on impact to form rime ice or runback as water along the wing to form glaze ice. Most models to date have ignored the accretion of mixed ice, which is a combination of rime and glaze. A parameter we term the "freezing fraction" is defined as the fraction of a supercooled droplet that freezes on impact with the top surface of the accretion ice to explore the concept of mixed ice accretion. Additionally we consider different "packing densities" of rime ice, mimicking the different bulk rime densities observed in nature. Ice accretion is considered in four stages: rime, primary mixed, secondary mixed, and glaze ice. Predictions match with existing models and experimental data in the limiting rime and glaze cases. The mixed ice formulation however provides additional insight into the composition of the overall ice structure, which ultimately influences adhesion and ice thickness, and shows that for similar atmospheric parameter ranges, this simple mixed ice description leads to very different accretion rates. A simple one-dimensional energy balance was solved to show how this freezing fraction parameter increases with decrease in atmospheric temperature, with lower freezing fraction promoting glaze ice accretion.

  8. A Neural Network Approach to Infer Optical Depth of Thick Ice Clouds at Night

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Hong, G.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Yan; Smith, W. L., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    One of the roadblocks to continuously monitoring cloud properties is the tendency of clouds to become optically black at cloud optical depths (COD) of 6 or less. This constraint dramatically reduces the quantitative information content at night. A recent study found that because of their diffuse nature, ice clouds remain optically gray, to some extent, up to COD of 100 at certain wavelengths. Taking advantage of this weak dependency and the availability of COD retrievals from CloudSat, an artificial neural network algorithm was developed to estimate COD values up to 70 from common satellite imager infrared channels. The method was trained using matched 2007 CloudSat and Aqua MODIS data and is tested using similar data from 2008. The results show a significant improvement over the use of default values at night with high correlation. This paper summarizes the results and suggests paths for future improvement.

  9. Comparison of Freeboard Retrieval and Ice Thickness Calculation From ALS, ASIRAS, and CryoSat-2 in the Norwegian Arctic to Field Measurements Made During the N-ICE2015 Expedition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Jennifer; Skourup, Henriette; Hvidegaard, Sine M.

    2018-01-01

    We present freeboard measurements from airborne laser scanner (ALS), the Airborne Synthetic Aperture and Interferometric Radar Altimeter System (ASIRAS), and CryoSat‐2 SIRAL radar altimeter; ice thickness measurements from both helicopter‐borne and ground‐based electromagnetic‐sounding; and point...... measurements of ice properties. This case study was carried out in April 2015 during the N‐ICE2015 expedition in the area of the Arctic Ocean north of Svalbard. The region is represented by deep snow up to 1.12 m and a widespread presence of negative freeboards. The main scattering surfaces from both CryoSat‐2...... freeboard on a regional scale of tens of kilometers. We derived a modal sea‐ice thickness for the study region from CryoSat‐2 of 3.9 m compared to measured total thickness 1.7 m, resulting in an overestimation of sea‐ice thickness on the order of a factor 2. Our results also highlight the importance of year...

  10. Tracing Atlantic Water Signature in the Arctic Sea Ice Cover East of Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Ivanov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We focus on the Arctic Ocean between Svalbard and Franz Joseph Land in order to elucidate the possible role of Atlantic water (AW inflow in shaping ice conditions. Ice conditions substantially affect the temperature regime of the Spitsbergen archipelago, particularly in winter. We test the hypothesis that intensive vertical mixing at the upper AW boundary releases substantial heat upwards that eventually reaches the under-ice water layer, thinning the ice cover. We examine spatial and temporal variation of ice concentration against time series of wind, air temperature, and AW temperature. Analysis of 1979–2011 ice properties revealed a general tendency of decreasing ice concentration that commenced after the mid-1990s. AW temperature time series in Fram Strait feature a monotonic increase after the mid-1990s, consistent with shrinking ice cover. Ice thins due to increased sensible heat flux from AW; ice erosion from below allows wind and local currents to more effectively break ice. The winter spatial pattern of sea ice concentration is collocated with patterns of surface heat flux anomalies. Winter minimum sea ice thickness occurs in the ice pack interior above the AW path, clearly indicating AW influence on ice thickness. Our study indicates that in the AW inflow region heat flux from the ocean reduces the ice thickness.

  11. Winter snow conditions on Arctic sea ice north of Svalbard during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkouriadi, Ioanna; Gallet, Jean-Charles; Graham, Robert M.; Liston, Glen E.; Polashenski, Chris; Rösel, Anja; Gerland, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    Snow is a crucial component of the Arctic sea ice system. Its thickness and thermal properties control heat conduction and radiative fluxes across the ocean, ice, and atmosphere interfaces. Hence, observations of the evolution of snow depth, density, thermal conductivity, and stratigraphy are crucial for the development of detailed snow numerical models predicting energy transfer through the snow pack. Snow depth is also a major uncertainty in predicting ice thickness using remote sensing algorithms. Here we examine the winter spatial and temporal evolution of snow physical properties on first-year (FYI) and second-year ice (SYI) in the Atlantic sector of the Arctic Ocean, during the Norwegian young sea ICE (N-ICE2015) expedition (January to March 2015). During N-ICE2015, the snow pack consisted of faceted grains (47%), depth hoar (28%), and wind slab (13%), indicating very different snow stratigraphy compared to what was observed in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean during the SHEBA campaign (1997-1998). Average snow bulk density was 345 kg m-3 and it varied with ice type. Snow depth was 41 ± 19 cm in January and 56 ± 17 cm in February, which is significantly greater than earlier suggestions for this region. The snow water equivalent was 14.5 ± 5.3 cm over first-year ice and 19 ± 5.4 cm over second-year ice.

  12. The Antarctica component of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5a) based on GPS positioning, exposure age dating of ice thicknesses, and relative sea level histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Donald F.; Peltier, W. R.; Drummond, R.; Moore, Angelyn W.

    2014-07-01

    A new model of the deglaciation history of Antarctica over the past 25 kyr has been developed, which we refer to herein as ICE-6G_C (VM5a). This revision of its predecessor ICE-5G (VM2) has been constrained to fit all available geological and geodetic observations, consisting of: (1) the present day uplift rates at 42 sites estimated from GPS measurements, (2) ice thickness change at 62 locations estimated from exposure-age dating, (3) Holocene relative sea level histories from 12 locations estimated on the basis of radiocarbon dating and (4) age of the onset of marine sedimentation at nine locations along the Antarctic shelf also estimated on the basis of 14C dating. Our new model fits the totality of these data well. An additional nine GPS-determined site velocities are also estimated for locations known to be influenced by modern ice loss from the Pine Island Bay and Northern Antarctic Peninsula regions. At the 42 locations not influenced by modern ice loss, the quality of the fit of postglacial rebound model ICE-6G_C (VM5A) is characterized by a weighted root mean square residual of 0.9 mm yr-1. The Southern Antarctic Peninsula is inferred to be rising at 2 mm yr-1, requiring there to be less Holocene ice loss there than in the prior model ICE-5G (VM2). The East Antarctica coast is rising at approximately 1 mm yr-1, requiring ice loss from this region to have been small since Last Glacial Maximum. The Ellsworth Mountains, at the base of the Antarctic Peninsula, are inferred to be rising at 5-8 mm yr-1, indicating large ice loss from this area during deglaciation that is poorly sampled by geological data. Horizontal deformation of the Antarctic Plate is minor with two exceptions. First, O'Higgins, at the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula, is moving southeast at a significant 2 mm yr-1 relative to the Antarctic Plate. Secondly, the margins of the Ronne and Ross Ice Shelves are moving horizontally away from the shelf centres at an approximate rate of 0.8 mm yr-1, in

  13. CICE, The Los Alamos Sea Ice Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-12

    The Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) is the result of an effort to develop a computationally efficient sea ice component for a fully coupled atmosphere–land–ocean–ice global climate model. It was originally designed to be compatible with the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), an ocean circulation model developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory for use on massively parallel computers. CICE has several interacting components: a vertical thermodynamic model that computes local growth rates of snow and ice due to vertical conductive, radiative and turbulent fluxes, along with snowfall; an elastic-viscous-plastic model of ice dynamics, which predicts the velocity field of the ice pack based on a model of the material strength of the ice; an incremental remapping transport model that describes horizontal advection of the areal concentration, ice and snow volume and other state variables; and a ridging parameterization that transfers ice among thickness categories based on energetic balances and rates of strain. It also includes a biogeochemical model that describes evolution of the ice ecosystem. The CICE sea ice model is used for climate research as one component of complex global earth system models that include atmosphere, land, ocean and biogeochemistry components. It is also used for operational sea ice forecasting in the polar regions and in numerical weather prediction models.

  14. Simulating ice thickness and velocity evolution of Upernavik Isstrøm 1849-2012 by forcing prescribed terminus positions in ISSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubner, Konstanze; Box, Jason E.; Schlegel, Nicole J.; Larour, Eric Y.; Morlighem, Mathieu; Solgaard, Anne M.; Kjeldsen, Kristian K.; Larsen, Signe H.; Rignot, Eric; Dupont, Todd K.; Kjær, Kurt H.

    2018-04-01

    Tidewater glacier velocity and mass balance are known to be highly responsive to terminus position change. Yet it remains challenging for ice flow models to reproduce observed ice margin changes. Here, using the Ice Sheet System Model (ISSM; Larour et al. 2012), we simulate the ice velocity and thickness changes of Upernavik Isstrøm (north-western Greenland) by prescribing a collection of 27 observed terminus positions spanning 164 years (1849-2012). The simulation shows increased ice velocity during the 1930s, the late 1970s and between 1995 and 2012 when terminus retreat was observed along with negative surface mass balance anomalies. Three distinct mass balance states are evident in the reconstruction: (1849-1932) with near zero mass balance, (1932-1992) with ice mass loss dominated by ice dynamical flow, and (1998-2012), when increased retreat and negative surface mass balance anomalies led to mass loss that was twice that of any earlier period. Over the multi-decadal simulation, mass loss was dominated by thinning and acceleration responsible for 70 % of the total mass loss induced by prescribed change in terminus position. The remaining 30 % of the total ice mass loss resulted directly from prescribed terminus retreat and decreasing surface mass balance. Although the method can not explain the cause of glacier retreat, it enables the reconstruction of ice flow and geometry during 1849-2012. Given annual or seasonal observed terminus front positions, this method could be a useful tool for evaluating simulations investigating the effect of calving laws.

  15. Acoustic effects of oil-production activities on bowhead and white whales visible during spring migration near Pt. Barrow, Alaska-1990 phase: sound propagation and whale responses to playbacks of continuous drilling noise from an ice platform, as studied in pack ice conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, W.J.; Greene, C.R.; Koski, W.R.; Smultea, M.A.; Cameron, G.

    1991-10-01

    The report concerns the effects of underwater noise from simulated oil production operations on the movements and behavior of bowhead and white whales migrating around northern Alaska in spring. An underwater sound projector suspended from pack ice was used to introduce recorded drilling noise and other test sounds into leads through the pack ice. These sounds were received and measured at various distances to determine the rate of sound attenuation with distance and frequency. The movements and behavior of bowhead and white whales approaching the operating projector were studied by aircraft- and ice-based observers. Some individuals of both species were observed to approach well within the ensonified area. However, behavioral changes and avoidance reactions were evident when the received sound level became sufficiently high. Reactions to aircraft are also discussed

  16. Nitric acid particles in cold thick ice clouds observed at global scale: Link with lightning, temperature, and upper tropospheric water vapor

    OpenAIRE

    Chepfer , H.; Minnis , P.; Dubuisson , P.; Chiriaco , Marjolaine; Sun-Mack , S.; Rivière , E.D.

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Signatures of nitric acid particles (NAP) in cold thick ice clouds have been derived from satellite observations. Most NAP are detected in the tropics (9 to 20% of clouds with T < 202.5 K). Higher occurrences were found in the rare midlatitudes very cold clouds. NAP occurrence increases as cloud temperature decreases, and NAP are more numerous in January than July. Comparisons of NAP and lightning distributions show that lightning seems to be the main source of the NOx...

  17. Bacterial Standing Stock, Activity, and Carbon Production during Formation and Growth of Sea Ice in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, S; Dieckmann, G S

    1994-08-01

    Bacterial response to formation and growth of sea ice was investigated during autumn in the northeastern Weddell Sea. Changes in standing stock, activity, and carbon production of bacteria were determined in successive stages of ice development. During initial ice formation, concentrations of bacterial cells, in the order of 1 x 10 to 3 x 10 liter, were not enhanced within the ice matrix. This suggests that physical enrichment of bacteria by ice crystals is not effective. Due to low concentrations of phytoplankton in the water column during freezing, incorporation of bacteria into newly formed ice via attachment to algal cells or aggregates was not recorded in this study. As soon as the ice had formed, the general metabolic activity of bacterial populations was strongly suppressed. Furthermore, the ratio of [H]leucine incorporation into proteins to [H]thymidine incorporation into DNA changed during ice growth. In thick pack ice, bacterial activity recovered and growth rates up to 0.6 day indicated actively dividing populations. However, biomass-specific utilization of organic compounds remained lower than in open water. Bacterial concentrations of up to 2.8 x 10 cells liter along with considerably enlarged cell volumes accumulated within thick pack ice, suggesting reduced mortality rates of bacteria within the small brine pores. In the course of ice development, bacterial carbon production increased from about 0.01 to 0.4 mug of C liter h. In thick ice, bacterial secondary production exceeded primary production of microalgae.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF SEA ICE FREEBOARD AND THICKNESS IN MCMURDO SOUND, ANTARCTICA, DERIVED BY GROUND VALIDATED SATELLITE ALTIMETER DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Price

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation employs the use of ICESat to derive freeboard measurements in McMurdo Sound in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, for the time period 2003-2009. Methods closely follow those previously presented in the literature but are complemented by a good understanding of general sea ice characteristics in the study region from extensive temporal ground investigations but with limited spatial coverage. The aim of remote sensing applications in this area is to expand the good knowledge of sea ice characteristics within these limited areas to the wider McMurdo Sound and western Ross Sea region. The seven year Austral Spring (September, October, and November investigation is presented for sea ice freeboard alone. An interannual comparison of mean freeboard indicates an increase in multiyear sea ice freeboard from 1.08 m in 2003 to 1.15 m in 2009 with positive and negative variation in between. No significant trend was detected for first year sea ice freeboard. Further, an Envisat imagery investigation complements the freeboard assessment. The multiyear sea ice was observed to increase by 254 % of its original 2003 area, as firstyear sea ice persisted through the 2004 melt season into 2005. This maximum coverage then gradually diminished by 2009 to 20 % above the original 2003 value. The mid study period increase is likely attributed to the passage of iceberg B-15A minimising oceanic pressures and preventing sea ice breakout in the region.

  19. Statistical Analyses of High-Resolution Aircraft and Satellite Observations of Sea Ice: Applications for Improving Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, S. L.; Kurtz, N. T.; Richter-Menge, J.; Harbeck, J. P.; Onana, V.

    2012-12-01

    Satellite-derived estimates of ice thickness and observations of ice extent over the last decade point to a downward trend in the basin-scale ice volume of the Arctic Ocean. This loss has broad-ranging impacts on the regional climate and ecosystems, as well as implications for regional infrastructure, marine navigation, national security, and resource exploration. New observational datasets at small spatial and temporal scales are now required to improve our understanding of physical processes occurring within the ice pack and advance parameterizations in the next generation of numerical sea-ice models. High-resolution airborne and satellite observations of the sea ice are now available at meter-scale resolution or better that provide new details on the properties and morphology of the ice pack across basin scales. For example the NASA IceBridge airborne campaign routinely surveys the sea ice of the Arctic and Southern Oceans with an advanced sensor suite including laser and radar altimeters and digital cameras that together provide high-resolution measurements of sea ice freeboard, thickness, snow depth and lead distribution. Here we present statistical analyses of the ice pack primarily derived from the following IceBridge instruments: the Digital Mapping System (DMS), a nadir-looking, high-resolution digital camera; the Airborne Topographic Mapper, a scanning lidar; and the University of Kansas snow radar, a novel instrument designed to estimate snow depth on sea ice. Together these instruments provide data from which a wide range of sea ice properties may be derived. We provide statistics on lead distribution and spacing, lead width and area, floe size and distance between floes, as well as ridge height, frequency and distribution. The goals of this study are to (i) identify unique statistics that can be used to describe the characteristics of specific ice regions, for example first-year/multi-year ice, diffuse ice edge/consolidated ice pack, and convergent

  20. Sensitivity of CryoSat-2 Arctic sea-ice freeboard and thickness on radar-waveform interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricker, R.; Hendricks, S.; Helm, V.

    2014-01-01

    In the context of quantifying Arctic ice-volume decrease at global scale, the CryoSat-2 satellite was launched in 2010 and is equipped with the K-u band synthetic aperture radar altimeter SIRAL (Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Radar Altimeter), which we use to derive sea-ice freeboard defined...... knowledge of ice and snow properties, the composition of radar backscatter and therefore the interpretation of radar echoes is crucial. This has consequences in the selection of retracker algorithms which are used to track the main scattering horizon and assign a range estimate to each CryoSat-2 measurement...... of sea-ice freeboard and higher-level products that arise from the choice of the retracker threshold only, independent of the uncertainties related to snow and ice properties. Our study shows that the choice of retracker thresholds does have a significant impact on magnitudes of estimates of sea...

  1. Propagation of Uncertainties in Sea Ice Thickness Calculations From Basin-Scale Operational Observations: A Report Prepared for the International Ice Charting Working Group and the National/Naval Ice Center

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geiger, Cathleen A

    2006-01-01

    Sea ice serves as a natural flux monitor of the global heat balance. This capability is attributed to the unique location of sea ice at the interface of the world's two largest circulation systems the air and ocean...

  2. Climate change and ice hazards in the Beaufort Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barber, D. G.; McCullough, G.; Babb, D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent reductions in the summer extent of sea ice have focused the world’s attention on the effects of climate change. Increased CO2-derived global warming is rapidly shrinking the Arctic multi-year ice pack. This shift in ice regimes allows for increasing development opportunities for large oil...... will be a much more complex task than modeling average ice circulation. Given the observed reduction in sea ice extent and thickness this rather counterintuitive situation, associated with a warming climate, poses significant hazards to Arctic marine oil and gas development and marine transportation. Accurate...... forecasting of hazardous ice motion will require improved real-time surface wind and ocean current forecast models capable of ingesting local satellite-derived wind data and/or local, closely-spaced networks of anemometers and improved methods of determining high-frequency components of surface ocean current...

  3. Ice Shell Thickness and Endogenic Processes on Europa from Mapping and Topographic Analyses of Pits, Uplifts and Small Chaos Features (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, K. N.; McKinnon, W. B.; Schenk, P.

    2013-12-01

    Constraining the thickness of the ice shell on Europa and the geological processes occurring in it are keys to understanding this icy world and its potential habitability. We focus on circular-to-subcircular features generally agreed to have been created by endogenic processes in Europa's ice shell or ocean: pits, uplifts, and subcircular chaos. Pits and uplifts are defined by their negative or positive topographic expression, respectively. Pits and uplifts generally retain pre-existing surface structures such as ridges, while chaos specifically refers to areas where the surface is broken up, in some cases to the point of destroying all original surface topography. We have mapped all features plausibly created by upwellings or other endogenic processes in the size range of 1 to 50 km in diameter, and incorporated previously unavailable topographic data as an aid to mapping and characterization of features. Topography was derived from albedo-controlled photoclinometry and crosschecked with stereo data where possible. Mapping was carried out over the medium-resolution Galileo regional maps (RegMaps) covering approximately 9% of Europa's surface, as well as over available high-resolution regions. While limited in extent, the latter are extremely valuable for detecting smaller features and for overall geomorphological analysis. Results of this new mapping show decreasing numbers of small features, and a peak in the size distribution for all features at approximately 5-6 km in diameter. No pits smaller than 3.3 km in diameter were found in high resolution imagery. Topography was used to find the depths and heights of pits and uplifts in the mapped regions. A general trend of increasing pit depth with increasing pit size was found, a correlation more easily understood in the context of a diapiric hypothesis for feature formation (as opposed to purely non-diapiric, melt-through models). Based on isostasy, maximum pit depths of ~0.3-to-0.48 km imply a minimum shell

  4. Record low sea-ice concentration in the central Arctic during summer 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinping; Barber, David; Zhang, Shugang; Yang, Qinghua; Wang, Xiaoyu; Xie, Hongjie

    2018-01-01

    The Arctic sea-ice extent has shown a declining trend over the past 30 years. Ice coverage reached historic minima in 2007 and again in 2012. This trend has recently been assessed to be unique over at least the last 1450 years. In the summer of 2010, a very low sea-ice concentration (SIC) appeared at high Arctic latitudes—even lower than that of surrounding pack ice at lower latitudes. This striking low ice concentration—referred to here as a record low ice concentration in the central Arctic (CARLIC)—is unique in our analysis period of 2003-15, and has not been previously reported in the literature. The CARLIC was not the result of ice melt, because sea ice was still quite thick based on in-situ ice thickness measurements. Instead, divergent ice drift appears to have been responsible for the CARLIC. A high correlation between SIC and wind stress curl suggests that the sea ice drift during the summer of 2010 responded strongly to the regional wind forcing. The drift trajectories of ice buoys exhibited a transpolar drift in the Atlantic sector and an eastward drift in the Pacific sector, which appeared to benefit the CARLIC in 2010. Under these conditions, more solar energy can penetrate into the open water, increasing melt through increased heat flux to the ocean. We speculate that this divergence of sea ice could occur more often in the coming decades, and impact on hemispheric SIC and feed back to the climate.

  5. Relating C-band Microwave and Optical Satellite Observations as A Function of Snow Thickness on First-Year Sea Ice during the Winter to Summer Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J.; Yackel, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice and its snow cover have a direct impact on both the Arctic and global climate system through their ability to moderate heat exchange across the ocean-sea ice-atmosphere (OSA) interface. Snow cover plays a key role in the OSA interface radiation and energy exchange, as it controls the growth and decay of first-year sea ice (FYI). However, meteoric accumulation and redistribution of snow on FYI is highly stochastic over space and time, which makes it poorly understood. Previous studies have estimated local-scale snow thickness distributions using in-situ technique and modelling but it is spatially limited and challenging due to logistic difficulties. Moreover, snow albedo is also critical for determining the surface energy balance of the OSA during the critical summer ablation season. Even then, due to persistent and widespread cloud cover in the Arctic at various spatio-temporal scales, it is difficult and unreliable to remotely measure albedo of snow cover on FYI in the optical spectrum. Previous studies demonstrate that only large-scale sea ice albedo was successfully estimated using optical-satellite sensors. However, space-borne microwave sensors, with their capability of all-weather and 24-hour imaging, can provide enhanced information about snow cover on FYI. Daily spaceborne C-band scatterometer data (ASCAT) and MODIS data are used to investigate the the seasonal co-evolution of the microwave backscatter coefficient and optical albedo as a function of snow thickness on smooth FYI. The research focuses on snow-covered FYI near Cambridge Bay, Nunavut (Fig.1) during the winter to advanced-melt period (April-June, 2014). The ACSAT time series (Fig.2) show distinct increase in scattering at melt onset indicating the first occurrence of melt water in the snow cover. The corresponding albedo exhibits no decrease at this stage. We show how the standard deviation of ASCAT backscatter on FYI during winter can be used as a proxy for surface roughness

  6. Winter Arctic sea ice growth: current variability and projections for the coming decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, A.; Boisvert, L.; Webster, M.; Holland, M. M.; Bailey, D. A.; Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice increases in both extent and thickness during the cold winter months ( October to May). Winter sea ice growth is an important factor controlling ocean ventilation and winter water/deep water formation, as well as determining the state and vulnerability of the sea ice pack before the melt season begins. Key questions for the Arctic community thus include: (i) what is the current magnitude and variability of winter Arctic sea ice growth and (ii) how might this change in a warming Arctic climate? To address (i), our current best guess of pan-Arctic sea ice thickness, and thus volume, comes from satellite altimetry observations, e.g. from ESA's CryoSat-2 satellite. A significant source of uncertainty in these data come from poor knowledge of the overlying snow depth. Here we present new estimates of winter sea ice thickness from CryoSat-2 using snow depths from a simple snow model forced by reanalyses and satellite-derived ice drift estimates, combined with snow depth estimates from NASA's Operation IceBridge. To address (ii), we use data from the Community Earth System Model's Large Ensemble Project, to explore sea ice volume and growth variability, and how this variability might change over the coming decades. We compare and contrast the model simulations to observations and the PIOMAS ice-ocean model (over recent years/decades). The combination of model and observational analysis provide novel insight into Arctic sea ice volume variability.

  7. Sea ice - Multiyear cycles and white ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledley, T. S.

    1985-01-01

    The multiyear thickness cycles represent one of the interesting features of the sea ice studies performed by Semtner (1976) and Washington et al. (1976) with simple thermodynamic models of sea ice. In the present article, a description is given of results which show that the insulating effect of snow on the surface of the sea ice is important in producing these multiyear cycles given the physics included in the model. However, when the formation of white ice is included, the cycles almost disappear. White ice is the ice which forms at the snow-ice interface when the snow layer becomes thick enough to depress the ice below the water level. Water infiltrates the snow by coming through the ice at leads and generally freezes there, forming white ice.

  8. Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  9. Power Packing

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-16

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about how to pack a lunch safely, to help keep you from getting sick.  Created: 8/16/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2011.

  10. Packing Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-08-22

    In this podcast for kids, the Kidtastics talk about packing a lunch that's not boring and is full of the power and energy kids need to make it through the day.  Created: 8/22/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/22/2011.

  11. Nitric acid particles in cold thick ice clouds observed at global scale: Link with lightning, temperature, and upper tropospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepfer, H.; Minnis, P.; Dubuisson, P.; Chiriaco, M.; Sun-Mack, S.; RivièRe, E. D.

    2007-03-01

    Signatures of nitric acid particles (NAP) in cold thick ice clouds have been derived from satellite observations. Most NAP are detected in the tropics (9 to 20% of clouds with T < 202.5 K). Higher occurrences were found in the rare midlatitudes very cold clouds. NAP occurrence increases as cloud temperature decreases, and NAP are more numerous in January than July. Comparisons of NAP and lightning distributions show that lightning seems to be the main source of the NOx, which forms NAP in cold clouds over continents. Qualitative comparisons of NAP with upper tropospheric humidity distributions suggest that NAP may play a role in the dehydration of the upper troposphere when the tropopause is colder than 195 K.

  12. Sea-ice evaluation of NEMO-Nordic 1.0: a NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice model setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, Per; Löptien, Ulrike; Hordoir, Robinson; Höglund, Anders; Schimanke, Semjon; Axell, Lars; Haapala, Jari

    2017-08-01

    The Baltic Sea is a seasonally ice-covered marginal sea in northern Europe with intense wintertime ship traffic and a sensitive ecosystem. Understanding and modeling the evolution of the sea-ice pack is important for climate effect studies and forecasting purposes. Here we present and evaluate the sea-ice component of a new NEMO-LIM3.6-based ocean-sea-ice setup for the North Sea and Baltic Sea region (NEMO-Nordic). The setup includes a new depth-based fast-ice parametrization for the Baltic Sea. The evaluation focuses on long-term statistics, from a 45-year long hindcast, although short-term daily performance is also briefly evaluated. We show that NEMO-Nordic is well suited for simulating the mean sea-ice extent, concentration, and thickness as compared to the best available observational data set. The variability of the annual maximum Baltic Sea ice extent is well in line with the observations, but the 1961-2006 trend is underestimated. Capturing the correct ice thickness distribution is more challenging. Based on the simulated ice thickness distribution we estimate the undeformed and deformed ice thickness and concentration in the Baltic Sea, which compares reasonably well with observations.

  13. The study of fresh-water lake ice using multiplexed imaging radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Bryan M.; Larson, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    The study of ice in the upper Great Lakes, both from the operational and the scientific points of view, is receiving continued attention. Quantitative and qualitative field work is being conducted to provide the needed background for accurate interpretation of remotely sensed data. The data under discussion in this paper were obtained by a side-looking multiplexed airborne radar (SLAR) supplemented with ground-truth data.Because of its ability to penetrate adverse weather, radar is an especially important instrument for monitoring ice in the upper Great Lakes. It has previously been shown that imaging radars can provide maps of ice cover in these areas. However, questions concerning both the nature of the surfaces reflecting radar energy and the interpretation of the radar imagery continually arise.Our analysis of ice in Whitefish Bay (Lake Superior) indicates that the combination of the ice/water interlace and the ice/air interface is the major contributor to the radar backscatter as seen on the imagery At these frequencies the ice has a very low relative dielectric permittivity (types studied include newly formed black ice, pancake ice, and frozen and consolidated pack and brash ice.Although ice thickness cannot be measured directly from the received signals, it is suspected that by combining the information pertaining to radar backscatter with data on the meteorological and sea-state history of the area, together with some basic ground truth, better estimates of the ice thickness may be provided. In addition, certain ice features (e.g. ridges, ice-foot formation, areas of brash ice) may be identified with reasonable confidence. There is a continued need for additional ground work to verify the validity of imaging radars for these types of interpretations.

  14. Bibliography of Ice Properties and Forecasting Related to Transportation in Ice-Covered Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    N. and Tabata , T., Ice study in the Gulf of Peschanskii, I.S., Ice science and ice technology, Bothnia, III: observations on large grains of ice...ice and by Sterrett, K.F., The arctic environment and the hitting ice floes. Results of these measurements have arctic surface effect vehicle, Cold...ice growth, temperature 26-3673 effects, ice cover thickness. 28-557 Determining contact stresses when a ship’s stem hits the ice, Kheisin, D.E

  15. Record Low Sea-Ice Concentration in the Central Arctic during Summer 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jinping ZHAO; David BARBER; Shugang ZHANG; Qinghua YANG; Xiaoyu WANG; Hongjie XIE

    2018-01-01

    The Arctic sea-ice extent has shown a declining trend over the past 30 years.Ice coverage reached historic minima in 2007 and again in 2012.This trend has recently been assessed to be unique over at least the last 1450 years.In the summer of 2010,a very low sea-ice concentration (SIC) appeared at high Arctic latitudes—even lower than that of surrounding pack ice at lower latitudes.This striking low ice concentration—referred to here as a record low ice concentration in the central Arctic (CARLIC)—is unique in our analysis period of 2003-15,and has not been previously reported in the literature.The CARLIC was not the result of ice melt,because sea ice was still quite thick based on in-situ ice thickness measurements.Instead,divergent ice drift appears to have been responsible for the CARLIC.A high correlation between SIC and wind stress curl suggests that the sea ice drift during the summer of 2010 responded strongly to the regional wind forcing.The drift trajectories of ice buoys exhibited a transpolar drift in the Atlantic sector and an eastward drift in the Pacific sector,which appeared to benefit the CARLIC in 2010.Under these conditions,more solar energy can penetrate into the open water,increasing melt through increased heat flux to the ocean.We speculate that this divergence of sea ice could occur more often in the coming decades,and impact on hemispheric SIC and feed back to the climate.

  16. There goes the sea ice: following Arctic sea ice parcels and their properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschudi, M. A.; Tooth, M.; Meier, W.; Stewart, S.

    2017-12-01

    Arctic sea ice distribution has changed considerably over the last couple of decades. Sea ice extent record minimums have been observed in recent years, the distribution of ice age now heavily favors younger ice, and sea ice is likely thinning. This new state of the Arctic sea ice cover has several impacts, including effects on marine life, feedback on the warming of the ocean and atmosphere, and on the future evolution of the ice pack. The shift in the state of the ice cover, from a pack dominated by older ice, to the current state of a pack with mostly young ice, impacts specific properties of the ice pack, and consequently the pack's response to the changing Arctic climate. For example, younger ice typically contains more numerous melt ponds during the melt season, resulting in a lower albedo. First-year ice is typically thinner and more fragile than multi-year ice, making it more susceptible to dynamic and thermodynamic forcing. To investigate the response of the ice pack to climate forcing during summertime melt, we have developed a database that tracks individual Arctic sea ice parcels along with associated properties as these parcels advect during the summer. Our database tracks parcels in the Beaufort Sea, from 1985 - present, along with variables such as ice surface temperature, albedo, ice concentration, and convergence. We are using this database to deduce how these thousands of tracked parcels fare during summer melt, i.e. what fraction of the parcels advect through the Beaufort, and what fraction melts out? The tracked variables describe the thermodynamic and dynamic forcing on these parcels during their journey. This database will also be made available to all interested investigators, after it is published in the near future. The attached image shows the ice surface temperature of all parcels (right) that advected through the Beaufort Sea region (left) in 2014.

  17. A Decade of High-Resolution Arctic Sea Ice Measurements from Airborne Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, K.; Farrell, S. L.; Connor, L. N.; Jackson, C.; Richter-Menge, J.

    2017-12-01

    Satellite altimeters carried on board ERS-1,-2, EnviSat, ICESat, CryoSat-2, AltiKa and Sentinel-3 have transformed our ability to map the thickness and volume of the polar sea ice cover, on seasonal and decadal time-scales. The era of polar satellite altimetry has coincided with a rapid decline of the Arctic ice cover, which has thinned, and transitioned from a predominantly multi-year to first-year ice cover. In conjunction with basin-scale satellite altimeter observations, airborne surveys of the Arctic Ocean at the end of winter are now routine. These surveys have been targeted to monitor regions of rapid change, and are designed to obtain the full snow and ice thickness distribution, across a range of ice types. Sensors routinely deployed as part of NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) campaigns include the Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM) laser altimeter, the frequency-modulated continuous-wave snow radar, and the Digital Mapping System (DMS). Airborne measurements yield high-resolution data products and thus present a unique opportunity to assess the quality and characteristics of the satellite observations. We present a suite of sea ice data products that describe the snow depth and thickness of the Arctic ice cover during the last decade. Fields were derived from OIB measurements collected between 2009-2017, and from reprocessed data collected during ad-hoc sea ice campaigns prior to OIB. Our bespoke algorithms are designed to accommodate the heterogeneous sea ice surface topography, that varies at short spatial scales. We assess regional and inter-annual variability in the sea ice thickness distribution. Results are compared to satellite-derived ice thickness fields to highlight the sensitivities of satellite footprints to the tails of the thickness distribution. We also show changes in the dynamic forcing shaping the ice pack over the last eight years through an analysis of pressure-ridge sail-height distributions and surface roughness conditions

  18. Freezing process in unsaturated packed beds; Fuhowa ryushi sonai ni okeru suibun toketsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akahori, M; Aoki, K; Hattori, M [Nagaoka University of Technology, Niigata (Japan); Tani, T [Oji Paper Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-25

    The freezing process in unsaturated packed beds has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. Water transport to the frozen front plays an important part on freezing. The rate of the absorption of water into frozen layer depended on the freezing heat flux and the water saturation at the freezing front. As a result, ice content in the frozen layer was related to the rate of the absorption of water and the freezing heat flux. A one-dimensional freezing model in unsaturated packed beds has been presented, accounting for the water transport. The predicted water saturation and temperature distributions in the body and the thickness of frozen layer were compared with the experimental results using a porous bed composed of glass beads. 12 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Complex bounds and microstructural recovery from measurements of sea ice permittivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gully, A.; Backstrom, L.G.E.; Eicken, H.; Golden, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    Sea ice is a porous composite of pure ice with brine, air, and salt inclusions. The polar sea ice packs play a key role in the earth's ocean-climate system, and they host robust algal and bacterial communities that support the Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems. Monitoring the sea ice packs on global or regional scales is an increasingly important problem, typically involving the interaction of an electromagnetic wave with sea ice. In the quasistatic regime where the wavelength is much longer than the composite microstructural scale, the electromagnetic behavior is characterized by the effective complex permittivity tensor ε*. In assessing the impact of climate change on the polar sea ice covers, current satellites and algorithms can predict ice extent, but the thickness distribution remains an elusive, yet most important feature. In recent years, electromagnetic induction devices using low frequency waves have been deployed on ships, helicopters and planes to obtain thickness data. Here we compare two sets of theoretical bounds to extensive outdoor tank and in situ field data on ε* at 50MHz taken in the Arctic and Antarctic. The sea ice is assumed to be a two phase composite of ice and brine with known constituent permittivities. The first set of bounds assumes only knowledge of the brine volume fraction or porosity, and the second set further assumes statistical isotropy of the microstructure. We obtain excellent agreement between theory and experiment, and are able to observe the apparent violation of the isotropic bounds as the vertically oriented microstructure becomes increasingly connected for higher porosities. Moreover, these bounds are inverted to obtain estimates of the porosity from the measurements of ε*. We find that the temporal variations of the reconstructed porosity, which is directly related to temperature, closely follow the actual behavior

  20. Bacterial activity in sea ice and open water of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica: A microautoradiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossmann, S

    1994-07-01

    Metabolic activity of bacteria was investigated in open water, newly forming sea ice, and successive stages of pack ice in the Weddell Sea. Microautoradiography, using [(3)H]leucine as substrate, was compared with incorporation rates of [(3)H]leucine into proteins. Relation of [(3)H]leucine incorporation to the biomass of active bacteria provides information about changes of specific metabolic activity of cells. During a phytoplankton bloom in an ice-free, stratified water column, total numbers of bacteria in the euphotic zone averaged 2.3 × 10(5) ml(-1), but only about 13% showed activity via leucine uptake. Growth rate of the active bacteria was estimated as 0.3-0.4 days(-1). Total cell concentration of bacteria in 400 m depth was 6.6 × 10(4) ml(-1). Nearly 50% of these cells were active, although biomass production and specific growth rate were only about one-tenth that of the surface populations. When sea ice was forming in high concentrations of phytoplankton, bacterial biomass in the newly formed ice was 49.1 ng C ml(-1), exceeding that in open water by about one order of magnitude. Attachment of large bacteria to algal cells seems to cause their enrichment in the new ice, since specific bacterial activity was reduced during ice formation, and enrichment of bacteria was not observed when ice formed at low algal concentration. During growth of pack ice, biomass of bacteria increased within the brine channel system. Specific activity was still reduced at these later stages of ice development, and percentages of active cells were as low as 3-5%. In old, thick pack ice, bacterial activity was high and about 30% of cells were active. However, biomass-specific activity of bacteria remained significantly lower than that in open water. It is concluded that bacterial assemblages different to those of open water developed within the ice and were dominated by bacteria with lower average metabolic activity than those of ice-free water.

  1. Advances in marine ice profiling for oil and gas applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fissel, D.; Marko, J.; Melling, H.

    2008-01-01

    Developments in acoustic profiling technologies have allowed ever more accurate and information-rich extraction of data on the draft, undersurface topography and immediately adjacent water column environment of polar and other marine and freshwater ice covers. The purpose of these advances was to replace and improve upon other, often inconvenient, costly and/or otherwise unsatisfactory methodologies such as the use of upward looking sonar (ULS) sounders on submarines as well as deployments of airborne- sensors such as laser profilometers and electromagnetic induction instrumentation. ULS is a primary source of data for measurements of ice thickness. Self-contained units now have the data capacity and accuracy/resolution sufficient for unattended operation. Recent technological advances have now led to the next generation of ice profiling sonar (IPS), incorporating much expanded on-board data storage capacity and powerful onboard real-time firmware. This paper outlined the nature of the issues addressed in past oil and gas related ice profiling studies. The paper focused on identifying the key items of interest and the remaining uncertainties in the derived products. All of the data gathered in this regard was obtained with first generation profiling instrumentation of the type initially introduced by Melling and coworkers in 1995. The additional features of a recently introduced next generation IPS instrument were briefly described. The observed and potential benefits offered in oil and gas related applications were also presented. It was concluded that the next generation ice profilers sets the stage for research and development into the measurement of new ice parameters, the combination of information from ice profilers and all-weather radar satellite systems, and the possibility of remote access to the ice profiler data from multi-year moorings located well within the main Arctic Ocean ice pack. 11 refs., 10 figs

  2. Arctic landfast sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konig, Christof S.

    Landfast ice is sea ice which forms and remains fixed along a coast, where it is attached either to the shore, or held between shoals or grounded icebergs. Landfast ice fundamentally modifies the momentum exchange between atmosphere and ocean, as compared to pack ice. It thus affects the heat and freshwater exchange between air and ocean and impacts on the location of ocean upwelling and downwelling zones. Further, the landfast ice edge is essential for numerous Arctic mammals and Inupiat who depend on them for their subsistence. The current generation of sea ice models is not capable of reproducing certain aspects of landfast ice formation, maintenance, and disintegration even when the spatial resolution would be sufficient to resolve such features. In my work I develop a new ice model that permits the existence of landfast sea ice even in the presence of offshore winds, as is observed in mature. Based on viscous-plastic as well as elastic-viscous-plastic ice dynamics I add tensile strength to the ice rheology and re-derive the equations as well as numerical methods to solve them. Through numerical experiments on simplified domains, the effects of those changes are demonstrated. It is found that the modifications enable landfast ice modeling, as desired. The elastic-viscous-plastic rheology leads to initial velocity fluctuations within the landfast ice that weaken the ice sheet and break it up much faster than theoretically predicted. Solving the viscous-plastic rheology using an implicit numerical method avoids those waves and comes much closer to theoretical predictions. Improvements in landfast ice modeling can only verified in comparison to observed data. I have extracted landfast sea ice data of several decades from several sources to create a landfast sea ice climatology that can be used for that purpose. Statistical analysis of the data shows several factors that significantly influence landfast ice distribution: distance from the coastline, ocean depth, as

  3. Wave inhibition by sea ice enables trans-Atlantic ice rafting of debris during Heinrich Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T. J. W.; Dell, R.; Eisenman, I.; Keeling, R. F.; Padman, L.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2017-12-01

    The thickness of the ice-rafted debris (IRD) layers that signal Heinrich Events declines far more gradually with distance from the iceberg sources than would be expected based on present-day iceberg trajectories. Here we model icebergs as passive Lagrangian tracers driven by ocean currents, winds, and sea surface temperatures. The icebergs are released in a comprehensive climate model simulation of the last glacial maximum (LGM), as well as a simulation of the modern climate. The two simulated climates result in qualitatively similar distributions of iceberg meltwater and hence debris, with the colder temperatures of the LGM having only a relatively small effect on meltwater spread. In both scenarios, meltwater flux falls off rapidly with zonal distance from the source, in contrast with the more uniform spread of IRD in sediment cores. In order to address this discrepancy, we propose a physical mechanism that could have prolonged the lifetime of icebergs during Heinrich events. The mechanism involves a surface layer of cold and fresh meltwater formed from, and retained around, densely packed armadas of icebergs. This leads to wintertime sea ice formation even in relatively low latitudes. The sea ice in turn shields the icebergs from wave erosion, which is the main source of iceberg ablation. We find that allowing sea ice to form around all icebergs during four months each winter causes the model to approximately agree with the distribution of IRD in sediment cores.

