WorldWideScience

Sample records for thick film microstructure

  1. Critical current density and microstructure of YBa2Cu3O7-x films as a function of film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogro-Campero, A.; Turner, L.G.; Hall, E.L.; Lewis, N.

    1990-01-01

    Thin films of nominal composition YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) were produced on (100) SrTiO 3 substrates by coevaporation and furnace annealing. Film thicknesses in the range of 0.2 to 2.4 μm were analyzed. Microstructural investigations by cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal a continuous layer of about 0.4 μm thickness adjacent to the substrate with c-axis normal to the substrate plane. In thicker films the remaining top portion has the c-axis in the film plane. The critical current density (J c ) at 77 K decreases with increasing thickness in the thickness range exceeding 0.4 μm, qualitatively consistent with the microstructural observation, but quantitatively inconsistent with a simple model based on the microstructural data

  2. Thickness and microstructure effects in the optical and electrical properties of silver thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Guowen, E-mail: gding@intermolecular.com; Clavero, César; Schweigert, Daniel; Le, Minh [Intermolecular, Inc., 3011 North First Street, San Jose, CA 95134 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The optical and electrical response of metal thin films approaching thicknesses in the range of the electron mean free path is highly affected by electronic scattering with the interfaces and defects. Here, we present a theoretical and experimental study on how thickness and microstructure affect the properties of Ag thin films. We are able to successfully model the electrical resistivity and IR optical response using a thickness dependent electronic scattering time. Remarkably, the product of electronic scattering time and resistivity remains constant regardless of the thickness (τx ρ = C), with a value of 59 ± 2 μΩ cm ⋅ fs for Ag films in the investigated range from 3 to 74 nm. Our findings enable us to develop a theoretically framework that allows calculating the optical response of metal thin films in the IR by using their measured thickness and resistivity. An excellent agreement is found between experimental measurements and predicted values. This study also shows the theoretical lower limit for emissivity in Ag thin films according to their microstructure and thickness. Application of the model presented here will allow rapid characterization of the IR optical response of metal thin films, with important application in a broad spectrum of fundamental and industrial applications, including optical coatings, low-emissivity windows and semiconductor industry.

  3. Thickness and microstructure effects in the optical and electrical properties of silver thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guowen Ding

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The optical and electrical response of metal thin films approaching thicknesses in the range of the electron mean free path is highly affected by electronic scattering with the interfaces and defects. Here, we present a theoretical and experimental study on how thickness and microstructure affect the properties of Ag thin films. We are able to successfully model the electrical resistivity and IR optical response using a thickness dependent electronic scattering time. Remarkably, the product of electronic scattering time and resistivity remains constant regardless of the thickness (τx ρ = C, with a value of 59 ± 2 μΩ cm ⋅ fs for Ag films in the investigated range from 3 to 74 nm. Our findings enable us to develop a theoretically framework that allows calculating the optical response of metal thin films in the IR by using their measured thickness and resistivity. An excellent agreement is found between experimental measurements and predicted values. This study also shows the theoretical lower limit for emissivity in Ag thin films according to their microstructure and thickness. Application of the model presented here will allow rapid characterization of the IR optical response of metal thin films, with important application in a broad spectrum of fundamental and industrial applications, including optical coatings, low-emissivity windows and semiconductor industry.

  4. Magnetic properties and microstructure investigation of electrodeposited FeNi/ITO films with different thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Derang; Wang, Zhenkun; Feng, Erxi; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •FeNi alloy thin films with different thickness deposited on Indium Tin Oxides (ITOs) conductive glass substrates by electrodeposition method. •A columnar crystalline microstructure and domain structure were obtained in FeNi thin films. •Particular FMR spectra of FeNi alloy with different thickness were studied. -- Abstract: FeNi alloy thin films with different thickness deposited on Indium Tin Oxides (ITOs) conductive glass substrates from the electrolytes by electrodeposition method have been studied by magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique. For these films possessing an in-plane isotropy, the remanence decreases with the increasing of film thickness and the critical thickness that a stripe domain structure emerges is about 116 nm. Characteristic differences of the FMR spectra of different thickness are also observed. The results show that the resonance field at high measured angle increases firstly then decreases with increasing thickness, which may be related to the striped domain structure

  5. Effect of thickness on structure, microstructure, residual stress and soft magnetic properties of DC sputtered Fe65Co35 soft magnetic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna Kumari, T.; Manivel Raja, M.; Kumar, Atul; Srinath, S.; Kamat, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on structure, microstructure, residual stress and soft magnetic properties of Fe 65 Co 35 thin films deposited on Si(001) and MgO(001) substrates was investigated by varying film thickness from 30 to 600 nm. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the FeCo films are polycrystalline in the as-deposited condition irrespective of deposition on Si or MgO substrate. The microstructure of films consisted of spherical grains for 30 nm film thickness and columnar grains for all other film thicknesses. The grain size for the films was found to increase from 15 to 50 nm with increasing film thickness. The sputtered films also exhibited tensile residual stresses with the magnitude of stress decreasing with increasing film thickness. The Fe 65 Co 35 films deposited on both substrates also exhibited very good in-plane soft magnetic properties with a saturation magnetization 4πM s of ∼23.6–23.8 kG and coercivity of ∼27–30 Oe without any under-layer only for films with thickness of 30 nm. For all other thicknesses, these films exhibited a significantly higher coercivity. The observed variations in soft magnetic properties with film thickness were explained in terms of residual stress and microstructure of the films. - Highlights: • Spherical grain morphology transformed to columnar above 30 nm film thickness. • Sputtered films exhibited tensile residual stresses decreasing with film thickness. • An in-plane coercivity of ∼27–30 Oe was achieved without any under-layer

  6. Micro-structuring of thick NdFeB films using high-power plasma etching for magnetic MEMS application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yonggang; Fujita, Takayuki; Higuchi, Kohei; Maenaka, Kazusuke; Masaoka, Shingo; Uehara, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the micro-patterning of thick NdFeB magnetic films using a high-power plasma etching method. The effects of RF bias power and gas composition on the selectivity and etching rate are experimentally studied. A maximum etching rate of 60 nm min −1 is achieved with an inductively coupled plasma power of 500 W and a RF bias power of 200 W. A maximum selectivity of 0.26 between hard baked AZP4903 photoresist and NdFeB magnetic films is achieved when volumetric Cl 2 concentration is 2.5%. NdFeB micro-magnets as thick as 4.2 µm are achieved by using AZP4903 photoresist. Magnetic film as thick as 10 µm can be patterned by using SU-8 photoresist with a thickness of 100 µm as the mask. The magnetic property of patterned microstructures is characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer and the magnetic field distribution is measured using a Hall effect sensor IC. The characterization results indicate that the patterned magnetic microstructures have a high magnetic remanance of 1.0 T, which is comparable to that of the non-patterned NdFeB films.

  7. Evolution of microstructure, strain and physical properties in oxide nanocomposite films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aiping; Weigand, Marcus; Bi, Zhenxing; Zhang, Wenrui; Lü, Xuejie; Dowden, Paul; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L; Wang, Haiyan; Jia, Quanxi

    2014-06-24

    We, using LSMO:ZnO nanocomposite films as a model system, have studied the effect of film thickness on the physical properties of nanocomposites. It shows that strain, microstructure, as well as magnetoresistance strongly rely on film thickness. The magnetotransport properties have been fitted by a modified parallel connection channel model, which is in agreement with the microstructure evolution as a function of film thickness in nanocomposite films on sapphire substrates. The strain analysis indicates that the variation of physical properties in nanocomposite films on LAO is dominated by strain effect. These results confirm the critical role of film thickness on microstructures, strain states, and functionalities. It further shows that one can use film thickness as a key parameter to design nanocomposites with optimum functionalities.

  8. Microstructure development in RuO2-glass thick-film resistors and its effect on the electrical resistivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, T.; Iizuka, K.

    1990-01-01

    Microstructure development in RuO 2 -glass thick-film resistors has been studied by optical microscopy with special emphasis on the effect of glass particle size and mixing and firing conditions. The microstructure development has been characterized by the coalescence of glass grains, infiltration of glass into RuO 2 particle aggregates, and agglomeration of RuO 2 particles. The resistivity-firing temperature relationship has been correlated with the microstructure development

  9. Influence of Tm-doping on microstructure and luminescence behavior of barium strontium titanate thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingyang; Zhang Tianjin; Pan Ruikun; Ma Zhijun; Wang Jinzhao

    2012-01-01

    Tm-doped Ba 0.8 Sr 0.2 TiO 3 thick films were prepared by the screen-printing technique on the alumina substrate. The microstructure of the Tm-doped BST thick films was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy, respectively. All the samples showed a typical perovskite polycrystalline structure when sintered at 1260 °C. The substitution behavior of Tm 3+ ion in BST was found to change with increasing the Tm 3+ concentration. The observed Tm-related red emission reaches the maximum at 0.2 mol% Tm 3+ concentration. The effects of concentration quenching on the luminescence intensity were discussed.

  10. Hexaferrite multiferroics: from bulk to thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzarova, T.; Ghelev, Ch; Peneva, P.; Georgieva, B.; Kolev, S.; Vertruyen, B.; Closset, R.

    2018-03-01

    We report studies of the structural and microstructural properties of Sr3Co2Fe24O41 in bulk form and as thick films. The precursor powders for the bulk form were prepared following the sol-gel auto-combustion method. The prepared pellets were synthesized at 1200 °C to produce Sr3Co2Fe24O41. The XRD spectra of the bulks showed the characteristic peaks corresponding to the Z-type hexaferrite structure as a main phase and second phases of CoFe2O4 and Sr3Fe2O7-x. The microstructure analysis of the cross-section of the bulk pellets revealed a hexagonal sheet structure. Large areas were observed of packages of hexagonal sheets where the separate hexagonal particles were ordered along the c axis. Sr3Co2Fe24O41 thick films were deposited from a suspension containing the Sr3Co2Fe24O41 powder. The microstructural analysis of the thick films showed that the particles had the perfect hexagonal shape typical for hexaferrites.

  11. Dependences of microstructure and critical current density on the thickness of YBa2Cu3O7-x film prepared by pulsed laser deposition on buffered Ni–W tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Da; Wang, Ying; Liu, Linfei; Li, Yijie

    2013-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−x (YBCO) films with different thicknesses were fabricated on buffered Ni–W tapes by pulsed laser deposition. The thickness dependences of microstructure and critical current density (J c ) of YBCO film were systematically investigated. The microstructure and surface morphology of YBCO film were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. And the critical current (I c ) of YBCO film was measured by the conventional four-probe method. We found that the full width at half maximum values of both omega and phi scan rocking curves, the content of a-axis oriented grain, and surface roughness of YBCO film all increased with augmenting the thickness of YBCO film. It was also found that with increasing the thickness of YBCO film from 0.3 μm to 1.5 μm, the I c of YBCO film increased from 72 A/cm to 248 A/cm and yet J c of YBCO film decreased from 2.1 × 10 6 A/cm 2 to 1.6 × 10 6 A/cm 2 . Our results indicated that the microstructure and J c of YBCO film were largely dependent on the thickness of YBCO film under the optimized deposition condition of substrate temperature. - Highlights: ► YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−x (YBCO) films with different thicknesses were grown on metallic tapes. ► The texture and critical current were dependent on the thickness of YBCO film. ► Thickness effect was weakened by fabricating YBCO film layer by layer

  12. Microstructure and thermoelectric properties of screen-printed thick-films of misfit-layered cobalt oxides with Ag addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Samson, Alfred Junio; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    Thermoelectric properties of thick (~60 μm) films prepared by a screen-printing technique using p-type misfit-layered cobalt oxide Ca3Co4O9+δ with Ag addition have been studied. The screen-printed films were sintered in air at various temperatures ranging from 973 K to 1223 K. After each sintering...... process, crystal and microstructure analyses were carried out to determine the optimal sintering condition. The results show that the thermoelectric properties of pure Ca3Co4O9+δ thick film are comparable to those of cold isostatic pressing (CIP) samples. We found that the maximum power factor...... was improved by about 67% (to 0.3 mW/m K2) for film with proper silver (Ag) metallic inclusions as compared with 0.18 mW/m K2 for pure Ca3Co4O9+δ film under the same sintering condition of 1223 K for 2 h in air....

  13. Influence of processing parameters on PZT thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Oliver; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2005-01-01

    We have studied influence of processing parameters on the microstructure and ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based thick films in the range of 5-25 μm. PZT and 2% La-doped PZT thick films were processed using a modified sol-gel process. In this process, PZT- and La-doped PZT powders were first prepared via sol-gel. These powders were calcined and then used with respective sols to form a slurry. Slurry composition was optimized to spin-coat thick films on platinized Si substrate (Si/SiO 2 /Ti/Pt). Spinning rate, acceleration and slurry deposition techniques were optimized to form thick films with uniform thickness and without any cracking. Increasing solids loading was found to enhance the surface smoothness of the film and decrease porosity. Films were tested for their electrical properties and ferroelectric fatigue response. The maximum polarization obtained was 40 μC/cm 2 at 250 kV/cm for PZT thick film and 30 μC/cm 2 at 450 kV/cm for La-doped PZT thick film. After 10 9 cycles of fatiguing at 35 kHz, La-doped PZT showed better resistance for ferroelectric fatigue compared with un-doped PZT films

  14. Thickness effect on the microstructure, morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathap, P; Revathi, N; Subbaiah, Y P Venkata; Reddy, K T Ramakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of ZnS with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 600 nm have been deposited on glass substrates by close spaced thermal evaporation. All the films were grown at the same deposition conditions except the deposition time. The effect of thickness on the physical properties of ZnS films has been studied. The experimental results indicated that the thickness affects the structure, lattice strain, surface morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films significantly. The films deposited at a thickness of 100 nm showed hexagonal structure whereas films of thickness 300 nm or more showed cubic structure. However, coexistence of both cubic and hexagonal structures was observed in the films of 200 nm thickness. The surface roughness of the films showed an increasing trend at higher thicknesses of the films. A blue-shift in the energy band gap along with an intense UV emission band was observed with the decrease of film thickness, which are ascribed to the quantum confinement effect. The behaviour of optical constants such as refractive index and extinction coefficient were analysed. The variation of refractive index and extinction coefficient with thickness was explained on the basis of the contribution from the packing density of the layers. The electrical resistivity as well as the activation energy were evaluated and found to decrease with the increase of film thickness. The thickness had a significant influence on the optical band gap as well as the luminescence intensity

  15. Role of high microwave power on growth and microstructure of thick nanocrystalline diamond films: A comparison with large grain polycrystalline diamond films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. J.; Fernandes, A. J. S.; Girão, A. V.; Pereira, S.; Shi, Fa-Nian; Soares, M. R.; Costa, F.; Neves, A. J.; Pinto, J. L.

    2014-03-01

    In this work, we study the growth habit of nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) films by exploring the very high power regime, up to 4 kW, in a 5 kW microwave plasma chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) reactor, through addition of a small amount of nitrogen and oxygen (0.24%) into 4% CH4 in H2 plasma. The coupled effect of high microwave power and substrate temperature on NCD growth behaviour is systematically investigated by varying only power, while fixing the remaining operating parameters. When the power increases from 2 kW to 4 kW, resulting also in rise of the Si substrate temperature higher than 150 °C, the diamond films obtained maintain the NCD habit, while the growth rate increases significantly. The highest growth rate of 4.6 μm/h is achieved for the film grown at 4 kW, which represents a growth rate enhancement of about 15 times compared with that obtained when using 2 kW power. Possible factors responsible for such remarkable growth rate enhancement of the NCD films are discussed. The evolution of NCD growth characteristics such as morphology, microstructure and texture is studied by growing thick films and comparing it with that of large grain polycrystalline (PCD) films. One important characteristic of the NCD films obtained, in contrast to PCD films, is that irrespective of deposition time (i.e. film thickness), their grain size and surface roughness remain in the nanometer range throughout the growth. Finally, based on our present and previous experimental results, a potential parameter window is established for fast growth of NCD films under high power conditions.

  16. Enhancement in microstructural and optoelectrical properties of thermally evaporated CdTe films for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chander, Subhash; Dhaka, M. S.

    2018-03-01

    The optimization of microstructural and optoelectrical properties of a thin layer is an important step prior device fabrication process, so an enhancement in these properties of thermally evaporated CdTe thin films is reported in this communication. The films having thickness 450 nm and 850 nm were deposited on thoroughly cleaned glass and indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates followed by annealing at 450 °C in air atmosphere. These films were characterized for microstructural and optoelectrical properties employing X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometer and source meter. The films found to be have zinc-blende cubic structure with preferred reflection (111) while the crystallographic parameters and direct energy band gap are strongly influenced by the film thickness. The surface morphology studies show that the films are uniform, smooth, homogeneous and nearly dense-packed as well as free from voids and pitfalls as where elemental analysis revealed the presence of Cd and Te element in the deposited films. The electrical analysis showed linear behavior of current with voltage while conductivity is decreased for higher thickness. The results show that the microstructural and optoelectrical properties of CdTe thin layer could be enhanced by varying thickness and films having higher thickness might be processed as promising absorber thin layer to the CdTe-based solar cells.

  17. Self-Poling of BiFeO3 Thick Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakova, Evgeniya; Sadl, Matej; Ursic, Hana; Daniels, John; Malic, Barbara; Bencan, Andreja; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rojac, Tadej

    2016-08-03

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is difficult to pole because of the combination of its high coercive field and high electrical conductivity. This problem is particularly pronounced in thick films. The poling, however, must be performed to achieve a large macroscopic piezoelectric response. This study presents evidence of a prominent and reproducible self-poling effect in few-tens-of-micrometer-thick BiFeO3 films. Direct and converse piezoelectric measurements confirmed that the as-sintered BiFeO3 thick films yield d33 values of up to ∼20 pC/N. It was observed that a significant self-poling effect only appears in cases when the films are heated and cooled through the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition (Curie temperature TC ∼ 820 °C). These self-poled films exhibit a microstructure with randomly oriented columnar grains. The presence of a compressive strain gradient across the film thickness cooled from above the TC was experimentally confirmed and is suggested to be responsible for the self-poling effect. Finally, the macroscopic d33 response of the self-poled BiFeO3 film was characterized as a function of the driving-field frequency and amplitude.

  18. Misfit strain-film thickness phase diagrams and related electromechanical properties of epitaxial ultra-thin lead zirconate titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Q.Y.; Mahjoub, R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Alpay, S.P. [Materials Science and Engineering Program and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Nagarajan, V., E-mail: nagarajan@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The phase stability of ultra-thin (0 0 1) oriented ferroelectric PbZr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (PZT) epitaxial thin films as a function of the film composition, film thickness, and the misfit strain is analyzed using a non-linear Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire thermodynamic model taking into account the electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The theoretical formalism incorporates the role of the depolarization field as well as the possibility of the relaxation of in-plane strains via the formation of microstructural features such as misfit dislocations at the growth temperature and ferroelastic polydomain patterns below the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transformation temperature. Film thickness-misfit strain phase diagrams are developed for PZT films with four different compositions (x = 1, 0.9, 0.8 and 0.7) as a function of the film thickness. The results show that the so-called rotational r-phase appears in a very narrow range of misfit strain and thickness of the film. Furthermore, the in-plane and out-of-plane dielectric permittivities {epsilon}{sub 11} and {epsilon}{sub 33}, as well as the out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33} for the PZT thin films, are computed as a function of misfit strain, taking into account substrate-induced clamping. The model reveals that previously predicted ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients due to misfit-strain-induced phase transitions are practically achievable only in an extremely narrow range of film thickness, composition and misfit strain parameter space. We also show that the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial ferroelectric films can be tailored through strain engineering and microstructural optimization.

  19. High resolution x-ray diffraction study of the substrate temperature and thickness dependent microstructure of reactively sputtered epitaxial ZnO films

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra

    2017-08-24

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on c-sapphire by reactive sputtering of zinc target in Ar-O2 mixture. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to obtain lateral and vertical coherence lengths, crystallite tilt and twist, micro-strain and densities of screw and edge dislocations in epilayers of different thickness (25 - 200 nm) and those grown at different temperatures (100 - 500 °C). phgr-scans indicate epitaxial growth in all the cases, although epilayers grown at lower substrate temperatures (100 °C and 200 °C) and those of smaller thickness (25 nm and 50 nm) display inferior microstructural parameters. This is attributed to the dominant presence of initially grown strained 2D layer and subsequent transition to an energetically favorable mode. With increase in substrate temperature, the transition shifts to lower thickness and growth takes place through the formation of 2D platelets with intermediate strain, over which 3D islands grow. Consequently, 100 nm thick epilayers grown at 300 °C display the best microstructural parameters (micro-strain ~1.2 x 10-3, screw and edge dislocation densities ~1.5 x 1010 cm-2 and ~2.3 x 1011 cm-2, respectively). A marginal degradation of microstructural parameters is seen in epilayers grown at higher substrate temperatures, due to the dominance of 3D hillock type growth.

  20. High resolution x-ray diffraction study of the substrate temperature and thickness dependent microstructure of reactively sputtered epitaxial ZnO films

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Devendra; Kumar, Ravi; Ganguli, Tapas; Major, Syed S

    2017-01-01

    Epitaxial ZnO films were grown on c-sapphire by reactive sputtering of zinc target in Ar-O2 mixture. High resolution X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to obtain lateral and vertical coherence lengths, crystallite tilt and twist, micro-strain and densities of screw and edge dislocations in epilayers of different thickness (25 - 200 nm) and those grown at different temperatures (100 - 500 °C). phgr-scans indicate epitaxial growth in all the cases, although epilayers grown at lower substrate temperatures (100 °C and 200 °C) and those of smaller thickness (25 nm and 50 nm) display inferior microstructural parameters. This is attributed to the dominant presence of initially grown strained 2D layer and subsequent transition to an energetically favorable mode. With increase in substrate temperature, the transition shifts to lower thickness and growth takes place through the formation of 2D platelets with intermediate strain, over which 3D islands grow. Consequently, 100 nm thick epilayers grown at 300 °C display the best microstructural parameters (micro-strain ~1.2 x 10-3, screw and edge dislocation densities ~1.5 x 1010 cm-2 and ~2.3 x 1011 cm-2, respectively). A marginal degradation of microstructural parameters is seen in epilayers grown at higher substrate temperatures, due to the dominance of 3D hillock type growth.

  1. State of the art in thin film thickness and deposition rate monitoring sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzea, Cristina; Robbie, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    In situ monitoring parameters are indispensable for thin film fabrication. Among them, thickness and deposition rate control are often the most important in achieving the reproducibility necessary for technological exploitation of physical phenomena dependent on film microstructure. This review describes the types of thickness and deposition rate sensors and their theoretical and phenomenological background, underlining their performances, as well as advantages and disadvantages

  2. Effect of deposition distance on thickness and microstructure of silicon thin film produced by electron beam evaporation; Efeito da distancia de deposicao na espessura e microestrutura de filme fino obtido por evaporacao por feixe de eletrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toledo, T.F.; Ramanery, F.P.; Branco, J.R.T. [Fundacao Centro Tecnologico de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: thalitaqui@yahoo.com.br; Cunha, M.A. [Acos Especiais Itabira S.A. (Acesita), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The interest for materials with new characteristics and properties made thin films an area of highest research interest. Silicon thin films have been widely used in solar cells, being the main active layer. In this work, the effect of deposition distance on thickness and microstructure of silicon films was investigated. The electron beam evaporation technique with argon plasma assistance was used to obtain films on stainless steel 304, Fe-Si alloy and soda lime glass. The experiments were made varying electron beam current and deposition pressure. The results are discussed based on Hertz-Knudsen's law and thin films microstructure evolution models. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction and profilometer. (author)

  3. Three-Dimensional Microstructural Properties of Nanofibrillated Cellulose Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arttu Miettinen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC films have potential as oxygen barriers for, e.g., food packaging applications, but their use is limited by their hygroscopic characteristics. The three-dimensional microstructure of NFC films made of Pinus radiata (Radiata Pine kraft pulp fibres has been assessed in this study, considering the structural development as a function of relative humidity (RH. The surface roughness, micro-porosity, thickness and their correlations were analyzed using X-ray microtomography (X–μCT and computerized image analysis. The results are compared to those from scanning electron microscopy and laser profilometry. Based on a series of films having varying amounts of 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxyl (TEMPO-mediated oxidated nanofibrils, it was demonstrated that X–μCT is suitable for assessing the surface and bulk 3D microstructure of the cellulose films. Additionally, one of the series was assessed at varying humidity levels, using the non-destructive capabilities of X–μCT and a newly developed humidity chamber for in-situ characterization. The oxygen transmission rate (OTR of the films (20 g=m2 was below 3:7mLm-2 day-1 at humidity levels below 60% RH. However, the OTR increased considerably to 12:4mLm-2 day-1 when the humidity level increased to 80% RH. The increase in OTR was attributed to a change of the film porosity, which was reflected as an increase in local thickness. Hence, the characterization techniques applied in this study shed more light on the structures of NFC films and how they are affected by varying humidity levels. It was demonstrated that in increasing relative humidity the films swelled and the oxygen barrier properties decreased.

  4. Tensile test of a silicon microstructure fully coated with submicrometer-thick diamond like carbon film using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenlei; Uesugi, Akio; Hirai, Yoshikazu; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2017-06-01

    This paper reports the tensile properties of single-crystal silicon (SCS) microstructures fully coated with sub-micrometer thick diamond like carbon (DLC) film using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). To minimize the deformations or damages caused by non-uniform coating of DLC, which has high compression residual stress, released SCS specimens with the dimensions of 120 µm long, 4 µm wide, and 5 µm thick were coated from the top and bottom side simultaneously. The thickness of DLC coating is around 150 nm and three different bias voltages were used for deposition. The tensile strength improved from 13.4 to 53.5% with the increasing of negative bias voltage. In addition, the deviation in strength also reduced significantly compared to bare SCS sample.

  5. Microstructural Studies of Ni-P Thick Film Resistor Temperature Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Holodnik

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available Thick Ni-P films have been widely investigated at our Institute. This article tends to visualize by use of various microscopic methods how the growth and sintering of individual conducting grains, results in the formation of nickel dendrites responsible for the metallic character of electrical conduction.

  6. Equilibrium helium film in the thick film limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klier, J.; Schletterer, F.; Leiderer, P.; Shikin, V.

    2003-01-01

    For the thickness of a liquid or solid quantum film, like liquid helium or solid hydrogen, there exist still open questions about how the film thickness develops in certain limits. One of these is the thick film limit, i.e., the crossover from the thick film to bulk. We have performed measurements in this range using the surface plasmon resonance technique and an evaporated Ag film deposited on glass as substrate. The thickness of the adsorbed helium film is varied by changing the distance h of the bulk reservoir to the surface of the substrate. In the limiting case, when h > 0, the film thickness approaches about 100 nm following the van der Waals law in the retarded regime. The film thickness and its dependence on h is precisely determined and theoretically modeled. The equilibrium film thickness behaviour is discussed in detail. The agreement between theory and experiment is very good

  7. Microstructure of Homoepitaxial SrTiO3 Films Deposited by Laser Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tse, Y Y; Jackson, T J; Koutsonas, Y; Passerieux, G; Jones, I P

    2006-01-01

    Homoepitaxial strontium titanate thin films have been grown by pulsed laser deposition on (001) SrTiO 3 (STO) substrates with pulse rates ranging from 0.15 Hz to 100 Hz. The microstructure of the as-deposited films has been characterised by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy. It is found that the growth mode and microstructure of the films are strongly influenced by the intervals between the laser pulses. Films have homogeneous microstructure under a critical thickness, above which the film breaks into toothlike columns. The growth is unstable against the formation of low angle boundaries which result in the formation of grains elongated in the direction of film growth. These become toothlike structures and the size of the tooth depends on the pulse rate and the growth time. The diffusion of point defects in films grown over a long time can lead instead to the development of elongated vacancy clusters directed normal to the film-vacuum interface. All films grow with a high density of point defects which may be related to deviation from the stoichiometry of the ceramic ablation target. Microanalysis suggests that there is strontium loss in the film, which causes defect formation inside the STO films

  8. Detailed microstructure analysis of as-deposited and etched porous ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang, Congcong; Thimont, Yohann; Barnabé, Antoine; Presmanes, Lionel; Pasquet, Isabelle; Tailhades, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Porous ZnO thin films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering. • Surface enhancement factors were deduced from geometrical considerations. • Enlargement of the inter-grain spaces have been achieved by HCl chemical etching. • Microstructural parameters were deduced from SEM, AFM and optical measurements. - Abstract: ZnO nanostructured materials in thin film forms are of particular interest for photovoltaic or photocatalysis processes but they suffer from a lack of simple methods for optimizing their microstructure. We have demonstrated that microporous ZnO thin films with optimized inter grain accessibility can be produce by radio frequency magnetron sputtering process and chemical etching with 2.75 mM HCl solution for different duration. The as-deposited ZnO thin films were first characterized in terms of structure, grain size, inter grain space, open cavity depth and total thickness of the film by XRD, AFM, SEM, profilometry and optical measurements. A specific attention was dedicated to the determination of the surface enhancement factor (SEF) by using basic geometrical considerations and images treatments. In addition, the porous fraction and its distribution in the thickness have been estimated thanks to the optical simulation of the experimental UV–Visible–IR spectrums using the Bruggeman dielectric model and cross section SEM images analysis respectively. This study showed that the microstructure of the as-deposited films consists of a dense layer covered by a porous upper layer developing a SEF of 12–13 m 2 m −2 . This two layers architecture is not modified by the etching process. The etching process only affects the upper porous layer in which the overall porosity and the inter-grain space increase with the etching duration. Column diameter and total film thickness decrease at the same time when the films are soaked in the HCl bath. The microporous structure obtained after the etching process could

  9. Microstructure and transport current characterization of YBa2Cu3O7-x thick films prepared by modified solid-liquid melt growth and powder melt process routes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhorn, J.; McGinn, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    From the characterization of superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thick films processed by melt texturing on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates from YBCO precursors it is clear that the properties are highly dependent on the precursor powder. Increased YBCO grain sizes have been induced in thick films processed from by modified solid-liquid melt growth (SLMG) and powder melt (PMP) processes with respect to those processed from pre-reacted YBCO materials. The SLMG and PMP routes utilize precursors consisting of BaCuO 2 -CuO flux material mixed with Y 2 O 3 and Y 2 BaCuO 5 respectively. Cross-sectional analysis of films textured by these routes shows a decreased Y 2 BaCuO 5 size and an increased homogeneity within the matrix with respect to films processed from YBCO powder. Such microstructural improvements lead to an improvement of both the flux pinning and current-carrying characteristics of the processed YBCO films. (author)

  10. Thickness dependence of microstructures in La0.9Sr0.1MnO3 thin films grown on exact-cut and miscut SrTiO3 substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongdi; An Yukai; Mai Zhenhong; Lu Huibin; Zhao Kun; Pan Guoqiang; Li Ruipeng; Fan Rong

    2008-01-01

    The thickness dependence of microstructures of La 0.9 Sr 0.1 MnO 3 (LSMO) thin films grown on exact-cut and miscut SrTiO 3 (STO) substrates, respectively, was investigated by high-angle X-ray diffraction (HXRD), X-ray small-angle reflection (XSAR), X-ray reciprocal space mapping and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Results show that the LSMO films are in pseudocubic structure and are highly epitaxial [0 0 1]-oriented growth on the (0 0 1) STO substrates. The crystalline quality of the LSMO film is improved with thickness. The epitaxial relationship between the LSMO films and the STO substrates is [0 0 1] LSMO -parallel [0 0 1] EXACT-STO , and the LSMO films have a slight mosaic structure along the q x direction for the samples grown on the exact-cut STO substrates. However, an oriented angle of about 0.24 deg. exists between [0 0 1] LSMO and [0 0 1] MISCUT-STO , and the LSMO films have a mosaic structure along the q z direction for that grown on the miscut STO substrates. The mosaic structure of both groups of the samples tends to reduce with thickness. The diffraction intensity of the (0 0 4) peaks increases with thickness of the LSMO film. The XSAR and AFM observations show that for both groups, the interface is sharp and the surface is rather smooth. The mechanism was discussed briefly

  11. Development of high J c Bi2223/Ag thick film materials prepared by heat treatment under low P O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Y.; Shimoyama, J.; Motoki, T.; Nakamura, S.; Nakashima, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Kato, T.

    2018-07-01

    In general, a dense and c-axis grain-oriented microstructure is desirable in order to achieve the high critical current properties of Bi2223 polycrystalline materials. On the other hand, our recent studies have shown that precise control of the chemical compositions of Bi2223 is also effective for the enhancement of intergrain J c. In this study, the development of Bi2223 thick film materials with high critical current properties was attempted by controlling both the microstructure and the chemical compositions. A high intergrain J c of ∼8 kA cm‑2 at 77 K of a film with ∼40 μm t was achieved by increasing the Pb substitution level for the Bi site and controlling the nonstoichiometric chemical compositions. Furthermore, it was revealed that an increase in the thickness enabled us to obtain high I c films suitable for practical applications. In contrast, there are still issues, especially in controlling the grain alignment at the inner part of the film, which suggests that the J c properties of thick film materials could be further improved by forming a more ideal microstructure, as realized in the Bi2223 filaments of multi-filamentary Ag-sheathed tapes.

  12. Composition and microstructure of beryllium carbide films prepared by thermal MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yu-dan; Luo, Jiang-shan; Li, Jia; Meng, Ling-biao; Luo, Bing-chi; Zhang, Ji-qiang; Zeng, Yong; Wu, Wei-dong, E-mail: wuweidongding@163.com

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Non-columnar-crystal Be{sub 2}C films were firstly prepared by thermal MOCVD. • Beryllium carbide was always the dominant phase in the films. • α-Be and carbon existed in films deposited below and beyond 400 °C, respectively. • Morphology evolved with temperatures and no columnar grains were characterized. • The preferred substrate temperature for depositing high quality Be{sub 2}C films was 400 °C. - Abstract: Beryllium carbide films without columnar-crystal microstructures were prepared on the Si (1 0 0) substrate by thermal metal organic chemical vapor deposition using diethylberyllium as precursor. The influence of the substrate temperature on composition and microstructure of beryllium carbide films was systematically studied. Crystalline beryllium carbide is always the dominant phase according to XRD analysis. Meanwhile, a small amount of α-Be phase exists in films when the substrate temperature is below 400 °C, and hydrocarbon or amorphous carbon exists when the temperature is beyond 400 °C. Surfaces morphology shows transition from domes to cylinders, to humps, and to tetraquetrous crystalline needles with the increase of substrate temperature. No columnar grains are characterized throughout the thickness as revealed from the cross-section views. The average densities of these films are determined to be 2.04–2.17 g/cm{sup 3}. The findings indicate the substrate temperature has great influences on the composition and microstructure of the Be{sub 2}C films grown by thermal MOCVD.

  13. Strain dependent microstructural modifications of BiCrO{sub 3} epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan, Vijayanandhini, E-mail: kvnandhini@gmail.com [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); CNRS, University of Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Arredondo, Miryam; Johann, Florian; Hesse, Dietrich [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany); Labrugere, Christine [CNRS, University of Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); CeCaMA, University of Bordeaux, ICMCB, F-33600 Pessac (France); Maglione, Mario [CNRS, University of Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Vrejoiu, Ionela [Max Planck Institute of Microstructure Physics, Weinberg 2, D-06120 Halle (Saale) (Germany)

    2013-10-31

    Strain-dependent microstructural modifications were observed in epitaxial BiCrO{sub 3} (BCO) thin films fabricated on single crystalline substrates, utilizing pulsed laser deposition. The following conditions were employed to modify the epitaxial-strain: (i) in-plane tensile strain, BCO{sub STO} [BCO grown on buffered SrTiO{sub 3} (001)] and in-plane compressive strain, BCO{sub NGO} [BCO grown on buffered NdGaO{sub 3} (110)] and (ii) varying BCO film thickness. A combination of techniques like X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to analyse the epitaxial growth quality and the microstructure of BCO. Our studies revealed that in the case of BCO{sub STO}, a coherent interface with homogeneous orthorhombic phase is obtained only for BCO film with thicknesses, d < 50 nm. All the BCO{sub STO} films with d ≥ 50 nm were found to be strain-relaxed with an orthorhombic phase showing 1/2 <100> and 1/4 <101> satellite reflections, the latter oriented at 45° from orthorhombic diffraction spots. High angle annular dark field scanning TEM of these films strongly suggested that the satellite reflections, 1/2 <100> and 1/4 <101>, originate from the atomic stacking sequence changes (or “modulated structure”) as reported for polytypes, without altering the chemical composition. The unaltered stoichiometry was confirmed by estimating both valency of Bi and Cr cations by surface and in-depth XPS analysis as well as the stoichiometric ratio (1 Bi:1 Cr) using scanning TEM–energy dispersive X-ray analysis. In contrast, compressively strained BCO{sub NGO} films exhibited monoclinic symmetry without any structural modulations or interfacial defects, up to d ∼ 200 nm. Our results indicate that both the substrate-induced in-plane epitaxial strain and the BCO film thickness are the crucial parameters to stabilise a homogeneous BCO phase in an epitaxially grown film. - Highlights: • Phase pure

  14. Ceramic thick film humidity sensor based on MgTiO3 + LiF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassas, Ahmad; Bernard, Jérôme; Lelièvre, Céline; Besq, Anthony; Guhel, Yannick; Houivet, David; Boudart, Bertrand; Lakiss, Hassan; Hamieh, Tayssir

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabricated sensor based on MgTiO 3 + LiF materials used the spin coating technology. • The response time is 70 s to detect variation between 5 and 95% relative humidity. • The addition of Scleroglucan controls the viscosity and decreases the roughness of thick film surface. • This humidity sensor is a promising, low-cost, high-quality, reliable ceramic films, that is highly sensitive to humidity. - Abstract: The feasibility of humidity sensor, consisting of a thick layer of MgTiO 3 /LiF materials on alumina substrate, was studied. The thermal analysis TGA-DTGA and dilatometric analysis worked out to confirm the sintering temperature. An experimental plan was applied to describe the effects of different parameters in the development of the thick film sensor. Structural and microstructural characterizations of the developed thick film were made. Rheological study with different amounts of a thickener (scleroglucan “sclg”), showing the behavior variation, as a function of sclg weight % was illustrated and rapprochement with the results of thickness variation as a function of angular velocity applied in the spin coater. The electrical and dielectric measurements confirmed the sensitivity of the elaborated thick film against moisture, along with low response time

  15. Texture change through film thickness and off-axis accommodation of (0 0 2) planes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, A.R.; Karimi, A.

    2011-01-01

    We present our recent experimental results on the formation of off-axis texture and crystallographic tilting of crystallites that take place in thin film of transition metal nitrides. For this purpose, the microstructural development of TiAlN film was studied, specially the change in texture with film thickness. Fiber texture was measured using θ-2θ and pole figure X-ray diffraction (XRD), while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to observe the microstructure and changes in texture with thickness. The sin 2 ψ method was applied to determine the stresses on (1 1 1) and (0 0 2) plane. With deposition parameters chosen, the growth texture mechanism is discussed in three different stages of film growth. Surface energy minimization at low thickness leads to the development of (0 0 2) orientation. On the other hand, the competitive growth promotes the growth of (1 1 1) planes parallel to film surface at higher thickness. However, contrary to the prediction of growth models, the (0 0 2) grains are not completely overlapped by (1 1 1) grains at higher thickness. Rather the (0 0 2) grains still constitute the surface, but are tilted away from the substrate normal showing substantial in-plane alignment to allow the (1 1 1) planes remain parallel to film surface. Intrinsic stress along (1 1 1) and (0 0 2) shows a strong dependence with preferred orientation. The stress level in (0 0 2) grains which was compressive at low thickness changes to tensile at higher thickness. This change in the nature of stress allows the (0 0 2) planes to tilt away in order to promote the growth of 〈1 1 1〉 parallel to film normal and to minimize the overall energy of system due to high compressive stress stored in the (1 1 1) grains. The change in surface morphology with thickness was observed using SEM. An increase in surface roughness with film thickness was observed which indicates the development of (1 1 1) texture parallel to film

  16. Growth of BaTiO3-PVDF composite thick films by using aerosol deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Hwan; Yoon, Young Joon

    2016-01-01

    Barium titanate (BaTiO3)-polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) composite thick films were grown by using aerosol deposition at room temperature with BaTiO3 and PVDF powders. To produce a uniform composition in ceramic and polymer composite films, which show a substantial difference in specific gravity, we used PVDF-coated BaTiO3 powders as the starting materials. An examination of the microstructure confirmed that the BaTiO3 were well distributed in the PVDF matrix in the form of a 0 - 3 compound. The crystallite size in the BaTiO3-PVDF composite thick films was 5 ˜ 50 times higher than that in pure BaTiO3 thick films. PVDF plays a role in suppressing the fragmentation of BaTiO3 powder during the aerosol deposition process and in controlling the relative permittivity.

  17. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of NdFeB Films through Nd Surface Diffusion Process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Wenfeng; Zhang, Mingang; Zhang, Kewei; Chai, Yuesheng

    2017-01-01

    Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on Si (100) substrates and subsequently annealed for 30 min at 923 K in vacuum. It was found that the microstructure and magnetic properties of Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films strongly depend on the NdFeB layer thickness. With NdFeB layer thickness increasing, both the grain size and the strain firstly reduce and then increase. When NdFeB layer thickness is 750 nm, the strain reaches the minimum value. Meanwhile, both the in-plane and per...

  18. Influence of the spacer layer on microstructure and magnetic properties of [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriac, H. [National Institute of R and D for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Blvd., 700050 Iasi (Romania); Grigoras, M. [National Institute of R and D for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Blvd., 700050 Iasi (Romania); Urse, M. [National Institute of R and D for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Blvd., 700050 Iasi (Romania)]. E-mail: urse@phys-iasi.ro

    2007-09-15

    Some results concerning the influence of the composition and thickness of NbCu spacer layer on the microstructure and magnetic properties of multilayer [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn films, in view of their utilization for manufacturing the thin film permanent magnets are presented. A comparison between the microstructure and magnetic properties of NdFeB single layer and [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn multilayer is also presented. The multilayer [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn thin films with the thickness of the NdFeB layer of 180nm and the thickness of the NbCu spacer layer of 3nm, exhibit good hard magnetic characteristics such as coercive force H{sub c} of about 1510kA/m and the remanence ratio M{sub r}/M{sub s} of about 0.8.

  19. Influence of the spacer layer on microstructure and magnetic properties of [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriac, H.; Grigoras, M.; Urse, M.

    2007-01-01

    Some results concerning the influence of the composition and thickness of NbCu spacer layer on the microstructure and magnetic properties of multilayer [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn films, in view of their utilization for manufacturing the thin film permanent magnets are presented. A comparison between the microstructure and magnetic properties of NdFeB single layer and [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn multilayer is also presented. The multilayer [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn thin films with the thickness of the NdFeB layer of 180nm and the thickness of the NbCu spacer layer of 3nm, exhibit good hard magnetic characteristics such as coercive force H c of about 1510kA/m and the remanence ratio M r /M s of about 0.8

  20. Effect of film thickness, type of buffer layer, and substrate temperature on the morphology of dicyanovinyl-substituted sexithiophene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Alexandr A., E-mail: alexander.levin@iapp.de [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Levichkova, Marieta [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Heliatek GmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Hildebrandt, Dirk; Klisch, Marina; Weiss, Andre [Heliatek GmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Wynands, David; Elschner, Chris [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Pfeiffer, Martin [Heliatek GmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Leo, Karl; Riede, Moritz [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-01-31

    The influence of film thickness, type of buffer underlayer, and deposition substrate temperature on the crystal structure, microstructure, and morphology of the films of dicyanovinyl-substituted sexithiophene with four butyl-chains (DCV6T-Bu{sub 4}) is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectivity methods. A neat Si wafer or a Si wafer covered by a 15 nm buffer underlayer of fullerene C{sub 60} or 9,9-Bis[4-(N,N-bis-biphenyl-4-yl-amino)phenyl]-9H-fluorene (BPAPF) is used as a substrate. The crystalline nature and ordered molecular arrangement of the films are recorded down to 6 nm film thickness. By using substrates heated up to 90 Degree-Sign C during the film deposition, the size of the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} crystallites in direction perpendicular to the film surface increases up to value of the film thickness. With increasing deposition substrate temperature or film thickness, the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} film relaxes, resulting in reducing the interplane distances closer to the bulk values. For the films of the same thickness deposited at the same substrate temperature, the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} film relaxes for growth on Si to BPAPF to C{sub 60}. Thicker films grown at heated substrates are characterized by smaller density, higher roughness and crystallinity and better molecular ordering. A thin (up to about 6 nm-thick) intermediate layer with linear density-gradient is formed at the C{sub 60}/DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} interface for the films with buffer C{sub 60} layer. The XRD pattern of the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} powder is indexed using triclinic unit cell parameters.

  1. The morphology, microstructure, and luminescent properties of CdS/CdTe films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Jassim, M.M.; Dhere, R.G.; Jones, K.M.; Hasoon, F.S.; Sheldon, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the characterization of CdS/CdTe polycrystalline thin films for solar cells. The morphology, microstructure, and luminescent properties are studied by a powerful array of characterization techniques. The presence of pinholes in 100-nm thick CdS is observed. The microstructure of CdS and CdTe films is shown to be heavily faulted polycrystalline. The effect of deposition temperature on the grain size and the microstructure is investigated. The interdiffusion of sulfur and tellurium at the CdS/CdTe interface is studied for the first time by a nanoprobe technique. Considerable amount of sulfur is detected in CdTe in the vicinity of the interface of samples deposited at 625 C. The recombination behavior of grain boundaries and intragrain defects is investigated in as-deposited and heat-treated samples.

  2. Use of buffy coat thick films in detecting malaria parasites in patients with negative conventional thick films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangdee, Chatnapa; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Krudsood, Srivicha; Wilairatana, Polrat

    2012-04-01

    To determine the frequency of malaria parasite detection from the buffy coat blood films by using capillary tube in falciparum malaria patients with negative conventional thick films. Thirty six uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients confirmed by conventional thick and thin films were included in the study. The patients were treated with artemisinin combination therapy at Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand for 28 day. Fingerpricks for conventional blood films were conducted every 6 hours until negative parasitemia, then daily fingerpricks for parasite checks were conducted until the patients were discharged from hospital. Blood samples were also concurrently collected in 3 heparinized capillary tubes at the same time of fingerpricks for conventional blood films when the prior parasitemia was negative on thin films and parasitemia was lower than 50 parasites/200 white blood cells by thick film. The first negative conventional thick films were compared with buffy coat thick films for parasite identification. Out of 36 patients with thick films showing negative for asexual forms of parasites, buffy coat films could detect remaining 10 patients (27.8%) with asexual forms of Plasmodium falciparum. The study shows that buffy coat thick films are useful and can detect malarial parasites in 27.8% of patients whose conventional thick films show negative parasitemia.

  3. Microstructure, thickness and sheet resistivity of Cu/Ni thin film produced by electroplating technique on the variation of electrolyte temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toifur, M.; Yuningsih, Y.; Khusnani, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this research, it has been made Cu/Ni thin film produced with electroplating technique. The deposition process was done in the plating bath using Cu and Ni as cathode and anode respectively. The electrolyte solution was made from the mixture of HBrO3 (7.5g), NiSO4 (100g), NiCl2 (15g), and aquadest (250 ml). Electrolyte temperature was varied from 40°C up to 80°C, to make the Ni ions in the solution easy to move to Cu cathode. The deposition was done during 2 minutes on the potential of 1.5 volt. Many characterizations were done including the thickness of Ni film, microstructure, and sheet resistivity. The results showed that at all samples Ni had attacked on the Cu substrate to form Cu/Ni. The raising of electrolyte temperature affected the increasing of Ni thickness that is the Ni thickness increase with the increasing electrolyte temperature. From the EDS spectrum, it can be informed that samples already contain Ni and Cu elements and NiO and CuO compounds. Addition element and compound are found for sample Cu/Ni resulted from 70° electrolyte temperature of Ni deposition, that are Pt and PtO2. From XRD pattern, there are several phases which have crystal structure i.e. Cu, Ni, and NiO, while CuO and PtO2 have amorphous structure. The sheet resistivity linearly decreases with the increasing electrolyte temperature.

  4. Ceramic thick film humidity sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassas, Ahmad, E-mail: a.kassas.mcema@ul.edu.lb [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Bernard, Jérôme; Lelièvre, Céline; Besq, Anthony; Guhel, Yannick; Houivet, David; Boudart, Bertrand [Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Lakiss, Hassan [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Faculty of Engineering, Section III, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Hamieh, Tayssir [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabricated sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF materials used the spin coating technology. • The response time is 70 s to detect variation between 5 and 95% relative humidity. • The addition of Scleroglucan controls the viscosity and decreases the roughness of thick film surface. • This humidity sensor is a promising, low-cost, high-quality, reliable ceramic films, that is highly sensitive to humidity. - Abstract: The feasibility of humidity sensor, consisting of a thick layer of MgTiO{sub 3}/LiF materials on alumina substrate, was studied. The thermal analysis TGA-DTGA and dilatometric analysis worked out to confirm the sintering temperature. An experimental plan was applied to describe the effects of different parameters in the development of the thick film sensor. Structural and microstructural characterizations of the developed thick film were made. Rheological study with different amounts of a thickener (scleroglucan “sclg”), showing the behavior variation, as a function of sclg weight % was illustrated and rapprochement with the results of thickness variation as a function of angular velocity applied in the spin coater. The electrical and dielectric measurements confirmed the sensitivity of the elaborated thick film against moisture, along with low response time.

  5. A study for anticorrosion and tribological behaviors of thin/thick diamond-like carbon films in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yewei; Jia, Shujuan; Zhang, Dawei; Liu, Wei; Zhao, Haichao

    2018-03-01

    The thin and thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared by unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique on 304L stainless steels and (100) silicon wafers. Microstructure, mechanical, corrosion and tribological properties were systematically investigated by SEM, Raman, nanoindenter, scratch tester, modulab electrochemical workstation and R-tec multifunctional tribological tester. Results showed that the adhesion force presented a descending trend with the growth in soaking time. The adhesion force of the thin DLC film with high residual compressive stress (‑3.72 GPa) was higher than that of the thick DLC film (‑2.96 GPa). During the corrosion test, the thick DLC film showed a higher impendence and a lower corrosion current density than the thin DLC film, which is attributed to the barrier action of large thickness. Compared to bare 304L substrate, the friction coefficients and wear rates of DLC films in seawater were obviously decreased. Meanwhile, the thin DLC film with ideal residual compressive stress, super adhesion force and good plastic deformation resistance revealed an excellent anti-wear ability in seawater.

  6. The film thickness dependent thermal stability of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag thin films as high-temperature solar selective absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xiudi; Xu Gang, E-mail: xiudixiao@163.com; Xiong Bin; Chen Deming; Miao Lei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrates, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (China)

    2012-03-15

    The monolayer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and optical properties of thin film after annealing at 700 Degree-Sign C in air were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectrophotometer. It revealed that the particle shape, size, and distribution across the film were greatly changed before and after annealing. The surface plasmon resonance absorption and thermal stability of the film were found to be strongly dependent on the film thickness, which was believed to be associated with the evolution process of particle diffusion, agglomeration, and evaporation during annealing at high temperature. When the film thickness was smaller than 90 nm, the film SPR absorption can be attenuated until extinct with increasing annealing time due to the evaporation of Ag particles. While the film thickness was larger than 120 nm, the absorption can keep constant even after annealing for 64 h due to the agglomeration of Ag particles. On the base of film thickness results, the multilayer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag solar selective thin films were prepared and the thermal stability test illustrated that the solar selectivity of multilayer films with absorbing layer thickness larger than 120 nm did not degrade after annealing at 500 Degree-Sign C for 70 h in air. It can be concluded that film thickness is an important factor to control the thermal stability of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag thin films as high-temperature solar selective absorbers.