  4. Influence of ice and snow covers on the UV exposure of terrestrial microbial communities: dosimetric studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Rettberg, Petra; Horneck, Gerda; Wynn-Williams, David D; Scherer, Kerstin; Gugg-Helminger, Anton

    2002-08-01

    Bacillus subtilis spore biological dosimeters and electronic dosimeters were used to investigate the exposure of terrestrial microbial communities in micro-habitats covered by snow and ice in Antarctica. The melting of snow covers of between 5- and 15-cm thickness, depending on age and heterogeneity, could increase B. subtilis spore inactivation by up to an order of magnitude, a relative increase twice that caused by a 50% ozone depletion. Within the snow-pack at depths of less than approximately 3 cm snow algae could receive two to three times the DNA-weighted irradiance they would receive on bare ground. At the edge of the snow-pack, warming of low albedo soils resulted in the formation of overhangs that provided transient UV protection to thawed and growing microbial communities on the soils underneath. In shallow aquatic habitats, thin layers of heterogeneous ice of a few millimetres thickness were found to reduce DNA-weighted irradiances by up to 55% compared to full-sky values with equivalent DNA-weighted diffuse attenuation coefficients (K(DNA)) of >200 m(-1). A 2-mm snow-encrusted ice cover on a pond was equivalent to 10 cm of ice on a perennially ice covered lake. Ice covers also had the effect of stabilizing the UV exposure, which was often subject to rapid variations of up to 33% of the mean value caused by wind-rippling of the water surface. These data show that changing ice and snow covers cause relative changes in microbial UV exposure at least as great as those caused by changing ozone column abundance. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Tunable random packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumay, G; Vandewalle, N

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental protocol that allows one to tune the packing fraction η of a random pile of ferromagnetic spheres from a value close to the lower limit of random loose packing η RLP ≅0.56 to the upper limit of random close packing η RCP ≅0.64. This broad range of packing fraction values is obtained under normal gravity in air, by adjusting a magnetic cohesion between the grains during the formation of the pile. Attractive and repulsive magnetic interactions are found to affect stongly the internal structure and the stability of sphere packing. After the formation of the pile, the induced cohesion is decreased continuously along a linear decreasing ramp. The controlled collapse of the pile is found to generate various and reproducible values of the random packing fraction η

  6. The surface of the ice-age Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-19

    In the Northern Hemisphere the 18,000 B.P. world differed strikingly from the present in the huge land-based ice sheets, reaching approximately 3 km in thickness, and in a dramatic increase in the extent of pack ice and marine-based ice sheets. In the Southern Hemisphere the most striking contrast was the greater extent of sea ice. On land, grasslands, steppes, and deserts spread at the expense of forests. This change in vegetation, together with extensive areas of permanent ice and sandy outwash plains, caused an increase in global surface albedo over modern values. Sea level was lower by at least 85 m. The 18,000 B.P. oceans were characterized by: (i) marked steepening of thermal gradients along polar frontal systems, particularly in the North Atlantic and Antarctic; (ii) an equatorward displacement of polar frontal systems; (iii) general cooling of most surface waters, with a global average of -2.3 degrees C; (iv) increased cooling and up-welling along equatorial divergences in the Pacific and Atlantic; (v) low temperatures extending equatorward along the western coast of Africa, Australia, and South America, indicating increased upwelling and advection of cool waters; and (vi) nearly stable positions and temperatures of the central gyres in the subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans.

  7. Mechanical recovery of oil in ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solsberg, L.B.; McGrath, M.

    1992-01-01

    A literature review was performed on the mechanical systems used for removing oil in ice. The most promising spill cleanup techniques were identified along with recommendations for future work. Catalogued data in the review focused on skimmers, of which rope mop machines were considered as having the most versatile approach. The performance of the Foxtail VAB 8-14 skimmer was then assessed in North Slope crude oil and diesel fuel at a test site in Alaska. The skimmer operates through a remote power pack and pump, and incorporates eight vertically oriented rope mops. It weighs 900 kg and is suspended from a crane when deployed. Three independent test parameters were measured: oil type, slick thickness, and ice cover. A test strategy was devised to isolate the effects of individual parameters on skimming in order to optimize machine performance. Skimmer performance was based on the percent oil in the recovered oil/water mixture and the net oil collection rate. Skimmer performance was found to be optimal at rope mop speeds of 0.2-0.3 m/s in medium range viscosity oils. The unit tested was significantly less effective in diesel. Overall, the Foxtail skimmer was found to comprise an oil recovery concept that has excellent potential and affords versatility for many oil-in-ice applications. 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Packing Degenerate Graphs Greedily

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Allen, P.; Böttcher, J.; Hladký, J.; Piguet, Diana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 61, August (2017), s. 45-51 ISSN 1571-0653 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ16-07822Y Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : tree packing conjecture * graph packing * graph processes Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics

  9. Packing force data correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiman, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the issues facing valve maintenance personnel today deals with an appropriate methodology for installing and setting valve packing that will minimize leak rates, yet ensure functionality of the the valve under all anticipated operating conditions. Several variables can affect a valve packing's ability to seal, such as packing bolt torque, stem finish, and lubrication. Stem frictional force can be an excellent overall indicator of some of the underlying conditions that affect the sealing characteristics of the packing and the best parameter to use when adjusting the packing. This paper addresses stem friction forces, analytically derives the equations related to these forces, presents a methodology for measuring these forces on valve stems, and attempts to correlate the data directly to the underlying variables

  10. Ice Sheets & Ice Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Troels Bøgeholm

    Since the discovery of the Ice Ages it has been evident that Earth’s climate is liable to undergo dramatic changes. The previous climatic period known as the Last Glacial saw large oscillations in the extent of ice sheets covering the Northern hemisphere. Understanding these oscillations known....... The first part concerns time series analysis of ice core data obtained from the Greenland Ice Sheet. We analyze parts of the time series where DO-events occur using the so-called transfer operator and compare the results with time series from a simple model capable of switching by either undergoing...

  11. Satellite Remote Sensing of Snow Depth on Antarctic Sea Ice: An Inter-Comparison of Two Empirical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kern

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Snow on Antarctic sea ice plays a key role for sea ice physical processes and complicates retrieval of sea ice thickness using altimetry. Current methods of snow depth retrieval are based on satellite microwave radiometry, which perform best for dry, homogeneous snow packs on level sea ice. We introduce an alternative approach based on in-situ measurements of total (sea ice plus snow freeboard and snow depth, which we use to compute snow depth on sea ice from Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat total freeboard observations. We compare ICESat snow depth for early winter and spring of the years 2004 through 2006 with the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometer aboard EOS (AMSR-E snow depth product. We find ICESat snow depths agree more closely with ship-based visual and air-borne snow radar observations than AMSR-E snow depths. We obtain average modal and mean ICESat snow depths, which exceed AMSR-E snow depths by 5–10 cm in winter and 10–15 cm in spring. We observe an increase in ICESat snow depth from winter to spring for most Antarctic regions in accordance with ground-based observations, in contrast to AMSR-E snow depths, which we find to stay constant or to decrease. We suggest satellite laser altimetry as an alternative method to derive snow depth on Antarctic sea ice, which is independent of snow physical properties.

  12. Ice formation and growth shape bacterial community structure in Baltic Sea drift ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Lyra, Christina; Rintala, Janne-Markus; Jürgens, Klaus; Ikonen, Vilma; Kaartokallio, Hermanni

    2015-02-01

    Drift ice, open water and under-ice water bacterial communities covering several developmental stages from open water to thick ice were studied in the northern Baltic Sea. The bacterial communities were assessed with 16S rRNA gene terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism and cloning, together with bacterial abundance and production measurements. In the early stages, open water and pancake ice were dominated by Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria, which are common bacterial groups in Baltic Sea wintertime surface waters. The pancake ice bacterial communities were similar to the open-water communities, suggesting that the parent water determines the sea-ice bacterial community in the early stages of sea-ice formation. In consolidated young and thick ice, the bacterial communities were significantly different from water bacterial communities as well as from each other, indicating community development in Baltic Sea drift ice along with ice-type changes. The thick ice was dominated by typical sea-ice genera from classes Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, similar to those in polar sea-ice bacterial communities. Since the thick ice bacterial community was remarkably different from that of the parent seawater, results indicate that thick ice bacterial communities were recruited from the rarer members of the seawater bacterial community. © FEMS 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Optimized packings with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents a selection of case studies that address a substantial range of optimized object packings (OOP) and their applications. The contributing authors are well-recognized researchers and practitioners. The mathematical modelling and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in sufficient detail. A broad range of OOP problems are discussed: these include various specific and non-standard container loading and object packing problems, as well as the stowing of hazardous and other materials on container ships, data centre resource management, automotive engineering design, space station logistic support, cutting and packing problems with placement constraints, the optimal design of LED street lighting, robust sensor deployment strategies, spatial scheduling problems, and graph coloring models and metaheuristics for packing applications. Novel points of view related to model development and to computational nonlinear, global, mixed integer optimization and heuristic st...

  14. Cell packing structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Jiang, Caigui; Hö binger, Mathias; Wang, Jun; Bompas, Philippe; Wallner, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    optimization schemes for the computation of quad-based support structures. Hex-dominant structures may be designed via Voronoi tessellations, power diagrams, sphere packings and various extensions of these concepts. Apart from the obvious application as load

  15. Ice, Ice, Baby!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets (CReSIS) has developed an outreach program based on hands-on activities called "Ice, Ice, Baby". These lessons are designed to teach the science principles of displacement, forces of motion, density, and states of matter. These properties are easily taught through the interesting topics of glaciers, icebergs, and sea level rise in K-8 classrooms. The activities are fun, engaging, and simple enough to be used at science fairs and family science nights. Students who have participated in "Ice, Ice, Baby" have successfully taught these to adults and students at informal events. The lessons are based on education standards which are available on our website www.cresis.ku.edu. This presentation will provide information on the activities, survey results from teachers who have used the material, and other suggested material that can be used before and after the activities.

  16. Shelving 6 pack crisps

    OpenAIRE

    Garriga Torrecillas, Núria; Otrubova, Natalie; Worm, Robert; Larroque, Thibaut

    2017-01-01

    6-Pack crisps are one of the main products sold by PepsiCo using the standard shelf storage options offered by Tesco PLC. While presenting specific packaging involves a multitude of variables. This report focusses on cognitive recognition, brand confusion and product attractiveness. PepsiCo asked the research team to investigate innovative ways of presenting the crisp 6-pack variant on instore displays. research shows that attraction is crucial in the form of expected rewards. The combination...

  17. Influence of winter sea-ice motion on summer ice cover in the Arctic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriaki Kimura

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Summer sea-ice cover in the Arctic varies largely from year to year owing to several factors. This study examines one such factor, the relationship between interannual difference in winter ice motion and ice area in the following summer. A daily-ice velocity product on a 37.5-km resolution grid is prepared using the satellite passive microwave sensor Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer—Earth Observing System data for the nine years of 2003–2011. Derived daily-ice motion reveals the dynamic modification of the winter ice cover. The winter ice divergence/convergence is strongly related to the summer ice cover in some regions; the correlation coefficient between the winter ice convergence and summer ice area ranges between 0.5 and 0.9 in areas with high interannual variability. This relation implies that the winter ice redistribution controls the spring ice thickness and the summer ice cover.

  18. Measured Black Carbon Deposition on the Sierra Nevada Snow Pack and Implication for Snow Pack Retreat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, O.L.; Corrigan, C.E.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Cliff, S.S.; Ramanathan, V.

    2010-01-12

    Modeling studies show that the darkening of snow and ice by black carbon deposition is a major factor for the rapid disappearance of arctic sea ice, mountain glaciers and snow packs. This study provides one of the first direct measurements for the efficient removal of black carbon from the atmosphere by snow and its subsequent deposition to the snow packs of California. The early melting of the snow packs in the Sierras is one of the contributing factors to the severe water problems in California. BC concentrations in falling snow were measured at two mountain locations and in rain at a coastal site. All three stations reveal large BC concentrations in precipitation, ranging from 1.7 ng/g to 12.9 ng/g. The BC concentrations in the air after the snow fall were negligible suggesting an extremely efficient removal of BC by snow. The data suggest that below cloud scavenging, rather than ice nuclei, was the dominant source of BC in the snow. A five-year comparison of BC, dust, and total fine aerosol mass concentrations at multiple sites reveals that the measurements made at the sampling sites were representative of large scale deposition in the Sierra Nevada. The relative concentration of iron and calcium in the mountain aerosol indicates that one-quarter to one-third of the BC may have been transported from Asia.

  19. Some New Lidar Equations for Laser Pulses Scattered Back from Optically Thick Media Such as Clouds, Dense Aerosol Plumes, Sea Ice, Snow, and Turbid Coastal Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Anthony B.

    2013-01-01

    I survey the theoretical foundations of the slowly-but-surely emerging field of multiple scattering lidar, which has already found applications in atmospheric and cryospheric optics that I also discuss. In multiple scattering lidar, returned pulses are stretched far beyond recognition, and there is no longer a one-to-one connection between range and return-trip timing. Moreover, one can exploit the radial profile of the diffuse radiance field excited by the laser source that, by its very nature, is highly concentrated in space and collimated in direction. One needs, however, a new class of lidar equations to explore this new phenomenology. A very useful set is derived from radiative diffusion theory, which is found at the opposite asymptotic limit of radiative transfer theory than the conventional (single-scattering) limit used to derive the standard lidar equation. In particular, one can use it to show that, even if the simple time-of-flight-to-range connection is irretrievably lost, multiply-scattered lidar light can be used to restore a unique profiling capability with coarser resolution but much deeper penetration into a wide variety of optical thick media in nature. Several new applications are proposed, including a laser bathymetry technique that should work for highly turbid coastal waters.

  20. Sea Ice, Climate and Fram Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunkins, K.

    1984-01-01

    When sea ice is formed the albedo of the ocean surface increases from its open water value of about 0.1 to a value as high as 0.8. This albedo change effects the radiation balance and thus has the potential to alter climate. Sea ice also partially seals off the ocean from the atmosphere, reducing the exchange of gases such as carbon dioxide. This is another possible mechanism by which climate might be affected. The Marginal Ice Zone Experiment (MIZEX 83 to 84) is an international, multidisciplinary study of processes controlling the edge of the ice pack in that area including the interactions between sea, air and ice.

  1. Autonomous Ice Mass Balance Buoys for Seasonal Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, J. D.; Planck, C.; Perovich, D. K.; Parno, J. T.; Elder, B. C.; Richter-Menge, J.; Polashenski, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    The ice mass-balance represents the integration of all surface and ocean heat fluxes and attributing the impact of these forcing fluxes on the ice cover can be accomplished by increasing temporal and spatial measurements. Mass balance information can be used to understand the ongoing changes in the Arctic sea ice cover and to improve predictions of future ice conditions. Thinner seasonal ice in the Arctic necessitates the deployment of Autonomous Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB's) capable of long-term, in situ data collection in both ice and open ocean. Seasonal IMB's (SIMB's) are free floating IMB's that allow data collection in thick ice, thin ice, during times of transition, and even open water. The newest generation of SIMB aims to increase the number of reliable IMB's in the Arctic by leveraging inexpensive commercial-grade instrumentation when combined with specially developed monitoring hardware. Monitoring tasks are handled by a custom, expandable data logger that provides low-cost flexibility for integrating a large range of instrumentation. The SIMB features ultrasonic sensors for direct measurement of both snow depth and ice thickness and a digital temperature chain (DTC) for temperature measurements every 2cm through both snow and ice. Air temperature and pressure, along with GPS data complete the Arctic picture. Additionally, the new SIMB is more compact to maximize deployment opportunities from multiple types of platforms.

  2. The effect of irradiation on the sensorial quality behaviour of packed fresh fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinacher, E.

    1978-01-01

    Cod from the Baltic Sea was irradiated with 10 krad X-rays and pached in ice with the objective to preserve it for a longer period while retaining a satisfactory sensorial quality. The vacuum-packed, irradiated cod fillet kept its quality 5 days longer than usual. On the other hand, aerobically packed, irradiated cod did not keep its quality longer than whole, unirradiated fish that was openly stored in ice. (AJ) [de

  3. Proceedings of the 19. IAHR international symposium on ice : using new technology to understand water-ice interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasek, M.; Andrishak, R.; Siddiqui, A.

    2008-01-01

    This conference provided a venue for scientists, engineers and researchers an opportunity to expand their knowledge of water-ice interactions with reference to water resources, river and coastal hydraulics, risk analysis, energy and the environment. The the theme of new technology falls into 3 basic groups, notably measurement and instrumentation; remote sensing; and numerical simulation. The thermal regime of rivers was discussed along with ice mechanics, ice hydraulics, ice structures and modelling ice phenomena. The titles of the sessions were: river ice, glaciers and climate change; freeze-up processes on rivers and oceans; river ice-structure interactions; numerical simulations in ice engineering; river-ice break-up and ice jam formation; ice measurement; Grasse River ice evaluation; evaluation of structural ice control alternatives; remote sensing; hydropower and dam decommissioning; mechanical behaviour of river ice, ice covered flow and thermal modelling; mathematical and computer model formulations for ice friction and sea ice; ice bergs and ice navigation; ice crushing processes; sea ice and shore/structure interactions; ice properties, testing and physical modelling; ice actions on compliant structures; oil spills in ice; desalination, ice thickness and climate change; and, sea ice ridges. The conference featured 123 presentations, of which 20 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Battery Pack Thermal Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, Ahmad

    2016-06-14

    This presentation describes the thermal design of battery packs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. A battery thermal management system essential for xEVs for both normal operation during daily driving (achieving life and performance) and off-normal operation during abuse conditions (achieving safety). The battery thermal management system needs to be optimized with the right tools for the lowest cost. Experimental tools such as NREL's isothermal battery calorimeter, thermal imaging, and heat transfer setups are needed. Thermal models and computer-aided engineering tools are useful for robust designs. During abuse conditions, designs should prevent cell-to-cell propagation in a module/pack (i.e., keep the fire small and manageable). NREL's battery ISC device can be used for evaluating the robustness of a module/pack to cell-to-cell propagation.

  5. Microfabricated Ice-Detection Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeAnna, Russell

    1997-01-01

    .... The sensor is capable of distinguishing between an ice covered and a clean surface. It employs a bulk micromachined wafer with a 7 micrometers thick, boron doped, silicon diaphragm which serves as one plate of a parallel plate capacitor...

  6. Replacement of the cooling tower packing at the Goesgen-Daeniken AG nuclear power plant; Ersatz der Kuehlturmeinbauten im Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rich, Hans Walter [Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken AG, Daeniken (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    In 2005 the asbestos cement cooling tower packing was replaced by plastic material. Two years later, the packing showed strong deformations, deposits of solids and weight gain. At the end of 2007 parts of the packing collapsed into the cooling tower basin. Investigations were made, revealing that the thickness of the packing foil was too low and that packing geometry and biofilms on the surface of the packing favoured deposition of solids. Successful measures were taken to solve the problems. (orig.)

  7. A database of worldwide glacier thickness observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gärtner-Roer, I.; Naegeli, K.; Huss, M.

    2014-01-01

    One of the grand challenges in glacier research is to assess the total ice volume and its global distribution. Over the past few decades the compilation of a world glacier inventory has been well-advanced both in institutional set-up and in spatial coverage. The inventory is restricted to glacier...... the different estimation approaches. This initial database of glacier and ice caps thickness will hopefully be further enlarged and intensively used for a better understanding of the global glacier ice volume and its distribution....... surface observations. However, although thickness has been observed on many glaciers and ice caps around the globe, it has not yet been published in the shape of a readily available database. Here, we present a standardized database of glacier thickness observations compiled by an extensive literature...... review and from airborne data extracted from NASA's Operation IceBridge. This database contains ice thickness observations from roughly 1100 glaciers and ice caps including 550 glacier-wide estimates and 750,000 point observations. A comparison of these observational ice thicknesses with results from...

  8. Economics Action Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  9. Optimal Packed String Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2011-01-01

    In the packed string matching problem, each machine word accommodates – characters, thus an n-character text occupies n/– memory words. We extend the Crochemore-Perrin constantspace O(n)-time string matching algorithm to run in optimal O(n/–) time and even in real-time, achieving a factor – speed...

  10. Coordinated Mapping of Sea Ice Deformation Features with Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksym, T.; Williams, G. D.; Singh, H.; Weissling, B.; Anderson, J.; Maki, T.; Ackley, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    Decreases in summer sea ice extent in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas has lead to a transition from a largely perennial ice cover, to a seasonal ice cover. This drives shifts in sea ice production, dynamics, ice types, and thickness distribution. To examine how the processes driving ice advance might also impact the morphology of the ice cover, a coordinated ice mapping effort was undertaken during a field campaign in the Beaufort Sea in October, 2015. Here, we present observations of sea ice draft topography from six missions of an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle run under different ice types and deformation features observed during autumn freeze-up. Ice surface features were also mapped during coordinated drone photogrammetric missions over each site. We present preliminary results of a comparison between sea ice surface topography and ice underside morphology for a range of sample ice types, including hummocked multiyear ice, rubble fields, young ice ridges and rafts, and consolidated pancake ice. These data are compared to prior observations of ice morphological features from deformed Antarctic sea ice. Such data will be useful for improving parameterizations of sea ice redistribution during deformation, and for better constraining estimates of airborne or satellite sea ice thickness.

  11. Loss of sea ice in the Arctic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, Donald K; Richter-Menge, Jacqueline A

    2009-01-01

    The Arctic sea ice cover is in decline. The areal extent of the ice cover has been decreasing for the past few decades at an accelerating rate. Evidence also points to a decrease in sea ice thickness and a reduction in the amount of thicker perennial sea ice. A general global warming trend has made the ice cover more vulnerable to natural fluctuations in atmospheric and oceanic forcing. The observed reduction in Arctic sea ice is a consequence of both thermodynamic and dynamic processes, including such factors as preconditioning of the ice cover, overall warming trends, changes in cloud coverage, shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns, increased export of older ice out of the Arctic, advection of ocean heat from the Pacific and North Atlantic, enhanced solar heating of the ocean, and the ice-albedo feedback. The diminishing Arctic sea ice is creating social, political, economic, and ecological challenges.

  12. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ∼ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  13. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sainan; Cornford, Stephen L.; Moore, John C.; Gladstone, Rupert; Zhao, Liyun

    2017-11-01

    Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM) to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ˜ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor) fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  14. The Six Pack Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik; Ritter, Thomas

    Ever seen a growth strategies fail because it was not connect ed to the firm’s customer base? Or a customer relationship strategy falters just because it was the wrong thing to do with that given customer? This article presents the six pack model, a tool that makes growth profitable and predictable....... Not all customers can and should grow – thus a firm needs to classify its customers in order to implement the right customer strategy....

  15. Argo packing friction research update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanTassell, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the issue of valve packing friction and its affect on the operability of motor- and air-operated valves (MOVs and AOVs). At this time, most nuclear power plants are required to perform postmaintenance testing following a packing adjustment or replacement. In many cases, the friction generated by the packing does not impact the operability window of a valve. However, to date there has not been a concerted effort to substantiate this claim. To quantify the effects of packing friction, it has become necessary to develop a formula to predict the friction effects accurately. This formula provides a much more accurate method of predicting packing friction than previously used factors based strictly on stem diameter. Over the past 5 years, Argo Packing Company has been developing and testing improved graphite packing systems at research facilities, such as AECL Chalk River and Wyle Laboratories. Much of this testing has centered around reducing and predicting friction that is related to packing. In addition, diagnostic testing for Generic Letter 89-10 MOVs and AOVs has created a significant data base. In July 1992 Argo asked several utilities to provide running load data that could be used to quantify packing friction repeatability and predictability. This technical paper provides the basis to predict packing friction, which will improve calculations for thrust requirements for Generic Leter 89-10 and future AOV programs. In addition, having an accurate packing friction formula will improve packing performance when low running loads are identified that would indicate insufficient sealing force

  16. Characterization of metallic surfaces in phosphorous-bronze ordered packings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandru, Claudia; Titescu, Gh.

    1997-01-01

    Copper and its alloys, particularly the phosphorous bronze, are characterized by a high water wettability as compared with other materials. This feature led to utilization of phosphorous bronze in fabrication of contact elements, a packing type equipping the distillation columns. For heavy water separation by isotopic distillation under vacuum, ordered packings of phosphorous bronze networks were fabricated. The superior performances of these packings are determined by the material and also by the geometrical form and the state of the metallic surface. Thus, a procedure of evaluating the wettability has been developed, based on tests of the network material. The results of the tests constitute a criterion of rating the functional performances of packings, particularly of their efficiencies. Also, investigation techniques of the chemical composition and of the thickness of superficial layer on the packing were developed. It was found that the packing surface presents a layer of about 5-20 μm formed mainly by oxides of copper, tin, and, depending on the packing treatment, of oxides of other elements coming from the treatment agent. The paper presents characterization of phosphorous bronze treated with potassium permanganate, a specific treatment for improving the functional performances of the packings used in the heavy water concentration and re-concentration installations

  17. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  18. An ice crystal model for jupiter's moon Europa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; schmidt, Karen Guldbae

    2003-01-01

    A simple model for crystal growth in the ice shell of Europa has been made in order to estimate the size of ice crystals at Europa's surface. If mass is lost from the surface of Europa due to sputtering processes, and the ice thickness is constant in time, ice crystals will be transported upwards...

  19. Windows in Arctic sea ice: Light transmission and ice algae in a refrozen lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauko, Hanna M.; Taskjelle, Torbjørn; Assmy, Philipp; Pavlov, Alexey K.; Mundy, C. J.; Duarte, Pedro; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Olsen, Lasse M.; Hudson, Stephen R.; Johnsen, Geir; Elliott, Ashley; Wang, Feiyue; Granskog, Mats A.

    2017-06-01

    The Arctic Ocean is rapidly changing from thicker multiyear to thinner first-year ice cover, with significant consequences for radiative transfer through the ice pack and light availability for algal growth. A thinner, more dynamic ice cover will possibly result in more frequent leads, covered by newly formed ice with little snow cover. We studied a refrozen lead (≤0.27 m ice) in drifting pack ice north of Svalbard (80.5-81.8°N) in May-June 2015 during the Norwegian young sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015). We measured downwelling incident and ice-transmitted spectral irradiance, and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), particle absorption, ultraviolet (UV)-protecting mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and chlorophyll a (Chl a) in melted sea ice samples. We found occasionally very high MAA concentrations (up to 39 mg m-3, mean 4.5 ± 7.8 mg m-3) and MAA to Chl a ratios (up to 6.3, mean 1.2 ± 1.3). Disagreement in modeled and observed transmittance in the UV range let us conclude that MAA signatures in CDOM absorption spectra may be artifacts due to osmotic shock during ice melting. Although observed PAR (photosynthetically active radiation) transmittance through the thin ice was significantly higher than that of the adjacent thicker ice with deep snow cover, ice algal standing stocks were low (≤2.31 mg Chl a m-2) and similar to the adjacent ice. Ice algal accumulation in the lead was possibly delayed by the low inoculum and the time needed for photoacclimation to the high-light environment. However, leads are important for phytoplankton growth by acting like windows into the water column.

  20. Arctic multiyear ice classification and summer ice cover using passive microwave satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, J. C.

    1990-08-01

    The ability to classify and monitor Arctic multiyear sea ice cover using multispectral passive microwave data is studied. Sea ice concentration maps during several summer minima have been analyzed to obtain estimates of ice surviving the summer. The results are compared with multiyear ice concentrations derived from data the following winter, using an algorithm that assumes a certain emissivity for multiyear ice. The multiyear ice cover inferred from the winter data is approximately 25 to 40% less than the summer ice cover minimum, suggesting that even during winter when the emissivity of sea ice is most stable, passive microwave data may account for only a fraction of the total multiyear ice cover. The difference of about 2×106 km2 is considerably more than estimates of advection through Fram Strait during the intervening period. It appears that as in the Antarctic, some multiyear ice floes in the Arctic, especially those near the summer marginal ice zone, have first-year ice or intermediate signatures in the subsequent winter. A likely mechanism for this is the intrusion of seawater into the snow-ice interface, which often occurs near the marginal ice zone or in areas where snow load is heavy. Spatial variations in melt and melt ponding effects also contribute to the complexity of the microwave emissivity of multiyear ice. Hence the multiyear ice data should be studied in conjunction with the previous summer ice data to obtain a more complete characterization of the state of the Arctic ice cover. The total extent and actual areas of the summertime Arctic pack ice were estimated to be 8.4×106 km2 and 6.2×106 km2, respectively, and exhibit small interannual variability during the years 1979 through 1985, suggesting a relatively stable ice cover.

  1. Ross Sea Polynyas: Response of Ice Concentration Retrievals to Large Areas of Thin Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.; Comiso, J. C.; Martin, S.; Drucker, R.

    2007-01-01

    For a 3-month period between May and July of 2005, we examine the response of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR-E) Enhanced NASA Team 2 (NT2) and AMSR-E Bootstrap (ABA) ice concentration algorithms to large areas of thin ice of the Ross Sea polynyas. Coincident Envisat Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) coverage of the region during this period offers a detailed look at the development of the polynyas within several hundred kilometers of the ice front. The high-resolution imagery and derived ice motion fields show bands of polynya ice, covering up to approximately 105 km(sup 2) of the Ross Sea, that are associated with wind-forced advection. In this study, ice thickness from AMSR-E 36 GHz polarization information serves as the basis for examination of the response. The quality of the thickness of newly formed sea ice (<10 cm) from AMSR-E is first assessed with thickness estimates derived from ice surface temperatures from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument. The effect of large areas of thin ice in lowering the ice concentration estimates from both NT2/ABA approaches is clearly demonstrated. Results show relatively robust relationships between retrieved ice concentrations and thin ice thickness estimates that differ between the two algorithms. These relationships define the approximate spatial coincidence of ice concentration and thickness isopleths. Using the 83% (ABA) and 91% (NT2) isopleths as polynya boundaries, we show that the computed coverage compares well with that using the estimated 10-cm thickness contour. The thin ice response characterized here suggests that in regions with polynyas, the retrieval results could be used to provide useful geophysical information, namely thickness and coverage.

  2. To Pack or Not to Pack? A Randomized Trial of Vaginal Packing After Vaginal Reconstructive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westermann, Lauren B; Crisp, Catrina C; Oakley, Susan H; Mazloomdoost, Donna; Kleeman, Steven D; Benbouajili, Janine M; Ghodsi, Vivian; Pauls, Rachel N

    2016-01-01

    Placement of vaginal packing after pelvic reconstructive surgery is common; however, little evidence exists to support the practice. Furthermore, patients have reported discomfort from the packs. We describe pain and satisfaction in women treated with and without vaginal packing. This institutional review board-approved randomized-controlled trial enrolled patients undergoing vaginal hysterectomy with prolapse repairs. The primary outcome was visual analog scales (VASs) for pain on postoperative day 1. Allocation to "packing" ("P") or "no-packing" ("NP") arms occurred intraoperatively at the end of surgery. Visual analog scales regarding pain and satisfaction were completed early on postoperative day 1 before packing removal. Visual analog scale scores for pain, satisfaction, and bother attributable to packing were recorded before discharge. All packing and perineal pads were weighed to calculate a "postoperative vaginal blood loss." Perioperative data were collected from the hospital record. Our sample size estimation required 74 subjects. Ninety-three women were enrolled. After exclusions, 77 were randomized (P, 37; NP, 40). No differences were found in surgical information, hemoglobin levels, or narcotic use between groups. However, "postoperative vaginal blood loss" was greater in packed subjects (P discharge (P, 35.0 vs NP, 40.0; P = 0.43] were not significantly different between treatment arms. Likewise, VAS scores for satisfaction before removal of packing (P, 81.0 vs NP, 90.0; P = 0.08] and before discharge (P, 90.0 vs NP, 90.5; P = 0.60] were not significantly different. Packed patients noted lower nursing verbal pain scores (P = 0.04) and used less ketorolac (P = 0.01). Bother from packing was low overall. Although there was no difference based on VAS, women receiving vaginal packing had lower nursing documented pain and used less ketorolac than packed women. Vaginal packing may provide benefit and can remain part of the surgical practice.

  3. Heterogeneous ice nucleation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdan, A. [Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    The classical theory of heterogenous ice nucleation is reviewed in detail. The modelling of ice nucleation in the adsorbed water films on natural particles by analogous ice nucleation in adsorbed water films on the walls of porous media is discussed. Ice nucleation in adsorbed films of purewater and the HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}0 binary system on the surface of porous aerosol (SiO{sub 2}) was investigated using the method of NMR spectroscopy. The median freezing temperature and freezing temperature region were shown to be highly sensitive both to the average thickness of the adsorbed films and to the amount of adsorbed nitric acid. The character of the ice phase formation tends to approach that of bulk liquid with increasing adsorbed film thickness. Under the given conditions the thickness of the adsorbed films decreases with an increasing amount of adsorbed nitric acid molecules The molar concentration of nitric acid in the adsorbed films is very small (of the order of 10{sup -}3 10{sup -}2 (M/l)). Nitric acid molecules tend to adsorb on the surface of aerosol to a greater extent than in subsequent layers. The concentration is greatest in layers situated close to the surface and sharply decreases with the distance from the surface. The difference between the median freezing temperatures for adsorbed pure water and for the binary system was found to be about 9 K for films of equal thickness. This is about 150 times greater than the difference between the median freezing temperatures of bulk pure water and a solution with the same concentration of nitric acid. (orig.)

  4. Arctic sea-ice ridges—Safe heavens for sea-ice fauna during periods of extreme ice melt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradinger, Rolf; Bluhm, Bodil; Iken, Katrin

    2010-01-01

    The abundances and distribution of metazoan within-ice meiofauna (13 stations) and under-ice fauna (12 stations) were investigated in level sea ice and sea-ice ridges in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas and Canada Basin in June/July 2005 using a combination of ice coring and SCUBA diving. Ice meiofauna abundance was estimated based on live counts in the bottom 30 cm of level sea ice based on triplicate ice core sampling at each location, and in individual ice chunks from ridges at four locations. Under-ice amphipods were counted in situ in replicate ( N=24-65 per station) 0.25 m 2 quadrats using SCUBA to a maximum water depth of 12 m. In level sea ice, the most abundant ice meiofauna groups were Turbellaria (46%), Nematoda (35%), and Harpacticoida (19%), with overall low abundances per station that ranged from 0.0 to 10.9 ind l -1 (median 0.8 ind l -1). In level ice, low ice algal pigment concentrations (Turbellaria, Nematoda and Harpacticoida also were observed in pressure ridges (0-200 ind l -1, median 40 ind l -1), although values were highly variable and only medians of Turbellaria were significantly higher in ridge ice than in level ice. Median abundances of under-ice amphipods at all ice types (level ice, various ice ridge structures) ranged from 8 to 114 ind m -2 per station and mainly consisted of Apherusa glacialis (87%), Onisimus spp. (7%) and Gammarus wilkitzkii (6%). Highest amphipod abundances were observed in pressure ridges at depths >3 m where abundances were up to 42-fold higher compared with level ice. We propose that the summer ice melt impacted meiofauna and under-ice amphipod abundance and distribution through (a) flushing, and (b) enhanced salinity stress at thinner level sea ice (less than 3 m thickness). We further suggest that pressure ridges, which extend into deeper, high-salinity water, become accumulation regions for ice meiofauna and under-ice amphipods in summer. Pressure ridges thus might be crucial for faunal survival during periods of

  5. Ice Cores

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past temperature, precipitation, atmospheric trace gases, and other aspects of climate and environment derived from ice cores drilled on glaciers and ice...

  6. The effect of snow/sea ice type on the response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth to increasing black carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Marks

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of snow/sea ice vary with age and by the processes they were formed, giving characteristic types of snow and sea ice. The response of albedo and light penetration depth (e-folding depth to increasing mass ratio of black carbon is shown to depend on the snow and sea ice type and the thickness of the snow or sea ice. The response of albedo and e-folding depth of three different types of snow (cold polar snow, wind-packed snow and melting snow and three sea ice (multi-year ice, first-year ice and melting sea ice to increasing mass ratio of black carbon is calculated using a coupled atmosphere–snow/sea ice radiative-transfer model (TUV-snow, over the optical wavelengths of 300–800 nm. The snow and sea ice types are effectively defined by a scattering cross-section, density and asymmetry parameter. The relative change in albedo and e-folding depth of each of the three snow and three sea ice types with increasing mass ratio of black carbon is considered relative to a base case of 1 ng g−1 of black carbon. The relative response of each snow and sea ice type is intercompared to examine how different types of snow and sea ice respond relative to each other. The relative change in albedo of a melting snowpack is a factor of four more responsive to additions of black carbon compared to cold polar snow over a black carbon increase from 1 to 50 ng g−1, while the relative change in albedo of a melting sea ice is a factor of two more responsive to additions of black carbon compared to multi-year ice for the same increase in mass ratio of black carbon. The response of e-folding depth is effectively not dependent on snow/sea ice type. The albedo of sea ice is more responsive to increasing mass ratios of black carbon than snow.

  7. A sea ice model for the marginal ice zone with an application to the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Leif Toudal; Coon, Max D.

    2004-01-01

    A model is presented that describes the formation, transport, and desalinization of frazil and pancake ice as it is formed in marginal seas. This model uses as input the total ice concentration evaluated from Special Sensor Microwave Imager and wind speed and direction. The model calculates...... the areal concentration, thickness, volume concentration, and salinity of frazil ice as well as the areal concentration, thickness, and salinity of pancakes. A simple parameterization for the Odden region of the Greenland Sea is presented. The model is run for the winter of 1996-1997. There are direct...... observations of the thickness and salinity of pancakes and the volume concentration of frazil ice to compare with the model. The model results compare very well with the measured data. This new ice model can be tuned to work in marginal seas elsewhere to calculate ice thickness, motion, and brine rejection...

  8. Level-Ice Melt Ponds in the Los Alamos Sea Ice Model, CICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-06

    terms obtained using the Bitz and Lips- comb (1999) thermodynamic model. The thickness distribution ( Thorndike et al., 1975) employs 5 ice thickness...D.L., 2004. A model of melt pond evolution on sea ice. J. Geophys. Res. 109, C12007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2004JC002361. Thorndike , A.S., Rothrock

  9. Ice Cream

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, E.

    2014-01-01

    Ice cream is a popular dessert, which owes its sensorial properties (mouth feel) to its complex microstructure. The microstructure is a result of the combination of the ingredients and the production process. Ice cream is produced by simultaneous freezing and shearing of the ice cream mix, which

  10. Ice targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, C.; Stark, C.; Tanaka, N.; Hodgkins, D.; Barnhart, J.; Kosty, J.

    1979-12-01

    This report presents a description of ice targets that were constructed for research work at the High Resolution Spectrometer (HRS) and at the Energetic Pion Channel and Spectrometer (EPICS). Reasons for using these ice targets and the instructions for their construction are given. Results of research using ice targets will be published at a later date

  11. Cell packing structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-03-03

    This paper is an overview of architectural structures which are either composed of polyhedral cells or closely related to them. We introduce the concept of a support structure of such a polyhedral cell packing. It is formed by planar quads and obtained by connecting corresponding vertices in two combinatorially equivalent meshes whose corresponding edges are coplanar and thus determine planar quads. Since corresponding triangle meshes only yield trivial structures, we focus on support structures associated with quad meshes or hex-dominant meshes. For the quadrilateral case, we provide a short survey of recent research which reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. Those are essential for successfully initializing numerical optimization schemes for the computation of quad-based support structures. Hex-dominant structures may be designed via Voronoi tessellations, power diagrams, sphere packings and various extensions of these concepts. Apart from the obvious application as load-bearing structures, we illustrate here a new application to shading and indirect lighting. On a higher level, our work emphasizes the interplay between geometry, optimization, statics, and manufacturing, with the overall aim of combining form, function and fabrication into novel integrated design tools.

  12. ExactPack Documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singleton, Robert Jr. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Israel, Daniel M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Woods, Charles Nathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kaul, Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Walter, John William Jr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rogers, Michael Lloyd [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-05-09

    For code verification, one compares the code output against known exact solutions. There are many standard test problems used in this capacity, such as the Noh and Sedov problems. ExactPack is a utility that integrates many of these exact solution codes into a common API (application program interface), and can be used as a stand-alone code or as a python package. ExactPack consists of python driver scripts that access a library of exact solutions written in Fortran or Python. The spatial profiles of the relevant physical quantities, such as the density, fluid velocity, sound speed, or internal energy, are returned at a time specified by the user. The solution profiles can be viewed and examined by a command line interface or a graphical user interface, and a number of analysis tools and unit tests are also provided. We have documented the physics of each problem in the solution library, and provided complete documentation on how to extend the library to include additional exact solutions. ExactPack’s code architecture makes it easy to extend the solution-code library to include additional exact solutions in a robust, reliable, and maintainable manner.

  13. A network model for electrical transport in sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.; Golden, K.M.; Gully, A.; Sampson, C.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the thickness of sea ice is an important tool in assessing the impact of global warming on Earth's polar regions, and most methods of measuring ice thickness depend on detailed knowledge of its electrical properties. We develop a network model for the electrical conductivity of sea ice, which incorporates statistical measurements of the brine microstructure. The numerical simulations are in close agreement with direct measurements we made in Antarctica on the vertical conductivity of first year sea ice.

  14. Thick Toenails

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in individuals with nail fungus (onychomycosis), psoriasis and hypothyroidism. Those who have problems with the thickness of their toenails should consult a foot and ankle surgeon for proper diagnosis and treatment. Find an ACFAS Physician Search Search Tools Find ...