  7. Electrical and Gas Sensing Properties of SnO2 Thick Film Resistors Prepared by Screen-printing Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y. BORSE

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Thick films of tin-oxide (SnO2 were deposited on alumina substrates employing screen-printing technique. The films were dried and fired at 680 0C for 30 minutes. The variation of D.C. resistance of thick films was measured in air as well as in H2S gas atmosphere as a function of temperature. The SnO2 films exhibit semiconducting behaviour. The SnO2 thick films studied were also showing decrease in resistance with increase of concentration of H2S gas. The film resistors showed the highest sensitivity to H2S gas at 350 0C. The XRD studies of the thick film indicate the presence of different phases of SnO2. The elemental analysis was confirmed by EDX spectra. The surface morphological study of the films was analyzed by SEM. The microstructure of the films was porous resulting from loosely interconnected small crystallites. The parameters such as grain size, activation energy, sensitivity and response time were described.

  8. Effect of carbon additive on microstructure evolution and magnetic properties of epitaxial FePt (001) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Y.F.; Chen, J.S.; Liu, E.; Lim, B.C.; Hu, J.F.; Liu, B.

    2009-01-01

    FePt:C thin films were deposited on CrRu underlayers by DC magnetron co-sputtering. The effects of C content, FePt:C film thickness and substrate temperature on the microstructural and magnetic properties of the epitaxial FePt (001) films were studied. Experimental results showed that even with 30 vol.% C doping, the FePt films could keep a (001) preferred orientation at 350 deg. C . When a FePt:C film was very thin (< 5 nm), the film had a continuous microstructure instead of a granual structure with C diffused onto the film surface. With further increased film thickness, the film started to nucleate and formed a column microstructure over continuous FePt films. A strong exchange coupling in the FePt:C films was believed to be due to the presence of a thin continuous FePt layer attributed to the carbon diffusion during the initial stage of the FePt:C film growth. Despite the presence of a strong exchange coupling in the FePt:C (20 vol.% C) film, the SNR ratio of the FePt:C media was about 10 dB better than that of the pure FePt media. The epitaxial growth of the FePt:C films on the Pt layers was observed from high resolution TEM cross sectional images even for the films grown at about 200 deg. C . The TEM images did not show an obvious change in the morphology of the FePt:C films deposited at different temperatures (from 200 deg. C to 350 deg. C ), though the ordering degree and coercivity of the films increased with increased substrate temperature

  9. Morphological and microstructural characterization of nanostructured pure α-phase W coatings on a wide thickness range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordillo, N., E-mail: nuri.gordillo@gmail.com [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, ETSI de Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); CEI Campus Moncloa, UCM-UPM, Madrid (Spain); Panizo-Laiz, M. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, ETSI de Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Tejado, E. [Department of Materials Science, Research Centre on Safety and Durability of Structures and Materials (CISDEM), UPM-CSIC, C/Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalúrgicas, CENIM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Fernandez-Martinez, I. [Instituto de Energía Solar (IES), Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Avenida Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid, IMM-CNM-CSIC, Isaac Newton 8 PTM, Tres Cantos, E-28760 Madrid (Spain); Rivera, A. [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear, ETSI de Industriales, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, C/José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Pastor, J.Y. [Department of Materials Science, Research Centre on Safety and Durability of Structures and Materials (CISDEM), UPM-CSIC, C/Profesor Aranguren s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Castro, C. Gómez de [Departamento de Física de Materiales, Facultad de CC. Químicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); and others

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Pure α-phase tungsten nanostructures were deposited by DC-magnetron sputtering. • Non-delaminated coatings were achieved at powers ≤50 W. • The coating thicknesses vary from 30 nm up to ∼4.0 μm. • The influence of the substrate on the coating properties was investigated. • We report on the morphological, microstructural and mechanical properties. - Abstract: Nanostructured tungsten (nanoW) coatings have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering. First, the influence of the sputtering power on the adhesion of the coatings to the substrate was investigated by depositing coatings at powers varying from 30 up to 220 W. Non-delaminated coatings were achieved at powers ≤50 W. Second, the influence of coating thickness on the morphological, microstructural and mechanical properties was investigated for films deposited at 50 W with thicknesses varying from 30 nm up to ∼4.0 μm. SEM images reveal that all the films are highly compact, consisting of nanometer sized columns that grow perpendicular to the substrate. XRD data evidence that films are monophasic, being made of pure α-phase. All coatings show compressive stress and low micro-strain. Nanoindentation tests show that coatings have a hardness higher than that reported for coarse grained W. No significant dependence of the previous properties on coating thickness was observed. Finally, the influence of the substrate on coatings properties was studied, by depositing a W coating at a power of 50 W on a commercial steel substrate: no significant dependence was found.

  10. Study of Microstructural Parameters of Screen Printed ZnO Thick Film Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. PATIL

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the compositional, morphological and structural properties of ZnO thick films prepared by a standard screen printing method and fired between 650 oC to 900 oC for 2 hours in an air atmosphere. The material characterization was done using X-ray energy dispersive analysis (EDX, X-ray diffraction (XRD and a scanning electron microscope (SEM. The deposited films were polycrystalline in nature having the wurtzite (hexagonal structure with a preferred orientation along the (101 plane. The result shows that the wt. % of Zn was found to be 80.39, 82.66 and 83.47 % for firing temperatures of 700, 800 and 900 oC respectively may be due to the release of excess oxygen. The effect of the firing temperature on structural parameters such as the crystallite size, specific surface area, texture coefficient, RMSmicrostrain, dislocation density and stacking fault probability have been studied. The results indicate that grain growth can be increased by increasing the firing temperature which is responsible for decreasing the RMSmicrostrain, stacking fault probability and dislocation density in ZnO thick films. The crystallite size changes from 18.58 nm to 37.23 nm with respect to the increase in the firing temperature.

  11. Realization of hexagonal barium ferrite thick films on Si substrates using a screen printing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yajie; Smith, Ian; Geiler, Anton L; Vittoria, Carmine; Harris, Vincent G; Zagorodnii, Volodymyr; Celinski, Zbigniew

    2008-01-01

    Hexagonal barium ferrite thick films (50-200 μm) have been deposited on Si and Al 2 O 3 /Si substrates using a screen printing technique. X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy and magnetometry were used to characterize and correlate the ferrite films' microstructure and magnetic properties. The experiments indicated that an Al 2 O 3 underlayer was effective in preventing silicon diffusion into the barium ferrite films during a final sintering treatment at temperatures above 1100 deg. C. A two-stage sintering process allowed a reasonable tradeoff between mechanical and magnetic properties. This work reveals the feasibility of fabrication of thick ferrite films on large substrates (up to 25 mm in diameter) for future planar microwave devices compatible with semiconductor integrated circuits processing

  12. Interaction domains in high performance NdFeB thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodcock, Tom; Khlopkov, Kirill; Schultz, Ludwig; Gutfleisch, Oliver [IFW Dresden, IMW, Dresden (Germany); Walther, Arno [Insitut Neel, CNRS-UJF, Grenoble (France); CEA Leti - MINATEC, Grenoble (France); Dempsey, Nora; Givord, Dominique [Insitut Neel, CNRS-UJF, Grenoble (France)

    2009-07-01

    Thick sputtered films (5-300 micron) of NdFeB have excellent hard magnetic properties which make them attractive for applications in micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). A two step process consisting of triode sputtering and high temperature annealing produced films with energy densities approaching those of sintered NdFeB magnets. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) using hard magnetic tips showed that the films deposited without substrate heating and at 300 C exhibited magnetic domains typical of low anisotropy materials. These films were amorphous in the as-deposited state. The film deposited at 500 C was crystalline and displaid hard magnetic properties. This was reflected in the magnetic microstructure which showed interaction domains typical of highly textured and high magnetic anisotropy materials with a grain size below or equal to the critical single-domain particle limit. With increasing substrate temperature, the domain patterns of the annealed films became coarser, indicating higher degrees of texture.

  13. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopic Analysis of RuO2 Based Thick Film pH Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjakkal, Libu; Djurdjic, Elvira; Cvejin, Katarina; Kulawik, Jan; Zaraska, Krzysztof; Szwagierczak, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    The conductimetric interdigitated thick film pH sensors based on RuO 2 were fabricated and their electrochemical reactions with solutions of different pH values were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The microstructural properties and composition of the sensitive films were examined by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The EIS analysis of the sensor was carried out in the frequency range 10 mHz–2 MHz for pH values of test solutions 2–12. The electrical parameters of the sensor were found to vary with changing pH. The conductance and capacitance of the film were distinctly dependent on pH in the low frequency range. The Nyquist and Bode plots derived from the impedance data for the metal oxide thick film pH sensor provided information about the underlying electrochemical reactions

  14. Nanostructured MgTiO{sub 3} thick films obtained by electrophoretic deposition from nanopowders prepared by solar PVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostol, Irina [S.C. IPEE Amiral Trading Impex S.A., 115300 Curtea de Arges (Romania); Mahajan, Amit [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-093 Aveiro (Portugal); Monty, Claude J.A. [CNRS-PROMES Laboratory, 66120 Font Romeu Odeillo (France); Venkata Saravanan, K., E-mail: venketvs@cutn.ac.in [Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-093 Aveiro (Portugal); Department of Physics, School of Basic and Applied Science, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur 61010 (India)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Obtaining nano-crystalline magnesium titanium oxide powders by solar physical vapor deposition (SPVD) process. And using these nano-powders to obtain thick films on conducting substrates by electrophoretic deposition (EPD). • SPVD is a core innovative, original and environmentally friendly process to prepare nano-materials in a powder form. • Sintered thick films exhibited dielectric constant, ε{sub r} ∼18.3 and dielectric loss, tan δ ∼0.0012 at 1 MHz, which is comparable to the values reported earlier. • New contributions to the pool of information on the preparation of nano-structured MgTiO{sub 3} thick films at low temperatures. • A considerable decrease in synthesis temperature of pure MgTiO{sub 3} thick film was observed by the combination of SPVD and EPD. - Abstract: A novel combination of solar physical vapor deposition (SPVD) and electrophoretic deposition (EPD) that was developed to grow MgTiO{sub 3} nanostructured thick films is presented. Obtaining nanostructured MgTiO{sub 3} thick films, which can replace bulk ceramic components, a major trend in electronic industry, is the main objective of this work. The advantage of SPVD is direct synthesis of nanopowders, while EPD is simple, fast and inexpensive technique for preparing thick films. SPVD technique was developed at CNRS-PROMES Laboratory, Odeillo-Font Romeu, France, while the EPD was performed at University of Aveiro – DeMAC/CICECO, Portugal. The nanopowders with an average crystallite size of about 30 nm prepared by SPVD were dispersed in 50 ml of acetone in basic media with addition of triethanolamine. The obtained well-dispersed and stable suspensions were used for carrying out EPD on 25 μm thick platinum foils. After deposition, films with thickness of about 22–25 μm were sintered in air for 15 min at 800, 900 and 1000 °C. The structural and microstructural characterization of the sintered thick films was carried out using XRD and SEM, respectively. The

  15. BaF2 POST-DEPOSITION REACTION PROCESS FOR THICK YBCO FILMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUENAGA, M.; SOLOVYOV, V.F.; WU, L.; WIESMANN, H.J.; ZHU, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The basic processes of the so-called BaF 2 process for the formation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , YBCO, films as well as its advantages over the in situ formation processes are discussed in the previous chapter. The process and the properties of YBCO films by this process were also nicely described in earlier articles by R. Feenstra, (et al.) Here, we will discuss two pertinent subjects related to fabrication of technologically viable YBCO conductors using this process. These are (1) the growth of thick (>> 1 microm) c-axis-oriented YBCO films and (2) their growth rates. Before the detail discussions of these subjects are given, we first briefly discuss what geometrical structure a YBCO-coated conductor should be. Then, we will provide examples of simple arguments for how thick the YBCO films and how fast their growth rates need to be. Then, the discussions in the following two sections are devoted to: (1) the present understanding of the nucleation and the growth process for YBCO, and why it is so difficult to grow thick c-axis-oriented films (> 3 microm), and (2) our present understanding of the YBCO growth-limiting mechanism and methods to increase the growth rates. The values of critical-current densities J c in these films are of primary importance for the applications,. and the above two subjects are intimately related to the control of J c of the films. In general, the lower the temperatures of the YBCO formation are the higher the values of J c of the films. Thus, the present discussion is limited to those films which are reacted at ∼735 C. This is the lowest temperature at which c-axis-oriented YBCO films (1-3 microm thick) are comfortably grown. It is also well known that the non-c-axis oriented YBCO platelets are extremely detrimental to the values of J c such that their effects on J c dwarf essentially all of other microstructural effects which control J c . Hence, the discussion given below is mainly focused on how to avoid the growth of these crystallites

  16. Microstructure and Magnetic Properties of NdFeB Films through Nd Surface Diffusion Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films were deposited by magnetron sputtering on Si (100 substrates and subsequently annealed for 30 min at 923 K in vacuum. It was found that the microstructure and magnetic properties of Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films strongly depend on the NdFeB layer thickness. With NdFeB layer thickness increasing, both the grain size and the strain firstly reduce and then increase. When NdFeB layer thickness is 750 nm, the strain reaches the minimum value. Meanwhile, both the in-plane and perpendicular coercivities firstly drastically increase and then slowly decrease with NdFeB layer thickness increasing. The highest in-plane and perpendicular coercivities can be obtained at NdFeB layer thickness of 750 nm, which are 21.2 kOe and 19.5 kOe, respectively. In addition, the high remanence ratio (remanent magnetization/saturation magnetization of 0.87 can also be achieved in Ta/Nd/NdFeB (750 nm/Nd/Ta film.

  17. Microstructure and properties of manganese dioxide films prepared by electrodeposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, G. Moses; Zhitomirsky, I.

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructured manganese dioxide films were obtained by galvanostatic, pulse and reverse pulse electrodeposition from 0.01 to 0.1 M KMnO 4 solutions. The deposition yield was investigated by in situ monitoring the deposit mass using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Obtained films were studied by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, energy dispersive spectroscopy, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. The QCM and electron microscopy data were utilized for the investigation of deposition kinetics and film formation mechanism. It was shown that the deposition rate and film microstructure could be changed by variation of deposition conditions. The method allowed the fabrication of dense or porous films. The thickness of dense films was limited to ∼0.1 μm due to the insulating properties of manganese dioxide and film cracking, attributed to drying shrinkage. Porous and crack-free 1-2 μm films were obtained using galvanostatic or reverse pulse deposition from 0.02 M KMnO 4 solutions. It was shown that film porosity is beneficial for the charge transfer during deposition and crack prevention in thick films. Moreover, porous nanostructured films showed good capacitive behavior for applications in electrochemical supercapacitors. The porous nanostructured films prepared in the reverse pulse regime showed higher specific capacitance (SC) compared to the SC of the galvanostatic films. The highest SC of 279 F/g in a voltage window of 1 V was obtained in 0.1 M Na 2 SO 4 solutions at a scan rate of 2 mV/s

  18. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  19. Effect of the thickness and hydrogen treatment on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO transparent conductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lim, Jinhyong; Bang, Jungsik; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2008-01-01

    Combined effects of the thickness and hydrogen post-annealing treatment on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films were investigated as a potential substitute for indium tin oxide transparent conductive oxide. In the as-deposited films, microstructural evolution initially improved the crystallinity up to the thickness of 160 nm accompanying enhanced electrical and optical properties, but further thickness increase resulted in the deterioration of these properties attributable to the development of ZnGa 2 O 4 and Ga 2 O 3 phases originating from the excessive amount of the Ga dopant. Post-annealing treatment of the GZO films in a hydrogen atmosphere improved the electrical and optical properties substantially through possible reduction of the oxide phases and passivation of the surfaces and grain boundaries. In this case, electrical and optical properties remained almost similar for the thickness above 160 nm indicating that there exists a certain optimal film thickness.

  20. Origins of residual stress in Mo and Ta films: The role of impurities, microstructural evolution, and phase transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfitt, L.J.; Karpenko, O.P.; Yalisove, S.M.; Bilello, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Both the sign and magnitude of residual stress can vary with the thickness of sputter deposited films. The origins of this behavior are not well understood. In this work, the authors consider the correlation between the residual stress behavior and the depth dependence of impurities in thin (2.5 nm--150 nm) sputtered Mo and Ta films. They also consider the effects of phase transformations and microstructural changes on the stress behavior. Films were deposited onto Si substrates with native oxide. The residual stress observed in the Mo films varied from highly compressive at 2.5 nm film thickness to ∼0 at 10 nm thickness. Ta films also exhibited a high compressive stress, which relaxed from highly compressive to tensile between 10 nm and 50 nm film thickness. Impurities in the films may originate from the sputtering targets, the background gases, and the substrate surfaces. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) results showed the presence of O and C contamination near the film/Si interface; these impurities contributed to the compressive stresses in the thinner films. As anticipated, both Mo and Ta films exhibited grain growth as a function of film thickness, which may have contributed to the relaxation in the compressive stress. The Mo films were entirely bcc. The Ta films showed a transformation from the amorphous phase to the β crystalline phase between 2.5 nm and 20 nm film thickness, which contributed to the relaxation in stress observed in that thickness regime

  1. Effect of Essential Oil of Attarasa Leaves (Litsea Cubeba Lour. Pers) on Physico-Mechanical and Microstructural Properties Of Breadfruit Starch-Alginate Edible Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuhra, C.F.; Kaban, J.; Marpongahtun; Erman Munir

    2013-01-01

    Research on preparation of edible film from breadfruit starch and alginate incorporated with essential oil of attarasa leaves (Litsea cubeba Lour Pers.) has been done. The film was evaluated of their thickness, tensile strength, elongation at break, water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) and microstructural properties by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Incorporation of the oil increased thickness of film from 0.033 mm to 0.036 mm, tensile strength from 32.8 to 37.0 MPa, elongation at break from 48.92 % to 50.43 % but water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) decreased from 142.9 g/ m 2 .hour to 120.3 g/ m 2 .hour. However SEM analysis showed that the surface microstructural of the film was more rough and solid compare with film without incorporation of essential oil. (author)

  2. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  3. Magnetic and microstructural properties of thin NdFeB based films and nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bommer, Lars; Goll, Dagmar [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Metallforschung, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The magnetic and microstructural properties of NdFeB and NdFeB/Fe thin films and nanostructures are presented. Samples with Cr buffer and protection layer (minimum thickness: d=50 nm) have been produced by ion beam sputtering at elevated temperatures (T{sub s}=700 C) using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO(001) single crystal substrates. Films deposited on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates show c-axis growth in out-of-plane direction down to thicknesses of the NdFeB film of d=10 nm with coercivities up to {mu}{sub 0}H{sub c}=1 T. The texture of films deposited on MgO(001) substrates is less pronounced and films below d=20 nm show no hard magnetic behavior. For comparison, films were deposited at room temperature on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MgO(001) followed by post-annealing in Ar atmosphere (T{sub pa}=525-650 C) leading to coercivities as high as {mu}{sub 0}H{sub c}=1.2 T but with isotropic behavior. By TEM images the grain structure of the NdFeB samples is studied. Bilayers of NdFeB (d=50 nm) and Fe (d=0-20 nm) show fully exchange coupled behavior. From the temperature dependence of the coercivity the microstructural parameters of all samples have been determined. Furthermore NdFeB periodical patterns were produced by means of electron beam lithography with dot sizes of 1000 nm and 500 nm, respectively.

  4. Dielectric enhancement of PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} multilayer thick film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yasong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Habibul, Arzigul; Zhang, Danyang; Yu, Ping [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Multilayer thick films (∝4 μm) with compositional PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} layers and one-layer PZT thick films were prepared on the silicon substrate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} multilayer thick film are characterized by highly preferential (100)-oriented growth and columnar microstructure due to alternately introducing LaNiO{sub 3} seeding layers. The effects of LaNiO{sub 3} layers on microstructure and electrical properties of PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3} thick films were investigated in detail. The results show that both PZT and PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} multilayer thick film were pure perovskite crystalline phase. The PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3} film texture was dense and well adhered on the LaNiO{sub 3} layer. PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} multilayer thick film possessed obvious enhanced dielectric properties compared with PZT thick film: ε{sub r} ∝2450 (10 kHz) and tanδ ∝0.02 (10 kHz). Rayleigh law was used to analysis the behavior of the enhanced dielectric properties and the pinched-shaped polarization-electric field hysteresis loops. The larger Rayleigh parameter, α ∝51.1408 cm kV{sup -1} (1 kHz) indicates the larger extrinsic contribution to permittivity and strong domain-wall-defect charge interaction. The leakage current behaviors of the multilayer thick film were also investigated in detail. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Magnetization and flux creep in thin YBa2Cu3O7-δ films of various thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheriff, E.; Prozorov, R.; Yeshurun, Y.; Shaulov, A.; Koren, G.; Chabaud-Villard, C.

    1997-01-01

    We report on the thickness dependence of the irreversible magnetization in superconducting Y 1 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ films of thickness 350 endash 3000 Angstrom. Our results reveal a nonmonotonous dependence of the persistent current density j on the film thickness, which is interpreted in terms of surface pinning and variations in the surface microstructure. Measurements of the time dependence of j show that under certain conditions relaxation curves of samples of different thickness cross each other, i.e., the sample with initially larger j exhibits after some time a lower j. The crossing point is shifted to shorter times as the temperature is increased. We propose a simple explanation to this effect and discuss its practical implications. Low dose heavy ion irradiation of the films has a modest effect on j and on the rate of its relaxation. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  6. The microstructural changes of Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film during crystallization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingbo; Qi, Chao; Chen, Limin; Zheng, Long; Xie, Qiyun

    2018-05-01

    Phase change memory is known as the most promising candidate for the next generation nonvolatile memory technology. In this paper, the microstructural changes of Ge2Sb2Te5 film, which is the most common choice of phase change memory material, has been carefully studied by the combination of several characterization techniques. The combination of resistance measurements, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray reflectivity allows us to simultaneously extract the characteristics of microstructural changes during crystallization process. The existence of surface/interface Ge2Sb2Te5 layer has been proposed here based on X-ray reflectivity measurements. Although the total film thickness decreases, as a result of the phase transition from amorphous to metastable crystalline cubic and then to the stable hexagonal phase, the surface/interface thickness increases after crystallization. Moreover, the increase of average grain size, density and surface roughness has been confirmed during thermal annealing process.

  7. Nucleation and growth microstructural study of ti films on 304 SS substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério de Almeida Vieira

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Coating of steel surfaces with titanium films has been studied with the objective to protect them against corrosion, and to create an intermediate film for CVD diamond and TiN film deposition. In this work, the nucleation, growth mechanisms and microstructural formation of the titanium films deposited on 304 stainless steel (304 SS substrate are presented and discussed. The titanium films of variable thickness were obtained by vapour phase deposition produced by electron beam. The surfaces of these samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The cross sections of these samples were observed by using an atomic force microscope. The Ti film-304 SS interfaces were analyzed by X-ray diffraction. The results showed that titanium films have a columnar growth. The Ti film-304 SS interface had a residual compression stress at room temperature due to the inter-diffusion process.

  8. Magnetization reversal mechanism of Nd-Fe-B films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Xiaoxi; Ishida, Go; Morisako, Akimitsu

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B films with thicknesses from 100 nm to 3 nm have been investigated. All the films show excellent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with a squareness ratio of 1 in the perpendicular direction and almost zero coercivity in the in-plane direction. Of particular interest is that the initial magnetization curves sensitively depended on the film thickness. Films thicker than 15 nm show steep initial magnetization curve. Although the films have coercivities larger than 21 kOe, the films can be fully magnetized from the thermally demagnetized state with a field as small as 5 kOe. With the decrease of film thickness to 5 nm, the initial magnetization curve becomes flat. The evolution of initial magnetization curves with film thickness can be understood by the microstructure of the films. Films with thickness of 15 nm show close-packed grains without any intergranular phases. Such microstructures lead to steep initial magnetization curves. On the other hand, when the film thickness decreased to 3 nm, the film thickness became nonuniform. Such microstructure leads to flat initial magnetization curves.

  9. Shape memory effect and microstructures of sputter-deposited Cu-Al-Ni films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minemura, T.; Andoh, H.; Kita, Y.; Ikuta, I.

    1985-01-01

    The shape memory effect has been found in many alloy systems which exhibit a thermoelastic martensite transformation. Cu-Al-Ni alloys exhibit an excellent shape memory effect in single crystalline states, but they have not yet been commercially used due to their brittle fracture along the grain boundaries in polycrystalline states. This letter reports the shape memory effect and microstructures of the sputter-deposited Cu-Al-Ni films. Cu-14%Al-4%Ni alloy ingot was prepared. A target for sputter deposition was cut from the ingot. Aluminium foils (20 μm thick) were used for the substrates of sputter deposition. The microstructures and crystal structures of the films were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction using CuKα radiation, respectively. The effect of the sputtering conditions such as substrate temperature, partial pressure of argon gas, and the sputtering power on the structures of sputter-deposited Cu-14%Al-4%Ni films were investigated by X-ray diffraction. Results are shown and discussed. Photographs demonstrate shape memory behaviour of Cu-14%Al-4%Ni films sputter-deposited on aluminium foils from (a) liquid nitrogen temperature to (d) room temperature. (author)

  10. The annealing effects on the micro-structure and properties of RuMoC films as seedless barrier for advanced Cu metallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zou, Jianxiong; Liu, Bo, E-mail: liubo2009@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: gh.jiao@siat.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Jiao, Guohua, E-mail: liubo2009@scu.edu.cn, E-mail: gh.jiao@siat.ac.cn; Lu, Yuanfu; Dong, Yuming [Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518055 (China); The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China); Li, Qiran [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS-Université Paris Sud UMR 8622, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-09-07

    100 nm thick RuMoC films and 5 nm thick RuMoC films with Cu capping have been deposited on Si(111) by magnetron co-sputtering with Ru and MoC confocal targets. The samples were subsequently annealed at temperatures ranging from 450 to 650 °C in vacuum at a pressure of 3 × 10{sup −4} Pa to study the annealing effects on the microstructures and properties of RuMoC films for advanced seedless Cu metallization applications. The sheet resistances, residual oxygen contents, and microstructures of the RuMoC films have close correlation with the doping contents of Mo and C, which can be easily controlled by the deposition power ratio of MoC versus Ru targets (DPR). When DPR was 0.5, amorphous RuMoC film (marked as RuMoC II) with low sheet resistances and residual oxygen contents was obtained. The fundamental relationship between the annealing temperatures with the microstructures and properties of the RuMoC films was investigated, and a critical temperature point was revealed at about 550 °C where the components and microstructures of the RuMoC II films changed obviously. Results indicated that below 550 °C, the RuMoC II films remained amorphous due to the well-preserved C-Ru and C-Mo bonds. However, above 550 °C, the microstructures of RuMoC II films transformed from amorphous to nano-composite structure due to the breakage of Ru-C bonds, while the supersaturated solid solution MoC segregated out along the grain boundaries of Ru, thus hindering the diffusion of Cu and O atoms. This is the main mechanism of the excellent thermal stability of the RuMoC films after annealing at high temperatures. The results indicated great prospects of amorphous RuMoC films in advanced seedless Cu metallization applications.

  11. Ferrimagnetic Tb-Fe Alloy Thin Films: Composition and Thickness Dependence of Magnetic Properties and All-Optical Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit eHebler

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ferrimagnetic rare earth - transition metal Tb-Fe alloy thin films exhibit a variety of different magnetic properties, which depends strongly on composition and temperature. In this study, first the influence of the film thickness (5 - 85 nm on the sample magnetic properties was investigated in a wide composition range between 15 at.% and 38 at.% of Tb. From our results, we find that the compensation point, remanent magnetization, and magnetic anisotropy of the Tb-Fe films depend not only on the composition but also on the thickness of the magnetic film up to a critical thickness of about 20-30 nm. Beyond this critical thickness, only slight changes in magnetic properties are observed. This behavior can be attributed to a growth-induced modification of the microstructure of the amorphous films, which affects the short range order. As a result, a more collinear alignment of the distributed magnetic moments of Tb along the out-of-plane direction with film thickness is obtained. This increasing contribution of the Tb sublattice magnetization to the total sample magnetization is equivalent to a sample becoming richer in Tb and can be referred to as an effective composition. Furthermore, the possibility of all-optical switching, where the magnetization orientation of Tb-Fe can be reversed solely by circularly polarized laser pulses, was analyzed for a broad range of compositions and film thicknesses and correlated to the underlying magnetic properties.

  12. Thickness evaluation using a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Sik; Kim, Young H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracies in the thickness evaluation using radiography, a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness has been proposed, and experimental verification of the proposed relationship was carried out by using the X- and γ-ray radiographs of two carbon steel step wedges. A new parameter, the logarithmic gradient of film density, was defined in order to express the characteristics of the radiographic film for wider range of film density. A new relationship between the film density and the penetrated thickness were formulated using the logarithmic gradient of the film density. In experiment, the logarithmic gradient of the film density was independent on both the exposure and the film density and measured for the radiographic film used in the present work from the slope of the fitting lines for the same penetrated thickness. Experimental results verifies the accuracy of the proposed relationship between film density and the penetrated thickness for the range of film density from 1.0 to 3.5. The thickness can be more accurately determined by using the proposed relationship and the parameters determined by experiment. It is also found that the γ-ray having simple energy spectrum is more appropriate radiation source for the evaluation of the thickness from the film density of the radiograph

  13. Impurity incorporation, deposition kinetics, and microstructural evolution in sputtered Ta films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitacre, Jay Fredric

    There is an increasing need to control the microstructure in thin sputtered Ta films for application as high-temperature coatings or diffusion barriers in microelectronic interconnect structures. To this end, the relationship between impurity incorporation, deposition kinetics, and microstructural evolution was examined for room-temperature low growth rate DC magnetron sputtered Ta films. Impurity levels present during deposition were controlled by pumping the chamber to various base pressures before growth. Ar pressures ranging from 2 to 20 mTorr were used to create contrasting kinetic environments in the sputter gas. This affected both the distribution of adatom kinetic energies at the substrate as well as the rate of impurity desorption from the chamber walls: at higher Ar pressures adatoms has lower kinetic energies, and there was an increase in impurity concentration. X-ray diffraction, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), and x-ray photoelectron. spectroscopy (XPS) were used to examine film crystallography, microstructure, and composition. A novel laboratory-based in-situ x-ray diffractometer was constructed. This new set-up allowed for the direct observation of microstructural evolution during growth. Films deposited at increasingly higher Ar pressures displayed a systematic decrease in grain size and degree of texturing, while surface morphology was found to vary from a nearly flat surface to a rough surface with several length scales of organization. In-situ x-ray results showed that the rate of texture evolution was found to be much higher in films grown using lower Ar pressures. These effects were studied in films less than 200 A thick using high resolution x-ray diffraction in conjunction with a synchrotron light source (SSRL B.L. 7-2). Films grown using higher Ar pressures (above 10 mTorr) with a pre-growth base

  14. New insights into microstructural evolution of epitaxial Ni-Mn-Ga films on MgO (1 0 0) substrate by high-resolution X-ray diffraction and orientation imaging investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit; Mohan, Sangeneni; Suwas, Satyam

    2018-04-01

    In this work, a detailed investigation has been performed on hetero-epitaxial growth and microstructural evolution in highly oriented Ni-Mn-Ga (1 0 0) films grown on MgO (1 0 0) substrate using high-resolution X-ray diffraction and orientation imaging microscopy. Mosaicity of the films has been analysed in terms of tilt angle, twist angle, lateral and vertical coherence length and threading dislocation densities by performing rocking curve measurements and reciprocal space mapping. Density of edge dislocations is found to be an order of magnitude higher than the density of screw dislocations, irrespective of film thickness. X-ray pole figure measurements have revealed an orientation relationship of ? || (1 0 0)MgO; ? || [0 0 1]MgO between the film and substrate. Microstructure predicted by X-ray diffraction is in agreement with that obtained from electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The evolution of microstructure in the film with increasing thickness has been explained vis-à-vis dislocation generation and growth mechanisms. Orientation imaging microscopy observations indicate evolutionary growth of film by overgrowth mechanism. Decrease in coercivity with film thickness has been explained as an interplay between stress field developed due to crystal defects and magnetic domain pinning due to surface roughness.

  15. Thick-film analysis: literature search and bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehman, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    A literature search was conducted to support development of in-house diagnostic testing of thick film materials for hybrid microcircuits. A background literature review covered thick film formulation, processing, structure, and performance. Important material properties and tests were identified and several test procedures were obtained. Several tests were selected for thick film diagnosis at Bendix Kansas City. 126 references

  16. Spacer layer effect and microstructure on multi-layer [NdFeB/Nb]n films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, J.-L.; Yao, Y.-D.; Chin, T.-S.; Kronmueller, H.

    2002-01-01

    Spacer layer effect on multi-layer [NdFeB/Nb] n films has been investigated from the variation of magnetic properties and microstructure of the films. From a HRTEM cross-section view observation, the average grain size of [NdFeB/Nb] n multi-layers was controlled by both annealing temperature and thickness of NdFeB layer. Selected area diffraction pattern indicated that the structure of Nb spacer layer was amorphous. The grain size and coercivity of [NdFeB x /Nb] n films change from 50 nm and 16.7 kOe to 167 nm and 9 kOe for films with x=40 nm, n=10 and x=200 nm, n=2, respectively

  17. The Thickness Dependence of Optical Constants of Ultrathin Iron Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shang; Lian Jie; Wang Xiao; Li Ping; Sun Xiao-Fen; Li Qing-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin iron films with different thicknesses from 7.1 to 51.7 nm are deposited by magnetron sputtering and covered by tantalum layers protecting them from being oxidized. These ultrathin iron films are studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurement. An extra tantalum film is deposited under the same sputtering conditions and its optical constants and film thickness are obtained by a combination of ellipsometry and transmission measurement. After introducing these obtained optical constants and film thickness into the tantalum-iron film, the optical constants and film thicknesses of ultrathin iron films with different thicknesses are obtained. The results show that combining ellipsometry and transmission measurement improves the uniqueness of the obtained film thickness. The optical constants of ultrathin iron films depend strongly on film thicknesses. There is a broad absorption peak at about 370 nm and it shifts to 410 nm with film thickness decreasing

  18. Microstructure of a-C:H films prepared on a microtrench and analysis of ions and radicals behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirata, Yuki; Choi, Junho, E-mail: choi@mech.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2015-08-28

    Amorphous carbon films (a-C:H) were prepared on a microtrench (4-μm pitch and 4-μm depth), and the uniformity of film thickness and microstructure of the films on the top, sidewall, and bottom surfaces of the microtrench were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The a-C:H films were prepared by bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation and deposition (bipolar PBII&D), and the negative pulse voltage, which is the main parameter dominating the film structure, was changed from −1.0 to −15 kV. Moreover, the behavior of ions and radicals was analyzed simultaneously by combining the calculation methods of Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC) and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to investigate the coating mechanism for the microtrench. The results reveal that the thickness uniformity of a-C:H films improves with decreasing negative pulse voltage due to the decreasing inertia of incoming ions from the trench mouth, although the film thickness on the sidewall tends to be much smaller than that on the top and bottom surfaces of the trench. The normalized flux and the film thickness show similar behavior, i.e., the normalized flux or thickness at the bottom surface increases at low negative pulse voltages and then saturates at a certain value, whereas at the sidewall it monotonically decreases with increasing negative voltage. The microstructure of a-C:H films on the sidewall surface is very different from that on the top and bottom surfaces. The film structure at a low negative pulse voltage shifts to more of a polymer-like carbon (PLC) structure due to the lower incident energy of ions. Although the radical flux on the sidewall increases slightly, the overall film structure is not significantly changed because this film formation at a low negative voltage is originally dominated by radicals. On the other hand, the flux of radicals is dominant on the sidewall in the case of high negative pulse voltage, resulting in a

  19. Microstructure of a-C:H films prepared on a microtrench and analysis of ions and radicals behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yuki; Choi, Junho

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous carbon films (a-C:H) were prepared on a microtrench (4-μm pitch and 4-μm depth), and the uniformity of film thickness and microstructure of the films on the top, sidewall, and bottom surfaces of the microtrench were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The a-C:H films were prepared by bipolar-type plasma based ion implantation and deposition (bipolar PBII&D), and the negative pulse voltage, which is the main parameter dominating the film structure, was changed from -1.0 to -15 kV. Moreover, the behavior of ions and radicals was analyzed simultaneously by combining the calculation methods of Particle-In-Cell/Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC) and Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) to investigate the coating mechanism for the microtrench. The results reveal that the thickness uniformity of a-C:H films improves with decreasing negative pulse voltage due to the decreasing inertia of incoming ions from the trench mouth, although the film thickness on the sidewall tends to be much smaller than that on the top and bottom surfaces of the trench. The normalized flux and the film thickness show similar behavior, i.e., the normalized flux or thickness at the bottom surface increases at low negative pulse voltages and then saturates at a certain value, whereas at the sidewall it monotonically decreases with increasing negative voltage. The microstructure of a-C:H films on the sidewall surface is very different from that on the top and bottom surfaces. The film structure at a low negative pulse voltage shifts to more of a polymer-like carbon (PLC) structure due to the lower incident energy of ions. Although the radical flux on the sidewall increases slightly, the overall film structure is not significantly changed because this film formation at a low negative voltage is originally dominated by radicals. On the other hand, the flux of radicals is dominant on the sidewall in the case of high negative pulse voltage, resulting in a deviation

  20. Mechanical stress and stress release channels in 10–350 nm palladium hydrogen thin films with different micro-structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kramer, Thilo; Uchida, Helmut; Dobron, Patrik; Cizek, Jakub; Pundt, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    For thin metal films adhered to rigid substrates hydrogen uptake results in compressive stresses in the GPa range. Stresses affect the thermodynamics as well as the durability of thin films, but many films can release stress above critical stress values. Depending on the films' thickness, microstructure and adhesion to the substrate, which determine the energy available in the nano-sized system, stress release is conducted via different release mechanisms. To evaluate the different mechanisms, Palladium thin films ranging from 10 nm to 350 nm and with three different types of microstructures (nanocrystalline, multi-oriented epitaxy and three-fold epitaxy) are studied with special focus on the mechanical stress. In-situ substrate curvature measurements, XRD stress analyses and acoustic emission (AE) measurements are conducted to determine intrinsic stresses, hydrogen-induced stress changes and stress release signals. By this complementary experimental approach, different stress release mechanisms (named channels) are identified. Discrete stress relaxation (DSR) events are found already within the overall linear elastic stress-strain regime. Energies to stimulate DSRs lay well below the formation energy of dislocations, and may allow the movement of defects pre-existing in the films. For higher strain energies, all studied films can release stress by the formation of new dislocations and plastic deformation. When the adhesion to the substrate is small, an alternative release channel of film buckling opens for thick films.

  1. Thickness Dependent on Photocatalytic Activity of Hematite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hua Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematite (Fe2O3 thin films with different thicknesses are fabricated by the rf magnetron sputtering deposition. The effects of film thicknesses on the photocatalytic activity of hematite films have been investigated. Hematite films possess a polycrystalline hexagonal structure, and the band gap decreases with an increase of film thickness. Moreover, all hematite films exhibit good photocatalytic ability under visible-light irradiation; the photocatalytic activity of hematite films increases with the increasing film thickness. This is because the hematite film with a thicker thickness has a rougher surface, providing more reaction sites for photocatalysis. Another reason is a lower band gap of a hematite film would generate more electron-hole pairs under visible-light illumination to enhance photocatalytic efficiency. Experimental data are well fitted with Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The photocatalytic rate constant of hematite films ranges from 0.052 to 0.068 min-1. This suggests that the hematite film is a superior photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation.

  2. Correlating thermoelectric properties with microstructure in Bi0.8Sb0.2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M. P.; Lima-Sharma, A. L.; Sharma, P. A.; Rochford, C.

    2017-04-01

    The room temperature electronic transport properties of 100 nm-thick thermoelectric Bi0.8Sb0.2 films, sputter-deposited onto quartz substrates and post-annealed in an ex-situ furnace, systematically correlate with the overall microstructural quality, improving with increasing annealing temperature until close to the melting point for the alloy composition. The optimized films have high crystalline quality with ˜99% of the grains oriented with the trigonal axis perpendicular to the substrate surface. Film resistivities and Seebeck coefficients are accurately measured by preventing deleterious surface oxide formation via a SiN capping layer and using Nd-doped Al for contacts. The resulting values are similar to single crystals and significantly better than previous reports from films and polycrystalline bulk alloys.

  3. Film-thickness and composition dependence of epitaxial thin-film PZT-based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Dekkers, Jan M.; Vu, Hung Ngoc; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f and mass-sensitivity were measured on piezoelectric cantilevers based on epitaxial PZT thin-films with film-thicknesses ranging from 100 to 2000 nm. The highest values of e31,f and mass-sensitivity were observed at a film thickness of 500–750 nm, while

  4. Terahertz Mapping of Microstructure and Thickness Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Donald J.; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Winfree, William P.

    2010-01-01

    A noncontact method has been devised for mapping or imaging spatial variations in the thickness and microstructure of a layer of a dielectric material. The method involves (1) placement of the dielectric material on a metal substrate, (2) through-the-thickness pulse-echo measurements by use of electromagnetic waves in the terahertz frequency range with a raster scan in a plane parallel to the substrate surface that do not require coupling of any kind, and (3) appropriate processing of the digitized measurement data.

  5. Zirconia thin films from aqueous precursors: Processing, microstructural development, and epitaxial growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, K.T.

    1991-01-01

    Thin films of ZrO 2 (Y 2 O 3 ) were prepared from aqueous salt precursors by spin coating. Films were pyrolyzed to produce porous polycrystalline thin films of 5-10 nm grain size. Subsequent microstructural development depends greatly upon the nature of the substrate. Upon randomly oriented sapphire, the films initially sintered to full density; further heat treatment and grain growth causes these films to break into interconnected islands and finally isolated particles. Thermodynamic calculations predict that breakup is energetically favorable when the grain-size film-thickness ratio exceeds a critical value. Upon basal-plane-oriented sapphire, grain growth and breakup prefer the (100) oriented grains, presumably because this orientation is a special interface of low energy. The isolated, oriented grains produced by film breakup act as seeds for the growth of newly deposited material. Upon (100) cubic zirconia, true epitaxial films develop. Epitaxial growth was observed for lattice mismatches up to 1.59%. Growth proceeds from a fine epitaxial layer which is produced during the initial stages of heat treatment, consuming the porous polycrystalline material and producing a dense epitaxial thin film whose misfit is accommodated by a combination of film strain and misfit dislocations

  6. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic analysis of RuO_2-Ta_2O_5 thick film pH sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manjakkal, Libu; Cvejin, Katarina; Kulawik, Jan; Zaraska, Krzysztof; Socha, Robert P.; Szwagierczak, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports on investigation of the pH sensing mechanism of thick film RuO_2-Ta_2O_5 sensors by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Interdigitated conductimetric pH sensors were screen printed on alumina substrates. The microstructure and elemental composition of the films were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The XPS studies revealed the presence of Ru ions at different oxidation states and the surface hydroxylation of the sensing layer increasing with increasing pH. The EIS analysis carried out in the frequency range 10 Hz–2 MHz showed that the electrical parameters of the sensitive electrodes in the low frequency range were distinctly dependent on pH. The charge transfer and ionic exchange occurring at metal oxide-solution interface were indicated as processes responsible for the sensing mechanism of thick film RuO_2-Ta_2O_5 pH sensors. - Highlights: • Conductimetric pH sensors with RuO_2-Ta_2O_5 thick film electrodes were developed. • Microstructure and elemental composition of the films were examined by SEM and EDX. • Sensing film composition and hydroxylation were studied by XPS as a function of pH. • Electrochemical reactions at oxide-solution interface were analyzed by EIS method. • Impact of solution pH, electrode composition and sintering temperature was studied.

  7. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiston, G A; Gerbasi, R [CNR, Padua (Italy). Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati

    1996-09-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive.

  8. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G. A.; Gerbasi, R.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive

  9. Preparation and characterization of thick BSCCO 2223 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciancio, G; Avila, A; Malachevsky, M.T; Ovidio, C.A

    2002-01-01

    Among the most widespread applications for critical high-temperature ceramic superconductors are for silver veined tapes, with the superconductor in the middle. These tapes are prepared by the powder- in - tube method. To attain high densities of critical current, the ceramic material must have a certain texture, with the grains oriented with the c axis perpendicular to the direction in which the current circulates. In the system that was studied, the degree of orientation increases as the distance to the vein decreases, with the maximum being in the silver-ceramic inter-phase. Superconductor tapes become inconvenient when defining the ceramic, especially because of the orientation of their plates as a function of the distance to the silver. Although the silver can be dissolved by a chemical attack in order to uncover the ceramic, greater precaution is needed while manipulating the superconductor and obtaining representative data. The behavior of thick films of the compound BSCCO 2223, deposited on silver sheets, forming silver-ceramic composites, was studied. These sheets simulate the silver-ceramic inter-phase and the distribution of the grains towards the center in a thick tape. After the samples were prepared, the phases that were present were characterized by x-ray diffraction and the resulting microstructure was analyzed with a SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). Its mechanical properties were evaluated, following the formation and propagation of cracks in real time using four point flexion microassays inside the SEM chamber, as well as generating tension-deformation curves. The method of preparation of the thick films is discussed and its influence on the results obtained with the different characterizations (cw)

  10. Thickness and microstructure characterization of TGO in thermal barrier coatings by 3D reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xuemei; Meng, Fangli [The State Key Lab of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, , Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Kong, Mingguang [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Wang, Yongzhe [The State Key Lab of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, , Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Huang, Liping; Zheng, Xuebin [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); Zeng, Yi, E-mail: zengyi@mail.sic.ac.cn [The State Key Lab of High Performance Ceramics and Superfine Microstructure, Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, , Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050 (China); CAS Center for Excellence in Superconducting Electronics (CENSE), Shanghai 200050 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are prepared by plasma spraying. Thermally grown oxide (TGO) would be formed between YSZ topcoat and bond coat after 50 h thermal service for YSZ TBCs. The electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) results reveal that the TGO layer is composed of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and cubic Al{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} layers. Measured values of TGO thickness from the 2D-SEM image are greater than or equal to its real thickness due to the fact that the TGO layer is much rolling so that up and down surfaces of the TGO can't be completely perpendicular to the cross-section direction confirmed by 3D-SEM. Furthermore, 3D-SEM results reveal that the real thickness of TGO layer is 3.10 μm instead of 7.1 μm. In addition, 3D-EBSD confirmed that α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer in TGO is composed of single layer of grains and Al{sub 2}NiO{sub 4} layer consist of multilayer of grains while α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is mixed with single layer and multilayer of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} grains from observation of the 2D-EBSD image. It provides a new method to characterize real thickness and microstructure of TGO, which is also applied to other film materials. - Highlights: •This work provides a new method to measure the real thickness of TGO. •YSZ TBCs were prepared by plasma spraying. •TGO is formed in TBCs by simulating thermal service at 1100 °C for 50 h. •Real thickness and microstructure of TGO were investigated by 3D reconstruction.

  11. Microstructure of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7-x thin films grown on LaAlO3 (001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Y.; Siegal, M.P.; Hull, R.; Phillips, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    We report a microstructural investigation of the epitaxial growth of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) thin films on LaAlO 3 (001) substrates using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Epitaxial films grow with two distinct modes: c epitaxy (YBCO) single crystal with the c (axis normal to the surface and a epitaxy (YBCO) single crystal with the c axis in the interfacial plane), where c epitaxy is the dominant mode grown in all samples 35--200 nm thick. In 35 nm YBCO films annealed at 850 degree C, 97±1% of the surface area is covered by c epitaxy with embedded anisotropic a-epitaxial grains. Quantitative analysis reveals the effect of film thickness and annealing temperature on the density, grain sizes, areal coverages, and anisotropic growth of a epitaxy

  12. In-situ Observation of Cross-Sectional Microstructural Changes and Stress Distributions in Fracturing TiN Thin Film during Nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Angelika; Todt, Juraj; Krywka, Christina; Müller, Martin; Ecker, Werner; Sartory, Bernhard; Meindlhumer, Michael; Stefenelli, Mario; Daniel, Rostislav; Mitterer, Christian; Keckes, Jozef

    2016-03-07

    Load-displacement curves measured during indentation experiments on thin films depend on non-homogeneous intrinsic film microstructure and residual stress gradients as well as on their changes during indenter penetration into the material. To date, microstructural changes and local stress concentrations resulting in plastic deformation and fracture were quantified exclusively using numerical models which suffer from poor knowledge of size dependent material properties and the unknown intrinsic gradients. Here, we report the first in-situ characterization of microstructural changes and multi-axial stress distributions in a wedge-indented 9 μm thick nanocrystalline TiN film volume performed using synchrotron cross-sectional X-ray nanodiffraction. During the indentation, needle-like TiN crystallites are tilted up to 15 degrees away from the indenter axis in the imprint area and strongly anisotropic diffraction peak broadening indicates strain variation within the X-ray nanoprobe caused by gradients of giant compressive stresses. The morphology of the multiaxial stress distributions with local concentrations up to -16.5 GPa correlate well with the observed fracture modes. The crack growth is influenced decisively by the film microstructure, especially by the micro- and nano-scopic interfaces. This novel experimental approach offers the capability to interpret indentation response and indenter imprint morphology of small graded nanostructured features.

  13. The Effect of Carrier Properties on the Ballistic Processing of Sn-0.7 Cu Thick Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hille, David M.

    The need for metallic films has increased since the creation of electronic components. The continued miniaturization of systems and components has led to a greater demand for both thick and thin films, especially in the technology field. Computers, hand held devices, and solar cells are a few of the multitudes of uses for these films. This thesis investigates a novel additive manufacturing process known as Ballistic Manufacturing (BM), invented at the Advanced Materials Processing Lab (AMPL) at San Diego State University. Lead free solder (Tin (Sn)-0.7%Copper (Cu)) was chosen as the testing material due to its low melting temperature. The effects of varying thermal conductivity via the change in carrier material type, the effect of raising substrate temperature, and surface finish differences were investigated. An increase in thermal conductivity resulted in an increase in film thickness and decrease in cell size. As substrate temperature was raised, film thickness decreased, while cell size decreased. Surface finish provided a proof of concept to the transfer of substrate features to the resultant film surface. Evaluation of dendritic microstructures led to relative cooling rates reflective of changes in parameters. The mechanical behavior was also investigated using tensile tests to determine stress-stain relationships and measure elastic modulus. With the current work of this thesis, and previous work by Cavero and Stewart, Ballistic Manufacturing is proven to be an alternative method in the production of metallic films.

  14. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55 degrees C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30 degrees C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 μm ± 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 μm ± 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96 degrees C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600 degrees C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values

  15. Influence of the microstructure on the resulting 18R martensitic transformation of polycrystalline Cu−Al−Zn thin films obtained by sputtering and reactive annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenichini, P.; Condó, A.M.; Soldera, F.; Sirena, M.; Haberkorn, N.

    2016-01-01

    We report the influence of the microstructure on the martensitic transformation in polycrystalline Cu−Zn−Al thin films with 18R structure. The films are grown in two steps. First, Cu−Al thin films are obtained by DC sputtering. Second, the Zn is introduced in the Cu−Al thin films by the annealing them together with a bulk Cu−Zn−Al reference. The crystalline structure of the films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The martensitic transformation temperature was measured by electrical transport using conventional four probe geometry. It was observed that temperatures above 973 K are necessary for zincification of the samples to occur. The resulting martensitic transformation and its hysteresis (barrier for the transformation) depend on the grain size, topology and films thickness. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Cu−Al−Zn thin films with nanometric grain size are sintered. • Influence of thermal annealing process on the microstructure is analyzed. • Martensitic transformation of Cu−Al−Zn thin films is strongly affected by the microstructure.

  16. Influence of the microstructure on the resulting 18R martensitic transformation of polycrystalline Cu−Al−Zn thin films obtained by sputtering and reactive annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domenichini, P. [Instituto Balseiro, Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Condó, A.M. [Instituto Balseiro, Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Soldera, F. [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Saarland University, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Sirena, M. [Instituto Balseiro, Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Haberkorn, N., E-mail: nhaberk@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Instituto Balseiro, Bustillo 9500, S. C. de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Av. Bustillo 9500, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2016-04-15

    We report the influence of the microstructure on the martensitic transformation in polycrystalline Cu−Zn−Al thin films with 18R structure. The films are grown in two steps. First, Cu−Al thin films are obtained by DC sputtering. Second, the Zn is introduced in the Cu−Al thin films by the annealing them together with a bulk Cu−Zn−Al reference. The crystalline structure of the films was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The martensitic transformation temperature was measured by electrical transport using conventional four probe geometry. It was observed that temperatures above 973 K are necessary for zincification of the samples to occur. The resulting martensitic transformation and its hysteresis (barrier for the transformation) depend on the grain size, topology and films thickness. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Cu−Al−Zn thin films with nanometric grain size are sintered. • Influence of thermal annealing process on the microstructure is analyzed. • Martensitic transformation of Cu−Al−Zn thin films is strongly affected by the microstructure.

  17. Interferometric measurement of film thickness during bubble blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Mandracchia, B.; Ferraro, V.; Tammaro, D.; Di Maio, E.; Maffettone, P. L.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose digital holography in transmission configuration as an effective method to measure the time-dependent thickness of polymeric films during bubble blowing. We designed a complete set of experiments to measure bubble thickness, including the evaluation of the refractive index of the polymer solution. We report the measurement of thickness distribution along the film during the bubble formation process until the bubble`s rupture. Based on those data, the variation range and variation trend of bubble film thickness are clearly measured during the process of expansion to fracture is indicated.

  18. NdFeB thick films prepared by tape casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, B.; Schwarzer, S.; Rahmig, A.; Toepfer, J.

    2003-01-01

    NdFeB films of thickness between 100 and 800 μm were prepared by tape casting of a slurry containing 84-95 wt% of commercial NdFeB powder (MQP-B, -Q and -S). After curing the flexible green tapes at 120 deg. C non-porous magnetic films are obtained. The remanence of the films is in the range of 350-450 mT and the coercivity is between 300 and 800 kA/m depending on the type of MQP powder used. The magnetic properties of the films are discussed in relation to film composition and type of magnetic material. For MEMS applications the thick films are magnetized with a multi-pole stripe pattern with 1 mm pole pitch. The induction at the surface of the films was measured with a Hall probe and compared to theoretical calculations. The results indicate that the films are completely magnetized regardless of the film thickness. Tape-casted NdFeB thick films are promising candidates for applications in micro-systems or actuators. Miniaturization of the magnet components is one of the key issues in the development of electromagnetic micro-systems, thus creating a need for replacement of small sintered magnets by magnetic thick film components. Other applications include encoders

  19. Evolution of the microstructure in electrochemically deposited copper films at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantleon, Karen; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2007-01-01

    The room temperature evolution of the microstructure in copper electrodeposits (self-annealing) was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and simultaneous measurement of the electrical resistivity as a function of time with an unprecedented time resolution. Independent of the copper...... the crystallographic texture changes by a multiple twinning mechanism. The kinetics of self-annealing is strongly affected by the thickness of the deposit. Storage of the copper films at sub-zero temperatures effectively hinders self-annealing and does not affect the kinetics of self-annealing upon reheating to room...... temperature....

  20. Effect of diffraction and film-thickness gradients on wafer-curvature measurements of thin-film stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breiland, W.G.; Lee, S.R.; Koleske, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    When optical measurements of wafer curvature are used to determine thin-film stress, the laser beams that probe the sample are usually assumed to reflect specularly from the curved surface of the film and substrate. Yet, real films are not uniformly thick, and unintended thickness gradients produce optical diffraction effects that steer the laser away from the ideal specular condition. As a result, the deflection of the laser in wafer-curvature measurements is actually sensitive to both the film stress and the film-thickness gradient. We present a Fresnel-Kirchhoff optical diffraction model of wafer-curvature measurements that provides a unified description of these combined effects. The model accurately simulates real-time wafer-curvature measurements of nonuniform GaN films grown on sapphire substrates by vapor-phase epitaxy. During thin-film growth, thickness gradients cause the reflected beam to oscillate asymmetrically about the ideal position defined by the stress-induced wafer curvature. This oscillating deflection has the same periodicity as the reflectance of the growing film, and the deflection amplitude is a function of the film-thickness gradient, the mean film thickness, the wavelength distribution of the light source, the illuminated spot size, and the refractive indices of the film and substrate. For typical GaN films grown on sapphire, misinterpretation of these gradient-induced oscillations can cause stress-measurement errors that approach 10% of the stress-thickness product; much greater errors occur in highly nonuniform films. Only transparent films can exhibit substantial gradient-induced deflections; strongly absorbing films are immune

  1. Advantages of PZT thick film for MEMS sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lou-Moller, R.; Hansen, K.

    2010-01-01

    For all MEMS devices a high coupling between the mechanical and electrical domain is desired. Figures of merit describing the coupling are important for comparing different piezoelectric materials. The existing figures of merit are discussed and a new figure of merit is introduced for a fair comp....... Improved figure of merit is reached in the piezoelectric PZT thick film, TF2100CIP, by using cold isostatic pressure in the PZT preparation process. The porosity of TF2100 is decreased 38%, hence, allowing an increase of charge sensitivity for MEMS sensors of 59%....... thin film and PZT thick film. It is shown that MEMS sensors with the PZT thick film TF2100 from InSensor A/S have potential for significant higher voltage sensitivities compared to PZT thin film base MEMS sensors when the total thickness of the MEMS cantilever, beam, bridge or membrane is high...

  2. Multiple High Voltage Pulse Stressing of Polymer Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busi Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study high voltage interactions in polymer thick film resistors, namely, polyvinyl chloride- (PVC- graphite thick film resistors, and their applications in universal trimming of these resistors. High voltages in the form of impulses for various pulse durations and with different amplitudes have been applied to polymer thick film resistors and we observed the variation of resistance of these resistors with high voltages. It has been found that the resistance of polymer thick film resistors decreases in the case of higher resistivity materials and the resistance of polymer thick film resistor increases in the case of lower resistivity materials when high voltage impulses are applied to them. It has been also found that multiple high voltage pulse (MHVP stressing can be used to trim the polymer thick film resistors either upwards or downwards.

  3. Evolution of optical constants of silicon dioxide on silicon from ultrathin films to thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Qingyuan; Zheng Yuxiang; Mao Penghui; Zhang Rongjun; Zhang Dongxu; Liu Minghui; Chen Liangyao, E-mail: yxzheng@fudan.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures, Ministry of Education, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2010-11-10

    A series of SiO{sub 2} films with thickness range 1-600 nm have been deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) substrates by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) in combination with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer substrate) was used to determine the optical constants and thicknesses of the investigated films. The refractive indices of SiO{sub 2} films thicker than 60 nm are close to those of bulk SiO{sub 2}. For the thin films deposited at the rate of {approx}1.0 nm s{sup -1}, the refractive indices increase with decreasing thickness from {approx}60 to {approx}10 nm and then drop sharply with decreasing thickness below {approx}10 nm. However, for thin films deposited at the rates of {approx}0.4 and {approx}0.2 nm s{sup -1}, the refractive indices monotonically increase with decreasing thickness below 60 nm. The optical constants of the ultrathin film depend on the morphology of the film, the stress exerted on the film, as well as the stoichiometry of the oxide film.

  4. Evolution of optical constants of silicon dioxide on silicon from ultrathin films to thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qingyuan; Zheng Yuxiang; Mao Penghui; Zhang Rongjun; Zhang Dongxu; Liu Minghui; Chen Liangyao

    2010-01-01

    A series of SiO 2 films with thickness range 1-600 nm have been deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) substrates by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) in combination with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer substrate) was used to determine the optical constants and thicknesses of the investigated films. The refractive indices of SiO 2 films thicker than 60 nm are close to those of bulk SiO 2 . For the thin films deposited at the rate of ∼1.0 nm s -1 , the refractive indices increase with decreasing thickness from ∼60 to ∼10 nm and then drop sharply with decreasing thickness below ∼10 nm. However, for thin films deposited at the rates of ∼0.4 and ∼0.2 nm s -1 , the refractive indices monotonically increase with decreasing thickness below 60 nm. The optical constants of the ultrathin film depend on the morphology of the film, the stress exerted on the film, as well as the stoichiometry of the oxide film.

  5. Evolution of microstructure and residual stress on L1{sub 0} ordering in FePt thin films with different initial stress states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, S.N., E-mail: pmami.hsiao@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Yuan, F.T. [iSentek Ltd., Advanced Sensor Laboratory, New Taipei City 221, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Sun, A.C. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Yuan Ze University, Jungli 320, Taiwan (China); Su, S.H.; Chiu, K.F. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    We have characterized the dependence of microstructure, and internal strain/stress on L1{sub 0} ordering in 40 nm thick FePt films with different initial stresses. The microstructural and crystallographic results indicate that defect annihilation and grain growth induced an increase in tensile stress of ~1 GPa before extensive L1{sub 0} ordering. The induced tensile stress can efficiently facilitate the nucleation of L1{sub 0} phase owing to that the volume expansion of L1{sub 0} ordering and atomic rearrangement neutralizes the tensile stress. If the as-deposited FePt film has a highly compressive state, the induced tensile stress will be canceled out and ordering is retarded, which results in a higher ordering temperature. - Highlights: • Microstructure-stress connection in FePt films was studied. • Initial stress alters microstructure and stress evolution during annealing. • Densification induces tensile stress of ~1 GPa before extensive L1{sub 0} ordering. • Induced tensile stress can efficiently facilitate the nucleation of L1{sub 0} phase. • Compressively initial stress results in a higher ordering temperature .

  6. Thin Cu film resistivity using four probe techniques: Effect of film thickness and geometrical shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sumita; Narula, Rahul; Gangopadhyay, Subhashis

    2018-05-01

    Precise measurement of electrical sheet resistance and resistivity of metallic thin Cu films may play a significant role in temperature sensing by means of resistivity changes which can further act as a safety measure of various electronic devices during their operation. Four point probes resistivity measurement is a useful approach as it successfully excludes the contact resistance between the probes and film surface of the sample. Although, the resistivity of bulk samples at a particular temperature mostly depends on its materialistic property, however, it may significantly differ in the case of thin films, where the shape and thickness of the sample can significantly influence on it. Depending on the ratio of the film thickness to probe spacing, samples are usually classified in two segments such as (i) thick films or (ii) thin films. Accordingly, the geometric correction factors G can be related to the sample resistivity r, which has been calculated here for thin Cu films of thickness up to few 100 nm. In this study, various rectangular shapes of thin Cu films have been used to determine the shape induced geometric correction factors G. An expressions for G have been obtained as a function of film thickness t versus the probe spacing s. Using these expressions, the correction factors have been plotted separately for each cases as a function of (a) film thickness for fixed linear probe spacing and (b) probe distance from the edge of the film surface for particular thickness. Finally, we compare the experimental results of thin Cu films of various rectangular geometries with the theoretical reported results.

  7. Influence of thickness on properties of plasticized oat starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thickness (between 80 and 120 µm on apparent opacity, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties (tensile and puncture of oat starch films plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol, glycerol:sorbitol mixture, urea and sucrose. Films were stored under 11, 57, 76 and 90% relative humidity (RH to study the mechanical properties. It was observed that the higher the thickness, the higher was the opacity values. Films without the plasticizer were more opaque in comparison with the plasticized ones. Glycerol:sorbitol films presented increased elongation with increasing thickness at all RH. Puncture force showed a strong dependence on the film thickness, except for the films plasticized with sucrose. In general, thickness did not affect the water permeability.

  8. Film thickness in gas-liquid two-phase flow, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekoguchi, Kotohiko; Fukano, Toru; Kawakami, Yasushi; Shimizu, Hideo.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of four rectangular obstacles inserted into a circular tube has been studied in gas-liquid two-phase flow. The obstacles are set on the inner wall of the tube, and the ratio of the opening is 0.6. The water film flows partially through the obstacles. The minimum thickness of water film was measured in relation to flow speed. The serious effect of the obstacles was seen against the formation of water film, and drainage under the obstacles and backward flow play important roles. Since water film can flow partially through the obstacles, the film in case of the rectangular obstacles in thicker than that in case of an orifice when the gas flow speed was slower than 5 m/s. However, when the gas flow speed is over 5 m/s, the film thickness was thinner. The minimum film thickness of downstream of the obstacles was almost same as that in case of no obstacle. The minimum film thickness of up stream depends on the location of measurement due to the effect of drainage. (Kato, T.)

  9. One-step aerosol synthesis of nanoparticle agglomerate films: simulation of film porosity and thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maedler, Lutz; Lall, Anshuman A; Friedlander, Sheldon K

    2006-01-01

    A method is described for designing nanoparticle agglomerate films with desired film porosity and film thickness. Nanoparticle agglomerates generated in aerosol reactors can be directly deposited on substrates to form uniform porous films in one step, a significant advance over existing technologies. The effect of agglomerate morphology and deposition mechanism on film porosity and thickness are discussed. Film porosity was calculated for a given number and size of primary particles that compose the agglomerates, and fractal dimension. Agglomerate transport was described by the Langevin equation of motion. Deposition enhancing forces such as thermophoresis are incorporated in the model. The method was validated for single spherical particles using previous theoretical studies. An S-shape film porosity dependence on the particle Peclet number typical for spherical particles was also observed for agglomerates, but films formed from agglomerates had much higher porosities than films from spherical particles. Predicted film porosities compared well with measurements reported in the literature. Film porosities increased with the number of primary particles that compose an agglomerate and higher fractal dimension agglomerates resulted in denser films. Film thickness as a function of agglomerate deposition time was calculated from the agglomerate deposition flux in the presence of thermophoresis. The calculated film thickness was in good agreement with measured literature values. Thermophoresis can be used to reduce deposition time without affecting the film porosity

  10. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  11. Temperature- and thickness-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Zhimin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanical properties of polymer ultrathin films are usually different from those of their counterparts in bulk. Understanding the effect of thickness on the mechanical properties of these films is crucial for their applications. However, it is a great challenge to measure their elastic modulus experimentally with in situ heating. In this study, a thermodynamic model for temperature- (T and thickness (h-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films Ef(T,h is developed with verification by the reported experimental data on polystyrene (PS thin films. For the PS thin films on a passivated substrate, Ef(T,h decreases with the decreasing film thickness, when h is less than 60 nm at ambient temperature. However, the onset thickness (h*, at which thickness Ef(T,h deviates from the bulk value, can be modulated by T. h* becomes larger at higher T because of the depression of the quenching depth, which determines the thickness of the surface layer δ.

  12. Formation and microstructure of nickel oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcius, Marijan [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Ristic, Mira, E-mail: ristic@irb.hr [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Ivanda, Mile; Music, Svetozar [Ruder Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Difference in NiO films formed on Ni plate or glass substrate were found. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO particle sizes on Ni plate changed from nano to micron dimensions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiO particle sizes on glass substrate changed from {approx}16 to {approx}27 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Raman and UV/Vis/NIR spectra are related to the microstructure of NiO films. - Abstract: The formation and microstructure of NiO films on different substrates were monitored using XRD, Raman, UV/Vis/NIR and FE-SEM/EDS techniques. The formation of NiO films on Ni plates in air atmosphere between 400 and 800 Degree-Sign C was confirmed by XRD and Raman spectroscopy. The origin of Raman bands and corresponding Raman shifts in the samples are discussed. An increase in the size of NiO particles in the films from nano to micro dimensions was demonstrated. A change in the atomic ratio Ni:O with an increase in heating temperature was observed. Polished Ni plates coated with a thin Ni-acetate layer upon heating at high temperatures gave similar NiO microstructures on the surface like in the case of non-treated Ni plates. Glass substrates coated with thin Ni-acetate films upon heating between 400 and 800 Degree-Sign C yielded pseudospherical NiO nanoparticles. The dominant Raman band as an indicator of NiO formation on a glass substrate was shown. The formation of NiO nanoparticles on glass substrates with maximum size distribution from 16 to 27 nm in a broad temperature range from 400 to 800 Degree-Sign C can be explained by the absence of a constant source of metallic nickel which was present in the case of Ni plates.

  13. Effect of thickness on structural, corrosion and mechanical properties of a thin ZrN film deposited by medium frequency (MF) reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavitha, Ayyalu; Kannan, Raman [Anna Univ., Dindigul (India). Dept. of Physics; Loganathan, Subramani [Titan Industries, Hosur, Tamilnadu (India). Ion Plating Dept.

    2016-07-01

    Zirconium nitride (ZrN) thin films were prepared on stainless steel (SS) substrates by medium frequency (MF) reactive sputtering with gas ion source (GIS) by varying the deposition time and obtained thickness (t{sub ZrN}) in the range of 1.25 to 3.24 μm. The effect of thickness on the structural and microstructural properties was studied using XRD and AFM. XRD characterization revealed that the texture of the ZrN thin films changes as a function of thickness. Both, the (111) and (200) peak, appear initially and (111) becomes more intense with increasing t{sub ZrN}. AFM imaging revealed that the ZrN thin film coated with t{sub ZrN} ∼ 3.24 μm shows larger grains that are uniformly distributed over the surface. An average hardness value of 19.79 GPa was observed for ZrN thin films having t{sub ZrN} ∼ 3.24 μm. The ZrN thin films having t{sub ZrN} ∼ 3.24 μm exhibits better adhesion strength up to 20 N. The electrochemical polarization studies indicated that the ZrN thin film having larger thickness shows improved corrosion resistance compared to SS in 3.5 % NaCl solution.

  14. Influence of Thickness on Ethanol Sensing Characteristics of Doctor-bladed Thick Film from Flame-made ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukon Phanichphant

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP using zincnaphthenate as a precursor dissolved in toluene/acetonitrile (80/20 vol%. The particleproperties were analyzed by XRD, BET, and HR-TEM. The sensing films were produced bymixing the particles into an organic paste composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose as avehicle binder and were fabricated by doctor-blade technique with various thicknesses (5,10, 15 μm. The morphology of the sensing films was analyzed by SEM and EDS analyses.The gas sensing characteristics to ethanol (25-250 ppm were evaluated as a function of filmthickness at 400°C in dry air. The relationship between thickness and ethanol sensingcharacteristics of ZnO thick film on Al2O3 substrate interdigitated with Au electrodes wereinvestigated. The effects of film thickness, as well as the cracking phenomenon, though,many cracks were observed for thicker sensing films. Crack widths increased withincreasing film thickness. The film thickness, cracking and ethanol concentration havesignificant effect on the sensing characteristics. The sensing characteristics with variousthicknesses were compared, showing the tendency of the sensitivity to ethanol decreasedwith increasing film thickness and response time. The relationship between gas sensingproperties and film thickness was discussed on the basis of diffusively and reactivity of thegases inside the oxide films. The thinnest sensing film (5 μm showed the highest sensitivityand the fastest response time (within seconds.

  15. Growth and microstructure of columnar Y-doped SrZrO{sub 3} films deposited on Pt-coated MgO by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Sijun, E-mail: sluo1@tulane.edu; Riggs, Brian C.; Shipman, Joshua T.; Adireddy, Shiva; Sklare, Samuel C.; Chrisey, Douglas B., E-mail: dchrisey@tulane.edu [Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States); Zhang, Xiaodong; Koplitz, Brent [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 70118 (United States)

    2015-07-21

    Direct integration of proton conductor films on Pt-coated substrates opens the way to film-based proton transport devices. Columnar SrZr{sub 0.95}Y{sub 0.05}O{sub 3−δ} (SZY) films with dense microstructure were deposited on Pt-coated MgO(100) substrates at 830 °C by pulsed laser deposition. The optimal window of ambient O{sub 2} pressure for good crystallinity of SZY films is from 400 to 600 mTorr. The ambient O{sub 2} compresses the plasma plume of SZY and increases the deposition rate. The 10 nm thick Ti adhesion layer on MgO(100) greatly affects the orientation of the sputtered Pt layers. Pt deposited directly on MgO shows a highly (111)-preferred orientation and leads to preferentially oriented SZY films while the addition of a Ti adhesion layer makes Pt show a less preferential orientation that leads to randomly oriented SZY films. The RMS surface roughness of preferentially oriented SZY films is larger than that of randomly oriented SZY films deposited under the same ambient O{sub 2} pressure. As the O{sub 2} pressure increased, the RMS surface roughness of preferentially oriented SZY films increased, reaching 45.7 nm (2.61% of film thickness) at 600 mTorr. This study revealed the ambient O{sub 2} pressure and orientation dependent surface roughness of SZY films grown on Pt-coated MgO substrates, which provides the potential to control the surface microstructure of SZY films for electrochemical applications in film-based hydrogen devices.

  16. Thickness-dependent spontaneous dewetting morphology of ultrathin Ag films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, H; Favazza, C [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Sachan, R; Strader, J; Kalyanaraman, R [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Khenner, M, E-mail: ramki@utk.edu [Department of Mathematics, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2010-04-16

    We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO{sub 2} under nanosecond laser melting is dependent on film thickness. For films with thickness h of 2 nm {<=} h {<=} 9.5 nm, the morphology during the intermediate stages of dewetting consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films with 11.5 nm {<=} h {<=} 20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films (Sharma and Khanna 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3463-6; Seemann et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 4925-38). Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for the intermolecular forces for Ag on SiO{sub 2}. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.

  17. A new attempt of measurement film thickness by x-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, Masao; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1987-01-01

    In order to make film thickness measurements independent from the property or the structure of the film materials or the substrate, it is needed to adopt instead of directly utilizing the X-ray diffraction intensity, or attenuation information obtained from the substrate or film material, other new methods for measurement. Among the information obtained by X-ray diffraction, if intensity is excluded, others are F.W.H.M. and diffraction angle, only. If it is possible to investigate the film thickness dependency of the diffraction angle, it should be possible to measure the film thickness by diffraction angle. However, since diffraction angle has no film thickness dependency, it cannot be used directly for measurement. However, if we consider the principle of the X-ray diffractometer method, although it may be very slight, the substrate will be eccentric from the revolving center of the goniometer on account of the thickness of the film. If eccentricity occurs, this will cause changes in the diffraction angle. If we set the radius of the goniometer as R, diffraction angle θ, and the eccentricity from the revolving center of the specimen surface X, the deflection angle Δ2θ of 2θ may be expressed by Δ2θ = -2X · COSθ/R Thus, if X is caused by the film thickness, and by measuring the Δ2θ, it will be possible to measure the film thickness. As a result of the experiment, it was found that X-ray diffraction method can be used for the measurement of the film thickness of a few microns or above by utilizing the eccentricity caused by the film thickness. Especially it has the advantage of being able to measure thick films that X-rays will not penetrate, without being influenced by the chemical structure of the film or the substrates. (author)

  18. Film thickness determining method of the silicon isotope superlattices by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Akio; Shimizu, Yasuo; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2008-01-01

    It is becoming important to evaluate silicon self-diffusion with progress of a silicon semiconductor industry. In order to evaluate the self-diffusion of silicon, silicon isotope superlattices (SLs) is the only marker. For this reason, it is important to correctly evaluate a film thickness and a depth distribution of isotope SLs by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As for film thickness, it is difficult to estimate the thicknesses correctly if the cycles of SLs are short. In this work, first, we report the determination of the film thickness for short-period SLs using mixing roughness-information (MRI) analysis to SIMS profile. Next, the uncertainty of the conventional method to determine the film thicknesses of SLs is determined. It was found that the conventional methods cannot correctly determine film thickness of short-period-isotope SLs where film thickness differs for every layer

  19. Effect of thickness on optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.S.; Gouda, M.E.; El-Shaarawy, M.G.; Salem, A.M.; Abd El-Ghany, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on the structure and optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS film has been studied. SnS films with different thicknesses in the range 152–585 nm were deposited onto clean glass substrates at room temperature. X-ray diffraction study revealed that SnS films of thickness ≥ 283 nm are crystalline, whereas films of lower thickness exhibit poor crystalline with more amorphous background. The crystalline nature of the lower film thickness has been confirmed using transmission electron microscope and the corresponding electron diffraction pattern. The thicker film samples showed nearly stoichiometric chemical composition; however, thinner samples are deficient in S and rich in Sn. The optical property of the deposited films has been investigated in the wavelength range 350–2500 nm. The refractive index increases notably with increasing film thickness. The refractive index for the investigated film thicknesses are adequately described by the effective-single-oscillator model. The static refractive index and the static dielectric constant have been calculated. Analysis of the optical absorption coefficient revealed the presence of direct optical transition and the corresponding band gap values were found to decrease as the film thickness increases. - Highlights: ► X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of SnS films. ► Transmission electron microscope confirms the crystalline state of SnS films. ► The refractive index increases notably with increasing the film thickness. ► The optical band gap of SnS films decreases with increasing film thickness

  20. Microstructural variation in titanium oxide thin films deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandian, Ramanathaswamy; Natarajan, Gomathi; Kamruddin, M.; Tyagi, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the microstructural evolution of titanium oxide thin films deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering using titanium metal target. By varying the ratio of sputter-gas mixture containing argon, oxygen and nitrogen various phases of titanium oxide, almost pure rutile, rutile-rich and anatase-rich nano-crystalline, were deposited on Si substrates at room temperature. Using high-resolution scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and micro-Raman techniques the microstructure of the films were revealed. The relationship between the microstructure of the films and the oxygen partial pressure during sputtering is discussed

  1. Electroplated thick-film cobalt platinum permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Qi, Bin; Arnold, David P.

    2016-01-01

    The material and magnetic properties of multi-micron-thick (up to 6 μm) L1 0 CoPt magnetic films electroplated onto silicon substrates are investigated as candidate materials for integration in silicon-based microsystems. The influence of various process conditions on the structure and magnetic properties of electroplated CoPt thick-films is studied in order to better understand the complex process/structure/property relationships associated with the electroplated films. Process variables studied here include different seed layers, electroplating current densities (ranging from 25–200 mA/cm 2 ), deposition times (up to 60 min), and post-deposition annealing times and temperatures. Analyses include film morphology, film thickness, composition, surface roughness, grain size, phase volume fractions, and L1 0 ordering parameter. Key correlations are found relating process and structure variations to the extrinsic magnetic properties (remanence, coercivity, squareness, and energy product). Strong hard magnetic properties (B r ~0.8 T, H ci ~800 kA/m, squareness close to 0.9, and BH max of 100 kJ/m 3 ) are obtained for films deposited on Si/TiN/Ti/Cu at current densities of 100 mA/cm 2 , pH of 7, and subsequently annealed at 675 °C for 30 min. - Highlights: • CoPt films plated up to 6 μm thick on silicon substrates. • A1 to L1 0 phase transformation by annealing in forming gas. • Various process–structure–property relationships explored. • Key results: B r ~0.8 T, H ci ~800 kA/m, squareness 0.9, and BH max ~100 kJ/m 3 .

  2. High-throughput measurement of polymer film thickness using optical dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunlan, Jaime C.; Mehrabi, Ali R.; Ly, Tien

    2005-01-01

    Optical dyes were added to polymer solutions in an effort to create a technique for high-throughput screening of dry polymer film thickness. Arrays of polystyrene films, cast from a toluene solution, containing methyl red or solvent green were used to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. Measurements of the peak visible absorbance of each film were converted to thickness using the Beer-Lambert relationship. These absorbance-based thickness calculations agreed within 10% of thickness measured using a micrometer for polystyrene films that were 10-50 µm. At these thicknesses it is believed that the absorbance values are actually more accurate. At least for this solvent-based system, thickness was shown to be accurately measured in a high-throughput manner that could potentially be applied to other equivalent systems. Similar water-based films made with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) dyed with malachite green oxalate or congo red did not show the same level of agreement with the micrometer measurements. Extensive phase separation between polymer and dye resulted in inflated absorbance values and calculated thickness that was often more than 25% greater than that measured with the micrometer. Only at thicknesses below 15 µm could reasonable accuracy be achieved for the water-based films.

  3. Film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, J S; Stamm, M

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films prepared from solution. As a model system we used binary blends of statistical poly(styrene-co-p-bromostyrene) copolymers of different degrees of bromination. Ultra-thin-film samples differing in miscibility and film thickness were prepared via spin coating of common toluene solutions onto silicon (100) substrates. The resulting morphologies were investigated with scanning force microscopy, reflectometry and grazing-incidence scattering techniques using both X-rays and neutrons in order to obtain a picture of the sample structure at and below the sample surface. (orig.)

  4. Influence of artificial pinning centers on structural and superconducting properties of thick YBCO films on ABAD-YSZ templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Patrick; Sieger, Max; Ottolinger, Rick; Lao, Mayraluna; Eisterer, Michael; Meledin, Alexander; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Hänisch, Jens; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig; Nielsch, Kornelius; Hühne, Ruben

    2018-04-01

    Recent efforts in the development of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors are devoted to the increase of the critical current I c in magnetic fields. This is typically realized by growing thicker YBCO layers as well as by the incorporation of artificial pinning centers. We studied the growth of doped YBCO layers with a thickness of up to 7 μm using pulsed laser deposition with a growth rate of about 1.2 nm s-1. Industrially fabricated ion-beam textured YSZ templates based on metal tapes were used as substrates for this study. The incorporation of BaHfO3 (BHO) or Ba2Y(Nb0.5Ta0.5)O6 (BYNTO) secondary phase additions leads to a denser microstructure compared to undoped films. A purely c-axis-oriented YBCO growth is preserved up to a thickness of about 4 μm, whereas misoriented texture components were observed in thicker films. The critical temperature is slightly reduced compared to undoped films and independent of film thickness. The critical current density J c of the BHO- and BYNTO-doped YBCO layers is lower at 77 K and self-field compared to pure YBCO layers; however, I c increases up to a thickness of 5 μm. A comparison between films with a thickness of 1.3 μm revealed that the anisotropy of the critical current density J c(θ) strongly depends on the incorporated pinning centers. Whereas BHO nanorods lead to a strong B∣∣c-axis peak, the overall anisotropy is significantly reduced by the incorporation of BYNTO forming a mixture of short c-axis-oriented nanorods and small (a-b)-oriented platelets. As a result, the J c values of the doped films outperform the undoped samples at higher fields and lower temperatures for most magnetic field directions.

  5. Thickness-dependent spontaneous dewetting morphology of ultrathin Ag films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, H; Sachan, R; Strader, J; Favazza, C; Khenner, M; Kalyanaraman, R

    2010-04-16

    We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO2 under nanosecond laser melting is dependent on film thickness. For films with thickness h of 2 nm < or = h < or = 9.5 nm, the morphology during the intermediate stages of dewetting consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films with 11.5 nm < or = h < or = 20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films (Sharma and Khanna 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3463-6; Seemann et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 4925-38). Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for the intermolecular forces for Ag on SiO2. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.

  6. Bilaterally Microstructured Thin Polydimethylsiloxane Film Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vudayagiri, Sindhu; Yu, Liyun; Hassouneh, Suzan Sager

    2015-01-01

    Thin PDMS films with complex microstructures are used in the manufacturing of dielectric electro active polymer (DEAP) actuators, sensors and generators, to protect the metal electrode from large strains and to assure controlled actuation. The current manufacturing process at Danfoss Polypower A/...

  7. Nano-Hydroxyapatite Thick Film Gas Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairnar, Rajendra S.; Mene, Ravindra U.; Munde, Shivaji G.; Mahabole, Megha P.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work pure and metal ions (Co and Fe) doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) thick films have been successfully utilized to improve the structural, morphological and gas sensing properties. Nanocrystalline HAp powder is synthesized by wet chemical precipitation route, and ion exchange process is employed for addition of Co and Fe ions in HAp matrix. Moreover, swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) technique is used to modify the surface of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp with various ion fluence. The structural investigation of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp thick films are carried out using X-ray diffraction and the presence of functional group is observed by means FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface morphology is visualized by means of SEM and AFM analysis. CO gas sensing study is carried out for, pure and metal ions doped, HAp thick films with detail investigation on operating temperature, response/recovery time and gas uptake capacity. The surface modifications of sensor matrix by SHI enhance the gas response, response/recovery and gas uptake capacity. The significant observation is here to note that, addition of Co and Fe in HAp matrix and surface modification by SHI improves the sensing properties of HAp films drastically resulting in gas sensing at relatively lower temperatures.

  8. Electroplated thick-film cobalt platinum permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Qi, Bin; Arnold, David P., E-mail: darnold@ufl.edu

    2016-10-15

    The material and magnetic properties of multi-micron-thick (up to 6 μm) L1{sub 0} CoPt magnetic films electroplated onto silicon substrates are investigated as candidate materials for integration in silicon-based microsystems. The influence of various process conditions on the structure and magnetic properties of electroplated CoPt thick-films is studied in order to better understand the complex process/structure/property relationships associated with the electroplated films. Process variables studied here include different seed layers, electroplating current densities (ranging from 25–200 mA/cm{sup 2}), deposition times (up to 60 min), and post-deposition annealing times and temperatures. Analyses include film morphology, film thickness, composition, surface roughness, grain size, phase volume fractions, and L1{sub 0} ordering parameter. Key correlations are found relating process and structure variations to the extrinsic magnetic properties (remanence, coercivity, squareness, and energy product). Strong hard magnetic properties (B{sub r} ~0.8 T, H{sub ci} ~800 kA/m, squareness close to 0.9, and BH{sub max} of 100 kJ/m{sup 3}) are obtained for films deposited on Si/TiN/Ti/Cu at current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, pH of 7, and subsequently annealed at 675 °C for 30 min. - Highlights: • CoPt films plated up to 6 μm thick on silicon substrates. • A1 to L1{sub 0} phase transformation by annealing in forming gas. • Various process–structure–property relationships explored. • Key results: B{sub r} ~0.8 T, H{sub ci} ~800 kA/m, squareness 0.9, and BH{sub max} ~100 kJ/m{sup 3}.

  9. Measurement of the thickness of thin films by backscattered protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaniego, L.E.Q.

    1976-07-01

    The method of backscattered protons has been used to measure the thickness of thin films. A monoenergetic beam of protons is directed on the film to be measured and the backscattered protons are detected with a particle detector. The film thickness is calculated from the energy spectrum of the protons. In the case of films consisting of several layers of elements with well separated atomic masses, it is possible to separate the spectra of protons scattered from the different elements, permitting a measurement of the thicknesses of the different layers. The method consists of calculating the energy loss of the protons throughout their trajectory, from the point of incidence on the film to the final detection. Thicknesses were measured for the following film combinations: gold on mylar, chromium on mylar, gold on chromium on mylar, and pure mylar. (Author) [pt

  10. High-throughput characterization of film thickness in thin film materials libraries by digital holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Yiuwai; Hofmann, Martin R; Ludwig, Alfred; Krause, Michael; Savan, Alan; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Koukourakis, Nektarios

    2011-01-01

    A high-throughput characterization technique based on digital holography for mapping film thickness in thin-film materials libraries was developed. Digital holographic microscopy is used for fully automatic measurements of the thickness of patterned films with nanometer resolution. The method has several significant advantages over conventional stylus profilometry: it is contactless and fast, substrate bending is compensated, and the experimental setup is simple. Patterned films prepared by different combinatorial thin-film approaches were characterized to investigate and demonstrate this method. The results show that this technique is valuable for the quick, reliable and high-throughput determination of the film thickness distribution in combinatorial materials research. Importantly, it can also be applied to thin films that have been structured by shadow masking.

  11. High-throughput characterization of film thickness in thin film materials libraries by digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yiu Wai; Krause, Michael; Savan, Alan; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Hofmann, Martin R; Ludwig, Alfred

    2011-10-01

    A high-throughput characterization technique based on digital holography for mapping film thickness in thin-film materials libraries was developed. Digital holographic microscopy is used for fully automatic measurements of the thickness of patterned films with nanometer resolution. The method has several significant advantages over conventional stylus profilometry: it is contactless and fast, substrate bending is compensated, and the experimental setup is simple. Patterned films prepared by different combinatorial thin-film approaches were characterized to investigate and demonstrate this method. The results show that this technique is valuable for the quick, reliable and high-throughput determination of the film thickness distribution in combinatorial materials research. Importantly, it can also be applied to thin films that have been structured by shadow masking.

  12. LPG and NH3 Sensing Properties of SnO2 Thick Film Resistors Prepared by Screen Printing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. GARDE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The gas sensing behavior of SnO2 thick film resistors deposited on alumina substrates has been investigated for LPG and NH3 gas. The standard screen printing technology was used to prepare the thick films. The films were fired at optimized temperature of 780 0C for 30 minutes. The material characterization was performed by XRD, SEM, FTIR, UV and EDAX for elemental analysis. IR spectroscopy analysis at 2949.26 cm-1 showed the peak assigned to the –Sn-H vibration due to the effect of hybridization i.e. sp3 and the sharp peak at 3734.31 cm-1 assigned to –Sn-OH stretching vibration due to hydrogen bonding. The variation of D.C electrical resistance of SnO2 film samples was measured in air as well as in LPG and NH3 gas atmosphere as a function of temperature. The SnO2 film samples show negative temperature coefficient of résistance. The SnO2 film samples showed the highest sensitivity to 600 ppm of LPG at 230 0C and NH3 at 370 0C. The effect of microstructure on sensitivity, response time and recovery time of the sensor in the presence of LPG and NH3 gases were studied and discussed.

  13. Subtractive fabrication of ferroelectric thin films with precisely controlled thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Leonard, Donovan N.; Agar, Joshua C.; Velarde, Gabriel A.; Martin, Lane W.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2018-04-01

    The ability to control thin-film growth has led to advances in our understanding of fundamental physics as well as to the emergence of novel technologies. However, common thin-film growth techniques introduce a number of limitations related to the concentration of defects on film interfaces and surfaces that limit the scope of systems that can be produced and studied experimentally. Here, we developed an ion-beam based subtractive fabrication process that enables creation and modification of thin films with pre-defined thicknesses. To accomplish this we transformed a multimodal imaging platform that combines time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with atomic force microscopy to a unique fabrication tool that allows for precise sputtering of the nanometer-thin layers of material. To demonstrate fabrication of thin-films with in situ feedback and control on film thickness and functionality we systematically studied thickness dependence of ferroelectric switching of lead-zirconate-titanate, within a single epitaxial film. Our results demonstrate that through a subtractive film fabrication process we can control the piezoelectric response as a function of film thickness as well as improve on the overall piezoelectric response versus an untreated film.

  14. Tuning microstructure and magnetic properties of electrodeposited CoNiP films by high magnetic field annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chun; Wang, Kai [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Li, Donggang, E-mail: lidonggang@smm.neu.edu.cn [School of Metallurgy, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Lou, Changsheng [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shenyang Ligong University, Shenyang 110159 (China); Zhao, Yue; Gao, Yang [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wangq@mail.neu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Electromagnetic Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2016-10-15

    A high magnetic field (up to 12 T) has been used to anneal 2.6-µm-thick Co{sub 50}Ni{sub 40}P{sub 10} films formed by pulse electrodeposition. The effects of high magnetic field annealing on the microstructure and magnetic properties of CoNiP thin films have been investigated. It was found that a high magnetic field accelerated a phase transformation from fcc to hcp and enhanced the preferred hcp-(002) orientation during annealing. Compared with the films annealed without a magnetic field, annealing at 12 T decreased the surface particle size, roughness, and coercivity, but increased the saturation magnetization and remanent magnetization of CoNiP films. The out-of-plane coercivity was higher than that the in-plane for the as-deposited films. After annealing without a magnetic field, the out-of-plane coercivity was equal to that of the in-plane. However, the out-of-plane coercivity was higher than that of the in-plane when annealing at 12 T. These results indicate that high magnetic field annealing is an effective method for tuning the microstructure and magnetic properties of thin films. - Highlights: • High magnetic field annealing accelerated phase transformation from γ to ε. • High magnetic field annealing enhanced preferred hcp-(002) orientation. • High magnetic field annealing decreased particle size, roughness and coercivity. • High magnetic field annealing increased the saturation and remanent magnetization.

  15. Intrinsic flux pinning mechanisms in different thickness MgB2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available MgB2 films in four thickness (60 nm, 200nm, 600nm and 1μm have been fabricated by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition technique (HPCVD. By measuring the magnetization hysteresis loops and the resistivity, we have obtained the transport and magnetic properties of the four films. After that, the pinning mechanisms in them were discussed. Comparing the pinning behaviors in these ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, it was found that there exist different pinning types in MgB2 films of different thickness. In combination with the study of the surface morphology, cross-section and XRD results, we concluded that MgB2 films had different growth modes in different growth stages. For thin films, films grew along c axis, and grain boundaries acted as surface pinning. While for thick films, films grew along c axis at first, and then changed to a-b axis growth. As a result, the a-b axis grains acted as strong volume pinning.

  16. Thickness-dependent appearance of ferromagnetism in Pd(100) ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, S.; Sakai, T.; Urata, S.; Aihara, S.; Shinto, A.; Kageshima, H.; Sawada, M.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Sato, T.

    2014-08-01

    We report the appearance of ferromagnetism in thin films of Pd(100), which depends on film thickness in the range of 3-5 nm on SrTiO3(100) substrates. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurement shows the intrinsic nature of ferromagnetism in Pd(100) films. The spontaneous magnetization in Pd(100) films, corresponding to is 0.61μB/atom, is comparable to Ni, and it changes in an oscillatory manner depending on film thickness, where the period quantitatively agrees with the theoretical prediction based on the two-dimensional quantum well in the film. This indicates that the discrete electronic states in the quantum well shift to Fermi energy to satisfy the condition for ferromagnetism (Stoner criterion) at a specific film thickness.

  17. A „Hybrid“ Thin-Film pH Sensor with Integrated Thick-Film Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Simonis, Anette; Krings, Thomas; Lüth, Hans; Wang, Joseph; Schöning, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    A reference electrode fabricated by means of thick-film technique is deposited onto a silicon substrate and combined with a thin-film pH sensor to a “hybrid†chip system. To evaluate the suitability of this combination, first investigations were carried out. The characteristics of the thin-film pH sensor were studied towards the thick-film Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Measurements were performed in the capacitance/voltage (C/V) and constant capacitance (Concap) mode for different pH ...

  18. Study of obliquely deposited thin cobalt films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szmaja, W.; Kozlowski, W.; Balcerski, J.; Kowalczyk, P.J.; Grobelny, J.; Cichomski, M.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The paper reports simultaneously on the magnetic domain structure of obliquely deposited thin cobalt films (40 nm and 100 nm thick) and their morphological structure. Such studies are in fact rare (Refs. cited in the paper). → Moreover, to our knowledge, observations of the morphological structure of these films have not yet been carried out simultaneously by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). → The films of both thicknesses were found to have uniaxial in-plane magnetic anisotropy. → The magnetic microstructure of the films 40 nm thick was composed of domains running and magnetized predominantly in the direction perpendicular to the incidence plane of the vapor beam. → As the film thickness was changed from 40 nm to 100 nm, the magnetic anisotropy was observed to change from the direction perpendicular to parallel with respect to the incidence plane. → Thanks to the application of TEM and AFM, complementary information on the morphological structure of the films could be obtained. → In comparison with TEM images, AFM images revealed grains larger in size and slightly elongated in the direction perpendicular rather than parallel to the incidence plane. → These experimental findings clearly show that surface diffusion plays an important role in the process of film growth. → For the films 40 nm thick, the alignment of columnar grains in the direction perpendicular to the incidence plane was observed. → This correlates well with the magnetic domain structure of these films. → For the films 100 nm thick, the perpendicular alignment of columnar grains could also be found, although in fact with larger difficulty. → TEM studies showed that the films consisted mainly of the hexagonal close-packed (HCP) crystalline structure, but no preferred crystallographic orientation of the grains could be detected for the films of both thicknesses. → For the films 100 nm thick, the alignment of

  19. Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/TiN film coated on AISI 304 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Yoon; Kim, Kwan Hyu; Choe, Han Cheol

    1999-01-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti/TiN film coated on AISI 304 stainless steels have been studied. AISI 304 stainless steels containing 0.1∼1.0 wt% Ti were fabricated by using vacuum furnace and followed by solutionization treatment at 1050 .deg. C for 1hr. The specimens were coated by Ti and TiN with 1 μm and 2 μm thickness by electron-beam PVD method. The microstructure and phase analysis were carried out by using XRD, WDS and SEM. Mechanical properties such as hardness (micro-Vickers) and wear resistance were examined. Coated films showed fine columnar structure and some defects. Surface roughness increased in all specimens after TiN coating. XRD patterns showed that the TiN(111) peak was major in TiN single-layer and the other peaks were very weak, but TiN(220) and TiN(200) peaks were developed in Ti/TiN double-layer. The hardness of the coating film was higher in Ti/TiN double-layer than in TiN single-layer and not affected by the Ti content of substrate. Ti/TiN double-layer showed better wear resistance than TiN single-layer. The observed wear traces were sheared type in all coated specimens

  20. Microstructure of thermoelectric (Bi0.15Sb0.85)2Te3 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, Koksal; Akgul, Unal; Atici, Yusuf; Leipner, Hartmut S.

    2014-01-01

    The film of thermoelectric ternary p-type (Bi 0.15 Sb 0.85 ) 2 Te 3 was deposited on polyimide foil substrate at 168 C using direct-current magnetron sputtering. Microstructural investigations of the film were performed by electron microscopy techniques. SEM observations showed that the film surface consisted of large-sized particulates with small-sized particles and also mound-like crystal agglomerates in some areas. Chemical composition of the film was analyzed using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). It has been observed that the EDS results were in an agreement with nominal composition for the film. Detailed microstructural investigations were carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TEM images and selected area electron diffraction patterns showed that the film has randomly oriented polycrystalline grain structure. High-resolution TEM images indicated that the microstructure of film also contained nano-crystal structure, smaller than 10 nm. (orig.)

  1. Microstructural control of thin-film diffusion-brazed titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    This study was designed to determine what parameters should be controlled to achieve quality joints of good toughness and high strength in titanium alloys. Emphasis was placed upon studying those parameters which provided tough joints compatible with the titanium base metal being joined. This paper is concerned with thin-film diffusion brazing based upon the eutectic system formed between copper and titanium. In order to control the joint microstructure, the copper diffusion rates and the beta-phase decomposition kinetics were studied. This information was used to produce various types of microstructures in test specimens. These were then evaluated to select the best microstructures for toughness and strength which were compatible with the titanium alloys. Results show that it is possible to accurately control properties of joints produced by thin-film diffusion brazing. This is done by controlling the initial copper content and the time-temperature parameters used in processing. Alloys studied were Ti--8Al--1Mo--1V and Ti--6Al--4V

  2. The microstructure of petroleum vacuum residue films for bituminous concrete: a microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourty, E D; Tamminga, A Y; Michels, M A J; Vellinga, W-P; Meijer, H E H

    2011-02-01

    Selected carbon-rich refinery residues ('binders') mixed with mineral particles can form composite materials ('bituminous concrete') with bulk mechanical properties comparable to those of cement concrete. The microstructural mechanism underlying the remarkable composite properties has been related to the appearance of a rigid percolating network consisting of asphaltenes and mineral particles [Wilbrink M. et al. (2005) Rigidity percolation in dispersions with a structured visco-elastic matrix. Phys. Rev. E71, 031402]. In this paper, we explore the microstructure of thin binder films of varying thickness with a number of microscopic characterization techniques, and attempt to relate the observed microstructure to the distinctive mechanical behaviour. Two binders, only one of which has been proven to be suitable for bituminous concrete were investigated, and their microstructure compared. Both binders show the formation of asphaltene aggregates. The binder suitable for bituminous concrete is distinguished by the fact that the asphaltenes show a stronger tendency towards such aggregation, due to a higher concentration and less stabilization in the maltene phase. They also show a clear affinity to other species (such as waxes) and may act as nucleation sites for crystals and aggregates of those species. © 2010 The Authors Journal compilation © 2010 The Royal Microscopical Society.

  3. Microstructural and compositional analysis of YBa2Cu3O7-δ films grown by MOCVD before and after GCIB smoothing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzistergos, M.S.; Efstathiadis, H.; Reeves, J.L.; Selvamanickam, V.; Allen, L.P.; Lifshin, E.; Haldar, P.

    2004-01-01

    The microstructural and compositional evolution of thick (>1 μm) high temperature superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) films grown on single crystal SrTiO 3 substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process was investigated by focused ion beam microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. This study showed that as the MOCVD YBCO film thickness increased above 0.5 μm, defects such as second phase particles, pores, and misaligned grains preferentially nucleated and grew at the YBCO surface. A portion of this defective top layer was eliminated from all the samples using a gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) process that first removed material with a focused argon cluster beam. Next, an oxygen cluster beam was used to smooth the surface and re-oxygenate the YBCO. Comparing the critical current (I c ) measured before and after GCIB processing showed that the I c remained the same, and even improved, when part of the defective top layer was removed. This microstructural and electromagnetic 'dead layer' is believed to be responsible for the overall I c decrease of MOCVD YBCO films thicker than 0.5 μm

  4. Order in nanometer thick intergranular films at Au-sapphire interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baram, Mor [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Garofalini, Stephen H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 (United States); Kaplan, Wayne D., E-mail: kaplan@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Au particles were equilibrated on (0 0 0 1) sapphire in the presence of anorthite. {yields} 1.2 nm thick equilibrium films (complexions) were formed at the Au-sapphire interfaces. {yields} Quantitative HRTEM was used to study the atomistic structure of the films. {yields} Structural order was observed in the 1.2 nm thick films adjacent to the sapphire crystal. {yields} This demonstrates that ordering is an intrinsic part of equilibrium intergranular films. - Abstract: In recent years extensive studies on interfaces have shown that {approx}1 nm thick intergranular films (IGF) exist at interfaces in different material systems, and that IGF can significantly affect the materials' properties. However, there is great deal of uncertainty whether such films are amorphous or partially ordered. In this study specimens were prepared from Au particles that were equilibrated on sapphire substrates in the presence of anorthite glass, leading to the formation of 1.2 nm thick IGF at the Au-sapphire interfaces. Site-specific cross-section samples were characterized using quantitative high resolution transmission electron microscopy to study the atomistic structure of the films. Order was observed in the 1.2 nm thick films adjacent to the sapphire crystal in the form of 'Ca cages', experimentally demonstrating that ordering is an intrinsic part of IGF, as predicted from molecular dynamics and diffuse interface theory.

  5. Thin film diamond microstructure applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppel, T.; Ellis, C.; Ramesham, R.; Jaworske, D.; Baginski, M. E.; Lee, S. Y.

    1991-01-01

    Selective deposition and abrasion, as well as etching in atomic oxygen or reduced-pressure air, have been used to prepare patterned polycrystalline diamond films which, on further processing by anisotropic Si etching, yield the microstructures of such devices as flow sensors and accelerometers. Both types of sensor have been experimentally tested in the respective functions of hot-wire anemometer and both single- and double-hinged accelerometer.