  15. On the Predictability of Sea Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Wrigglesworth, Edward

    We investigate the persistence and predictability of sea ice in numerical models and observations. We first use the 3rd generation Community Climate System Model (CCSM3) General Circulation Model (GCM) to investigate the inherent persistence of sea-ice area and thickness. We find that sea-ice area anomalies have a seasonal decay timescale, exhibiting an initial decorrelation similar to a first order auto-regressive (AR1, or red noise) process. Beyond this initial loss of memory, there is a re-emergence of memory at certain times of the year. There are two distinct modes of re-emergence in the model, one driven by the seasonal coupling of area and thickness anomalies in the summer, the other by the persistence of upper ocean temperature anomalies that originate from ice anomalies in the melt season and then influence ice anomalies in the growth season. Comparison with satellite observations where available indicate these processes appear in nature. We then use the 4th generation CCSM (CCSM4) to investigate the partition of Arctic sea-ice predictability into its initial-value and boundary forced components under present day forcing conditions. We find that initial-value predictability lasts for 1-2 years for sea-ice area, and 3-4 years for sea-ice volume. Forced predictability arises after just 4-5 years for both area and volume. Initial-value predictability of sea-ice area during the summer hinges on the coupling between thickness and area anomalies during that season. We find that the loss of initial-value predictability with time is not uniform --- there is a rapid loss of predictability of sea-ice volume during the late spring early summer associated with snow melt and albedo feedbacks. At the same time, loss of predictability is not uniform across different regions. Given the usefulness of ice thickness as a predictor of summer sea-ice area, we obtain a hindcast of September sea-ice area initializing the GCM on May 1with an estimate of observed sea-ice thickness

  16. AUV Commercialization - Who’s Leading the Pack?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-09-01

    the Theseus and ARCS, is designing a deep water commercial site survey AUV for Fugro GeoServices Inc. Called the Explorer, the vehicle will conduct...ISE has the ARCS and the Theseus vehicles and Perry Technologies has the MUST. These vehicles have each performed some dramatic operations including the...deployment of fiber optic cables. In the case of Theseus , the fiber optic cable was deployed under the ice pack. Mid-size vehicles include those from

  17. Flooding characteristics of Goodloe packing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begovich, J.M.; Watson, J.S.

    1976-08-01

    Experimental flooding data for the countercurrent flow of air and water in a 7.62-cm-diam glass column filled with Goodloe packing were compared with a correlation reported by the packing manufacturer. Flooding rates observed in this study were as low as one-half those predicted by the correlation. Rearranging the packing by inverting the column and removing some packing segments yielded results similar to the correlation for liquid-to-gas (L/G) mass flow rate ratios greater than 10, but the experimental flooding curve fell significantly below the correlation at lower L/G ratios. When the column was repacked with new packing, the results were essentially the same as those obtained in the inverted column. Thus, it is believed that a carefully packed column is more likely to yield flooding rates similar to those obtained in the new or inverted columns rather than rates predicted by the original correlation

  18. Investigating Arctic Sea Ice Survivability in the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Tooth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arctic sea ice extent has continued to decline in recent years, and the fractional coverage of multi-year sea ice has decreased significantly during this period. The Beaufort Sea region has been the site of much of the loss of multi-year sea ice, and it continues to play a large role in the extinction of ice during the melt season. We present an analysis of the influence of satellite-derived ice surface temperature, ice thickness, albedo, and downwelling longwave/shortwave radiation as well as latitude and airborne snow depth estimates on the change in sea ice concentration in the Beaufort Sea from 2009 to 2016 using a Lagrangian tracking database. Results from this analysis indicate that parcels that melt during summer in the Beaufort Sea reside at lower latitudes and have lower ice thickness at the beginning of the melt season in most cases. The influence of sea ice thickness and snow depth observed by IceBridge offers less conclusive results, with some years exhibiting higher thicknesses/depths for melted parcels. Parcels that melted along IceBridge tracks do exhibit lower latitudes and ice thicknesses, however, which indicates that earlier melt and breakup of ice may contribute to a greater likelihood of extinction of parcels in the summer.

  19. Ice accreditation vs wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, PQ (Canada). TransEnergie Div.; Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Wind and ice data from Hydro Quebec and Environment Canada indicates that winds during ice storms are in the general direction of the St. Lawrence River. This observation is important for upgrading existing power transmission lines from the Manicouagan and Churchill generation system because they are parallel to the St. Lawrence and they were designed with lower criteria than is currently accepted. ASCE 74 suggests an accumulation ratio based on thickness of 0.70 for winds parallel to the line. The Goodwin model was used to calculate this ratio. The presentation includes illustrations showing the accumulation ratio for a north wind, as well as the accumulation ratios and wind roses at Quebec. A table showing a comparison of ratios from passive ice meters shows that results are similar to mean values from the theoretical model.

  20. Electromagnetism based atmospheric ice sensing technique - A conceptual review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U Mughal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic and vibrational properties of ice can be used to measure certain parameters such as ice thickness, type and icing rate. In this paper we present a review of the dielectric based measurement techniques for matter and the dielectric/spectroscopic properties of ice. Atmospheric Ice is a complex material with a variable dielectric constant, but precise calculation of this constant may form the basis for measurement of its other properties such as thickness and strength using some electromagnetic methods. Using time domain or frequency domain spectroscopic techniques, by measuring both the reflection and transmission characteristics of atmospheric ice in a particular frequency range, the desired parameters can be determined.

  1. Packing for food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewski, A G [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  2. Packing for food irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewski, A.G.

    2006-01-01

    Joint FAO/IAEA/WHO Expert Committee approved the use of radiation treatment of foods. Nowadays food packaging are mostly made of plastics, natural or synthetic, therefore effect of irradiation on these materials is crucial for packing engineering for food irradiation technology. By selecting the right polymer materials for food packaging it can be ensured that the critical elements of material and product performance are not compromised. When packaging materials are in contact with food at the time of irradiation that regulatory approvals sometimes apply. The review of the R-and-D and technical papers regarding material selection, testing and approval is presented in the report. The most information come from the USA where this subject is well elaborated, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) reports are reviewed as well. The report can be useful for scientists and food irradiation plants operators. (author)

  3. Polarizable protein packing

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Albert H.

    2011-01-24

    To incorporate protein polarization effects within a protein combinatorial optimization framework, we decompose the polarizable force field AMOEBA into low order terms. Including terms up to the third-order provides a fair approximation to the full energy while maintaining tractability. We represent the polarizable packing problem for protein G as a hypergraph and solve for optimal rotamers with the FASTER combinatorial optimization algorithm. These approximate energy models can be improved to high accuracy [root mean square deviation (rmsd) < 1 kJ mol -1] via ridge regression. The resulting trained approximations are used to efficiently identify new, low-energy solutions. The approach is general and should allow combinatorial optimization of other many-body problems. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem, 2011 Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Icing modelling in NSMB with chimera overset grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pena, D. [Ècole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada); ICUBE, Strasbourg University (France); Deloze, T.; Laurendeau, E. [Ècole Polytechnique de Montréal (Canada); Hoarau, Y. [ICUBE, Strasbourg University (France)

    2015-03-10

    In aerospace Engineering, the accurate simulation of ice accretion is a key element to increase flight safety and avoid accidents related to icing effects. The icing code developed in the NSMB solver is based on an Eulerian formulation for droplets tracking, an iterative Messinger model using a modified water runback scheme for ice thickness calculation and mesh deformation to track the ice/air interface through time. The whole process is parallelized with MPI and applied with chimera grids.

  5. Effects of Thermobaricity on Coupled Ice-Mixed Layer Thermodynamics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roth, Mathias

    2003-01-01

    .... This density structure often leads to entrainment and affects both the mixed layer depth and the ice thickness, Thermobaricity, the combined dependence of seawater thermal expansion on temperature...

  6. State of Arctic Sea Ice North of Svalbard during N-ICE2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösel, Anja; King, Jennifer; Gerland, Sebastian

    2016-04-01

    The N-ICE2015 cruise, led by the Norwegian Polar Institute, was a drift experiment with the research vessel R/V Lance from January to June 2015, where the ship started the drift North of Svalbard at 83°14.45' N, 21°31.41' E. The drift was repeated as soon as the vessel drifted free. Altogether, 4 ice stations where installed and the complex ocean-sea ice-atmosphere system was studied with an interdisciplinary Approach. During the N-ICE2015 cruise, extensive ice thickness and snow depth measurements were performed during both, winter and summer conditions. Total ice and snow thickness was measured with ground-based and airborne electromagnetic instruments; snow depth was measured with a GPS snow depth probe. Additionally, ice mass balance and snow buoys were deployed. Snow and ice thickness measurements were performed on repeated transects to quantify the ice growth or loss as well as the snow accumulation and melt rate. Additionally, we collected independent values on surveys to determine the general ice thickness distribution. Average snow depths of 32 cm on first year ice, and 52 cm on multi-year ice were measured in January, the mean snow depth on all ice types even increased until end of March to 49 cm. The average total ice and snow thickness in winter conditions was 1.92 m. During winter we found a small growth rate on multi-year ice of about 15 cm in 2 months, due to above-average snow depths and some extraordinary storm events that came along with mild temperatures. In contrast thereto, we also were able to study new ice formation and thin ice on newly formed leads. In summer conditions an enormous melt rate, mainly driven by a warm Atlantic water inflow in the marginal ice zone, was observed during two ice stations with melt rates of up to 20 cm per 24 hours. To reinforce the local measurements around the ship and to confirm their significance on a larger scale, we compare them to airborne thickness measurements and classified SAR-satellite scenes. The

  7. Variational Ridging in Sea Ice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, A.; Hunke, E. C.; Lipscomb, W. H.; Maslowski, W.; Kamal, S.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents the results of a new development to make basin-scale sea ice models aware of the shape, porosity and extent of individual ridges within the pack. We have derived an analytic solution for the Euler-Lagrange equation of individual ridges that accounts for non-conservative forces, and therefore the compressive strength of individual ridges. Because a region of the pack is simply a collection of paths of individual ridges, we are able to solve the Euler-Lagrange equation for a large-scale sea ice field also, and therefore the compressive strength of a region of the pack that explicitly accounts for the macro-porosity of ridged debris. We make a number of assumptions that have simplified the problem, such as treating sea ice as a granular material in ridges, and assuming that bending moments associated with ridging are perturbations around an isostatic state. Regardless of these simplifications, the ridge model is remarkably predictive of macro-porosity and ridge shape, and, because our equations are analytic, they do not require costly computations to solve the Euler-Lagrange equation of ridges on the large scale. The new ridge model is therefore applicable to large-scale sea ice models. We present results from this theoretical development, as well as plans to apply it to the Regional Arctic System Model and a community sea ice code. Most importantly, the new ridging model is particularly useful for pinpointing gaps in our observational record of sea ice ridges, and points to the need for improved measurements of the evolution of porosity of deformed ice in the Arctic and Antarctic. Such knowledge is not only useful for improving models, but also for improving estimates of sea ice volume derived from altimetric measurements of sea ice freeboard.

  8. Random packing of digitized particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, de A.C.J.; Brouwers, H.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    The random packing of regularly and irregularly shaped particles has been studied extensively. Within this paper, packing is studied from the perspective of digitized particles. These digitized particles are developed for and used in cellular automata systems, which are employed for the simple

  9. Random packing of digitized particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korte, A.C.J.; Brouwers, Jos

    2012-01-01

    The random packing of regularly and irregularly shaped particles has been studied extensively. Within this paper, packing is studied from the perspective of digitized particles. These digitized particles are developed for and used in cellular automata systems, which are employed for the simple

  10. BNGS B valve packing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cumming, D.

    1995-01-01

    The Bruce B Valve Packing Program began in 1987. The early history and development were presented at the 1992 International CANDU Maintenance conference. This presentation covers the evolution of the Bruce B Valve Packing Program over the period 1992 to 1995. (author)

  11. Simple Cloud Chambers Using a Freezing Mixture of Ice and Cooking Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, Kyohei; Kubota, Miki; Kamata, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We have developed much simpler cloud chambers that use only ice and cooking salt instead of the dry ice or ice gel pack needed for the cloud chambers produced in our previous work. The observed alpha-ray particle tracks are as clear as those observed using our previous cloud chambers. The tracks can be observed continuously for about 20?min, and…

  12. Heuristics for Multidimensional Packing Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens

    for a minimum height container required for the items. The main contributions of the thesis are three new heuristics for strip-packing and knapsack packing problems where items are both rectangular and irregular. In the two first papers we describe a heuristic for the multidimensional strip-packing problem...... that is based on a relaxed placement principle. The heuristic starts with a random overlapping placement of items and large container dimensions. From the overlapping placement overlap is reduced iteratively until a non-overlapping placement is found and a new problem is solved with a smaller container size...... of this heuristic are among the best published in the literature both for two- and three-dimensional strip-packing problems for irregular shapes. In the third paper, we introduce a heuristic for two- and three-dimensional rectangular knapsack packing problems. The two-dimensional heuristic uses the sequence pair...

  13. Atmospheric forcing of sea ice leads in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, B. J.; Hutchings, J.; Mahoney, A. R.; Shapiro, L. H.

    2016-12-01

    Leads in sea ice play an important role in the polar marine environment where they allow heat and moisture transfer between the oceans and atmosphere and act as travel pathways for both marine mammals and ships. Examining AVHRR thermal imagery of the Beaufort Sea, collected between 1994 and 2010, sea ice leads appear in repeating patterns and locations (Eicken et al 2005). The leads, resolved by AVHRR, are at least 250m wide (Mahoney et al 2012), thus the patterns described are for lead systems that extend up to hundreds of kilometers across the Beaufort Sea. We describe how these patterns are associated with the location of weather systems relative to the coastline. Mean sea level pressure and 10m wind fields from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis are used to identify if particular lead patterns can be uniquely forecast based on the location of weather systems. Ice drift data from the NSIDC's Polar Pathfinder Daily 25km EASE-Grid Sea Ice Motion Vectors indicates the role shear along leads has on the motion of ice in the Beaufort Gyre. Lead formation is driven by 4 main factors: (i) coastal features such as promontories and islands influence the origin of leads by concentrating stresses within the ice pack; (ii) direction of the wind forcing on the ice pack determines the type of fracture, (iii) the location of the anticyclone (or cyclone) center determines the length of the fracture for certain patterns; and (iv) duration of weather conditions affects the width of the ice fracture zones. Movement of the ice pack on the leeward side of leads originating at promontories and islands increases, creating shear zones that control ice transport along the Alaska coast in winter. . Understanding how atmospheric conditions influence the large-scale motion of the ice pack is needed to design models that predict variability of the gyre and export of multi-year ice to lower latitudes.

  14. Analysis of Sea Ice Cover Sensitivity in Global Climate Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Parhomenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents joint calculations using a 3D atmospheric general circulation model, an ocean model, and a sea ice evolution model. The purpose of the work is to analyze a seasonal and annual evolution of sea ice, long-term variability of a model ice cover, and its sensitivity to some parameters of model as well to define atmosphere-ice-ocean interaction.Results of 100 years simulations of Arctic basin sea ice evolution are analyzed. There are significant (about 0.5 m inter-annual fluctuations of an ice cover.The ice - atmosphere sensible heat flux reduced by 10% leads to the growth of average sea ice thickness within the limits of 0.05 m – 0.1 m. However in separate spatial points the thickness decreases up to 0.5 m. An analysis of the seasonably changing average ice thickness with decreasing, as compared to the basic variant by 0.05 of clear sea ice albedo and that of snow shows the ice thickness reduction in a range from 0.2 m up to 0.6 m, and the change maximum falls for the summer season of intensive melting. The spatial distribution of ice thickness changes shows, that on the large part of the Arctic Ocean there was a reduction of ice thickness down to 1 m. However, there is also an area of some increase of the ice layer basically in a range up to 0.2 m (Beaufort Sea. The 0.05 decrease of sea ice snow albedo leads to reduction of average ice thickness approximately by 0.2 m, and this value slightly depends on a season. In the following experiment the ocean – ice thermal interaction influence on the ice cover is estimated. It is carried out by increase of a heat flux from ocean to the bottom surface of sea ice by 2 W/sq. m in comparison with base variant. The analysis demonstrates, that the average ice thickness reduces in a range from 0.2 m to 0.35 m. There are small seasonal changes of this value.The numerical experiments results have shown, that an ice cover and its seasonal evolution rather strongly depend on varied parameters

  15. Nasal packing with ventilated nasal packs; a comparison with traditional vaseline nasal pack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alam, J.; Siddiqui, M.W.; Abbas, A.; Sami, M.; Ayub, Z.

    2017-01-01

    To compare the benefits of ventilated nasal packing with traditional vaseline guaze nasal packing. Study Design: Randomized controlled trial. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at CMH Multan, from Jun 2014 to Dec 2014. Material and Methods: In this study, sample size of 80 patients was calculated using WHO calculator. Patients were divided in two groups using lottery method endotracheal tube and piece of surgical glove filled with ribbon guaze was utilized for fabricated ventilated nasal pack and compared with traditional nasal packs. Nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance were studied at eight hours and twenty-four hours following surgery using visual analog scale. Results: Mean nasal obstruction with ventilated nasal pack was 45.62 +- 6.17 and with Vaseline nasal pack was 77.67 +- 4.85 which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Mean sleep disturbance in both the groups was 46.32 +- 5.23 and 68.75 +- 2.70 respectively which was statistically significant (p=0.001) in both the groups. Conclusion: Patients with ventilated nasal packs were found to have better tolerance to nasal packs due to less nasal obstruction and sleep disturbance

  16. An Experimental Investigation of the Boundary Layer under Pack Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    current-meter interface ( CMIF ) consists of a very stable, 20-Kllz crystal oscillator and counter, a master memory-address buffer, and a buffer for each...data channel to a specific location in the computer’s memory, The CMIF also generates computer interrupts at a rate determined by the program (12.8... CMIF can handle up to 128 channels and is designed so that even if all channels have simultaneous dipulses, the processing delay is less than .05 msec

  17. Seeking an optimal algorithm for a new satellite-based Sea Ice Drift Climate Data Record : Motivations, plans and initial results from the ESA CCI Sea Ice project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavergne, T.; Dybkjær, Gorm; Girard-Ardhuin, Fanny

    The Sea Ice Essential Climate Variable (ECV) as defined by GCOS pertains of both sea ice concentration, thickness, and drift. Now in its second phase, the ESA CCI Sea Ice project is conducting the necessary research efforts to address sea ice drift.Accurate estimates of sea ice drift direction an...... in the final product. This contribution reviews the motivation for the work, the plans for sea ice drift algorithms intercomparison and selection, and early results from our activity....

  18. Sensitivity of open-water ice growth and ice concentration evolution in a coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoxu; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2017-09-01

    A coupled atmosphere-ocean-sea ice model is applied to investigate to what degree the area-thickness distribution of new ice formed in open water affects the ice and ocean properties. Two sensitivity experiments are performed which modify the horizontal-to-vertical aspect ratio of open-water ice growth. The resulting changes in the Arctic sea-ice concentration strongly affect the surface albedo, the ocean heat release to the atmosphere, and the sea-ice production. The changes are further amplified through a positive feedback mechanism among the Arctic sea ice, the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC), and the surface air temperature in the Arctic, as the Fram Strait sea ice import influences the freshwater budget in the North Atlantic Ocean. Anomalies in sea-ice transport lead to changes in sea surface properties of the North Atlantic and the strength of AMOC. For the Southern Ocean, the most pronounced change is a warming along the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), owing to the interhemispheric bipolar seasaw linked to AMOC weakening. Another insight of this study lies on the improvement of our climate model. The ocean component FESOM is a newly developed ocean-sea ice model with an unstructured mesh and multi-resolution. We find that the subpolar sea-ice boundary in the Northern Hemisphere can be improved by tuning the process of open-water ice growth, which strongly influences the sea ice concentration in the marginal ice zone, the North Atlantic circulation, salinity and Arctic sea ice volume. Since the distribution of new ice on open water relies on many uncertain parameters and the knowledge of the detailed processes is currently too crude, it is a challenge to implement the processes realistically into models. Based on our sensitivity experiments, we conclude a pronounced uncertainty related to open-water sea ice growth which could significantly affect the climate system sensitivity.

  19. Wave–ice interactions in the neXtSIM sea-ice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Williams

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe a waves-in-ice model (WIM, which calculates ice breakage and the wave radiation stress (WRS. This WIM is then coupled to the new sea-ice model neXtSIM, which is based on the elasto-brittle (EB rheology. We highlight some numerical issues involved in the coupling and investigate the impact of the WRS, and of modifying the EB rheology to lower the stiffness of the ice in the area where the ice has broken up (the marginal ice zone or MIZ. In experiments in the absence of wind, we find that wind waves can produce noticeable movement of the ice edge in loose ice (concentration around 70 % – up to 36 km, depending on the material parameters of the ice that are used and the dynamical model used for the broken ice. The ice edge position is unaffected by the WRS if the initial concentration is higher (≳ 0.9. Swell waves (monochromatic waves with low frequency do not affect the ice edge location (even for loose ice, as they are attenuated much less than the higher-frequency components of a wind wave spectrum, and so consequently produce a much lower WRS (by about an order of magnitude at least.In the presence of wind, we find that the wind stress dominates the WRS, which, while large near the ice edge, decays exponentially away from it. This is in contrast to the wind stress, which is applied over a much larger ice area. In this case (when wind is present the dynamical model for the MIZ has more impact than the WRS, although that effect too is relatively modest. When the stiffness in the MIZ is lowered due to ice breakage, we find that on-ice winds produce more compression in the MIZ than in the pack, while off-ice winds can cause the MIZ to be separated from the pack ice.

  20. Deterministic indexing for packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Skjoldjensen, Frederik Rye

    2017-01-01

    Given a string S of length n, the classic string indexing problem is to preprocess S into a compact data structure that supports efficient subsequent pattern queries. In the deterministic variant the goal is to solve the string indexing problem without any randomization (at preprocessing time...... or query time). In the packed variant the strings are stored with several character in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. Our main result is a new string index in the deterministic and packed setting. Given a packed string S of length n over an alphabet σ...

  1. The future of ice sheets and sea ice: between reversible retreat and unstoppable loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notz, Dirk

    2009-12-08

    We discuss the existence of cryospheric "tipping points" in the Earth's climate system. Such critical thresholds have been suggested to exist for the disappearance of Arctic sea ice and the retreat of ice sheets: Once these ice masses have shrunk below an anticipated critical extent, the ice-albedo feedback might lead to the irreversible and unstoppable loss of the remaining ice. We here give an overview of our current understanding of such threshold behavior. By using conceptual arguments, we review the recent findings that such a tipping point probably does not exist for the loss of Arctic summer sea ice. Hence, in a cooler climate, sea ice could recover rapidly from the loss it has experienced in recent years. In addition, we discuss why this recent rapid retreat of Arctic summer sea ice might largely be a consequence of a slow shift in ice-thickness distribution, which will lead to strongly increased year-to-year variability of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent. This variability will render seasonal forecasts of the Arctic summer sea-ice extent increasingly difficult. We also discuss why, in contrast to Arctic summer sea ice, a tipping point is more likely to exist for the loss of the Greenland ice sheet and the West Antarctic ice sheet.

  2. Sea ice production and transport of pollutants in Laptev Sea, 1979 to 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigor, I.; Colony, R.

    1995-01-01

    About 900,000 km 2 of the polar pack ice is transferred annually from the Arctic Basin to the North Atlantic. The largest portion of this exported ice cover is created by the large scale divergence within the ice pack, but a significant portion of the ice cover originates in the marginal seas, either by fall freezing of the seasonally ice free waters or by wintertime advection away from the coast. The main objective of this study was to estimate the annual production of ice in the Laptev Sea and to determine its ultimate fate. The study was motivated by the possibility that ice formed in the Laptev Sea may be an agent for the long range transport of pollutants such as radionuclides. The authors have attempted to characterize the mean and interannual variability of ice production by investigating the winter production and subsequent melt of ice in the Laptev Sea from 1979 through 1992. The general approach was to associate pollution transport with the net exchange of ice area from the Laptev Sea to the perennial ice pack. The primary data sets supporting the study were ice charts, ice motion and geostrophic wind. 3 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  3. The pursuit of perfect packing

    CERN Document Server

    Weaire, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Coauthored by one of the creators of the most efficient space packing solution, the Weaire-Phelan structure, The Pursuit of Perfect Packing, Second Edition explores a problem of importance in physics, mathematics, chemistry, biology, and engineering: the packing of structures. Maintaining its mathematical core, this edition continues and revises some of the stories from its predecessor while adding several new examples and applications. The book focuses on both scientific and everyday problems ranging from atoms to honeycombs. It describes packing models, such as the Kepler conjecture, Voronoï decomposition, and Delaunay decomposition, as well as actual structure models, such as the Kelvin cell and the Weaire-Phelan structure. The authors discuss numerous historical aspects and provide biographical details on influential contributors to the field, including emails from Thomas Hales and Ken Brakke. With examples from physics, crystallography, engineering, and biology, this accessible and whimsical bo...

  4. Balance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    For several decades, measurements of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet showed it to be retreating rapidly. But new data derived from satellite-borne radar sensors show the ice sheet to be growing. Changing Antarctic ice sheets remains an area of high scientific interest, particularly in light of recent global warming concerns. These new findings are significant because scientists estimate that sea level would rise 5-6 meters (16-20 feet) if the ice sheet collapsed into the sea. Do these new measurements signal the end of the ice sheet's 10,000-year retreat? Or, are these new satellite data simply much more accurate than the sparse ice core and surface measurements that produced the previous estimates? Another possibility is that the ice accumulation may simply indicate that the ice sheet naturally expands and retreats in regular cycles. Cryologists will grapple with these questions, and many others, as they examine the new data. The image above depicts the region of West Antarctica where scientists measured ice speed. The fast-moving central ice streams are shown in red. Slower tributaries feeding the ice streams are shown in blue. Green areas depict slow-moving, stable areas. Thick black lines depict the areas that collect snowfall to feed their respective ice streams. Reference: Ian Joughin and Slawek Tulaczyk Science Jan 18 2002: 476-480. Image courtesy RADARSAT Antarctic Mapping Project

  5. P-band radar ice sounding in Antarctica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Kusk, Anders; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2012-01-01

    In February 2011, the Polarimetric Airborne Radar Ice Sounder (POLARIS) was flown in Antarctica in order to assess the feasibility of a potential space-based radar ice sounding mission. The campaign has demonstrated that the basal return is detectable in areas with up to 3 km thick cold ice, in a...

  6. New iodine filter pack design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackbee, B.A.

    1977-10-01

    To enable Naval Emergency Monitoring Teams to fulfil their role in the field it was necessary to locate or design a replacement filter pack for the collection of radioactive iodine air samples. Collaboration with the Berkeley Laboratories of the Central Electricity Generating Board provided the necessary starting point for a suitable type of package. Further development by NGTE (West Drayton) yielded the improved filter pack which is the subject of this memorandum. (author)

  7. Arctic Sea Ice Trafficability - New Strategies for a Changing Icescape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, Dyre Oliver

    Sea ice is an important part of the Arctic social-environmental system, in part because it provides a platform for human transportation and for marine flora and fauna that use the ice as a habitat. Sea ice loss projected for coming decades is expected to change ice conditions throughout the Arctic, but little is known about the nature and extent of anticipated changes and in particular potential implications for over-ice travel and ice use as a platform. This question has been addressed here through an extensive effort to link sea ice use and key geophysical properties of sea ice, drawing upon extensive field surveys around on-ice operations and local and Indigenous knowledge for the widely different ice uses and ice regimes of Utqiagvik, Kotzebue, and Nome, Alaska.. A set of nine parameters that constrain landfast sea ice use has been derived, including spatial extent, stability, and timing and persistence of landfast ice. This work lays the foundation for a framework to assess and monitor key ice-parameters relevant in the context of ice-use feasibility, safety, and efficiency, drawing on different remote-sensing techniques. The framework outlines the steps necessary to further evaluate relevant parameters in the context of user objectives and key stakeholder needs for a given ice regime and ice use scenario. I have utilized this framework in case studies for three different ice regimes, where I find uses to be constrained by ice thickness, roughness, and fracture potential and develop assessment strategies with accuracy at the relevant spatial scales. In response to the widely reported importance of high-confidence ice thickness measurements, I have developed a new strategy to estimate appropriate thickness compensation factors. Compensation factors have the potential to reduce risk of misrepresenting areas of thin ice when using point-based in-situ assessment methods along a particular route. This approach was tested on an ice road near Kotzebue, Alaska, where

  8. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Peter [Dept. of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm Univ-, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2010-11-15

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  9. Ice sheet hydrology from observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansson, Peter

    2010-11-01

    The hydrological systems of ice sheets are complex. Our view of the system is split, largely due to the complexity of observing the systems. Our basic knowledge of processes have been obtained from smaller glaciers and although applicable in general to the larger scales of the ice sheets, ice sheets contain features not observable on smaller glaciers due to their size. The generation of water on the ice sheet surface is well understood and can be satisfactorily modeled. The routing of water from the surface down through the ice is not complicated in terms of procat has been problematic is the way in which the couplings between surface and bed has been accomplished through a kilometer of cold ice, but with the studies on crack propagation and lake drainage on Greenland we are beginning to understand also this process and we know water can be routed through thick cold ice. Water generation at the bed is also well understood but the main problem preventing realistic estimates of water generation is lack of detailed information about geothermal heat fluxes and their geographical distribution beneath the ice. Although some average value for geothermal heat flux may suffice, for many purposes it is important that such values are not applied to sub-regions of significantly higher fluxes. Water generated by geothermal heat constitutes a constant supply and will likely maintain a steady system beneath the ice sheet. Such a system may include subglacial lakes as steady features and reconfiguration of the system is tied to time scales on which the ice sheet geometry changes so as to change pressure gradients in the basal system itself. Large scale re-organization of subglacial drainage systems have been observed beneath ice streams. The stability of an entirely subglacially fed drainage system may hence be perturbed by rapid ice flow. In the case of Antarctic ice streams where such behavior has been observed, the ice streams are underlain by deformable sediments. It is

  10. Multiyear ice transport and small scale sea ice deformation near the Alaska coast measured by air-deployable Ice Trackers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, A. R.; Kasper, J.; Winsor, P.

    2015-12-01

    Highly complex patterns of ice motion and deformation were captured by fifteen satellite-telemetered GPS buoys (known as Ice Trackers) deployed near Barrow, Alaska, in spring 2015. Two pentagonal clusters of buoys were deployed on pack ice by helicopter in the Beaufort Sea between 20 and 80 km offshore. During deployment, ice motion in the study region was effectively zero, but two days later the buoys captured a rapid transport event in which multiyear ice from the Beaufort Sea was flushed into the Chukchi Sea. During this event, westward ice motion began in the Chukchi Sea and propagated eastward. This created new openings in the ice and led to rapid elongation of the clusters as the westernmost buoys accelerated away from their neighbors to the east. The buoys tracked ice velocities of over 1.5 ms-1, with fastest motion occurring closest to the coast indicating strong current shear. Three days later, ice motion reversed and the two clusters became intermingled, rendering divergence calculations based on the area enclosed by clusters invalid. The data show no detectable difference in velocity between first year and multiyear ice floes, but Lagrangian timeseries of SAR imagery centered on each buoy show that first year ice underwent significant small-scale deformation during the event. The five remaining buoys were deployed by local residents on prominent ridges embedded in the landfast ice within 16 km of Barrow in order to track the fate of such features after they detached from the coast. Break-up of the landfast ice took place over a period of several days and, although the buoys each initially followed a similar eastward trajectory around Point Barrow into the Beaufort Sea, they rapidly dispersed over an area more than 50 km across. With rapid environmental and socio-economic change in the Arctic, understanding the complexity of nearshore ice motion is increasingly important for predict future changes in the ice and the tracking ice-related hazards

  11. Turbulent heat transfer as a control of platelet ice growth in supercooled under-ice ocean boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Miles G.; Stevens, Craig L.; Smith, Inga J.; Robinson, Natalie J.

    2016-04-01

    Late winter measurements of turbulent quantities in tidally modulated flow under land-fast sea ice near the Erebus Glacier Tongue, McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, identified processes that influence growth at the interface of an ice surface in contact with supercooled seawater. The data show that turbulent heat exchange at the ocean-ice boundary is characterized by the product of friction velocity and (negative) water temperature departure from freezing, analogous to similar results for moderate melting rates in seawater above freezing. Platelet ice growth appears to increase the hydraulic roughness (drag) of fast ice compared with undeformed fast ice without platelets. Platelet growth in supercooled water under thick ice appears to be rate-limited by turbulent heat transfer and that this is a significant factor to be considered in mass transfer at the underside of ice shelves and sea ice in the vicinity of ice shelves.

  12. Sampling supraglacial debris thickness using terrestrial photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Lindsey; Mertes, Jordan

    2017-04-01

    The melt rate of debris-covered ice differs to that of clean ice primarily as a function of debris thickness. The spatial distribution of supraglacial debris thickness must therefore be known in order to understand how it is likely to impact glacier behaviour, and meltwater contribution to local hydrological resources and global sea level rise. However, practical means of determining debris cover thickness remain elusive. In this study we explore the utility of terrestrial photogrammetry to produce high resolution, scaled and texturized digital terrain models of debris cover exposures above ice cliffs as a means of quantifying and characterizing debris thickness. Two Nikon D5000 DSLRs with Tamron 100mm lenses were used to photograph a sample area of the Ngozumpa glacier in the Khumbu Himal of Nepal in April 2016. A Structure from Motion workflow using Agisoft Photoscan software was used to generate a surface models with <10cm resolution. A Trimble Geo7X differential GPS with Zephyr antenna, along with a local base station, was used to precisely measure marked ground control points to scale the photogrammetric surface model. Measurements of debris thickness along the exposed cliffline were made from this scaled model, assuming that the ice surface at the debris-ice boundary is horizontal, and these data are compared to 50 manual point measurements along the same clifftops. We conclude that sufficiently high resolution photogrammetry, with precise scaling information, provides a useful means to determine debris thickness at clifftop exposures. The resolution of the possible measurements depends on image resolution, the accuracy of the ground control points and the computational capacity to generate centimetre scale surface models. Application of such techniques to sufficiently high resolution imagery from UAV-borne cameras may offer a powerful means of determining debris thickness distribution patterns over debris covered glacier termini.

  13. Under Sea Ice phytoplankton bloom detection and contamination in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, C.; Zeng, T.; Xu, H.

    2017-12-01

    Previous researches reported compelling sea ice phytoplankton bloom in Arctic, while seldom reports studied about Antarctic. Here, lab experiment showed sea ice increased the visible light albedo of the water leaving radiance. Even a new formed sea ice of 10cm thickness increased water leaving radiance up to 4 times of its original bare water. Given that phytoplankton preferred growing and accumulating under the sea ice with thickness of 10cm-1m, our results showed that the changing rate of OC4 estimated [Chl-a] varied from 0.01-0.5mg/m3 to 0.2-0.3mg/m3, if the water covered by 10cm sea ice. Going further, varying thickness of sea ice modulated the changing rate of estimating [Chl-a] non-linearly, thus current routine OC4 model cannot estimate under sea ice [Chl-a] appropriately. Besides, marginal sea ice zone has a large amount of mixture regions containing sea ice, water and snow, where is favorable for phytoplankton. We applied 6S model to estimate the sea ice/snow contamination on sub-pixel water leaving radiance of 4.25km spatial resolution ocean color products. Results showed that sea ice/snow scale effectiveness overestimated [Chl-a] concentration based on routine band ratio OC4 model, which contamination increased with the rising fraction of sea ice/snow within one pixel. Finally, we analyzed the under sea ice bloom in Antarctica based on the [Chl-a] concentration trends during 21 days after sea ice retreating. Regardless of those overestimation caused by sea ice/snow sub scale contamination, we still did not see significant under sea ice blooms in Antarctica in 2012-2017 compared with Arctic. This research found that Southern Ocean is not favorable for under sea ice blooms and the phytoplankton bloom preferred to occur in at least 3 weeks after sea ice retreating.

  14. Understanding the Importance of Oceanic Forcing on Sea Ice Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    problem, which includes ice thickness. Thorndike et al. (1975) recognized that many of the physical properties of sea ice depend upon its thickness...IMB2005B are presented below. In agreement with previous studies (e.g., Thorndike and Colony 1982), they show that during the winter months (December...During the Past 100 Years, 33, 2, 143– 154. 148 Thorndike , A.S., and R. Colony, 1982: Sea ice motion in response to geostrophic winds. Journal of

  15. [Ice application for reducing pain associated with goserelin acetate injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kaname; Nagata, Chika; Koshizaki, Eiko; Nishiuchi, Satoko

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of using an ice pack for reducing the pain associated with goserelin acetate injection. In this study, 39 patients with prostate cancer and 1 patient with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate were enrolled. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding the use of ice application. We used the numerical rating scale (NRS) to assess the pain associated with injection. The NRS scores indicated that the pain was significantly less with ice application than with the usual method (p application could decrease the duration of pain sensation. Ice application at the injection site is safe and effective for reducing pain.

  16. Multi-decadal Arctic sea ice roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsamados, M.; Stroeve, J.; Kharbouche, S.; Muller, J. P., , Prof; Nolin, A. W.; Petty, A.; Haas, C.; Girard-Ardhuin, F.; Landy, J.

    2017-12-01

    The transformation of Arctic sea ice from mainly perennial, multi-year ice to a seasonal, first-year ice is believed to have been accompanied by a reduction of the roughness of the ice cover surface. This smoothening effect has been shown to (i) modify the momentum and heat transfer between the atmosphere and ocean, (ii) to alter the ice thickness distribution which in turn controls the snow and melt pond repartition over the ice cover, and (iii) to bias airborne and satellite remote sensing measurements that depend on the scattering and reflective characteristics over the sea ice surface topography. We will review existing and novel remote sensing methodologies proposed to estimate sea ice roughness, ranging from airborne LIDAR measurement (ie Operation IceBridge), to backscatter coefficients from scatterometers (ASCAT, QUICKSCAT), to multi angle maging spectroradiometer (MISR), and to laser (Icesat) and radar altimeters (Envisat, Cryosat, Altika, Sentinel-3). We will show that by comparing and cross-calibrating these different products we can offer a consistent multi-mission, multi-decadal view of the declining sea ice roughness. Implications for sea ice physics, climate and remote sensing will also be discussed.

  17. Optical properties of melting first-year Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Bonnie; Perovich, Donald K.; Webster, Melinda A.; Polashenski, Christopher; Dadic, Ruzica

    2015-11-01

    The albedo and transmittance of melting, first-year Arctic sea ice were measured during two cruises of the Impacts of Climate on the Eco-Systems and Chemistry of the Arctic Pacific Environment (ICESCAPE) project during the summers of 2010 and 2011. Spectral measurements were made for both bare and ponded ice types at a total of 19 ice stations in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. These data, along with irradiance profiles taken within boreholes, laboratory measurements of the optical properties of core samples, ice physical property observations, and radiative transfer model simulations are employed to describe representative optical properties for melting first-year Arctic sea ice. Ponded ice was found to transmit roughly 4.4 times more total energy into the ocean, relative to nearby bare ice. The ubiquitous surface-scattering layer and drained layer present on bare, melting sea ice are responsible for its relatively high albedo and relatively low transmittance. Light transmittance through ponded ice depends on the physical thickness of the ice and the magnitude of the scattering coefficient in the ice interior. Bare ice reflects nearly three-quarters of the incident sunlight, enhancing its resiliency to absorption by solar insolation. In contrast, ponded ice absorbs or transmits to the ocean more than three-quarters of the incident sunlight. Characterization of the heat balance of a summertime ice cover is largely dictated by its pond coverage, and light transmittance through ponded ice shows strong contrast between first-year and multiyear Arctic ice covers.

  18. Photophysiology and cellular composition of sea ice algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizotte, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The productivity of sea ice algae depends on their physiological capabilities and the environmental conditions within various microhabitats. Pack ice is the dominant form of sea ice, but the photosynthetic activity of associated algae has rarely been studied. Biomass and photosynthetic rates of ice algae of the Weddell-Scotia Sea were investigated during autumn and winter, the period when ice cover grows from its minimum to maximum. Biomass-specific photosynthetic rates typically ranged from 0.3 to 3.0 μg C · μg chl -1 · h -1 higher than land-fast ice algae but similar to Antarctic phytoplankton. Primary production in the pack ice during winter may be minor compared to annual phytoplankton production, but could represent a vital seasonal contribution to the Antarctic ecosystem. Nutrient supply may limit the productivity of ice algae. In McMurdo Sound, congelation ice algae appeared to be more nutrient deficient than underlying platelet ice algae based on: lower nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, and protein:carbohydrate; and 14 C-photosynthate distribution to proteins and phospholipids was lower, while distribution to polysaccharides and neutral lipids was higher. Depletion of nitrate led to decreased nitrogen:carbon, chlorophyll:carbon, protein:carbohydrate, and 14 C-photosynthate to proteins. Studied were conducted during the spring bloom; therefore, nutrient limitation may only apply to dense ice algal communities. Growth limiting conditions may be alleviated when algae are released into seawater during the seasonal recession of the ice cover. To continue growth, algae must adapt to the variable light field encountered in a mixed water column. Photoadaptation was studied in surface ice communities and in bottom ice communities

  19. Polar bears and sea ice habitat change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, George M.; Atwood, Todd C.; Butterworth, Andy

    2017-01-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is an obligate apex predator of Arctic sea ice and as such can be affected by climate warming-induced changes in the extent and composition of pack ice and its impacts on their seal prey. Sea ice declines have negatively impacted some polar bear subpopulations through reduced energy input because of loss of hunting habitats, higher energy costs due to greater ice drift, ice fracturing and open water, and ultimately greater challenges to recruit young. Projections made from the output of global climate models suggest that polar bears in peripheral Arctic and sub-Arctic seas will be reduced in numbers or become extirpated by the end of the twenty-first century if the rate of climate warming continues on its present trajectory. The same projections also suggest that polar bears may persist in the high-latitude Arctic where heavy multiyear sea ice that has been typical in that region is being replaced by thinner annual ice. Underlying physical and biological oceanography provides clues as to why polar bear in some regions are negatively impacted, while bears in other regions have shown no apparent changes. However, continued declines in sea ice will eventually challenge the survival of polar bears and efforts to conserve them in all regions of the Arctic.

  20. The pursuit of perfect packing

    CERN Document Server

    Weaire, Denis

    2000-01-01

    In 1998 Thomas Hales dramatically announced the solution of a problem that has long teased eminent mathematicians: what is the densest possible arrangement of identical spheres? The Pursuit of Perfect Packing recounts the story of this problem and many others that have to do with packing things together. The examples are taken from mathematics, physics, biology, and engineering, including the arrangement of soap bubbles in foam, atoms in a crystal, the architecture of the bee''s honeycomb, and the structure of the Giant''s Causeway. Using an informal style and with key references, the book also includes brief accounts of the lives of many of the scientists who devoted themselves to problems of packing over many centuries, together with wry comments on their efforts. It is an entertaining introduction to the field for both specialists and the more general public.

  1. Domain Discretization and Circle Packings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    A circle packing is a configuration of circles which are tangent with one another in a prescribed pattern determined by a combinatorial triangulation, where the configuration fills a planar domain or a two-dimensional surface. The vertices in the triangulation correspond to centers of circles...... to domain discretization problems such as triangulation and unstructured mesh generation techniques. We wish to ask ourselves the question: given a cloud of points in the plane (we restrict ourselves to planar domains), is it possible to construct a circle packing preserving the positions of the vertices...... and constrained meshes having predefined vertices as constraints. A standard method of two-dimensional mesh generation involves conformal mapping of the surface or domain to standardized shapes, such as a disk. Since circle packing is a new technique for constructing discrete conformal mappings, it is possible...