  6. Thickness dependent ferromagnetism in thermally decomposed NiO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravikumar, Patta; Kisan, Bhagaban; Perumal, Alagarsamy, E-mail: perumal@iitg.ernet.in

    2016-11-15

    We report the effects of film thickness, annealing temperature and annealing environments on thermal decomposition behavior and resulting magnetic properties of NiO (t=50–300 nm) thin films. All the NiO films were prepared directly on thermally oxidized Si at ambient temperature using magnetron sputtering technique and post annealed at different temperatures (T{sub A}) under vacuum and oxygen atmospheres. As-deposited films exhibit face centered cubic structure with large lattice constant due to strain induced during sputtering process. With increasing T{sub A}, the lattice constant decreases due to the release of strain and thickness dependent thermal decomposition reaction of NiO into Ni has been observed for the NiO films annealed at 500 °C under vacuum condition. As a result, the antiferromagnetic nature of the as-deposited NiO films transforms into ferromagnetic one with dominant thickness dependent ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. In addition, the existence of both Ni and NiO phases in the annealed NiO films shows noticeable exchange bias under field cooling condition. The behavior of thermal decomposition was not observed for the NiO films annealed under oxygen condition which results in no detectable change in the magnetic properties. The observed results are discussed on the basis of thickness dependent thermal decomposition in NiO films with increasing T{sub A} and changing annealing conditions. - Highlights: • Preparation of highly strained single layer NiO films with different thicknesses. • Study the effects of annealing under different environments on crystal structure. • Understanding the origin of thickness dependent thermal decomposition reaction. • Investigate the role of thermal decomposition reaction on the magnetic properties. • Study the interaction between NiO and Ni phases on the exchange bias mechanism.

  7. A method to measure the mean thickness and non-uniformity of non-uniform thin film by alpha-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Makoto; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1977-01-01

    The α-ray thickness gauge is used to measure non-destructively the thicknesses of thin films, and up to the present day, a thin film with uniform thickness is only taken up as the object of α-ray thickness gauge. When the thickness is determined from the displacement between the absorption curves in the presence and absence of thin film, the absorption curve must be displaced in parallel. When many uniform particles were dispersed as sample, the shape of the absorption curve was calculated as the sum of many absorption curves corresponding to the thin films with different thicknesses. By the comparison of the calculated and measured absorption curves, the number of particles, or the mean superficial density can be determined. This means the extension of thickness measurement from uniform to non-uniform films. Furthermore, these particle models being applied to non-uniform thin film, the possibility of measuring the mean thickness and non-uniformity was discussed. As the result, if the maximum difference of the thickness was more than 0.2 mg/cm 2 , the nonuniformity was considered to distinguish by the usual equipment. In this paper, an α-ray thickness gauge using the absorption curve method was treated, but one can apply this easily to an α-ray thickness gauge using α-ray energy spectra before and after the penetration of thin film. (auth.)

  8. Ultrafast demagnetisation dependence on film thickness: A TDDFT calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Sharma, S.

    2018-04-01

    Ferromagnetic materials when subjected to intense laser pulses leads to reduction of their magnetisation on an ultrafast scale. Here, we perform an ab-initio calculation to study the behavior of ultrafast demagnetisation as a function of film thickness for Nickel as compared to the bulk of the material. In thin films surface formation results in amplification of demagnetisation with the percentage of demagnetisation depending upon the film thickness.

  9. Microstructure and phase composition of sputter-deposited zirconia-yttria films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, R.W.; Bradley, E.R.

    1983-11-01

    Thin ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 coatings ranging in composition from 3 to 15 mole % Y 2 O 3 were produced by rf sputter deposition. This composition range spanned the region on the equilibrium ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 phase diagram corresponding to partially stabilized zirconia (a mixture of tetragonal ZrO 2 and cubic solid solution). Microstructural characteristics and crystalline phase composition of as-deposited and heat treated films (1100 0 C and 1500 0 C) were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Effects of substrate bias (0 approx. 250 volts), which induced ion bombardment of the film during growth, were also studied. The as-deposited ZrO 2 -Y 2 O 3 films were single phase over the composition range studied, and XRD data indicated considerable local atomic disorder in the lattice. Films produced at low bias contained intergranular voids, pronounced columnar growth, and porosity between columns. At high bias, the microstructure was denser, and films contained high compressive stress. After heat treatment, all deposits remained single phase, therefore a microstructure and precipitate distribution characteristic of toughened, partially stabilized zirconia appear to be difficult to achieve in vapor deposited zirconia coatings

  10. Microstructural and Mechanical Study of Press Hardening of Thick Boron Steel Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujante, J.; Garcia-Llamas, E.; Golling, S.; Casellas, D.

    2017-09-01

    Press hardening has become a staple in the production of automotive safety components, due to the combination of high mechanical properties and form complexity it offers. However, the use of press hardened components has not spread to the truck industry despite the advantages it confers, namely affordable weight reduction without the use of exotic materials, would be extremely attractive for this sector. The main reason for this is that application of press hardened components in trucks implies adapting the process to the manufacture of thick sheet metal. This introduces an additional layer of complexity, mainly due to the thermal gradients inside the material resulting in though-thickness differences in austenitization and cooling, potentially resulting in complex microstructure and gradient of mechanical properties. This work presents a preliminary study on the press hardening of thick boron steel sheet. First of all, the evolution of the sheet metal during austenitization is studied by means of dilatometry tests and by analysing the effect of furnace dwell time on grain size. Afterwards, material cooled using different cooling strategies, and therefore different effective cooling rates, is studied in terms of microstructure and mechanical properties. Initial results from finite element simulation are compared to experimental results, focusing on the phase composition in through thickness direction. Results show that industrial-equivalent cooling conditions do not lead to gradient microstructures, even in extreme scenarios involving asymmetrical cooling.

  11. Percolation effect in thick film superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sali, R.; Harsanyi, G. [Technical Univ. of Budapest (Hungary)

    1994-12-31

    A thick film superconductor paste has been developed to study the properties of granulated superconductor materials, to observe the percolation effect and to confirm the theory of the conducting mechanism in the superconducting thick films. This paste was also applied to make a superconducting planar transformer. Due to high T{sub c} and advantageous current density properties the base of the paste was chosen to be of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO system. For contacts a conventional Ag/Pt paste was used. The critical temperature of the samples were between 110 K and 115 K depending on the printed layer thickness. The critical current density at the boiling temperature of the liquid He- was between 200-300 A/cm{sup 2}. The R(T) and V(I) functions were measured with different parameters. The results of the measurements have confirmed the theory of conducting mechanism in the material. The percolation structure model has been built and described. As an application, a superconducting planar thick film transformer was planned and produced. Ten windings of the transformer were printed on one side of the alumina substrate and one winding was printed on the other side. The coupling between the two sides was possible through the substrate. The samples did not need special drying and firing parameters. After the preparation, the properties of the transformer were measured. The efficiency and the losses were determined. Finally, some fundamental advantages and problems of the process were discussed.

  12. Percolation effect in thick film superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sali, R.; Harsanyi, G.

    1994-01-01

    A thick film superconductor paste has been developed to study the properties of granulated superconductor materials, to observe the percolation effect and to confirm the theory of the conducting mechanism in the superconducting thick films. This paste was also applied to make a superconducting planar transformer. Due to high T c and advantageous current density properties the base of the paste was chosen to be of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO system. For contacts a conventional Ag/Pt paste was used. The critical temperature of the samples were between 110 K and 115 K depending on the printed layer thickness. The critical current density at the boiling temperature of the liquid He- was between 200-300 A/cm 2 . The R(T) and V(I) functions were measured with different parameters. The results of the measurements have confirmed the theory of conducting mechanism in the material. The percolation structure model has been built and described. As an application, a superconducting planar thick film transformer was planned and produced. Ten windings of the transformer were printed on one side of the alumina substrate and one winding was printed on the other side. The coupling between the two sides was possible through the substrate. The samples did not need special drying and firing parameters. After the preparation, the properties of the transformer were measured. The efficiency and the losses were determined. Finally, some fundamental advantages and problems of the process were discussed

  13. Thickness dependence of J_c (0) in MgB_2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yiling; Yang, Can; Jia, Chunyan; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A serial of MgB_2 superconducting films from 10 nm to 8 µm have been prepared. • T_c and J_c (5 K, 0 T) of films are high. • J_c (5 K, 0 T) reaches its maximum 2.3 × 10"8 A cm"−"2 for 100 nm films. • The relationship between thickness and J_c has been discussed in detail. - Abstract: MgB_2 superconducting films, whose thicknesses range from 10 nm to 8 µm, have been fabricated on SiC substrates by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method. It is the first time that the T_c and the J_c of MgB_2 films are studied on such a large scale. It is found that with the increasing of thickness, T_c elevates first and then keeps roughly stable except for some slight fluctuations, while J_c (5 K, 0 T) experiences a sharp increase followed by a relatively slow fall. The maximum J_c (5 K, 0 T) = 2.3 × 10"8 A cm"−"2 is obtained for 100 nm films, which is the experimental evidence for preparing high-quality MgB_2 films by HPCVD method. Thus, this work may provide guidance on choosing the suitable thickness for applications. Meanwhile, the films prepared by us cover ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, so the study on them will bring a comprehensive understanding of MgB_2 films.

  14. The microstructural evolution of nanometer ruthenium films in Ru/C multilayers with thermal treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Gronsky, R.; Kortright, J.B.

    1991-04-01

    The evolution of nanometer Ru films sandwiched between various C layer thickness with thermal treatments was studied by plan-view and cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy. Plan-view observation provides information on the Ru grain size, while cross- sectional studies allow examination of the multilayer morphology. After annealing at 800 degrees C for 30 minutes, the grain size in the 2 and 4 nm Ru layers show little difference from each other, while that in the 1 nm Ru layers depends strongly on the thickness of the C layers in the multilayers. It increases with decreasing C layer thickness. Agglomeration of the Ru layers is observed in 1nm Ru/1nm C multilayers after annealing at 600 degrees C for 30 minutes. The evolution of the microstructures and layered structure stability of the Ru/C system is compared to that of W/C and Ru/B 4 C systems. 10 refs., 2 figs

  15. Effect of deposition conditions on mechanical stresses and microstructure of sputter-deposited molybdenum and reactively sputter-deposited molybdenum nitride films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.G.

    2003-01-01

    A combined investigation of mechanical stress generation by in situ substrate curvature measurements during the growth of MoN x thin films, with 0≤x≤0.35, and of structural properties by ex situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transmission electron diffraction (TED), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) is reported. It was found that the Mo film stresses strongly depended on the Ar sputtering pressure and changed from highly compressive to highly tensile in a relatively narrow pressure range of 6-12 mTorr. For pressures exceeding ∼40 mTorr, the stress in the film was nearly zero. Cross-sectional TEM measurements indicated that the compressively stressed films contained a dense microstructure without any columns, while the films having tensile stress had a very columnar microstructure. High sputtering-gas pressure conditions yielded dendritic-like film growth, resulting in complete relaxation of the mechanical tensile stresses. It was also found that the properties of the deposited MoN x films depended not only on the nitrogen partial pressure in Ar-N 2 gas mixtures but also on the total sputtering-gas pressure. Cross-sectional TEM studies showed that an average column width for 160 nm-thick films near stoichiometry of Mo 2 N was about ∼15-20 nm. Using the electron scattering data collected from a range of crystalline samples for calculating the pair distribution function (PDF) by Fourier transformation in real space, Mo-N and Mo-Mo bonding in the films was also identified. Once the Mo 2 N phase was formed, the density, microstructure and bonding feature were similar and insensitive to the total sputtering pressure used in this study

  16. Fabrication and characteristics of self-assembly nano-polystyrene films by laser induced CVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Tingting [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Cai, Congzhong [Department of Applied Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 401331 (China); Peng, Liping [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China); Wu, Weidong, E-mail: wuweidongding@163.com [Science and Technology on Plasma Physics Laboratory, Research Center of Laser Fusion, CAEP, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The self-assembly nano-polystyrene (PS) films have been prepared by laser induced CVD at room temperature. The XPS, Raman and UV–vis absorption spectra all indicated that the films were PS. The optical properties, microstructure and controllable nanostructure of PS films have been investigated. Dewetting-like microstructure in PS films was investigated and uniform island structures with a diameter of about 200 nm were observed at the deposition pressure of 14 Pa. The films possess good toughness and precisely controlled thicknesses. The free-standing PS films with thickness of 10 nm could be obtained by this method though a series of process.

  17. Characterization of Mixed xWO3(1-xY2O3 Nanoparticle Thick Film for Gas Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Shahrokh Abadi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Microstructural, topology, inner morphology, and gas-sensitivity of mixed xWO3(1-xY2O3 nanoparticles (x = 1, 0.95, 0.9, 0.85, 0.8 thick-film semiconductor gas sensors were studied. The surface topography and inner morphological properties of the mixed powder and sensing film were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscopy (AFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Also, gas sensitivity properties of the printed films were evaluated in the presence of methane (CH4 and butane (C4H10 at up to 500 °C operating temperature of the sensor. The results show that the doping agent can modify some structural properties and gas sensitivity of the mixed powder.

  18. Insights into the annealing process of sol-gel TiO2 films leading to anatase development: The interrelationship between microstructure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, E.; Domínguez, M.; González-Leal, J. M.; Márquez, E.; Outón, J.; Ramírez-del-Solar, M.

    2018-05-01

    The microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 thin films, prepared by the sol-gel dip coating technique on glass substrates, were inspected. After deposition, the films were annealed at several temperatures in the 400-850 °C range and the resulting nanostructured films were studied by different techniques showing that their structural and optical characteristics evolved significantly with the increased annealing temperature. The analysis of these results by the assumption of the Tauc Lorenz model and the use of Wemple-DiDomenico equation leads to a correlation between microstructural aspects and optical characteristics of the films. Thus, crystallization processes (nucleation, growth and phase transformation) and the evolution of films texture and thickness with increasing annealing temperatures are related with the variation of the refractive index, average gap and extinction coefficient during annealing. Finally, the free-carrier concentration in the films, estimated from the Spitzer-Fan model, ranged from 1.44 × 1019 cm-3 to 3.07 × 1019 cm-3 with the changing annealing temperature, which is in agreement with those obtained in similar anatase thin films from electrical measurement techniques.

  19. Surface and Interface Properties of 10–12 Unit Cells Thick Sputter Deposited Epitaxial CeO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Saraf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin and continuous epitaxial films with relaxed lattice strain can potentially maintain more of its bulk physical and chemical properties and are useful as buffer layers. We study surface, interface, and microstructural properties of ultrathin (∼10–12 unit cells thick epitaxial ceria films grown on single crystal YSZ substrates. The out-of -plane and in-plane lattice parameters indicate relaxation in the continuous film due to misfit dislocations seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and substrate roughness of ∼1-2 unit cells, confirmed by atomic force microscopy and HRTEM. A combination of secondary sputtering, lattice mismatch, substrate roughness, and surface reduction creating secondary phase was likely the cause of surface roughness which should be reduced to a minimum level for effective use of it as buffer layers.

  20. A Study on the Thickness Measurement of Thin Film by Ultrasonic Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eung Kyo; Lee, Jae Joon; Kim, Jae Yeol

    1988-01-01

    Recently, it is gradually raised necessity that thickness of thin film is measured accurately and managed in industrial circles and medical world. In this study, regarding to the thickness of film which is in opaque object and is beyond distance resolution capacity, thickness measurement was done by MEM-cepstrum analysis of received ultrasonic wave. In measurement results, film thickness which is beyond distance resolution capacity was measured accurately. And within thickness range that don't exist interference, thickness measurement by MEM-ceptrum analysis was impossible

  1. Anomalous size effect in conductivity of Bi films of small thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anopchenko, A.S.; Kashirin, V.Yu.; Komnik, Yu.F.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental data are obtained at helium temperature, which describe the kinetic properties (conductivity, magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient) of Bi films whose thicknesses are within 100-500 A. The small-thickness Bi films display an anomalous size effect- the growing conductivity at decreasing thickness, and pronounced quantum interference effects - weak electron localization and enhancing electron-electron interaction in a disordered system. The information derived on the kinetic properties of the films is used to identify the character of the changes in the electron and hole concentrations and mobilities with a decreasing thickness. The isotropy of the properties in the films plane due to the axial texture has permitted us to use the equations for a conductor with two types of charge carriers. The used kinetic characteristics correctly take into account the contribution of the quantum corrections related to quantum interference. It is found that the concentration of the charge carries increases appreciably (by about two orders of magnitude) as the film thickness decreases to 100 A, which determines the anomalous size effect in the conductivity of the films

  2. Effects of film thickness on scintillation characteristics of columnar CsI:Tl films exposed to high gamma radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Seema; Singh, S.G.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C., E-mail: gadkari@barc.gov.in

    2016-02-21

    Oriented columnar films of Tl doped CsI (CsI:Tl) of varying thicknesses from 50 µm to 1000 µm have been deposited on silica glass substrates by a thermal evaporation technique. The SEM micrographs confirmed the columnar structure of the film while the powder X-ray diffraction pattern recorded for the films revealed a preferred orientation of the grown columns along the <200> direction. Effects of high energy gamma exposure up to 1000 Gy on luminescence properties of the films were investigated. Results of radio-luminescence, photo-luminescence and scintillation studies on the films are compared with those of a CsI:Tl single crystal with similar thickness. A possible correlation between the film thicknesses and radiation damage in films has been observed. - Highlights: • CsI:Tl films of different thicknesses deposited for γ and α detection. • Pulse-height spectra found to degrade with increasing thickness. • Radiation damage is found more in films than single crystal of comparable thickness. • Detection efficiency increases for γ while it is invariant for α beyond 50 µm.

  3. Effects of film thickness on scintillation characteristics of columnar CsI:Tl films exposed to high gamma radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Seema; Singh, S.G.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Oriented columnar films of Tl doped CsI (CsI:Tl) of varying thicknesses from 50 µm to 1000 µm have been deposited on silica glass substrates by a thermal evaporation technique. The SEM micrographs confirmed the columnar structure of the film while the powder X-ray diffraction pattern recorded for the films revealed a preferred orientation of the grown columns along the direction. Effects of high energy gamma exposure up to 1000 Gy on luminescence properties of the films were investigated. Results of radio-luminescence, photo-luminescence and scintillation studies on the films are compared with those of a CsI:Tl single crystal with similar thickness. A possible correlation between the film thicknesses and radiation damage in films has been observed. - Highlights: • CsI:Tl films of different thicknesses deposited for γ and α detection. • Pulse-height spectra found to degrade with increasing thickness. • Radiation damage is found more in films than single crystal of comparable thickness. • Detection efficiency increases for γ while it is invariant for α beyond 50 µm.

  4. The effect of bubble acceleration on the liquid film thickness in micro tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Youngbae, E-mail: bhan@feslab.t.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shikazono, Naoki, E-mail: shika@feslab.t.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Liquid film thickness is an important parameter for predicting boiling heat transfer in micro tubes. In the previous study (), liquid film thickness under the steady condition was investigated and an empirical correlation for the initial liquid film thickness based on capillary number, Reynolds number and Weber number was proposed. However, under flow boiling conditions, bubble velocity is not constant but accelerated due to evaporation. It is necessary to consider this bubble acceleration effect on the liquid film thickness, since it affects viscous, surface tension and inertia forces in the momentum equation. In addition, viscous boundary layer develops, and it may also affect the liquid film thickness. In the present study, the effect of bubble acceleration is investigated. Laser focus displacement meter is used to measure the liquid film thickness. Ethanol, water and FC-40 are used as working fluids. Circular tubes with three different inner diameters, D = 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mm, are used. The increase of liquid film thickness with capillary number is restricted by the bubble acceleration. Finally, an empirical correlation is proposed for the liquid film thickness of accelerated flows in terms of capillary number and Bond number based on the bubble acceleration.

  5. The effect of bubble acceleration on the liquid film thickness in micro tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Youngbae; Shikazono, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Liquid film thickness is an important parameter for predicting boiling heat transfer in micro tubes. In the previous study (), liquid film thickness under the steady condition was investigated and an empirical correlation for the initial liquid film thickness based on capillary number, Reynolds number and Weber number was proposed. However, under flow boiling conditions, bubble velocity is not constant but accelerated due to evaporation. It is necessary to consider this bubble acceleration effect on the liquid film thickness, since it affects viscous, surface tension and inertia forces in the momentum equation. In addition, viscous boundary layer develops, and it may also affect the liquid film thickness. In the present study, the effect of bubble acceleration is investigated. Laser focus displacement meter is used to measure the liquid film thickness. Ethanol, water and FC-40 are used as working fluids. Circular tubes with three different inner diameters, D = 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mm, are used. The increase of liquid film thickness with capillary number is restricted by the bubble acceleration. Finally, an empirical correlation is proposed for the liquid film thickness of accelerated flows in terms of capillary number and Bond number based on the bubble acceleration.

  6. Microstructure of Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films, grown on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nukaga, Yuri; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, 1-13-27 Kasuga, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Kirino, Fumiyoshi, E-mail: nukaga@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Fine Arts, Tokyo National University of Fine Arts and Music, 12-8 Ueno-koen, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110-8714 (Japan)

    2010-01-01

    Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films with hcp structure were prepared on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 {sup 0}C by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The microstructure is investigated by employing X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The film consists of two types of domains whose c-axes are rotated around the film normal by 90{sup 0} each other. Stacking faults are observed for the film along the Co[0001] direction. An atomically sharp boundary is recognized between the film and the substrate, where some misfit dislocations are introduced in the film at the Co/MgO interface. Dislocations are also observed in the film up to 15 nm thickness from the interface. Presence of such stacking faults and misfit dislocations seem to relieve the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of the film are in agreement within 0.5% and 0.1%, respectively, with those of the bulk hcp-Co crystal, suggesting the strain in the film is very small.

  7. Microstructure of Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films, grown on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nukaga, Yuri; Ohtake, Mitsuru; Futamoto, Masaaki; Kirino, Fumiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Co(112-bar 0) epitaxial thin films with hcp structure were prepared on MgO(100) single-crystal substrates heated at 300 0 C by ultra high vacuum molecular beam epitaxy. The microstructure is investigated by employing X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The film consists of two types of domains whose c-axes are rotated around the film normal by 90 0 each other. Stacking faults are observed for the film along the Co[0001] direction. An atomically sharp boundary is recognized between the film and the substrate, where some misfit dislocations are introduced in the film at the Co/MgO interface. Dislocations are also observed in the film up to 15 nm thickness from the interface. Presence of such stacking faults and misfit dislocations seem to relieve the strain caused by the lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that the out-of-plane and the in-plane lattice spacings of the film are in agreement within 0.5% and 0.1%, respectively, with those of the bulk hcp-Co crystal, suggesting the strain in the film is very small.

  8. Film thickness dependence of phase separation and dewetting behaviors in PMMA/SAN blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jichun; Liao, Yonggui; Men, Yongfeng; Shi, Tongfei; An, Lijia

    2010-09-21

    Film thickness dependence of complex behaviors coupled by phase separation and dewetting in blend [poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile) (SAN)] films on silicon oxide substrate at 175 °C was investigated by grazing incidence ultrasmall-angle X-ray scattering (GIUSAX) and in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the dewetting pathway was under the control of the parameter U(q0)/E, which described the initial amplitude of the surface undulation and original thickness of film, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that interplay between phase separation and dewetting depended crucially on film thickness. Three mechanisms including dewetting-phase separation/wetting, dewetting/wetting-phase separation, and phase separation/wetting-pseudodewetting were discussed in detail. In conclusion, it is relative rates of phase separation and dewetting that dominate the interplay between them.

  9. Control of polythiophene film microstructure and charge carrier dynamics through crystallization temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Marsh, Hilary S.; Reid, Obadiah G.; Barnes, George; Heeney, Martin; Stingelin, Natalie; Rumbles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    The microstructure of neat conjugated polymers is crucial in determining the ultimate morphology and photovoltaic performance of polymer/fullerene blends, yet until recently, little work has focused on controlling the former. Here, we demonstrate that both the long-range order along the (100)-direction and the lamellar crystal thickness along the (001)-direction in neat poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly[(3,3″-didecyl[2,2′:5′, 2″-terthiophene]-5,5″-diyl)] (PTTT-10) thin films can be manipulated by varying crystallization temperature. Changes in crystalline domain size impact the yield and dynamics of photogenerated charge carriers. Time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements show that neat polymer films composed of larger crystalline domains have longer photoconductance lifetimes and charge carrier yield decreases with increasing crystallite size for P3HT. Our results suggest that the classical polymer science description of temperature-dependent crystallization of polymers from solution can be used to understand thin-film formation in neat conjugated polymers, and hence, should be considered when discussing the structural evolution of organic bulk heterojunctions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Control of polythiophene film microstructure and charge carrier dynamics through crystallization temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Marsh, Hilary S.

    2014-03-22

    The microstructure of neat conjugated polymers is crucial in determining the ultimate morphology and photovoltaic performance of polymer/fullerene blends, yet until recently, little work has focused on controlling the former. Here, we demonstrate that both the long-range order along the (100)-direction and the lamellar crystal thickness along the (001)-direction in neat poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and poly[(3,3″-didecyl[2,2′:5′, 2″-terthiophene]-5,5″-diyl)] (PTTT-10) thin films can be manipulated by varying crystallization temperature. Changes in crystalline domain size impact the yield and dynamics of photogenerated charge carriers. Time-resolved microwave conductivity measurements show that neat polymer films composed of larger crystalline domains have longer photoconductance lifetimes and charge carrier yield decreases with increasing crystallite size for P3HT. Our results suggest that the classical polymer science description of temperature-dependent crystallization of polymers from solution can be used to understand thin-film formation in neat conjugated polymers, and hence, should be considered when discussing the structural evolution of organic bulk heterojunctions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Relaxation in Thin Polymer Films Mapped across the Film Thickness by Astigmatic Single-Molecule Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Oba, Tatsuya

    2012-06-19

    We have studied relaxation processes in thin supported films of poly(methyl acrylate) at the temperature corresponding to 13 K above the glass transition by monitoring the reorientation of single perylenediimide molecules doped into the films. The axial position of the dye molecules across the thickness of the film was determined with a resolution of 12 nm by analyzing astigmatic fluorescence images. The average relaxation times of the rotating molecules do not depend on the overall thickness of the film between 20 and 110 nm. The relaxation times also do not show any dependence on the axial position within the films for the film thickness between 70 and 110 nm. In addition to the rotating molecules we observed a fraction of spatially diffusing molecules and completely immobile molecules. These molecules indicate the presence of thin (<5 nm) high-mobility surface layer and low-mobility layer at the interface with the substrate. (Figure presented) © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  12. MEMS-based thick film PZT vibrational energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Thyssen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using a mechan......We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using...... a mechanical front side protection of an SOI wafer with screen printed PZT thick film. The fabricated harvester device produces 14.0 μW with an optimal resistive load of 100 kΩ from 1g (g=9.81 m s-2) input acceleration at its resonant frequency of 235 Hz....

  13. Investigation of top electrode for PZT thick films based MEMS sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Kristiansen, Paw T.

    2010-01-01

    In this work processing of screen printed piezoelectric PZT thick films on silicon substrates is investigated for use in future MEMS devices. E-beam evaporated Al and Pt are patterned on PZT as a top electrode using a lift-off process with a line width down to 3 mu m. Three test structures are used...... to investigate the optimal thickness of the top electrode, the degradation of the piezoelectric properties of the PZT film in absence of a diffusion barrier layer and finally how to fabricate electrical interconnects down the edge of the PZT thick film. The roughness of the PZT is found to have a strong...... influence on the conductance of the top electrode influencing the optimal top electrode thickness. A 100 nm thick top electrode on the PZT thick film with a surface roughness of 273 nm has a 4.5 times higher resistance compared to a similar wire on a planar SiO2 surface which has a surface roughness of less...

  14. Miniaturized, Planar Ion-selective Electrodes Fabricated by Means of Thick-film Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Koncki

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Various planar technologies are employed for developing solid-state sensorshaving low cost, small size and high reproducibility; thin- and thick-film technologies aremost suitable for such productions. Screen-printing is especially suitable due to itssimplicity, low-cost, high reproducibility and efficiency in large-scale production. Thistechnology enables the deposition of a thick layer and allows precise pattern control.Moreover, this is a highly economic technology, saving large amounts of the used inks. Inthe course of repetitions of the film-deposition procedure there is no waste of material dueto additivity of this thick-film technology. Finally, the thick films can be easily and quicklydeposited on inexpensive substrates. In this contribution, thick-film ion-selective electrodesbased on ionophores as well as crystalline ion-selective materials dedicated forpotentiometric measurements are demonstrated. Analytical parameters of these sensors arecomparable with those reported for conventional potentiometric electrodes. All mentionedthick-film strip electrodes have been totally fabricated in only one, fully automated thick-film technology, without any additional manual, chemical or electrochemical steps. In allcases simple, inexpensive, commercially available materials, i.e. flexible, plastic substratesand easily cured polymer-based pastes were used.

  15. Thick-film effects in the oxidation and hydriding of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    One of the fundamental discoveries involving radiation effects on the oxidation of Zircaloy in low-oxygen aqueous environments is the influence of thick oxide films. Zircaloy oxidation rates in low-oxygen (hydrogen-rich) coolants initially proceed at relatively low rates, often almost uninfluenced by radiation. Marked upturns in oxidation rate have signaled the onset of radiation effects. The radiation effects appear to correlate with a threshold oxide thickness. Results of the test reactor experiments lead to formulation of the Thick-Film Hypothesis: beyond a threshold oxide thickness, radiolysis of water that infiltrates oxide cracks and pores controls the oxidation rate; radiation creates microenvironments inside the oxide film, producing highly oxidizing conditions, that are no longer suppressed by the coolant-borne hydrogen. Upturns in oxidation rate on high-exposure Zircaloy pressure tubes add confirmatory evidence for the thick-film effect. This paper summarizes the early evidence for thick-film behavior, including oxidation and hydriding trends, updates confirmatory evidence from Zircaloy reactor and fuel assembly components, and highlights other observations from the test reactor series that have potential fundamental significance to explanations of radiation effects on Zircaloy. 23 refs., 10 figs

  16. Microstructure and thermochromic properties of VOX-WOX-VOX ceramic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamseh, S.; Ghahari, M.; Araghi, H.; Faghihi Sani, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    W-doped VO 2 films have been synthesized via oxygen annealing of V-W-V (vanadium-tungsten-vanadium) multilayered films. The effects of middle layer's thickness of V-W-V multilayered film on structure and properties of VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin films were investigated. The as-deposited V-W-V multilayered film showed amorphous-like structure when mixed structure of VO 2 (M) and VO 2 (B) was formed in VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin films. Tungsten content of VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin films increased with increasing middle layer's thickness. With increasing middle layer's thickness, room temperature square resistance (R sq ) of VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin films increased from 65 to 86 kΩ/sq. The VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin film with the thinnest middle layer showed significant SMT (semiconductor-metal transition) when SMT became negligible on increasing middle layer's thickness. (orig.)

  17. A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. D.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Leong, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric function, band gap, and exciton binding energies of ultrathin ZnO films as a function of film thickness have been obtained with spectroscopic ellipsometry. As the film thickness decreases, both real (ε 1 ) and imaginary (ε 2 ) parts of the dielectric function decrease significantly, and ε 2 shows a blue shift. The film thickness dependence of the dielectric function is shown related to the changes in the interband absorption, discrete-exciton absorption, and continuum-exciton absorption, which can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect on both the band gap and exciton binding energies

  18. Structural, transport and microwave properties of 123/sapphire films: Thickness effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predtechensky, MR.; Smal, A.N.; Varlamov, Y.D. [Institute of Thermophysics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The effect of thickness and growth conditions on the structure and microwave properties has been investigated for the 123/sapphire films. It has been shown that in the conditions of epitaxial growth and Al atoms do not diffuse from substrate into the film and the films with thickness up to 100nm exhibit the excellent DC properties. The increase of thickness of GdBaCuO films causes the formation of extended line-mesh defects and the increase of the surface resistance (R{sub S}). The low value of surface resistance R{sub S}(75GHz,77K)=20 mOhm has been obtained for the two layer YBaCuO/CdBaCuO/sapphire films.

  19. Preparation of Nd-Fe-B/α-Fe nano-composite thick-film magnets on various substrates using PLD with high laser energy density above 10 J/cm2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M.; Kondo, H.; Yamashita, A.; Yanai, T.; Itakura, M.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-05-01

    PLD (Pulsed Laser Deposition) method with high laser energy density (LED) above 10 J/cm2 followed by a flash annealing enabled us to obtain isotropic nano-composite thick-film magnets with (BH)max ≧ 80 kJ/m3 on polycrystalline Ta substrates. We also have demonstrated that a dispersed structure composed of α-Fe together with Nd2Fe14B phases with the average grain diameter of approximately 20 nm could be formed on the Ta substrates. In this study, we tried to enhance the (BH)max value by controlling the microstructure due to the usage of different metal based substrates with each high melting point such as Ti, Nb, and W. Although it was difficult to vary the microstructure and to improve the magnetic properties of the films deposited on the substrates, we confirmed that isotropic thick-film magnets with (BH)max ≧ 80 kJ/m3 based on the nano-dispersed α-Fe and Nd2Fe14B phases could be obtained on various metal substrates with totally different polycrystalline structure. On the other hand, the use of a glass substrate lead to the deterioration of magnetic properties of a film prepared using the same preparation process.

  20. Nanostructured ZrO2 Thick Film Resistors as H2-Gas Sensors Operable at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. M. GARADKAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZrO2 powder was synthesized by microwave assisted sol-gel method. The material was characterized by XRD and SEM techniques. X-Ray diffraction studies confirm that a combination of tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia nanoparticles is obtained by using microwave-assisted method. The nanopowder was calcined at an optimized temperature of 400 °C for 3 h. The prepared powder had crystalline size about 25 nm. Thick films of synthesized ZrO2 powder were prepared by screen printing technique. The gas sensing performances of these films for various gases were tested. Films showed highest response to H2 (50 ppm gas at room temperature with poor responses to others (1000 ppm. The quick response and fast recovery are the main features of this sensor. The effects of microstructure, operating temperature and gas concentration on the gas response, selectivity, response time and recovery time of the sensor in the presence of H2 gas and others were studied and discussed.

  1. The effects of film thickness on the electrical, optical, and structural properties of cylindrical, rotating, magnetron-sputtered ITO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ho; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Seok, Hae-Jun; Seo, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Han-Ki

    2018-05-01

    We report the characteristics of Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) films intended for use as transparent conducting electrodes; the films were prepared via a five-generation, in-line type, cylindrical, rotating magnetron sputtering (CRMS) system as a function of film thickness. By using a rotating cylindrical ITO target with high usage (∼80%), we prepared high conductivity, transparent ITO films on five-generation size glass. The effects of film thickness on the electrical, optical, morphological, and structural properties of CRMS-grown ITO films are investigated in detail to correlate the thickness and performance of ITO films. The preferred orientation changed from the (2 2 2) to the (4 0 0) plane with increasing thickness of ITO is attributed to the stability of the (4 0 0) plane against resputtering during the CRMS process. Based on X-ray diffraction, surface field emission scanning electron microscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, we suggest a possible mechanism to explain the preferred orientation and effects of film thickness on the performance of CRMS-grown ITO films.

  2. Imaging and thickness measurement of amorphous intergranular films using TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLaren, I.

    2004-01-01

    Fresnel fringe analysis is shown to be unreliable for grain boundaries in yttrium-doped alumina: the determined thicknesses do not agree well with those measured from high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), the asymmetry between under- and overfocus is very large, and Fresnel fringes are sometimes shown at boundaries which contain no amorphous film. An alternative approach to the analysis of HRTEM images of grain boundary films is demonstrated: Fourier filtering is used to remove the lattice fringes from the image thereby significantly enhancing the visibility of the intergranular films. The apparent film thickness shows a discrepancy between measurements from the original HRTEM image and the filtered image. It was shown that fringe delocalisation and diffuseness of the amorphous/crystalline interfaces will lead to a significant underestimate of the thickness in unprocessed HRTEM images. In contrast to this, the average thickness can be much more accurately measured from the Fourier-filtered image, provided the boundary is oriented accurately edge-on

  3. Effects of Confinement on Microstructure and Charge Transport in High Performance Semicrystalline Polymer Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Himmelberger, Scott

    2012-11-23

    The film thickness of one of the most crystalline and highest performing polymer semiconductors, poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b] thiophene) (PBTTT), is varied in order to determine the effects of interfaces and confinement on the microstructure and performance in organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Crystalline texture and overall film crystallinity are found to depend strongly on film thickness and thermal processing. The angular distribution of crystallites narrows upon both a decrease in film thickness and thermal annealing. These changes in the film microstructure are paired with thin-film transistor characterization and shown to be directly correlated with variations in charge carrier mobility. Charge transport is shown to be governed by film crystallinity in films below 20 nm and by crystalline orientation for thicker films. An optimal thickness is found for PBTTT at which the mobility is maximized in unannealed films and where mobility reaches a plateau at its highest value for annealed films. The effects of confinement on the morphology and charge transport properties of poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl) thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT) are studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction and field-effect transistor measurements. Polymer crystallinity is found to limit charge transport in the thinnest films while crystalline texture and intergrain connectivity modulate carrier mobility in thicker films. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Effects of Confinement on Microstructure and Charge Transport in High Performance Semicrystalline Polymer Semiconductors

    KAUST Repository

    Himmelberger, Scott; Dacuñ a, Javier; Rivnay, Jonathan; Jimison, Leslie H.; McCarthy-Ward, Thomas; Heeney, Martin; McCulloch, Iain; Toney, Michael F.; Salleo, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    The film thickness of one of the most crystalline and highest performing polymer semiconductors, poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl)thieno[3,2-b] thiophene) (PBTTT), is varied in order to determine the effects of interfaces and confinement on the microstructure and performance in organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Crystalline texture and overall film crystallinity are found to depend strongly on film thickness and thermal processing. The angular distribution of crystallites narrows upon both a decrease in film thickness and thermal annealing. These changes in the film microstructure are paired with thin-film transistor characterization and shown to be directly correlated with variations in charge carrier mobility. Charge transport is shown to be governed by film crystallinity in films below 20 nm and by crystalline orientation for thicker films. An optimal thickness is found for PBTTT at which the mobility is maximized in unannealed films and where mobility reaches a plateau at its highest value for annealed films. The effects of confinement on the morphology and charge transport properties of poly(2,5-bis(3-tetradecylthiophen-2-yl) thieno[3,2-b]thiophene) (PBTTT) are studied using quantitative X-ray diffraction and field-effect transistor measurements. Polymer crystallinity is found to limit charge transport in the thinnest films while crystalline texture and intergrain connectivity modulate carrier mobility in thicker films. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of PZT Thick Films for Sensing and Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ching Kuo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Lead Zirconate Titanate oxide (PZT thick films with thicknesses of up to 10 μmwere developed using a modified sol-gel technique. Usually, the film thickness is less than1 μm by conventional sol-gel processing, while the electrical charge accumulation whichreveals the direct effect of piezoelectricity is proportional to the film thickness and thereforerestricted. Two approaches were adopted to conventional sol-gel processing – precursorconcentration modulation and rapid thermal annealing. A 10 μm thick film was successfullyfabricated by coating 16 times via this technique. The thickness of each coating layer wasabout 0.6 μm and the morphology of the film was dense with a crack-free area as large as 16mm2. In addition, the structure, surface morphology and physical properties werecharacterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomicforce microscopy (AFM and electrical performance. The dielectric constant and hysteresisloops were measured as electric characteristics. This study investigates the actuation andsensing performance of the vibrating structures with the piezoelectric thick film. Theactuation tests demonstrated that a 4 mm x 4 mm x 6.5 μm PZT film drove a 40 mm x 7 mmx 0.5 mm silicon beam as an actuator. Additionally, it generated an electrical signal of 60mVpp as a sensor, while vibration was input by a shaker. The frequencies of the first twomodes of the beam were compared with the theoretical values obtained by Euler-Bernoullibeam theory. The linearity of the actuation and sensing tests were also examined.

  6. Vapor deposition on doublet airfoil substrates: Control of coating thickness and microstructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G., E-mail: haydn@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Gas jet assisted vapor deposition processes for depositing coatings are conducted at higher pressures than conventional physical vapor deposition methods, and have shown promise for coating complex shaped substrates including those with non-line-of-sight (NLS) regions on their surface. These regions typically receive vapor atoms at a lower rate and with a wider incident angular distribution than substrate regions in line-of-sight (LS) of the vapor source. To investigate the coating of such substrates, the thickness and microstructure variation along the inner (curved) surfaces of a model doublet airfoil containing both LS and NLS regions has been investigated. Results from atomistic simulations and experiments confirm that the coating's thickness is thinner in flux-shadowed regions than in other regions for all the coating processes investigated. They also indicated that the coatings columnar microstructure and pore volume fraction vary with surface location through the LS to NLS transition zone. A substrate rotation strategy for optimizing the thickness over the entire doublet airfoil surface was investigated, and led to the identification of a process that resulted in only small variation of coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and pore volume fraction on all doublet airfoil surfaces.

  7. Thickness-dependent radiative properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, P.E.; Chen, G.; Tien, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Some applications of high-temperature superconductors where their thermal radiative behavior is important, such as bolometers, optically-triggered switches and gates, and space-cooled electronics, required the superconductor to be in the form of a very thin film whose radiative behavior cannot be adequately represented by a semi-infinite analysis. Two properties of particular importance are the film absorptance and the combined film/substrate absorptance, which are crucial to the operation of many devices. This paper reports on calculations of the absorptance of superconducting-state Y-Ba-Cu-O films on MgO substrates which suggest that for film thicknesses less than about 50 nm, a decrease in the film thickness leads to an increase in both the film absorptance and the film/substrate absorptance. Furthermore, the film absorptance is maximum at some optimal value of film thickness. Assuming the film to be a smooth, continuous slab with a refractive index equal to that of the bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O is verified, at least in the normal state and for films as thin as 35 nm, by room-temperature reflectance and transmittance measurements

  8. Effect of La doping on crystalline orientation, microstructure and dielectric properties of PZT thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Wencai; Li, Qi; Wang, Xing [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). School of Mechanical Engineering; Yin, Zhifu [Jilin Univ., Changchun (China). Faculty of the School of Mechanical Science and Engineering; Zou, Helin [Dalian Univ. of Technology, Dalian (China). Key Lab. for Micro/Nano Systems and Technology

    2017-11-01

    Lanthanum (La)-modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films with doping concentration from 0 to 5 at.-% have been fabricated by sol-gel methods to investigate the effects of La doping on crystalline orientation, microstructure and dielectric properties of the modified films. The characterization of PLZT thin films were performed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and precision impedance analysis. XRD analysis showed that PLZT films with La doping concentration below 4 at.-% exhibited (100) preferred orientation. SEM results indicated that PLZT films presented dense and columnar microstructures when La doping concentration was less than 3 at.-%, while the others showed columnar microstructures only at the bottom of the cross section. The maximum dielectric constant (1502.59 at 100 Hz) was obtained in a 2 at.-% La-doped film, which increased by 53.9 % compared with undoped film. Without introducing a seed layer, (100) oriented PLZT thin films were prepared by using conventional heat treatment process and adjusting La doping concentration.

  9. Thickness dependence of Hall mobility of HWE grown PbTe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaya, P.R.; Majhi, J.; Gopalam, B.S.V.; Dattatreyan, C.

    1985-01-01

    Thin epitaxial n-PbTe films of various thicknesses are grown on KCl substrates by hot wall epitaxy (HWE) technique. The X-ray, SEM and TEM studies of these films revealed their single crystalline nature. The Hall mobility (μ/sub H/) of these films is measured by Van der Pauw technique and compared with the numerically calculated values of PbTe. It is observed that μ/sub H/ very strongly depends on thickness for thin films but becomes independent of film thickness beyond 5 μm approaching its bulk value. The constant value of Hall coefficient in the temperature range 77 to 300 K show the extrinsic nature of these films. It is also noticed that the rate of increase of mobility with decreasing temperature becomes higher with film thickness. The diffused scattering mobility due to the size effect is calculated and compared with experimental data. A large discrepancy observed between these two is explained on the basis of the residual mobility contribution. The residual mobility is attributed to overall scattering due to grain boundaries, dislocations, defects, cleavage steps, and other surface effects. (author)

  10. Columnar grain growth of FePt(L10) thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang En; Ho Hoan; Laughlin, David E.; Zhu Jiangang

    2012-01-01

    An experimental approach for obtaining perpendicular FePt-SiOx thin films with a large height to diameter ratio FePt(L1 0 ) columnar grains is presented in this work. The microstructure for FePt-SiOx composite thin films as a function of oxide volume fraction, substrate temperature, and film thickness is studied by plan view and cross section TEM. The relations between processing, microstructure, epitaxial texture, and magnetic properties are discussed. By tuning the thickness of the magnetic layer and the volume fraction of oxide in the film at a sputtering temperature of 410 deg. C, a 16 nm thick perpendicular FePt film with ∼8 nm diameter of FePt grains was obtained. The height to diameter ratio of the FePt grains was as large as 2. Ordering at lower temperature can be achieved by introducing a Ag sacrificial layer.

  11. Synthesis, microstructural, optical and mechanical properties of yttria stabilized zirconia thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amézaga-Madrid, P.; Hurtado-Macías, A.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Estrada-Ortiz, F.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Miki-Yoshida, M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thin films of YSZ obtained by AACVD have high quality. ► They are uniform, very transparent, and have high hardness. ► Optical characterization were performed in detail, optical constants and band gap energy were determined as a function of dopant content. - Abstract: Thin films of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) exhibit exceptional properties, such as high thermal, chemical and mechanical stability. Here, we report the synthesis of YSZ thin films by aerosol assisted chemical vapour deposition onto borosilicate glass and fused silica substrates. Optimum deposition temperature was 673 ± 5 K. In addition, different Y content was tried to analyse its influence in the microstructure and properties of the films. The films were uniform, transparent and non-light scattering. Surface morphology and cross sectional microstructure were studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The microstructure of the films was characterized by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Crystallite size and lattice parameter were obtained. Optical properties were analysed from reflectance and transmittance spectra; from these measurements, optical constants and band gap were obtained. Quantum confinement effect, due to the small grain size of the films, was evident in the high band gap energy obtained. Nanoindentation tests were realized at room temperature employing the continuous stiffness measurement method, to determine the hardness and elastic modulus as a function of Y content.

  12. Thickness of residual wetting film in liquid-liquid displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, Igor; Gaul, William; Vigil, R. Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Core-annular flow is common in nature, representing, for example, how streams of oil, surrounded by water, move in petroleum reservoirs. Oil, typically a nonwetting fluid, tends to occupy the middle (core) part of a channel, while water forms a surrounding wall-wetting film. What is the thickness of the wetting film? A classic theory has been in existence for nearly 50 years offering a solution, although in a controversial manner, for moving gas bubbles. On the other hand, an acceptable, experimentally verified theory for a body of one liquid flowing in another has not been available. Here we develop a hydrodynamic, testable theory providing an explicit relationship between the thickness of the wetting film and fluid properties for a blob of one fluid moving in another, with neither phase being gas. In its relationship to the capillary number Ca, the thickness of the film is predicted to be proportional to Ca2 at lower Ca and to level off at a constant value of ˜20% the channel radius at higher Ca. The thickness of the film is deduced to be approximately unaffected by the viscosity ratio of the fluids. We have conducted our own laboratory experiments and compiled experimental data from other studies, all of which are mutually consistent and confirm the salient features of the theory. At the same time, the classic law, originally deduced for films surrounding moving gas bubbles but often believed to hold for liquids as well, fails to explain the observations.

  13. Microstructural and compositional analysis of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} films grown by MOCVD before and after GCIB smoothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatzistergos, M.S.; Efstathiadis, H.; Reeves, J.L.; Selvamanickam, V.; Allen, L.P.; Lifshin, E.; Haldar, P

    2004-06-15

    The microstructural and compositional evolution of thick (>1 {mu}m) high temperature superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} (YBCO) films grown on single crystal SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process was investigated by focused ion beam microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and atomic force microscopy. This study showed that as the MOCVD YBCO film thickness increased above 0.5 {mu}m, defects such as second phase particles, pores, and misaligned grains preferentially nucleated and grew at the YBCO surface. A portion of this defective top layer was eliminated from all the samples using a gas cluster ion beam (GCIB) process that first removed material with a focused argon cluster beam. Next, an oxygen cluster beam was used to smooth the surface and re-oxygenate the YBCO. Comparing the critical current (I{sub c}) measured before and after GCIB processing showed that the I{sub c} remained the same, and even improved, when part of the defective top layer was removed. This microstructural and electromagnetic 'dead layer' is believed to be responsible for the overall I{sub c} decrease of MOCVD YBCO films thicker than 0.5 {mu}m.

  14. Fabrication, microstructure and stress effects in sputtered TiNi thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grummon, D.S.

    2000-01-01

    Sputtered thin films of equiatomic TiNi and TiNiX ternary alloys have excellent mechanical properties and exhibit robust shape-memory and transformational superelasticity. Furthermore, the energetic nature of the sputter deposition process allows the creation of highly refined microstructures that are difficult to achieve by melt-solidification. The present paper will present recent work on the relationship between processing, microstructure and properties of binary TiNi thin films, focusing primarily on residual stresses, kinetics of stress-relaxation and crystallization, and fine grain sizes achievable using hot-substrate direct crystallization. (orig.)

  15. Direct fabrication of rigid microstructures on a metallic roller using a dry film resist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Liang-Ting; Huang, Tzu-Chien; Chang, Chih-Yuan; Ciou, Jian-Ren; Yang, Sen-Yeu; Huang, Po-Hsun

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method to fabricate a metallic roller mold with microstructures on its surface using a dry film resist (DFR). The DFR is laminated uniformly onto the curvy surface of a copper roller. After that, the micro-scale photoresist on the surface of the roller can be patterned by non-planar lithography using a flexible film photomask, followed by ferric chloride wet etching to obtain the desired microstructures. This method overcomes the uniformity issue of photoresist coating on rollers, and solves the molds sliding problem during the embossing process because the microstructures are fabricated directly on the roller surface. Furthermore, the rigid metallic roller mold has excellent strength durability and temperature endurance, which can be used in roller hot embossing with a high embossing pressure. The fabricated microstructure roller mold is used as a mold in the hybrid extrusion roller embossing process and successfully fabricates uniform micro-scale prominent line arrays on PC films. This result proves that the roller fabricated by this method can be successfully used in roller embossing for microstructure mass production. The excellent flatness of dry film resist laminating is the key in this fabrication process. The flexible film photomask can be easily designed using CAD software; this roller fabrication method enhances the design flexibility and reduces the cost and time

  16. Microstructure of ZnO thin films deposited by high power impulse magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, A.N., E-mail: amber.reed.5@us.af.mil [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Shamberger, P.J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Hu, J.J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); University of Dayton Research Institute, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Muratore, C. [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Bultman, J.E. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States); University of Dayton Research Institute, University of Dayton, Dayton, OH 45469 (United States); Voevodin, A.A., E-mail: andrey.voevodin@us.af.mil [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, 3005 Hobson Way, Wright Patterson Air Force Base, OH 45433 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering was used to deposit thin (~ 100 nm) zinc oxide (ZnO) films from a ceramic ZnO target onto substrates heated to 150 °C. The resulting films had strong crystallinity, highly aligned (002) texture and low surface roughness (root mean square roughness less than 10 nm), as determined by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force spectroscopy measurements. Deposition pressure and target–substrate distance had the greatest effect on film microstructure. The degree of alignment in the films was strongly dependent on the gas pressure. Deposition at pressures less than 0.93 Pa resulted in a bimodal distribution of grain sizes. An initial growth layer with preferred orientations (101) and (002) parallel to the interface was observed at the film–substrate interface under all conditions examined here; the extent of that competitive region was dependent on growth conditions. Time-resolved current measurements of the target and ion energy distributions, determined using energy resolved mass spectrometry, were correlated to film microstructure in order to investigate the effect of plasma conditions on film nucleation and growth. - Highlights: • Low temperature growth of nanocrystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) films. • ZnO films had a highly (002) textured, smooth, dense microstructure. • Dominant (002) orientation of films was pressure dependent. • Interfacial (101)/(002) mixed orientation layer controlled by substrate location.

  17. Comparison of different methods for measuring the passive film thickness on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Marie; Bataillon, Christian; Gwinner, Benoit; Miserque, Frédéric; Orazem, Mark E.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M.; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In situ EIS and ex situ XPS were used for the characterization of zirconium oxide films. • The film thicknesses can be obtained from the analysis of a single EIS diagram. • A convenient graphical method to extract film properties is proposed. - Abstract: In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements on electrogenerated zirconium oxide films on zirconium (Zr/ZrO_2) were used to quantify the oxide film thickness and resistivity profiles through the oxide. The EIS analysis presented here takes advantage of the high-frequency domain at which the constant-phase element (CPE) behavior of the oxide film reverts to a capacitive response and the Cole-Cole representations of the complex capacitance to extract the high-frequency capacitance of the oxide film without reference to the nature of the time-constant distribution within the oxide film. The film thickness of the ZrO_2 samples measured from the high-frequency capacitance of EIS were in good agreement with the thickness obtained from XPS. Moreover, the EIS analysis presented is based on the use of the integral solution of the power law model, which allows to obtain in one single EIS experiment, both the film thickness and the resistivity profile in the ZrO_2 film. This work suggests a convenient graphical method to extract film properties and serves to validate a key assumption of the power-law model for interpretation of CPE parameters in terms of physical properties.

  18. Application of β plastic film thickness gauge in automatic production of agricultural film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Longzhi; Guo Juhao

    1996-01-01

    The author briefly explains the importance of agricultural film at home, and mainly explains the measuring principles of plastic film thickness, the design of β detector, the temperature compensation technology and the design of automatic control device

  19. The determination of the pressure-viscosity coefficient of a lubricant through an accurate film thickness formula and accurate film thickness measurements : part 2 : high L values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The pressure-viscosity coefficient of a traction fluid is determined by fitting calculation results on accurate film thickness measurements, obtained at different speeds, loads, and temperatures. Through experiments, covering a range of 5.6 film thickness values are

  20. Angular multiplexing holograms of four images recorded on photopolymer films with recording-film-thickness-dependent holographic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osabe, Keiichi; Kawai, Kotaro

    2017-03-01

    In this study, angular multiplexing hologram recording photopolymer films were studied experimentally. The films contained acrylamide as a monomer, eosin Y as a sensitizer, and triethanolamine as a promoter in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix. In order to determine the appropriate thickness of the photopolymer films for angular multiplexing, photopolymer films with thicknesses of 29-503 μm were exposed to two intersecting beams of a YVO laser at a wavelength of 532 nm to form a holographic grating with a spatial frequency of 653 line/mm. The diffraction efficiencies as a function of the incident angle of reconstruction were measured. A narrow angular bandwidth and high diffraction efficiency are required for angular multiplexing; hence, we define the Q value, which is the diffraction efficiency divided by half the bandwidth. The Q value of the films depended on the thickness of the films, and was calculated based on the measured diffraction efficiencies. The Q value of a 297-μm-thick film was the highest of the all films. Therefore, the angular multiplexing experiments were conducted using 300-μm-thick films. In the angular multiplexing experiments, the object beam transmitted by a square aperture was focused by a Fourier transform lens and interfered with a reference beam. The maximum order of angular multiplexing was four. The signal intensity that corresponds to the squared-aperture transmission and the noise intensity that corresponds to transmission without the square aperture were measured. The signal intensities decreased as the order of angular multiplexing increased, and the noise intensities were not dependent on the order of angular multiplexing.

  1. Effect of thermophysical property and coating thickness on microstructure and characteristics of a casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-chao Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new improved investment casting technology (IC has been presented and compared with the existing IC technology such as lost foam casting (LFC. The effect of thermophysical property and coating thickness on casting solidification temperature field, microstructure and hardness has been investigated. The results show that the solidification rate decreases inversely with the coating thickness when the coating contains silica sol, zircon powder, mullite powder and defoaming agent. In contrast, the solid cooling rate increases as the coating thickness increases. However, the solidification rate and solid cooling rate of the casting produced by the existing IC and the improved IC are very similar when the coating thickness is 5 mm, so the microstructure and hardness of a container corner fitting produced by the improved IC and the existing IC are similar. The linear regression equation for the grain size (d and cooling rate (v of the castings is d= –0.41v+206.1. The linear regression equation for the content of pearlite (w and solid cooling rate (t is w=1.79t + 6.71. The new improved IC can greatly simplify the process and decrease the cost of production compared with the existing IC. Contrasting with LFC, container corner fittings produced by the new improved IC have fewer defects and better properties. It was also found that the desired microstructure and properties can be obtained by changing the thermophysical property and thickness of the coating.

  2. Planar Zeolite Film-Based Potentiometric Gas Sensors Manufactured by a Combined Thick-Film and Electroplating Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Isabella; Reiß, Sebastian; Hagen, Gunter; Moos, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Zeolites are promising materials in the field of gas sensors. In this technology-oriented paper, a planar setup for potentiometric hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas sensors using zeolites as ionic sodium conductors is presented, in which the Pt-loaded Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is applied using a thick-film technique between two interdigitated gold electrodes and one of them is selectively covered for the first time by an electroplated chromium oxide film. The influence of the sensor temperature, the type of hydrocarbons, the zeolite film thickness, and the chromium oxide film thickness is investigated. The influence of the zeolite on the sensor response is briefly discussed in the light of studies dealing with zeolites as selectivity-enhancing cover layers. PMID:22164042

  3. Planar Zeolite Film-Based Potentiometric Gas Sensors Manufactured by a Combined Thick-Film and Electroplating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Hagen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are promising materials in the field of gas sensors. In this technology-oriented paper, a planar setup for potentiometric hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas sensors using zeolites as ionic sodium conductors is presented, in which the Pt-loaded Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is applied using a thick-film technique between two interdigitated gold electrodes and one of them is selectively covered for the first time by an electroplated chromium oxide film. The influence of the sensor temperature, the type of hydrocarbons, the zeolite film thickness, and the chromium oxide film thickness is investigated. The influence of the zeolite on the sensor response is briefly discussed in the light of studies dealing with zeolites as selectivity-enhancing cover layers.

  4. Influence of film thickness on structural, optical, and electrical properties of spray deposited antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhijit A., E-mail: aay_physics@yahoo.co.in

    2015-09-30

    Transparent conducting antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films with varying thickness were deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique from non-aqueous solvent Propan-2-ol. The effect of film thickness on the properties of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films have been studied. X-ray diffraction measurements showed tetragonal crystal structure of as-deposited antimony doped SnO{sub 2} films irrespective of film thickness. The surface morphology of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin film is spherical with the continuous distribution of grains. Electrical and optical properties were investigated by Hall Effect and optical measurements. The average optical transmittance of films decreased from 89% to 73% within the visible range (350–850 nm) with increase in film thickness. The minimum value of sheet resistance observed is 4.81 Ω/cm{sup 2}. The lowest resistivity found is 3.76 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm at 660 nm film thickness. - Highlights: • Effect of film thickness on the properties of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films • Crystalline size in the range of 34–37 nm • Average transmittance decreased from 89% to 73% in the visible region. • Minimum sheet resistance of 4.81 Ω/cm{sup 2} • Lowest resistivity is found to be 3.76 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm at 660 nm film thickness.

  5. Screen-printed piezoceramic thick films for miniaturised devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou-Moeller, R.; Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund

    2007-01-01

    machining. On the other hand, the process of screen printing thick films involves potential problems of thermal matching and chemical compatibility at the processing temperatures between the functional film, the substrate and the electrodes. As an example of such a miniaturised device, a MEMS accelerometer...

  6. Correlations between optical properties, microstructure, and processing conditions of Aluminum nitride thin films fabricated by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jonghoon; Ma, James; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) films were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) onto sapphire (0001) substrates with varying processing conditions (temperature, pressure, and laser fluence). We have studied the dependence of optical properties, structural properties and their correlations for these AlN films. The optical transmission spectra of the produced films were measured, and a numerical procedure was applied to accurately determine the optical constants for films of non-uniform thickness. The microstructure and texture of the films were studied using various X-ray diffraction techniques. The real part of the refractive index was found to not vary significantly with processing parameters, but absorption was found to be strongly dependent on the deposition temperature and the nitrogen pressure in the deposition chamber. We report that low optical absorption, textured polycrystalline AlN films can be produced by PLD on sapphire substrates at both low and high laser fluence using a background nitrogen pressure of 6.0 x 10 -2 Pa (4.5 x 10 -4 Torr) of 99.9% purity

  7. Interfacial interactions between some La-based perovskite thick films and ferritic steel substrate with regard to the operating conditions of SOFC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przybylski, K.; Brylewski, T.; Morgiel, J.

    2004-01-01

    An overview is presented on the oxidation kinetics, electrical properties and microstructure investigations of the oxide products formed on Fe-25 wt.-%Cr steel uncoated and coated with electrical conducting films of (La,Ca)CrO 3 or (La,Sr)CoO 3 in air and H 2 /H 2 O gas mixture at 1023-1173 K for up to 480 hrs with regard to their application as the SOFC metallic interconnect. The application of the Fe-25Cr steel in SOFC operating at 1073 K requires its surface modification to improve the electrical conductivity of chromia scale forming on the uncoated steel surface. The thick films of (La,Ca)CrO 3 and (La,Sr)CoO 3 with the thickness range of 20-100 μm, coated on the Fe-25Cr steel by screen-printing method helped solve this problem. TEM-SAD, SEM-EDS and impedance spectroscopy investigations have shown significant influence of the multilayer products formation at the substrate steel/coating films interfacial zone on the electrical properties of the metallic interconnect. (orig.)

  8. Boosting the Recoverable Energy Density of Lead-Free Ferroelectric Ceramic Thick Films through Artificially Induced Quasi-Relaxor Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddigari, Mahesh; Palneedi, Haribabu; Hwang, Geon-Tae; Lim, Kyung Won; Kim, Ga-Yeon; Jeong, Dae-Yong; Ryu, Jungho

    2018-06-08

    Dielectric ceramic film capacitors, which store energy in the form of electric polarization, are promising for miniature pulsed power electronic device applications. For a superior energy storage performance of the capacitors, large recoverable energy density, along with high efficiency, high power density, fast charge/discharge rate, and good thermal/fatigue stability, is desired. Herein, we present highly dense lead-free 0.942[Na 0.535 K 0.480 NbO 3 ]-0.058LiNbO 3 (KNNLN) ferroelectric ceramic thick films (∼5 μm) demonstrating remarkable energy storage performance. The nanocrystalline KNNLN thick film fabricated by aerosol deposition (AD) process and annealed at 600 °C displayed a quasi-relaxor ferroelectric behavior, which is in contrast to the typical ferroelectric nature of the KNNLN ceramic in its bulk form. The AD film exhibited a large recoverable energy density of 23.4 J/cm 3 , with an efficiency of over 70% under the electric field of 1400 kV/cm. Besides, an ultrahigh power density of 38.8 MW/cm 3 together with a fast discharge speed of 0.45 μs, good fatigue endurance (up to 10 6 cycles), and thermal stability in a wide temperature range of 20-160 °C was also observed. Using the AD process, we could make a highly dense microstructure of the film containing nano-sized grains, which gave rise to the quasi-relaxor ferroelectric characteristics and the remarkable energy storage properties.

  9. Influence of cement film thickness on the retention of implant-retained crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Christian; Harder, Sönke; Steiner, Martin; Vollrath, Oliver; Kern, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    The main goal of this study was to establish a new, high precision procedure to evaluate the influence of cement film thickness on the retention of cemented implant-retained crowns. Ninety-six tapered titanium abutments (6° taper, 4.3 mm diameter, Camlog) were shortened to 4 mm. Computer-aided design was used to design the crowns, and selective laser sintering, using a cobalt-chromium alloy, was used to produce the crowns. This method used a focused high-energy laser beam to fuse a localized region of metal powder to build up the crowns gradually. Before cementing, preset cement film thicknesses of 15, 50, 80, or 110 μm were established. Glass ionomer, polycarboxylate, or resin cements were used for cementation. After 3 days storage in demineralized water, the retention of the crowns was measured in tension using a universal testing machine. The cement film thicknesses could be achieved with a high level of precision. Interactions between the factors cement and cement film thickness could be found (p ≤ 0.001). For all cements, crown retention decreased significantly between a cement film thickness of 15 and 50 μm (p ≤ 0.001). At 15 μm cement film thickness, the resin cement was the most retentive cement, followed by the polycarboxylate and then the glass ionomer cement (p ≤ 0.05). The results suggest that cement film thickness has an influence on the retentive strength of cemented implant-retained crowns. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  10. Fabrication of thick superconducting films by decantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Betancourt M.

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available We have found superconducting behavior in thick films fabricated by decantation. In this paper we present the experimental method and results obtained using commercial copper substrates.

  11. Properties of conductive thick-film inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Ten different conductive inks used in the fabrication of thick-film circuits were evaluated for their physical and handling properties. Viscosity, solid contents, and spectrographic analysis of the unfired inks were determined. Inks were screened on ceramic substrates and fired for varying times at specified temperatures. Selected substrates were given additional firings to simulate the heat exposure received if thick-film resistors were to be added to the same substrate. Data are presented covering the (1) printing characteristics, (2) solderability using Sn-63 and also a 4 percent silver solder, (3) leach resistance, (4) solder adhesion, and (5) wire bonding properties. Results obtained using different firing schedules were compared. A comparison was made between the various inks showing general results obtained for each ink. The changes in firing time or the application of a simulated resistor firing had little effect on the properties of most inks.

  12. 3D microstructuring of biodegradable polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagstrup, Johan; Keller, Stephan Sylvest; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Biopolymer films with a thickness of 100μm are prepared using spin coating technique with solutions consisting of 25wt.% polycaprolactone or poly-l-lactide in dichloromethane. SU-8 stamps are fabricated using three photolithography steps. The stamps are used to emboss 3D microstructures in the bi...

  13. Ferromagnetic resonance of facing-target sputtered epitaxial γ‧-Fe4N films: the influence of thickness and substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhengxun; Li, Zirun; Liu, Xiang; Bai, Lihui; Tian, Yufeng; Mi, Wenbo

    2018-06-01

    The microstructure and high frequency properties of facing-target sputtered epitaxial γ‧-Fe4N films were investigated in detail. It was found that the eddy current in ultrathin γ‧-Fe4N films is too small to influence the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth, where the linewidth is mostly determined by intrinsic damping and the two-magnon scattering (TMS) process. In relatively thick films, the TMS process can significantly affect the linewidth due to the roughness on the sample surface. However, the TMS process in a thin film is quite weak because of its smooth surface. The Gilbert damping constant of about 0.0135 in our γ‧-Fe4N films is smaller than the experimental value in the previous work. Moreover, substrates can also influence the FMR linewidth of the γ‧-Fe4N films by the TMS process. Besides, the resonance field of polycrystalline γ‧-Fe4N film is larger than the epitaxial ones because of the lack of a magnetic anisotropic field, but the linewidth of the polycrystalline γ‧-Fe4N film is smaller.

  14. Optimization of phantom backscatter thickness and lateral scatter volume for radiographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.P.; De Wagter, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimal backscatter thickness and lateral phantom dimension beyond the irradiated volume for the dosimetric verification with radiographic film when applying large field sizes. Polystyrene and Virtual Water™ phantoms were used to study the influence of the phantom backscatter thickness. EDR2 and XV films were used in 6 and 18 MV photon beams. The results show 11.4% and 6.4% over-response of the XV2 film when compared to the ion chamber for 6 MV 30×30 and 10×10 cm 2 field sizes, respectively, when the phantom backscatter thickness is 5 cm. For the same setup, measurements with EDR2 films indicate 8.5% and 1.7% over-response. The XV2 film response in the polystyrene phantom is about 2.0% higher than in the Virtual Water™ phantom for the 6 MV beam and 20 cm backscatter thickness. Similar results were obtained for EDR2 film. In the lateral scatter study, film response was nearly constant within 5 cm of lateral thickness and it increases when lateral thickness increases due to more multiple scatter of low energy photons. The backscatter thickness of the phantom should be kept below 7 cm for the accuracy of the film dosimetry. The lateral extension of the phantom should not be more than 5 cm from the field boundary in case of large irradiated volumes.

  15. Effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, F.A., E-mail: felipe.garces@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Budini, N. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Arce, R.D.; Schmidt, J.A. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, Santa Fe S3000AOM (Argentina)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films. Transparent conducting oxide films were grown by the spray pyrolysis technique from precursors prepared via the sol–gel method. We determined the structural properties of the films by performing X-ray diffraction and mosaicity measurements, which evidenced an increase of disorder and inhomogeneity between crystalline domains as the films thickened. This behavior was contrasted with results obtained from electrical measurements and was attributed to plastic deformation of the films as their thickness increased. As a result, the carrier mobility, the optical gap and the activation energy are affected due to emerging grain boundaries and a higher degree of disorder. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin films on glass with different thicknessesFilm thickness affects the morphological and electrical properties. • Increasing time deposition allows modification of resistivity and Hall mobility. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increases with film thickness.

  16. Effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, F.A.; Budini, N.; Arce, R.D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films. Transparent conducting oxide films were grown by the spray pyrolysis technique from precursors prepared via the sol–gel method. We determined the structural properties of the films by performing X-ray diffraction and mosaicity measurements, which evidenced an increase of disorder and inhomogeneity between crystalline domains as the films thickened. This behavior was contrasted with results obtained from electrical measurements and was attributed to plastic deformation of the films as their thickness increased. As a result, the carrier mobility, the optical gap and the activation energy are affected due to emerging grain boundaries and a higher degree of disorder. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin films on glass with different thicknessesFilm thickness affects the morphological and electrical properties. • Increasing time deposition allows modification of resistivity and Hall mobility. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increases with film thickness

  17. Metallic oxide switches using thick film technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D. N.; Williams, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic oxide thick film switches were processed on alumina substrates using thick film technology. Vanadium pentoxide in powder form was mixed with other oxides e.g., barium, strontium copper and glass frit, ground to a fine powder. Pastes and screen printable inks were made using commercial conductive vehicles and appropriate thinners. Some switching devices were processed by conventional screen printing and firing of the inks and commercial cermet conductor terminals on 96% alumina substrates while others were made by applying small beads or dots of the pastes between platinum wires. Static, and dynamic volt-ampere, and pulse tests indicate that the switching and self-oscillatory characteristics of these devices could make them useful in memory element, oscillator, and automatic control applications.

  18. Persistent quantum-size effect in aluminum films up to twelve atoms thick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Total energies and work functions have been calculated for unrelaxed, free-standing Al(111) films, 1 endash 12 layers thick, using the all-electron, full-potential linear combination of Gaussian-type orbitals endash fitting-function technique. The work function exhibits a significant quantum-size effect (at least 0.1 eV) over the entire range of thickness considered. This result contradicts an old prediction that the work function of an Al(111) N-layer film will converge to within a few hundredths of an eV by N=6. The present result, which is consistent with earlier jellium calculations, demonstrates the risk of mistaking an accidental coincidence of work functions for two films, differing in thickness by one layer, for a true convergence with respect to thickness. The implications for thin-film calculations of surface properties are discussed. A linear fit to the film binding energy vs thickness is used to extract the Al(111) surface energy (0.45 eV) and the binding energy of bulk Al (4.06 eV). copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  19. Mems-based pzt/pzt bimorph thick film vibration energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We describe fabrication and characterization of a significantly improved version of a MEMS-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. The main advantage of bimorph vibration energy harvesters is that strain energy is not lost in mechanical...... support materials since only PZT is strained, and thus it has a potential for significantly higher output power. An improved process scheme for the energy harvester resulted in a robust fabrication process with a record high fabrication yield of 98.6%. Moreover, the robust fabrication process allowed...... a high pressure treatment of the screen printed PZT thick films prior to sintering, improving the PZT thick film performance and harvester power output reaches 37.1 μW at 1 g....

  20. Influence of Microstructure on the Electrical Properties of Heteroepitaxial TiN Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenfeng; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2018-03-01

    Heteroepitaxial TiN films were deposited on Si substrates by pulse laser deposition at different substrate temperature. The microstructure and surface morphology of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (θ-2θ scan, ω-scan, and ϕ-scan) and atomic force microscopy. The electrical properties of the prepared TiN films were studied using a physical property measurement system. The experimental results showed that the crystallinity and surface morphology of the TiN films were improved gradually with increasing substrate temperature below 700 °C. Specially, single crystal TiN films were prepared when substrate temperature is above 700 °C; However, the quality of TiN films gradually worsened when the substrate temperature was increased further. The electrical properties of the films were directly correlated to their crystalline quality. At the optimal substrate temperature of 700 °C, the TiN films exhibited the lowest resistivity and highest mobility of 25.7 μΩ cm and 36.1 cm2/V s, respectively. In addition, the mechanism concerning the influence of substrate temperature on the microstructure of TiN films is discussed in detail.

  1. Correlation of Gear Surface Fatigue Lives to Lambda Ratio (Specific Film Thickness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy Lewis

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the lubrication regime on gear performance has been recognized, qualitatively, for decades. Often the lubrication regime is characterized by the specific film thickness being the ratio of lubricant film thickness to the composite surface roughness. Three studies done at NASA to investigate gearing pitting life are revisited in this work. All tests were done at a common load. In one study, ground gears were tested using a variety of lubricants that included a range of viscosities, and therefore the gears operated with differing film thicknesses. In a second and third study, the performance of gears with ground teeth and superfinished teeth were assessed. Thicker oil films provided longer lives as did improved surface finish. These datasets were combined into a common dataset using the concept of specific film thickness. This unique dataset of more 258 tests provides gear designers with some qualitative information to make gear design decisions.

  2. The research of device for measuring film thickness of intelligent coating machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wanjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion beam sputtering machine uses computer to real time monitor the change of film thickness in the preparation process of soft X ray multilayer element fabrication. It solves the problems of uneven film thickness and too thick film thickness and so on, which exist in the original preparation process. The high-precision quartz crystal converts film thickness measurement into frequency measurement. The equal precision frequency meter based on FPGA measures the frequency. It can reduce the signal delay and interference signal of discrete components, accordingly improving the accuracy of measurement. Then it sents the count value to the host computer through the single chip microcomputer serial port. It calculates and displays the value by the GUI of LabVIEW. The experimental results show that, the relative measurement error can be decreased to 1/10, i.e., the measurement accuracy can be improved by more than ten times.

  3. The microstructure and mechanical properties of multilayer diamond-like carbon films with different modulation ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zhaoying; Zheng, Y.J.; Jiang, F.; Leng, Y.X.; Sun Hong; Huang Nan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The multilayer DLC films with different modulation ratios have been fabricated by FCVA. ► The multilayer DLC films can effectively decrease the residual stress of the DLC films. ► The multilayer DLC film with modulation ratio of 1:1 shows the best wear resistance. - Abstract: The multilayer DLC films consisting of sp 2 -rich DLC layers (soft DLC) and sp 3 -rich DLC layers (hard DLC) with different modulation ratios (thickness ratio of the hard DLC to soft DLC) ranging from 2:1, 1:1 to 1:2 had been deposited on Si (1 0 0) wafer and Ti–6Al–4V alloy substrates by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition. The effect of modulation ratio on the microstructure and properties of the multilayer DLC films including sp 3 content, residual stress, mechanical properties, adhesion strength and wear resistance were studied by Raman spectroscopy, profilometry technique, nanoindenter, Vickers indentation test, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ball-on-disc reciprocating friction test. The results showed that the sp 3 content and the hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreased with modulation ratios decreasing. The stress of the multilayer DLC films could be effectively reduced and the stress decreased with the modulation ratio decreasing. The multilayer DLC film with modulation ratio of 1:1 had the best wear resistance due to a balance between hardness and residual stress.

  4. CdO Doped Indium Oxide Thick Film as a Low Temperature H2S Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. CHAVAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The thick films of AR grade In2O3 were prepared by standard screen-printing technique. The gas sensing performance of thick film was tested for various gases. It showed maximum gas response to ethanol vapor at 350 oC for 80 ppm. To improve the gas response and selectivity of the film towards a particular gas, In2O3 thick films were modified by dipping them in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M CdCl2 for different intervals of time. The surface modified (10 min In2O3 thick film showed maximum response to H2S gas (10 ppm than pure In2O3 thick film at 150 oC. Cadmium oxide on the surface of the film shifts the gas response from ethanol vapor to H2S gas. A systematic study of sensing performance of the thick films indicates the key role played by cadmium oxide on the surface of thick films. The selectivity, gas response and recovery time of the thick films were measured and presented.

  5. Hydroxyapatite screen-printed thick films: optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.C.; Rocha, H.H.B.; Freire, F.N.A.; Santos, M.R.P.; Saboia, K.D.A.; Goes, J.C.; Sombra, A.S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we did a study on the structural and electrical properties of bioceramic hydroxiapatite (HA) thick films. The films were prepared in two layers using the screen-printing technique on Al 2 O 3 substrates. Mechanical alloying has been used successfully to produce nanocrystalline powders of hydroxyapatite to be used in the films. We also look for the effect of the grain size of the HA in the final properties of the film. The samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared and Raman scattering spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We did a study of the dielectric permittivity and the loss of the films in the radio-frequency of the spectra. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the films indicate that all the peaks associated to HA phase is present in the films. One can notice that, for all the films there is a decrease of the DC (dielectric constant) with the increase of the frequency. The values of the dielectric constant of the films are in between 4 and 9 (at 1 kHz), as a function of the flux concentration. The loss is decreasing as we increase the frequency for all the films. These results strongly suggest that the screen-printing HA thick films are good candidates for applications in biocompatible coatings of implant materials

  6. Hydroxyapatite screen-printed thick films: optical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C.C. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Rocha, H.H.B. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Freire, F.N.A. [Departamento de Quimica Orga-circumflex nica e Inorga-circumflex nica-UFC, Caixa Postal 6030, CEP 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Santos, M.R.P. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Saboia, K.D.A. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Goes, J.C. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Sombra, A.S.B. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)]. E-mail: sombra@fisica.ufc.br

    2005-07-15

    In this paper, we did a study on the structural and electrical properties of bioceramic hydroxiapatite (HA) thick films. The films were prepared in two layers using the screen-printing technique on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. Mechanical alloying has been used successfully to produce nanocrystalline powders of hydroxyapatite to be used in the films. We also look for the effect of the grain size of the HA in the final properties of the film. The samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared and Raman scattering spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We did a study of the dielectric permittivity and the loss of the films in the radio-frequency of the spectra. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the films indicate that all the peaks associated to HA phase is present in the films. One can notice that, for all the films there is a decrease of the DC (dielectric constant) with the increase of the frequency. The values of the dielectric constant of the films are in between 4 and 9 (at 1 kHz), as a function of the flux concentration. The loss is decreasing as we increase the frequency for all the films. These results strongly suggest that the screen-printing HA thick films are good candidates for applications in biocompatible coatings of implant materials.

  7. Thick-Film and LTCC Passive Components for High-Temperature Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dziedzic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At this very moment an increasing interest in the field of high-temperature electronics is observed. This is a result of development in the area of wide-band semiconductors’ engineering but this also generates needs for passives with appropriate characteristics. This paper presents fabrication as well as electrical and stability properties of passive components (resistors, capacitors, inductors made in thick-film or Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC technologies fulfilling demands of high-temperature electronics. Passives with standard dimensions usually are prepared by screen-printing whereas combination of standard screen-printing with photolithography or laser shaping are recommenced for fabrication of micropassives. Attainment of proper characteristics versus temperature as well as satisfactory long-term high-temperature stability of micropassives is more difficult than for structures with typical dimensions for thick-film and LTCC technologies because of increase of interfacial processes’ importance. However it is shown that proper selection of thick-film inks together with proper deposition method permit to prepare thick-film micropassives (microresistors, air-cored microinductors and interdigital microcapacitors suitable for the temperature range between 150°C and 400°C.

  8. Gas Sensing Performance of Pure and Modified BST Thick Film Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. JAIN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Barium Strontium Titanate (BST-(Ba0.87Sr0.13TiO3 ceramic powder was prepared by mechanochemical process. The thick films of different thicknesses of BST were prepared by screen-printing technique and gas-sensing performance of these films was tested for various gases. The films showed highest response and selectivity to ammonia gas. The pure BST film was surface modified by surfactant CrO3 by using dipping technique. The surface modified film suppresses the response to ammonia and enhances to H2S gas. The surface modification of films changes the adsorption-desorption relationship with the target gas and shifts its selectivity. The gas response, selectivity, response and recovery time of the pure and modified films were measured and presented.

  9. Studies on Gas Sensing Performance of Cr-doped Indium Oxide Thick Film Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Chavan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of In1-xCrxO3 composites, with x ranging from 0.01 to 0.5wt% were prepared by mechanochemically starting from InCl3 and CrO3. Structural and micro structural characteristics of the sample were investigated by XRD, SEM with EDAX. Thick films of pure Indium Oxide and composites were prepared by standard screen printing technique. The gas sensitivity of these thick films was tested for various gases. The pure Indium Oxide thick film (x=0 shows maximum sensitivity to ethanol vapour (80 ppm at 350 oC, but composite-A (x=0.01 thick film shows maximum sensitivity to H2S gas (40 ppm at 250 oC, composite-B (x=0.1 thick film shows higher sensitivity to NH3 gas (80 ppm at 250 oC and composite-C (x=0.5 thick film shows maximum sensitivity to Cl2 gas (80 ppm at 350 oC. A systematic study of gas sensing performance of the sensors indicates the key role played by concentration variation of Cr doped species. The sensitivity, selectivity and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  10. Thickness-dependence of optical constants for Ta2O5 ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dong-Xu; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Wei; Wu, Kang-Ning; Mao, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zhao, Hai-bin; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2012-01-01

    An effective method for determining the optical constants of Ta 2 O 5 thin films deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer-substrate) was presented. Ta 2 O 5 thin films with thickness range of 1-400 nm have been prepared by the electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. We find that the refractive indices of Ta 2 O 5 ultrathin films less than 40 nm drop with the decreasing thickness, while the other ones are close to those of bulk Ta 2 O 5 . This phenomenon was due to the existence of an interfacial oxide region and the surface roughness of the film, which was confirmed by the measurement of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical properties of ultrathin film varying with the thickness are useful for the design and manufacture of nano-scaled thin-film devices. (orig.)

  11. Thickness-dependence of optical constants for Ta2O5 ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xu; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Wei; Wu, Kang-Ning; Mao, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zhao, Hai-bin; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2012-09-01

    An effective method for determining the optical constants of Ta2O5 thin films deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer-substrate) was presented. Ta2O5 thin films with thickness range of 1-400 nm have been prepared by the electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. We find that the refractive indices of Ta2O5 ultrathin films less than 40 nm drop with the decreasing thickness, while the other ones are close to those of bulk Ta2O5. This phenomenon was due to the existence of an interfacial oxide region and the surface roughness of the film, which was confirmed by the measurement of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical properties of ultrathin film varying with the thickness are useful for the design and manufacture of nano-scaled thin-film devices.

  12. Laser micromachining of sputtered DLC films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Y.Q.; Luo, J.K.; Flewitt, A.J.; Ong, S.E.; Zhang, S.; Milne, W.I.

    2006-01-01

    DLC films with different thicknesses (from 100 nm to 1.9 μm) were deposited using sputtering of graphite target in pure argon atmosphere without substrate heating. Film microstructures (sp 2 /sp 3 ratio) and mechanical properties (modulus, hardness, stress) were characterized as a function of film thickness. A thin layer of aluminum about 60 nm was deposited on the DLC film surface. Laser micromachining of Al/DLC layer was performed to form microcantilever structures, which were released using a reactive ion etching system with SF 6 plasma. Due to the intrinsic stress in DLC films and bimorph Al/DLC structure, the microcantilevers bent up with different curvatures. For DLC film of 100 nm thick, the cantilever even formed microtubes. The relationship between the bimorph beam bending and DLC film properties (such as stress, modulus, etc.) were discussed in details

  13. An experimental and simulation study on build thickness dependent microstructure for electron beam melted Ti–6Al–4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Xipeng, E-mail: xptan1985@gmail.com [Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, HW1-01-05, 2A Nanyang Link, 637372 Singapore (Singapore); Kok, Yihong; Tan, Yu Jun [Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, HW1-01-05, 2A Nanyang Link, 637372 Singapore (Singapore); Vastola, Guglielmo, E-mail: vastolag@ihpc.a-star.edu.sg [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*Star, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, 138632 Singapore (Singapore); Pei, Qing Xiang; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei [Institute of High Performance Computing, A*Star, 1 Fusionopolis Way, #16-16 Connexis, 138632 Singapore (Singapore); Tor, Shu Beng; Leong, Kah Fai; Chua, Chee Kai [Singapore Centre for 3D Printing, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, HW1-01-05, 2A Nanyang Link, 637372 Singapore (Singapore)

    2015-10-15

    Build thickness dependent microstructure of electron beam melted (EBM{sup ®}) Ti–6Al–4V has been investigated from both experiment and simulation using four block samples with thicknesses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mm. We observe a mixed microstructure of alternate α/β with some α′ martensite inside the 1 mm-thick sample. By contrast, only the alternate α/β microstructure with both colony and basket-weave morphologies occurs inside the 5 mm-, 10 mm- and 20 mm-thick samples. It is found that β spacing is constantly increased with the build thickness, leading to an obvious decrease in microhardness. Finite element method (FEM) simulations show that cooling rates and thermal profiles during EBM process are favorable for the formation of martensite. Moreover, full-scale FEM simulations reveal that the average temperature inside the samples is higher as the build thickness increases. It suggests that martensitic decomposition is faster in thicker samples, which is in good agreement with the experimental observations. - Highlights: • Build geometry dependent microstructure and microhardness for EBM-built Ti–6Al–4V. • Phase evolution involved in EBM process. • FEM simulation of EBM process. • α′ martensite formation and its identification.

  14. An experimental and simulation study on build thickness dependent microstructure for electron beam melted Ti–6Al–4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Xipeng; Kok, Yihong; Tan, Yu Jun; Vastola, Guglielmo; Pei, Qing Xiang; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Tor, Shu Beng; Leong, Kah Fai; Chua, Chee Kai

    2015-01-01

    Build thickness dependent microstructure of electron beam melted (EBM ® ) Ti–6Al–4V has been investigated from both experiment and simulation using four block samples with thicknesses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mm. We observe a mixed microstructure of alternate α/β with some α′ martensite inside the 1 mm-thick sample. By contrast, only the alternate α/β microstructure with both colony and basket-weave morphologies occurs inside the 5 mm-, 10 mm- and 20 mm-thick samples. It is found that β spacing is constantly increased with the build thickness, leading to an obvious decrease in microhardness. Finite element method (FEM) simulations show that cooling rates and thermal profiles during EBM process are favorable for the formation of martensite. Moreover, full-scale FEM simulations reveal that the average temperature inside the samples is higher as the build thickness increases. It suggests that martensitic decomposition is faster in thicker samples, which is in good agreement with the experimental observations. - Highlights: • Build geometry dependent microstructure and microhardness for EBM-built Ti–6Al–4V. • Phase evolution involved in EBM process. • FEM simulation of EBM process. • α′ martensite formation and its identification

  15. Morphological and microstructural stability of N-polar InAlN thin films grown on free-standing GaN substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, Matthew T., E-mail: matthew.hardy.ctr@nrl.navy.mil; Storm, David F.; Downey, Brian P.; Katzer, D. Scott; Meyer, David J. [Electronics Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington DC 20375 (United States); McConkie, Thomas O.; Smith, David J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1504 (United States); Nepal, Neeraj [Sotera Defense Solutions, 2200 Defense Hwy Suite 405, Crofton, Maryland 21114 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The sensitivity of the surface morphology and microstructure of N-polar-oriented InAlN to variations in composition, temperature, and layer thickness for thin films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been investigated. Lateral compositional inhomogeneity is present in N-rich InAlN films grown at low temperature, and phase segregation is exacerbated with increasing InN fraction. A smooth, step-flow surface morphology and elimination of compositional inhomogeneity can be achieved at a growth temperature 50 °C above the onset of In evaporation (650 °C). A GaN/AlN/GaN/200-nm InAlN heterostructure had a sheet charge density of 1.7 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup −2} and no degradation in mobility (1760 cm{sup 2}/V s) relative to 15-nm-thick InAlN layers. Demonstration of thick-barrier high-electron-mobility transistors with good direct-current characteristics shows that device quality, thick InAlN layers can be successfully grown by PAMBE.

  16. Morphological and microstructural stability of N-polar InAlN thin films grown on free-standing GaN substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, Matthew T.; Storm, David F.; Downey, Brian P.; Katzer, D. Scott; Meyer, David J.; McConkie, Thomas O.; Smith, David J.; Nepal, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    The sensitivity of the surface morphology and microstructure of N-polar-oriented InAlN to variations in composition, temperature, and layer thickness for thin films grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) has been investigated. Lateral compositional inhomogeneity is present in N-rich InAlN films grown at low temperature, and phase segregation is exacerbated with increasing InN fraction. A smooth, step-flow surface morphology and elimination of compositional inhomogeneity can be achieved at a growth temperature 50 °C above the onset of In evaporation (650 °C). A GaN/AlN/GaN/200-nm InAlN heterostructure had a sheet charge density of 1.7 × 10 13  cm −2 and no degradation in mobility (1760 cm 2 /V s) relative to 15-nm-thick InAlN layers. Demonstration of thick-barrier high-electron-mobility transistors with good direct-current characteristics shows that device quality, thick InAlN layers can be successfully grown by PAMBE

  17. Thin dielectric film thickness determination by advanced transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, A.C.; Foran, B.; Kisielowski, C.; Muller, D.; Pennycook, S.; Principe, E.; Stemmer, S.

    2003-09-01

    High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) has been used as the ultimate method of thickness measurement for thin films. The appearance of phase contrast interference patterns in HR-TEM images has long been confused as the appearance of a crystal lattice by non-specialists. Relatively easy to interpret crystal lattice images are now directly observed with the introduction of annular dark field detectors for scanning TEM (STEM). With the recent development of reliable lattice image processing software that creates crystal structure images from phase contrast data, HR-TEM can also provide crystal lattice images. The resolution of both methods was steadily improved reaching now into the sub Angstrom region. Improvements in electron lens and image analysis software are increasing the spatial resolution of both methods. Optimum resolution for STEM requires that the probe beam be highly localized. In STEM, beam localization is enhanced by selection of the correct aperture. When STEM measurement is done using a highly localized probe beam, HR-TEM and STEM measurement of the thickness of silicon oxynitride films agree within experimental error. In this paper, the optimum conditions for HR-TEM and STEM measurement are discussed along with a method for repeatable film thickness determination. The impact of sample thickness is also discussed. The key result in this paper is the proposal of a reproducible method for film thickness determination.

  18. Formation process of graphite film on Ni substrate with improved thickness uniformity through precipitation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seul-Gi; Hu, Qicheng; Nam, Ki-Bong; Kim, Mun Ja; Yoo, Ji-Beom

    2018-04-01

    Large-scale graphitic thin film with high thickness uniformity needs to be developed for industrial applications. Graphitic films with thicknesses ranging from 3 to 20 nm have rarely been reported, and achieving the thickness uniformity in that range is a challenging task. In this study, a process for growing 20 nm-thick graphite films on Ni with improved thickness uniformity is demonstrated and compared with the conventional growth process. In the film grown by the process, the surface roughness and coverage were improved and no wrinkles were observed. Observations of the film structure reveal the reasons for the improvements and growth mechanisms.

  19. Realistic reflectance spectrum of thin films covering a transparent optically thick substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaria, M., E-mail: maura.cesaria@le.infn.it; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “Ennio De Giorgi,” University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    A spectrophotometric strategy is presented and discussed for calculating realistically the reflectance spectrum of an absorbing film deposited over a thick transparent or semi-transparent substrate. The developed route exploits simple mathematics, has wide range of applicability (high-to-weak absorption regions and thick-to-ultrathin films), rules out numerical and curve-fitting procedures as well as model-functions, inherently accounts for the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface as well as substrate backside, and describes the film reflectance spectrum as determined by the experimental situation (deposition approach and parameters). The reliability of the method is tested on films of a well-known material (indium tin oxide) by deliberately changing film thickness and structural quality through doping. Results are found consistent with usual information yielded by reflectance, its inherent relationship with scattering processes and contributions to the measured total reflectance.

  20. Solvent annealing induced phase separation and dewetting in PMMA∕SAN blend film: film thickness and solvent dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jichun; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Huang, Gang; Shi, Tongfei; Li, Yongjin

    2013-06-28

    The competition between "dewetting" and "phase separation" behaviors in polymer blend films attracts significant attention in the last decade. The simultaneous phase separation and dewetting in PMMA∕SAN [poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile)] blend ultrathin films upon solvent annealing have been observed for the first time in our previous work. In this work, film thickness and annealing solvent dependence of phase behaviors in this system has been investigated using atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). On one hand, both vertical phase separation and dewetting take place upon selective solvent vapor annealing, leading to the formation of droplet∕mimic-film structures with various sizes (depending on original film thickness). On the other hand, the whole blend film dewets the substrate and produces dispersed droplets on the silicon oxide upon common solvent annealing. GISAXS results demonstrate the phase separation in the big dewetted droplets resulted from the thicker film (39.8 nm). In contrast, no period structure is detected in small droplets from the thinner film (5.1 nm and 9.7 nm). This investigation indicates that dewetting and phase separation in PMMA∕SAN blend film upon solvent annealing depend crucially on the film thickness and the atmosphere during annealing.

  1. Flexoelectricity induced increase of critical thickness in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hao; Hong Jiawang; Zhang Yihui; Li Faxin; Pei Yongmao; Fang Daining

    2012-01-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the coupling between polarization and strain/stress gradients in insulating crystals. In this paper, using the Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach, we found that flexoelectricity could increase the theoretical critical thickness in epitaxial BaTiO 3 thin films, below which the switchable spontaneous polarization vanishes. This increase is remarkable in tensile films while trivial in compressive films due to the electrostriction caused decrease of potential barrier, which can be easily destroyed by the flexoelectricity, between the ferroelectric state and the paraelectric state in tensile films. In addition, the films are still in a uni-polar state even below the critical thickness due to the flexoelectric effect.

  2. Flexoelectricity induced increase of critical thickness in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hao [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hong Jiawang; Zhang Yihui [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Faxin [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Pei Yongmao, E-mail: peiym@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang Daining, E-mail: fangdn@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the coupling between polarization and strain/stress gradients in insulating crystals. In this paper, using the Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach, we found that flexoelectricity could increase the theoretical critical thickness in epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films, below which the switchable spontaneous polarization vanishes. This increase is remarkable in tensile films while trivial in compressive films due to the electrostriction caused decrease of potential barrier, which can be easily destroyed by the flexoelectricity, between the ferroelectric state and the paraelectric state in tensile films. In addition, the films are still in a uni-polar state even below the critical thickness due to the flexoelectric effect.

  3. Ethanol vapour sensing properties of screen printed WO 3 thick films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ethanol vapour sensing properties of these thick films were investigated at different operating temperatures and ethanol vapour concentrations. The WO3 thick films exhibit excellent ethanol vapour sensing properties with a maximum sensitivity of ∼1424.6% at 400°C in air atmosphere with fast response and recovery ...

  4. Mechanical properties of ultra thin metallic films revealed by synchrotron techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, Patric Alfons

    2007-07-20

    A prerequisite for the study of the scaling behavior of mechanical properties of ultra thin films is a suitable testing technique. Therefore synchrotron-based in situ testing techniques were developed and optimized in order to characterize the stress evolution in ultra thin metallic films on compliant polymer substrates during isothermal tensile tests. Experimental procedures for polycrystalline as well as single crystalline films were established. These techniques were used to systematically investigate the influence of microstructure, film thickness (20 to 1000 nm) and temperature (-150 to 200 C) on the mechanical properties. Passivated and unpassivated Au and Cu films as well as single crystalline Au films on polyimide substrates were tested. Special care was also dedicated to the microstructural characterization of the samples which was very important for the correct interpretation of the results of the mechanical tests. Down to a film thickness of about 100 to 200 nm the yield strength increased for all film systems (passivated and unpassivated) and microstructures (polycrystalline and singlecrystalline). The influence of different interfaces was smaller than expected. This could be explained by a dislocation source model based on the nucleation of perfect dislocations. For polycrystalline films the film thickness as well as the grain size distribution had to be considered. For smaller film thicknesses the increase in flow stress was weaker and the deformation behavior changed because the nucleation of perfect dislocations became unfavorable. Instead, the film materials used alternative mechanisms to relieve the high stresses. For regular and homogeneous deformation the total strain was accommodated by the nucleation and motion of partial dislocations. If the deformation was localized due to initial cracks in a brittle interlayer or local delamination, dislocation plasticity was not effective enough to relieve the stress concentration and the films showed

  5. Towards a new thickness-independent gamma radiation plastic film dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Marli Barbosa; Araujo, Patricia L.; Araujo, Elma S.

    2013-01-01

    A 100% national single-use gamma radiation plastic film dosimeter is presented in this work. A new approach for the development of this material allowed a step forward in the performance of poly (methyl metacrylate) films (PMMA) colored with bromothymol blue (BTB) acid-base indicator. We manage to improve dosimeter performance by introducing a gamma radiation insensitive dye to compensate film thickness variations. By doing so, we were able to obtain consistent dose-response correlations within a set of samples presenting 46 to 110 micrometers in thickness. Hence, our PMMA/BTB-P film dosimeter is suitable to measure absorbed dose in the 2-100kGy range even when film thickness undergoes more than 100% of variation. In addition, dose response data remain practically unaltered for four months after the exposure, when dosimeter films are kept in dark conditions and under refrigeration. The radiation effects on the optical properties were evaluated for Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometric analysis. Data of characteristic dose-response correlation in terms of changes in the maximum UV-Vis absorption due to radiation, and stability in time are also described. This potential new product is a promising tool for industrial radiation facilities, especially in gamma sterilization of medical supplies. (author)

  6. Sinterização de filmes espessos de Ba(Ti0,85Zr0,15O3 por varredura laser Laser scanning sintering of Ba(Ti0.85Zr0.15O3 thick films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Antonelli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados de sinterização de filmes espessos de BaTi0,85Zr0,15O3 (BTZ15, depositados pela técnica de eletroforese, utilizando como fonte de calor um laser de CO2. A montagem experimental foi otimizada de modo a permitir a sinterização de filmes com dimensões de até 70 mm de comprimento por 10mm de largura e espessuras variáveis. Os processos térmicos envolvidos durante a varredura contínua a laser atuaram de modo similar à sinterização em duas etapas. Os tempos de patamares em cada etapa foram dependentes da velocidade e do número de varreduras. A temperatura máxima que se pode atingir no filme espesso, durante cada varredura e para uma potência nominal do laser fixa, foi correlacionada com a densidade relativa. Após sinterizados, os filmes apresentaram homogeneidade microestrutural e uma porosidade aparente de ~7%.The results for sintering of BaTi0.85Zr0.15O3 (BTZ15 thick films, deposited by electrophoresis, using as heat source a CO2 laser are presented. The characteristics of the experimental apparatus were optimized in such a way as to allow the sintering of thick films whose dimensions were up to 70 mm in length, 10 mm in width and variable thicknesses. The related thermal process during the continuous laser scanning acted in a similar way as a two-step sintering. The step times in each stage were dependent on the speed and scan number. The maximum temperature that can be achieved in the thick film, during each scanning, and for a fixed rated laser power, was correlated with the relative density. After sintering the films presented a microstructural homogeneity and an apparent porosity of ~7%.

  7. Electro-physical properties of superconducting ceramic thick film prepared by partial melting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Heon

    2013-05-01

    BiSrCaCuO superconductor thick films were prepared at several curing temperatures, and their electro-physical properties were determined to find an optimum fabrication conditions. Critical temperatures of the superconductors were decreased with increasing melting temperature, which was related to the amount of equilibrium phases of the superconducting materials with temperature. The critical temperature of BiSrCaCuO bulk and thick film superconductors were 107 K and 96 K, respectively. The variation of susceptibility of the superconductor thick film formed at 950 degrees C had multi-step-type curve for 70 G externally applied field, whereas, a superconductor thick film formed at 885 degrees C had a single step-type curve like a bulk BiSrCaCuO ceramic superconductor in the temperature-susceptibility curves. A partial melting at 865 degrees C is one of optimum conditions for making a superconductor thick film with a relatively homogeneous phase.

  8. Atomic and microstructure of CMR materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tendeloo, G.; Lebedev, O.I.; Amelinckx, S.

    2000-01-01

    The local structure of bulk and thin films of different perovskite-based CMR materials has been studied by high-resolution electron microscopy. The structure of Ln 1-x A x MnO 3 is not only a function of temperature and A-doping, but also of the thickness of the film. Evidence is produced for a slight monoclinic distortion at room temperature in most Ln 1-x A x MnO 3 compounds. For epitaxial La 0.7 Sr 0.3 MnO 3 (LSMO) films on a LaAlO 3 (0 0 1) the evolution of stress in the film is studied as a function of film thickness and thermal treatment. Close to the interface both film and substrate are elastically strained in opposite sense such that the interface is perfectly coherent for thin films not exceeding 30-35 nm. In thicker films the stress is partially relieved after annealing by the formation of misfit dislocations with an edge character. Thin films of La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 on a SrTiO 3 substrate, exhibit a remarkable microstructure. In direct contact with the SrTiO 3 substrate a thin featureless perfectly coherent La 1-x Ca x MnO 3 layer is formed. Subsequently, on top of this first layer a second thicker layer is deposited; it has a columnar microstructure. These columns, parallel to the interface normal, are in fact prismatic anti-phase domains. Their formation is attributed to the introduction of chemical faults during the film growth process. Islands of rocksalt-type MnO structure, nucleated within the regular La-O layer of the LCMO structure, initiate the formation of the prismatic anti-phase domains. Models of the domain boundaries and of the interface film/substrate are proposed. A growth mechanism for the domain structure is suggested

  9. Microstructure and chemical bonding of DLC films deposited on ACM rubber by PACVD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez-Martinez, D.; Schenkel, M.; Pei, Y.T.; Sánchez-López, J.C.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2011-01-01

    The microstructure and chemical bonding of DLC films prepared by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition on acrylic rubber (ACM) are studied in this paper. The temperature variation produced by the ion impingement during plasma cleaning and subsequent film deposition was used to modify the film

  10. Thickness control in electrophoretic deposition of WO3 nanofiber thin films for solar water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Yuanxing; Lee, Wei Cheat; Canciani, Giacomo E.; Draper, Thomas C.; Al-Bawi, Zainab F.; Bedi, Jasbir S.; Perry, Christopher C.; Chen, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel method combining electrospinning and electrophoretic deposition was established for the creation of nanostructured semiconductor thin films. • The created thin films displayed a high chemical stability with a controllable thickness. • The PEC water splitting performance of the thin films was optimized by fine-tuning the thickness of the films. • A maximum photoconversion efficiency was achieved by 18 μm nanofibrous thin films. - Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of ground electrospun WO 3 nanofibers was applied to create photoanodes with controlled morphology for the application of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The correlations between deposition parameters and film thicknesses were investigated with theoretical models to precisely control the morphology of the nanostructured porous thin film. The photoconversion efficiency was further optimized as a function of film thickness. A maximum photoconversion efficiency of 0.924% from electrospun WO 3 nanofibers that EPD deposited on a substrate was achieved at a film thickness of 18 μm.