  2. Cylinder valve packing nut studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blue, S.C. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The design, manufacture, and use of cylinder valve packing nuts have been studied to improve their resistance to failure from stress corrosion cracking. Stress frozen photoelastic models have been analyzed to measure the stress concentrations at observed points of failure. The load effects induced by assembly torque and thermal expansion of stem packing were observed by strain gaging nuts. The effects of finishing operations and heat treatment were studied by the strain gage hole boring and X-ray methods. Modifications of manufacturing and operation practices are reducing the frequency of stress corrosion failures.

  3. Implications of fractured Arctic perennial ice cover on thermodynamic and dynamic sea ice processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplin, Matthew G.; Scharien, Randall; Else, Brent; Howell, Stephen; Barber, David G.; Papakyriakou, Tim; Prinsenberg, Simon

    2014-04-01

    Decline of the Arctic summer minimum sea ice extent is characterized by large expanses of open water in the Siberian, Laptev, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas, and introduces large fetch distances in the Arctic Ocean. Long waves can propagate deep into the pack ice, thereby causing flexural swell and failure of the sea ice. This process shifts the floe size diameter distribution smaller, increases floe surface area, and thereby affects sea ice dynamic and thermodynamic processes. The results of Radarsat-2 imagery analysis show that a flexural fracture event which occurred in the Beaufort Sea region on 6 September 2009 affected ˜40,000 km2. Open water fractional area in the area affected initially decreased from 3.7% to 2.7%, but later increased to ˜20% following wind-forced divergence of the ice pack. Energy available for lateral melting was assessed by estimating the change in energy entrainment from longwave and shortwave radiation in the mixed-layer of the ocean following flexural fracture. 11.54 MJ m-2 of additional energy for lateral melting of ice floes was identified in affected areas. The impact of this process in future Arctic sea ice melt seasons was assessed using estimations of earlier occurrences of fracture during the melt season, and is discussed in context with ocean heat fluxes, atmospheric mixing of the ocean mixed layer, and declining sea ice cover. We conclude that this process is an important positive feedback to Arctic sea ice loss, and timing of initiation is critical in how it affects sea ice thermodynamic and dynamic processes.

  4. Response timescales for martian ice masses and implications for ice flow on Mars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koutnik, Michelle Rebecca; Waddington, E.D.; Winebrener, D.P.

    2013-01-01

    a predictable shape, which is a function of ice temperature, ice rheology, and surface mass-exchange rate. In addition, the time for surface-shape adjustment is shorter than the characteristic time for significant deformation or displacement of internal layers within a flowing ice mass; as a result, surface......On Earth and on Mars, ice masses experience changes in precipitation, temperature, and radiation. In a new climate state, flowing ice masses will adjust in length and in thickness, and this response toward a new steady state has a characteristic timescale. However, a flowing ice mass has...... topography is more diagnostic of flow than are internal-layer shapes. Because the shape of Gemina Lingula, North Polar Layered Deposits indicates that it flowed at some time in the past, we use its current topography to infer characteristics of those past ice conditions, or past climate conditions, in which...

  5. Delicious ice cream, why does salt thaw ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnoli, Franco

    2016-03-01

    Plain Awful is an imaginary valley on the Andes populated by a highly-imitative, cubical people for which the most criminal offence is to exhibit round objects. The duck family (Scrooge, Donald and nephews) are teaming against Scrooge's worst enemy, Flintheart Glomgold, trying to buy the famous Plain Awful square eggs. Inadvertently, Scrooge violates the taboo, showing his Number One Dime, and is imprisoned in the stone quarries. He can be released only after the presentation of an ice cream soda to the President of Plain Awful. Donald and his nephews fly with Flintheart to deliver it, but Scrooge's enemy, of course, betrays the previous agreement after getting the ice cream, forcing the ducks into making an emergence replacement on the spot. Using dried milk, sugar and chocolate from their ration packs, plus some snow and salt for cooling they are able make the ice cream, and after dressing it with the carbonated water from a fire extinguisher they finally manage to produce the desired dessert. This comic may serve as an introduction to the "mysterious" phenomenon that added salt melts the ice and, even more surprising, does it by lowering the temperature of the mixture.

  6. Contrasts in Sea Ice Formation and Production in the Arctic Seasonal and Perennial Ice Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, R.

    2006-01-01

    Four years (1997-2000) of RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS) data are used to contrast the sea ice deformation and production regionally, and in the seasonal (SIZ) and perennial (PIZ) ice zones. Ice production is of seasonal ice in openings during the winter. 3-day estimates of these quantities are provided within Lagrangian elements initially 10 km on a side. A distinct seasonal cycle is seen in both zones with these estimates highest in the late fall and with seasonal minimums in the mid-winter. Regional divergence over the winter could be up to 30%. Spatially, the highest deformation is in the SIZ north of coastal Alaska. Both ice deformation and production are higher in the SIZ: deformation-related ice production in the SIZ (approx.0.5 m) is 1.5-2.3 times that of the PIZ (approx.0.3 m) - this is connected to ice strength and thickness. Atmospheric forcing and boundary layer structure contribute to only the seasonal and interannual variability. Seasonal ice growth in ice fractures accounts for approx.25-40% of the total ice production of the Arctic Ocean. By itself, this deformation-ice production relationship could be considered a negative feedback when thickness is perturbed. However, the overall effect on ice production in the face of increasing seasonal and thinner/weaker ice coverage could be modified by: local destabilization of the water column promoting overturning of warmer water due to increased brine rejection; and, the upwelling of the pynocline associated with increased occurrence of large shear motion in sea ice.

  7. PIXE analysis as a tool for dating of ice cores from the Greenland ice sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansson, H.C.; Swietlicki, E.; Larsson, N.P.O.; Johnsen, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Sections from the 2037 m long Dye 3 ice core drilled in 1979-1981 in the ice sheet of Southern Greenland were analysed with PIXE. The seven selected sections were from depths between 1778 and 1813 m, which corresponds to a time interval between about 8 500 and 10 000 years B.C. at the end of the last Ice Age. During this time period, fast climatic changes of several degrees centrigrade per century are known to have taken place. The exact time scales of these changes need yet to be verified by renewed measurements using nonconventional stratigraphic dating techniques such as PIXE. The problem is highly relevant for the prediction of climatic changes in our present age. A new sample preparation technique was developed which enables the determination of annual thicknesses of the parts of the ice core representing 10 000-40 000 years before present, where the thickness of the annual ice layers are believed to be less than 2.5 cm. More commonly used techniques of dating, such as measurements of oxygen and hydrogen isotopes δ 18 O and δD, nitrate, acidity or conductivity all have difficulties in resolving annual cycles in thicknesses of less than about 2 cm. The new technique involves sublimation of 18 cm long ice sections, after which the material contained in the ice is deposited on the thin backing. In this way, the material to be analysed is preconcentrated through the removal of the H 2 O, while still retaining the spatial distribution pattern of the various water soluble and insoluble components along the ice core. The resulting spatial resolution of the sublimation technique is estimated to be ±1 mm. A PIXE analysis was performed in contiguous millimeter steps across the sublimated ice sections. Estimations of annual ice layer thicknesses were based on the patterns of seasonal variation along the ice sections for several major and minor elements quantified with PIXE. (orig./TW)

  8. Observed ices in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Roger N.; Grundy, Will; Carlson, Robert R.; Noll, Keith; Gudipati, Murthy; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Ices have been detected and mapped on the Earth and all planets and/or their satellites further from the sun. Water ice is the most common frozen volatile observed and is also unambiguously detected or inferred in every planet and/or their moon(s) except Venus. Carbon dioxide is also extensively found in all systems beyond the Earth except Pluto although it sometimes appears to be trapped rather than as an ice on some objects. The largest deposits of carbon dioxide ice is on Mars. Sulfur dioxide ice is found in the Jupiter system. Nitrogen and methane ices are common beyond the Uranian system. Saturn’s moon Titan probably has the most complex active chemistry involving ices, with benzene (C6H6) and many tentative or inferred compounds including ices of Cyanoacetylene (HC3N), Toluene (C7H8), Cyanogen (C2N2), Acetonitrile (CH3CN), H2O, CO2, and NH3. Confirming compounds on Titan is hampered by its thick smoggy atmosphere. Ammonia was predicted on many icy moons but is notably absent among the definitively detected ices with the possible exception of Enceladus. Comets, storehouses of many compounds that could exist as ices in their nuclei, have only had small amounts of water ice definitively detected on their surfaces. Only one asteroid has had a direct detection of surface water ice, although its presence can be inferred in others. This chapter reviews some of the properties of ices that lead to their detection, and surveys the ices that have been observed on solid surfaces throughout the Solar System.

  9. Towards optimal packed string matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ben-Kiki, Oren; Bille, Philip; Breslauer, Dany

    2014-01-01

    -size string-matching instruction wssm is available in contemporary commodity processors. The other word-size maximum-suffix instruction wslm is only required during the pattern pre-processing. Benchmarks show that our solution can be efficiently implemented, unlike some prior theoretical packed string...

  10. An experimental study of icing control using DBD plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jinsheng; Tian, Yongqiang; Meng, Xuanshi; Han, Xuzhao; Zhang, Duo; Hu, Haiyang

    2017-08-01

    Ice accretion on aircraft or wind turbine has been widely recognized as a big safety threat in the past decades. This study aims to develop a new approach for icing control using an AC-DBD plasma actuator. The experiments of icing control (i.e., anti-/de-icing) on a cylinder model were conducted in an icing wind tunnel with controlled wind speed (i.e., 15 m/s) and temperature (i.e., -10°C). A digital camera was used to record the dynamic processes of plasma anti-icing and de-icing whilst an infrared imaging system was utilized to map the surface temperature variations during the anti-/de-icing processes. It was found that the AC-DBD plasma actuator is very effective in both anti-icing and de-icing operations. While no ice formation was observed when the plasma actuator served as an anti-icing device, a complete removal of the ice layer with a thickness of 5 mm was achieved by activating the plasma actuator for ˜150 s. Such information demonstrated the feasibility of plasma anti-/de-icing, which could potentially provide more effective and safer icing mitigation strategies.

  11. The greenhouse effect and the Arctic ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenaas, Sigbjoern

    2002-01-01

    The impact on the Arctic ice of global warming is important for many people and for the environment. Less ice means changed conditions for the Inuits, hard times for the polar bears and changed conditions for the fishing sector. There is at present some uncertainty about the thickness of the ice and what might be the cause of its oscillation. It was reported a few years ago that the thickness of the ice had almost been reduced by 50 per cent since the 1950s and some researchers suggested that within a few decades the ice would disappear during the summer. These measurements have turned out not to be representative for the whole Arctic region, and it now appears that a great deal of the measured thickness variation can be attributed to changes in the atmospheric circulation. The article discusses the Arctic Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation in relation to the ice thickness, and climate models. Feedback mechanisms such as reduced albedo may have a big impact in the Arctic in a global greenhouse warming. Model simulations are at variance, and the scenarios for the future are uncertain

  12. Buried and Massive Ground Ice on the West Coast of Baidaratskaya Bay in the Kara Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Belova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using data on the structure, conditions of occurrence (bedding, and the isotope composition of massive ice beds on the West coast of Baydaratskaya Bay it was established that the massive ice beds even occurring in the same outcrop may be related to different genetic types. There are two groups of the massive ice: 1 the «upper» thick (> 3 m massive ice beds composed by buried basal glacier ice; and 2 the «lower» small ice beds (< 3 m, formed both intrasedimentally and as a result of burial of initially surface ice bodies. Sand thickness which included both groups of the massive ice started its formation before the glacial ice burial. As a result of advancing and later degradation of the glacier, probably moving from the Pay-Khoy ridge or from the Polar Ural, its lower (basal parts were preserved within the permafrost thickness

  13. The Maximum Resource Bin Packing Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyar, J.; Epstein, L.; Favrholdt, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Usually, for bin packing problems, we try to minimize the number of bins used or in the case of the dual bin packing problem, maximize the number or total size of accepted items. This paper presents results for the opposite problems, where we would like to maximize the number of bins used...... algorithms, First-Fit-Increasing and First-Fit-Decreasing for the maximum resource variant of classical bin packing. For the on-line variant, we define maximum resource variants of classical and dual bin packing. For dual bin packing, no on-line algorithm is competitive. For classical bin packing, we find...

  14. Hardness of approximation for strip packing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamaszek, Anna Maria; Kociumaka, Tomasz; Pilipczuk, Marcin

    2017-01-01

    Strip packing is a classical packing problem, where the goal is to pack a set of rectangular objects into a strip of a given width, while minimizing the total height of the packing. The problem has multiple applications, for example, in scheduling and stock-cutting, and has been studied extensively......)-approximation by two independent research groups [FSTTCS 2016,WALCOM 2017]. This raises a questionwhether strip packing with polynomially bounded input data admits a quasi-polynomial time approximation scheme, as is the case for related twodimensional packing problems like maximum independent set of rectangles or two...

  15. Using atomic layer deposited tungsten to increase thermal conductivity of a packed bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Norman, Staci A.; Falconer, John L.; Weimer, Alan W., E-mail: alan.weimer@colorado.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, UCB 596, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0596 (United States); Tringe, Joseph W.; Sain, John D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Yang, Ronggui [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Colorado, UCB 427, Boulder, Colorado 80309-0427 (United States)

    2015-04-13

    This study investigated the effective thermal conductivity (k{sub eff}) of packed-beds that contained porous particles with nanoscale tungsten (W) films of different thicknesses formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). A continuous film on the particles is vital towards increasing k{sub eff} of the packed beds. For example, the k{sub eff} of an alumina packed bed was increased by three times after an ∼8-nm continuous W film with 20 cycles of W ALD, whereas k{sub eff} was decreased on a polymer packed bed with discontinuous, evenly dispersed W-islands due to nanoparticle scattering of phonons. For catalysts, understanding the thermal properties of these packed beds is essential for developing thermally conductive supports as alternatives to structured supports.

  16. Ice Ages

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    that the precession of the earth's orbit caused ice ages. The precession of the earth's orbit leads to changes in the time of the year at which ... than in the southern hemisphere. ..... small increase in ocean temperature implies a large increase in.

  17. Multiphase Reactive Transport and Platelet Ice Accretion in the Sea Ice of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffo, J. J.; Schmidt, B. E.; Huber, C.

    2018-01-01

    Sea ice seasonally to interannually forms a thermal, chemical, and physical boundary between the atmosphere and hydrosphere over tens of millions of square kilometers of ocean. Its presence affects both local and global climate and ocean dynamics, ice shelf processes, and biological communities. Accurate incorporation of sea ice growth and decay, and its associated thermal and physiochemical processes, is underrepresented in large-scale models due to the complex physics that dictate oceanic ice formation and evolution. Two phenomena complicate sea ice simulation, particularly in the Antarctic: the multiphase physics of reactive transport brought about by the inhomogeneous solidification of seawater, and the buoyancy driven accretion of platelet ice formed by supercooled ice shelf water onto the basal surface of the overlying ice. Here a one-dimensional finite difference model capable of simulating both processes is developed and tested against ice core data. Temperature, salinity, liquid fraction, fluid velocity, total salt content, and ice structure are computed during model runs. The model results agree well with empirical observations and simulations highlight the effect platelet ice accretion has on overall ice thickness and characteristics. Results from sensitivity studies emphasize the need to further constrain sea ice microstructure and the associated physics, particularly permeability-porosity relationships, if a complete model of sea ice evolution is to be obtained. Additionally, implications for terrestrial ice shelves and icy moons in the solar system are discussed.

  18. An Evaluation of Sea Ice Deformation and Its Spatial Characteristics from the Regional Arctic System Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Ice Thickness and Age It has long been recognized that many physical properties of sea ice depend upon the thickness ( Thorndike et al. 1975). Three...within the ice (Kovacs 1996). Thorndike et al. (1975) showed that the approximation, used in many ice models even today, for the compressive stress...in the wintertime geopotential height and temperature fields. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25, 1297–1300. Thorndike , A.S., D.A. Rothrock, G.A. Maykut, and

  19. Valve packing manual. A maintenance application guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; McCutcheon, R.G.; Cumming, D.

    1997-01-01

    Since 1970, AECL Chalk River Mechanical Equipment Development (MED) branch has invested over 175 person years in testing related to improving valve packing performance. Successful developments, including, 'live-loading', reduced packing heights, and performance-based packing qualification testing have been implemented. Since 1986, MED and the Integrated Valve Actuator Program Task Force - Valve Packing Steering Committee (IVAP-VPSC) have been involved in the development of combination die-formed graphite packing for use in CANDU plants. Many reports, articles, and specifications have been issued. Due to the large amount of test data and reports, a more user-friendly document has been prepared for everyday use. The Valve Packing Manual is based on many years of MED research and testing, as well as operating experience from CANDU nuclear generating stations (NGS). Since 1986, packing research and testing has been funded by the CANDU Owners Group (COG), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and participating valve packing manufacturers. The Valve Packing Manual (VPM) provides topical summaries of all work related to valve packing done since 1985. It includes advances in configuration design, stem packing friction, materials specifications, and installation procedures. This paper provides an overview on the application of the VPM with a focus on qualification testing, packing configuration, and stem packing friction. (author)

  20. Life in Ice: Implications to Astrobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2009-01-01

    During the 2008 Tawani International Expedition Schirmacher Oasis/Lake Untersee Antarctica Expedition, living and instantly motile bacteria were found in freshly thawed meltwater from ice of the Schirmacher Oasis Lakes, the Anuchin Glacier ice and samples of the that perennial ice sheet above Lake Untersee. This phenomenon of living bacteria encased in ice had previously been observed in the 32,000 year old ice of the Fox Tunnel. The bacteria found in this ice included the strain FTR1T which was isolated and published as valid new species (Carnobacterium pleistocenium) the first validly published living Pleistocene organism still alive today. Living bacteria were also extracted from ancient ice cores from Vostok, Antarctica. The discovery that many strains of bacteria are able to survive and remain alive while frozen in ice sheets for long periods of time may have direct relevance to Astrobiology. The abundance of viable bacteria in the ice sheets of Antarctica suggests that the presence of live bacteria in ice is common, rather than an isolated phenomenon. This paper will discuss the results of recent studies at NSSTC of bacteria cryopreserved in ice. This paper advances the hypothesis that cryopreserved cells, and perhaps even viable bacterial cells, may exist today--frozen in the water-ice of lunar craters, the Polar Caps or craters of Mars; or in the permafrost of Mars; ice and rocks of comets or water bearing asteroids; or in the frozen crusts of the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The existence of bacterial life in ice suggests that it may not be necessary to drill through a thick ice crust to reach liquid water seas deep beneath the icy crusts of Europa, Ganymede and Enceladus. The presence of viable bacteria in the ice of the Earth s Polar Caps suggests that the possibility that cryo-panspermia (i.e., the trans-planetary transfer of microbial life by impact ejection/spallation of bacteria-rich polar ice masses) deserves serious consideration and study as a

  1. Understanding Ice Shelf Basal Melting Using Convergent ICEPOD Data Sets: ROSETTA-Ice Study of Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Fricker, H. A.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.

    2017-12-01

    The future stability of the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica will be susceptible to increases in both surface and basal melt as the atmosphere and ocean warm. The ROSETTA-Ice program is targeted at using the ICEPOD airborne technology to produce new constraints on Ross Ice Shelf, the underlying ocean, bathymetry, and geologic setting, using radar sounding, gravimetry and laser altimetry. This convergent approach to studying the ice-shelf and basal processes enables us to develop an understanding of the fundamental controls on ice-shelf evolution. This work leverages the stratigraphy of the ice shelf, which is detected as individual reflectors by the shallow-ice radar and is often associated with surface scour, form close to the grounding line or pinning points on the ice shelf. Surface accumulation on the ice shelf buries these reflectors as the ice flows towards the calving front. This distinctive stratigraphy can be traced across the ice shelf for the major East Antarctic outlet glaciers and West Antarctic ice streams. Changes in the ice thickness below these reflectors are a result of strain and basal melting and freezing. Correcting the estimated thickness changes for strain using RIGGS strain measurements, we can develop decadal-resolution flowline distributions of basal melt. Close to East Antarctica elevated melt-rates (>1 m/yr) are found 60-100 km from the calving front. On the West Antarctic side high melt rates primarily develop within 10 km of the calving front. The East Antarctic side of Ross Ice Shelf is dominated by melt driven by saline water masses that develop in Ross Sea polynyas, while the melting on the West Antarctic side next to Hayes Bank is associated with modified Continental Deep Water transported along the continental shelf. The two sides of Ross Ice Shelf experience differing basal melt in part due to the duality in the underlying geologic structure: the East Antarctic side consists of relatively dense crust, with low amplitude

  2. Upper Ocean Evolution Across the Beaufort Sea Marginal Ice Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Rainville, L.; Gobat, J. I.; Perry, M. J.; Freitag, L. E.; Webster, S.

    2016-12-01

    The observed reduction of Arctic summertime sea ice extent and expansion of the marginal ice zone (MIZ) have profound impacts on the balance of processes controlling sea ice evolution, including the introduction of several positive feedback mechanisms that may act to accelerate melting. Examples of such feedbacks include increased upper ocean warming though absorption of solar radiation, elevated internal wave energy and mixing that may entrain heat stored in subsurface watermasses (e.g., the relatively warm Pacific Summer and Atlantic waters), and elevated surface wave energy that acts to deform and fracture sea ice. Spatial and temporal variability in ice properties and open water fraction impact these processes. To investigate how upper ocean structure varies with changing ice cover, how the balance of processes shift as a function of ice fraction and distance from open water, and how these processes impact sea ice evolution, a network of autonomous platforms sampled the atmosphere-ice-ocean system in the Beaufort, beginning in spring, well before the start of melt, and ending with the autumn freeze-up. Four long-endurance autonomous Seagliders occupied sections that extended from open water, through the marginal ice zone, deep into the pack during summer 2014 in the Beaufort Sea. Gliders penetrated up to 200 km into the ice pack, under complete ice cover for up to 10 consecutive days. Sections reveal strong fronts where cold, ice-covered waters meet waters that have been exposed to solar warming, and O(10 km) scale eddies near the ice edge. In the pack, Pacific Summer Water and a deep chlorophyll maximum form distinct layers at roughly 60 m and 80 m, respectively, which become increasingly diffuse late in the season as they progress through the MIZ and into open water. Stratification just above the Pacific Summer Water rapidly weakens near the ice edge and temperature variance increases, likely due to mixing or energetic vertical exchange associated with strong

  3. Rapid Access Ice Drill: A New Tool for Exploration of the Deep Antarctic Ice Sheets and Subglacial Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodge, J. W.; Severinghaus, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    The Rapid Access Ice Drill (RAID) will penetrate the Antarctic ice sheets in order to core through deep ice, the glacial bed, and into bedrock below. This new technology will provide a critical first look at the interface between major ice caps and their subglacial geology. Currently in construction, RAID is a mobile drilling system capable of making several long boreholes in a single field season in Antarctica. RAID is interdisciplinary and will allow access to polar paleoclimate records in ice >1 Ma, direct observation at the base of the ice sheets, and recovery of rock cores from the ice-covered East Antarctic craton. RAID uses a diamond rock-coring system as in mineral exploration. Threaded drill-pipe with hardened metal bits will cut through ice using reverse circulation of Estisol for pressure-compensation, maintenance of temperature, and removal of ice cuttings. Near the bottom of the ice sheet, a wireline bottom-hole assembly will enable diamond coring of ice, the glacial bed, and bedrock below. Once complete, boreholes will be kept open with fluid, capped, and made available for future down-hole measurement of thermal gradient, heat flow, ice chronology, and ice deformation. RAID will also sample for extremophile microorganisms. RAID is designed to penetrate up to 3,300 meters of ice and take sample cores in less than 200 hours. This rapid performance will allow completion of a borehole in about 10 days before moving to the next drilling site. RAID is unique because it can provide fast borehole access through thick ice; take short ice cores for paleoclimate study; sample the glacial bed to determine ice-flow conditions; take cores of subglacial bedrock for age dating and crustal history; and create boreholes for use as an observatory in the ice sheets. Together, the rapid drilling capability and mobility of the drilling system, along with ice-penetrating imaging methods, will provide a unique 3D picture of the interior Antarctic ice sheets.

  4. MASS BALANCE CHANGES AND ICE DYNAMICS OF GREENLAND AND ANTARCTIC ICE SHEETS FROM LASER ALTIMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Babonis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available During the past few decades the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets have lost ice at accelerating rates, caused by increasing surface temperature. The melting of the two big ice sheets has a big impact on global sea level rise. If the ice sheets would melt down entirely, the sea level would rise more than 60 m. Even a much smaller rise would cause dramatic damage along coastal regions. In this paper we report about a major upgrade of surface elevation changes derived from laser altimetry data, acquired by NASA’s Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite mission (ICESat and airborne laser campaigns, such as Airborne Topographic Mapper (ATM and Land, Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS. For detecting changes in ice sheet elevations we have developed the Surface Elevation Reconstruction And Change detection (SERAC method. It computes elevation changes of small surface patches by keeping the surface shape constant and considering the absolute values as surface elevations. We report about important upgrades of earlier results, for example the inclusion of local ice caps and the temporal extension from 1993 to 2014 for the Greenland Ice Sheet and for a comprehensive reconstruction of ice thickness and mass changes for the Antarctic Ice Sheets.

  5. Variability and Trends in Sea Ice Extent and Ice Production in the Ross Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino; Kwok, Ronald; Martin, Seelye; Gordon, Arnold L.

    2011-01-01

    Salt release during sea ice formation in the Ross Sea coastal regions is regarded as a primary forcing for the regional generation of Antarctic Bottom Water. Passive microwave data from November 1978 through 2008 are used to examine the detailed seasonal and interannual characteristics of the sea ice cover of the Ross Sea and the adjacent Bellingshausen and Amundsen seas. For this period the sea ice extent in the Ross Sea shows the greatest increase of all the Antarctic seas. Variability in the ice cover in these regions is linked to changes in the Southern Annular Mode and secondarily to the Antarctic Circumpolar Wave. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate of increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 sq km/yr. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 cu km/yr, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. The increase in brine rejection in the Ross Shelf Polynya associated with the estimated increase with the ice production, however, is not consistent with the reported Ross Sea salinity decrease. The locally generated sea ice enhancement of Ross Sea salinity may be offset by an increase of relatively low salinity of the water advected into the region from the Amundsen Sea, a consequence of increased precipitation and regional glacial ice melt.

  6. Eulerian Method for Ice Crystal Icing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, Ellen; van der Weide, Edwin Theodorus Antonius; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    In this study, an ice accretion method aimed at ice crystal icing in turbofan engines is developed and demonstrated for glaciated as well as mixed-phase icing conditions. The particle trajectories are computed by an Eulerian trajectory method. The effects of heat transfer and phase change on the

  7. Hypostatic jammed packings of frictionless nonspherical particles

    OpenAIRE

    VanderWerf, Kyle; Jin, Weiwei; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2017-01-01

    We perform computational studies of static packings of a variety of nonspherical particles including circulo-lines, circulo-polygons, ellipses, asymmetric dimers, and dumbbells to determine which shapes form hypostatic versus isostatic packings and to understand why hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles can be mechanically stable despite having fewer contacts than that predicted from na\\"ive constraint counting. To generate highly accurate force- and torque-balanced packings of circul...

  8. Molecular packing and area compressibility of lipid bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.H.; King, G.I.

    1985-01-01

    Knowledge of the molecular packing of lipids and water in lipid bilayers is important for understanding bilayer mechanics and thermodynamics. Information on packing is most often obtained from x-ray or neutron diffraction measurements. Given the d spacing, composition, and partial specific volumes of the lipid and water, it is a simple matter to calculate the area per lipid molecule, bilayer thickness, and bilayer mass density. The partial specific volumes are commonly assumed to be those of bulk water and of lipid in excess water regardless of the degree of bilayer hydration. The authors present evidence here that these assumptions should be seriously questioned. At low hydrations, they find the head groups of egg and dioleoyl lecithin to be much less tightly packed than previously thought and the partial specific volume of water to be considerably smaller than 1 ml/g. Because the molecular packing affects the mechanical properties of bilayers, they use the results to reevaluate published experiments concerning the elastic area compressibility modulus of egg lecithin bilayers and the repulsive hydration force between bilayers

  9. Safer v. Estate of Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-11

    The Superior Court of New Jersey, Appellate Division, recognized "a physician's duty to warn those known to be at risk of avoidable harm from a genetically transmissible condition." During the 1950s, Dr. George Pack treated Donna Shafer's father for a cancerous blockage of the colon and multiple polyposis. In 1990, Safer was diagnosed with the same condition, which she claims is inherited, and, if not diagnosed and treated, invariably will lead to metastic colorectal cancer. Safer alleged that Dr. Pack knew the hereditary nature of the disease, yet failed to warn the immediate family, thus breaching his professional duty to warn. The court did not follow the analysis of the trial court, that a physician has no legal duty to warn the child of a patient of the genetic risk of disease because no physician and patient relationship exists between the doctor and the child.

  10. Fast Searching in Packed Strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2009-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth-Morris-Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput., 1977] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character at the time....... However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation. Let m...... word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using time O(n/log(sigma) n + m + occ) Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m = o(n) this improves the O(n) bound...

  11. On the nature of the sea ice albedo feedback in simple models

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Woosok; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2013-01-01

    We examine the nature of the ice-albedo feedback in a long standing approach used in the dynamic-thermodynamic modeling of sea ice. The central issue examined is how the evolution of the ice area is treated when modeling a partial ice cover using a two-category-thickness scheme; thin sea ice and open water in one category and "thick" sea ice in the second. The problem with the scheme is that the area-evolution is handled in a manner that violates the basic rules of calculus, which leads to a ...

  12. A simple holistic hypothesis for the self-destruction of ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T.

    2011-07-01

    Ice sheets are the only components of Earth's climate system that can self-destruct. This paper presents the quantitative force balance for bottom-up modeling of ice sheets, as first presented qualitatively in this journal as a way to quantify ice-bed uncoupling leading to self-destruction of ice sheets ( Hughes, 2009a). Rapid changes in sea level and climate can result if a large ice-sheet self-destructs quickly, as did the former Laurentide Ice Sheet of North America between 8100 and 7900 BP, thereby terminating the last cycle of Quaternary glaciation. Ice streams discharge up to 90 percent of ice from past and present ice sheets. A hypothesis is presented in which self-destruction of an ice sheet begins when ubiquitous ice-bed decoupling, quantified as a floating fraction of ice, proceeds along ice streams. This causes ice streams to surge and reduce thickness by some 90 percent, and height above sea level by up to 99 percent for floating ice, so the ice sheet undergoes gravitational collapse. Ice collapsing over marine embayments becomes floating ice shelves that may then disintegrate rapidly. This floods the world ocean with icebergs that reduce the ocean-to-atmosphere heat exchange, thereby triggering climate change. Calving bays migrate up low stagnating ice streams and carve out the accumulation zone of the collapsed ice sheet, which prevents its recovery, decreases Earth's albedo, and terminates the glaciation cycle. This sequence of events may coincide with a proposed life cycle of ice streams that drain the ice sheet. A first-order treatment of these life cycles is presented that depends on the longitudinal force balance along the flowbands of ice streams and gives a first approximation to ice-bed uncoupling at snapshots during gravitational collapse into ice shelves that disintegrate, thereby removing the ice sheet. The stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet is assessed using this bottom-up approach.

  13. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  14. Complications of balloon packing in epistaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeeren, Lenka; Derks, Wynia; Fokkens, Wytske; Menger, Dirk Jan

    2015-01-01

    Although balloon packing appears to be efficient to control epistaxis, severe local complications can occur. We describe four patients with local lesions after balloon packing. Prolonged balloon packing can cause damage to nasal mucosa, septum and alar skin (nasal mucosa, the cartilaginous skeleton

  15. Arctic ice island and sea ice movements and mechanical properties. First quarterly report, October 1-December 31, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sackinger, W.M.; Stringer, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    Research activities for the first quarter are presented for the following tasks: (1) ice island; (2) intrusion of the pack ice edge in the Chukchi Sea; and (3) spray ice adhesion to offshore structure coatings. With respect to the ice island portion of this project the following activities are planned for the year: (1) use aerial photography, satellite imagery, and all available historical records to establish a time history of all of the ice shelves of Ellesmere Island; (2) establish positioning buoys on the existing ice islands to track their trajectories daily and to telemeter daily barometric pressure and temperature, via System Argos; (3) relate geostrophic winds to the observed trajectories; (4) begin to build a pseudo-random model for ice island motion over the long term which would enable a determination of the probability of interaction between ice islands and offshore structures. The overall objective of task 2 is to investigate and analyze the causes and extent of summer time pace ice intrusions into the Chukchi Sea, which would interfere with exploration drilling and emplacement of permanent production structures. For task three a method for evaluating shear and tensile strengths of the interface bond between the sea spray ice layer and the structure or ship surface will be developed. A second more detailed task is to then measure the mechanical properties of this bonded layer for a variety of candidate coatings, as functions of temperature, loading rate, strain rate, salinity, and ice type. 25 references, 92 figures.

  16. Oil and ice in the arctic ocean: possible large-scale interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, W J; Martin, S

    1973-07-06

    The diffusion and transport mechanisms generated by the pack ice dynamics of the Beaufort Sea, combined with the slow rate of biodegradation of oil under Arctic conditions, would combine to diffuse an oil spill over the sea and eventually deposit the oil on the ice surface, where it would lower the natural albedo over a large area.

  17. Quantitative analysis of ice films by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Joseph T.

    1990-01-01

    One of the outstanding problems in the Space Transportation System is the possibility of the ice buildup on the external fuel tank surface while it is mounted on the launch pad. During the T-2 hours (and holding) period, the frost/ice thickness on the external tank is monitored/measured. However, after the resumption of the countdown time, the tank surface can only be monitored remotely. Currently, remote sensing is done with a TV camera coupled to a thermal imaging device. This device is capable of identifying the presence of ice, especially if it is covered with a layer of frost. However, it has difficulty identifying transparent ice, and, it is not capable of determining the thickness of ice in any case. Thus, there is a need for developing a technique for measuring the thickness of frost/ice on the tank surface during this two hour period before launch. The external tank surface is flooded with sunlight (natural or simulated) before launch. It may be possible, therefore, to analyze the diffuse reflection of sunlight from the external tank to determine the presence and thickness of ice. The purpose was to investigate the feasibility of this approach. A near-infrared spectrophotometer was used to record spectra of ice. It was determined that the optimum frequencies for monitoring the ice films were 1.03 and 1.255 microns.

  18. Forecasting Turbine Icing Events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Neil; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we present a method for forecasting icing events. The method is validated at two European wind farms in with known icing events. The icing model used was developed using current ice accretion methods, and newly developed ablation algorithms. The model is driven by inputs from the WRF...... mesoscale model, allowing for both climatological estimates of icing and short term icing forecasts. The current model was able to detect periods of icing reasonably well at the warmer site. However at the cold climate site, the model was not able to remove ice quickly enough leading to large ice...

  19. Theory of ice-skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Berre, Martine; Pomeau, Yves

    2015-10-01

    Almost frictionless skating on ice relies on a thin layer of melted water insulating mechanically the blade of the skate from ice. Using the basic equations of fluid mechanics and Stefan law, we derive a set of two coupled equations for the thickness of the film and the length of contact, a length scale which cannot be taken as its value at rest. The analytical study of these equations allows to define a small a-dimensional parameter depending on the longitudinal coordinate which can be neglected everywhere except close to the contact points at the front and the end of the blade, where a boundary layer solution is given. This solution provides without any calculation the order of magnitude of the film thickness, and its dependence with respect to external parameters like the velocity and mass of the skater and the radius of profile and bite angle of the blade, in good agreement with the numerical study. Moreover this solution also shows that a lubricating water layer of macroscopic thickness always exists for standard values of ice skating data, contrary to what happens in the case of cavitation of droplets due to thermal heating (Leidenfrost effect).

  20. Snowball Earth: Skating on Thin Ice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, A. L.; Stout, A. M.; Pollard, D.; Kasting, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    There is evidence of at least two intervals of widespread glaciation during the late Neoproterozoic (600-800 Myr ago), which are commonly referred to as "Snowball Earth" episodes. The global nature of these events is indicated by the fact that glacial deposits are found at low paleolatitudes during this time. Models of a global glacial event have produced a variety of solutions at low latitudes: thick ice, thin ice, slushball, and open ocean . The latter two models are similar, except that the slushball model has its ice-line at higher latitudes. To be viable, a model has to be able to account for the survival of life through the glaciations and also explain the existence of cap carbonates and other glacial debris deposited at low latitudes. The "thick-ice" model is not viable because kilometers of ice prevent the penetration of light necessary for the photosynthetic biota below. The "slushball" model is also not viable as it does not allow the formation of cap carbonates. The "thin-ice" model has been discussed previously and can account for continuation of photosynthetic life and glacial deposits at low paleolatitudes. The recently proposed "open-ocean" or "Jormungand" model also satisfies these requirements. What is it, though, that causes some models to produce thin ice near the equator and others to have open water there? We examine this question using a zonally symmetric energy balance climate model (EBM) with flowing sea glaciers to determine what parameter ranges produce each type of solution.

  1. Ice nucleation activity of polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichler, Magdalena; Felgitsch, Laura; Haeusler, Thomas; Seidl-Seiboth, Verena; Grothe, Hinrich

    2015-04-01

    Heterogeneous ice nucleation is an important process in the atmosphere. It shows direct impact on our climate by triggering ice cloud formation and therefore it has much influence on the radiation balance of our planet (Lohmann et al. 2002; Mishchenko et al. 1996). The process itself is not completely understood so far and many questions remain open. Different substances have been found to exhibit ice nucleation activity (INA). Due to their vast differences in chemistry and morphology it is difficult to predict what substance will make good ice nuclei and which will not. Hence simple model substances must be found and be tested regarding INA. Our work aims at gaining to a deeper understanding of heterogeneous ice nucleation. We intend to find some reference standards with defined chemistry, which may explain the mechanisms of heterogeneous ice nucleation. A particular focus lies on biological carbohydrates in regards to their INA. Biological carbohydrates are widely distributed in all kingdoms of life. Mostly they are specific for certain organisms and have well defined purposes, e.g. structural polysaccharides like chitin (in fungi and insects) and pectin (in plants), which has also water-binding properties. Since they are widely distributed throughout our biosphere and mostly safe to use for nutrition purposes, they are well studied and easily accessible, rendering them ideal candidates as proxies. In our experiments we examined various carbohydrates, like the already mentioned chitin and pectin, as well as their chemical modifications. Lohmann U.; A Glaciation Indirect Aerosol Effect Caused by Soot Aerosols; J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 24 No.4; pp 11-1 - 11-4; 2002 Mishchenko M.I., Rossow W.B., Macke A., Lacis A. A.; Sensitivity of Cirrus Cloud Albedo, Bidirectional Reflectance and Optical Thickness Retrieval Accuracy to Ice Particle Shape, J. Geoph. Res.; Vol. 101, No D12; pp. 16,973 - 16,985; 1996

  2. Polynyas in a dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Ö. Ólason

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The representation of polynyas in viscous-plastic dynamic-thermodynamic sea-ice models is studied in a simplified test domain, in order to give recommendations about parametrisation choices. Bjornsson et al. (2001 validated their dynamic-thermodynamic model against a polynya flux model in a similar setup and we expand on that work here, testing more sea-ice rheologies and new-ice thickness formulations. The two additional rheologies tested give nearly identical results whereas the two new-ice thickness parametrisations tested give widely different results. Based on our results we argue for using the new-ice thickness parametrisation of Hibler (1979. We also implement a new parametrisation for the parameter h0 from Hibler's scheme, based on ideas from a collection depth parametrisation for flux polynya models.

  3. Improving Arctic Sea Ice Observations and Data Access to Support Advances in Sea Ice Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The economic and strategic importance of the Arctic region is becoming apparent. One of the most striking and widely publicized changes underway is the declining sea ice cover. Since sea ice is a key component of the climate system, its ongoing loss has serious, and wide-ranging, socio-economic implications. Increasing year-to-year variability in the geographic location, concentration, and thickness of the Arctic ice cover will pose both challenges and opportunities. The sea ice research community must be engaged in sustained Arctic Observing Network (AON) initiatives so as to deliver fit-for-purpose remote sensing data products to a variety of stakeholders including Arctic communities, the weather forecasting and climate modeling communities, industry, local, regional and national governments, and policy makers. An example of engagement is the work currently underway to improve research collaborations between scientists engaged in obtaining and assessing sea ice observational data and those conducting numerical modeling studies and forecasting ice conditions. As part of the US AON, in collaboration with the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee (IARPC), we are developing a strategic framework within which observers and modelers can work towards the common goal of improved sea ice forecasting. Here, we focus on sea ice thickness, a key varaible of the Arctic ice cover. We describe multi-sensor, and blended, sea ice thickness data products under development that can be leveraged to improve model initialization and validation, as well as support data assimilation exercises. We will also present the new PolarWatch initiative (polarwatch.noaa.gov) and discuss efforts to advance access to remote sensing satellite observations and improve communication with Arctic stakeholders, so as to deliver data products that best address societal needs.

  4. Turbulent heat exchange between water and ice at an evolving ice-water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramudu, Eshwan; Hirsh, Benjamin Henry; Olson, Peter; Gnanadesikan, Anand

    2016-07-01

    We conduct laboratory experiments on the time evolution of an ice layer cooled from below and subjected to a turbulent shear flow of warm water from above. Our study is motivated by observations of warm water intrusion into the ocean cavity under Antarctic ice shelves, accelerating the melting of their basal surfaces. The strength of the applied turbulent shear flow in our experiments is represented in terms of its Reynolds number $\\textit{Re}$, which is varied over the range $2.0\\times10^3 \\le \\textit{Re} \\le 1.0\\times10^4$. Depending on the water temperature, partial transient melting of the ice occurs at the lower end of this range of $\\textit{Re}$ and complete transient melting of the ice occurs at the higher end. Following these episodes of transient melting, the ice reforms at a rate that is independent of $\\textit{Re}$. We fit our experimental measurements of ice thickness and temperature to a one-dimensional model for the evolution of the ice thickness in which the turbulent heat transfer is parameterized in terms of the friction velocity of the shear flow. The melting mechanism we investigate in our experiments can easily account for the basal melting rate of Pine Island Glacier ice shelf inferred from observations.

  5. Great Lakes Ice Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Charts show ice extent and concentration three times weekly during the ice season, for all lakes except Ontario, from the 1973/74 ice season through the 2001/2002...

  6. Accretion growth of water-ice grains in astrophysically-relevant dusty plasma experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Kil-Byoung; Marshall, Ryan; Bellan, Paul

    2016-10-01

    The grain growth process in the Caltech water-ice dusty plasma experiment has been studied using a high-speed camera equipped with a long-distance microscope lens. It is found that (i) the ice grain number density decreases four-fold as the average grain length increases from 20 to 80 um, (ii) the ice grain length has a log-normal distribution rather than a power-law dependence, and (iii) no collisions between ice grains are apparent. The grains have a large negative charge so the agglomeration growth is prevented by their strong mutual repulsion. It is concluded that direct accretion of water molecules is in good agreement with the observed ice grain growth. The volumetric packing factor of the ice grains must be less than 0.25 in order for the grain kinetic energy to be sufficiently small to prevent collisions between ice grains; this conclusion is consistent with ice grain images showing a fractal character.

  7. Hypostatic jammed packings of frictionless nonspherical particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWerf, Kyle; Jin, Weiwei; Shattuck, Mark D.; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2018-01-01

    We perform computational studies of static packings of a variety of nonspherical particles including circulo-lines, circulo-polygons, ellipses, asymmetric dimers, dumbbells, and others to determine which shapes form packings with fewer contacts than degrees of freedom (hypostatic packings) and which have equal numbers of contacts and degrees of freedom (isostatic packings), and to understand why hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles can be mechanically stable despite having fewer contacts than that predicted from naive constraint counting. To generate highly accurate force- and torque-balanced packings of circulo-lines and cir-polygons, we developed an interparticle potential that gives continuous forces and torques as a function of the particle coordinates. We show that the packing fraction and coordination number at jamming onset obey a masterlike form for all of the nonspherical particle packings we studied when plotted versus the particle asphericity A , which is proportional to the ratio of the squared perimeter to the area of the particle. Further, the eigenvalue spectra of the dynamical matrix for packings of different particle shapes collapse when plotted at the same A . For hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles, we verify that the number of "quartic" modes along which the potential energy increases as the fourth power of the perturbation amplitude matches the number of missing contacts relative to the isostatic value. We show that the fourth derivatives of the total potential energy in the directions of the quartic modes remain nonzero as the pressure of the packings is decreased to zero. In addition, we calculate the principal curvatures of the inequality constraints for each contact in circulo-line packings and identify specific types of contacts with inequality constraints that possess convex curvature. These contacts can constrain multiple degrees of freedom and allow hypostatic packings of nonspherical particles to be mechanically

  8. Ice-skating injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, D M; Lowdon, I M

    1986-05-01

    The range of injuries sustained at an ice-rink and presented to an Accident Service department is described. A total of 203 patients with 222 injuries presented themselves during a 2-month period. There were 103 noteworthy injuries, including 61 fractures, 2 dislocations and 2 severed tendons, but the commonest injuries were wounds, sprains and bruises. Beginners appear to be more prone to injury than experienced skaters. In addition to using well-fitting skate-boots to protect the ankle, some injuries could be avoided by wearing elbow and knee pads, and a thick pair of gloves. The number of injuries compared with the total number of skaters was small but produced a noteworthy increase in the workload of the Accident Service.

  9. Fast searching in packed strings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Given strings P and Q the (exact) string matching problem is to find all positions of substrings in Q matching P. The classical Knuth–Morris–Pratt algorithm [SIAM J. Comput. 6 (2) (1977) 323–350] solves the string matching problem in linear time which is optimal if we can only read one character...... at the time. However, most strings are stored in a computer in a packed representation with several characters in a single word, giving us the opportunity to read multiple characters simultaneously. In this paper we study the worst-case complexity of string matching on strings given in packed representation....... Let m⩽n be the lengths P and Q, respectively, and let σ denote the size of the alphabet. On a standard unit-cost word-RAM with logarithmic word size we present an algorithm using timeO(nlogσn+m+occ). Here occ is the number of occurrences of P in Q. For m=o(n) this improves the O(n) bound of the Knuth...

  10. The “Theoreticals” Pack

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The Particle Zoo is a colourful set of hand-made soft toys representing the particles in the Standard Model and beyond. It includes a “theoreticals” pack where you can find yet undiscovered particles: the best-selling Higgs boson, the graviton, the tachyon, and dark matter. Supersymmetric particle soft toys are also available on demand. But what would happen to the zoo if Nature had prepared some unexpected surprises? Julie Peasley, the zookeeper, is ready to sew new smiling faces…   The "Theoreticals" pack in the Particle Zoo. There is only one place in the world where you can buy a smiling Higgs boson and it’s not at CERN, although this is where scientists hope to observe it. The blue star-shaped particle is the best seller of Julie Peasley’s Particle Zoo – a collection of tens of soft toys representing all sorts of particles, including composite and decaying particles.  Over the years Julie’s zoo ...

  11. Characterization of the mechanical behavior of sea ice as a frictional material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lade, Poul V.

    2002-12-01

    The mechanical properties of sea ice are determined by the formation process, and the consequent material behavior at the element scale exhibits viscoelastic behavior at the early loading stages, followed by brittle fracture or ductile, irrecoverable deformation that may be captured by hardening/softening plasticity models with nonassociated flow. Failure of sea ice under different loading conditions follows a pattern that demonstrates its highly cross-anisotropic nature as well as its behavior as a frictional material. The interactions between the floes in the pack ice resemble those observed in granular materials. These materials are frictional in nature, they exhibit both contractive and dilative volume changes, the plastic flow is nonassociated, and their stiffnesses and strengths increase with confining pressure, but they do not have any strength when unconfined. The overall behavior of the pack ice may be close to isotropic. Constitutive modeling of this behavior may be achieved by models used in geotechnical engineering. Formation of leads and subsequent freezing of the water results in cementation between the ice floes, and the pack ice becomes stronger. The behavior of the pack ice may now be compared with that observed in cemented soils or concrete. For these materials, increasing amounts of cementation result in increasing rates of dilation when sheared, and this accounts for the largest contribution to the increase in shear strength.

  12. The Gregoriev Ice Cap length changes derived by 2-D ice flow line model for harmonic climate histories

    OpenAIRE

    Konovalov, Y. V.; Nagornov, O. V.

    2009-01-01

    Different ice thickness distributions along the flow line and the flow line length changes of the Gregoriev Ice Cap, Terskey Ala-Tau, Central Asia, were obtained for some surface mass balance histories which can be considered as possible surface mass balances in the future. The ice cap modeling was performed by solving of steady state hydrodynamic equations in the case of low Reynolds number in the form of the mechanical equilibrium equation in terms of stress deviator components coupled with...

  13. The advantages of hydraulic packing extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Today's competitive environment, coupled with industry's desire to improve the efficiency of plant maintenance and operations, has management continually seeking ways to save time, money, and, at nuclear plants, radiation exposure. One area where a tremendous improvement in efficiency can be realized is valve packing removal. For example, industry experience indicates that up to 70% of the time it takes to repack a valve can be spent just removing the old packing. In some case, the bonnets of small valves are removed to facilitate packing removal and prevent stem and stuffing box damage that can occur when using packing removal picks. In other cases, small valves are simply removed and discarded because it costs less to replace the valves than to remove the packing using conventional methods. Hydraulic packing extraction greatly reduces packing removal time and will not damage the stem nor stuffing box, thus eliminating the need for bonnet removal or valve replacement. This paper will review some of the more common problems associated with manual packing extraction techniques. It will explain how hydraulic packing extraction eliminates or greatly reduces the impact of each of the problem areas. A discussion will be provided of some actual industry operating experiences related to success stories using hydraulic packing extraction. The paper will also briefly describe the operating parameters associated with hydraulic packing extraction tools. Throughout the paper, actual operating experiences from the nuclear power, fossil power, petrochemical, and refinery industries will be used to support the conclusion that hydraulic packing extraction is an alternative that can save time, money, and exposure

  14. Structured packing: an opportunity for energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavez T, R.H.; Guadarrama G, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    This work emphasizes the advantages about the use of structured packing. This type of packings allows by its geometry to reduce the processing time giving energy savings and throw down the production costs in several industries such as heavy water production plants, petrochemical industry and all industries involved with separation processes. There is a comparative results of energy consumption utilizing the structured vs. Raschig packings. (Author)

  15. Extreme Low Light Requirement for Algae Growth Underneath Sea Ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Lund-Hansen, Lars C.; Lamare, Maxim L.

    2018-01-01

    Microalgae colonizing the underside of sea ice in spring are a key component of the Arctic foodweb as they drive early primary production and transport of carbon from the atmosphere to the ocean interior. Onset of the spring bloom of ice algae is typically limited by the availability of light......, and the current consensus is that a few tens-of-centimeters of snow is enough to prevent sufficient solar radiation to reach underneath the sea ice. We challenge this consensus, and investigated the onset and the light requirement of an ice algae spring bloom, and the importance of snow optical properties...... for light penetration. Colonization by ice algae began in May under >1 m of first-year sea ice with approximate to 1 m thick snow cover on top, in NE Greenland. The initial growth of ice algae began at extremely low irradiance (...

  16. Knowledge-based sea ice classification by polarimetric SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Dierking, Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Polarimetric SAR images acquired at C- and L-band over sea ice in the Greenland Sea, Baltic Sea, and Beaufort Sea have been analysed with respect to their potential for ice type classification. The polarimetric data were gathered by the Danish EMISAR and the US AIRSAR which both are airborne...... systems. A hierarchical classification scheme was chosen for sea ice because our knowledge about magnitudes, variations, and dependences of sea ice signatures can be directly considered. The optimal sequence of classification rules and the rules themselves depend on the ice conditions/regimes. The use...... of the polarimetric phase information improves the classification only in the case of thin ice types but is not necessary for thicker ice (above about 30 cm thickness)...

  17. REGULARITIES OF CONGELATION ICE DEVELOPMENT IN SUBGLACIAL LAKE VOSTOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ya. Lipenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Petrographic studies performed on the continuous basis along the two ice cores obtained from holes 5G-1 and 5G-2 at Vostok Station has allowed to characterize with great details the evolution of the ice texture and fabric in the 232-m thick stratum of accreted ice formed from theLakeVostokwater. Conventionally the whole thickness of accreted ice is divided into two strata: lake ice 1 and lake ice 2. Lake ice 1 (3537–3618 m, formed in the sallow strait50 kmupstream of Vostok, is characterized by presence of disseminated mineral inclusions of Lake Vostok sediments, as well as of «water pockets» that represent frozen water inclusions trapped during the ice accretion. The latter constitute less than 1% of the total ice volume, their mean size is about0.5 cm. Gases trapped by «water pockets» during ice formation transform into crystalline inclusions of mixed gas hydrates. Accretion of lake ice 2 (3618–3769 m proceeds in the deep part of the lake at a very small rate that does not assume trapping of liquid water inclusions and gases.Both strata of accreted ice are formed by orthotropic crystal growth from pure water. The main tendency in the evolution of accreted ice texture is growth of the mean crystal size with depth as the lake ice becomes younger towards the ice-water interface. The high-amplitude variations of crystal size and orientation observed around this general trend are shown to be linked with temporal and spatial variability of the supercooled melt-water flux from the northern part of the lake towards the ice formation site. The presence of supercooled water at the crystallization front supports persistent preferable growth of ice crystals with sub-horizontally oriented c-axes. The lack of supercooled water in turn support persistent growth of ice crystals with vertical or inclined with respect to the crystallization front c-axis orientation. It means that each of these preferred fabric orientations could serve as an indicator of

  18. Ice volume distribution and implications on runoff projections in a glacierized catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gabbi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A dense network of helicopter-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR measurements was used to determine the ice-thickness distribution in the Mauvoisin region. The comprehensive set of ice-thickness measurements was combined with an ice-thickness estimation approach for an accurate determination of the bedrock. A total ice volume of 3.69 ± 0.31 km3 and a maximum ice thickness of 290 m were found. The ice-thickness values were then employed as input for a combined glacio-hydrological model forced by most recent regional climate scenarios. This model provided glacier evolution and runoff projections for the period 2010–2100. Runoff projections of the measured initial ice volume distribution show an increase in annual runoff of 4% in the next two decades, followed by a persistent runoff decrease until 2100. Finally, we checked the influence of the ice-thickness distribution on runoff projections. Our analyses revealed that reliable estimates of the ice volume are essential for modelling future glacier and runoff evolution. Wrong estimations of the total ice volume might even lead to deviations of the predicted general runoff trend.

  19. Icing conditions over Northern Eurasia in changing climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulygina, Olga N; Arzhanova, Natalia M; Groisman, Pavel Ya

    2015-01-01

    Icing conditions, particularly in combination with wind, affect greatly the operation of overhead communication and transmission lines causing serious failures, which result in tremendous economic damage. Icing formation is dangerous to agriculture, forestry, high seas fishery, for land and off coast man-made infrastructure. Quantitative icing characteristics such as weight, thickness, and duration are very important for the economy and human wellbeing when their maximum values exceed certain thresholds. Russian meteorological stations perform both visual and instrumental monitoring of icing deposits. Visual monitoring is ocular estimation of the type and intensity of icing and the date of ice appearance and disappearance. Instrumental monitoring is performed by ice accretion indicator that in addition to the type, intensity and duration of ice deposits reports also their weight and size. We used observations at 958 Russian stations for the period 1977–2013 to analyze changes in the ice formation frequency at individual meteorological stations and on the territory of quasi-homogeneous climatic regions in Russia. It was found that hoar frosts are observed in most parts of Russia, but icing only occurs in European Russia and the Far East. On the Arctic coast of Russia, this phenomenon can even be observed in summer months. Statistically significant decreasing trends in occurrence of icing and hoar frost events are found over most of Russia. An increasing trend in icing weights (IWs) was found in the Atlantic Arctic region in autumn. Statistically significant large negative trends in IWs were found in the Pacific Arctic in winter and spring. (letter)

  20. Coherent Surface Clutter Suppression Techniques with Topography Estimation for Multi-Phase-Center Radar Ice Sounding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ulrik; Dall, Jørgen; Kristensen, Steen Savstrup

    2012-01-01

    Radar ice sounding enables measurement of the thickness and internal structures of the large ice sheets on Earth. Surface clutter masking the signal of interest is a major obstacle in ice sounding. Algorithms for surface clutter suppression based on multi-phase-center radars are presented. These ...

  1. The effect of sea ice on the solar energy budget in the astmosphere-sea ice-ocean system: A model study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, Knut; Weeks, W. F.; Tsay, Si-Chee

    1994-01-01

    A coupled one-dimensional multilayer and multistream radiative transfer model has been developed and applied to the study of radiative interactions in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system. The consistent solution of the radiative transfer equation in this coupled system automatically takes into account the refraction and reflection at the air-ice interface and allows flexibility in choice of stream numbers. The solar radiation spectrum (0.25 micron-4.0 micron) is divided into 24 spectral bands to account adequately for gaseous absorption in the atmosphere. The effects of ice property changes, including salinity and density variations, as well as of melt ponds and snow cover variations over the ice on the solar energy distribution in the entire system have been studied quantitatively. The results show that for bare ice it is the scattering, determined by air bubbles and brine pockets, in just a few centimeters of the top layer of ice that plays the most important role in the solar energy absorption and partitioning in the entire system. Ice thickness is important to the energy distribution only when the ice is thin, while the absorption in the atmosphere is not sensitive to ice thickness exceeds about 70 cm. The presence of clouds moderates all the sensitivities of the absorptive amounts in each layer to the variations in the ice properties and ice thickness. Comparisons with observational spectral albedo values for two simple ice types are also presented.

  2. Arctic continental shelf morphology related to sea-ice zonation, Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimnitz, E.; Toimil, L.; Barnes, P.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat-1 and NOAA satellite imagery for the winter 1972-1973, and a variety of ice and sea-floor data were used to study sea-ice zonation and dynamics and their relation to bottom morphology and geology on the Beaufort Sea continental shelf of arctic Alaska. In early winter the location of the boundary between undeformed fast ice and westward-drifting pack ice of the Pacific Gyre is controlled by major coastal promontories. Pronounced linear pressure- and shear-ridges, as well as hummock fields, form along this boundary and are stabilized by grounding, generally between the 10- and 20-m isobaths. Slippage along this boundary occurs intermittently at or seaward of the grounded ridges, forming new grounded ridges in a widening zone, the stamukhi zone, which by late winter extends out to the 40-m isobath. Between intermittent events along the stamukhi zone, pack-ice drift and slippage is continuous along the shelf edge, at average rates of 3-10 km/day. Whether slippage occurs along the stamukhi zone or along the shelf edge, it is restricted to a zone several hundred meters wide, and ice seaward of the slip face moves at uniform rates without discernible drag effects. A causal relationship is seen between the spatial distribution of major ice-ridge systems and offshore shoals downdrift of major coastal promontories. The shoals appear to have migrated shoreward under the influence of ice up to 400 m in the last 25 years. The sea floor seaward of these shoals within the stamukhi zone shows high ice-gouge density, large incision depths, and a high degree of disruption of internal sedimentary structures. The concentration of large ice ridges and our sea floor data in the stamukhi zone indicate that much of the available marine energy is expended here, while the inner shelf and coast, where the relatively undeformed fast ice grows, are sheltered. There is evidence that anomalies in the overall arctic shelf profile are related to sea-ice zonation, ice dynamics, and bottom

  3. Ice Forces on Offshore Wind Power Plants. Descriptions of mechanisms and recommendations for dimensioning; Islaster paa vindkraftverk till havs. Beskrivning av mekanismer och rekommendationer foer dimensionering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergdahl, Lars [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept of Water Environment Transport

    2002-02-01

    Mechanisms for ice-loads on off-shore wind power plants are described, The ice-loads are due to thermal expansion, water level variations, drifting ice and ice-reefing. Ice accretion is briefly treated. Ice instance, ice thickness, ice retention time, water level variations and stream velocities in Swedish waters are compiled. The main text deals with recommendations for dimensioning wind power plants at sea. In the appendices, a thorough review of the physical and mechanical properties of ice is presented.

  4. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders

    2010-01-01

    glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...

  5. Structural experiments with ice (composite) shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belis, J.; Martens, K.; Van Lancker, B.; Pronk, A.; Zingoni, Alphose

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Ice can be a very suitable building material for temporary structures in a freezing environment. When water, mixed with small fibre reinforcements, is sprayed onto an inflatable membrane structure in suitable cold outdoor conditions, a thin shell is formed which increases thickness layer

  6. Investigations of the form and flow of ice sheets and glaciers using radio-echo sounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowdeswell, J A; Evans, S [Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1ER (United Kingdom)

    2004-10-01

    Radio-echo sounding (RES), utilizing a variety of radio frequencies, was developed to allow glaciologists to measure the thickness of ice sheets and glaciers. We review the nature of electromagnetic wave propagation in ice and snow, including the permittivity of ice, signal attenuation and volume scattering, along with reflection from rough and specular surfaces. The variety of instruments used in RES of polar ice sheets and temperate glaciers is discussed. The applications and insights that a knowledge of ice thickness, and the wider nature of the form and flow of ice sheets, provides are also considered. The thickest ice measured is 4.7 km in East Antarctica. The morphology of the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets, and many of the smaller ice caps and glaciers of the polar regions, has been investigated using RES. These findings are being used in three-dimensional numerical models of the response of the cryosphere to environmental change. In addition, the distribution and character of internal and basal reflectors within ice sheets contains information on, for example, ice-sheet layering and its chrono-stratigraphic significance, and has enabled the discovery and investigation of large lakes beneath the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Today, RES from ground-based and airborne platforms remains the most effective tool for measuring ice thickness and internal character.

  7. Sea Ice Summer Camp: Bringing Together Arctic Sea Ice Modelers and Observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perovich, D. K.; Holland, M. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic sea ice has undergone dramatic change and numerical models project this to continue for the foreseeable future. Understanding the mechanisms behind sea ice loss and its consequences for the larger Arctic and global systems is of critical importance if we are to anticipate and plan for the future. One impediment to progress is a disconnect between the observational and modeling communities. A sea ice summer camp was held in Barrow Alaska from 26 May to 1 June 2016 to overcome this impediment and better integrate the sea ice community. The 25 participants were a mix of modelers and observers from 13 different institutions at career stages from graduate student to senior scientist. The summer camp provided an accelerated program on sea ice observations and models and also fostered future collaborative interdisciplinary activities. Each morning was spent in the classroom with a daily lecture on an aspect of modeling or remote sensing followed by practical exercises. Topics included using models to assess sensitivity, to test hypotheses and to explore sources of uncertainty in future Arctic sea ice loss. The afternoons were spent on the ice making observations. There were four observational activities; albedo observations, ice thickness measurements, ice coring and physical properties, and ice morphology surveys. The last field day consisted of a grand challenge where the group formulated a hypothesis, developed an observational and modeling strategy to test the hypothesis, and then integrated the observations and model results. The impacts of changing sea ice are being felt today in Barrow Alaska. We opened a dialog with Barrow community members to further understand these changes. This included an evening discussion with two Barrow sea ice experts and a community presentation of our work in a public lecture at the Inupiat Heritage Center.

  8. Regional Changes in the Sea Ice Cover and Ice Production in the Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Josefino C.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal polynyas around the Antarctic continent have been regarded as sea ice factories because of high ice production rates in these regions. The observation of a positive trend in the extent of Antarctic sea ice during the satellite era has been intriguing in light of the observed rapid decline of the ice extent in the Arctic. The results of analysis of the time series of passive microwave data indicate large regional variability with the trends being strongly positive in the Ross Sea, strongly negative in the Bellingshausen/Amundsen Seas and close to zero in the other regions. The atmospheric circulation in the Antarctic is controlled mainly by the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and the marginal ice zone around the continent shows an alternating pattern of advance and retreat suggesting the presence of a propagating wave (called Antarctic Circumpolar Wave) around the circumpolar region. The results of analysis of the passive microwave data suggest that the positive trend in the Antarctic sea ice cover could be caused primarily by enhanced ice production in the Ross Sea that may be associated with more persistent and larger coastal polynyas in the region. Over the Ross Sea shelf, analysis of sea ice drift data from 1992 to 2008 yields a positive rate-of-increase in the net ice export of about 30,000 km2 per year. For a characteristic ice thickness of 0.6 m, this yields a volume transport of about 20 km3/year, which is almost identical, within error bars, to our estimate of the trend in ice production. In addition to the possibility of changes in SAM, modeling studies have also indicated that the ozone hole may have a role in that it causes the deepening of the lows in the western Antarctic region thereby causing strong winds to occur offthe Ross-ice shelf.

  9. Rate of ice accumulation during ice storms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feknous, N. [SNC-Lavalin, Montreal, PQ (Canada); Chouinard, L. [McGill Univ., Montreal, PQ (Canada); Sabourin, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The rate of glaze ice accumulation is the result of a complex process dependent on numerous meteorological and physical factors. The aim of this paper was to estimate the distribution rate of glaze ice accumulation on conductors in southern Quebec for use in the design of mechanical and electrical de-icing devices. The analysis was based on direct observations of ice accumulation collected on passive ice meters. The historical database of Hydro-Quebec, which contains observations at over 140 stations over period of 25 years, was used to compute accumulation rates. Data was processed so that each glaze ice event was numbered in a chronological sequence. Each event consisted of the time series of ice accumulations on each of the 8 cylinders of the ice meters, as well as on 5 of its surfaces. Observed rates were converted to represent the average ice on a 30 mm diameter conductor at 30 m above ground with a span of 300 m. Observations were corrected to account for the water content of the glaze ice as evidenced by the presence of icicles. Results indicated that despite significant spatial variations in the expected severity of ice storms as a function of location, the distribution function for rates of accumulation were fairly similar and could be assumed to be independent of location. It was concluded that the observations from several sites could be combined in order to obtain better estimates of the distribution of hourly rates of ice accumulation. However, the rates were highly variable. For de-icing strategies, it was suggested that average accumulation rates over 12 hour periods were preferable, and that analyses should be performed for other time intervals to account for the variability in ice accumulation rates over time. In addition, accumulation rates did not appear to be highly correlated with average wind speed for maximum hourly accumulation rates. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 10 figs.

  10. The color of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Peng; Leppäranta, Matti; Cheng, Bin; Li, Zhijun; Istomina, Larysa; Heygster, Georg

    2018-04-01

    Pond color, which creates the visual appearance of melt ponds on Arctic sea ice in summer, is quantitatively investigated using a two-stream radiative transfer model for ponded sea ice. The upwelling irradiance from the pond surface is determined and then its spectrum is transformed into RGB (red, green, blue) color space using a colorimetric method. The dependence of pond color on various factors such as water and ice properties and incident solar radiation is investigated. The results reveal that increasing underlying ice thickness Hi enhances both the green and blue intensities of pond color, whereas the red intensity is mostly sensitive to Hi for thin ice (Hi 1.5 m), similar to the behavior of melt-pond albedo. The distribution of the incident solar spectrum F0 with wavelength affects the pond color rather than its intensity. The pond color changes from dark blue to brighter blue with increasing scattering in ice, and the influence of absorption in ice on pond color is limited. The pond color reproduced by the model agrees with field observations for Arctic sea ice in summer, which supports the validity of this study. More importantly, the pond color has been confirmed to contain information about meltwater and underlying ice, and therefore it can be used as an index to retrieve Hi and Hp. Retrievals of Hi for thin ice (Hi measurements than retrievals for thick ice, but those of Hp are not good. The analysis of pond color is a new potential method to obtain thin ice thickness in summer, although more validation data and improvements to the radiative transfer model will be needed in future.

  11. Formation and ridging of flaw leads in the eastern Canadian Beaufort Sea. Special Session C06 on: “Physical, biological and biogeochemical processes associated with young thin ice types”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsenberg, S. J.

    2009-12-01

    Formation and ridging of flaw leads in the eastern Canadian Beaufort Sea. Simon Prinsenberg1 and Yves Graton2 1Bedford Inst. of Oceanography, Fisheries and Oceans Canada P.O. Box1006, Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, B2Y 4A2, Canada prinsenbergs@mar.dfo-mpo.gc.ca 2Inst. National de la Recherche Scientifique-Eau, INRS-ETE University of Quebec at Quebec City, Quebec yvesgratton@eteinrs.ca During the winter of 2008, the flaw lead south of Banks Island repeatedly opened and closed representing an elongated region where periodically the large ice growth stimulates the densification of the surface layer due to salt rejection and instigates a local circulation pattern that will affect the biological processes of the region. Helicopter-borne sensors were available to monitor the aftermath of one of the rapid closing of the flaw lead into extensive elongated rubble field using a Canadian Ice breaker, CCGS Amundsen, as a logistic base. After the wind reversed a new open flaw lead 20km wide restarting a new flaw lead formation cycle. Ice thickness and surface roughness data were collected from the rubble field and adjacent open flaw lead with an Electromagnetic-Laser system. The strong wind event of April 4-5 2009 generated a large linear 1.5km wide ice rubble field up to 8-10m thick when the 60cm thick, 18km wide flaw lead was crunched into land-fast by the 1.5m thick offshore pack ice. It is expected that during rapid ice growth in a flaw lead, salt rejection increase the density of the surface water layer producing a surface depression (Low) and cyclonic circulation. In contrast at depth, the extra surface dense water produces a high in the horizontal pressure field and anti-cyclonic circulation which remains after the rapid ice growth within the flaw lead stops. One of such remnants may have been observed during the CFL-IPY winter survey.

  12. The Sea-Ice Floe Size Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, H. L., III; Schweiger, A. J. B.; Zhang, J.; Steele, M.

    2017-12-01

    The size distribution of ice floes in the polar seas affects the dynamics and thermodynamics of the ice cover and its interaction with the ocean and atmosphere. Ice-ocean models are now beginning to include the floe size distribution (FSD) in their simulations. In order to characterize seasonal changes of the FSD and provide validation data for our ice-ocean model, we calculated the FSD in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas over two spring-summer-fall seasons (2013 and 2014) using more than 250 cloud-free visible-band scenes from the MODIS sensors on NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites, identifying nearly 250,000 ice floes between 2 and 30 km in diameter. We found that the FSD follows a power-law distribution at all locations, with a seasonally varying exponent that reflects floe break-up in spring, loss of smaller floes in summer, and the return of larger floes after fall freeze-up. We extended the results to floe sizes from 10 m to 2 km at selected time/space locations using more than 50 high-resolution radar and visible-band satellite images. Our analysis used more data and applied greater statistical rigor than any previous study of the FSD. The incorporation of the FSD into our ice-ocean model resulted in reduced sea-ice thickness, mainly in the marginal ice zone, which improved the simulation of sea-ice extent and yielded an earlier ice retreat. We also examined results from 17 previous studies of the FSD, most of which report power-law FSDs but with widely varying exponents. It is difficult to reconcile the range of results due to different study areas, seasons, and methods of analysis. We review the power-law representation of the FSD in these studies and discuss some mathematical details that are important to consider in any future analysis.

  13. Variability of scaling time series in the Arctic sea-ice drift dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Chmel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The motion of an individual ice floe in the Arctic Ocean was monitored at the Russian research station North Pole 35 established on the ice pack in 2008. The ice floe speed (V was found to be correlated with wind speed (v in main features, such as the positions of maxima and minima of V and v. However, the fine structure of the V-variation cannot be explained by the wind forcing alone. There were periods of time when the floe drift was affected by the interactions of ice floes between each other or by the periodical forcing due to either the Coriolis inertia effect or the tidal activity. These data were compared with the "waiting times" statistics that are the distributions of time intervals between subsequent, sufficiently strong changes in the kinetic energy of drifting ice floe. These distributions were measured in several time windows differing in the average wind speed and wind direction, and/or in the mechanical state of the ice pack. The distribution functions N (t>τ, where N is the number of successive events of energy change separated by the time interval t that exceeds τ, constructed in different time windows demonstrate fractal or a multifractal nature of the time series during motion in the consolidated ice pack but were truly random when the ice floe drifted in the highly fragmented sea ice. The latter result shows the existence of a relationship between the long-range mechanical interactions in the pack and long-term memory (time scaling behaviour of the sea-ice motion.

  14. Development of an effective valve packing program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, K.A.

    1996-12-01

    Current data now shows that graphite valve packing installed within the guidance of a controlled program produces not only reliable stem sealing but predictable running loads. By utilizing recent technological developments in valve performance monitoring for both MOV`s and AOV`s, valve packing performance can be enhanced while reducing maintenance costs. Once known, values are established for acceptable valve packing loads, the measurement of actual valve running loads via the current MOV/AOV diagnostic techniques can provide indication of future valve stem sealing problems, improper valve packing installation or identify the opportunity for valve packing program improvements. At times the full benefit of these advances in material and predictive technology remain under utilized due to simple past misconceptions associated with valve packing. This paper will explore the basis for these misconceptions, provide general insight into the current understanding of valve packing and demonstrate how with this new understanding and current valve diagnostic equipment the key aspects required to develop an effective, quality valve packing program fit together. The cost and operational benefits provided by this approach can be significant impact by the: elimination of periodic valve repacking, reduction of maintenance costs, benefits of leak-free valve operation, justification for reduced Post Maintenance Test Requirements, reduced radiation exposure, improved plant appearance.

  15. The general packed column : an analytical solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, J.L.W.

    2000-01-01

    The transient behaviour of a packed column is considered. The column, uniformly packed on a macroscopic scale, is multi-structured on the microscopic level: the solid phase consists of particles, which may differ in incidence, shape or size, and other relevant physical properties. Transport in the

  16. On contact numbers in random rod packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.; Luding, Stefan; Philipse, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Random packings of non-spherical granular particles are simulated by combining mechanical contraction and molecular dynamics, to determine contact numbers as a function of density. Particle shapes are varied from spheres to thin rods. The observed contact numbers (and packing densities) agree well

  17. 7 CFR 982.11 - Pack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... according to size, internal quality, and external appearance and condition of hazelnuts packed in accordance... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pack. 982.11 Section 982.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and...

  18. Does Post Septoplasty Nasal Packing Reduce Complications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Naghibzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issues in nasal surgery are to stabilize the nose in the good position after surgery and preserve the cartilages and bones in the favorable situation and reduce the risk of deviation recurrence. Also it is necessary to avoid the synechia formation, nasal valve narrowing, hematoma and bleeding. Due to the above mentioned problems and in order to solve and minimize them nasal packing, nasal splint and nasal mold have been advised. Patients for whom the nasal packing used may faced to some problems like naso-pulmonary reflex, intractable pain, sleep disorder, post operation infection and very dangerous complication like toxic shock syndrome. We have two groups of patients and three surgeons (one of the surgeons used post operative nasal packing in his patients and the two others surgeons did not.Complications and morbidities were compared in these two groups. Comparing the two groups showed that the rate of complication and morbidities between these two groups were same and the differences were not valuable, except the pain and discomfort post operatively and at the time of its removal. Nasal packing has several risks for the patients while its effects are not studied. Septoplasty can be safely performed without postoperative nasal packing. Nasal packing had no main findings that compensated its usage. Septal suture is one of the procedures that can be used as alternative method to nasal packing. Therefore the nasal packing after septoplasty should be reserved for the patients with increased risk of bleeding.

  19. Pressure melting and ice skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, S. C.

    1995-10-01

    Pressure melting cannot be responsible for the low friction of ice. The pressure needed to reach the melting temperature is above the compressive failure stress and, if it did occur, high squeeze losses would result in very thin films. Pure liquid water cannot coexist with ice much below -20 °C at any pressure and friction does not increase suddenly in that range. If frictional heating and pressure melting contribute equally, the length of the wetted contact could not exceed 15 μm at a speed of 5 m/s, which seems much too short. If pressure melting is the dominant process, the water films are less than 0.08 μm thick because of the high pressures.

  20. Seasonal variation of ice melting on varying layers of debris of Lirung Glacier, Langtang Valley, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Chand

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Glaciers in the Himalayan region are often covered by extensive debris cover in ablation areas, hence it is essential to assess the effect of debris on glacier ice melt. Seasonal melting of ice beneath different thicknesses of debris on Lirung Glacier in Langtang Valley, Nepal, was studied during three seasons of 2013–14. The melting rates of ice under 5 cm debris thickness are 3.52, 0.09, and 0.85 cm d−1 during the monsoon, winter and pre-monsoon season, respectively. Maximum melting is observed in dirty ice (0.3 cm debris thickness and the rate decreases with the increase of debris thickness. The energy balance calculations on dirty ice and at 40 cm debris thickness show that the main energy source of ablation is net radiation. The major finding from this study is that the maximum melting occurs during the monsoon season than rest of the seasons.

  1. Experimental Analysis of Sublimation Dynamics for Buried Glacier Ice in Beacon Valley, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenfeucht, S.; Dennis, D. P.; Marchant, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    The age of the oldest known buried ice in Beacon Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV) Antarctica is a topic of active debate due to its implications for the stability of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. Published age estimates range from as young as 300 ka to as old as 8.1 Ma. In the upland MDV, ablation occurs predominantly via sublimation. The relict ice in question (ancient ice from Taylor Glacier) lies buried beneath a thin ( 30-70 cm) layer of sublimation till, which forms as a lag deposit as underlying debris-rich ice sublimes. As the ice sublimates, the debris held within the ice accumulates slowly on the surface, creating a porous boundary between the buried-ice surface and the atmosphere, which in turn influences gas exchange between the ice and the atmosphere. Additionally, englacial debris adds several salt species that are ultimately concentrated on the ice surface. It is well documented the rate of ice sublimation varies as a function of overlying till thickness. However, the rate-limiting dynamics under varying environmental conditions, including the threshold thicknesses at which sublimation is strongly retarded, are not yet defined. To better understand the relationships between sublimation rate, till thickness, and long-term surface evolution, we build on previous studies by Lamp and Marchant (2017) and evaluate the role of till thickness as a control on ice loss in an environmental chamber capable of replicating the extreme cold desert conditions observed in the MDV. Previous work has shown that this relationship exhibits exponential decay behavior, with sublimation rate significantly dampened under less than 10 cm of till. In our experiments we pay particular attention to the effect of the first several cm of till in order to quantify the dynamics that govern the transition from bare ice to debris-covered ice. We also examine this transition for various forms of glacier ice, including ice with various salt species.

  2. A fiber-optic ice detection system for large-scale wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-gil; Sampath, Umesh; Kim, Hyunjin; Song, Minho

    2017-09-01

    Icing causes substantial problems in the integrity of large-scale wind turbines. In this work, a fiber-optic sensor system for detection of icing with an arrayed waveguide grating is presented. The sensor system detects Fresnel reflections from the ends of the fibers. The transition in Fresnel reflection due to icing gives peculiar intensity variations, which categorizes the ice, the water, and the air medium on the wind turbine blades. From the experimental results, with the proposed sensor system, the formation of icing conditions and thickness of ice were identified successfully in real time.

  3. Condensation in Nanoporous Packed Beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ally, Javed; Molla, Shahnawaz; Mostowfi, Farshid

    2016-05-10

    In materials with tiny, nanometer-scale pores, liquid condensation is shifted from the bulk saturation pressure observed at larger scales. This effect is called capillary condensation and can block pores, which has major consequences in hydrocarbon production, as well as in fuel cells, catalysis, and powder adhesion. In this study, high pressure nanofluidic condensation studies are performed using propane and carbon dioxide in a colloidal crystal packed bed. Direct visualization allows the extent of condensation to be observed, as well as inference of the pore geometry from Bragg diffraction. We show experimentally that capillary condensation depends on pore geometry and wettability because these factors determine the shape of the menisci that coalesce when pore filling occurs, contrary to the typical assumption that all pore structures can be modeled as cylindrical and perfectly wetting. We also observe capillary condensation at higher pressures than has been done previously, which is important because many applications involving this phenomenon occur well above atmospheric pressure, and there is little, if any, experimental validation of capillary condensation at such pressures, particularly with direct visualization.

  4. Hawking Colloquium Packed CERN Auditoriums

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Stephen Hawking's week long visit to CERN included an 'exceptional CERN colloquium' which filled six auditoriums. Stephen Hawking during his visit to the ATLAS experiment. Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Cambridge University, visited the Theory Unit of the Physics Department from 24 September to 1 October 2006. As part of his visit, he gave two lectures in the main auditorium - a theoretical seminar on 'The Semi-Classical Birth of The Universe', attended by about 120 specialists; and a colloquium titled 'The Origin of The Universe'. As a key public figure in theoretical physics, his presence was eagerly awaited on both occasions. Those who wanted to attend the colloquium had to arrive early and be equipped with plenty of patience. An hour before it was due to begin, the 400 capacity of the main auditorium was already full. The lecture, simultaneously broadcast to five other fully packed CERN auditoriums, was attended by an estimated total of 850. Stephen Hawking attracted a large CERN crowd, filling ...

  5. Hydrogeomorphic processes of thermokarst lakes with grounded-ice and floating-ice regimes on the Arctic coastal plain, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, C.D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Urban, F.E.; Grosse, G.

    2011-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes cover > 20% of the landscape throughout much of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) with shallow lakes freezing solid (grounded ice) and deeper lakes maintaining perennial liquid water (floating ice). Thus, lake depth relative to maximum ice thickness (1·5–2·0 m) represents an important threshold that impacts permafrost, aquatic habitat, and potentially geomorphic and hydrologic behaviour. We studied coupled hydrogeomorphic processes of 13 lakes representing a depth gradient across this threshold of maximum ice thickness by analysing remotely sensed, water quality, and climatic data over a 35-year period. Shoreline erosion rates due to permafrost degradation ranged from L) with periods of full and nearly dry basins. Shorter-term (2004–2008) specific conductance data indicated a drying pattern across lakes of all depths consistent with the long-term record for only shallow lakes. Our analysis suggests that grounded-ice lakes are ice-free on average 37 days longer than floating-ice lakes resulting in a longer period of evaporative loss and more frequent negative P − EL. These results suggest divergent hydrogeomorphic responses to a changing Arctic climate depending on the threshold created by water depth relative to maximum ice thickness in ACP lakes.

  6. Stochastic ice stream dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantelli, Elisa; Bertagni, Matteo Bernard; Ridolfi, Luca

    2016-08-09

    Ice streams are narrow corridors of fast-flowing ice that constitute the arterial drainage network of ice sheets. Therefore, changes in ice stream flow are key to understanding paleoclimate, sea level changes, and rapid disintegration of ice sheets during deglaciation. The dynamics of ice flow are tightly coupled to the climate system through atmospheric temperature and snow recharge, which are known exhibit stochastic variability. Here we focus on the interplay between stochastic climate forcing and ice stream temporal dynamics. Our work demonstrates that realistic climate fluctuations are able to (i) induce the coexistence of dynamic behaviors that would be incompatible in a purely deterministic system and (ii) drive ice stream flow away from the regime expected in a steady climate. We conclude that environmental noise appears to be crucial to interpreting the past behavior of ice sheets, as well as to predicting their future evolution.

  7. Sea Ice Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-01-01

    Polar sea ice is one of the largest ecosystems on Earth. The liquid brine fraction of the ice matrix is home to a diverse array of organisms, ranging from tiny archaea to larger fish and invertebrates. These organisms can tolerate high brine salinity and low temperature but do best when conditions are milder. Thriving ice algal communities, generally dominated by diatoms, live at the ice/water interface and in recently flooded surface and interior layers, especially during spring, when temperatures begin to rise. Although protists dominate the sea ice biomass, heterotrophic bacteria are also abundant. The sea ice ecosystem provides food for a host of animals, with crustaceans being the most conspicuous. Uneaten organic matter from the ice sinks through the water column and feeds benthic ecosystems. As sea ice extent declines, ice algae likely contribute a shrinking fraction of the total amount of organic matter produced in polar waters.

  8. Seasonal evolution of the Arctic marginal ice zone and its power-law obeying floe size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Stern, H. L., III; Schweiger, A. J. B.; Steele, M.; Hwang, P. B.

    2017-12-01

    A thickness, floe size, and enthalpy distribution (TFED) sea ice model, implemented numerically into the Pan-arctic Ice-Ocean Modeling and Assimilation System (PIOMAS), is used to investigate the seasonal evolution of the Arctic marginal ice zone (MIZ) and its floe size distribution. The TFED sea ice model, by coupling the Zhang et al. [2015] sea ice floe size distribution (FSD) theory with the Thorndike et al. [1975] ice thickness distribution (ITD) theory, simulates 12-category FSD and ITD explicitly and jointly. A range of ice thickness and floe size observations were used for model calibration and validation. The model creates FSDs that generally obey a power law or upper truncated power law, as observed by satellites and aerial surveys. In this study, we will examine the role of ice fragmentation and lateral melting in altering FSDs in the Arctic MIZ. We will also investigate how changes in FSD impact the seasonal evolution of the MIZ by modifying the thermodynamic processes.