  11. High-performance piezoelectric thick film based energy harvesting micro-generators for MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zawada, Tomasz; Hansen, Karsten; Lou-Moeller, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    and are transformed by the energy harvesting micro-generator into usable electrical signal. The micro-generator comprises a silicon cantilever with integrated InSensor® TF2100 PZT thick film deposited using screen-printing. The output power versus frequency and electrical load has been investigated. Furthermore......, devices based on modified, pressure treated thick film materials have been tested and compared with the commercial InSensor® TF2100 PZT thick films. It has been found that the structures based on the pressure treated materials exhibit superior properties in terms of energy output....

  12. Surface and magnetic characteristics of Ni-Mn-Ga/Si (100) thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. Vinodh; Pandyan, R. Kodi; Mahendran, M., E-mail: manickam-mahendran@tce.edu, E-mail: perialangulam@gmail.com [Smart Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Thiagarajar College of Engineering, Madurai – 625 015 (India); Raja, M. Manivel [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad – 500 058 (India); Pandi, R. Senthur [School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore – 632 014 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polycrystalline Ni-Mn-Ga thin films have been deposited on Si (100) substrate with different film thickness. The influence of film thickness on the phase structure and magnetic domain of the films has been examined by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Analysis of structural parameters indicates that the film at lower thickness exhibits the coexistence of both austenite and martensite phase, whereas at higher thickness L1{sub 2} cubic non magnetic phase is noticed. The grains size and the surface roughness increase along with the film thickness and attain the maximum of 45 nm and 34.96 nm, respectively. At lower film thickness, the magnetic stripe domain is found like maze pattern with dark and bright images, while at higher thickness the absence of stripe domains is observed. The magnetic results reveal that the films strongly depend on their phase structure and microstructure which influence by the film thickness.

  13. Properties of morphotropic phase boundary Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3PbTiO3 films with submicrometre range thickness on Si-based substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Algueró , M; Stewart , M; Cain , M G; Ramos , P; Ricote , J; Calzada , M L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The electrical properties of (1-x)Pb(Mg 1/3 Nb 2/3)O 3 -xPbTiO 3 films with composition in the morphotropic phase boundary region around x=0.35, submicron thickness and columnar microstructure, prepared on Si based substrates by chemical solution deposition are presented and discussed in relation to the properties of coarse and fine grained ceramics. The films show relaxor characteristics that are proposed to result from a grain size effect on the kinetics of the relaxor to ferroe...

  14. Study of lead free ferroelectrics using overlay technique on thick film microstrip ring resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shridhar N. Mathad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The lead free ferroelectrics, strontium barium niobates, were synthesized via the low cost solid state reaction method and their fritless thick films were fabricated by screen printing technique on alumina substrate. The X band response (complex permittivity at very high frequencies of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator perturbed with strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6 in form of bulk and thick film was measured. A new approach for determination of complex permittivity (ε′ and ε′′ in the frequency range 8–12 GHz, using perturbation of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator (MSRR, was applied for both bulk and thick film of strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6. The microwave conductivity of the bulk and thick film lie in the range from 1.779 S/cm to 2.874 S/cm and 1.364 S/cm to 2.296 S/cm, respectively. The penetration depth of microwave in strontium barium niobates is also reported.

  15. Studies on Gas Sensing Performance of Pure and Surface Chrominated Indium Oxide Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. CHAVAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The thick films of AR grade In2O3 were prepared by standard screen-printing technique. The gas sensing performance of thick film was tested for various gases. It showed maximum gas response to ethanol vapor at 350 oC for 80 ppm. To improve the gas response and selectivity of the film towards a particular gas, In2O3 thick films were modified by dipping them in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M CrO3 for different intervals of time. The surface chrominated (20 min In2O3 thick film showed maximum response to H2S gas (40 ppm than pure In2O3 thick film at 250 oC. Chromium oxide on the surface of the film shifts the gas response from ethanol vapor to H2S gas. A systematic study of sensing performance of the sensor indicates the key role played by chromium oxide on the surface of thick film. The selectivity, gas response and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  16. Attempt to produce both thick and thinned flowing superfluid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwoh, D.S.W.; Goodstein, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    As discussed in the preceding paper by Graham, a controversy has arisen over conflicting reports of whether a superfluid film becomes thinned when it is set into motion. We have performed an experiment designed to reproduce as nearly as possible two previous measurements giving opposite results. Our experiment is also designed to test directly a theory proposed by Goodstein and Saffman which would have reconciled the apparently contradictory observations. We are unable to reproduce the thick-film result, finding kinetic thinning in all cases, even where the Goodstein--Saffman theory would lead us to expect a thick film. We conclude, in agreement with Graham, that the film is always thinned when it flows, and that the theory is therefore unnecessary

  17. Laser Cutting of Thick Diamond Films Using Low-Power Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Baik, Y.J. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    Laser cutting of thick diamond films is studied rising a low-power(10 W) copper vapor laser. Due to the existence of the saturation depth in laser cutting, thick diamond films are not easily cut by low-power lasers. In this study, we have adopted a low thermal- conductivity underlayer of alumina and a heating stage (up to 500 deg. C in air) to prevent the laser energy from consuming-out and, in turn, enhance the cutting efficiency. Aspect ratio increases twice from 3.5 to 7 when the alumina underlayer used. Adopting a heating stage also increases aspect ratio and more than 10 is obtained at higher temperatures than 400 deg. C. These results show that thick diamond films can be cut, with low-power lasers, simply by modifying the thermal property of underlayer. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Thickness-modulated anisotropic ferromagnetism in Fe-doped epitaxial HfO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Ruyi; Ma, Rong; Wang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Epitaxial tetragonal Fe-doped Hf0.95Fe0.05O2 (FHO) thin films with various thicknesses were deposited on (001)-oriented NdCaAlO4 (NCAO) substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system. The crystal structure and epitaxial nature of the FHO thin films were confirmed by typical x-ray diffraction (XRD) θ-2θ scan and reciprocal space mapping (RSM). The results indicate that two sets of lattice sites exist with two different crystal orientations [(001) and (100)] in the thicker FHO thin films. Further, the intensity of the (100) direction increases with the increase in thicknesses, which should have a significant effect on the anisotropic magnetization of the FHO thin films. Meanwhile, all the FHO thin films possess a tetragonal phase structure. An anisotropy behavior in magnetization has been observed in the FHO thin films. The anisotropic magnetization of the FHO thin films is slowly weakened as the thickness increases. Meanwhile, the saturation magnetization (Ms) of both in-plane and out-of-plane decreases with the increase in the thickness. The change in the anisotropic magnetization and Ms is attributed to the crystal lattice and the variation in the valence of Fe ions. These results indicate that the thickness-modulated anisotropic ferromagnetism of the tetragonal FHO epitaxial thin films is of potential use for the integration of metal-oxide semiconductors with spintronics.

  19. Surface functionalization by fine ultraviolet-patterning of nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Renguo; Zhang, Hedong; Komada, Suguru; Mitsuya, Yasunaga; Fukuzawa, Kenji; Itoh, Shintaro

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present fine UV-patterning of nm-thick liquid films for surface functionalization. • The patterned films exhibit both a morphological pattern and a functional pattern of different surface properties. • The finest pattern linewidth was 0.5 μm. • Fine patterning is crucial for improving surface and tribological properties. - Abstract: For micro/nanoscale devices, surface functionalization is essential to achieve function and performance superior to those that originate from the inherent bulk material properties. As a method of surface functionalization, we dip-coated nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films onto solid surfaces and then patterned the lubricant films with ultraviolet (UV) irradiation through a photomask. Surface topography, adhesion, and friction measurements demonstrated that the patterned films feature a concave–convex thickness distribution with thicker lubricant in the irradiated regions and a functional distribution with lower adhesion and friction in the irradiated convex regions. The pattern linewidth ranged from 100 to as fine as 0.5 μm. The surface functionalization effect of UV-patterning was investigated by measuring the water contact angles, surface energies, friction forces, and depletion of the patterned, as-dipped, and full UV-irradiated lubricant films. The full UV-irradiated lubricant film was hydrophobic with a water contact angle of 102.1°, and had lower surface energy, friction, and depletion than the as-dipped film, which was hydrophilic with a water contact angle of 80.7°. This demonstrates that UV irradiation substantially improves the surface and tribological properties of the nanometer-thick liquid lubricant films. The UV-patterned lubricant films exhibited superior surface and tribological properties than the as-dipped film. The water contact angle increased and the surface energy, friction, and depletion decreased as the pattern linewidth decreased. In particular, the 0.5-μm patterned lubricant

  20. Effects of B2O3-Li2O additions on the dielectric properties of screen printing Ba0.6Sr0.4TiO3 thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Yike; Gao, Can; Zhang, Guangzu; Jiang, Shenglin

    2012-01-01

    Ba 0.6 Sr 0.4 TiO 3 (BST) thick films were fabricated on Al 2 O 3 substrate via the screen printing technology by using B 2 O 3 -Li 2 O additions as liquid-phase sintering aids. The effects of doping of B 2 O 3 and Li 2 CO 3 on the phase compositions, microstructures, and dielectric tunable properties of the thick films were investigated systematically. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that BST diffraction peaks shifted toward higher angle with the B 2 O 3 -Li 2 O doping content, which indicated the substitution of B 3+ and Li + in Ba 2+ site. It was also found that the grain size and electrical properties of the thick film were strongly affected by the glass content. The grain size and the relative permittivity decreased obviously with the increase of B 2 O 3 -Li 2 O additive. In addition, for the thick film with 4.5 wt% glass content, optimized sintering, and electrical properties were obtained: the sintering temperature of 900 C, relative permittivity of 312 (at 10 kHz), dielectric loss of 0.0039, tunability of 16.2% (at 3 kV/mm). These good sintering and electrical properties indicate that BST thick film with B 2 O 3 -Li 2 O addition is benefit for the development of LTCC technology and tunable devices. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Effect of Temperature on Film Thickness of Two Types of Commonly used Luting Cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Praveen; Priyadarshini, Reddy; Kumar, Yasangi M; Priya, K Shanthi; Chunchuvyshnavi, Chunchuvyshnavi; Yerrapragada, Harika

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of temperature change on film thickness of both types of cements. Totally, 60 samples were prepared with 10 in each subgroup, thus comprising 30 in each group. Materials tested were glass ionomer cement (GIC) type I and zinc phosphate type I. Samples were manipulated with manufacturer's instructions and tested according to American Dental Association (ADA) guidelines. The mean values of film thickness were recorded for both groups I and II. In intragroup comparison of group 1, subgroup III (26.560 ± 0.489 urn) was found to have the highest film thickness followed by subgroup II (24.182 ± 0.576 urn) and the lowest in subgroup I (20.209 ± 0.493 urn). In intragroup comparison of group II, the film thickness recorded in subgroup III (25.215 ± 0.661 urn) was the highest followed by subgroup II (21.471 ± 0.771 urn) and the least in subgroup I (17.951 ± 0.654 urn; p film thickness than group I (23.650 ± 0.271). The results were found to be statistically significant (p film thickness. Zinc phosphate has less film thickness than GIC. Zinc phosphate should be preferred over GIC in clinical practice, and more stress should be given in mechanical preparation of crowns for better retentive quality of prosthesis.

  2. Effect of thickness on electrical properties of SILAR deposited SnS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaltun, Yunus; Astam, Aykut; Cerhan, Asena; ćayir, Tuba

    2016-03-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films of different thickness were prepared on glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature using tin (II) chloride and sodium sulfide aqueous solutions. The thicknesses of the films were determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements and found to be 47.2, 65.8, 111.0, and 128.7nm for 20, 25, 30 and 35 deposition cycles respectively. The electrical properties of the films were investigated using d.c. two-point probe method at room temperature and the results showed that the resistivity was found to decrease with increasing film thickness.

  3. Influence of thermal treatment in N{sub 2} atmosphere on chemical, microstructural and optical properties of indium tin oxide and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide rf-sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroescu, H.; Anastasescu, M.; Preda, S.; Nicolescu, M.; Stoica, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Stefan, N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, RO-77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kampylafka, V.; Aperathitis, E. [FORTH-IESL, Crete (Greece); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Zaharescu, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Gartner, M., E-mail: mgartner@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-31

    We report the influence of the normal thermal treatment (TT) and of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide (ITO:N) thin films. The TT was carried out for 1 h at 400 °C and the RTA for 1 min up to 400 °C, both in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The ITO and ITO:N films were deposited by reactive sputtering in Argon, and respectively Nitrogen plasma, on Si with (100) and (111) orientation. The present study brings data about the microstructural and optical properties of ITO thin films with thicknesses around 300–400 nm. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis showed the formation of continuous and homogeneous films, fully covered by quasi-spherical shaped particles, with higher roughness values on Si(100) as compared to Si(111). Spectroscopic ellipsometry allowed the determination of film thickness, optical band gap as well as of the dispersion curves of n and k optical constants. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of diffraction peaks corresponding to the same nominal bulk composition of ITO, but with different intensities and preferential orientation depending on the substrate, atmosphere of deposition and type of thermal treatment. - Highlights: ► Stability of the films can be monitored by experimental ellipsometric spectra. ► The refractive index of indium tin oxide film on 0.3–30 μm range is reported. ► Si(100) substrate induces rougher film surfaces than Si(111). ► Rapid thermal annealing and normal thermal treatment lead to stable conductive film. ► The samples have a higher preferential orientation after rapid thermal annealing.

  4. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved...... sequential 90 deg rotations about the normal direction (ND) between passes. The microstructure in the center of these plates, and especially the extent of microstructural heterogeneity, has been characterized quantitatively and compared with that in bar samples extruded via either route A or route Bc with 90...... Bc. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012...

  5. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision.

  6. A three-dimensional microstructuring technique exploiting the positive photoresist property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirai, Yoshikazu; Sugano, Koji; Tsuchiya, Toshiyuki; Tabata, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    The present paper describes a three-dimensional (3D) thick-photoresist microstructuring technique that exploits the effect of exposure wavelength on dissolution rate distributions in a thick-film diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ) photoresist. In fabricating 3D microstructure with specific applications, it is important to control the spatial dissolution rate distribution in the photoresist layer, since the lithographic performance for 3D microstructuring is largely determined by the details of the dissolution property. To achieve this goal, the effect of exposure wavelength on dissolution rate distributions was applied for 3D microstructuring. The parametric experimental results demonstrated (1) the advantages of the fabrication technique for 3D microstructuring and (2) the necessity of a dedicated simulation approach based on the measured thick-photoresist property for further verification. Thus, a simple and practical photolithography simulation model that makes use of the Fresnel diffraction theory and an empirically characterized DNQ photoresist property was adopted. Simulations revealed good quantitative agreement between the photoresist development profiles of the standard photolithography and the moving-mask UV lithography process. The simulation and experimental results conclude that the g-line (λ = 436 nm) process can reduce the dimensional limitation or complexity of the photolithography process for the 3D microstructuring which leads to nanoscale microstructuring.

  7. Thick film heater for sensor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milewski, J; Borecki, M; Kalenik, J; Król, K

    2014-01-01

    A thick film microheater was elaborated. The microheater is intended for fast heating of small volume samples under measurement in optical based system. Thermal analysis of microheater was carried out using finite element method (FEM) for heat transfer calculation as a function of time and space. A nodal heat transfer function was calculated in classical form including all basics mechanisms of heat exchange – heat conduction, convection and radiation were considered. Work focuses on the influence of some construction parameters (ex. length, thermal conductivity of substrate, substrate thickness) on microheater performance. The results show that application of thin substrate of low thermal conductivity and low thickness for miroheater construction and resistor of optimum dimensions leads to significant power consumption decrease and increase of overall optical measurement system performance.

  8. Screen printed nanosized ZnO thick film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The ex- tracted powder was screen printed on glass substrates using ethyl cellulose as binder and turpinol as solvent. ... racterized and a thick film paste is prepared by adding suitable .... UV peak and a broad green emission which is usually.

  9. Multifunctional thick-film structures based on spinel ceramics for environment sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakiv, M; Hadzaman, I; Klym, H; Shpotyuk, O; Brunner, M

    2011-01-01

    Temperature sensitive thick films based on spinel-type NiMn 2 O 4 -CuMn 2 O 4 -MnCo 2 O 4 manganites with p- and p + -types of electrical conductivity and their multilayer p + -p structures were studied. These thick-film elements possess good electrophysical characteristics before and after long-term ageing test at 170 deg. C. It is shown that degradation processes connected with diffusion of metallic Ag into film grain boundaries occur in one-layer p-and p + -conductive films. Some part of the p + -p structures were of high stability, the relative electrical drift being no more than 1 %.

  10. A wrinkling-based method for investigating glassy polymer film relaxation as a function of film thickness and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jun Young; Douglas, Jack F; Stafford, Christopher M

    2017-10-21

    We investigate the relaxation dynamics of thin polymer films at temperatures below the bulk glass transition T g by first compressing polystyrene films supported on a polydimethylsiloxane substrate to create wrinkling patterns and then observing the slow relaxation of the wrinkled films back to their final equilibrium flat state by small angle light scattering. As with recent relaxation measurements on thin glassy films reported by Fakhraai and co-workers, we find the relaxation time of our wrinkled films to be strongly dependent on film thickness below an onset thickness on the order of 100 nm. By varying the temperature between room temperature and T g (≈100 °C), we find that the relaxation time follows an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence to a good approximation at all film thicknesses investigated, where both the activation energy and the relaxation time pre-factor depend appreciably on film thickness. The wrinkling relaxation curves tend to cross at a common temperature somewhat below T g , indicating an entropy-enthalpy compensation relation between the activation free energy parameters. This compensation effect has also been observed recently in simulated supported polymer films in the high temperature Arrhenius relaxation regime rather than the glassy state. In addition, we find that the film stress relaxation function, as well as the height of the wrinkle ridges, follows a stretched exponential time dependence and the short-time effective Young's modulus derived from our modeling decreases sigmoidally with increasing temperature-both characteristic features of glassy materials. The relatively facile nature of the wrinkling-based measurements in comparison to other film relaxation measurements makes our method attractive for practical materials development, as well as fundamental studies of glass formation.

  11. Residual stress analysis in thick uranium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, A.M.; Foreman, R.J.; Gallegos, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1-25 μm, depleted uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0, -200, -300 V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses

  12. Thickness, morphology, and optoelectronic characteristics of pristine and surfactant-modified DNA thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arasu, Velu; Reddy Dugasani, Sreekantha; Son, Junyoung; Gnapareddy, Bramaramba; Ha Park, Sung; Jeon, Sohee; Jeong, Jun-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Although the preparation of DNA thin films with well-defined thicknesses controlled by simple physical parameters is crucial for constructing efficient, stable, and reliable DNA-based optoelectronic devices and sensors, it has not been comprehensively studied yet. Here, we construct DNA and surfactant-modified DNA thin films by drop-casting and spin-coating techniques. The DNA thin films formed with different control parameters, such as drop-volume and spin-speed at given DNA concentrations, exhibit characteristic thickness, surface roughness, surface potential, and absorbance, which are measured by a field emission scanning electron microscope, a surface profilometer, an ellipsometer, an atomic force microscope, a Kelvin probe force microscope, and an UV–visible spectroscope. From the observations, we realized that thickness significantly affects the physical properties of DNA thin films. This comprehensive study of thickness-dependent characteristics of DNA and surfactant-modified DNA thin films provides insight into the choice of fabrication techniques in order for the DNA thin films to have desired physical characteristics in further applications, such as optoelectronic devices and sensors. (paper)

  13. Thickness-Dependent Surfactant Behavior in Trilayer Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Wang, Jin

    2010-03-01

    The ability for thin liquid films to wet and remain thermodynamically stable on top of one another is a fundamental challenge in developing high quality paints, coatings, adhesives, and other industrial products. Since intermolecular interactions and interfacial energies dominate in the film thickness regime from tens to hundreds of nanometers, it is desirable to tune these long-range and short-range forces in a simple, controllable manner. Starting from an unstable model homopolymer bilayer (poly(styrene)/poly(4-vinylpyridine)), we demonstrate that sandwiching an additional homopolymer layer (poly(4-bromostyrene)) between the two layers can provide needed surfactancy. As the thickness of this center layer is increased, the full trilayer transitions from unstable (thin) to stable (moderate) to unstable (thick). We experimentally show using x-ray standing waves generated via total external reflection (TER-XSW), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) that this behavior can be directly attributed to the autophobic dewetting phenomenon, in which the surfactant layer is thin enough to remain stable but thick enough to shield the neighboring layers, highlighting a general approach to stabilizing multilayer systems.

  14. Kinetics of sub-spinodal dewetting of thin films of thickness dependent viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotni, Tirumala Rao; Khanna, Rajesh; Sarkar, Jayati

    2017-05-04

    An alternative explanation of the time varying and very low growth exponents in dewetting of polymer films like polystyrene films is presented based on non-linear simulations. The kinetics of these films is explored within the framework of experimentally observed thickness dependent viscosity. These films exhibit sub-spinodal dewetting via formation of satellite holes in between primary dewetted holes under favorable conditions of excess intermolecular forces and film thicknesses. We find that conditions responsible for sub-spinodal dewetting concurrently lead to remarkable changes in the kinetics of dewetting of even primary holes. For example, the radius of the hole grows in time with a power-law growth exponent sequence of [Formula: see text], in contrast to the usual  ∼4/5. This is due to the cumulative effect of reduced rim mobility due to thickness dependent viscosity and hindrance created by satellite holes.

  15. Superconducting TlCa2Ba2Cu3O9 thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    GE Corporate Research and Development's (GE-CRD) program to develop the two-zone silver addition (TZSA) process for fabricating superconducting films of TlCa 2 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 9 has activities in the areas of (1) precursor preparation, (2) the thallium oxide vapor process, (3) the effects of post-synthesis annealing ambient and temperature on superconducting properties, (4) the influence of film stoichiometry and composition on superconducting properties, (5) microstructure and film growth mechanism, (6) the preparation of thicker films, (7) the fabrication of films on flexible substrates, and (8) process scale-up. As part of its effort under the ANL Pilot Center Agreement, GE-CRD has supplied to ANL a complete two-zone furnace, has provided consultation on its use and on the planning of experiments, has processed ANL samples in GE's furnaces to help define optimum process conditions, and has provided precursor and finished films as requested. These contributions are described more fully in the descriptions of the work performed at ANL presented elsewhere in this report. Under the Pilot Center Agreement work at GE-CRD has been directed toward the optimization of the TZSA process with emphasis on (A) process improvement, (B) effects of silver content on film properties, (C) the relationship between microstructure and J c , and (D) toward the assessment of the compatibility of silver substrates with the process chemistry

  16. π-Donors microstructuring on surface of polymer film by their noncovalent interactions with iodine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traven, Valerii F., E-mail: valerii.traven@gmail.com [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Moscow 125047, Miusskaya sq., 9 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, Ivan V.; Dolotov, Sergei M. [Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology, Moscow 125047, Miusskaya sq., 9 (Russian Federation); Veciana, Jaume Miro; Lebedev, Victor S. [Institut de Ciencia de Materials de Barcelona–CSIC, Campus de la UAB, 08193, Bellaterra (Spain); Shulga, Yurii M.; Khasanov, Salavat S. [Institute of Problems of Chemical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Acad. N.N. Semenov Prosp., 1, Chernogolovka, 142432 (Russian Federation); Medvedev, Michael G. [A. N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, Vavilova str., 28 (Russian Federation); Laukhina, Elena E. [The Biomedical Research Networking Center in Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine, ICMAB-CSIC, Bellaterra, 08193 (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    Noncovalent (charge transfer) interaction between perylene and iodine in polycarbonate film provides formation of microstructured perylene layer on the polymer surface upon exposure of polymer film which contains dissolved perylene to solvent + iodine vapors. The prepared bilayer film possesses a sensing effect to iodine vapors which can be observed by both fluorescence and electrical conductivity changes. Similar bilayer films have been prepared also with anthracene and phenothiazine as π-donors with use of different polymer matrixes. Interaction of iodine with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has also been studied by the M06-2x DFT calculations for better understanding of phenomenon of π-donors microstructuring on surface of polymer film. - Highlights: • Preparation of bilayer polymer films with π-donors on surface for the first time. • π-Donor phase purity is confirmed by XRD, IR spectroscopy, SEM. • Perylene bilayer polymer films possess fluorescence. • Perylene bilayer polymer films loss fluorescence under iodine vapors. • Perylene bilayer polymer films possess electrical conductivity when treated by iodine vapors.

  17. Annealing effect on the microstructure modification and tribological properties of amorphous carbon nitride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhou; Wang, Chengbing; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Junyan

    2008-10-01

    The influences of thermal annealing on the microstructural and tribological properties of amorphous carbon nitride films were investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer were utilized to characterize bond configuration and chemical state of the films. The results indicated that at low annealing temperatures (200 and 300 °C), the volatile species and surface contamination are easily dissociated without obvious bulk modification; while at high annealing temperatures (400 and 500 °C), the microstructure of carbon nitride films changed and favored a graphitization process, which indicated the growth of more graphitic film structures. The faint Raman signal of C≡N decreased with annealing temperature (TA) and completely disappeared at TA of 500 °C, indicating that nitrile bonds were thermal unstable under high temperature. Surprisingly, the tribological properties of the films showed a remarkably decreasing in friction coefficient as the TA increased; it is attributed to the graphitization of carbon nitride films during thermal annealing, which favored transfer film formation between the carbon nitride films and counterface materials. The transfer films benefit the decrease in coefficient of friction.

  18. Influence of Liquid Petroleum Gas on the Electrical Parameters of the WO3 Thick Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. S. KHADAYATE

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the WO3 thick films were prepared by standard screen-printing technology. These films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Influence of LPG on the electrical properties of the prepared WO3 thick film is reported. It was observed that the slope of the Arrhenius curves of the WO3 thick film decreased as the medium changed from pure air to 100 ppm LPG in air. From I-V characteristics, it was observed that the WO3 thick film exhibit highest sensitivity to 50 ppm LPG in air at 400oC.

  19. A method for reducing the sloughing of thick blood films for malaria diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgan, Andrew P; Arguello, Heather E; Sloan, Lynne M; Fernholz, Emily C; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2013-07-08

    The gold standard for malaria diagnosis is the examination of thick and thin blood films. Thick films contain 10 to 20 times more blood than thin films, correspondingly providing increased sensitivity for malaria screening. A potential complication of thick film preparations is sloughing of the blood droplet from the slide during staining or rinsing, resulting in the loss of sample. In this work, two methods for improving thick film slide adherence ('scratch' (SCM) and 'acetone dip' (ADM) methods) were compared to the 'standard method' (SM) of thick film preparation. Standardized blood droplets from 26 previously examined EDTA whole blood specimens (22 positive and four negative) were concurrently spread on glass slides using the SM, ADM, and SCM. For the SM and ADM prepared slides, the droplet was gently spread to an approximate 22 millimeters in diameter spot on the slide using the edge of a second glass slide. For the SCM, the droplet was spread by carefully grinding (or scratching) it into the slide with the point of a second glass slide. Slides were dried for one hour in a laminar flow hood. For the ADM, slides were dipped once in an acetone filled Coplin jar and allowed to air dry. All slides were then Giemsa-stained and examined in a blinded manner. Adherence was assessed by blinded reviewers. No significant or severe defects were observed for slides prepared with the SCM. In contrast, 8 slides prepared by the ADM and 3 prepared using the SM displayed significant or severe defects. Thick films prepared by the three methods were microscopically indistinguishable and concordant results (positive or negative) were obtained for the three methods. Estimated parasitaemia of the blood samples ranged from 25 to 429,169 parasites/μL of blood. The SCM is an inexpensive, rapid, and simple method that improves the adherence of thick blood films to standard glass slides without altering general slide preparation, microscopic appearance or interpretability. Using the SCM

  20. The microstructure investigation of GeTi thin film used for non-volatile memory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jie; Liu Bo; Song Zhitang; Xu Cheng; Liang Shuang; Feng Songlin; Chen Bomy

    2008-01-01

    GeTi thin film has been found to have the reversible resistance switching property in our previous work. In this paper, the microstructure of this material with a given composition was investigated. The film was synthesized by magnetron sputtering and treated by the rapid temperature process. The results indicate a coexist status of amorphous and polycrystalline states in the as-deposited GeTi film, and the grains in the film are extremely fine. Furthermore, not until the film annealed at 600 deg. C, can the polycrystalline state be detected by X-ray diffraction. Based on the morphological analysis, the sputtered GeTi has the column growth tendency, and the column structure vanishes with the temperature increasing. The microstructure and thermal property analysis indicate that GeTi does not undergo evident phase change process during the annealing process, which makes the switching mechanism of GeTi different from that of chalcogenide memory material, the most widely used phase change memory material

  1. Simultaneous reflectometry and interferometry for measuring thin-film thickness and curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, A. A.; Germain, T. M.; Owens, J. F.; Putnam, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    A coupled reflectometer-interferometer apparatus is described for thin-film thickness and curvature characterization in the three-phase contact line region of evaporating fluids. Validation reflectometry studies are provided for Au, Ge, and Si substrates and thin-film coatings of SiO2 and hydrogel/Ti/SiO2. For interferometry, liquid/air and solid/air interferences are studied, where the solid/air samples consisted of glass/air/glass wedges, cylindrical lenses, and molded polydimethylsiloxane lenses. The liquid/air studies are based on steady-state evaporation experiments of water and isooctane on Si and SiO2/Ti/SiO2 wafers. The liquid thin-films facilitate characterization of both (i) the nano-scale thickness of the absorbed fluid layer and (ii) the macro-scale liquid meniscus thickness, curvature, and curvature gradient profiles. For our validation studies with commercial lenses, the apparatus is shown to measure thickness profiles within 4.1%-10.8% error.

  2. Characterization and comparison of thermistor thick films. Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehman, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    Four thermistor thick film inks were evaluated for HMC production use. The physical, chemical and electrical properties of the wet inks and fired films were measured. Variations in the physical and chemical properties of the inks were used to explain variations in thermistor electrical resistance and temperature coefficient of resistance

  3. Influence of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuterio, Giselle Lou D.; Pajarito, Bryan B.; Domingo, Carla Marie C.; Lim, Anna Patricia G.

    2016-05-01

    Functional, lightweight, strong and cheap plastic bags incorporated with pro-oxidants undergo accelerated degradation under exposure to heat and oxygen. This work investigated the effect of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of commercial oxo-biodegradable plastic bag films at 70 °C. Degradation is monitored through changes in infrared absorption, weight, and tensile properties of thermally aged films. The presence of carbonyl band in infrared spectrum after 672 h of thermal aging supports the degradation behavior of exposed films. Results show that incorporation of colorant and increasing thickness exhibit low maximum weight uptake. Titanium dioxide as white colorant in films lowers the susceptibility of films to oxygen uptake but enhances physical degradation. Higher amount of pro-oxidant loading also contributes to faster degradation. Opaque films are characterized by low tensile strength and high elastic modulus. Decreasing the thickness contributes to lower tensile strength of films. Thermally aged films with colorant and low thickness promote enhanced degradation.

  4. Thickness control in electrophoretic deposition of WO{sub 3} nanofiber thin films for solar water splitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Yuanxing; Lee, Wei Cheat; Canciani, Giacomo E.; Draper, Thomas C.; Al-Bawi, Zainab F. [Department of Chemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom); Bedi, Jasbir S. [School of Public Health & Zoonoses, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana 141004 Punjab (India); Perry, Christopher C. [Division of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350 (United States); Chen, Qiao, E-mail: qiao.chen@sussex.ac.uk [Department of Chemistry, School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton BN1 9QJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel method combining electrospinning and electrophoretic deposition was established for the creation of nanostructured semiconductor thin films. • The created thin films displayed a high chemical stability with a controllable thickness. • The PEC water splitting performance of the thin films was optimized by fine-tuning the thickness of the films. • A maximum photoconversion efficiency was achieved by 18 μm nanofibrous thin films. - Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of ground electrospun WO{sub 3} nanofibers was applied to create photoanodes with controlled morphology for the application of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The correlations between deposition parameters and film thicknesses were investigated with theoretical models to precisely control the morphology of the nanostructured porous thin film. The photoconversion efficiency was further optimized as a function of film thickness. A maximum photoconversion efficiency of 0.924% from electrospun WO{sub 3} nanofibers that EPD deposited on a substrate was achieved at a film thickness of 18 μm.

  5. Multifunctional thick-film structures based on spinel ceramics for environment sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakiv, M; Hadzaman, I; Klym, H; Shpotyuk, O [Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska str., Lviv, 79031 (Ukraine); Brunner, M, E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua, E-mail: klymha@yahoo.com [Fachhochschule Koeln/University of Applied Sciences, 2 Betzdorfer str., Koeln, 50679 (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    Temperature sensitive thick films based on spinel-type NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-CuMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} manganites with p- and p{sup +}-types of electrical conductivity and their multilayer p{sup +}-p structures were studied. These thick-film elements possess good electrophysical characteristics before and after long-term ageing test at 170 deg. C. It is shown that degradation processes connected with diffusion of metallic Ag into film grain boundaries occur in one-layer p-and p{sup +}-conductive films. Some part of the p{sup +}-p structures were of high stability, the relative electrical drift being no more than 1 %.

  6. Thickness determination of large-area films of yttria-stabilized zirconia produced by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pryds, N. [Materials Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)]. E-mail: nini.pryds@risoe.dk; Toftmann, B. [Department of Optics and Plasma Research, Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Bilde-Sorensen, J.B. [Materials Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Schou, J. [Department of Optics and Plasma Research, Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Linderoth, S. [Materials Research Department, Riso National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2006-04-30

    Films of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on a polished silicon substrate of diameter up to 125 mm have been produced in a large-area pulsed laser deposition (PLD) setup under typical PLD conditions. The film thickness over the full film area has been determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with use of a method similar to one described by Bishop and Poole. The attenuation of the electron-induced X-rays from the Si wafer by the film was monitored at a number of points along a diameter and the thickness was determined by Monte Carlo simulations of the attenuation for various values of film thickness with the program CASINO. These results have been compared with direct measurements in the SEM of the film thickness on a cross-section on one of the wafers. The results of these measurements demonstrate the ability of this technique to accurately determine the thickness of a large film, i.e. up to diameters of 125 mm, in a relatively short time, without destroying the substrate, without the need of a standard sample and without the need of a flat substrate. We have also demonstrated that by controlling the deposition parameters large-area YSZ films with uniform thickness can be produced.

  7. Thickness determination of large-area films of yttria-stabilized zirconia produced by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryds, N.; Toftmann, B.; Bilde-Sorensen, J.B.; Schou, J.; Linderoth, S.

    2006-01-01

    Films of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) on a polished silicon substrate of diameter up to 125 mm have been produced in a large-area pulsed laser deposition (PLD) setup under typical PLD conditions. The film thickness over the full film area has been determined by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with use of a method similar to one described by Bishop and Poole. The attenuation of the electron-induced X-rays from the Si wafer by the film was monitored at a number of points along a diameter and the thickness was determined by Monte Carlo simulations of the attenuation for various values of film thickness with the program CASINO. These results have been compared with direct measurements in the SEM of the film thickness on a cross-section on one of the wafers. The results of these measurements demonstrate the ability of this technique to accurately determine the thickness of a large film, i.e. up to diameters of 125 mm, in a relatively short time, without destroying the substrate, without the need of a standard sample and without the need of a flat substrate. We have also demonstrated that by controlling the deposition parameters large-area YSZ films with uniform thickness can be produced

  8. Micro-machined high-frequency (80 MHz) PZT thick film linear arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qifa; Wu, Dawei; Liu, Changgeng; Zhu, Benpeng; Djuth, Frank; Shung, K

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents the development of a micromachined high-frequency linear array using PZT piezoelectric thick films. The linear array has 32 elements with an element width of 24 μm and an element length of 4 mm. Array elements were fabricated by deep reactive ion etching of PZT thick films, which were prepared from spin-coating of PZT sol-gel composite. Detailed fabrication processes, especially PZT thick film etching conditions and a novel transferring-and-etching method, are presented and discussed. Array designs were evaluated by simulation. Experimental measurements show that the array had a center frequency of 80 MHz and a fractional bandwidth (-6 dB) of 60%. An insertion loss of -41 dB and adjacent element crosstalk of -21 dB were found at the center frequency.

  9. Indium-Nitrogen Codoped Zinc Oxide Thin Film Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis on n-(111 Si Substrate: The Effect of Film Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium-nitrogen codoped zinc oxide (INZO thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis deposition technique on n-(111 Si substrate with different film thicknesses at 450°C using a precursor containing zinc acetate, ammonium acetate, and indium nitrate with 1 : 3 : 0.05 at.% concentration. The morphology and structure studies were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The grain size of the films increased when increasing the film thickness. From XRD spectra, polycrystalline ZnO structure can be observed and the preferred orientation behavior varied from (002 to (101 as the film thickness increased. The concentration and mobility were investigated by Hall effect measurement. the p-type films with a hole mobility around 3 cm2V−1s−1 and hole concentration around 3×1019 cm−3 can be achieved with film thickness less than 385 nm. The n-type conduction with concentration 1×1020 cm−3 is observed for film with thickness 1089 nm. The defect states were characterized by photoluminescence. With temperature-dependent conductivity analysis, acceptor state with activation energy 0.139 eV dominate the p type conduction for thin INZO film. And the Zn-related shallow donors with activation energy 0.029 eV dominate the n-type conduction for the thick INZO film.

  10. Comparison of functional parameters of CsI:Tl crystals and thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, A.; Gektin, A.; Lebedynskiy, A.; Mateychenko, P.; Shkoropatenko, A.

    2013-01-01

    500 mkm thick CsI:Tl columnar films can be produced using thermal evaporation in vacuum by sublimation of the same bulk crystal. Comparison of afterglow and radiation stability of deposited CsI:Tl films with source crystal was the aim of current work. It is shown that the afterglow in the films is always below its level in initial single crystal. It was ascertained that the annealing atmospheres influence the processes leading to the activator depletion of the films during the thermal processing. -- Highlights: ► Thick CsI:Tl columnar films were obtained by thermal evaporation in vacuum. ► Radiation stability of such CsI:Tl films appears to be better than that of crystal. ► CsI:Tl film parameters can be modified by annealing in different atmospheres

  11. Elucidating doping driven microstructure evolution and optical properties of lead sulfide thin films grown from a chemical bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Bector, Keerti; Laha, Ranjit

    2018-03-01

    Doping driven remarkable microstructural evolution of PbS thin films grown by a single-step chemical bath deposition process at 60 °C is reported. The undoped films were discontinuous with octahedral-shaped crystallites after 30 min of deposition, whereas Cu doping led to a distinctly different surface microstructure characterized by densely packed elongated crystallites. A mechanism, based on the time sequence study of microstructural evolution of the films, and detailed XRD and Raman measurements, has been proposed to explain the contrasting microstructure of the doped films. The incorporation of Cu forms an interface layer, which is devoid of Pb. The excess Cu ions in this interface layer at the initial stages of film growth strongly interact and selectively stabilize the charged {111} faces containing either Pb or S compared to the uncharged {100} faces that contain both Pb and S. This interaction interferes with the natural growth habit resulting in the observed surface features of the doped films. Concurrently, the Cu-doping potentially changed the optical properties of the films: A significant widening of the bandgap from 1.52 eV to 1.74 eV for increase in Cu concentration from 0 to 20% was observed, making it a highly potential absorber layer in thin film solar cells.

  12. Structural, magnetic and transport properties of Co2FeAl Heusler films with varying thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaotian; Li, Yueqing; Du, Yin; Dai, Xuefang; Liu, Guodong; Liu, Enke; Liu, Zhongyuan; Wang, Wenhong; Wu, Guangheng

    2014-01-01

    We report on a systematic study of the structural, magnetic properties and the anomalous Hall effect, in the Heusler alloy Co 2 FeAl (CFA) epitaxial films on MgO (001), as a function of film thickness. It was found that the epitaxial CFA films show a highly ordered B2 structure with an in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The electrical transport properties reveal that the lattice and magnon scattering contributions to the longitudinal resistivity. Independent on the thickness of films, the anomalous Hall resistivity of CFA films is found to be dominated by skew scattering only. Moreover, the anomalous Hall resistivity shows weakly temperature dependent behavior, and its absolute value increases as the thickness decreases. We attribute this temperature insensitivity in the anomalous Hall resistivity to the weak temperature dependent of tunneling spin-polarization in the CFA films, while the thickness dependence behavior is likely due to the increasing significance of interface or free surface electronic states. - Highlights: ●Highly ordered CFA films with various thicknesses were prepared on MgO substrates. ●The magnon scattering contributions to the longitudinal resistivity in the CFA films. ●The anomalous Hall resistivity of the CFA films shows weakly temperature dependent. ●The CFA films show weak temperature dependent of tunneling spin-polarization

  13. Thickness-Dependent Order-to-Order Transitions of Bolaform-like Giant Surfactant in Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chih-Hao; Yue, Kan; Wang, Jing; Dong, Xue-Hui; Xia, Yanfeng; Jiang, Zhang [X-ray; Thomas, Edwin L. [Department; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.

    2017-09-07

    Controlling self-assembled nanostructures in thin films allows the bottom-up fabrication of ordered nanoscale patterns. Here we report the unique thickness-dependent phase behavior in thin films of a bolaform-like giant surfactant, which consists of butyl- and hydroxyl-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (BPOSS and DPOSS) cages telechelically located at the chain ends of a polystyrene (PS) chain with 28 repeating monomers on average. In the bulk, BPOSS-PS28-DPOSS forms a double gyroid (DG) phase. Both grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques are combined to elucidate the thin film structures. Interestingly, films with thicknesses thinner than 200 nm exhibit an irreversible phase transition from hexagonal perforated layer (HPL) to compressed hexagonally packed cylinders (c-HEX) at 130 °C, while films with thickness larger than 200 nm show an irreversible transition from HPL to DG at 200 °C. The thickness-controlled transition pathway suggests possibilities to obtain diverse patterns via thin film self-assembly.

  14. Impact of the De-Alloying Kinetics and Alloy Microstructure on the Final Morphology of De-Alloyed Meso-Porous Metal Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Lin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Nano-textured porous metal materials present unique surface properties due to their enhanced surface energy with potential applications in sensing, molecular separation and catalysis. In this paper, commercial alloy foils, including brass (Cu85Zn15 and Cu70Zn30 and white gold (Au50Ag50 foils have been chemically de-alloyed to form nano-porous thin films. The impact of the initial alloy micro-structure and number of phases, as well as chemical de-alloying (DA parameters, including etchant concentration, time and solution temperature on the final nano-porous thin film morphology and properties were investigated by electron microscopy (EM. Furthermore, the penetration depth of the pores across the alloys were evaluated through the preparation of cross sections by focus ion beam (FIB milling. It is demonstrated that ordered pores ranging between 100 nm and 600 nm in diameter and 2–5 μm in depth can be successfully formed for the range of materials tested. The microstructure of the foils were obtained by electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD and linked to development of pits across the material thickness and surface during DA. The role of selective etching of both noble and sacrificial metal phases of the alloy were discussed in light of the competitive surface etching across the range of microstructures and materials tested.

  15. Aluminum nitride and nanodiamond thin film microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoebber, Fabian; Bludau, Oliver; Roehlig, Claus-Christian; Williams, Oliver; Sah, Ram Ekwal; Kirste, Lutz; Cimalla, Volker; Lebedev, Vadim; Nebel, Christoph; Ambacher, Oliver [Fraunhofer-Institute for Applied Solid State Physics, Freiburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    In this work, aluminum nitride (AlN) and nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) thin film microstructures have been developed. Freestanding NCD membranes were coated with a piezoelectrical AlN layer in order to build tunable micro-lens arrays. For the evaluation of the single material quality, AlN and NCD thin films on silicon substrates were fabricated using RF magnetron sputtering and microwave chemical vapor deposition techniques, respectively. The crystal quality of AlN was investigated by X-ray diffraction. The piezoelectric constant d{sub 33} was determined by scanning laser vibrometry. The NCD thin films were optimized with respect to surface roughness, mechanical stability, intrinsic stress and transparency. To determine the mechanical properties of the materials, both, micromechanical resonator and membrane structures were fabricated and measured by magnetomotive resonant frequency spectroscopy and bulging experiments, respectively. Finally, the behavior of AlN/NCD heterostructures was modeled using the finite element method and the first structures were characterized by piezoelectrical measurements.

  16. Microstructure and opto-electric properties of Cu/ITO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xian; Li Junlei; Shi Shiwei; Song Xueping; Cui Jingbiao; Sun Zhaoqi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We prepared Cu/ITO films with different Cu layer thickness. ► We analyzed the relation between opto-electric properties and roughness of the films. ► The Cu-16.1 nm/ITO film shows excellent optical and electric properties. ► Cu/ITO films have great application prospects in new-type transflective displays. - Abstract: Cu/ITO thin films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates by DC and RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. X-ray diffraction results showed that the films were amorphous. Both of SEM images and 3D Profilometer images indicated that the surface morphology of the ITO films had been affected by the Cu layer. The optical and electric properties of the Cu/ITO films changed significantly with the variation of Cu layer thickness. Cu-5.4 nm/ITO film exhibited the highest optical transmittance of 62.9% at 550 nm and the lowest sheet resistance of 96 Ω/□, whereas Cu-16.1 nm/ITO film showed the highest average reflectance of 24.0% and the lowest resistance of 27.4 Ω/□. Based on our analysis, it was evaluated that Cu layer had an important effect on the electrical and optical properties of ITO thin films.

  17. Strongly Enhanced Piezoelectric Response in Lead Zirconate Titanate Films with Vertically Aligned Columnar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films with (001) orientation were deposited on Pt(111)/Ti/SiO2/Si(100) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. Variation of the laser pulse rate during the deposition of the PZT films was found to play a key role in the control of the microstructure and to change strongly the piezoelectric response of the thin film. The film deposited at low pulse rate has a denser columnar microstructure, which improves the transverse piezoelectric coefficient (d31f) and ferroelectric remanent polarization (Pr), whereas the less densely packed columnar grains in the film deposited at high pulse rates give rise to a significantly higher longitudinal piezoelectric coefficient (d33f) value. The effect of film thickness on the ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties of the PZT films was also investigated. With increasing film thickness, the grain column diameter gradually increases, and also the average Pr and d33f values become larger. The largest piezoelectric coefficient of d33f = 408 pm V–1 was found for a 4-μm film thickness. From a series of films in the thickness range 0.5–5 μm, the z-position dependence of the piezoelectric coefficient could be deduced. A local maximum value of 600 pm V–1 was deduced in the 3.5–4.5 μm section of the thickest films. The dependence of the film properties on film thickness is attributed to the decreasing effect of the clamping constraint imposed by the substrate and the increasing spatial separation between the grains with increasing film thickness. PMID:28247756

  18. Stress anisotropy and stress gradient in magnetron sputtered films with different deposition geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Z.B.; Yalisove, S.M.; Bilello, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Mo films were deposited via magnetron sputtering with two different deposition geometries: dynamic deposition (moving substrate) and static deposition (fixed substrate). The residual stress and structural morphologies of these films were investigated, with particular focus on in-plane anisotropy of the biaxial stress and stress gradient across the film thickness. The results revealed that the Mo films developed distinct states of residual stress, which depended on both deposition geometry and film thickness. With the dynamic geometry, the Mo films generally exhibited anisotropic stress. Both the degree of anisotropy and the magnitude of stress varied as functions of film thickness. The variation of stress was linked to the evolution of anisotropic microstructures in the films. The Mo films from the static geometry developed isotropic residual stress, which was more compressive and noticeably larger in magnitude than that of the Mo films from the dynamic geometry. Aside from these disparities, the two types of Mo films (i.e., anisotropic and isotropic) exhibited notably similar trends of stress variation with film thickness. Depth profiling indicated the presence of large stress gradients for the Mo films, irrespective of the deposition geometries. This observation seems to be consistent with the premise that Mo films develop a zone T structure, which is inherently inhomogeneous along the film thickness. Moreover, the largest stress gradient for both types of deposition geometries arises at roughly the same film depth (∼240 nm from substrate), where the stresses sharply transits from highly compressive to less compressive or even tensile. This appears to correspond to the boundary region that separates two distinct stages of microstructural evolution, a feature unique to zone T-type structure

  19. Effects of rework on adhesion of Pb-In soldered gold thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehman, R.W.; Becka, G.A.; Losure, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    The feasibility of repeatedly reworking Pb-In soldered joints on gold thick films was evaluated. Nailhead adhesion tests on soldered thick films typically resulted in failure within the bulk solder (50 In-50 Pb). Average strengths increased with each rework, and the failure mode changed. An increase in metalization lift-off occurred with successive reworks. An investigation was initiated to determine why these changes occurred. Based on this work, the thick film adhesion to the substrate appeared to be lowered by indium reduction of cadmium oxide and by formation of a weak, brittle intermetallic compound, Au 9 In 4 . It was concluded that two solder reworks could be conducted without significant amounts of metallization lift-off during nailhead testing

  20. Effects of copolymer composition, film thickness, and solvent vapor annealing time on dewetting of ultrathin block copolymer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Changchun; Wen, Gangyao; Li, Jingdan; Wu, Tao; Wang, Lina; Xue, Feifei; Li, Hongfei; Shi, Tongfei

    2016-09-15

    Effects of copolymer composition, film thickness, and solvent vapor annealing time on dewetting of spin-coated polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PS-b-PMMA) films (dewetting of the films with different thicknesses occur via the spinodal dewetting and the nucleation and growth mechanisms, respectively. The PS-b-PMMA films rupture into droplets which first coalesce into large ones to reduce the surface free energy. Then the large droplets rupture into small ones to increase the contact area between PMMA blocks and acetone molecules resulting from ultimate migration of PMMA blocks to droplet surface, which is a novel dewetting process observed in spin-coated films for the first time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Influence of substrate and film thickness on polymer LIPSS formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Jing; Nogales, Aurora; Ezquerra, Tiberio A. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia (IEM-CSIC), Serrano 121, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Rebollar, Esther, E-mail: e.rebollar@csic.es [Instituto de Química Física Rocasolano (IQFR-CSIC), Serrano 119, Madrid 28006 (Spain)

    2017-02-01

    Highlights: • The estimation of temperature upon pulse accumulation shows that a small positive offset is caused by each individual pulse. • Number of pulses needed for LIPSS formation in PS thin films depends on polymer thickness. • Thermal conductivity and diffusivity of supporting substrate influence the onset for LIPSS formation and their quality. • Quality of LIPSS is affected by the substrate optical properties. - Abstract: Here we focus on the influence of both, substrate and film thickness on polymer Laser Induced Periodic Surface Structures (LIPSS) formation in polymer films. For this aim a morphological description of ripples structures generated on spin-coated polystyrene (PS) films by a linearly polarized laser beam with a wavelength of 266 nm is presented. The influence of different parameters on the quality and characteristics of the formed laser-induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) was investigated. We found that well-ordered LIPSS are formed either on PS films thinner than 200 nm or thicker than 400 nm supported on silicon substrates as well as on thicker free standing films. However less-ordered ripples are formed on silicon supported films with intermediate thicknesses in the range of 200–380 nm. The effect of the thermal and optical properties of the substrate on the quality of LIPSS was analyzed. Differences observed in the fluence and number of pulses needed for the onset of surface morphological modifications is explained considering two main effects which are: (1) The temperature increase on polymer surface induced by the action of cumulative laser irradiation and (2) The differences in thermal conductivity between the polymer and the substrate which strongly affect the heat dissipation generated by irradiation.