  9. The effect of cool water pack preparation on vaccine vial temperatures in refrigerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwood, Geneva; Diesburg, Steven

    2018-01-02

    Cool water packs are a useful alternative to ice packs for preventing unintentional freezing of vaccines during outreach in some situations. Current guidelines recommend the use of a separate refrigerator for cooling water packs from ambient temperatures to prevent possible heat degradation of adjacent vaccine vials. To investigate whether this additional equipment is necessary, we measured the temperatures that vaccine vials were exposed to when warm water packs were placed next to vials in a refrigerator. We then calculated the effect of repeated vial exposure to those temperatures on vaccine vial monitor status to estimate the impact to the vaccine. Vials were tested in a variety of configurations, varying the number and locations of vials and water packs in the refrigerator. The calculated average percentage life lost during a month of repeated warming ranged from 20.0% to 30.3% for a category 2 (least stable) vaccine vial monitor and from 3.8% to 6.0% for a category 7 (moderate stability) vaccine vial monitor, compared to 17.0% for category 2 vaccine vial monitors and 3.1% for category 7 vaccine vial monitors at a constant 5 °C. The number of vials, number of water packs, and locations of each impacted vial warming and therefore percentage life lost, but the vaccine vial monitor category had a higher impact on the average percentage life lost than any of the other parameters. The results suggest that damage to vaccines from repeated warming over the course of a month is not certain and that cooling water packs in a refrigerator where vaccines are being stored may be a useful practice if safe procedures are established. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. A modified discrete element model for sea ice dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Baohui; LI Hai; LIU Yu; WANG Anliang; JI Shunying

    2014-01-01

    Considering the discontinuous characteristics of sea ice on various scales, a modified discrete element mod-el (DEM) for sea ice dynamics is developed based on the granular material rheology. In this modified DEM, a soft sea ice particle element is introduced as a self-adjustive particle size function. Each ice particle can be treated as an assembly of ice floes, with its concentration and thickness changing to variable sizes un-der the conservation of mass. In this model, the contact forces among ice particles are calculated using a viscous-elastic-plastic model, while the maximum shear forces are described with the Mohr-Coulomb fric-tion law. With this modified DEM, the ice flow dynamics is simulated under the drags of wind and current in a channel of various widths. The thicknesses, concentrations and velocities of ice particles are obtained, and then reasonable dynamic process is analyzed. The sea ice dynamic process is also simulated in a vortex wind field. Taking the influence of thermodynamics into account, this modified DEM will be improved in the future work.

  11. Ice Penetrating Radar Reveals Spatially Variable Features in Basal Channel under the Nansen Ice Shelf, Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, P. L.; Dow, C. F.; Mueller, D.; Lee, W. S.; Lindzey, L.; Greenbaum, J. S.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    The stability of Antarctic ice shelves is of great concern as their current thinning and future collapse will contribute to sea-level rise via the acceleration of grounded tributary glaciers into the ocean. The study of the sub-ice-shelf environment is essential for understanding ice-ocean interaction, where warming ocean temperatures have already begun to threaten the long-term viability of Antarctic ice shelves. Obtaining direct measurements of the sub-ice-shelf cavity remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that ground-based geophysical methods can deliver high resolution monitoring and mapping of the spatial and temporal changes in features, melt rates, and ice mass transport of this environment. In November 2016, 84 km of ground-based, low frequency, Ice Penetrating Radar (IPR) surveys were completed on three sites over the Nansen Ice Shelf in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. The surveys examined an ocean-sourced basal channel incised into the bottom of the shelf, originally detected from a large surface depression. Results reveal high resolution features of a several kilometre-wide, 100 m high channel, with 40 m high sub-channels, zones of significant marine ice accumulation, and basal crevasses penetrating large fractions of the ice shelf thickness. Data from multiple airborne geophysical surveys were compared to the November 2016 IPR data to calculate mass change both spatially and temporally. Many of the smaller scale features we detected are not represented through hydrostatic equilibrium as calculated from ice thicknesses, due to bridging stresses, and as such can not be detected with satellite based remote sensing methods. Our in-field geophysical methods produced high-resolution information of these features, which underscores the need for similar surveys over vulnerable ice shelves to better understand ice-ocean processes.

  12. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  13. Antartic sea ice, 1973 - 1976: Satellite passive-microwave observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwally, H. J.; Comiso, J. C.; Parkinson, C. L.; Campbell, W. J.; Carsey, F. D.; Gloersen, P.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the Electrically Scanning Microwave Radiometer (ESMR) on the Nimbus 5 satellite are used to determine the extent and distribution of Antarctic sea ice. The characteristics of the southern ocean, the mathematical formulas used to obtain quantitative sea ice concentrations, the general characteristics of the seasonal sea ice growth/decay cycle and regional differences, and the observed seasonal growth/decay cycle for individual years and interannual variations of the ice cover are discussed. The sea ice data from the ESMR are presented in the form of color-coded maps of the Antarctic and the southern oceans. The maps show brightness temperatures and concentrations of pack ice averaged for each month, 4-year monthly averages, and month-to-month changes. Graphs summarizing the results, such as areas of sea ice as a function of time in the various sectors of the southern ocean are included. The images demonstrate that satellite microwave data provide unique information on large-scale sea ice conditions for determining climatic conditions in polar regions and possible global climatic changes.

  14. On the nature of the sea ice albedo feedback in simple models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, W; Wettlaufer, J S

    2014-08-01

    We examine the nature of the ice-albedo feedback in a long-standing approach used in the dynamic-thermodynamic modeling of sea ice. The central issue examined is how the evolution of the ice area is treated when modeling a partial ice cover using a two-category-thickness scheme; thin sea ice and open water in one category and "thick" sea ice in the second. The problem with the scheme is that the area evolution is handled in a manner that violates the basic rules of calculus, which leads to a neglected area evolution term that is equivalent to neglecting a leading-order latent heat flux. We demonstrate the consequences by constructing energy balance models with a fractional ice cover and studying them under the influence of increased radiative forcing. It is shown that the neglected flux is particularly important in a decaying ice cover approaching the transitions to seasonal or ice-free conditions. Clearly, a mishandling of the evolution of the ice area has leading-order effects on the ice-albedo feedback. Accordingly, it may be of considerable importance to reexamine the relevant climate model schemes and to begin the process of converting them to fully resolve the sea ice thickness distribution in a manner such as remapping, which does not in principle suffer from the pathology we describe.

  15. Direct observations of atmosphere - sea ice - ocean interactions during Arctic winter and spring storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, R. M.; Itkin, P.; Granskog, M. A.; Assmy, P.; Cohen, L.; Duarte, P.; Doble, M. J.; Fransson, A.; Fer, I.; Fernandez Mendez, M.; Frey, M. M.; Gerland, S.; Haapala, J. J.; Hudson, S. R.; Liston, G. E.; Merkouriadi, I.; Meyer, A.; Muilwijk, M.; Peterson, A.; Provost, C.; Randelhoff, A.; Rösel, A.; Spreen, G.; Steen, H.; Smedsrud, L. H.; Sundfjord, A.

    2017-12-01

    To study the thinner and younger sea ice that now dominates the Arctic the Norwegian Young Sea ICE expedition (N-ICE2015) was launched in the ice-covered region north of Svalbard, from January to June 2015. During this time, eight local and remote storms affected the region and rare direct observations of the atmosphere, snow, ice and ocean were conducted. Six of these winter storms passed directly over the expedition and resulted in air temperatures rising from below -30oC to near 0oC, followed by abrupt cooling. Substantial snowfall prior to the campaign had already formed a snow pack of approximately 50 cm, to which the February storms contributed an additional 6 cm. The deep snow layer effectively isolated the ice cover and prevented bottom ice growth resulting in low brine fluxes. Peak wind speeds during winter storms exceeded 20 m/s, causing strong snow re-distribution, release of sea salt aerosol and sea ice deformation. The heavy snow load caused widespread negative freeboard; during sea ice deformation events, level ice floes were flooded by sea water, and at least 6-10 cm snow-ice layer was formed. Elevated deformation rates during the most powerful winter storms damaged the ice cover permanently such that the response to wind forcing increased by 60 %. As a result of a remote storm in April deformation processes opened about 4 % of the total area into leads with open water, while a similar amount of ice was deformed into pressure ridges. The strong winds also enhanced ocean mixing and increased ocean heat fluxes three-fold in the pycnocline from 4 to 12 W/m2. Ocean heat fluxes were extremely large (over 300 W/m2) during storms in regions where the warm Atlantic inflow is located close to surface over shallow topography. This resulted in very large (5-25 cm/day) bottom ice melt and in cases flooding due to heavy snow load. Storm events increased the carbon dioxide exchange between the atmosphere and ocean but also affected the pCO2 in surface waters

  16. Packing configuration performance for small stem diameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Spence, C.G.; Cumming, D.

    1997-01-01

    The extensive use of graphite packing and its excellent track record for large isolating valves in CANDU, Primary Heat Transfer (PHT) systems has resulted in an increased application of graphite packing on the conventional side. Many of these applications are in air operated valves (AOVs) where the packing sets are used on small stem diameters (<1 inch) with frequent short-cycling strokes (± 10% of full stroke). The direct application of the proven packing configurations for large isolated valves to control valve application has generated problems such as stiction, packing wear and, in isolated cases, stem stall. To address this issue, a test program was conducted at AECL, CRL by MED branch. The testing showed that by reconfiguring the packing sets and using PTFE wafers reductions in stem friction of 50% at ambient conditions, a 3 fold at hot conditions are achievable. The test program also demonstrated benefits gained in packing wear with different stem roughness finishes and the potential need to exercise small stems valves that see less than full stroke cycling. The paper describes the tests results and provides field support experience. (author)

  17. Significance of Thermal Fluvial Incision and Bedrock Transfer due to Ice Advection on Greenland Ice Sheet Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozier, J. A.; Karlstrom, L.; Yang, K.

    2017-12-01

    Ice sheet surface topography reflects a complicated combination of processes that act directly upon the surface and that are products of ice advection. Using recently-available high resolution ice velocity, imagery, ice surface elevation, and bedrock elevation data sets, we seek to determine the domain of significance of two important processes - thermal fluvial incision and transfer of bedrock topography through the ice sheet - on controlling surface topography in the ablation zone. Evaluating such controls is important for understanding how melting of the GIS surface during the melt season may be directly imprinted in topography through supraglacial drainage networks, and indirectly imprinted through its contribution to basal sliding that affects bedrock transfer. We use methods developed by (Karlstrom and Yang, 2016) to identify supraglacial stream networks on the GIS, and use high resolution surface digital elevation models as well as gridded ice velocity and melt rate models to quantify surface processes. We implement a numerically efficient Fourier domain bedrock transfer function (Gudmundsson, 2003) to predict surface topography due to ice advection over bedrock topography obtained from radar. Despite a number of simplifying assumptions, the bedrock transfer function predicts the observed ice sheet surface in most regions of the GIS with ˜90% accuracy, regardless of the presence or absence of supraglacial drainage networks. This supports the hypothesis that bedrock is the most significant driver of ice surface topography on wavelengths similar to ice thickness. Ice surface topographic asymmetry on the GIS is common, with slopes in the direction of ice flow steeper than those faced opposite to ice flow, consistent with bedrock transfer theory. At smaller wavelengths, topography consistent with fluvial erosion by surface hydrologic features is evident. We quantify the effect of ice advection versus fluvial thermal erosion on supraglacial longitudinal stream

  18. The Role of Sea Ice in 2 x CO2 Climate Model Sensitivity. Part 2; Hemispheric Dependencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, D.; Healy, R.; Parkinson, C.; Martinson, D.

    1997-01-01

    How sensitive are doubled CO2 simulations to GCM control-run sea ice thickness and extent? This issue is examined in a series of 10 control-run simulations with different sea ice and corresponding doubled CO2 simulations. Results show that with increased control-run sea ice coverage in the Southern Hemisphere, temperature sensitivity with climate change is enhanced, while there is little effect on temperature sensitivity of (reasonable) variations in control-run sea ice thickness. In the Northern Hemisphere the situation is reversed: sea ice thickness is the key parameter, while (reasonable) variations in control-run sea ice coverage are of less importance. In both cases, the quantity of sea ice that can be removed in the warmer climate is the determining factor. Overall, the Southern Hemisphere sea ice coverage change had a larger impact on global temperature, because Northern Hemisphere sea ice was sufficiently thick to limit its response to doubled CO2, and sea ice changes generally occurred at higher latitudes, reducing the sea ice-albedo feedback. In both these experiments and earlier ones in which sea ice was not allowed to change, the model displayed a sensitivity of -0.02 C global warming per percent change in Southern Hemisphere sea ice coverage.

  19. Hashish Body Packing: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jesus Soriano-Perez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A 42-year-old African male was brought by the police to the emergency department under suspicion of drug smuggling by body-packing. Plain abdominal radiograph showed multiple foreign bodies within the gastrointestinal tract. Contrast-enhanced abdominal CT confirmed the findings, and the patient admitted to have swallowed “balls” of hashish. Body-packing is a recognized method of smuggling drugs across international borders. Body packers may present to the emergency department because of drug toxicity, intestinal obstruction, or more commonly, requested by law-enforcement officers for medical confirmation or exclusion of suspected body packing.

  20. Improved Taxation Rate for Bin Packing Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Walter; Qiu, Xian

    A cooperative bin packing game is a N-person game, where the player set N consists of k bins of capacity 1 each and n items of sizes a 1, ⋯ ,a n . The value of a coalition of players is defined to be the maximum total size of items in the coalition that can be packed into the bins of the coalition. We present an alternative proof for the non-emptiness of the 1/3-core for all bin packing games and show how to improve this bound ɛ= 1/3 (slightly). We conjecture that the true best possible value is ɛ= 1/7.

  1. CryoSat: ESA's Ice Explorer Mission: status and achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrinello, Tommaso; Mardle, Nicola; Hoyos Ortega, Berta; Bouzinac, Catherine; Badessi, Stefano; Frommknecht, Bjorn; Davidson, Malcolm; Fornari, Marco; Cullen, Robert

    2013-04-01

    CryoSat-2 was launched on the 8th April 2010 and it is the first European ice mission dedicated to monitoring precise changes in the thickness of polar ice sheets and floating sea ice over a 3-year period. Cryosat-2 carries an innovative radar altimeter called the Synthetic Aperture Interferometric Altimeter (SIRAL) with two antennas and with extended capabilities to meet the measurement requirements for ice-sheets elevation and sea-ice freeboard. Experimental evidence have shown that data is of high quality thanks to an altimeter that is behaving exceptional well within its design specifications. In April 2012, the first winter [2010 -2011] sea-ice variation map of the Arctic was released to the scientific community. Scope of this paper is to describe the current mission status and the main scientific achievements in the last twelve months. Topics will also include programmatic highlights and information on accessing Cryosat products following the new ESA Earth Observation Data Policy.

  2. Fundamental Ice Crystal Accretion Physics Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Broeren, Andy P.; Tsao, Jen-Ching; Vargas, Mario; Wright, William B.; Currie, Tom; Knezevici, Danny; Fuleki, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Due to numerous engine power-loss events associated with high-altitude convective weather, ice accretion within an engine due to ice crystal ingestion is being investigated. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada are starting to examine the physical mechanisms of ice accretion on surfaces exposed to ice-crystal and mixed-phase conditions. In November 2010, two weeks of testing occurred at the NRC Research Altitude Facility utilizing a single wedge-type airfoil designed to facilitate fundamental studies while retaining critical features of a compressor stator blade or guide vane. The airfoil was placed in the NRC cascade wind tunnel for both aerodynamic and icing tests. Aerodynamic testing showed excellent agreement compared with CFD data on the icing pressure surface and allowed calculation of heat transfer coefficients at various airfoil locations. Icing tests were performed at Mach numbers of 0.2 to 0.3, total pressures from 93 to 45 kPa, and total temperatures from 5 to 15 C. Ice and liquid water contents ranged up to 20 and 3 g/m3, respectively. The ice appeared well adhered to the surface in the lowest pressure tests (45 kPa) and, in a particular case, showed continuous leading-edge ice growth to a thickness greater than 15 mm in 3 min. Such widespread deposits were not observed in the highest pressure tests, where the accretions were limited to a small area around the leading edge. The suction surface was typically ice-free in the tests at high pressure, but not at low pressure. The icing behavior at high and low pressure appeared to be correlated with the wet-bulb temperature, which was estimated to be above 0 C in tests at 93 kPa and below 0 C in tests at lower pressure, the latter enhanced by more evaporative cooling of water. The authors believe that the large ice accretions observed in the low pressure tests would undoubtedly cause the aerodynamic performance of a compressor component

  3. Northern Alaskan land surface response to reduced Arctic sea ice extent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, Matthew E. [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States); Cassano, John J. [University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2012-05-15

    With Arctic sea ice extent at near-record lows, an improved understanding of the relationship between sea ice and the land surface is warranted. We examine the land surface response to changing sea ice by first conducting a simulation using the Community Atmospheric Model version 3.1 with end of the twenty-first century sea ice extent. This future atmospheric response is then used to force the Weather and Research Forecasting Model version 3.1 to examine the terrestrial land surface response at high resolution over the North Slope of Alaska. Similar control simulations with twentieth century sea ice projections are also performed, and in both simulations only sea ice extent is altered. In the future sea ice extent experiment, atmospheric temperature increases significantly due to increases in latent and sensible heat flux, particularly in the winter season. Precipitation and snow pack increase significantly, and the increased snow pack contributes to warmer soil temperatures for most seasons by insulating the land surface. In the summer, however, soil temperatures are reduced due to increased albedo. Despite warmer near-surface atmospheric temperatures, it is found that spring melt is delayed throughout much of the North Slope due to the increased snow pack, and the growing season length is shortened. (orig.)

  4. A natural ice boom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, H.R. [Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, MB (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    Planning for ice jams and ice movements are critical on the Nelson River in northern Manitoba in designing cofferdams. Experience on the St. Lawrence River demonstrated the possibility of exercising some control over ice action by judicious placement of log booms or ice control structures. The success of experiments with man-made controls led to field tests in which an ice sheet of sufficient magnitude and competence was introduced into the open water stream of the Nelson River. The ice sheet was subsequently jammed in a narrow channel, thereby creating a natural ice bridge or boom upstream of a proposed hydro development. Under favourable conditions, this boom would initiate the progression of the ice cover from its location upstream, cutting off the downstream reach from the ice producing potential of the upstream reach. Although ice would still be generated downstream, the length of the reach between the ice boom and the development site would be short enough that ice jamming at the development site would never occur. Although problems in blasting prevented the introduction of a competent ice sheet into the main stream of the river at the location chosen, sufficient confidence in the theory was gained to warrant further consideration. 4 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  5. Comparing the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack treatments for knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarsan, Ayşe; Akkaya, Nuray; Ozgen, Merih; Yildiz, Necmettin; Atalay, Nilgun Simsir; Ardic, Fusun

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of mature mud pack and hot pack therapies on patients with knee osteoarthritis. This study was designed as a prospective, randomized-controlled, and single-blinded clinical trial. Twenty-seven patients with clinical and radiologic evidence of knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into two groups and were treated with mature mud packs (n 15) or hot packs (n=12). Patients were evaluated for pain [based on the visual analog scale (VAS)], function (WOMAC, 6 min walking distance), quality of life [Short Form-36 (SF-36)], and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) at baseline, post-treatment, and 3 and 6~months after treatment. The mud pack group shows a significant improvement in VAS, pain, stifness, and physical function domains of WOMAC. The difference between groups of pain and physical activity domains is significant at post-treatment in favor of mud pack. For a 6 min walking distance, mud pack shows significant improvement, and the difference is significant between groups in favor of mud pack at post-treatment and 3 and 6 months after treatment. Mud pack shows significant improvement in the pain subscale of SF-36 at the third month continuing until the sixth month after the treatment. Significant improvements are found for the social function, vitality/energy, physical role disability, and general health subscales of SF-36 in favor of the mud pack compared with the hot pack group at post-treatment. A significant increase is detected for IGF-1 in the mud pack group 3 months after treatment compared with the baseline, and the difference is significant between groups 3 months after the treatment. Mud pack is a favorable option compared with hotpack for pain relief and for the improvement of functional conditions in treating patients with knee osteoarthritis.

  6. From cyclic ice streaming to Heinrich-like events: the grow-and-surge instability in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Feldmann

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available >Here we report on a cyclic, physical ice-discharge instability in the Parallel Ice Sheet Model, simulating the flow of a three-dimensional, inherently buttressed ice-sheet-shelf system which periodically surges on a millennial timescale. The thermomechanically coupled model on 1 km horizontal resolution includes an enthalpy-based formulation of the thermodynamics, a nonlinear stress-balance-based sliding law and a very simple subglacial hydrology. The simulated unforced surging is characterized by rapid ice streaming through a bed trough, resulting in abrupt discharge of ice across the grounding line which is eventually calved into the ocean. We visualize the central feedbacks that dominate the subsequent phases of ice buildup, surge and stabilization which emerge from the interaction between ice dynamics, thermodynamics and the subglacial till layer. Results from the variation of surface mass balance and basal roughness suggest that ice sheets of medium thickness may be more susceptible to surging than relatively thin or thick ones for which the surge feedback loop is damped. We also investigate the influence of different basal sliding laws (ranging from purely plastic to nonlinear to linear on possible surging. The presented mechanisms underlying our simulations of self-maintained, periodic ice growth and destabilization may play a role in large-scale ice-sheet surging, such as the surging of the Laurentide Ice Sheet, which is associated with Heinrich events, and ice-stream shutdown and reactivation, such as observed in the Siple Coast region of West Antarctica.

  7. Forecast Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Forecast Icing Product (FIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The FIP algorithm uses...

  8. Current Icing Product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Current Icing Product (CIP) is an automatically-generated index suitable for depicting areas of potentially hazardous airframe icing. The CIP algorithm combines...

  9. Ocean Tide Influences on the Antarctic and Greenland Ice Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padman, Laurie; Siegfried, Matthew R.; Fricker, Helen A.

    2018-03-01

    Ocean tides are the main source of high-frequency variability in the vertical and horizontal motion of ice sheets near their marine margins. Floating ice shelves, which occupy about three quarters of the perimeter of Antarctica and the termini of four outlet glaciers in northern Greenland, rise and fall in synchrony with the ocean tide. Lateral motion of floating and grounded portions of ice sheets near their marine margins can also include a tidal component. These tide-induced signals provide insight into the processes by which the oceans can affect ice sheet mass balance and dynamics. In this review, we summarize in situ and satellite-based measurements of the tidal response of ice shelves and grounded ice, and spatial variability of ocean tide heights and currents around the ice sheets. We review sensitivity of tide heights and currents as ocean geometry responds to variations in sea level, ice shelf thickness, and ice sheet mass and extent. We then describe coupled ice-ocean models and analytical glacier models that quantify the effect of ocean tides on lower-frequency ice sheet mass loss and motion. We suggest new observations and model developments to improve the representation of tides in coupled models that are used to predict future ice sheet mass loss and the associated contribution to sea level change. The most critical need is for new data to improve maps of bathymetry, ice shelf draft, spatial variability of the drag coefficient at the ice-ocean interface, and higher-resolution models with improved representation of tidal energy sinks.

  10. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander; Hö binger, Mathias; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry. © 2009 ACM.

  11. Packing in Two and Three Dimensions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martins, Gustavo H

    2003-01-01

    ...), the Multidimensional Knapsack Problem (MD-KP), and the Multidimensional Bin Packing Problem (MD-BPP). In these problems, there is a set of items, with rectangular dimensions, and a set of large containers, or bins, also with rectangular dimensions...

  12. Prevention and suppression of metal packing fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Mark; Rogers, William J; Sam Mannan, M; Ostrowski, Scott W

    2003-11-14

    Structured packing has been widely used because of large surface area that makes possible columns with high capacity and efficiency. The large surface area also contributes to fire hazards because of hydrocarbon deposits that can easily combust and promote combustion of the thin metal packing materials. Materials of high surface area that can fuel fires include reactive metals, such as titanium, and materials that are not considered combustible, such as stainless steel. Column design and material selection for packing construction is discussed together with employee training and practices for safe column maintenance and operations. Presented also are methods and agents for suppression of metal fires. Guidance for prevention and suppression of metal fires is related to incidents involving packing fires in columns.

  13. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-12-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry.

  14. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces\\' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry. © 2009 ACM.

  15. Packing circles and spheres on surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Schiftner, Alexander; Hö binger, Mathias; Wallner, Johannes; Pottmann, Helmut

    2009-01-01

    Inspired by freeform designs in architecture which involve circles and spheres, we introduce a new kind of triangle mesh whose faces' incircles form a packing. As it turns out, such meshes have a rich geometry and allow us to cover surfaces with circle patterns, sphere packings, approximate circle packings, hexagonal meshes which carry a torsion-free support structure, hybrid tri-hex meshes, and others. We show how triangle meshes can be optimized so as to have the incircle packing property. We explain their relation to conformal geometry and implications on solvability of optimization. The examples we give confirm that this kind of meshes is a rich source of geometric structures relevant to architectural geometry.

  16. Sea Ice and Hydrographic Variability in the Northwest North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenty, I. G.; Heimbach, P.; Wunsch, C. I.

    2010-12-01

    Sea ice anomalies in the Northwest North Atlantic's Labrador Sea are of climatic interest because of known and hypothesized feedbacks with hydrographic anomalies, deep convection/mode water formation, and Northern Hemisphere atmospheric patterns. As greenhouse gas concentrations increase, hydrographic anomalies formed in the Arctic Ocean associated with warming will propagate into the Labrador Sea via the Fram Strait/West Greenland Current and the Canadian Archipelago/Baffin Island Current. Therefore, understanding the dynamical response of sea ice in the basin to hydrographic anomalies is essential for the prediction and interpretation of future high-latitude climate change. Historically, efforts to quantify the link between the observed sea ice and hydrographic variability in the region has been limited due to in situ observation paucity and technical challenges associated with synthesizing ocean and sea ice observations with numerical models. To elaborate the relationship between sea ice and ocean variability, we create three one-year (1992-1993, 1996-1997, 2003-2004) three-dimensional time-varying reconstructions of the ocean and sea ice state in Labrador Sea and Baffin Bay. The reconstructions are syntheses of a regional coupled 32 km ocean-sea ice model with a suite of contemporary in situ and satellite hydrographic and ice data using the adjoint method. The model and data are made consistent, in a least-squares sense, by iteratively adjusting several model control variables (e.g., ocean initial and lateral boundary conditions and the atmospheric state) to minimize an uncertainty-weighted model-data misfit cost function. The reconstructions reveal that the ice pack attains a state of quasi-equilibrium in mid-March (the annual sea ice maximum) in which the total ice-covered area reaches a steady state -ice production and dynamical divergence along the coasts balances dynamical convergence and melt along the pack’s seaward edge. Sea ice advected to the

  17. Multiscale Observation System for Sea Ice Drift and Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lensu, M.; Haapala, J. J.; Heiler, I.; Karvonen, J.; Suominen, M.

    2011-12-01

    combined with SAR images gives information on how large scale ice cover motions manifest as local scale deformations. The research includes also ice stress measurements for relating the kinematic state and modeled stresses to local scale ice cover stresses, and ice thickness mappings with profiling sonars and EM methods. Downscaling results based on four-month campaing during winter 2011 are presented.

  18. Arctic sea ice trends, variability and implications for seasonal ice forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serreze, Mark C; Stroeve, Julienne

    2015-07-13

    September Arctic sea ice extent over the period of satellite observations has a strong downward trend, accompanied by pronounced interannual variability with a detrended 1 year lag autocorrelation of essentially zero. We argue that through a combination of thinning and associated processes related to a warming climate (a stronger albedo feedback, a longer melt season, the lack of especially cold winters) the downward trend itself is steepening. The lack of autocorrelation manifests both the inherent large variability in summer atmospheric circulation patterns and that oceanic heat loss in winter acts as a negative (stabilizing) feedback, albeit insufficient to counter the steepening trend. These findings have implications for seasonal ice forecasting. In particular, while advances in observing sea ice thickness and assimilating thickness into coupled forecast systems have improved forecast skill, there remains an inherent limit to predictability owing to the largely chaotic nature of atmospheric variability. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Sputtering of water ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.; Schou, J.; Shi, M.; Bahr, D.A.; Atteberrry, C.L.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from the decay of H(2p) atoms sputtered by heavy ion impact, but not bulk ice luminescence. Radiolyzed ice does not sputter under 3.7 eV laser irradiation

  20. Barents Sea field test of herder to thicken oil for in-situ burning in drift ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buist, I.; Potter, S.; Sorstrom, S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Thick oil slicks are the key to effective in situ burning. Pack ice can enable in situ burning by keeping slicks thick. Oil spills in drift ice conditions can rapidly spread and become too thin to ignite. The application of chemical surface-active agents known as oil herders are commonly used in open waters to clean and contain oil slicks. Herders result in the formation of a monolayer of surfactants on the water surface and reduce the surface tension on the surrounding water considerably. When the surfactant monolayer reaches the edge of a thin oil slick, it changes the balance of interfacial forces acting on the slick edge and allows the interfacial tensions to contract the oil into thicker layers. This study examined the use of chemical herding agents to thicken oil spills in broken ice to allow them to be ignited and burned in situ. Two meso-scale field burn tests were conducted in May 2008 with crude oil slicks of about 0.1 and 0.7 m 3 in open drift ice off Svalbard in the Barents Sea. Prior to the field experiments, 2 series of small laboratory tests were conducted using Heidrun and Statfjord crudes to determine the ability of the U.S. Navy herding agent to contract slicks of the oil. In the first field experiment involving 102 litres of fresh Heidrun, the slick was unexpectedly carried by currents to a nearby ice edge where the oil was ignited and burned. Approximately 80 per cent of the oil was consumed in the burn. In the second field experiment involving 630 litres of fresh Heidrun, the free-drifting oil was allowed to spread for 15 minutes until it was much too thin to ignite. When the herding agent was applied, the slick contracted and thickened for about 10 minutes and was then ignited using a gelled gas igniter. A 9-minute long burn consumed about 90 per cent of the oil. 9 refs., 5 tabs., 34 figs.

  1. Random close packing in protein cores

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Jennifer C.; Smith, W. Wendell; Regan, Lynne; O'Hern, Corey S.

    2015-01-01

    Shortly after the determination of the first protein x-ray crystal structures, researchers analyzed their cores and reported packing fractions $\\phi \\approx 0.75$, a value that is similar to close packing equal-sized spheres. A limitation of these analyses was the use of `extended atom' models, rather than the more physically accurate `explicit hydrogen' model. The validity of using the explicit hydrogen model is proved by its ability to predict the side chain dihedral angle distributions obs...

  2. Granular packing as model glass formers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yujie

    2017-01-01

    Static granular packings are model hard-sphere glass formers. The nature of glass transition has remained a hotly debated issue. We review recent experimental progresses in using granular materials to study glass transitions. We focus on the growth of glass order with five-fold symmetry in granular packings and relate the findings to both geometric frustration and random first-order phase transition theories. (paper)

  3. Integrality gap analysis for bin packing games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, Walter; Qui, X.

    A cooperative bin packing game is an $N$-person game, where the player set $N$ consists of $k$ bins of capacity 1 each and $n$ items of sizes $a_1,\\dots,a_n$. The value $v(S)$ of a coalition $S$ of players is defined to be the maximum total size of items in $S$ that can be packed into the bins of

  4. Review of ice and snow runway pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg White

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica is the highest, driest, coldest, windiest, most remote and most pristine place on Earth. Polar operations depend heavily on air transportation and support for personnel and equipment. It follows that improvement in snow and ice runway design, construction and maintenance will directly benefit polar exploration and research. Current technologies and design methods for snow and ice runways remain largely reliant on work performed in the 1950s and 1960s. This paper reviews the design and construction of polar runways using snow and ice as geomaterials. The inability to change existing snow and ice thickness or temperature creates a challenge for polar runway design and construction, as does the highly complex mechanical behaviour of snow, including the phenomena known as sintering. It is recommended that a modern approach be developed for ice and snow runway design, based on conventional rigid and flexible pavement design principles. This requires the development on an analytical model for the prediction of snow strength, based on snow age, temperature history and density. It is also recommended that the feasibility of constructing a snow runway at the South Pole be revisited, in light of contemporary snow sintering methods. Such a runway would represent a revolutionary advance for the logistical support of Antarctic research efforts. Keywords: Runway, Pavement, Snow, Ice, Antarctic

  5. Channelization of plumes beneath ice shelves

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, M.  C.; Hewitt, I. J.; Wells, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We study a simplified model of ice-ocean interaction beneath a floating ice shelf, and investigate the possibility for channels to form in the ice shelf base due to spatial variations in conditions at the grounding line. The model combines an extensional thin-film description of viscous ice flow in the shelf, with melting at its base driven by a turbulent ocean plume. Small transverse perturbations to the one-dimensional steady state are considered, driven either by ice thickness or subglacial discharge variations across the grounding line. Either forcing leads to the growth of channels downstream, with melting driven by locally enhanced ocean velocities, and thus heat transfer. Narrow channels are smoothed out due to turbulent mixing in the ocean plume, leading to a preferred wavelength for channel growth. In the absence of perturbations at the grounding line, linear stability analysis suggests that the one-dimensional state is stable to initial perturbations, chiefly due to the background ice advection.

  6. Channelization of plumes beneath ice shelves

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, M. C.

    2015-11-11

    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We study a simplified model of ice-ocean interaction beneath a floating ice shelf, and investigate the possibility for channels to form in the ice shelf base due to spatial variations in conditions at the grounding line. The model combines an extensional thin-film description of viscous ice flow in the shelf, with melting at its base driven by a turbulent ocean plume. Small transverse perturbations to the one-dimensional steady state are considered, driven either by ice thickness or subglacial discharge variations across the grounding line. Either forcing leads to the growth of channels downstream, with melting driven by locally enhanced ocean velocities, and thus heat transfer. Narrow channels are smoothed out due to turbulent mixing in the ocean plume, leading to a preferred wavelength for channel growth. In the absence of perturbations at the grounding line, linear stability analysis suggests that the one-dimensional state is stable to initial perturbations, chiefly due to the background ice advection.

  7. Development of a leadership resource pack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    The pack contains notes and presentation material for OSD inspectors to help them prepare for health and safety discussions with senior managers. The successful application of the leadership resource pack depends on an inspector gaining familiarity with the contents of the pack. Flexibility and adaptability were considered crucial factors in developing the contents. The pack is not considered a substitute for an inspector's own experience, knowledge or substitute for prior research. The leadership resource pack is intended as a source of knowledge and good practice that demonstrates how positive leadership can drive a health and safety agenda alongside business considerations. The benefits of the leadership resource pack include: the creation of a flexible tool that inspectors can use to highlight key leadership messages in health and safety; the development of a seven-stage model for characterising senior management commitment; practical examples of how leadership in health and safety management was felt throughout nine organisations; ideas for devising an aide memoire for specific discussions with senior managers. (author)

  8. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Mori, M.N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O.

    2007-01-01

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases

  9. Decontamination of pesticide packing using ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, C.L. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: clduarte@ipen.br; Mori, M.N.; Kodama, Yasko; Oikawa, H.; Sampa, M.H.O. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares-IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Lineu Prestes 2.242, 05508-900, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2007-11-15

    The Brazilian agriculture activities have consumed about 288,000 tons of pesticides per year conditioned in about 107,000,000 packing with weight of approximately 23,000 tons. The discharge of empty plastic packing of pesticides can be an environmental concern causing problems to human health, animals, and plants if done without inspection and monitoring. The objective of this work is to study the ionizing radiation effect in the main pesticides used in Brazil for plastic packing decontamination. Among the commercial pesticides, chlorpyrifos has significant importance because of its wide distribution and extensive use and persistence. The radiation-induced degradation of chlorpyrifos in liquid samples and in polyethylene pack was studied by gamma radiolysis. Packing of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) three layer coextruded, named COEX, contaminated with chlorpyrifos, were irradiated using both a multipurpose Co-60 gamma irradiator and a gamma source with 5000 Ci total activity Gamma cell type. The chemical analysis of the chlorpyrifos was made using a gas chromatography associated to the Mass Spectrometry-GCMS from Shimadzu Model QP 5000. Gamma radiation was efficient for removing chlorpyrifos from the plastic packing, in all studied cases.

  10. Hardfacing and packings for improved valve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aikin, J.A.; Patrick, J.N.F.; Inglis, I.

    2003-01-01

    The CANDU Owners Group (COG), Chemistry, Materials and Components (CMC) Program has supported an ongoing program on valve maintenance and performance for several years. An overview is presented of recent work on iron-based hardfacing, packing qualification, friction testing of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) packings, and an investigation of re-torquing valve packing. Based on this program, two new valve-packing materials have been qualified for use in CANDU stations. By doing this, CANDU maintenance can avoid having only one packing qualified for station use, as well as assess the potential impact of the industry trend towards using lower gland loads. The results from corrosion tests by AECL and the coefficient of friction studies at Battelle' s tribology testing facilities on Delcrome 910, an iron-based hardfacing alloy, indicate it is an acceptable replacement for Stellite 6 under certain conditions. This information can be used to update in-line valve purchasing specifications. The renewed interest in friction characteristics, and environmental qualification (EQ) of packing containing PTFE has resulted in a new test program in these areas. The COG-funded valve programs have resulted in modifications to design specifications for nuclear station in-line valves and have led to better maintenance practices and valve reliability. In the end, this means lower costs and cheaper electricity. (author)

  11. Bidispersed Sphere Packing on Spherical Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Timothy; Mascioli, Andrew; Burke, Christopher

    Packing problems on spherical surfaces have a long history, originating in the classic Thompson problem of finding the ground state configuration of charges on a sphere. Such packings contain a minimal number of defects needed to accommodate the curvature; this is predictable using the Gauss-Bonnet theorem from knowledge of the topology of the surface and the local symmetry of the ordering. Famously, the packing of spherical particles on a sphere contains a 'scar' transition, where additional defects over those required by topology appear above a certain critical number of particles and self-organize into chains or scars. In this work, we study the packing of bidispersed packings on a sphere, and hence determine the interaction of bidispersity and curvature. The resultant configurations are nearly crystalline for low values of bidispersity and retain scar-like structures; these rapidly become disordered for intermediate values and approach a so-called Appollonian limit at the point where smaller particles can be entirely accommodated within the voids left by the larger particles. We connect our results with studies of bidispersed packings in the bulk and on flat surfaces from the literature on glassy systems and jamming. Supported by a Cottrell Award from the Research Corporation for Science Advancement.

  12. Design, fabrication, and testing of an ultrasonic de-icing system for helicopter rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Jose Luis

    A low-power, non-thermal ultrasonic de-icing system is introduced as a possible substitute for current electro-thermal systems. The system generates delaminating ultrasonic transverse shear stresses at the interface of accreted ice. A PZT-4 disk driven at 28.5 KHz (radial resonance of the disk) instantaneously de-bonds 2 mm thick freezer ice layers. The ice layers are accreted to a 0.7 mm thick, 30.4 cm x 30.4 cm steel plate at an environment temperature of -20°C. A power input of 50 Watts is applied to the actuator (50 V, 19.6 KV/m), which translates to a de-icing power of 0.07 W/cm2. A finite element model of the actuator bonded to the isotropic plate is used to guide the design of the system, and predicts the transverse shear stresses at the ice interface. Wind tunnel icing tests were conducted to demonstrate the potential use of the proposed system under impact icing conditions. Both glaze ice and rime ice were generated on steel and composite plates by changing the cloud conditions of the wind tunnel. Continuous ultrasonic vibration prevented impact ice formation around the actuator location at an input power not exceeding 0.18 W/cm 2 (1.2 W/in2). As ice thickness reached a critical thickness of approximately 1.2 mm, shedding occurred on those locations where ultrasonic transverse shear stresses exceeded the shear adhesion strength of the ice. Finite element transverse shear stress predictions correlate with observed experimental impact ice de-bonding behavior. To increase the traveling distance of propagating ultrasonic waves, ultrasonic shear horizontal wave modes are studied. Wave modes providing large modal interface transverse shear stress concentration coefficients (ISCC) between the host structure (0.7 mm thick steel plate) and accreted ice (2.5 mm thick ice layer) are identified and investigated for a potential increase in the wave propagation distance. Ultrasonic actuators able to trigger these optimum wave modes are designed and fabricated. Despite

  13. Calibration of sea ice dynamic parameters in an ocean-sea ice model using an ensemble Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massonnet, F.; Goosse, H.; Fichefet, T.; Counillon, F.

    2014-07-01

    The choice of parameter values is crucial in the course of sea ice model development, since parameters largely affect the modeled mean sea ice state. Manual tuning of parameters will soon become impractical, as sea ice models will likely include more parameters to calibrate, leading to an exponential increase of the number of possible combinations to test. Objective and automatic methods for parameter calibration are thus progressively called on to replace the traditional heuristic, "trial-and-error" recipes. Here a method for calibration of parameters based on the ensemble Kalman filter is implemented, tested and validated in the ocean-sea ice model NEMO-LIM3. Three dynamic parameters are calibrated: the ice strength parameter P*, the ocean-sea ice drag parameter Cw, and the atmosphere-sea ice drag parameter Ca. In twin, perfect-model experiments, the default parameter values are retrieved within 1 year of simulation. Using 2007-2012 real sea ice drift data, the calibration of the ice strength parameter P* and the oceanic drag parameter Cw improves clearly the Arctic sea ice drift properties. It is found that the estimation of the atmospheric drag Ca is not necessary if P* and Cw are already estimated. The large reduction in the sea ice speed bias with calibrated parameters comes with a slight overestimation of the winter sea ice areal export through Fram Strait and a slight improvement in the sea ice thickness distribution. Overall, the estimation of parameters with the ensemble Kalman filter represents an encouraging alternative to manual tuning for ocean-sea ice models.