  2. Electron beam curable polymer thick film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hidetoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi

    1988-01-01

    Currently, most printed circuit boards are produced by the selective etching of copper clads laminated on dielectric substrates such as paper/phenolic resion or nonwoven glass/epoxy resin composites. After the etchig, various components such as transistors and capacitors are mounted on the boards by soldering. But these are troublesome works, therefore, as an alternative, printing method has been investigated recently. In the printing method, conductor circuits and resistors can be made by printing and curing of the specially prepared paste on dielectric substrates. In the near future, also capacitors are made by same method. Usually, conductor paste, resistor paste and dielectric paste are employed, and in this case, the printing is screen printing, and the curing is done thermally. In order to avoid heating and the deterioration of substrates, attention was paid to electron beam curing, and electron beam curable polymer thick film system was developed. The electron beam curable paste is the milled mixture of a filler and an electron beam curable binder of oligomer/monomer. The major advantage of electron beam curable polymer thick film, the typical data of a printed resistor of this type and its trial are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Fabrication of NdFeB microstructures using a silicon molding technique for NdFeB/Ta multilayered films and NdFeB magnetic powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Yonggang; Fujita, Takayuki; Uehara, Minoru; Iga, Yuki; Hashimoto, Taichi; Hao, Xiuchun; Higuchi, Kohei; Maenaka, Kazusuke

    2011-01-01

    The silicon molding technique is described for patterning of NdFeB/Ta multilayered magnetic films and NdFeB magnetic powder at the micron scale. Silicon trenches are seamlessly filled by 12-μm-thick NdFeB/Ta multilayered magnetic films with a magnetic retentivity of 1.3 T. The topography image and magnetic field distribution image are measured using an atomic force microscope and a magnetic force microscope, respectively. Using a silicon molding technique complemented by a lift-off process, NdFeB magnetic powder is utilized to fabricate magnetic microstructures. Silicon trenches as narrow as 20 μm are filled by a mixture of magnetic powder and wax powder. The B-H hysteresis loop of the patterned magnetic powder is characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer, which shows a magnetic retentivity of approximately 0.37 T. - Highlights: → We demonstrate the fabrication of micro-magnets using silicon molding processes. → NdFeB/Ta films are well filled in silicon trenches with a thickness of 12 μm. → The 12-μm-thick NdFeB/Ta magnetic film shows a retentivity of 1.3 T. → Magnetic structures as narrow as 20 μm are fabricated using NdFeB magnetic powder. → VSM measurement shows a retentivity of 0.37 T for patterned NdFeB magnetic powder.

  4. Fabrication of NdFeB microstructures using a silicon molding technique for NdFeB/Ta multilayered films and NdFeB magnetic powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang Yonggang, E-mail: yonggangj@gmail.com [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Beihang University, Xueyuan Road No. 37, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Maenaka Human-Sensing Fusion project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Fujita, Takayuki [Maenaka Human-Sensing Fusion project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Uehara, Minoru [NEOMAX Co. Ltd., 2-15-17, Egawa, Shimamoto-Cho, Mishima-gun, Osaka 618-0013 (Japan); Iga, Yuki [Maenaka Human-Sensing Fusion project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Hashimoto, Taichi [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Hao, Xiuchun; Higuchi, Kohei [Maenaka Human-Sensing Fusion project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Maenaka, Kazusuke [Maenaka Human-Sensing Fusion project, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    The silicon molding technique is described for patterning of NdFeB/Ta multilayered magnetic films and NdFeB magnetic powder at the micron scale. Silicon trenches are seamlessly filled by 12-{mu}m-thick NdFeB/Ta multilayered magnetic films with a magnetic retentivity of 1.3 T. The topography image and magnetic field distribution image are measured using an atomic force microscope and a magnetic force microscope, respectively. Using a silicon molding technique complemented by a lift-off process, NdFeB magnetic powder is utilized to fabricate magnetic microstructures. Silicon trenches as narrow as 20 {mu}m are filled by a mixture of magnetic powder and wax powder. The B-H hysteresis loop of the patterned magnetic powder is characterized using a vibrating sample magnetometer, which shows a magnetic retentivity of approximately 0.37 T. - Highlights: > We demonstrate the fabrication of micro-magnets using silicon molding processes. > NdFeB/Ta films are well filled in silicon trenches with a thickness of 12 {mu}m. > The 12-{mu}m-thick NdFeB/Ta magnetic film shows a retentivity of 1.3 T. > Magnetic structures as narrow as 20 {mu}m are fabricated using NdFeB magnetic powder. > VSM measurement shows a retentivity of 0.37 T for patterned NdFeB magnetic powder.

  5. Investigation of structure, adhesion strength, wear performance and corrosion behavior of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films with respect to film thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khun, N.W. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); Liu, E., E-mail: MEJLiu@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2011-03-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Sputtered PtRuN-DLC thin films were fabricated with different film thicknesses. {yields} The graphitization of the films increased with increased film thickness. {yields} The wear resistance of the films increased though their adhesion strength decreased. {yields} The corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values. {yields} However, the corrosion currents of the films decreased. - Abstract: In this study, the corrosion performance of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (PtRuN-DLC) thin films deposited on p-Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system in a 0.1 M NaCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test in terms of film thickness. The effect of the film thickness on the chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology, adhesion strength and wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-scratch test and ball-on-disc tribotest, respectively. It was found that the wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films apparently increased with increased film thickness though the adhesion strength of the films decreased. The corrosion results revealed that the increased concentration of sp{sup 2} bonds in the PtRuN-DLC films with increased film thickness shifted the corrosion potentials of the films to more negative values but the decreased porosity density in the films significantly decreased the corrosion currents of the films.

  6. Investigation of structure, adhesion strength, wear performance and corrosion behavior of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon thin films with respect to film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khun, N.W.; Liu, E.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Sputtered PtRuN-DLC thin films were fabricated with different film thicknesses. → The graphitization of the films increased with increased film thickness. → The wear resistance of the films increased though their adhesion strength decreased. → The corrosion potentials of the films shifted to more negative values. → However, the corrosion currents of the films decreased. - Abstract: In this study, the corrosion performance of platinum/ruthenium/nitrogen doped diamond-like carbon (PtRuN-DLC) thin films deposited on p-Si substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering deposition system in a 0.1 M NaCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization test in terms of film thickness. The effect of the film thickness on the chemical composition, bonding structure, surface morphology, adhesion strength and wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films was studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), micro-Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), micro-scratch test and ball-on-disc tribotest, respectively. It was found that the wear resistance of the PtRuN-DLC films apparently increased with increased film thickness though the adhesion strength of the films decreased. The corrosion results revealed that the increased concentration of sp 2 bonds in the PtRuN-DLC films with increased film thickness shifted the corrosion potentials of the films to more negative values but the decreased porosity density in the films significantly decreased the corrosion currents of the films.

  7. Effect of diffusion on percolation threshold in thick-film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurakhmanov, G.

    2009-01-01

    Resistivity ρ(C) of thick-film resistors doped by metal oxides is simulated as a function of volume content C of the ligature, firing temperature T f and firing time τ. It is proved that the doping of a glass during firing of the thick film resistor is rather uniform. It is shown also, that conductance takes place in the whole volume of the sample, but not through the sole infinite cluster only, even the content of a conductive phase is below than the theoretical percolation threshold value.

  8. Thickness measurement of SiO2 films thinner than 1 nm by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joong Kim, Kyung; Park, Ki Tae; Lee, Jong Wan

    2006-01-01

    The thickness measurement of ultra-thin SiO 2 films thinner than 1 nm was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Amorphous SiO 2 thin films were grown on amorphous Si films to avoid the thickness difference due to the crystalline structure of a substrate. SiO 2 thin films were grown by ion beam sputter deposition under oxygen gas flow and the thickness was measured by in situ XPS. The attenuation length was determined experimentally by a SiO 2 film with a known thickness. The straight line fit between the measured thickness using XPS and the nominal thickness showed a good linear relation with a gradient of 0.969 and a small offset of 0.126 nm. The gradient measured at the range of 3.4-0.28 nm was very close to that measured at sub-nanometer range of 1.13-0.28 nm. This result means that the reliable measurement of SiO 2 film thickness below 1 nm is possible by XPS

  9. Film Thickness and Friction Relationship in Grease Lubricated Rough Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonçalves

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the film generation and the coefficient of friction in grease lubricated contacts was investigated. Ball-on-disc tests were performed under different operating conditions: entrainment speed, lubricant temperature and surface roughness. The tests were performed with fully formulated greases and their base oils. The greases were formulated with different thickener types and also different base oils natures and viscosities. Film thickness measurements were performed in ball-on-glass disc tests, and Stribeck curves were measured in ball-on-steel disc tests with discs of different roughness. The role of the thickener and the base oil nature/viscosity on the film thickness and coefficient of friction was addressed and the greases’ performance was compared based on their formulation.

  10. Thickness and roughness measurements of nano thin films by interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sabzalipour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the standard optical interference fringes approach, by measuring shift of the interference fringes due to step edge of thin film on substrate, thickness of the layer has already been measured. In order to improve the measurement precision of this popular method, the interference fringes intensity curve was extracted and analyzed before and after the step preparation. By this method, one can measure a few nanometers films thickness. In addition, using the interference fringes intensity curve and its fluctuations, the roughness of surface is measured within a few nanometers accuracy. Comparison of our results with some direct methods of thickness and roughness measurements, i.e. using surface profilemeter and atomic force microscopy confirms the accuracy of the suggested improvements.

  11. Effect of the thickness of a fluoropolymer film on the radiotically prepared fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Beom Seok; Sohn, Joon Yong; Nho, Young Chang; Shin, Jun Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Il [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    To observe the effect of the thickness of a fluoropolymer film on the radiotically prepared fuel cell membranes, fuel cell membranes with various thickness were prepared by simultaneous radiation grafting of styrene into polyethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) with various thicknesses (25, 50 and 100 {mu}m) and subsequent sulfonation. The physico-chemical properties of the prepared membranes such as ion exchange capacity, water uptake, distribution of sulfonic acid group were evaluated in the correlation with the thickness of ETFE film. In additions, proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were also evaluated. The results revealed that the proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were largely affected by the thickness of ETFE film utilized as a base film.

  12. Effect of the thickness of a fluoropolymer film on the radiotically prepared fuel cell membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Beom Seok; Sohn, Joon Yong; Nho, Young Chang; Shin, Jun Hwa; Kim, Jong Il

    2010-01-01

    To observe the effect of the thickness of a fluoropolymer film on the radiotically prepared fuel cell membranes, fuel cell membranes with various thickness were prepared by simultaneous radiation grafting of styrene into polyethylene-co-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) with various thicknesses (25, 50 and 100 μm) and subsequent sulfonation. The physico-chemical properties of the prepared membranes such as ion exchange capacity, water uptake, distribution of sulfonic acid group were evaluated in the correlation with the thickness of ETFE film. In additions, proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were also evaluated. The results revealed that the proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were largely affected by the thickness of ETFE film utilized as a base film

  13. Sputtering of Thick Deuterium Films by KeV Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Schou, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    Sputtering of thick films of solid deuterium up to several μm by keV electrons is reported for the first time. The sputtering yield increases within a narrow range of thicknesses around 1.6 μm by about 2 orders of magnitude for 1.5 keV electrons. A similar behavior has not been observed for ion...

  14. The X-ray sensitivity of semi-insulating polycrystalline CdZnTe thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Jae Ho; Kim, Ki Hyun; Suh, Jong Hee; Cho, Shin Hang; Cho, Pyong Kon; Hong, Jin Ki; Kim, Sun Ung

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray sensitivity is one of the important parameters indicating the detector performance. The X-ray sensitivity of semi-insulating polycrystalline CdZnTe:Cl thick films was investigated as a function of electric field, mean photon energy, film thickness, and charge carrier transport parameters and, compared with another promising detector materials. The X-ray sensitivities of the polycrystalline CdZnTe films with 350 μm thickness were about 2.2 and 6.2 μC/cm 2 /R in the ohmic-type and Schottky-type detector at 0.83 V/μm, respectively

  15. Magnetic properties of permalloy films with different thicknesses deposited onto obliquely sputtered Cu underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Sun, Xiaojun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of obliquely sputtered Cu underlayer of 10 nm on the magnetic properties of normally sputtered Permalloy thin films with different thicknesses from 10 nm to 150 nm has been investigated. It has been found that the samples with the Permalloy layer thickness ranging from 10 nm to 70 nm exhibit a good in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the increase of the film thickness leads to a decrease of the anisotropy field and the natural resonance frequency. The critical Permalloy layer thickness for stripe domain initiation of these films is about 80 nm, which is thinner than that of obliquely sputtered Permalloy thin films without an underlayer. The characteristic shapes of hysteresis loops which can be called ''transcritical'' are observed above the critical thickness. The condition and mechanism of appearing stripe domain structure were discussed and it has been found that the frequency response of permeability of the anisotropic films shows the characteristics of multi-peak resonance. - Highlights: • Py films were fabricated on obliquely sputtered Cu underlayers by RF magnetron sputtering. • Effects of Py layer thickness on anisotropy, ferromagnetic resonance frequency have been studied. • Samples with Py layer (<70 nm) show a good in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. • Samples with Py layer (>80 nm) show stripe domains and multi-peaks in permeability spectra

  16. Study on Gas Sensing Performance of TiO2 Screen Printed Thick Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. DIGHAVKAR

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thick films were prepared on alumina substrate by using screen printing technique. After preparation, the films were fired at temperature range 600 -1000 ºC for two hour. Morphological, compositional and structural properties of the film samples were performed by means of several techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray diffraction techniques. We explore the various gases to study the sensing performance of the TiO2 thick films. The maximum response was reported to film fired at 800 0C for LPG gas at 350 0C operating temperature.

  17. Microstructural and magnetic properties of thin obliquely deposited films: A simulation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovev, P.N., E-mail: platon.solovev@gmail.com [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/38, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 79, pr. Svobodnyi, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Izotov, A.V. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/38, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 79, pr. Svobodnyi, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Belyaev, B.A. [Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 50/38, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Siberian Federal University, 79, pr. Svobodnyi, Krasnoyarsk 660041 (Russian Federation); Reshetnev Siberian State Aerospace University, 31, pr. Imeni Gazety “Krasnoyarskii Rabochii”, Krasnoyarsk 660014 (Russian Federation)

    2017-05-01

    The relation between microstructural and magnetic properties of thin obliquely deposited films has been studied by means of numerical techniques. Using our developed simulation code based on ballistic deposition model and Fourier space approach, we have investigated dependences of magnetometric tensor components and magnetic anisotropy parameters on the deposition angle of the films. A modified Netzelmann approach has been employed to study structural and magnetic parameters of an isolated column in the samples with tilted columnar microstructure. Reliability and validity of used numerical methods is confirmed by a good agreement of the calculation results with each other, as well as with our experimental data obtained by the ferromagnetic resonance measurements of obliquely deposited thin Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} films. The combination of these numerical methods can be used to design a magnetic film with a desirable value of uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and to extract the obliquely deposited film structure from only magnetic measurements. - Highlights: • We present a simulation approach to study a relation between structural and magnetic properties of oblique films. • The calculated dependence of magnetic anisotropy on a deposition angle accords well with the experiment. • A modified Netzelmann approach is proposed. • It allows for the computation of magnetic and structural parameters of an isolated column. • Proposed approach can be used for theoretical studies and for characterization of oblique films.

  18. Deformation and fracture in micro-tensile tests of freestanding electrodeposited nickel thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Y.; Yao, N.; Soboyejo, W.O.; Tarquinio, C.

    2008-01-01

    In situ scanning electron microscopy micro-tensile tests were conducted on freestanding LIGA nickel thin films of two thicknesses (70 and 270 μm). The deformation and fracture mechanisms were elucidated by in situ scanning electron microscopy imaging and ex situ fractographic analysis. Due to the film microstructural gradient, an apparent thickness effect on the film yield strengths was observed, which was then rationalized with a continuum micromechanics model

  19. Temperature dependence of microstructure and strain evolution in strained ZnO films on Al2O3(0001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Woo; Lee, Kyu-Mann

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the temperature dependence of the growth mode and microstructure evolution in highly mismatched sputter-grown ZnO/Al 2 O 3 (0001) heteroepitaxial films. The growth mode was studied by real-time synchrotron x-ray scattering. We find that the growth mode changes from a two-dimensional (2D) layer to a 3D island in the early growth stage with temperature (300-600 deg. C), in sharp contrast to the reported transition from three dimensions to two dimensions in metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. At around 400 deg. C intermediate 2D platelets nucleate in the early stage, which act as nucleation cores of 3D islands and transform to a misaligned state during further growth. Meanwhile, at high temperature (above 500 deg. C), the spinel structure of ZnAl 2 O 4 grows in the early stage, and it undergoes a transition to wurtzite-ZnO (w-ZnO) with thickness. The spinel formation is presumably driven by high temperature and large incident energy of impacting atoms during sputtering. The results of the strain evolution as functions of temperature and thickness during growth suggest that the surface diffusion is a major factor determining the microstructural properties in the strained ZnO/Al 2 O 3 (0001) heteroepitaxy

  20. Microscopic image processing system for measuring nonuniform film thickness profiles: Image scanning ellipsometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, A.H.; Plawsky, J.L.; Wayner, P.C. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The long-term objective of this research program is to determine the stability and heat transfer characteristics of evaporating thin films. The current objective is to develop and use a microscopic image-processing system (IPS) which has two parts: an image analyzing interferometer (IAI) and an image scanning ellipsometer (ISE). The primary purpose of this paper is to present the basic concept of ISE, which is a novel technique to measure the two dimensional thickness profile of a non-uniform, thin film, from several nm up to several μm, in a steady state as well as in a transient state. It is a full-field imaging technique which can study every point on the surface simultaneously with high spatial resolution and thickness sensitivity, i.e., it can measure and map the 2-D film thickness profile. The ISE was tested by measuring the thickness profile and the refractive index of a nonuniform solid film

  1. Low-temperature technique for thick film resist stabilization and curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minter, Jason P.; Wong, Selmer S.; Marlowe, Trey; Ross, Matthew F.; Narcy, Mark E.; Livesay, William R.

    1999-06-01

    For a range of thick film photoresist applications, including MeV ion implant processing, thin film head manufacturing, and microelectromechanical systems processing, there is a need for a low-temperature method for resist stabilization and curing. Traditional methods of stabilizing or curing resist films have relied on thermal cycling, which may not be desirable due to device temperature limitations or thermally-induced distortion of the resist features.

  2. Preparation and spectroscopic analysis of zinc oxide nanorod thin films of different thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Nasrul Haque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide thin films with different thicknesses were prepared on microscopic glass slides by sol-gel spin coating method, then hydrothermal process was applied to produce zinc oxide nanorod arrays. The nanorod thin films were characterized by various spectroscopic methods of analysis. From the images of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, it was observed that for the film thickness up to 200 nm the formed nanorods with wurtzite hexagonal structure were uniformly distributed over the entire surface substrate. From X-ray diffraction analysis it was revealed that the thin films had good polycrystalline nature with highly preferred c-axis orientation along (0 0 2 plane. The optical characterization done by UV-Vis spectrometer showed that all the films had high transparency of 83 % to 96 % in the visible region and sharp cut off at ultraviolet region of electromagnetic spectrum. The band gap of the films decreased as their thickness increased. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS showed the presence of zinc and oxygen elements in the films and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR revealed the chemical composition of ZnO in the film.

  3. Thickness-dependent dispersion parameters, energy gap and nonlinear refractive index of ZnSe thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Deo; Shaaban, E.R.; Shapaan, M.; Mohamed, S.H.; Othman, A.A.; Verma, K.D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Combined experimental and theoretical researches on ZnSe Thin Films. • The film thickness and refractive index were determined using envelope method. • The absorption coefficient and the energy gap were calculated. • Dispersion parameters were determined using Wemple-DiDomenico relation. • The third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were calculated. - Abstract: Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films with different thicknesses were evaporated onto glass substrates using the thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that both the film and powder have cubic zinc-blende structure. The fundamental optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and band gap were evaluated in transparent region of transmittance and reflectance spectrum. The optical transition of the films was found to be allowed, where the energy gap increased from 2.576 to 2.702 eV with increasing film thickness. Also, the refractive index value increase with increasing film thickness. The refractive indices evaluated through envelope method were extrapolated by Cauchy dispersion relationship over the whole spectra range. Additionally, the dispersion of refractive index was determined in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. Third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were determined for different thickness of ZnSe thin films.

  4. Thickness-dependent dispersion parameters, energy gap and nonlinear refractive index of ZnSe thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, Deo [School of Computer Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, SMVD University, Kakryal, Katra 182320, J& K (India); Shaaban, E.R., E-mail: esam_ramadan2008@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Azhar University, Assiut 71542 (Egypt); Shapaan, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Al-Azahar University, Cairo (Egypt); Mohamed, S.H. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Sohag University, 82524 Sohag (Egypt); Othman, A.A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Assiut University, Assiut 71516 (Egypt); Verma, K.D., E-mail: kdverma1215868@gmail.com [Material Science Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh 202001, U.P. (India)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Combined experimental and theoretical researches on ZnSe Thin Films. • The film thickness and refractive index were determined using envelope method. • The absorption coefficient and the energy gap were calculated. • Dispersion parameters were determined using Wemple-DiDomenico relation. • The third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were calculated. - Abstract: Zinc selenide (ZnSe) thin films with different thicknesses were evaporated onto glass substrates using the thermal evaporation technique. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that both the film and powder have cubic zinc-blende structure. The fundamental optical parameters like absorption coefficient, extinction coefficient and band gap were evaluated in transparent region of transmittance and reflectance spectrum. The optical transition of the films was found to be allowed, where the energy gap increased from 2.576 to 2.702 eV with increasing film thickness. Also, the refractive index value increase with increasing film thickness. The refractive indices evaluated through envelope method were extrapolated by Cauchy dispersion relationship over the whole spectra range. Additionally, the dispersion of refractive index was determined in terms of Wemple-DiDomenico single oscillator model. Third order susceptibility and nonlinear refractive index were determined for different thickness of ZnSe thin films.

  5. Orientation and magnetic properties of the thick multilayered [NdFeBxTby]n films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weifang; Suzuki, Shunji; Machida, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    Multilayered [NdFeB x /Tb y ] n films were prepared by a three-demensional sputtering system. From the thickness of NdFeB layer dependence on the orientation and magnetic properties of multilayered [NdFeB (xμm)/Tb (50nm)] n films with 7.2μm as a total thickness of NdFeB layers, it was found that the orientation of NdFeB grains was maintained. However, the coercivity was enhanced with decreasing the thickness of each NdFeB thin layer. The (BH) max value of 240kJ/m 3 was obtained on the layered [NdFeB (1.2μm)/Tb (50 nm)] 6 film as an optimal value. For the multilayered [NdFeB (1.2μm)/Tb (50 nm)] n films with various multiple layer sets (n), the coercivity value increased with the film thickness without any deterioration of the c-axis texture and consequently, multilayered NdFeB/Tb film magnets with total thickness values around 70μm showed the superior magnetic properties (H cj approx. = 1360kA/m, I r approx.= 1.05T, and (BH) max approx.= 202kJ/m 3 ). (author)

  6. Synthesis of thick diamond films by direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Jin Zeng Sun; Bai Yi Zhen; Lu Xian Yi

    2002-01-01

    The method of direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition has been established. A long-time stable glow discharge at large discharge current and high gas pressure has been achieved by using a hot cathode in the temperature range from 1100 degree C to 1500 degree C and non-symmetrical configuration of the poles, in which the diameter of the cathode is larger than that of anode. High-quality thick diamond films, with a diameter of 40-50 mm and thickness of 0.5-4.2 mm, have been synthesized by this method. Transparent thick diamond films were grown over a range of growth rates between 5-10 mu m/h. Most of the thick diamond films have thermal conductivities of 10-12 W/K centre dot cm. The thick diamond films with high thermal conductivity can be used as a heat sink of semiconducting laser diode array and as a heat spreading and isolation substrate of multichip modules. The performance can be obviously improved

  7. Tape casting and partial melting of Bi-2212 thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buhl, D.; Lang, T.; Heeb, B. [Nichtmetallische Werkstoffe, Zuerich (Switzerland)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    To produce Bi-2212 thick films with high critical current densities tape casting and partial melting is a promising fabrication method. Bi-2212 powder and organic additives were mixed into a slurry and tape casted onto glass by the doctor blade tape casting process. The films were cut from the green tape and partially molten on Ag foils during heat treatment. We obtained almost single-phase and well-textured films over the whole thickness of 20 {mu}m. The orientation of the (a,b)-plane of the grains were parallel to the substrate with a misalignment of less than 6{degrees}. At 77K/OT a critical current density of 15`000 A/cm{sup 2} was reached in films of the dimension 1cm x 2cm x 20{mu}m (1{mu}V/cm criterion, resistively measured). At 4K/OT the highest value was 350`000 A/cm{sup 2} (1nV/cm criterion, magnetically measured).

  8. Electrical properties and conduction mechanisms of Ru-based thick-film (cermet) resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, G.E.; Seager, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the electrical conduction mechanisms in thick-film (cermet) resistor. The resistors were made from one custom and three commercially formulated inks with sheet resistivities ranging from 10 2 to 10 6 Ω/D 7 Alembertian in decade increments. Their microstructure and composition have been examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, x-ray diffraction, and various chemical analyses. This portion of our study shows that the resistors are heterogeneous mixtures of metallic metal oxide particles (approx.4 x 10 -5 cm in diameter) and a lead silicate glass. The metal oxide particles are ruthenium containing pyrochlores, and are joined to form a continuous three-dimensional network of chain segments. The principal experimental work reported here is an extensive study of the electrical transport properties of the resistors. The temperature dependence of conductance has been measured from 1.2 to 400 K, and two features common to all resistors are found. There is a pronounced decrease in conductance at low temperatures and a shallow maximum at several hundred Kelvin. Within the same range of temperatures the reversible conductance as a function of electric field from 0 to 28 kV/cm has been studied. The resistors are non-Ohmic at all temperatures, but particularly at cryogenic temperatures for low fields. At higher fields the conductance shows a linear variation with electric field. The thick-film resistors are found to have a small dielectric constant and a (nearly) frequency-independent conductance from dc to 50 MHz. The magnetoresistance to 100 kG, the Hall mobility, and the Seebeck coefficient of most of the resistors have been measured and discovered to be quite small. Many of the electrical transport properties have also been determined for the metal oxide particles which were extracted from the fired resistors

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jian; Li, Huijun; Zhu, Zhixiong; Barbaro, Frank; Jiang, Laizhu; Xu, Haigang; Ma, Li

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We focus on friction stir welding of 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate. • We produce high-quality joints with special tool and optimised welding parameters. • We compare microstructure and mechanical properties of steel and joint. • Friction stir welding is a method that can maintain the properties of joint. - Abstract: In this study, microstructure and mechanical properties of a friction stir welded 18Cr–2Mo ferritic stainless steel thick plate were investigated. The 5.4 mm thick plates with excellent properties were welded at a constant rotational speed and a changeable welding speed using a composite tool featuring a chosen volume fraction of cubic boron nitride (cBN) in a W–Re matrix. The high-quality welds were successfully produced with optimised welding parameters, and studied by means of optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and standard hardness and impact toughness testing. The results show that microstructure and mechanical properties of the joints are affected greatly, which is mainly related to the remarkably fine-grained microstructure of equiaxed ferrite that is observed in the friction stir welded joint. Meanwhile, the ratios of low-angle grain boundary in the stir zone regions significantly increase, and the texture turns strong. Compared with the base material, mechanical properties of the joint are maintained in a comparatively high level

  10. The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Ozaki, Kimihiro

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on the open-circuit voltage generated by thin-film thermoelectric modules of Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 (p-type) and Bi 2 Te 2.7 Se 0.3 (n-type) materials was investigated. A Cr buffer layer, whose thickness generally needs to be optimized to improve adhesion depending on the substrate surface condition, such as roughness, was deposited between thermoelectric thin films and glass substrates. When the Cr buffer layer was 1 nm thick, the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivity of 1 µm thermoelectric thin films with the buffer layers were approximately equal to those of the thermoelectric films without the buffer layers. When the thickness of the Cr buffer layer was 1 µm, the same as the thermoelectric films, the Seebeck coefficients of the bilayer films were reduced by an electrical current flowing inside the Cr buffer layer and the generation of Cr 2 Te 3 . The open-circuit voltage of the thin-film thermoelectric modules decreased with an increase in the thickness of the Cr buffer layer, which was primarily induced by the electrical current flow. The reduction caused by the Cr 2 Te 3 generation was less than 10% of the total voltage generation of the modules without the Cr buffer layers. The voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules could be controlled by the Cr buffer layer thickness. (paper)

  11. Effect of heat treatment on properties of HfO2 film deposited by ion-beam sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huasong; Jiang, Yugang; Wang, Lishuan; Li, Shida; Yang, Xiao; Jiang, Chenghui; Liu, Dandan; Ji, Yiqin; Zhang, Feng; Chen, Deying

    2017-11-01

    The effects of atmosphere heat treatment on optical, stress, and microstructure properties of an HfO2 film deposited by ion-beam sputtering were systematically researched. The relationships among annealing temperature and refractive index, extinction coefficient, physical thickness, forbidden-band width, tape trailer width, Urbach energy, crystal phase structure, and stress were assessed. The results showed that 400 °C is the transformation point, and the microstructure of the HfO2 film changed from an amorphous into mixed-phase structure. Multistage phonons appeared on the HfO2 film, and the trends of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, forbidden-band width change, and Urbach energy shifted from decrease to increase. With the elevation of the annealing temperature, the film thickness increased monotonously, the compressive stress gradually turned to tensile stress, and the transformation temperature point for the stress was between 200 °C and 300 °C. Therefore, the change in the stress is the primary cause for the shifts in thin-film thickness.

  12. Study of Room Temperature H2S Gas Sensing Behavior of CuO-modified BSST Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Baviskar

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Thick films of (Ba0.1Sr0.9(Sn0.5Ti0.5O3 referred as BSST, were prepared by screen-printing technique. The preparation, characterization and gas sensing properties of pure and CuO-BSST mixed oxide semiconductors have been investigated. The mixed oxides were obtained by dipping the pure BSST thick films into 0.01 M aqueous solution of CuCl2, for different intervals of time. Pure BSST was observed to be less sensitive to H2S gas. However, mixed oxides of CuO and BSST were observed to be highly sensitive to H2S gas. Upon exposure to H2S gas, the barrier height of CuO-BSST intergranular regions decreases markedly due to the chemical transformation of CuO into well conducting CuS leading to a drastic decrease in resistance. The crucial gas response was found to H2S gas at room temperature and no cross sensitivity was observed to other hazardous and polluting gases. The effects of microstructure and doping concentration on the gas response, selectivity, response and recovery of the sensor in the presence of H2S gas were studied and discussed.

  13. Relation between film thickness and surface doping of MoS2 based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart de la Rosa, César J.; Arutchelvan, Goutham; Leonhardt, Alessandra; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Radu, Iuliana; Heyns, Marc; De Gendt, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-thin MoS2 film doping through surface functionalization with physically adsorbed species is of great interest due to its ability to dope the film without reduction in the carrier mobility. However, there is a need for understanding how the thickness of the MoS2 film is related to the induced surface doping for improved electrical performance. In this work, we report on the relation of MoS2 film thickness with the doping effect induced by the n-dopant adsorbate poly(vinyl-alcohol). Field effect transistors built using MoS2 films of different thicknesses were electrically characterized, and it was observed that the ION/OFF ratio after doping in thin films is more than four orders of magnitudes greater when compared with thick films. Additionally, a semi-classical model tuned with the experimental devices was used to understand the spatial distribution of charge in the channel and explain the observed behavior. From the simulation results, it was revealed that the two-dimensional carrier density induced by the adsorbate is distributed rather uniformly along the complete channel for thin films (<5.2 nm) contrary to what happens for thicker films.

  14. Formulation and Characterization of Cu Doped ZnO Thick Films as LPG Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. PATIL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Thick films of pure and various concentrations (1 wt. %, 3 wt. %, 5 wt. %, 7 wt. % and 10 wt. % of Cu-doped ZnO were prepared on alumina substrates using a screen printing technique. These films were fired at a temperature of 700ºC for two hours in an air atmosphere. Morphological, compositional and structural properties of the samples were obtained using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX and X-ray diffraction techniques respectively. The LPG gas sensing properties of these thick films were investigated at different operating temperatures and LPG gas concentrations. The surface resistance of thick films decreases when exposed to LPG gas. The Cu doped films show significant sensitivity to LPG gas than pure ZnO film. 5 wt. % Cu-doped ZnO film was found to be more sensitive (87.3 % to LPG gas exposed at 300 oC than other doping concentrations with fast response and recovery time.

  15. Structural, magnetic and transport properties of Co{sub 2}FeAl Heusler films with varying thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaotian [School of Material Sciences and Engineering, Hebei University Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Yueqing [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Sciences and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Du, Yin [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Dai, Xuefang; Liu, Guodong [School of Material Sciences and Engineering, Hebei University Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Liu, Enke [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Liu, Zhongyuan [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Material Sciences and Technology, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Wang, Wenhong, E-mail: wenhong.wang@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wu, Guangheng [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-08-01

    We report on a systematic study of the structural, magnetic properties and the anomalous Hall effect, in the Heusler alloy Co{sub 2}FeAl (CFA) epitaxial films on MgO (001), as a function of film thickness. It was found that the epitaxial CFA films show a highly ordered B2 structure with an in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The electrical transport properties reveal that the lattice and magnon scattering contributions to the longitudinal resistivity. Independent on the thickness of films, the anomalous Hall resistivity of CFA films is found to be dominated by skew scattering only. Moreover, the anomalous Hall resistivity shows weakly temperature dependent behavior, and its absolute value increases as the thickness decreases. We attribute this temperature insensitivity in the anomalous Hall resistivity to the weak temperature dependent of tunneling spin-polarization in the CFA films, while the thickness dependence behavior is likely due to the increasing significance of interface or free surface electronic states. - Highlights: ●Highly ordered CFA films with various thicknesses were prepared on MgO substrates. ●The magnon scattering contributions to the longitudinal resistivity in the CFA films. ●The anomalous Hall resistivity of the CFA films shows weakly temperature dependent. ●The CFA films show weak temperature dependent of tunneling spin-polarization.

  16. Amorphous intergranular films in silicon nitride ceramics quenched from high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinibulk, M.K.; Kleebe, H.; Schneider, G.A.; Ruehle, M.

    1993-01-01

    High-temperature microstructure of an MgO-hot-pressed Si 3 N 4 and a Yb 2 O 3 + Al 2 O 3 -sintered/annealed Si 3 N 4 were obtained by quenching thin specimens from temperatures between 1,350 and 1,550 C. Quenching materials from 1,350 C produced no observable exchanges in the secondary phases at triple-grain junctions or along grain boundaries. Although quenching from temperatures of ∼1,450 C also showed no significant changes in the general microstructure or morphology of the Si 3 N 4 grains, the amorphous intergranular film thickness increased substantially from an initial ∼1 nm in the slowly cooled material to 1.5--9 nm in the quenched materials. The variability of film thickness in a given material suggests a nonequilibrium state. Specimens quenched from 1,550 C revealed once again thin (1-nm) intergranular films at all high-angle grain boundaries, indicating an equilibrium condition. The changes observed in intergranular-film thickness by high-resolution electron microscopy can be related to the eutectic temperature of the system and to diffusional and viscous processes occurring in the amorphous intergranular film during the high-temperature anneal prior to quenching

  17. Thickness dependence of optical properties of VO2 thin films epitaxially grown on sapphire (0 0 0 1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gang; Jin Ping; Tazawa, Masato; Yoshimura, Kazuki

    2005-01-01

    Vanadium dioxide (VO 2 ) films were epitaxially grown on α-Al 2 O 3 (0 0 0 1) by rf reactive magnetron sputtering. The effects of film thickness ranging from 3 to 150 nm on optical properties were investigated. It revealed that the semiconductor--metal phase transition temperature considerably decreases as film thickness decreases, in particular for the film with thickness less than 10 nm. On the other hand, we found that the difference in visible transmittance between the two phases of VO 2 also varies with film thickness. For the films with thickness less than 50 nm, the semiconductor phase exhibits lower visible transmittance than its metallic phase, while for those with thickness larger than 50 nm the situation is reversed

  18. Local optical spectroscopy of opaline photonic crystal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhia, T.; Baranchikov, A. E.; Gorelik, V. S.; Klimonsky, S. O.

    2017-09-01

    The homogeneity of opaline films obtained by vertical deposition of colloidal SiO2 microparticles has been studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and local optical spectroscopy. It was found that the particle size distribution is narrowed during the deposition, the microstructure of the films improves, and the reflection peak in the first photonic stop band increases and narrows. These changes may be due to the fact that large microparticles, whose mass significantly exceeds the average mass, leave the solution in the course of time, falling on the bottom of the vessel under gravity. It is established that the microstructure of opaline films is improved with a decrease in thickness.

  19. Quantum transition and decoherence of levitating polaron on helium film thickness under an electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, S. C.; Fotue, A. J.; Fobasso, M. F. C.; Djomou, J.-R. D.; Tiotsop, M.; Ngouana, K. S. L.; Fai, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We have studied the transition probability and decoherence time of levitating polaron in helium film thickness. By using a variational method of Pekar type, the ground and the first excited states of polaron are calculated above the liquid-helium film placed on the polar substrate. It is shown that the polaron transits from the ground to the excited state in the presence of an external electromagnetic field in the plane. We have seen that, in the helium film, the effects of the magnetic and electric fields on the polaron are opposite. It is also shown that the energy, transition probability and decoherence time of the polaron depend sensitively on the helium film thickness. We found that decoherence time decreases as a function of increasing electron-phonon coupling strength and the helium film thickness. It is seen that the film thickness can be considered as a new confinement in our system and can be adjusted in order to reduce decoherence.

  20. Thickness-dependent piezoelectric behaviour and dielectric properties of lanthanum modified BiFeO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Biasotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bi0.85La0.15FeO3 (BLFO thin films were deposited on Pt(111/Ti/SiO2 /Si substrates by the soft chemical method. Films with thicknesses ranging from 140 to 280 nm were grown on platinum coated silicon substrates at 500°C for 2 hours. The X-ray diffraction analysis of BLFO films evidenced a hexagonal structure over the entire thickness range investigated. The grain size of the film changes as the number of the layers increases, indicating thickness dependence. It is found that the piezoelectric response is strongly influenced by the film thickness. It is shown that the properties of BiFeO3 thin films, such as lattice parameter, dielectric permittivity, piezoeletric coefficient etc., are functions of misfit strains.

  1. Thickness dependence of electrical properties in (0 0 1) oriented lead zirconate titanate films by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, T.J.; Lu, L.; Lai, M.O.; Soh, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Highly (0 0 1)-oriented Pb(Zr 0.52 Ti 0.48 )O 3 (PZT) thin films with LaNiO 3 (LNO) bottom electrodes have been fabricated on amorphous TiN buffered Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The polarization-electric field (P-E) hysteresis of the deposited PZT films with different thickness ranging from 25 to 850 nm was measured. Results showed that the coercive field increases with the film thickness scaling down. No P-E loops could be obtained for the film of thickness of 25 nm. The deterioration of ferroelectric property in the thinnest film was attributed to extrinsic effect other than intrinsic size effect. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics measurement showed the increase in leakage current of the PZT films with the decrease in the thickness of the films under the same bias voltage. At a high field regime, the leakage current of the PZT films of 25 nm thickness remained unchanged with increasing applied voltage. A totally depleted back-to-back Shottky barrier model was used to explain the effect of electrode interfaces on leakage current in the PZT films. It is believed that ferroelectric/electrode interfaces play an important role in the electrical properties of ferroelectric thin films with thickness at nanometer level

  2. Thickness dependence of magnetization reversal mechanism in perpendicularly magnetized L1{sub 0} FePt films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, Mei; Wang, Xin, E-mail: xinwang@uestc.edu.cn; Lu, Haipeng; Zhang, Li; Deng, Longjiang; Xie, Jianliang

    2017-04-15

    We have studied the magnetic switching behavior of L1{sub 0}-ordered FePt films with varying thickness. It was found that coercivity is strongly dependent on the film thickness. The obvious variations of the coercivity in the thin films are confirmed by the measurements of structural and magnetic properties. With increasing thickness, the degree of L1{sub 0} chemical ordering increased, while the magnetization reversal process transforms from a pinned two-steps magnetization reversal to a comparatively smooth domain wall motion behavior. Although considering anisotropy, exchange interaction and applied magnetic field, the switching behavior in films is quite complex, the main features of the magnetization reversal mechanism can be understood by performing detailed investigation on the effect of the deposition temperature and the angle of magnetic field. - Highlights: • Series of FePt films with L1{sub 0} phase have been prepared. • We focused on the magnetization reversal mechanism with varying thicknesses. • The angle-dependence of switching process is revealed in the FePt films. • Different switching mechanisms were found by increasing the film thickness.

  3. Humidity sensing properties of WO3 thick film resistor prepared by screen printing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garde, Arun S

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline WO 3 Thick films are fabricated by screen printing technique. • Monoclinic phases were the majority in formation of films. • The peak at 1643 cm −1 shows stretching vibrations attributed to W-OH of adsorbed H 2 O. • Absorption peaks in the range 879–650 cm −1 are attributed to the stretching W-O-W bonds. • Increase in resistance with decrease in RH when exposed to 20–100% RH. - Abstract: Thick films of tungsten oxide based were prepared using standard screen printing technique. To study the effect of temperature on the thick films were fired at different temperature for 30 min in air atmosphere. The WO 3 thick films were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and EDAX for elemental analysis. The formation of mixed phases of the film together with majority of monoclinic phase was observed. IR spectra confirm the peak at 1643 cm −1 clearly shows stretching vibrations attributed to the W-OH bending vibration mode of the adsorbed water molecules. The absorption peaks in the range 879–650 cm −1 are attributed to the stretching W-O-W bonds (i.e. ν [W-O inter -W]). The peak located at 983 cm −1 belong to W=O terminal of cluster boundaries. A change in the resistance was observed with respect to the relative humidity when the WO 3 thick films were exposed to a wide humidity range of 20–100%. An increasing firing temperature of WO 3 film increases with the sensitivity. The parameters such as sensitivity and hysteresis of the WO 3 film sensors have been evaluated

  4. Thickness Measurement of V2O5 Nanometric Thin Films Using a Portable XRF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Lopes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanometric thin films have always been chiefly used for decoration; however they are now being widely used as the basis of high technology. Among the various physical qualities that characterize them, the thickness strongly influences their properties. Thus, a new procedure is hereby proposed and developed for determining the thickness of V2O5 nanometric thin films deposited on the glass surface using Portable X-Ray Fluorescence (PXRF equipment and the attenuation of the radiation intensity Kα of calcium present in the glass. It is shown through the present paper that the radiation intensity of calcium Kα rays is proportional to film thickness in nanometric films of vanadium deposited on the glass surface.

  5. Thickness dependent structural, optical and electrical properties of Se85In12Bi3 nanochalcogenide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Ravi P.; Zulfequar, M.; Khan, Shamshad A.

    2018-04-01

    Our aim is to study the thickness dependent effects on structure, electrical and optical properties of Se85In12Bi3 nanochalcogenide thin films. Bulk alloy of Se85In12Bi3 was synthesized by melt-quenching technique. The amorphous as well as glassy nature of Se85In12Bi3 chalcogenide was confirmed by non-isothermal Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements. The nanochalcogenide thin films of thickness 30, 60 and 90 nm were prepared on glass/Si wafer substrate using Physical Vapour Condensation Technique (PVCT). From XRD studies it was found that thin films have amorphous texture. The surface morphology and particle size of films were studied by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). From optical studies, different optical parameters were estimated for Se85In12Bi3 thin films at different thickness. It was found that the absorption coefficient (α) and extinction coefficient (k) increases with photon energy and decreases with film thickness. The optical absorption process followed the rule of indirect transitions and optical band gap were found to be increase with film thickness. The value of Urbach energy (Et) and steepness parameter (σ) were also calculated for different film thickness. For electrical studies, dc-conductivity measurement was done at different temperature and activation energy (ΔEc) were determined and found to be increase with film thickness.

  6. Advanced engineering materials and thick film hybrid circuit technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, S.; Aslam, M.; Mehmood, K.

    2006-01-01

    The use of Thick Film hybrid Technology to manufacture electronic circuits and passive components continues to grow at rapid rate. Thick Film Technology can be viewed as a means of packaging active devices, spanning the gap between monolithic integrated circuit chips and printed circuit boards with attached active and passive components. An advancement in engineering materials has moved from a formulating art to a base of greater understanding of relationship of material chemistry to the details of electrical and mechanical performance. This amazing advancement in the field of engineering materials has brought us up to a magnificent standard that we are able to manufacture small size, low cost and sophisticated electronic circuits of Military, Satellite systems, Robotics, Medical and Telecommunications. (author)

  7. Effects of oxygen annealing on the physical properties and surface microstructures of La0.8Ba0.2MnO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murugavel, P; Lee, J H; Lee, K-B; Park, J H; Chung, J-S; Yoon, J-G; Noh, T W

    2002-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of oxygen annealing on the transport properties and surface microstructures of epitaxial La 0.8 Ba 0.2 MnO 3 (LBMO) films deposited on SrTiO 3 substrate at different oxygen pressures using the pulsed laser deposition technique. The thickness dependence of the transport properties was strongly affected by the oxygen pressure during the deposition and the oxygen annealing temperature. Oxygen stoichiometry, in addition to the substrate-induced strain, was found to be a very important factor in controlling the physical properties of low-doped LBMO. Oxygen annealing seemed to induce strain and the strain accommodated in the films was relaxed by forming a secondary phase in an ordered rod-like shape or in particulate form

  8. Screen printed thick film based pMUT arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Tobias; Pedersen, T; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on the fabrication and characterization of lambda-pitched piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducer (pMUT) arrays fabricated using a unique process combining conventional silicon technology and low cost screen printing of thick film PZT. The pMUTs are designed as 8...

  9. Thickness of Residual Wetting Film in Liquid-Liquid Displacement in Capillary Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, I. A.; Gaul, W.; Vigil, D.

    2010-12-01

    Core-annular flow is common in nature, representing, for example, how streams of oil, surrounded by water, move in petroleum reservoirs. Oil, typically a non-wetting fluid, tends to occupy the middle (core) part of a channel, while water forms a surrounding wall-wetting film. What is the thickness of this wetting film? Understanding this question may determine the ultimate oil recovery. A classic theory has been in existence for nearly 50 years offering a solution, although in a controversial manner, for moving gas bubbles. On the other hand, an acceptable, experimentally verified theory for a body of one liquid flowing in another has not been available. We develop a hydrodynamic, testable theory providing an explicit relationship between the thickness of the wetting film and fluid properties for a blob of one fluid moving in another, with neither phase being gas. In its relationship to the capillary number Ca, the thickness of the film is predicted to be proportional to Ca2 at lower Ca and to level off at a constant value of about 20 % the channel radius at higher Ca. The thickness of the film is deduced to be approximately unaffected by the viscosity ratio of the fluids. We have conducted our own laboratory experiments and compiled experimental data from other studies, all of which are mutually consistent and confirm the salient features of the theory. At the same time, the classic law, originally deduced for films surrounding moving gas bubbles but often believed to hold for liquids as well, fails to explain the observations.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Pure and Al Modified BaSnO3 Thick Film Resistor and Studies of its Gas Sensing Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. U. PATIL

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the synthesis, microstructure, electric properties and sensing performance of BaSnO3 (BS powder, it was prepared by solid state mechano-chemical method. As prepared powder is calcinated at temperatures 1000 °C and 1200 °C and tested for crystallization. Thick films were prepared using simple yet effective screen-printing technology. Structural and electrical analyses were performed and the results have been correlated. The pure BS film shows good response (S=9.8 to NH3 at elevated temperature up to 500 °C along with response other gases with lower sensitivity such as CO2, CO, H2S for various gas concentrations, when the pure film is surface modified with Al2O3, film improves the selectivity and sensitivity. Maximum response (S=21.2 was found to H2S gas at temperature of 300 °C for gas concentration as low as up to 100 ppm. The characterization of the films was done by XRD, SEM and TGA. Crystallite size, surface area, electric properties and gas sensitivity of the films were measured and presented.

  11. X-ray diffractometry of 10 nm thick YBa2Cu3O7-x films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdov, Yu.N.; Moldavskaya, L.D.; Parafin, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    We report on some specific features of the X-ray diffraction spectra for ultrathin c-axis-oriented YBCO films. The films were prepared by laser deposition on LaAlO 3 substrates. A DRON-4 powder diffractometer was used to analyze a structure and to measure thickness of the films. We find that this conventional technique can detect the YBCO films as thin as 5 nm. The X-ray interference fringes in the vicinity of the (005) YBCO reflections for the films from 10 to 20 nm thick were clearly visible. The oscillation period of the fringes depends on the thickness of the film and the intensity modulation yields some structural information. The I(-1)/I(+1) fringes intensity ratio was found to be sensitive to the type of atomic layer at the top and bottom of YBCO film [ru

  12. Development of a metrology method for composition and thickness of barium strontium titanate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remmel, Thomas; Werho, Dennis; Liu, Ran; Chu, Peir

    1998-01-01

    Thin films of barium strontium titanate (BST) are being investigated as the charge storage dielectric in advanced memory devices, due to their promise for high dielectric constant. Since the capacitance of BST films is a function of both stoichiometry and thickness, implementation into manufacturing requires precise metrology methods to monitor both of these properties. This is no small challenge, considering the BST film thicknesses are 60 nm or less. A metrology method was developed based on X-ray Fluorescence and applied to the measurement of stoichiometry and thickness of BST thin films in a variety of applications

  13. Thin film thickness measurement error reduction by wavelength selection in spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsepulin, Vladimir G; Perchik, Alexey V; Tolstoguzov, Victor L; Karasik, Valeriy E

    2015-01-01

    Fast and accurate volumetric profilometry of thin film structures is an important problem in the electronic visual display industry. We propose to use spectrophotometry with a limited number of working wavelengths to achieve high-speed control and an approach to selecting the optimal working wavelengths to reduce the thickness measurement error. A simple expression for error estimation is presented and tested using a Monte Carlo simulation. The experimental setup is designed to confirm the stability of film thickness determination using a limited number of wavelengths

  14. Transmission electron microscopy of bulk specimens over 10 µm in thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamatsu, Sunao, E-mail: sadamatsu@mech.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kagoshima University, Korimoto, Kagoshima 890-0065 (Japan); Tanaka, Masaki; Higashida, Kenji [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsumura, Syo [Department of Applied Quantum Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Ultramicroscopy Research Center, Kyushu University, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    We succeeded the observation of microstructures in bulk-sized specimens of over 10 µm in thickness by employing a technique that combines transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with energy-filtered imaging based on electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS). This method is unique in that it incorporates the inelastically scattered electrons into the imaging process. Using this technique, bright and sharp images of dislocations in crystalline silicon specimens as thick as 10 µm were obtained. A calibration curve to determine foil thickness of such a thick specimen was also derived. This method simply extends the observable thickness range in TEM. If combined with tilt series of observation over a significant range of angle, it will disclose three dimensional nanostructures in a µm-order block of a specimen, promoting our understanding of the controlling mechanisms behind various bulky material properties. - Highlights: • We developed a method which enables thick specimens to be observed using EF-TEM. • The effects of energy filter width and position on images were determined. • We suggested a method to determine the thickness of a thick film sample. • We achieved observation of microstructures in specimens with a thickness of 10 µm.