  14. Pan-Arctic sea ice-algal chl a biomass and suitable habitat are largely underestimated for multiyear ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Benjamin A; Flores, Hauke; Michel, Christine; Beckers, Justin F; Bublitz, Anne; Casey, John Alec; Castellani, Giulia; Hatam, Ido; Reppchen, Anke; Rudolph, Svenja A; Haas, Christian

    2017-11-01

    There is mounting evidence that multiyear ice (MYI) is a unique component of the Arctic Ocean and may play a more important ecological role than previously assumed. This study improves our understanding of the potential of MYI as a suitable habitat for sea ice algae on a pan-Arctic scale. We sampled sea ice cores from MYI and first-year sea ice (FYI) within the Lincoln Sea during four consecutive spring seasons. This included four MYI hummocks with a mean chl a biomass of 2.0 mg/m 2 , a value significantly higher than FYI and MYI refrozen ponds. Our results support the hypothesis that MYI hummocks can host substantial ice-algal biomass and represent a reliable ice-algal habitat due to the (quasi-) permanent low-snow surface of these features. We identified an ice-algal habitat threshold value for calculated light transmittance of 0.014%. Ice classes and coverage of suitable ice-algal habitat were determined from snow and ice surveys. These ice classes and associated coverage of suitable habitat were applied to pan-Arctic CryoSat-2 snow and ice thickness data products. This habitat classification accounted for the variability of the snow and ice properties and showed an areal coverage of suitable ice-algal habitat within the MYI-covered region of 0.54 million km 2 (8.5% of total ice area). This is 27 times greater than the areal coverage of 0.02 million km 2 (0.3% of total ice area) determined using the conventional block-model classification, which assigns single-parameter values to each grid cell and does not account for subgrid cell variability. This emphasizes the importance of accounting for variable snow and ice conditions in all sea ice studies. Furthermore, our results indicate the loss of MYI will also mean the loss of reliable ice-algal habitat during spring when food is sparse and many organisms depend on ice-algae. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Summer sea ice characteristics and morphology in the Pacific Arctic sector as observed during the CHINARE 2010 cruise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xie

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of 2010, atmosphere–ice–ocean interaction was studied aboard the icebreaker R/V Xuelong during the Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition (CHINARE, in the sea ice zone of the Pacific Arctic sector between 150° W and 180° W up to 88.5° N. The expedition lasted from 21 July to 28 August and comprised of ice observations and measurements along the cruise track, 8 short-term stations and one 12-day drift station. Ship-based observations of ice thickness and concentration are compared with ice thickness measured by an electromagnetic induction device (EM31 mounted off the ship's side and ice concentrations obtained from AMSR-E. It is found that the modal thickness from ship-based visual observations matches well with the modal thickness from the mounted EM31. A grid of 8 profiles of ice thickness measurements (four repeats was conducted at the 12-day drift station in the central Arctic (~ 86°50´ N–87°20´ N and an average melt rate of 2 cm day−1, primarily bottom melt, was found. As compared with the 2005 data from the Healy/Oden Trans-Arctic Expedition (HOTRAX for the same sector but ~ 20 days later (9 August to 10 September, the summer 2010 was first-year ice dominant (vs. the multi-year ice dominant in 2005, 70% or less in mean ice concentration (vs. 90% in 2005, and 94–114 cm in mean ice thickness (vs. 150 cm in 2005. Those changes suggest the continuation of ice thinning, less concentration, and younger ice for the summer sea ice in the sector since 2007 when a record minimum sea ice extent was observed. Overall, the measurements provide a valuable dataset of sea ice morphological properties over the Arctic Pacific Sector in summer 2010 and can be used as a benchmark for measurements of future changes.

  16. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  17. Evidence of unfrozen liquids and seismic anisotropy at the base of the polar ice sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittlinger, Gérard; Farra, Véronique

    2015-03-01

    We analyze seismic data from broadband stations located on the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets to determine polar ice seismic velocities. P-to-S converted waves at the ice/rock interface and inside the ice sheets and their multiples (the P-receiver functions) are used to estimate in-situ P-wave velocity (Vp) and P-to-S velocity ratio (Vp/Vs) of polar ice. We find that the polar ice sheets have a two-layer structure; an upper layer of variable thickness (about 2/3 of the total thickness) with seismic velocities close to the standard ice values, and a lower layer of approximately constant thickness with standard Vp but ∼25% smaller Vs. The lower layer ceiling corresponds approximately to the -30 °C isotherm. Synthetic modeling of P-receiver functions shows that strong seismic anisotropy and low vertical S velocity are needed in the lower layer. The seismic anisotropy results from the preferred orientation of ice crystal c-axes toward the vertical. The low vertical S velocity may be due to the presence of unfrozen liquids resulting from premelting at grain joints and/or melting of chemical solutions buried in the ice. The strongly preferred ice crystal orientation fabric and the unfrozen fluids may facilitate polar ice sheet basal flow.

  18. ICESat Observations of Arctic Sea Ice: A First Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ron; Zwally, H. Jay; Yi, Donghui

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of near-coincident ICESat and RADARSAT imagery shows that the retrieved elevations from the laser altimeter are sensitive to new openings (containing thin ice or open water) in the sea ice cover as well as to surface relief of old and first-year ice. The precision of the elevation estimates, measured over relatively flat sea ice, is approx. 2 cm. Using the thickness of thin-ice in recent openings to estimate sea level references, we obtain the sea-ice freeboard along the altimeter tracks. This step is necessitated by the large uncertainties in the sea surface topography compared to that required for accurate determination of freeboard. Unknown snow depth introduces the largest uncertainty in the conversion of freeboard to ice thickness. Surface roughness is also derived, for the first time, from the variability of successive elevation estimates along the altimeter track. Overall, these ICESat measurements provide an unprecedented view of the Arctic Ocean ice cover at length scales at and above the spatial dimension of the altimeter footprint of approx. 70 m.

  19. Quantifying the ice-albedo feedback through decoupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, B.; Rasch, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The ice-albedo feedback involves numerous individual components, whereby warming induces sea ice melt, inducing reduced surface albedo, inducing increased surface shortwave absorption, causing further warming. Here we attempt to quantify the sea ice albedo feedback using an analogue of the "partial radiative perturbation" method, but where the governing mechanisms are directly decoupled in a climate model. As an example, we can isolate the insulating effects of sea ice on surface energy and moisture fluxes by allowing sea ice thickness to change but fixing Arctic surface albedo, or vice versa. Here we present results from such idealized simulations using the Community Earth System Model in which individual components are successively fixed, effectively decoupling the ice-albedo feedback loop. We isolate the different components of this feedback, including temperature change, sea ice extent/thickness, and air-sea exchange of heat and moisture. We explore the interactions between these different components, as well as the strengths of the total feedback in the decoupled feedback loop, to quantify contributions from individual pieces. We also quantify the non-additivity of the effects of the components as a means of investigating the dominant sources of nonlinearity in the ice-albedo feedback.

  20. Helicopter Icing Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    helicopter (i.e. in an icing tunnel or engine test cell ) and therefore can be subjected to controlled icing where spe- cific problems can be safely...evaluation. 69 2.2.5.2 Ice Protection Systems Demonstration Many of the systems noted in 2.2.5.1 can be evaluated in icing test cells or icing wind tunnels...Figure 2-32 illustrates a typical rotor deice system control arrangement. 104 (N >4 A.dO INaH -E- C4) uo U En 9 E-1 H m I ~z O 04 04iH U 0 El4 E-f C E

  1. Western Ross Sea and McMurdo Sound Ice Forecasting Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    areal ice distribution and follow the sane historical proqression of pack disintergration . This technique assumes that environmental conditions...30-day) are based on historical ice data which cxnbine averaae disintergration rates as well as averace wind and current drift. Iong-range wind...original 2 to 3 okta area and its new cnfiguration remains the same, the products of ocnoentrations and widths at the verifying time must equal the

  2. Type-Dependent Responses of Ice Cloud Properties to Aerosols From Satellite Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Gu, Yu; Liou, Kuo-Nan; Wang, Yuan; Liu, Xiaohong; Huang, Lei; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Su, Hui

    2018-04-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions represent one of the largest uncertainties in external forcings on our climate system. Compared with liquid clouds, the observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice clouds is much more limited and shows conflicting results, partly because the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types were seldom considered. Using 9-year satellite retrievals, we find that, for convection-generated (anvil) ice clouds, cloud optical thickness, cloud thickness, and cloud fraction increase with small-to-moderate aerosol loadings (types provide valuable constraints on the modeling assessment of aerosol-ice cloud radiative forcing.

  3. Ice slurry applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kauffeld, M. [Karlsruhe University of Applied Sciences, Moltkestr. 30, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Wang, M.J.; Goldstein, V. [Sunwell Technologies Inc., 180 Caster Avenue, Woodbridge, L4L 5Y (Canada); Kasza, K.E. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2010-12-15

    The role of secondary refrigerants is expected to grow as the focus on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions increases. The effectiveness of secondary refrigerants can be improved when phase changing media are introduced in place of single-phase media. Operating at temperatures below the freezing point of water, ice slurry facilitates several efficiency improvements such as reductions in pumping energy consumption as well as lowering the required temperature difference in heat exchangers due to the beneficial thermo-physical properties of ice slurry. Research has shown that ice slurry can be engineered to have ideal ice particle characteristics so that it can be easily stored in tanks without agglomeration and then be extractable for pumping at very high ice fraction without plugging. In addition ice slurry can be used in many direct contact food and medical protective cooling applications. This paper provides an overview of the latest developments in ice slurry technology. (author)

  4. Hot corrosion of pack cementation aluminized carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, A.F.; Mohamed, K.E.; Abd El-Azim, M.E.; Soliman, H.M.

    1998-01-01

    Low carbon steel was aluminized by the pack cementation technique at various aluminizing temperatures and times in or der to have different aluminide coatings. The aluminized specimens were sprayed at the beginning of the hot corrosion experiments with Na C 1+Na 2 SO 4 solution. The hot corrosion tests were carried out by thermal cycling at 850 degree C in air. The results were evaluated by, corrosion kinetics based on weight change measurements, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. It was found that the maximum corrosion resistance to this corrosive environment is achieved by aluminizing at 900 degree C for 19 h or 950 degree C for >4 h. These aliminizing conditions lead to formation of thick aluminide coatings with sufficient aluminium concentration (>15 wt%) at their outer surface necessary for continuous formation of protective Al 2 O 3 scale. The tested materials are used in protection of some components used in electric power stations (conventional or nuclear)

  5. Education and "Thick" Epistemology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotzee, Ben

    2011-01-01

    In this essay Ben Kotzee addresses the implications of Bernard Williams's distinction between "thick" and "thin" concepts in ethics for epistemology and for education. Kotzee holds that, as in the case of ethics, one may distinguish between "thick" and "thin" concepts of epistemology and, further, that this distinction points to the importance of…

  6. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  7. Autonomous Aerial Ice Observation for Ice Defense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joakim Haugen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the tasks in ice defense is to gather information about the surrounding ice environment using various sensor platforms. In this manuscript we identify two monitoring tasks known in literature, namely dynamic coverage and target tracking, and motivate how these tasks are relevant in ice defense using RPAS. An optimization-based path planning concept is outlined for solving these tasks. A path planner for the target tracking problem is elaborated in more detail and a hybrid experiment, which consists of both a real fixed-wing aircraft and simulated objects, is included to show the applicability of the proposed framework.

  8. Constraints on martian lobate debris apron evolution and rheology from numerical modeling of ice flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Reid A.; Nimmo, Francis; Miyamoto, Hideaki

    2011-07-01

    Radar observations in the Deuteronilus Mensae region by Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have constrained the thickness and dust concentration found within mid-latitude ice deposits, providing an opportunity to more accurately estimate the rheology of ice responsible for the formation of lobate debris aprons based on their apparent age of ˜100 Myr. We developed a numerical model simulating ice flow under martian conditions using results from ice deformation experiments, theory of ice grain growth based on terrestrial ice cores, and observational constraints from radar profiles and laser altimetry. By varying the ice grain size, the ice temperature, the subsurface slope, and the initial ice volume we determine the combination of parameters that best reproduce the observed LDA lengths and thicknesses over a period of time comparable to the apparent ages of LDA surfaces (90-300 Myr). We find that an ice temperature of 205 K, an ice grain size of 5 mm, and a flat subsurface slope give reasonable ages for many LDAs in the northern mid-latitudes of Mars. Assuming that the ice grain size is limited by the grain boundary pinning effect of incorporated dust, these results limit the dust volume concentration to less than 4%. However, assuming all LDAs were emplaced by a single event, we find that there is no single combination of grain size, temperature, and subsurface slope which can give realistic ages for all LDAs, suggesting that some or all of these variables are spatially heterogeneous. Based on our model we conclude that the majority of northern mid-latitude LDAs are composed of clean (⩽4 vol%), coarse (⩾1 mm) grained ice, but regional differences in either the amount of dust mixed in with the ice, or in the presence of a basal slope below the LDA ice must be invoked. Alternatively, the ice temperature and/or timing of ice deposition may vary significantly between different mid-latitude regions. Either eventuality can be tested with future observations.

  9. The Heat Flux through the Ice Shell on Europa, Constraints from Measurements in Terrestrial Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruba, J.; Kletetschka, G.

    2017-12-01

    Heat transport across the ice shell of Europa controls the thermal evolution of its interior. Such process involves energy sources that drive ice resurfacing (1). More importantly, heat flux through the ice shell controls the thickness of the ice (2), that is poorly constrained between 1 km to 30+ km (3). Thin ice would allow ocean water to be affected by radiation from space. Thick ice would limit the heat ocean sources available to the rock-ocean interface at the ocean's bottom due to tidal dissipation and potential radioactive sources. The heat flux structures control the development of geometrical configurations on the Europa's surface like double ridges, ice diapirs, chaos regions because the rheology of ice is temperature dependent (4).Analysis of temperature record of growing ice cover over a pond and water below revealed the importance of solar radiation during the ice growth. If there is no snow cover, a sufficient amount of solar radiation can penetrate through the ice and heat the water below. Due to temperature gradient, there is a heat flux from the water to the ice (Qwi), which may reduce ice growth at the bottom. Details and variables that constrain the heat flux through the ice can be utilized to estimate the ice thickness. We show with this analog analysis provides the forth step towards measurement strategy on the surface of Europa. We identify three types of thermal profiles (5) and fourth with combination of all three mechanisms.References:(1) Barr, A. C., A. P. Showman, 2009, Heat transfer in Europa's icy shell, University of Arizona Press, p. 405-430.(2) Ruiz, J., J. A. Alvarez-Gómez, R. Tejero, and N. Sánchez, 2007, Heat flow and thickness of a convective ice shell on Europa for grain size-dependent rheologies: Icarus, v. 190, p. 145-154.(3) Billings, S. E., S. A. Kattenhorn, 2005, The great thickness debate: Ice shell thickness models for Europa and comparisons with estimates based on flexure at ridges: Icarus, v. 177, p. 397-412.(4) Quick

  10. Observations of sea-ice conditions in the Antarctic coastal region using ship-board video cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhito Shimoda

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available During the 30th, 31st, and 32nd Japanese Antarctic Research Expeditions (JARE-30,JARE-31,and JARE-32, sea-ice conditions were recorded by video camera on board the SHIRASE. Then, the sea-ice images were used to estimate compactness and thickness quantitatively. Analyzed legs are those toward Breid Bay and from Breid Bay to Syowa Station during JARE-30 and JARE-31,and those toward the Prince Olav Coast, from the Prince Olav Coast to Breid Bay, and from Breid Bay to Syowa Station during JARE-32. The results show yearly variations of ice compactness and thickness, latitudinal variations of thickness, and differences in thickness histograms between JARE-30 and JARE-32 in Lutzow-Holm Bay. Albedo values were measured simultaneously by a shortwave radiometer. These values are proportional to those of ice compactness. Finally, we examined the relationship between ice compactness and vertical gradient of air temperature above sea ice.

  11. Experimental study of bolted connections using light gauge channel sections and packing plates at the joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ravindra B.; Vaghe, Vishal M.

    2014-12-01

    Cold-formed structural members are being used more widely in routine structural design as the world steel industry moves from the production of hot-rolled section and plate to coil and strip, often with galvanized and/or painted coatings. Steel in this form is more easily delivered from the steel mill to the manufacturing plant where it is usually cold-rolled into open and closed section members. In the present experimental study, the use of packing plate at the joints in cold-formed channel sections may increase the load carrying capacity and also reduce the buckling of unconnected cold form channel steel plate at joints. The present study focuses on examining the experimental investigation to use mild steel as a packing plate with cold-formed channel sections by bolted connection at the joints and the connection subjected to axial tension. Series of tests are carried out with increase in the thickness of packing plate and results are observed and analyzed. Total Twelve experimental tests have been carried out on cold-formed channel tension members fastened with single as well as three numbers of bolts at the connection and from the observations the strength of the joint is increased by increasing the various thicknesses of packing plates and also the buckling of unconnected leg of channel specimen is reduced. It is analyzed by plotting the entire load versus elongation path, so that the behavior of the connection is examined.

  12. A Harmonic Algorithm for the 3D Strip Packing Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Bansal (Nikhil); X. Han; K. Iwama; M. Sviridenko; G. Zhang (Guochuan)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractIn the three-dimensional (3D) strip packing problem, we are given a set of 3D rectangular items and a 3D box $B$. The goal is to pack all the items in $B$ such that the height of the packing is minimized. We consider the most basic version of the problem, where the items must be packed

  13. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  14. Polynyas and Ice Production Evolution in the Ross Sea (PIPERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackley, S. F.

    2017-12-01

    One focus of the PIPERS cruise into the Ross Sea ice cover during April-June 2017 was the Terra Nova Bay (TNB) polynya where joint measurements of air-ice-ocean wave interaction were conducted over twelve days. In Terra Nova Bay, measurements were made in three katabatic wind events each with sustained winds over 35 ms-1 and air temperatures below -15C. Near shore, intense wave fields with wave amplitudes of over 2m and 7-9 sec periods built and large amounts of frazil ice crystals grew. The frazil ice gathered initially into short and narrow plumes that eventually were added laterally to create longer and wider streaks or bands. Breaking waves within these wider streaks were dampened which appeared to enhance the development of pancake ice. Eventually, the open water areas between the streaks sealed off, developing a complete ice cover of 100 percent concentration (80-90 percent pancakes, 20-10 percent frazil) over a wide front (30km). The pancakes continued to grow in diameter and thickness as waves alternately contracted and expanded the ice cover, with the thicker larger floes further diminishing the wave field and lateral motion between pancakes until the initial pancake ice growth ceased. The equilibrium thickness of the ice was 20-30cm in the pancake ice. While the waves had died off however, katabatic wind velocities were sustained and resulted in a wide area of concentrated, rafted, pancake ice that was rapidly advected downstream until the end of the katabatic event. High resolution TerraSar-X radar satellite imagery showed the length of the ice area produced in one single event extended over 300km or ten times the length of the open water area during one polynya event. The TNB polynya is therefore an "ice factory" where frazil ice is manufactured into pancake ice floes that are then pushed out of the assembly area and advected, rafted (and occasionally piled up into "dragon skin" ice), until the katabatic wind dies off at the coastal source.

  15. Coalescence preference in dense packing of bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeseul; Gim, Bopil; Gim, Bopil; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-11-01

    Coalescence preference is the tendency that a merged bubble from the contact of two original bubbles (parent) tends to be near to the bigger parent. Here, we show that the coalescence preference can be blocked by densely packing of neighbor bubbles. We use high-speed high-resolution X-ray microscopy to clearly visualize individual coalescence phenomenon which occurs in micro scale seconds and inside dense packing of microbubbles with a local packing fraction of ~40%. Previous theory and experimental evidence predict a power of -5 between the relative coalescence position and the parent size. However, our new observation for coalescence preference in densely packed microbubbles shows a different power of -2. We believe that this result may be important to understand coalescence dynamics in dense packing of soft matter. This work (NRF-2013R1A22A04008115) was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant funded by the MEST and also was supported by Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2009-0082580) and by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry and Education, Science and Technology (NRF-2012R1A6A3A04039257).

  16. Direct contact condensation in packed beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi; Klausner, James F.; Mei, Renwei; Knight, Jessica [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    A diffusion driven desalination process was recently described where a very effective direct contact condenser with a packed bed is used to condense water vapor out of an air/vapor mixture. A laboratory scale direct contact condenser has been fabricated as a twin tower structure with two stages, co-current and countercurrent. Experiments have been operated in each stage with respective saturated air inlet temperatures of 36, 40 and 43{sup o}C. The temperature and humidity data have been collected at the inlet and exit of the packed bed for different water to air mass flow ratios that vary between 0 and 2.5. A one-dimensional model based on conservation principles has been developed, which predicts the variation of temperature, humidity, and condensation rate through the condenser stages. Agreement between the model and experiments is very good. It is observed that the countercurrent flow stage condensation effectiveness is significantly higher than that for the co-current stage. The condensation heat and mass transfer rates were found to decrease when water blockages occur within the packed bed. Using high-speed digital cinematography, it was observed that this problem can occur at any operating condition, and is dependent on the packing surface wetting characteristics. This observation is used to explain the requirement for two different empirical constants, depending on packing diameter, suggested by Onda for the air side mass transfer coefficient correlation. (author)

  17. Ground ice conditions in Salluit, Northern Quebec

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, M.; Fortier, R.; Calmels, F.; Gagnon, O.; L'Hérault, E.

    2011-12-01

    Salluit in Northern Québec (ca. 1300 inhabitants) faces difficult ground ice conditions for its development. The village is located in a U-shaped valley, along a fjord that was deglaciated around 8000 cal BP. The post-glacial marine limit is at the current elevation of 150 m ASL. Among the mapped surficial geology units, three contain particularly ice-rich permafrost: marine clays, till and silty colluviums. A diamond drill was used to extract 10 permafrost cores down to 23 m deep. In addition, 18 shallow cores (to 5 m deep) were extracted with a portable drill. All the frozen cores were shipped to Québec city where ground ice contents were measured and cryostructures were imaged by CT-Scanning. Water contents, grain-size and pore water salinity were measured. Refraction seismic profiles were run to measure the depth to bedrock. GPR and electrical resistivity surveys helped to map ice-rich areas. Three cone penetration tests (CPT) were run in the frozen clays to depths ranging from 8 to 21 m. Maximum clay thickness is ca. 50 m deep near the shoreline. The cone penetration tests and all the cores in clays revealed large amounts of both segregated and aggradational ice (volumetric contents up to 93% over thicknesses of one meter) to depths varying between 2.5 and 4 m, below which the ice content decreases and the salinity increases (values measured up to 42 gr/L between 4.5 and 6 m deep). Chunks of organic matter buried below the actual active layer base indicate past cryoturbations under a somewhat warmer climate, most probably associated with intense frost boil action, as widely observed today. The stony till has developed large quantities of segregation ice which can be seen in larger concentrations and as thicker lenses under boulders and in matrix rich (≥ 50% sand and silt) parts of the glacial sediment. As digging for a sewage pond was undertaken in winter 2008 by blasting, the clast-influenced cryostructure of the till could be observed in cuts and in

  18. Monitoring Bedfast Ice and Ice Phenology in Lakes of the Lena River Delta Using TerraSAR-X Backscatter and Coherence Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Antonova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Thermokarst lakes and ponds are major elements of permafrost landscapes, occupying up to 40% of the land area in some Arctic regions. Shallow lakes freeze to the bed, thus preventing permafrost thaw underneath them and limiting the length of the period with greenhouse gas production in the unfrozen lake sediments. Radar remote sensing permits to distinguish lakes with bedfast ice due to the difference in backscatter intensities from bedfast and floating ice. This study investigates the potential of a unique time series of three-year repeat-pass TerraSAR-X (TSX imagery with high temporal (11 days and spatial (10 m resolution for monitoring bedfast ice as well as ice phenology of lakes in the zone of continuous permafrost in the Lena River Delta, Siberia. TSX backscatter intensity is shown to be an excellent tool for monitoring floating versus bedfast lake ice as well as ice phenology. TSX-derived timing of ice grounding and the ice growth model CLIMo are used to retrieve the ice thicknesses of the bedfast ice at points where in situ ice thickness measurements were available. Comparison shows good agreement in the year of field measurements. Additionally, for the first time, an 11-day sequential interferometric coherence time series is analyzed as a supplementary approach for the bedfast ice monitoring. The coherence time series detects most of the ice grounding as well as spring snow/ice melt onset. Overall, the results show the great value of TSX time series for monitoring Arctic lake ice and provide a basis for various applications: for instance, derivation of shallow lakes bathymetry, evaluation of winter water resources and locating fish winter habitat as well as estimation of taliks extent in permafrost.

  19. Removable cruciform for ice condenser ice basket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrabis, C.M.; Mazza, G.E.; Golick, L.R.; Pomaibo, P.

    1987-01-01

    A removable cruciform for use in an ice basket having a generally cylindrical sidewall defining a central, vertical axis of the ice basket and plural, generally annular retaining rings secured to the interior of the cylindrical sidewall of the ice basket at predetermined, spaced elevations throughout the axial height of the ice basket is described comprising: a pair of brackets, each comprising a central, base portion having parallel longitudinal edges and a pair of integral legs extending at corresponding angles relative to the base portion from the perspective parallel longitudinal edges thereof; a pair of support plate assemblies secured to and extending in parallel, spaced relationship from one of the pair of brackets; a pair of slide support plates secured to the other of the pair of brackets and extending therefrom in spaced, parallel relationship; and spring means received within the housing and engaging the base portions of the brackets and applying a resilient biasing force thereto for maintaining the spaced relationship thereof

  20. Ice cream structure modification by ice-binding proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleda, Aleksei; Tsanev, Robert; Klesment, Tiina; Vilu, Raivo; Laos, Katrin

    2018-04-25

    Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), also known as antifreeze proteins, were added to ice cream to investigate their effect on structure and texture. Ice recrystallization inhibition was assessed in the ice cream mixes using a novel accelerated microscope assay and the ice cream microstructure was studied using an ice crystal dispersion method. It was found that adding recombinantly produced fish type III IBPs at a concentration 3 mg·L -1 made ice cream hard and crystalline with improved shape preservation during melting. Ice creams made with IBPs (both from winter rye, and type III IBP) had aggregates of ice crystals that entrapped pockets of the ice cream mixture in a rigid network. Larger individual ice crystals and no entrapment in control ice creams was observed. Based on these results a model of ice crystals aggregates formation in the presence of IBPs was proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Under the sea ice: Exploring the relationship between sea ice and the foraging behaviour of southern elephant seals in East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrousse, Sara; Sallée, Jean-Baptiste; Fraser, Alexander D.; Massom, Robert A.; Reid, Phillip; Sumner, Michael; Guinet, Christophe; Harcourt, Robert; McMahon, Clive; Bailleul, Frédéric; Hindell, Mark A.; Charrassin, Jean-Benoit

    2017-08-01

    Investigating ecological relationships between predators and their environment is essential to understand the response of marine ecosystems to climate variability and change. This is particularly true in polar regions, where sea ice (a sensitive climate variable) plays a crucial yet highly dynamic and variable role in how it influences the whole marine ecosystem, from phytoplankton to top predators. For mesopredators such as seals, sea ice both supports a rich (under-ice) food resource, access to which depends on local to regional coverage and conditions. Here, we investigate sex-specific relationships between the foraging strategies of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in winter and spatio-temporal variability in sea ice concentration (SIC) and coverage in East Antarctica. We satellite-tracked 46 individuals undertaking post-moult trips in winter from Kerguelen Islands to the peri-Antarctic shelf between 2004 and 2014. These data indicate distinct general patterns of sea ice usage: while females tended to follow the sea ice edge as it extended northward, the males remained on the continental shelf despite increasing sea ice. Seal hunting time, a proxy of foraging activity inferred from the diving behaviour, was longer for females in late autumn in the outer part of the pack ice, ∼150-370 km south of the ice edge. Within persistent regions of compact sea ice, females had a longer foraging activity (i) in the highest sea ice concentration at their position, but (ii) their foraging activity was longer when there were more patches of low concentration sea ice around their position (either in time or in space; 30 days & 50 km). The high spatio-temporal variability of sea ice around female positions is probably a key factor allowing them to exploit these concentrated patches. Despite lack of information on prey availability, females may exploit mesopelagic finfishes and squids that concentrate near the ice-water interface or within the water column (from

  2. A bibliographic review of mathematical models of packed-bed biological reactors (PBR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisy Corredor

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Several authors have sublected packed-bed biological reactors to mathematical and theoretical analysis. They have taken reaction kinetics and single-dimensional, homogeneous, pseudo-homogeneous and heterogeneous models into account. Numerical methods have provided the set of equations so developed. The effect of physically important process variables in terms of design and operation have been investigated (i.e. residence time, operating- flow, substrate conversion, bio-film area and film thickness.

  3. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF ICE ACCRETION ON AIRFOIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicusor ALEXANDRESCU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This work consists in the simulation of the ice accretion in the leading edge of aerodynamic profiles and our proposed model encompasses: geometry generation, calculation of the potential flow around the body, boundary layer thickness computation, water droplet trajectory computation, heat and mass balances and the consequent modification of the geometry by the ice growth. The flow calculation is realized with panel methods, using only segments defined over the body contour. The viscous effects are considered using the Karman-Pohlhausen method for the laminar boundary layer. The local heat transfer coefficient is obtained by applying the Smith-Spalding method for the thermal boundary layer. The ice accretion limits and the collection efficiency are determined by computing water droplet trajectories impinging the surface. The heat transfer process is analyzed with an energy and a mass balance in each segment defining the body. Finally, the geometry is modified by the addition of the computed ice thickness to the respective panel. The process by repeating all the steps. The model validation is done using a selection of problems with experimental solution, CIRA (the CESAR project. Hereinafter, results are obtained for different aerodynamic profiles, angles of attack and meteorological parameters

  4. Late Quaternary glaciation history of northernmost Greenland - Evidence of shelf-based ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Funder, Svend Visby

    2010-01-01

    We present the mapping of glacial landforms and sediments from northernmost Greenland bordering 100 km of the Arctic Ocean coast. One of the most important discoveries is that glacial landforms, sediments, including till fabric measurements, striae and stoss-lee boulders suggest eastward ice......-flow along the coastal plain. Volcanic erratic boulders document ice-transport from 80 to 100 km west of the study area. We argue that these findings are best explained by local outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet and local ice caps that merged to form a shelf-based ice in the Arctic Ocean...... and possibly confirming an extensive ice shelf in the Lincoln Sea between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. It is speculated that the shelf-based ice was largely affected by the presence of thick multiyear sea ice in the Arctic Ocean that prevented it from breaking up and forced the outlet glaciers to flow...

  5. Reducing uncertainty in high-resolution sea ice models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Kara J.; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston

    2013-07-01

    Arctic sea ice is an important component of the global climate system, reflecting a significant amount of solar radiation, insulating the ocean from the atmosphere and influencing ocean circulation by modifying the salinity of the upper ocean. The thickness and extent of Arctic sea ice have shown a significant decline in recent decades with implications for global climate as well as regional geopolitics. Increasing interest in exploration as well as climate feedback effects make predictive mathematical modeling of sea ice a task of tremendous practical import. Satellite data obtained over the last few decades have provided a wealth of information on sea ice motion and deformation. The data clearly show that ice deformation is focused along narrow linear features and this type of deformation is not well-represented in existing models. To improve sea ice dynamics we have incorporated an anisotropic rheology into the Los Alamos National Laboratory global sea ice model, CICE. Sensitivity analyses were performed using the Design Analysis Kit for Optimization and Terascale Applications (DAKOTA) to determine the impact of material parameters on sea ice response functions. Two material strength parameters that exhibited the most significant impact on responses were further analyzed to evaluate their influence on quantitative comparisons between model output and data. The sensitivity analysis along with ten year model runs indicate that while the anisotropic rheology provides some benefit in velocity predictions, additional improvements are required to make this material model a viable alternative for global sea ice simulations.

  6. Airborne geophysics for mesoscale observations of polar sea ice in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, S.; Haas, C.; Krumpen, T.; Eicken, H.; Mahoney, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Sea ice thickness is an important geophysical parameter with a significant impact on various processes of the polar energy balance. It is classified as Essential Climate Variable (ECV), however the direct observations of the large ice-covered oceans are limited due to the harsh environmental conditions and logistical constraints. Sea-ice thickness retrieval by the means of satellite remote sensing is an active field of research, but current observational capabilities are not able to capture the small scale variability of sea ice thickness and its evolution in the presence of surface melt. We present an airborne observation system based on a towed electromagnetic induction sensor that delivers long range measurements of sea ice thickness for a wide range of sea ice conditions. The purpose-built sensor equipment can be utilized from helicopters and polar research aircraft in multi-role science missions. While airborne EM induction sounding is used in sea ice research for decades, the future challenge is the development of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platform that meet the requirements for low-level EM sea ice surveys in terms of range and altitude of operations. The use of UAV's could enable repeated sea ice surveys during the the polar night, when manned operations are too dangerous and the observational data base is presently very sparse.

  7. Generalized network improvement and packing problems

    CERN Document Server

    Holzhauser, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Michael Holzhauser discusses generalizations of well-known network flow and packing problems by additional or modified side constraints. By exploiting the inherent connection between the two problem classes, the author investigates the complexity and approximability of several novel network flow and packing problems and presents combinatorial solution and approximation algorithms. Contents Fractional Packing and Parametric Search Frameworks Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Continuous Case Budget-Constrained Minimum Cost Flows: The Discrete Case Generalized Processing Networks Convex Generalized Flows Target Groups Researchers and students in the fields of mathematics, computer science, and economics Practitioners in operations research and logistics The Author Dr. Michael Holzhauser studied computer science at the University of Kaiserslautern and is now a research fellow in the Optimization Research Group at the Department of Mathematics of the University of Kaiserslautern.

  8. A Legacy for IPY: The Global Snowflake Network (GSN) Together With Art and Ice, and Music and Ice; Unique new Features for Science Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    thermochrons, snow pit observations, and snowflake identification protocols into her Ph.D. dissertation on snow changes, and reindeer pastures in Northern Norway. SCIENTISTS DISCOVER - ARTISTS INTERPRET - TOGETHER WE CAN OPEN THE EYES OF THE WORLD. This theme of the "Polar Artists "can be reached from the web search. Water ice is one of the most widespread, intriguing, and familiar compounds on the planet, in the solar system, and beyond. On the planet, it falls as snow, forms lacy deposits on winter windows, creates skating surfaces on lakes, gracefully drapes rock cliffs, packs thickly on the polar oceans, and lays even thicker on the ice caps blanketing Greenland and Antarctica. Of the 11 forms of water ice so far identified, only the form found on Earth can provide a "Frizion". Communicating this is part of Polar Artists outreach. We are working with Terje Isungset, from Norway, who creates musical instruments from ice. We will demonstrate how ART and Ice and Music and Ice are presented. In addition to video presentations appearing on YOUTUBE, we are preparing additional live performances of this work.

  9. Snow and ice blocking of tunnels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lia, Leif

    1998-12-31

    Hydroelectric power development in cold regions causes much concern about operational reliability and dam safety. This thesis studies the temperature distribution in tunnels by means of air temperature measurements in six tunnel spillways and five diversion tunnels. The measurements lasted for two consecutive winters. The air through flow tunnel is used as it causes cooling of both rock and water. In open spillway tunnels, frost reaches the entire tunnel. In spillway tunnels with walls, the frost zones reach about 100 m from the downstream end. In mildly-inclined diversion tunnels, a frost free zone is located in the middle of the tunnel and snow and ice problems were only observed in the inlet and outlet. Severe aufeis is accumulation is observed in the frost zones. The heat transfer from rock to air, water and ice is calculated and used in a prediction model for the calculation of aufeis build-up together with local field observation data. The water penetration of snow plugs is also calculated, based on the heat balance. It takes 20 to 50 days for water to enter the blocked tunnel. The empirical values are 30 to 60 days, but only 1 day if the temperature of the snow pack is 0{sup o}C. Sensitivity analyses are carried out for temperature variations in rock, snow, water and ice. Systematic field observation shows that it is important for hydropower companies to know about the effects of snow and ice blocking in an area. A risk analysis of dam safety is presented for a real case. Finally, the thesis proposes solutions which can reduce the snow and ice problems. 79 refs., 63 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of high packing density powder X-ray screens by Monte Carlo methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaparinos, P.; Kandarakis, I.; Cavouras, D.; Kalivas, N.; Delis, H.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Phosphor materials are employed in intensifying screens of both digital and conventional X-ray imaging detectors. High packing density powder screens have been developed (e.g. screens in ceramic form) exhibiting high-resolution and light emission properties, and thus contributing to improved image transfer characteristics and higher radiation to light conversion efficiency. For the present study, a custom Monte Carlo simulation program was used in order to examine the performance of ceramic powder screens, under various radiographic conditions. The model was developed using Mie scattering theory for the description of light interactions, based on the physical characteristics (e.g. complex refractive index, light wavelength) of the phosphor material. Monte Carlo simulations were carried out assuming: (a) X-ray photon energy ranging from 18 up to 49 keV, (b) Gd 2 O 2 S:Tb phosphor material with packing density of 70% and grain size of 7 μm and (c) phosphor thickness ranging between 30 and 70 mg/cm 2 . The variation of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) and the Luminescence Efficiency (LE) with respect to the X-ray energy and the phosphor thickness was evaluated. Both aforementioned imaging characteristics were shown to take high values at 49 keV X-ray energy and 70 mg/cm 2 phosphor thickness. It was found that high packing density screens may be appropriate for use in medical radiographic systems

  11. Sea ice inertial oscillations in the Arctic Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gimbert

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An original method to quantify the amplitude of inertial motion of oceanic and ice drifters, through the introduction of a non-dimensional parameter M defined from a spectral analysis, is presented. A strong seasonal dependence of the magnitude of sea ice inertial oscillations is revealed, in agreement with the corresponding annual cycles of sea ice extent, concentration, thickness, advection velocity, and deformation rates. The spatial pattern of the magnitude of the sea ice inertial oscillations over the Arctic Basin is also in agreement with the sea ice thickness and concentration patterns. This argues for a strong interaction between the magnitude of inertial motion on one hand, the dissipation of energy through mechanical processes, and the cohesiveness of the cover on the other hand. Finally, a significant multi-annual evolution towards greater magnitudes of inertial oscillations in recent years, in both summer and winter, is reported, thus concomitant with reduced sea ice thickness, concentration and spatial extent.

  12. Gypsum and hydrohalite dynamics in sea ice brines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Benjamin M.; Papadimitriou, Stathys; Day, Sarah J.; Kennedy, Hilary

    2017-09-01

    experimental solubility in this system. Incorporation of hydrohalite solubility into a 1D thermodynamic model of the growth of first-year Arctic sea ice showed its precipitation to initiate once the incoming shortwave radiation dropped to 0 W m-2, and that it can reach concentrations of 9.9 g kg-1 within the upper and coldest layers of the ice pack. This suggests a limited effect of hydrohalite on the albedo of sea ice. The insights provided by the solubility measurements into the behaviour of gypsum and hydrohalite in the ice-brine system cannot be gleaned from field investigations at present.

  13. Ice Load Project Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCoy, Timothy J. [DNV GL, Seattle, WA (United States); Brown, Thomas [IFC Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada); Byrne, Alex [DNV GL, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2014-10-30

    As interest and investment in offshore wind projects increase worldwide, some turbines will be installed in locations where ice of significant thickness forms on the water surface. This ice moves under the driving forces of wind, current, and thermal effects and may result in substantial forces on bottom-fixed support structures. The North and Baltic Seas in Europe have begun to see significant wind energy development and the Great Lakes of the United States and Canada may host wind energy development in the near future. Design of the support structures for these projects is best performed through the use of an integrated tool that can calculate the cumulative effects of forces due to turbine operations, wind, waves, and floating ice. The dynamic nature of ice forces requires that these forces be included in the design simulations, rather than added as static forces to simulation results. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) standard[2] for offshore wind turbine design and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard[3] for offshore structures provide requirements and algorithms for the calculation of forces induced by surface ice; however, currently none of the major wind turbine dynamic simulation codes provides the ability to model ice loads. The scope of work of the project described in this report includes the development of a suite of subroutines, collectively named IceFloe, that meet the requirements of the IEC and ISO standards and couples with four of the major wind turbine dynamic simulation codes. The mechanisms by which ice forces impinge on offshore structures generally include the forces required for crushing of the ice against vertical-sided structures and the forces required to fracture the ice as it rides up on conical-sided structures. Within these two broad categories, the dynamic character of the forces with respect to time is also dependent on other factors such as the velocity and thickness of the moving ice

  14. Packing of ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majewski, J.; Kuhl, T.L.; Kjær, K.

    2001-01-01

    Using synchrotron grazing-incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXD) and reflectivity, the in-plane and out-of-plane structure of mixed ganglioside-phospholipid monolayers was investigated at the air-water interface. Mixed monolayers of 0, 5, 10, 20, and 100 mol% ganglioside GM, and the phospholipid...... monolayers did not affect hydrocarbon tail packing (fluidization or condensation of the hydrocarbon region). This is in contrast to previous investigations of lipopolymer-lipid mixtures, where the packing structure of phospholipid monolayers was greatly altered by the inclusion of lipids bearing hydrophilic...

  15. Used fuel packing plant for CANDU fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzies, I.; Thayer, B.; Bains, N., E-mail: imenzies@atsautomation.com [ATS Automation, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Murchison, A., E-mail: amurchison@nwmo.ca [NWMO, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    Large forgings have been selected to containerize Light Water Reactor used nuclear fuel. CANDU fuel, which is significantly smaller in size, allows novel approaches for containerization. For example, by utilizing commercially available extruded ASME pipe a conceptual design of a Used Fuel Packing Plant for containerization of used CANDU fuel in a long lived metallic container has been developed. The design adopts a modular approach with multiple independent work cells to transfer and containerize the used fuel. Based on current technologies and concepts from proven industrial systems, the Used Fuel Packing Plant can assemble twelve used fuel containers per day considering conservative levels of process availability. (author)

  16. Geomorphology and till architecture of terrestrial palaeo-ice streams of the southwest Laurentide Ice Sheet: A borehole stratigraphic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Sophie L.; Evans, David J. A.; Cofaigh, Colm Ó.

    2018-04-01

    A multidimensional study, utilising geomorphological mapping and the analysis of regional borehole stratigraphy, is employed to elucidate the regional till architecture of terrestrial palaeo-ice streams relating to the Late Wisconsinan southwest Laurentide Ice Sheet. Detailed mapping over a 57,400 km2 area of southwestern Saskatchewan confirms previous reconstructions of a former southerly flowing ice stream, demarcated by a 800 km long corridor of megaflutes and mega-scale glacial lineations (Ice Stream 1) and cross cut by three, formerly southeast flowing ice streams (Ice Streams 2A, B and C). Analysis of the lithologic and geophysical characteristics of 197 borehole samples within these corridors reveals 17 stratigraphic units comprising multiple tills and associated stratified sediments overlying preglacial deposits, the till thicknesses varying with both topography and distance down corridor. Reconciling this regional till architecture with the surficial geomorphology reveals that surficial units are spatially consistent with a dynamic switch in flow direction, recorded by the cross cutting corridors of Ice Streams 1, 2A, B and C. The general thickening of tills towards lobate ice stream margins is consistent with subglacial deformation theory and variations in this pattern on a more localised scale are attributed to influences of subglacial topography including thickening at buried valley margins, thinning over uplands and thickening in overridden ice-marginal landforms.

  17. Prediction of ice accretion and anti-icing heating power on wind turbine blades using standard commercial software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalpando, Fernando; Reggio, Marcelo; Ilinca, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    An approach to numerically simulate ice accretion on 2D sections of a wind turbine blade is presented. The method uses standard commercial ANSYS-Fluent and Matlab tools. The Euler-Euler formulation is used to calculate the water impingement on the airfoil, and a UDF (Used Defined Function) has been devised to turn the airfoil's solid wall into a permeable boundary. Mayer's thermodynamic model is implemented in Matlab for computing ice thickness and for updating the airfoil contour. A journal file is executed to systematize the procedure: meshing, droplet trajectory calculation, thermodynamic model application for computing ice accretion, and the updating of airfoil contours. The proposed ice prediction strategy has been validated using iced airfoil contours obtained experimentally in the AMIL refrigerated wind tunnel (Anti-icing Materials International Laboratory). Finally, a numerical prediction method has been generated for anti-icing assessment, and its results compared with data obtained in this laboratory. - Highlights: • A methodology for ice accretion prediction using commercial software is proposed. • Euler model gives better prediction of airfoil water collection with detached flow. • A source term is used to change from a solid wall to a permeable wall in Fluent. • Energy needed for ice-accretion mitigation system is predicted.

  18. Effect of Salted Ice Bags on Surface and Intramuscular Tissue Cooling and Rewarming Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J; Ostrowski, Jennifer; Donahue, Matthew; Crowley, Caitlyn; Herzog, Valerie

    2016-02-01

    Many researchers have investigated the effectiveness of different cryotherapy agents at decreasing intramuscular tissue temperatures. However, no one has looked at the effectiveness of adding salt to an ice bag. To compare the cooling effectiveness of different ice bags (wetted, salted cubed, and salted crushed) on cutaneous and intramuscular temperatures. Repeated-measures counterbalanced design. University research laboratory. 24 healthy participants (13 men, 11 women; age 22.46 ± 2.33 y, height 173.25 ± 9.78 cm, mass 74.51 ± 17.32 kg, subcutaneous thickness 0.63 ± 0.27 cm) with no lower-leg injuries, vascular diseases, sensitivity to cold, compromised circulation, or chronic use of NSAIDs. Ice bags made of wetted ice (2000 mL ice and 300 mL water), salted cubed ice (intervention A; 2000 mL of cubed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt), and salted crushed ice (intervention B; 2000 mL of crushed ice and 1/2 tablespoon of salt) were applied to the posterior gastrocnemius for 30 min. Each participant received all conditions with at least 4 d between treatments. Cutaneous and intramuscular (2 cm plus adipose thickness) temperatures of nondominant gastrocnemius were measured during a 10-min baseline period, a 30-min treatment period, and a 45-min rewarming period. Differences from baseline were observed for all treatments. The wetted-ice and salted-cubed-ice bags produced significantly lower intramuscular temperatures than the salted-crushed-ice bag. Wetted-ice bags produced the greatest temperature change for cutaneous tissues. Wetted- and salted-cubed-ice bags were equally effective at decreasing intramuscular temperature at 2 cm subadipose. Clinical practicality may favor salted-ice bags over wetted-ice bags.

  19. Ocean Sediment Thickness Contours

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean sediment thickness contours in 200 meter intervals for water depths ranging from 0 - 18,000 meters. These contours were derived from a global sediment...

  20. L-band radiometry for sea ice applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heygster, G.; Hedricks, S.; Mills, P.; Kaleschke, L.; Stammer, D.; Tonboe, R.

    2009-04-01

    Although sea ice remote sensing has reached the level of operational exploitation with well established retrieval methods, several important tasks are still unsolved. In particular during freezing and melting periods with mixed ice and water surfaces, estimates of ice concentration with passive and active microwave sensors remain challenging. Newly formed thin ice is also hard to distinguish from open water with radiometers for frequencies above 8 GHz. The SMOS configuration (planned launch 2009) with a radiometer at 1.4 GHz is a promising technique to complement observations at higher microwave frequencies. ESA has initiated a project to investigate the possibilities for an additional Level-2 sea ice data product based on SMOS. In detail, the project objectives are (1) to model the L band emission of sea ice, and to assess the potential (2) to retrieve sea ice parameters, especially concentration and thickness, and (3) to use cold water regions for an external calibration of SMOS. Modelling of L band emission: Several models have are investigated. All of them work on the same basic principles and have a vertically-layered, plane-parallel geometry. They are comprised of three basic components: (1) effective permittivities are calculated for each layer based on ice bulk and micro-structural properties; (2) these are integrated across the total depth to derive emitted brightness temperature; (3) scattering terms can also be added because of the granular structure of ice and snow. MEMLS (Microwave Emission Model of Layered Snowpacks (Wiesmann and Matzler 1999)) is one such model that contains all three elements in a single Matlab program. In the absence of knowledge about the internal structure of the sea ice, three-layer (air, ice and water) dielectric slab models which take as input a single effective permittivity for the ice layer are appropriate. By ignoring scattering effects one can derive a simple analytic expression for a dielectric slab as shown by Apinis and

  1. Volcano-ice interactions on Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, C.C.

    1979-01-01

    Central volcanic eruptions beneath terrestrial glaciers have built steep-sided, flat-topped mountains composed of pillow lava, glassy tuff, capping flows, and cones of basalt. Subglacial fissure eruptions produced ridges of similar compostion. In some places the products from a number of subglacial vents have combined to form widespread deposits. The morphologies of these subglacial volcanoes are distinctive enough to allow their recognition at the resolutions characteristic of Viking orbiter imagery. Analogs to terrestrial subglacial volcanoes have been identified on the northern plains and near the south polar cap of Mars. The polar feature provides probable evidence of volcanic eruptions beneath polar ice. A mixed unit of rock and ice is postulated to have overlain portions of the northern plains, with eruptions into this ground ice having produced mountains and ridges analogous to those in Iceland. Subsequent breakdown of this unit due to ice melting revealed the volcanic features. Estimated heights of these landforms indicate that the ice-rich unit once ranged from approximately 100 to 1200 m thick

  2. SMOS sea ice product: Operational application and validation in the Barents Sea marginal ice zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaleschke, Lars; Tian-Kunze, Xiangshan; Maaß, Nina

    2016-01-01

    system for ship route optimisation has been developed and was tested during this field campaign with the ice-strengthened research vessel RV Lance. The ship cruise was complemented with coordinated measurements from a helicopter and the research aircraft Polar 5. Sea ice thickness was measured using...... an electromagnetic induction (EM) system from the bow of RV Lance and another EM-system towed below the helicopter. Polar 5 was equipped among others with the L-band radiometer EMIRAD-2. The experiment yielded a comprehensive data set allowing the evaluation of the operational forecast and route optimisation system...

  3. Aircraft Icing Handbook. (Update)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Report 1946-1947, U. S. Air Material Command Tech. Rept. 5676. Findeisen , W., *Meteorological Commentary of D (air) 1209, Icing,* Germany, Reichsamt fur...Wetterdienst, Forschungs-und Krfahrungsberichte, Ser. a, No. 29, 1943. Findeisen , W., *Meteorological-Physical Limitations of Icing on the Atmosphere...Apparatus for Measurement,’ Harvard - Mt. Washington Icing Research Report 1946-1947, U. S. Air Material Command Tech. Rept. 5676.. Findeisen , W., "The

  4. Microfabric and Structures in Glacial Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monz, M.; Hudleston, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Similar to rocks in active orogens, glacial ice develops both structures and fabrics that reflect deformation. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), associated with mechanical anisotropy, develops as ice deforms, and as in rock, directly reflects the conditions and mechanisms of deformation and influences the overall strength. This project aims to better constrain the rheologic properties of natural ice through microstructural analysis and to establish the relationship of microfabric to macroscale structures. The focus is on enigmatic fabric patterns found in coarse grained, "warm" (T > -10oC) ice deep in ice sheets and in valley glaciers. Deformation mechanisms that produce such patterns are poorly understood. Detailed mapping of surface structures, including bedding, foliation, and blue bands (bubble-free veins of ice), was done in the ablation zone of Storglaciären, a polythermal valley glacier in northern Sweden. Microstructural studies on samples from a transect across the ablation zone were carried out in a cold room. Crystal size was too large for use of electron backscattered diffraction to determine CPO, therefore a Rigsby universal stage, designed specifically for ice, was used. In thick and thin sections, recrystallized grains are locally variable in both size (1mm-7cm in one thin section) and shape and clearly reflect recrystallization involving highly mobile grain boundaries. Larger crystals are often branching, and appear multiple times throughout one thin section. There is a clear shape preferred orientation that is generally parallel with foliation defined by bubble alignment and concentration. Locally, there appears to be an inverse correlation between bubble concentration and smoothness of grain boundaries. Fabric in samples that have undergone prolonged shear display roughly symmetrical multimaxima patterns centered around the pole to foliation. The angular distances between maxima suggest a possible twin relationship that may have

  5. Disk and circumsolar radiances in the presence of ice clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Haapanala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of ice clouds on solar disk and circumsolar radiances is investigated using a Monte Carlo radiative transfer model. The monochromatic direct and diffuse radiances are simulated at angles of 0 to 8° from the center of the sun. Input data for the model are derived from measurements conducted during the 2010 Small Particles in Cirrus (SPARTICUS campaign together with state-of-the-art databases of optical properties of ice crystals and aerosols. For selected cases, the simulated radiances are compared with ground-based radiance measurements obtained by the Sun and Aureole Measurements (SAM instrument. First, the sensitivity of the radiances to the ice cloud properties and aerosol optical thickness is addressed. The angular dependence of the disk and circumsolar radiances is found to be most sensitive to assumptions about ice crystal roughness (or, more generally, non-ideal features of ice crystals and size distribution, with ice crystal habit playing a somewhat smaller role. Second, in comparisons with SAM data, the ice cloud optical thickness is adjusted for each case so that the simulated radiances agree closely (i.e., within 3 % with the measured disk radiances. Circumsolar radiances at angles larger than ≈ 3° are systematically underestimated when assuming smooth ice crystals, whereas the agreement with the measurements is better when rough ice crystals are assumed. Our results suggest that it may well be possible to infer the particle roughness directly from ground-based SAM measurements. In addition, the results show the necessity of correcting the ground-based measurements of direct radiation for the presence of diffuse radiation in the instrument's field of view, in particular in the presence of ice clouds.

  6. Acoustic Monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Chayes, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction The monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap is important economically, tactically, and strategically. In the scenario of ice cap retreat, new paths of commerce open, e.g. waterways from Northern Europe to the Far East. Where ship-going commerce is conducted, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard have always stood guard and been prepared to assist from acts of nature and of man. It is imperative that in addition to measuring the ice from satellites, e.g. Icesat, that we have an ability to measure the ice extent, its thickness, and roughness. These parameters play an important part in the modeling of the ice and the processes that control its growth or shrinking and its thickness. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first subsystem is an acoustic source, the second is an array of geophones and the third is a system to supply energy and transmit the results back to the analysis laboratory. The subsystems are described below. We conclude with a plan on how to tackle this project and the payoff to the ice cap modeler and hence the users, i.e. commerce and defense. System Two historically tested methods to generate a large amplitude multi-frequency sound source include explosives and air guns. A new method developed and tested by the University of Texas, ARL is a combustive Sound Source [Wilson, et al., 1995]. The combustive sound source is a submerged combustion chamber that is filled with the byproducts of the electrolysis of sea water, i.e. Hydrogen and Oxygen, an explosive mixture which is ignited via a spark. Thus, no additional compressors, gases, or explosives need to be transported to the Arctic to generate an acoustic pulse capable of the sediment and the ice. The second subsystem would be geophones capable of listening in the O(10 Hz) range and transmitting that data back to the laboratory. Thus two single arrays of geophones arranged orthogonal to each other with a range of 1000's of kilometers and a combustive sound source where the two

  7. Quasi-seismic scaling processes in sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmel, A; Smirnov, V N

    2011-01-01

    The cracking, shearing and stick–slip motions in sea ice are similar to those in fracturing geostructures. In this work, the fracture-related, quasi-seismic activity in the Arctic ice pack was monitored during a large-scale ice cover fragmentation that occurred in March 2008. This fragmentation resulted in the formation of a two-dimensional 'fault' clearly seen in satellite images. The energy distribution in elastic waves detected by seismic tiltmeters follows the power law in pre- and post-faulting periods. The power exponent decreases as the 'catastrophe' approaches, and exhibits a trend to restore its initial value after the large-scale perturbation. The detected fracture events are correlated in time in the sense of a scaling relation. A quiescent period (very low quasi-seismic activity) was observed before 'faulting'. A close similarity in scaling characteristics between the crustal seismicity and quasi-seismic activity observed in the ice pack is discussed from the viewpoint of the role of heterogeneity in the behavior of large-scale critical systems

  8. On the influence of model physics on simulations of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Massonnet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two hindcast (1983–2007 simulations are performed with the global, ocean-sea ice models NEMO-LIM2 and NEMO-LIM3 driven by atmospheric reanalyses and climatologies. The two simulations differ only in their sea ice component, while all other elements of experimental design (resolution, initial conditions, atmospheric forcing are kept identical. The main differences in the sea ice models lie in the formulation of the subgrid-scale ice thickness distribution, of the thermodynamic processes, of the sea ice salinity and of the sea ice rheology. To assess the differences in model skill over the period of investigation, we develop a set of metrics for both hemispheres, comparing the main sea ice variables (concentration, thickness and drift to available observations and focusing on both mean state and seasonal to interannual variability. Based upon these metrics, we discuss the physical processes potentially responsible for the differences in model skill. In particular, we suggest that (i a detailed representation of the ice thickness distribution increases the seasonal to interannual variability of ice extent, with spectacular improvement for the simulation of the recent observed summer Arctic sea ice retreats, (ii the elastic-viscous-plastic rheology enhances the response of ice to wind stress, compared to the classical viscous-plastic approach, (iii the grid formulation and the air-sea ice drag coefficient affect the simulated ice export through Fram Strait and the ice accumulation along the Canadian Archipelago, and (iv both models show less skill in the Southern Ocean, probably due to the low quality of the reanalyses in this region and to the absence of important small-scale oceanic processes at the models' resolution (~1°.

  9. Safe Loads on Ice Sheets (Ice Engineering. Number 13)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haynes, F. D; Carey, Kevin L; Cattabriga, Gioia

    1996-01-01

    Every winter, ice sheets that grow on lakes and rivers in northern states are used for ice roads, ice bridges, construction platforms, airstrips, and recreational activities, It becomes very important...

  10. Evaluation of Sea Ice Kinematics and their Impact on Ice Thickness Distribution in the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    operational and research data to interested users. The position error for these buoys has been estimated as 0.3 km by Thorndike and Colony (1980...1297–1300. ———, and ———,1999: Annular Modes in the Extratropical Circulations. Part II: Trends. J. Clim., 13, 1018–1036. Thorndike , A. S., and R

  11. Ice shielding in the large scale GENIUS experiment for double beta decay and dark matter search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.; Zdesenko, Yu.G.

    1998-01-01

    We suggest here the use of ice as shielding material in the large scale GENIUS experiment for the ultimate sensitive double beta decay and dark matter search. The idea is to pack a working volume of several tons of liquid nitrogen, which contains the ''naked'' Ge detectors, inside an ice shielding. Very thin plastic foil would be used in order to prevent leakage of the liquid nitrogen. Due to the excellent advantages of ice shielding (high purity and low cost, self-supporting ability, thermo-isolation and optical properties, safety) this could be another possible way of realization of the GENIUS project. (orig.)

  12. Evolution of Planetary Ice-Ocean Systems: Effects of Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allu Peddinti, D.; McNamara, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Planetary oceanography is enjoying renewed attention thanks to not only the detection of several exoplanetary ocean worlds but also due to the expanding family of ocean worlds within our own star system. Our solar system is now believed to host about nine ocean worlds including Earth, some dwarf planets and few moons of Jupiter and Saturn. Amongst them, Europa, like Earth is thought to have an ice Ih-liquid water system. However, the thickness of the Europan ice-ocean system is much larger than that of the Earth. The evolution of this system would determine the individual thicknesses of the ice shell and the ocean. In turn, these thicknesses can alter the course of evolution of the system. In a pure H2O system, the thickness of the ice shell would govern if heat loss occurs entirely by conduction or if the shell begins to convect as it attains a threshold thickness. This switch between conduction-convection regimes could determine the longevity of the subsurface ocean and hence define the astrobiological potential of the planetary body at any given time. In reality, however, the system is not pure water ice. The detected induced magnetic field infers a saline ocean layer. Salts are expected to act as an anti-freeze allowing a subsurface ocean to persist over long periods but the amount of salts would determine the extent of that effect. In our current study, we use geodynamic models to examine the effect of salinity on the evolution of ice-ocean system. An initial ocean with different salinities is allowed to evolve. The effect of salinity on thickness of the two layers at any time is examined. We also track how salinity controls the switch between conductive-convective modes. The study shows that for a given time period, larger salinities can maintain a thick vigorously convecting ocean while the smaller salinities behave similar to a pure H2O system leading to a thick convecting ice-shell. A range of salinities identified can potentially predict the current state

  13. A one stop website for sharing sea ice, ocean and ice sheet data over the polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z.; Cheng, X.; Liu, J.; Hui, F.; Ding, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The polar regions, including the Arctic and Antarctic, are changing rapidly. Our capabilities to remotely monitor the state of the polar regions are increasing greatly. Satellite and airborne technologies have been deployed and further improvements are underway. Meanwhile, various algorithms have been developed to retrieve important parameters to maximize the effectiveness of available remote sensing data. These technologies and algorithms promise to greatly increase our understanding of variations in sea ice, ocean and ice sheet. However, so much information is scattered out there. It is challenging to find exactly what you are looking for by just searching it through the network. Therefore, we try to establish a common platform to sharing some key parameters for the polar regions. A group of scientists from Beijing Normal University and University at Albany developed a website as a "one-stop shop" for the current state of the polar regions. The website provides real-time (or near real-time) key parameters derived from a variety of operational satellites in an understandable, accessible and credible way. Three types of parameter, which are sea ice, ocean and ice sheet respectively, are shown and available to be downloaded in the website. Several individual parameters are contained in a specific type of parameter. The parameters of sea ice include sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness, melt pond, sea ice leads and sea ice drift. The ocean parameters contain sea surface temperature and sea surface wind. Ice sheet balance, ice velocity and some other parameters are classified into the type of ice sheet parameter. Some parameters are well-calibrated and available to be obtained from other websites, such as sea ice concentration, sea ice thickness sea surface temperature. Since these parameters are retrieved from different sensors, such as SSMI, AMSR2 etc., data format, spatial resolution of the parameters are not unified. We collected and reprocessed these

  14. American Spirit Pack Descriptors and Perceptions of Harm: A Crowdsourced Comparison of Modified Packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Jennifer L; Richardson, Amanda; Feirman, Shari P; Villanti, Andrea C; Cantrell, Jennifer; Cohn, Amy; Tacelosky, Michael; Kirchner, Thomas R

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration issued warnings to three tobacco manufacturers who label their cigarettes as "additive-free" and/or "natural" on the grounds that they make unauthorized reduced risk claims. The goal of this study was to examine US adults' perceptions of three American Spirit (AS) pack descriptors ("Made with Organic Tobacco," "100% Additive-Free," and "100% US Grown Tobacco") to assess if they communicate reduced risk. In September 2012, three cross-sectional surveys were posted on Amazon Mechanical Turk. Adult participants evaluated the relative harm of a Marlboro Red pack versus three different AS packs with the descriptors "Made with Organic Tobacco," "100% Additive-Free," or "100% US Grown Tobacco" (Survey 1; n = 461); a Marlboro Red pack versus these AS packs modified to exclude descriptors (Survey 2; n = 857); and unmodified versus modified AS pack images (Survey 3; n = 1001). The majority of Survey 1 participants rated the unmodified AS packs as less harmful than the Marlboro Red pack; 35.4%-58.8% of Survey 2 participants also rated the modified (no claims) packs as less harmful than Marlboro Red. In these surveys, prior use of AS cigarettes was associated with reduced perceptions of risk (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.59-2.40). "Made with Organic Tobacco" and "100% Additive-Free" were associated with reduced perceptions of risk when comparing the modified versus the unmodified AS packs (Survey 3). Data suggest that these AS pack descriptors communicate reduced harm messages to consumers. Findings have implications for regulatory actions related to product labeling and packaging. These findings provide additional evidence that the "Made with Organic Tobacco," "100% Additive-Free," and "100% US Grown" descriptors, as well as other aspects of the AS pack design, communicate reduced harm to non-, current, and former smokers. Additionally, they provide support for the importance of FDA's 2015 warning to Santa Fe Natural Tobacco Company on

  15. Random close packing in protein cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Jennifer C; Smith, W Wendell; Regan, Lynne; O'Hern, Corey S

    2016-03-01

    Shortly after the determination of the first protein x-ray crystal structures, researchers analyzed their cores and reported packing fractions ϕ ≈ 0.75, a value that is similar to close packing of equal-sized spheres. A limitation of these analyses was the use of extended atom models, rather than the more physically accurate explicit hydrogen model. The validity of the explicit hydrogen model was proved in our previous studies by its ability to predict the side chain dihedral angle distributions observed in proteins. In contrast, the extended atom model is not able to recapitulate the side chain dihedral angle distributions, and gives rise to large atomic clashes at side chain dihedral angle combinations that are highly probable in protein crystal structures. Here, we employ the explicit hydrogen model to calculate the packing fraction of the cores of over 200 high-resolution protein structures. We find that these protein cores have ϕ ≈ 0.56, which is similar to results obtained from simulations of random packings of individual amino acids. This result provides a deeper understanding of the physical basis of protein structure that will enable predictions of the effects of amino acid mutations to protein cores and interfaces of known structure.

  16. Granular packings with moving side walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landry, James W.; Grest, Gary Stephen

    2004-01-01

    The effects of movement of the side walls of a confined granular packing are studied by discrete element, molecular dynamics simulations. The dynamical evolution of the stress is studied as a function of wall movement both in the direction of gravity as well as opposite to it. For all wall velocities explored, the stress in the final state of the system after wall movement is fundamentally different from the original state obtained by pouring particles into the container and letting them settle under the influence of gravity. The original packing possesses a hydrostaticlike region at the top of the container which crosses over to a depth-independent stress. As the walls are moved in the direction opposite to gravity, the saturation stress first reaches a minimum value independent of the wall velocity, then increases to a steady-state value dependent on the wall velocity. After wall movement ceases and the packing reaches equilibrium, the stress profile fits the classic Janssen form for high wall velocities, while some deviations remain for low wall velocities. The wall movement greatly increases the number of particle-wall and particle-particle forces at the Coulomb criterion. Varying the wall velocity has only small effects on the particle structure of the final packing so long as the walls travel a similar distance.

  17. Importance of packing in spiral defect chaos

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop two measures to characterize the geometry of patterns exhibited by the state of spiral defect chaos, a weakly turbulent regime of Rayleigh-Bénard convection. These describe the packing of contiguous stripes within the pattern by quantifying their length and nearest-neighbor distributions. The distributions ...

  18. Wrap-Attack Pack: Product Packaging Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Hoffman, K. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Although many marketing courses discuss traditional concepts pertaining to product strategy, concepts specifically relating to packaging are often glossed over. This exercise, "Wrap-Attack Pack," teaches students about the utilitarian and hedonic design elements of packaging. More specifically, the primary objective is to creatively…

  19. The new generation of packing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malikov, T.S.; Dzhonmurodov, A.S.; Usmanova, S.R.; Teshaev, Kh.I.; Mukhidinov, Z.K.

    2016-01-01

    Present article is devoted to new generation of packing materials. The methods of extraction and investigation of component composition and properties of whey protein, zein, carboxymethylcellulose, hyaluronic acid and pectins were elaborated in order to further application them in pharmaceutical industry as composite materials and for capsulation of medicines.

  20. Packing frustration in dense confined fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygård, Kim; Sarman, Sten; Kjellander, Roland

    2014-09-07

    Packing frustration for confined fluids, i.e., the incompatibility between the preferred packing of the fluid particles and the packing constraints imposed by the confining surfaces, is studied for a dense hard-sphere fluid confined between planar hard surfaces at short separations. The detailed mechanism for the frustration is investigated via an analysis of the anisotropic pair distributions of the confined fluid, as obtained from integral equation theory for inhomogeneous fluids at pair correlation level within the anisotropic Percus-Yevick approximation. By examining the mean forces that arise from interparticle collisions around the periphery of each particle in the slit, we calculate the principal components of the mean force for the density profile--each component being the sum of collisional forces on a particle's hemisphere facing either surface. The variations of these components with the slit width give rise to rather intricate changes in the layer structure between the surfaces, but, as shown in this paper, the basis of these variations can be easily understood qualitatively and often also semi-quantitatively. It is found that the ordering of the fluid is in essence governed locally by the packing constraints at each single solid-fluid interface. A simple superposition of forces due to the presence of each surface gives surprisingly good estimates of the density profiles, but there remain nontrivial confinement effects that cannot be explained by superposition, most notably the magnitude of the excess adsorption of particles in the slit relative to bulk.

  1. The benefits of using customized procedure packs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, R; Colquhoun, G; Jones, N; Bateman, R

    2001-01-01

    Discrete item purchasing is the traditional approach for hospitals to obtain consumable supplies for theatre procedures. Although most items are relatively low cost, the management and co-ordination of the supply chain, raising orders, controlling stock, picking and delivering to each operating theatre can be complex and costly. Customized procedure packs provide a solution.

  2. Ice and ocean velocity in the Arctic marginal ice zone: Ice roughness and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia T. Cole

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The interplay between sea ice concentration, sea ice roughness, ocean stratification, and momentum transfer to the ice and ocean is subject to seasonal and decadal variations that are crucial to understanding the present and future air-ice-ocean system in the Arctic. In this study, continuous observations in the Canada Basin from March through December 2014 were used to investigate spatial differences and temporal changes in under-ice roughness and momentum transfer as the ice cover evolved seasonally. Observations of wind, ice, and ocean properties from four clusters of drifting instrument systems were complemented by direct drill-hole measurements and instrumented overhead flights by NASA operation IceBridge in March, as well as satellite remote sensing imagery about the instrument clusters. Spatially, directly estimated ice-ocean drag coefficients varied by a factor of three with rougher ice associated with smaller multi-year ice floe sizes embedded within the first-year-ice/multi-year-ice conglomerate. Temporal differences in the ice-ocean drag coefficient of 20–30% were observed prior to the mixed layer shoaling in summer and were associated with ice concentrations falling below 100%. The ice-ocean drag coefficient parameterization was found to be invalid in September with low ice concentrations and small ice floe sizes. Maximum momentum transfer to the ice occurred for moderate ice concentrations, and transfer to the ocean for the lowest ice concentrations and shallowest stratification. Wind work and ocean work on the ice were the dominant terms in the kinetic energy budget of the ice throughout the melt season, consistent with free drift conditions. Overall, ice topography, ice concentration, and the shallow summer mixed layer all influenced mixed layer currents and the transfer of momentum within the air-ice-ocean system. The observed changes in momentum transfer show that care must be taken to determine appropriate parameterizations

  3. Bacterial Ice Crystal Controlling Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorv, Janet S. H.; Rose, David R.; Glick, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Across the world, many ice active bacteria utilize ice crystal controlling proteins for aid in freezing tolerance at subzero temperatures. Ice crystal controlling proteins include both antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins. Antifreeze proteins minimize freezing damage by inhibiting growth of large ice crystals, while ice nucleation proteins induce formation of embryonic ice crystals. Although both protein classes have differing functions, these proteins use the same ice binding mechanisms. Rather than direct binding, it is probable that these protein classes create an ice surface prior to ice crystal surface adsorption. Function is differentiated by molecular size of the protein. This paper reviews the similar and different aspects of bacterial antifreeze and ice nucleation proteins, the role of these proteins in freezing tolerance, prevalence of these proteins in psychrophiles, and current mechanisms of protein-ice interactions. PMID:24579057

  4. Lower limb ice application alters ground reaction force during gait initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago B. Muniz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy is a widely used technique in physical therapy clinics and sports. However, the effects of cryotherapy on dynamic neuromuscular control are incompletely explained. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of cryotherapy applied to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot in healthy young adults on ground reaction forces during gait initiation. METHOD: This study evaluated the gait initiation forces, maximum propulsion, braking forces and impulses of 21 women volunteers through a force platform, which provided maximum and minimum ground reaction force values. To assess the effects of cooling, the task - gait initiation - was performed before ice application, immediately after and 30 minutes after removal of the ice pack. Ice was randomly applied on separate days to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot of the participants. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that ice application for 30 minutes to the sole of the foot and calf resulted in significant changes in the vertical force variables, which returned to their pre-application values 30 minutes after the removal of the ice pack. Ice application to the ankle only reduced propulsion impulse. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that although caution is necessary when performing activities that require good gait control, the application of ice to the ankle, sole of the foot or calf in 30-minute intervals may be safe even preceding such activities.

  5. Parameterisation of sea and lake ice in numerical weather prediction models of the German Weather Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrii Mironov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A bulk thermodynamic (no rheology sea-ice parameterisation scheme for use in numerical weather prediction (NWP is presented. The scheme is based on a self-similar parametric representation (assumed shape of the evolving temperature profile within the ice and on the integral heat budget of the ice slab. The scheme carries ordinary differential equations (in time for the ice surface temperature and the ice thickness. The proposed sea-ice scheme is implemented into the NWP models GME (global and COSMO (limited-area of the German Weather Service. In the present operational configuration, the horizontal distribution of the sea ice is governed by the data assimilation scheme, no fractional ice cover within the GME/COSMO grid box is considered, and the effect of snow above the ice is accounted for through an empirical temperature dependence of the ice surface albedo with respect to solar radiation. The lake ice is treated similarly to the sea ice, except that freeze-up and break-up of lakes occurs freely, independent of the data assimilation. The sea and lake ice schemes (the latter is a part of the fresh-water lake parameterisation scheme FLake show a satisfactory performance in GME and COSMO. The ice characteristics are not overly sensitive to the details of the treatment of heat transfer through the ice layer. This justifies the use of a simplified but computationally efficient bulk approach to model the ice thermodynamics in NWP, where the ice surface temperature is a major concern whereas details of the temperature distribution within the ice are of secondary importance. In contrast to the details of the heat transfer through the ice, the cloud cover is of decisive importance for the ice temperature as it controls the radiation energy budget at the ice surface. This is particularly true for winter, when the long-wave radiation dominates the surface energy budget. During summer, the surface energy budget is also sensitive to the grid-box mean ice

  6. Active microwave measurements of sea ice under fall conditions: The RADARSAT/FIREX fall experiment. [in the Canadian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstott, R. G.; Kim, Y. S.; Moore, R. K.

    1984-01-01

    A series of measurements of the active microwave properties of sea ice under fall growing conditions was conducted. Ice in the inland waters of Mould Bay, Crozier Channel, and intrepid inlet and ice in the Arctic Ocean near Hardinge Bay was investigated. Active microwave data were acquired using a helicopter borne scatterometer. Results show that multiyear ice frozen in grey or first year ice is easily detected under cold fall conditions. Multiyear ice returns were dynamic due to response to two of its scene constituents. Floe boundaries between thick and thin ice are well defined. Multiyear pressure ridge returns are similar in level to background ice returns. Backscatter from homogeneous first year ice is seen to be primarily due to surface scattering. Operation at 9.6 GHz is more sensitive to the detailed changes in scene roughness, while operation at 5.6 GHz seems to track roughness changes less ably.

  7. ICESat-2, its retrievals of ice sheet elevation change and sea ice freeboard, and potential synergies with CryoSat-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Thomas; Markus, Thorsten; Smith, Benjamin; Kwok, Ron

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the causes and magnitudes of changes in the cryosphere remains a priority for Earth science research. Over the past decade, NASA's and ESA's Earth-observing satellites have documented a decrease in both the areal extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice, and an ongoing loss of grounded ice from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Understanding the pace and mechanisms of these changes requires long-term observations of ice-sheet mass, sea-ice thickness, and sea-ice extent. NASA's ICESat-2 mission is the next-generation space-borne laser altimeter mission and will use three pairs of beams, each pair separated by about 3 km across-track with a pair spacing of 90 m. The spot size is 17 m with an along-track sampling interval of 0.7 m. This measurement concept is a result of the lessons learned from the original ICESat mission. The multi-beam approach is critical for removing the effects of ice sheet surface slope from the elevation change measurements of most interest. For sea ice, the dense spatial sampling (eliminating along-track gaps) and the small footprint size are especially useful for sea surface height measurements in the, often narrow, leads needed for sea ice freeboard and ice thickness retrievals. Currently, algorithms are being developed to calculate ice sheet elevation change and sea ice freeboard from ICESat-2 data. The orbits of ICESat-2 and Cryosat-2 both converge at 88 degrees of latitude, though the orbit altitude differences result in different ground track patterns between the two missions. This presentation will present an overview of algorithm approaches and how ICESat-2 and Cryosat-2 data may augment each other.

  8. Multi-Decadal Averages of Basal Melt for Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica Using Airborne Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Frearson, N.; Kingslake, J.; Padman, L.; Siddoway, C. S.; Fricker, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in ice shelf mass balance are key to the long term stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Although the most extensive ice shelf mass loss currently is occurring in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica, many other ice shelves experience changes in thickness on time scales from annual to ice age cycles. Here, we focus on the Ross Ice Shelf. An 18-year record (1994-2012) of satellite radar altimetry shows substantial variability in Ross Ice Shelf height on interannual time scales, complicating detection of potential long-term climate-change signals in the mass budget of this ice shelf. Variability of radar signal penetration into the ice-shelf surface snow and firn layers further complicates assessment of mass changes. We investigate Ross Ice Shelf mass balance using aerogeophysical data from the ROSETTA-Ice surveys using IcePod. We use two ice-penetrating radars; a 2 GHz unit that images fine-structure in the upper 400 m of the ice surface and a 360 MHz radar to identify the ice shelf base. We have identified internal layers that are continuous along flow from the grounding line to the ice shelf front. Based on layer continuity, we conclude that these layers must be the horizons between the continental ice of the outlet glaciers and snow accumulation once the ice is afloat. We use the Lagrangian change in thickness of these layers, after correcting for strain rates derived using modern day InSAR velocities, to estimate multidecadal averaged basal melt rates. This method provides a novel way to quantify basal melt, avoiding the confounding impacts of spatial and short-timescale variability in surface accumulation and firn densification processes. Our estimates show elevated basal melt rates (> -1m/yr) around Byrd and Mullock glaciers within 100 km from the ice shelf front. We also compare modern InSAR velocity derived strain rates with estimates from the comprehensive ground-based RIGGS observations during 1973-1978 to estimate the potential magnitude of

  9. Quantifying Seasonal Skill In Coupled Sea Ice Models Using Freeboard Measurements From Spaceborne Laser Altimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Data collection periods during the ICESat mission were influenced by the presence of atmospheric clouds and aerosols, and also LASER malfunctions. Upon...measurements after that satellite is launched next year. 14. subject terms Arctic, climate change, Regional Arctic System Model, altimetry...measurements, sea ice, sea ice thickness, freeboard, ICESat, ICESat-2, climate model, coupled model, Operation IceBridge 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 147 16

  10. Digital Imaging for Siple Dome Ice Core Analysis, Antarctica, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains high-resolution digital images of thin and thick sections cut from the 1003 meter Siple Dome A main ice core. The images are useful for...

  11. Remote sensing of sea ice: advances during the DAMOCLES project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Heygster

    2012-12-01

    ASCAT (62.5 km grid spacing, with visible AVHRR observations (20 km, with the synthetic aperture radar sensor ASAR (10 km, and a multi-sensor product (62.5 km with improved angular resolution (Continuous Maximum Cross Correlation, CMCC method is presented. CMCC is also used to derive the sea ice deformation, important for formation of sea ice leads (diverging deformation and pressure ridges (converging. The indirect determination of sea ice thickness from altimeter freeboard data requires knowledge of the ice density and snow load on sea ice. The relation between freeboard and ice thickness is investigated based on the airborne Sever expeditions conducted between 1928 and 1993.

  12. Observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties regulated by cloud/aerosol types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, B.; Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, J. H.; Li, Q.; Liu, X.; Huang, L.; Wang, Y.; Su, H.

    2017-12-01

    The interactions between aerosols and ice clouds (consisting only of ice) represent one of the largest uncertainties in global radiative forcing from pre-industrial time to the present. The observational evidence for the aerosol impact on ice cloud properties has been quite limited and showed conflicting results, partly because previous observational studies did not consider the distinct features of different ice cloud and aerosol types. Using 9-year satellite observations, we find that, for ice clouds generated from deep convection, cloud thickness, cloud optical thickness (COT), and ice cloud fraction increase and decrease with small-to-moderate and high aerosol loadings, respectively. For in-situ formed ice clouds, however, the preceding cloud properties increase monotonically and more sharply with aerosol loadings. The case is more complicated for ice crystal effective radius (Rei). For both convection-generated and in-situ ice clouds, the responses of Rei to aerosol loadings are modulated by water vapor amount in conjunction with several other meteorological parameters, but the sensitivities of Rei to aerosols under the same water vapor amount differ remarkably between the two ice cloud types. As a result, overall Rei slightly increases with aerosol loading for convection-generated ice clouds, but decreases for in-situ ice clouds. When aerosols are decomposed into different types, an increase in the loading of smoke aerosols generally leads to a decrease in COT of convection-generated ice clouds, while the reverse is true for dust and anthropogenic pollution. In contrast, an increase in the loading of any aerosol type can significantly enhance COT of in-situ ice clouds. The modulation of the aerosol impacts by cloud/aerosol types is demonstrated and reproduced by simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Adequate and accurate representations of the impact of different cloud/aerosol types in climate models are crucial for reducing the

  13. Ikaite crystal distribution in Arctic winter sea ice and implications for CO2 system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysgaard, S.; Søgaard, D. H.; Cooper, M.; Pućko, M.; Lennert, K.; Papakyriakou, T. N.; Wang, F.; Geilfus, N. X.; Glud, R. N.; Ehn, J.; McGinnnis, D. F.; Attard, K.; Sievers, J.; Deming, J. W.; Barber, D.

    2012-12-01

    The precipitation of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) in polar sea ice is critical to the efficiency of the sea ice-driven carbon pump and potentially important to the global carbon cycle, yet the spatial and temporal occurrence of ikaite within the ice is poorly known. We report unique observations of ikaite in unmelted ice and vertical profiles of ikaite abundance and concentration in sea ice for the crucial season of winter. Ice was examined from two locations: a 1 m thick land-fast ice site and a 0.3 m thick polynya site, both in the Young Sound area (74° N, 20° W) of NE Greenland. Ikaite crystals, ranging in size from a few µm to 700 µm were observed to concentrate in the interstices between the ice platelets in both granular and columnar sea ice. In vertical sea-ice profiles from both locations, ikaite concentration determined from image analysis, decreased with depth from surfaceice values of 700-900 µmol kg-1 ice (~ 25 × 106 crystals kg-1) to bottom-layer values of 100-200 µmol kg-1 ice (1-7 × 106 kg-1), all of which are much higher (4-10 times) than those reported in the few previous studies. Direct measurements of total alkalinity (TA) in surface layers fell within the same range as ikaite concentration whereas TA concentrations in bottom layers were twice as high. This depth-related discrepancy suggests interior ice processes where ikaite crystals form in surface sea ice layers and partly dissolved in bottom layers. From these findings and model calculations we relate sea ice formation and melt to observed pCO2 conditions in polar surface waters, and hence, the air-sea CO2 flux.

  14. Influence of X-ray irradiation on the bacteriological and chemical quality of fresh fish in ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnop, G.; Antonacopoulos, N.

    1977-01-01

    Judging by bacteriological and chemical criteria, the natural decay of ice-stored whole Baltic cod, after aerobic packing and irradiation with 100 krad, was delayed by more than 7 days as compared to unpacked non-irradiated cod. With vacuum-packed irradiated cod fillet, the usual decay symptoms determinable through bacteriology and chemistry set in more than 10 days later than with unirradiated unpacked fillet. (orig.) [de

  15. Modified strip packing heuristics for the rectangular variable-sized bin packing problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FG Ortmann

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two packing problems are considered in this paper, namely the well-known strip packing problem (SPP and the variable-sized bin packing problem (VSBPP. A total of 252 strip packing heuristics (and variations thereof from the literature, as well as novel heuristics proposed by the authors, are compared statistically by means of 1170 SPP benchmark instances in order to identify the best heuristics in various classes. A combination of new heuristics with a new sorting method yields the best results. These heuristics are combined with a previous heuristic for the VSBPP by the authors to find good feasible solutions to 1357 VSBPP benchmark instances. This is the largest statistical comparison of algorithms for the SPP and the VSBPP to the best knowledge of the authors.

  16. Sputtering of water ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baragiola, R.A.; Vidal, R.A.; Svendsen, W.

    2003-01-01

    We present results of a range of experiments of sputtering of water ice together with a guide to the literature. We studied how sputtering depends on the projectile energy and fluence, ice growth temperature, irradiation temperature and external electric fields. We observed luminescence from...

  17. Ice sheet in peril

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, Christine Schøtt

    2016-01-01

    Earth's large ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica are major contributors to sea level change. At present, the Greenland Ice Sheet (see the photo) is losing mass in response to climate warming in Greenland (1), but the present changes also include a long-term response to past climate transitions...

  18. Turning into Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Renée B.; Hanlon, Regina; Bohland, Cynthia; Schmale, David G., III

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an interdisciplinary unit in which students explore biological "ice nucleation"--by particles that cause water to freeze at temperatures above -38°C--through the lens of the microbial ice nucleator "Pseudomonas syringae." Such This activity, which aligns with the "Next Generation Science…

  19. CALICE: Calibrating Plant Biodiversity in Glacier Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festi, Daniela; Cristofori, Antonella; Vernesi, Cristiano; Zerbe, Stefan; Wellstein, Camilla; Maggi, Valter; Oeggl, Klaus

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the project is to reconstruct plant biodiversity and its trend archived in Alpine glacier ice by pollen and eDNA (environmental DNA) during the last five decades by analyzing a 40 m ice core. For our study we chose the Adamello glacier (Trentino - Südtirol, Lombardia) because of i) the good preservation conditions for pollen and eDNA in ice, ii) the thickness of the ice cap (270m) and iii) the expected high time resolution. The biodiversity estimates gained by pollen analysis and eDNA will be validated by historical biodiversity assessments mainly based on vegetation maps, aerial photos and vegetation surveys in the catchment area of the Adamello glacier for the last five decades. This historical reconstruction of biodiversity trends will be performed on a micro-, meso- and macro-scale (5, 20-50 and 50-100 Km radius, respectively). The results will serve as a calibr