  15. Experimental study of the polymer powder film thickness uniformity produced by the corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlyyyakhmatov, Marsel

    2017-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the polymer powder film thickness uniformity are presented. Polymer powder films are produced by the electrostatic field of corona discharge. Epoxy and epoxy-polyester powder films with thickness in the range of 30-120 microns are studied. Experimentally confirmed possibility of using these coatings as protective matching layer of piezoceramic transducers at frequencies of 0.5-15 MHz.

  16. Influence of hydride microstructure on through-thickness crack growth in zircaloy-4 sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, P.A.; Meholic, M.J.; Koss, D.A.; Motta, A.T.; Chan, K.S.

    2007-01-01

    The fracture toughness of cold-worked and stress-relieved Zircaloy-4 sheet subject to through-thickness crack growth within a 'sunburst' hydride microstructure was determined at 25 o C. The results were obtained utilizing a novel testing procedure in which a narrow linear strip of hydride blister was fractured at small loads under bending to create a well-defined sharp pre-crack that arrested at the blister-substrate interface. The hydriding procedure also forms 'sunburst' hydrides emanating from the blister that were aligned both in the plane of the crack and in the crack growth direction. Subsequent tensile loading caused crack growth initiation into the field of 'sunburst' hydrides. Specimen failure occurred under near-linear elastic behavior, and the fracture toughness for crack growth initiation into sunburst hydrides was in the range K Q ∼10-15 MPa√m. These results, when combined with those of a previous study, indicate that the through-thickness crack growth initiation toughness at 25 o C is very sensitive to the hydride microstructure. (author)

  17. Thermal Effusivity Determination of Metallic Films of Nanometric Thickness by the Electrical Micropulse Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugo, J. M.; Oliva, A. I.

    2017-02-01

    The thermal effusivity of gold, aluminum, and copper thin films of nanometric thickness (20 nm to 200 nm) was investigated in terms of the films' thickness. The metallic thin films were deposited onto glass substrates by thermal evaporation, and the thermal effusivity was estimated by using experimental parameters such as the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity values obtained at room conditions. The specific heat, thermal conductivity, and thermal diffusivity values of the metallic thin films are determined with a methodology based on the behavior of the thermal profiles of the films when electrical pulses of few microseconds are applied at room conditions. For all the investigated materials, the thermal effusivity decreases with decreased thickness. The thermal effusivity values estimated by the presented methodology are consistent with other reported values obtained under vacuum conditions and more elaborated methodologies.

  18. Critical thickness and strain relaxation in molecular beam epitaxy-grown SrTiO3 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tianqi; Ganguly, Koustav; Marshall, Patrick; Xu, Peng; Jalan, Bharat

    2013-01-01

    We report on the study of the critical thickness and the strain relaxation in epitaxial SrTiO 3 film grown on (La 0.3 Sr 0.7 )(Al 0.65 Ta 0.35 )O 3 (001) (LSAT) substrate using the hybrid molecular beam epitaxy approach. No change in the film's lattice parameter (both the in-plane and the out-of-plane) was observed up to a film thickness of 180 nm, which is in sharp contrast to the theoretical critical thickness of ∼12 nm calculated using the equilibrium theory of strain relaxation. For film thicknesses greater than 180 nm, the out-of-plane lattice parameter was found to decrease hyperbolically in an excellent agreement with the relaxation via forming misfit dislocations. Possible mechanisms are discussed by which the elastic strain energy can be accommodated prior to forming misfit dislocations leading to such anomalously large critical thickness

  19. Through-thickness thermal conductivity enhancement of graphite film/epoxy composite via short duration acidizing modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Shaokai; Lu, Weibang; Li, Min; Gu, Yizhou; Zhang, Yongyi; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2018-06-01

    Graphite films have excellent in-plane thermal conductivity but extremely low through-thickness thermal conductivity because of their intrinsic inter-layer spaces. To improve the inter-layer heat transfer of graphite films, we developed a simple interfacial modification with a short duration mixed-acid treatment. The effects of the mixture ratio of sulfuric and nitric acids and treatment time on the through-thickness thermal properties of graphite films were studied. The modification increased the through-thickness thermal conductivity by 27% and 42% for the graphite film and its composite, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the acidification process had two competing effects: the positive contribution made by the enhanced interaction between the graphite layers induced by the functional groups and the negative effect from the destruction of the graphite layers. As a result, an optimal acidification method was found to be sulfuric/nitric acid treatment with a mixture ratio of 3:1 for 15 min. The resultant through-thickness thermal conductivity of the graphite film could be improved to 0.674 W/mK, and the corresponding graphite/epoxy composite shows a through-thickness thermal conductivity of 0.587 W/mK. This method can be directly used for graphite films and their composite fabrication to improve through-thickness thermal conductivity.

  20. Polymer Thick-Film Sensors: Possibilities for Smartcard Biometrics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henderson, N.J.; Papakostas, T.V.; White, N.M.; Hartel, Pieter H.

    In this paper the potential of polymer thick-film sensors are assessed for use as biometric sensors on smartcards. Piezoelectric and piezoresistive sensors have been printed on flexible polyester, then bonded to smartcard blanks. The tactile interaction of a person with these sensors has been

  1. Reciprocal space analysis of the microstructure of luminescent and nonluminescent porous silicon films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.; Barbour, J.C.; Medernach, J.W.; Stevenson, J.O.; Custer, J.S.

    1994-01-01

    The microstructure of anodically prepared porous silicon films was determined using a novel X-ray diffraction technique. This technique uses double-crystal diffractometry combined with position-sensitive X- ray detection to efficiently and quantitatively image the reciprocal space structure of crystalline materials. Reciprocal space analysis of newly prepared, as well as aged, p - porous silicon films showed that these films exhibit a very broad range of crystallinity. This material appears to range in structure from a strained, single-crystal, sponge-like material exhibiting long-range coherency to isolated, dilated nanocrystals embedded in an amorphous matrix. Reciprocal space analysis of n + and p + porous silicon showed these materials are strained single-crystals with a spatially-correlated array of vertical pores. The vertical pores in these crystals may be surrounded by nanoporous or nanocrystalline domains as small as a few nm in size which produce diffuse diffraction indicating their presence. The photoluminescence of these films was examined using 488 nm Ar laser excitation in order to search for possible correlations between photoluminescent intensity and crystalline microstructure

  2. Microstructural properties of BaTiO3 ceramics and thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fundora C, A.; Portelles, J.J.; Siqueiros, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    A microstructural study of BaTiO 3 ceramics obtained by the conventional ceramic method is presented. Targets were produced to grow BaTiO 3 thin films by pulsed laser deposition on Pt/Ti/Si (100) substrates. X-ray diffraction, Auger Electron Spectroscopy, X-ray Photon Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to study the properties of the BaTiO 3 ceramic samples and thin films, as deposited and after an annealing process. (Author)

  3. Film thickness measurement based on nonlinear phase analysis using a Linnik microscopic white-light spectral interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tong; Chen, Zhuo; Li, Minghui; Wu, Juhong; Fu, Xing; Hu, Xiaotang

    2018-04-20

    Based on white-light spectral interferometry and the Linnik microscopic interference configuration, the nonlinear phase components of the spectral interferometric signal were analyzed for film thickness measurement. The spectral interferometric signal was obtained using a Linnik microscopic white-light spectral interferometer, which includes the nonlinear phase components associated with the effective thickness, the nonlinear phase error caused by the double-objective lens, and the nonlinear phase of the thin film itself. To determine the influence of the effective thickness, a wavelength-correction method was proposed that converts the effective thickness into a constant value; the nonlinear phase caused by the effective thickness can then be determined and subtracted from the total nonlinear phase. A method for the extraction of the nonlinear phase error caused by the double-objective lens was also proposed. Accurate thickness measurement of a thin film can be achieved by fitting the nonlinear phase of the thin film after removal of the nonlinear phase caused by the effective thickness and by the nonlinear phase error caused by the double-objective lens. The experimental results demonstrated that both the wavelength-correction method and the extraction method for the nonlinear phase error caused by the double-objective lens improve the accuracy of film thickness measurements.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of thick-film piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate ceramic resonators by tape-casting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lifeng; Sun, Yingying; Wang, Qing-Ming; Zhong, Youliang; Ou, Ming; Jiang, Zhishui; Tian, Wei

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, thick-film piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic resonators with thicknesses down to tens of micrometers have been fabricated by tape-casting processing. PZT ceramic resonators with composition near the morphotropic phase boundary and with different dopants added were prepared for piezoelectric transducer applications. Material property characterization for these thick-film PZT resonators is essential for device design and applications. For the property characterization, a recently developed normalized electrical impedance spectrum method was used to determine the electromechanical coefficient and the complex piezoelectric, elastic, and dielectric coefficients from the electrical measurement of resonators using thick films. In this work, nine PZT thick-film resonators have been fabricated and characterized, and two different types of resonators, namely thickness longitudinal and transverse modes, were used for material property characterization. The results were compared with those determined by the IEEE standard method, and they agreed well. It was found that depending on the PZT formulation and dopants, the relative permittivities ε(T)(33)/ε(0) measured at 2 kHz for these thick-films are in the range of 1527 to 4829, piezoelectric stress constants (e(33) in the range of 15 to 26 C/m(2), piezoelectric strain constants (d(31)) in the range of -169 × 10(-12) C/N to -314 × 10(-12) C/N, electromechanical coupling coefficients (k(t)) in the range of 0.48 to 0.53, and k(31) in the range of 0.35 to 0.38. The characterization results shows tape-casting processing can be used to fabricate high-quality PZT thick-film resonators, and the extracted material constants can be used to for device design and application.

  5. Investigation of Processing, Microstructures and Efficiencies of Polycrystalline CdTe Photovoltaic Films and Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Amit Harenkumar

    CdTe based photovoltaics have been commercialized at multiple GWs/year level. The performance of CdTe thin film photovoltaic devices is sensitive to process conditions. Variations in deposition temperatures as well as other treatment parameters have a significant impact on film microstructure and device performance. In this work, extensive investigations are carried out using advanced microstructural characterization techniques in an attempt to relate microstructural changes due to varying deposition parameters and their effects on device performance for cadmium telluride based photovoltaic cells deposited using close space sublimation (CSS). The goal of this investigation is to apply advanced material characterization techniques to aid process development for higher efficiency CdTe based photovoltaic devices. Several techniques have been used to observe the morphological changes to the microstructure along with materials and crystallographic changes as a function of deposition temperature and treatment times. Traditional device structures as well as advanced structures with electron reflector and films deposited on Mg1-xZnxO instead of conventional CdS window layer are investigated. These techniques include Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) with Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) to study grain structure and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) with electron diffraction and EDS. These investigations have provided insights into the mechanisms that lead to change in film structure and device performance with change in deposition conditions. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is used for chemical mapping of the films as well as to understand interlayer material diffusion between subsequent layers. Electrical performance of these devices has been studied using current density vs voltage plots. Devices with efficiency over 18% have been fabricated on low cost commercial glass substrates

  6. Optoelectronic Properties and Structural Characterization of GaN Thick Films on Different Substrates through Pulsed Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Kai Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 4-μm-thick GaN epitaxial films were directly grown onto a GaN/sapphire template, sapphire, Si(111, and Si(100 substrates by high-temperature pulsed laser deposition (PLD. The influence of the substrate type on the crystalline quality, surface morphology, microstructure, and stress states was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD, photoluminescence (PL, atomic force microscopy (AFM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and Raman spectroscopy. Raman scattering spectral analysis showed a compressive film stress of −0.468 GPa for the GaN/sapphire template, whereas the GaN films on sapphire, Si(111, and Si(100 exhibited a tensile stress of 0.21, 0.177, and 0.081 GPa, respectively. Comparative analysis indicated the growth of very close to stress-free GaN on the Si(100 substrate due to the highly directional energetic precursor migration on the substrate’s surface and the release of stress in the nucleation of GaN films during growth by the high-temperature (1000 °C operation of PLD. Moreover, TEM images revealed that no significant GaN meltback (Ga–Si etching process was found in the GaN/Si sample surface. These results indicate that PLD has great potential for developing stress-free GaN templates on different substrates and using them for further application in optoelectronic devices.

  7. Physicochemical and microstructural characterization of gum tragacanth added whey protein based films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyali, Bade; Cikrikci, Sevil; Oztop, Mecit Halil

    2018-03-01

    Edible films of gum tragacanth (GT) with whey protein were fabricated to see how the incorporation of GT influenced whey protein based film properties. Whey protein isolate (WPI) was replaced with GT at different ratios as 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2% of WPI. Optical, mechanical, permeability and microstructural properties, as well as moisture sorption and solubility behavior of films were measured. The findings indicated that combination of WPI and GT in film formulation led to less strength, more flexible, less soluble films with lower permeability to water and with higher opacity. The results suggested that the addition of GT to WPI could lead to obtain modified WPI based edible films with desirable properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Film thickness degradation of Au/GaN Schottky contact characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, K.; Wang, R.X.; Fung, S.; Beling, C.D.; Chen, X.D.; Huang, Y.; Li, S.; Xu, S.J.; Gong, M.

    2005-01-01

    Electrical characteristics of Au/n-GaN Schottky contacts with different Au film thicknesses up to 1300 A, have been investigated using current-voltage (I-V) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) techniques. Results show a steady decrease in the quality of the Schottky diodes for increasing Au film thickness. I-V measurements indicate that thin ( 500 A). Depth profiling Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) shows that the width of the Au/GaN junction interface increases with increasing Au thickness, suggesting considerable inter-mixing of Au, Ga and N. The results have been interpreted in terms of Ga out-diffusion from the GaN giving rise to gallium vacancies that in turn act as sites for electron-hole pair generation within the depletion region. The study supports the recent suggestion that gallium vacancies associated with threaded dislocations are playing an important role in junction breakdown

  9. The effect of wet film thickness on VOC emissions from a finishing varnish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shun-Cheng; Kwok, Ngai-Hong; Guo, Hai; Hung, Wing-Tat

    2003-01-20

    Finishing varnishes, a typical type of oil-based varnishes, are widely used to shine metal, wood trim and cabinet surfaces in Hong Kong. The influence of wet film thickness on volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from a finishing varnish was studied in an environmental test chamber. The varnish was applied on an aluminium foil with three different wet film thickness (35.2, 69.9 and 107.3 microm). The experimental conditions were 25.0 degrees C, 50.0% relative humidity (RH) with an air exchange rate of 0.5 h(-1). The concentrations of the major VOCs were monitored for the first 10 h. The air samples were collected by canisters and analysed by gas chromatography/mass selective detector (GC/MSD). Six major VOCs including toluene, chlorobenzene, ethylbenzene, m,p-xylene, o-xylene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene were identified and quantified. Marked differences were observed for three different film thicknesses. VOC concentrations increased rapidly during the first few hours and then decreased as the emission rates declined. The thicker the wet film, the higher the VOC emissions. A model expression included an exponentially decreasing emission rate of varnish film. The concentration and time data measured in the chamber were used to determine the parameters of empirical emission rate model. The present work confirmed that the film thickness of varnish influenced markedly the concentrations and emissions of VOCs. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. The Effect of Film Thickness on the Gas Sensing Properties of Ultra-Thin TiO₂ Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachel L; Simion, Cristian Eugen; Blackman, Christopher S; Carmalt, Claire J; Stanoiu, Adelina; Di Maggio, Francesco; Covington, James A

    2018-03-01

    Analyte sensitivity for gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxides should be highly dependent on the film thickness, particularly when that thickness is on the order of the Debye length. This thickness dependence has previously been demonstrated for SnO₂ and inferred for TiO₂. In this paper, TiO₂ thin films have been prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) using titanium isopropoxide and water as precursors. The deposition process was performed on standard alumina gas sensor platforms and microscope slides (for analysis purposes), at a temperature of 200 °C. The TiO₂ films were exposed to different concentrations of CO, CH₄, NO₂, NH₃ and SO₂ to evaluate their gas sensitivities. These experiments showed that the TiO₂ film thickness played a dominant role within the conduction mechanism and the pattern of response for the electrical resistance towards CH₄ and NH₃ exposure indicated typical n -type semiconducting behavior. The effect of relative humidity on the gas sensitivity has also been demonstrated.

  11. Design of instantaneous liquid film thickness measurement system for conductive or non-conductive fluid with high viscosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Yu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, a new capacitive sensor with a dielectric film coating was designed to measure the thickness of the liquid film on a flat surface. The measured medium can be conductive or non-conductive fluid with high viscosity such as silicone oil, syrup, CMC solution and melt. With the dielectric film coating, the defects caused by the humidity in a capacitor can be avoided completely. With a excitation frequency 0-20kHz, the static permittivity of capacitive sensor is obtained and stable when small thicknesses are monitored within the frequency of 0-3kHz. Based on the measurement principle, an experimental system was designed and verified including calibration and actual measurement for different liquid film thickness. Experimental results showed that the sensitivity, the resolution, repeatability and linear range of the capacitive sensor are satisfied to the liquid film thickness measurement. Finally, the capacitive measuring system was successfully applied to the water, silicone oil and syrup film thickness measurement.

  12. The thickness of native oxides on aluminum alloys and single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evertsson, J., E-mail: jonas.evertsson@sljus.lu.se [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bertram, F. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, F. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Drottning Kristinas Vg 51, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rullik, L.; Merte, L.R.; Shipilin, M. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Soldemo, M.; Ahmadi, S. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, ICT, Material Physics, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Vinogradov, N.; Carlà, F. [ESRF, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Weissenrieder, J.; Göthelid, M. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, ICT, Material Physics, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Pan, J. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Drottning Kristinas Vg 51, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Mikkelsen, A. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, J.-O. [Sapa Technology, Kanalgatan 1, 612 31 Finspång (Sweden); Lundgren, E. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We have determined the native oxide film thickness on several Al samples. • The results obtained from XRR and XPS show excellent agreement. • The results obtained from EIS show consistently thinner oxide films. • The oxides on the alloys are thicker than the oxides on the single crystals. - Abstract: We present results from measurements of the native oxide film thickness on four different industrial aluminum alloys and three different aluminum single crystals. The thicknesses were determined using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, atomic force microscopy was used for micro-structural studies of the oxide surfaces. The reflectivity measurements were performed in ultra-high vacuum, vacuum, ambient, nitrogen and liquid water conditions. The results obtained using X-ray reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrate good agreement. However, the oxide thicknesses determined from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show a larger discrepancy from the above two methods. In the present contribution the reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. We also address the effect of the substrate type and the presence of water on the resultant oxide thickness.

  13. Charge transport in films of Geobacter sulfurreducens on graphite electrodes as a function of film thickness

    KAUST Repository

    Jana, Partha Sarathi; Katuri, Krishna; Kavanagh, Paul; Kumar, Amit Ravi Pradeep; Leech, Dó nal

    2014-01-01

    Harnessing, and understanding the mechanisms of growth and activity of, biofilms of electroactive bacteria (EAB) on solid electrodes is of increasing interest, for application to microbial fuel and electrolysis cells. Microbial electrochemical cell technology can be used to generate electricity, or higher value chemicals, from organic waste. The capability of biofilms of electroactive bacteria to transfer electrons to solid anodes is a key feature of this emerging technology, yet the electron transfer mechanism is not fully characterized as yet. Acetate oxidation current generated from biofilms of an EAB, Geobacter sulfurreducens, on graphite electrodes as a function of time does not correlate with film thickness. Values of film thickness, and the number and local concentration of electrically connected redox sites within Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms as well as a charge transport diffusion co-efficient for the biofilm can be estimated from non-turnover voltammetry. The thicker biofilms, of 50 ± 9 μm, display higher charge transport diffusion co-efficient than that in thinner films, as increased film porosity of these films improves ion transport, required to maintain electro-neutrality upon electrolysis. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  14. ZnO and Al doped ZnO thin films deposited by Spray Plasma: Effect of the growth time and Al doping on microstructural, optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Kamal; Lazzaroni, Claudia; Nikravech, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Nanostructured zinc oxide (ZnO) and Al doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) thin films are deposited on glass substrate by the Spray Plasma technique. Zinc nitrate and aluminium nitrate are used as Zn and Al precursors, respectively. The effect of the growth time on structural and optical properties of undoped films is studied by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and UV–Vis spectroscopy. The effect of Al doping on microstructural, optical and electrical characteristics of ZnO:Al films is also investigated. The results show that the grain size and the film thickness both increase with the growth time. The band gap of the layers varies from 3.17 to 3.24 eV depending on the thickness. The increase of the Al doping results in the enlargement of the peak (002) and the shift of its position to higher 2θ values. Average optical transmittance decreases from 90 to 65% with the growth time because of the thickness increase while there is no significant influence of the aluminium doping on the transmittance which is above 80% in most of the visible and near-IR range for all ZnO:Al films. The electrical properties characterized by Hall measurements show that all the deposited films exhibit high resistivity, between 4 and 10 4 Ω cm. The carrier concentration decreases from 2.10 19 to 2.10 13 cm −3 when the concentration of Al increases from 1.5 to 5 atm%. - Highlights: • The original Spray Plasma technique is used for ZnO and ZnO:Al thin film deposition. • Investigation of the effect of growth time and Al doping on the structural and optical properties • Increase of grain size and film thickness with the growth time • Optical transmittance decreases from 90 to 65% with the growth time and is above 80% for ZnO:Al films in UV–Vis-NIR range. • The peak position of the (002) plane is shifted to high 2θ values with Al doping.

  15. Neutral Color Semitransparent Microstructured Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Eperon, Giles E.

    2014-01-28

    Neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells are commercially desired to integrate solar cells into the windows and cladding of buildings and automotive applications. Here, we report the use of morphological control of perovskite thin films to form semitransparent planar heterojunction solar cells with neutral color and comparatively high efficiencies. We take advantage of spontaneous dewetting to create microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands", on a length-scale small enough to appear continuous to the eye yet large enough to enable unattenuated transmission of light between the islands. The islands are thick enough to absorb most visible light, and the combination of completely absorbing and completely transparent regions results in neutral transmission of light. Using these films, we fabricate thin-film solar cells with respectable power conversion efficiencies. Remarkably, we find that such discontinuous films still have good rectification behavior and relatively high open-circuit voltages due to the inherent rectification between the n- and p-type charge collection layers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ease of "color-tinting" such microstructured perovksite solar cells with no reduction in performance, by incorporation of a dye within the hole transport medium. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  16. The determination of the pressure viscosity coefficient of a lubricant through an accurate film thickness formula and accurate film thickness measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.J.

    2009-01-01

    The pressure viscosity coefficient is an indispensable property in the EHD lubrication of hard contacts, but often not known. A guess will easily lead to enormous errors in the film thickness. This paper describes a method to deduct this coefficient by adapting the value of the pressure viscosity

  17. The determination of the pressure-viscosity coefficient of two traction oils using film thickness measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.J.

    2010-01-01

    The pressure-viscosity coefficients of two commercial traction fluids are determined by fitting calculation results on accurate film thickness measurements, obtained at a wide range of speeds, and different temperatures. Film thickness values are calculated using a numerical method and approximation

  18. Effect of Ni Doping on Gas Sensing Performance of ZnO Thick Film Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. DEORE

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the use of ZnO-NiO as a H2S metal oxide thick film gas sensor. To find the optimum ratio of NiO to ZnO, two compositions were prepared using different molecular percentages and prepared as a thick film paste. These pastes were then screen-printed onto glass substrates with suitable binder. The final composition of each film was determined using SEM analysis. The films were used to detect CO, CL2, ethanol, Amonia and H2S. For each composition tested, the highest responses where displayed for H2S gas. The Thick film having composition of equal molar ZnO and NiO shows the highest response at operating temp. 350 0C for 100 ppm level. The gas response, selectivity, response and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented. The role played by NiO species is to improve the gas sensing performance is discussed.

  19. Effect of layer thickness in selective laser melting on microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 powder consolidated parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadbakhsh, Sasan; Hao, Liang

    2014-01-01

    In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM) to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75  μm layer thickness, and 50  μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance) were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe) oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process.

  20. Quantifying Local Thickness and Composition in Thin Films of Organic Photovoltaic Blends by Raman Scattering

    KAUST Repository

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Xabier

    2017-07-06

    We report a methodology based on Raman spectroscopy that enables the non-invasive and fast quantitative determination of local thickness and composition in thin films (from few monolayers to hundreds of nm) of one or more components. We apply our methodology to blends of organic conjugated materials relevant in the field of organic photovoltaics. As a first step, we exploit the transfer-matrix formalism to describe the Raman process in thin films including reabsorption and interference effects of the incoming and scattered electric fields. This allows determining the effective solid-state Raman cross-section of each material by studying the dependence of the Raman intensity on film thickness. These effective cross sections are then used to estimate the local thickness and composition in a series of polymer:fullerene blends. We find that the model is accurate within ±10 nm in thickness and ±5 vol% in composition provided that (i) the film thickness is kept below the thickness corresponding to the first maximum of the calculated Raman intensity oscillation; (ii) the materials making up the blend show close enough effective Raman cross-sections; and (iii) the degree of order attained by the conjugated polymer in the blend is similar to that achieved when cast alone. Our methodology opens the possibility to make quantitative maps of composition and thickness over large areas (from microns to centimetres squared) with diffraction-limited resolution and in any multi-component system based thin film technology.

  1. Performances of screen-printing silver thick films: Rheology, morphology, mechanical and electronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jung-Shiun; Liang, Jau-En; Yi, Han-Liou [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia Yi 621, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Shu-Hua [China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung City 806, Taiwan, ROC (China); Hua, Chi-Chung, E-mail: chmcch@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia Yi 621, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-06-15

    Numerous recent applications with inorganic solar cells and energy storage electrodes make use of silver pastes through processes like screen-printing to fabricate fine conductive lines for electron conducting purpose. To date, however, there have been few studies that systematically revealed the properties of the silver paste in relation to the mechanical and electronic performances of screen-printing thick films. In this work, the rheological properties of a series of model silver pastes made of silver powders of varying size (0.9, 1.3, and 1.5 μm) and shape (irregular and spherical) were explored, and the results were systematically correlated with the morphological feature (scanning electron microscopy, SEM) and mechanical (peeling test) and electronic (transmission line method, TLM) performances of screen-printing dried or sintered thick films. We provided evidence of generally intimate correlations between the powder dispersion state in silver pastes—which is shown to be well captured by the rheological protocols employed herein—and the performances of screen-printing thick films. Overall, this study suggests the powder dispersion state and the associated phase behavior of a paste sample can significantly impact not only the morphological and electronic but also mechanical performances of screen-printing thick films, and, in future perspectives, a proper combination of silver powders of different sizes and even shapes could help reconcile quality and stability of an optimum silver paste. - Highlights: • Powder dispersion correlates well with screen-printing thick film performances. • Rheological fingerprints can be utilized to fathom the powder dispersion state. • Good polymer-powder interactions in the paste ensure good powder dispersion. • Time-dependent gel-like viscoelastic features are found with optimum silver pastes. • The size and shape of functional powder affect the dispersion and film performances.

  2. Investigation of cellular microstructure and enhanced coercivity in sputtered Sm2(CoCuFeZr)17 film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, Ranu; Schütz, G.; Bhatt, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of annealing temperature on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Sm 2 (CoCuFeZr) 17 films prepared using ion beam sputtering at room temperature. The as-deposited film shows randomly oriented polycrystalline grains and exhibits small coercivity (H C ) of 0.04 T at room temperature. Post annealing of these films at 700 °C under Ar atmosphere shows significant changes in the microstructure transforming it to the development of cellular growth, concomitant with enhanced coercivity up to 1.3 T. The enhanced coercivity is explained using the domain wall pinning mechanism

  3. Investigation on feasibility and detection limits for determination of coating film thickness by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Maoying; Xu Jiayun; Zhang Dida; Yang Zunyong; Yao Zhenqiang; Wang Mingqiu; Gao Dangzhong

    2010-01-01

    A method for the determination of coating film thickness by neutron activation was proposed in this paper. After Au, Al and Cu et al.films were activated with a Am-Be neutron source, the characteristic γ-rays emitted by the activated nuclides in the films were counted with a HPGe γ spectrometer. The detection limits of film thickness by using a nuclear reactor neutron source were deduced on the basis of the γ-ray counts and the Monte-Carlo simulated detection efficiencies. The possible detection limits are typically 4-5 orders of magnitude better than those by fluorescent X-ray method, which is currently widely used to determine coating film thickness. (authors)

  4. Impact of active layer thickness of nitrogen-doped In–Sn–Zn–O films on materials and thin film transistor performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yue; Yang, Hao-Zhi; Chen, Sheng-Chi; Lu, Ying-Bo; Xin, Yan-Qing; Yang, Tian-Lin; Sun, Hui

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped indium tin zinc oxide (ITZO:N) thin film transistors (TFTs) were deposited on SiO2 (200 nm)/p-Si〈1 0 0〉 substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The structural, chemical compositions, surface morphology, optical and electrical properties as a function of the active layer thickness were investigated. As the active layer thickness increases, Zn content decreases and In content increases gradually. Meanwhile, Sn content is almost unchanged. When the thickness of the active layer is more than 45 nm, the ITZO:N films become crystallized and present a crystal orientation along InN(0 0 2) plan. No matter what the thickness is, ITZO:N films always display a high transmittance above 80% in the visible region. Their optical band gaps fluctuate between 3.4 eV and 3.62 eV. Due to the dominance of low interface trap density and high carrier concentration, ITZO:N TFT shows enhanced electrical properties as the active layer thickness is 35 nm. Its field-effect mobility, on/off radio and sub-threshold swing are 17.53 cm2 V‑1 · s‑1, 106 and 0.36 V/dec, respectively. These results indicate that the suitable thickness of the active layer can enhance the quality of ITZO:N films and decrease the defects density of ITZO:N TFT. Thus, the properties of ITZO:N TFT can be optimized by adjusting the thickness of the active layer.

  5. Hydrogen in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thick film and its relation to the photoresponse of the film in contact with molybdenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, N.; Chung, D.D.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that hydrogenated amorphous silicon films of thickness 0.5-7 μm on molybdenum substrates were deposited from silane by dc glow discharge and studied by mass spectrometric observation of the evolution of hydrogen upon heating and correlating this information with the photoresponse. The films were found to contain two types of hydrogen, namely weak bonded hydrogen, which evolved at 365 degrees C and was the minority, and strongly bonded hydrogen, which evolved at 460-670 degrees C and was the majority. The proportion of strongly bonded hydrogen increased with increasing film thickness and with increasing substrate temperature during deposition. The total amount of hydrogen increased when the substrate temperature was decreased from 350 to 275 degrees C. The strongly bonded hydrogen resided throughout the thickness of the film, whereas the weakly bonded hydrogen resided near the film surface. The evolution of the strongly bonded hydrogen was diffusion controlled, with an activation energy of 1.6 eV. The strongly bonded hydrogen enhanced the photoresponse, whereas the weakly bonded hydrogen degraded the photoresponse

  6. Simultaneous measurements of thickness and temperature profile in a wavy liquid film falling freely on a heating wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyu, T.; Mudawar, I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a technique for measuring the thickness of liquid films that was developed and tested. The feasibility of this technique was demonstrated in stagnant liquid films as well as in liquid jets. A procedure for in-situ calibration of the thickness probe was developed, allowing the adaptation of the probe to measurements of wavy liquid films. The thickness probe was constructed from a platinum-rhodium wire that was stretched across the film. A constant DC current was supplied through the probe wire, and film thickness was determined from variations in the probe voltage drop resulting from the large differences in the electrical resistances of the wetted and unwetted segments of the wire. Unlike electrical admittance thickness probes, the new probe did not require dissolving an electrolyte in the liquid, making the new probe well suited to studies involving sensible heating of a film of pure dielectric liquid that is in direct contact with a current- carrying wall. Also presented is a composite probe that facilitated simultaneous measurements of temperature profile across a wavy liquid film and film thickness. Experimental results demonstrate a strong influence of waviness on liquid temperature in a film of deionized water falling freely on the outside wall of a vertical, electrically heated tube for film Reynolds numbers smaller than 10,000

  7. Description of spin reorientation transition in Au/Co/Au sandwich with Co film thickness within a simple phenomenological model of ferromagnetic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Simple phenomenological model of ferromagnetic film characterized by equal energies of surface anisotropies at two sides of a film (symmetric film) is considered. The model is used to describe a two-step spin reorientation transition (SRT) in Au/Co/Au sandwich with Co film thickness: the SRT from perpendicular to canted noncollinear (CNC) state at N ⊥ =6.3 atomic layers and the subsequent SRT from CNC to in-plane state at N ∥ =10.05 atomic layers. Analytic expressions for the stability criterion of collinear perpendicular and in-plane states of a film are derived with account of discrete location of atomic layers. The dependence of borders that separate regions corresponding to various magnetic states of a film in the (k B ,k S )-diagram on film thickness N is established. k S (k B ) is surface (bulk) reduced anisotropy constant. The comparison of theory with experiment related to Au/Co/Au sandwich shows that there is a whole region in the (k B ,k S )-diagram corresponding to experimentally determined values of threshold film thicknesses N ⊥ =6.3 and N ∥ =10.05. The comparison of this region with similar region determined earlier for a bare Co/Au film within the same model of asymmetric film and characterized by N ⊥ =3.5, N ∥ =5.5 shows that the intersection of these regions is not empty. Hence, both the SRT in Au/Co/Au sandwich and in bare Co/Au film with Co film thickness can be described within the same model using the same magnitudes of model parameters k S , k B . Based on this result we conclude that the energy of Neel surface anisotropy at free Co surface is negligible compared to the energy of Co–Au interface anisotropy. It is demonstrated that the destabilization of collinear states in symmetric film leads to occurrence of the ground CNC state and two novel metastable CNC states. These three CNC states exhibit different kinds of symmetry. In case of asymmetric film only ground CNC state occurs on destabilization of collinear states of a film

  8. The influence of thickness on memory characteristic based on nonvolatile tuning behavior in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Yanmei; Ai, Chunpeng; Lu, Junguo; Li, Lei; Wen, Dianzhong; Bai, Xuduo

    2016-01-01

    The memory characteristic based on nonvolatile tuning behavior in indium tin oxide/poly(N-vinylcarbazole)/aluminum (ITO/PVK/Al) was investigated, the different memory behaviors were first observed in PVK film as the film thickness changing. By control of PVK film thickness with different spinning speeds, the nonvolatile behavior of ITO/PVK/Al sandwich structure can be tuned in a controlled manner. Obviously different nonvolatile behaviors, such as (i) flash memory behavior and (ii) write-once-read-many times (WORM) memory behavior are from the current–voltage (I–V) characteristics of the PVK films. The results suggest that the film thickness plays a key part in determining the memory type of the PVK. - Highlights: • The different memory behaviors were observed in PVK film. • The nonvolatile behavior of ITO/PVK/Al sandwich structure can be tuned. • The film thickness plays a key part in determining the memory type of the PVK.

  9. MEMS Accelerometer with Screen Printed Piezoelectric Thick Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lau-Moeller, R.; Bove, T.

    2006-01-01

    A bulk-micromachined piezoelectric MEMS accelerometer with screen printed piezoelectric Pb(ZrxTil )O3(PZT) thick film (TF) as the sensing material has been fabricated and characterized. The accelerometer has a four beam structure with a central seismic mass (3600x3600x500 pm3) and a total chip size...

  10. Fabrication and characterization of MEMS-based PZT/PZT bimorph thick film vibration energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of a significantly improved version of a microelectromechanical system-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass; the harvester is fabricated in a fully monolithic process. The main advantage...... yield of 98%. The robust fabrication process allowed a high pressure treatment of the screen printed PZT thick films prior to sintering. The high pressure treatment improved the PZT thick film performance and increased the harvester power output to 37.1 μW at 1 g root mean square acceleration. We also...... characterize the harvester performance when only one of the PZT layers is used while the other is left open or short circuit....

  11. Optical and electrical properties of Mn1.56Co0.96Ni0.48O4 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Y. Q.; Huang, Z. M.; Hou, Y.; Wu, J.; Chu, J. H.

    2013-12-01

    Mn1.56Co0.96Ni0.48O4 (MCN) films with different layers have been prepared on Al2O3 substrate by chemical solution deposition method. The microstructures, optical and electrical properties of the films are investigated. X-ray diffraction and microstructure analyses show good crystallization and both the crystalline quality and the grain size are improved with the increasing thickness of the films. Mid-infrared optical properties of MCN films have been investigated using transmission spectra. The results show the red shift of absorption with the increasing film thickness and the energy gap Eg decrease from 0.6422 eV to 0.6354 eV. All the MCN films show an exponential decrease in the resistivity with increasing temperature within the measured range. The temperature dependence resistivity can be described by the small polarons hopping model. Using this model, the characteristic temperature T0 and activation energy E of the MCN films were derived. With the film thickness increase, the T0 and E of the MCN films increase. The calculated room temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of MCN film with 100 layers is -3.5% K-1. The MCN films showed appropriate resistance and high value of TCR, these advantages make them very preponderant for thermal sensors.

  12. Gold nanoparticle plasmon resonance in near-field coupled Au NPs layer/Al film nanostructure: Dependence on metal film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A.; Kozachenko, Viktor V.; Naumenko, Antonina P.; Berezovska, Nataliya I.; Kutsevol, Nataliya V.; Chumachenko, Vasyl A.; Haftel, Michael; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.

    2018-05-01

    We study the effects of coupling between plasmonic metal nanoparticles and a thin metal film by using light extinction spectroscopy. A planar monolayer of gold nanoparticles located near an aluminum thin film (thicknesses within the range of 0-62 nm) was used to analyze the coupling between the monolayer and the thin metal film. SPR peak area increase for polymer coated Au NPs, non-monotonical behavior of the peak area for bare Au NPs, as well as red shift and broadening of SPR at the increase of the Al film thickness have been observed. These effects are rationalized as a result of coupling of the layer of Au NPs with Al film through the field of localized surface plasmons in Au NPs that causes the excitation of collective plasmonic gap mode in the nanostructure. An additional mechanism for bare Au NPs is the non-radiative damping of SPR that is caused by the electrical contact between metal NPs and film.

  13. Dual-sided microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (DSMSNDs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fronk, Ryan G.; Bellinger, Steven L.; Henson, Luke C.; Ochs, Taylor R.; Smith, Colten T.; Kenneth Shultis, J.; McGregor, Douglas S.

    2015-01-01

    Microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (MSNDs) have in recent years received much interest as high-efficiency replacements for thin-film-coated thermal neutron detectors. The basic device structure of the MSND involves micro-sized trenches that are etched into a vertically-oriented pvn-junction diode that are backfilled with a neutron converting material. Neutrons absorbed within the converting material induce fission of the parent nucleus, producing a pair of energetic charged-particle reaction products that can be counted by the diode. The MSND deep-etched microstructures produce good neutron-absorption and reaction-product counting efficiencies, offering a 10× improvement in intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency over thin-film-coated devices. Performance of present-day MSNDs are nearing theoretical limits; streaming paths between the conversion-material backfilled trenches, allow a considerable fraction of neutrons to pass undetected through the device. Dual-sided microstructured semiconductor neutron detectors (DSMSNDs) have been developed that utilize a complementary second set of trenches on the back-side of the device to count streaming neutrons. DSMSND devices are theoretically capable of greater than 80% intrinsic thermal neutron detection efficiency for a 1-mm thick device. The first such prototype DSMSNDs, presented here, have achieved 29.48±0.29% nearly 2× better than MSNDs with similar microstructure dimensions.

  14. On the Correlation of Specific Film Thickness and Gear Pitting Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the lubrication regime on gear performance has been recognized, qualitatively, for decades. Often the lubrication regime is characterized by the specific film thickness defined as the ratio of lubricant film thickness to the composite surface roughness. It can be difficult to combine results of studies to create a cohesive and comprehensive dataset. In this work gear surface fatigue lives for a wide range of specific film values were studied using tests done with common rigs, speeds, lubricant temperatures, and test procedures. This study includes previously reported data, results of an additional 50 tests, and detailed information from lab notes and tested gears. The dataset comprised 258 tests covering specific film values (0.47 to 5.2). The experimentally determined surface fatigue lives, quantified as 10-percent life estimates, ranged from 8.7 to 86.8 million cycles. The trend is one of increasing life for increasing specific film. The trend is nonlinear. The observed trends were found to be in good agreement with data and recommended practice for gears and bearings. The results obtained will perhaps allow for the specific film parameter to be used with more confidence and precision to assess gear surface fatigue for purpose of design, rating, and technology development.

  15. Shaping thin film growth and microstructure pathways via plasma and deposition energy: a detailed theoretical, computational and experimental analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Bibhuti Bhusan; Han, Jeon Geon; Kersten, Holger

    2017-02-15

    Understanding the science and engineering of thin films using plasma assisted deposition methods with controlled growth and microstructure is a key issue in modern nanotechnology, impacting both fundamental research and technological applications. Different plasma parameters like electrons, ions, radical species and neutrals play a critical role in nucleation and growth and the corresponding film microstructure as well as plasma-induced surface chemistry. The film microstructure is also closely associated with deposition energy which is controlled by electrons, ions, radical species and activated neutrals. The integrated studies on the fundamental physical properties that govern the plasmas seek to determine their structure and modification capabilities under specific experimental conditions. There is a requirement for identification, determination, and quantification of the surface activity of the species in the plasma. Here, we report a detailed study of hydrogenated amorphous and crystalline silicon (c-Si:H) processes to investigate the evolution of plasma parameters using a theoretical model. The deposition processes undertaken using a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method are characterized by a reactive mixture of hydrogen and silane. Later, various contributions of energy fluxes on the substrate are considered and modeled to investigate their role in the growth of the microstructure of the deposited film. Numerous plasma diagnostic tools are used to compare the experimental data with the theoretical results. The film growth and microstructure are evaluated in light of deposition energy flux under different operating conditions.

  16. The influence of thin film grain size on the size of nanoparticles generated during UV femtosecond laser ablation of thin gold films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haustrup, N.; O’Connor, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    The upsurge in the number of thin film products has encouraged studies into every aspect of their fabrication and application. An additional source of industrial interest is the laser ablation of thin films to generate nanoparticles. This technique offers advantages over other fabrication methods, as no chemical pre-cursers are required, thereby giving rise to a pure product. The main disadvantage lies in the difficulty with controlling the size of the nanoparticles. This study aims to clarify the influence of the microstructure of a thin film on its optical properties and also to establish the size relationship between the film grain and the nanoparticles generated during laser ablation. A comprehensive sample set of Gold (Au) films with different grain sizes was achieved using different deposition rates, temperatures, film thicknesses (<100 nm) and substrates: Silica, Quartz and Sapphire. The microstructure of each film was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Single femtosecond laser pulses, above the ablation threshold fluence of each film, were applied to generate nanoparticles. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to image the re-deposited nanoparticles, from which the nanoparticle size distribution was established. Results confirm that the film microstructure is directly linked to the nanoparticles generated during laser ablation.

  17. The influence of thin film grain size on the size of nanoparticles generated during UV femtosecond laser ablation of thin gold films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haustrup, N., E-mail: natalie.haustrup@nuigalway.ie [National Centre for Laser Applications, School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); O’Connor, G.M. [National Centre for Laser Applications, School of Physics, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2013-08-01

    The upsurge in the number of thin film products has encouraged studies into every aspect of their fabrication and application. An additional source of industrial interest is the laser ablation of thin films to generate nanoparticles. This technique offers advantages over other fabrication methods, as no chemical pre-cursers are required, thereby giving rise to a pure product. The main disadvantage lies in the difficulty with controlling the size of the nanoparticles. This study aims to clarify the influence of the microstructure of a thin film on its optical properties and also to establish the size relationship between the film grain and the nanoparticles generated during laser ablation. A comprehensive sample set of Gold (Au) films with different grain sizes was achieved using different deposition rates, temperatures, film thicknesses (<100 nm) and substrates: Silica, Quartz and Sapphire. The microstructure of each film was analyzed using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Single femtosecond laser pulses, above the ablation threshold fluence of each film, were applied to generate nanoparticles. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to image the re-deposited nanoparticles, from which the nanoparticle size distribution was established. Results confirm that the film microstructure is directly linked to the nanoparticles generated during laser ablation.

  18. Frequency characteristics of the MIM thick film capacitors fabricated by laser micro-cladding electronic pastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao Yu; Li Xiangyou [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Sci and Tech, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei (China); Zeng Xiaoyan [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Sci and Tech, 430074 Wuhan, Hubei (China)], E-mail: xyzeng@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2008-05-25

    With rapid development of the electronic industry, how to respond the market requests quickly, shorten R and D prototyping fabrication period, and reduce the cost of the electronic devices have become a challenge work, which need flexible manufacturing methods. In this work, two direct write processing methods, direct material deposition by microPen and Nd:YAG laser micro-cladding, are integrated with CAD/CAM technology for the hybrid fabrication of passive electronic components. Especially, the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) type thick film capacitors are fabricated on ceramic substrates by this method. A basic two-step procedure of laser micro-cladding electronic pastes (LMCEPs) process for the thick film pattern preparation is presented. For a better understanding of the MIM thick film capacitor characterization, equivalent circuit models at low-frequency and high-frequency domains are introduced, respectively. The frequency characteristics tests up to 1.8 GHz of capacitance stability, equivalent series resistance (ESR), equivalent series inductance (ESL) and impendence are performed, and the results show good DC voltage stability (<2.48%), good frequency stability (<2.6%) and low dissipation factor (<0.6%) of the MIM thick film capacitors, which may get application to megahertz regions. The further developments of the LMCEP process for fabricating MIM thick film capacitors are also investigated.

  19. Frequency characteristics of the MIM thick film capacitors fabricated by laser micro-cladding electronic pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Yu; Li Xiangyou; Zeng Xiaoyan

    2008-01-01

    With rapid development of the electronic industry, how to respond the market requests quickly, shorten R and D prototyping fabrication period, and reduce the cost of the electronic devices have become a challenge work, which need flexible manufacturing methods. In this work, two direct write processing methods, direct material deposition by microPen and Nd:YAG laser micro-cladding, are integrated with CAD/CAM technology for the hybrid fabrication of passive electronic components. Especially, the metal-insulator-metal (MIM) type thick film capacitors are fabricated on ceramic substrates by this method. A basic two-step procedure of laser micro-cladding electronic pastes (LMCEPs) process for the thick film pattern preparation is presented. For a better understanding of the MIM thick film capacitor characterization, equivalent circuit models at low-frequency and high-frequency domains are introduced, respectively. The frequency characteristics tests up to 1.8 GHz of capacitance stability, equivalent series resistance (ESR), equivalent series inductance (ESL) and impendence are performed, and the results show good DC voltage stability (<2.48%), good frequency stability (<2.6%) and low dissipation factor (<0.6%) of the MIM thick film capacitors, which may get application to megahertz regions. The further developments of the LMCEP process for fabricating MIM thick film capacitors are also investigated

  20. Structural-optical study of high-dielectric-constant oxide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losurdo, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Department of Chemistry and INSTM Universita di bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy)]. E-mail: maria.losurdo@ba.imip.cnr.it; Giangregorio, M.M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Department of Chemistry and INSTM Universita di bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Luchena, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Department of Chemistry and INSTM Universita di bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Capezzuto, P. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Department of Chemistry and INSTM Universita di bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Bruno, G. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas, IMIP-CNR, Department of Chemistry and INSTM Universita di bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Toro, R.G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Catania, and INSTM-UdR Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Malandrino, G. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Catania, and INSTM-UdR Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Fragala, I.L. [Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita di Catania, and INSTM-UdR Catania, Viale A. Doria 6, I-95125 Catania (Italy); Nigro, R. Lo [Istituto di Microelettronica e Microsistemi, IMM-CNR, Stradale Primosole 50, I-95121 Catania (Italy)

    2006-10-31

    High-k polycrystalline Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} and amorphous LaAlO{sub 3} oxide thin films deposited on Si(0 0 1) are studied. The microstructure is investigated using X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Optical properties are determined in the 0.75-6.5 eV photon energy range using spectroscopic ellipsometry. The polycrystalline Pr{sub 2}O{sub 3} films have an optical gap of 3.86 eV and a dielectric constant of 16-26, which increases with film thickness. Similarly, very thin amorphous LaAlO{sub 3} films have the optical gap of 5.8 eV, and a dielectric constant below 14 which also increases with film thickness. The lower dielectric constant compared to crystalline material is an intrinsic characteristic of amorphous films.

  1. Effect of Firing Temperature on Humidity Sensing Properties of SnO2 Thick Film Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y. Borse

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Thick films of SnO2 were prepared using standard screen printing technique. The films were dried and fired at different temperatures. Tin-oxide is an n-type wide band gap semiconductor, whose resistance is described as a function of relative humidity. An increasing firing temperature on SnO2 film increases the sensitivity to humidity. The parameters such as sensitivity, response times and hysteresis of the SnO2 film sensors have been evaluated. The thick films were characterized by XRD, SEM and EDAX and grain size, composition of elements, relative phases are obtained.

  2. Phase and thickness dependence of thermal diffusivity in a-SiCxNy and a-BCxNy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, L.C.; Chien, S.C.; Lin, S.T.; Wu, C.T.; Chen, K.H.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity (α) and bonding configuration of amorphous silicon carbon nitride (a-SiC x N y ) and boron carbon nitride (a-BC x N y ) films on silicon substrates were studied. Measurement of α by the traveling wave technique and bonding characterisation through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in a-SiC x N y and a-BC x N y films having different carbon concentrations revealed that lower coordinated bonds were detrimental to the thermal diffusivity of these films. Furthermore, α was found to depend on the thickness of these films deposited on silicon. This was attributed to the interface thermal resistance between two thermally different materials, the film and the substrate, although other factors such as film microstructure could also play a role. An empirical relation for the variation of thermal diffusivity with thickness is proposed

  3. Assessment of Choroidal Microstructure and Subfoveal Thickness Change in Eyes With Different Stages of Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Linna; Xu, Shiqiong; He, Fangling; Liu, Yan; Zhang, Yidan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Zhiliang; Fan, Xianqun

    2016-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of irreversible blindness. Choroidal structural changes seem to be inevitable in AMD pathogenesis. Our study revealed associated choroidal microstructural changes in AMD eyes.The aim of the study was to compare choroidal microstructural changes in eyes with AMD of different stages.The study was a retrospective, cross-sectional case series.The participants comprised of 32 age-matched normal eyes as controls, and 26 fellow uninvolved eyes of intermediate/late AMD, 29 of early AMD, 28 of intermediate AMD, and 39 of late AMD.All subjects underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic examination. The choroid images, including subfoveal choroidal thickness, percentage of Sattler layer area, and en face images of the choroid, were obtained using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.The main outcome measures were subfoveal choroidal thickness changes, percentage of Sattler layer area changes, and en face images of the choroid in AMD eyes.One hundred fifty-four eyes of 96 individuals with mean age of 67.1±9.2 years were included. The mean subfoveal choroidal thickness was 295.4 ± 56.8 μm in age-matched normal eyes, 306.7 ± 68.4 μm in fellow uninvolved eyes with AMD, 293.8 ± 80.4 μm in early AMD, 215.6 ± 80.4 μm in intermediate AMD, and 200.4 ± 66.6 μm in late AMD (F = 14.2, all P < 0.001). Choroidal thickness was greater in early AMD eyes than in intermediate/late AMD eyes (P < 0.001). Mean percentage of Sattler layer area in each group showed a similar tendency. Microstructure of the choroid showed reduced vascular density of Sattler layer areas in late AMD eyes compared with normal eyes.Decreasing subfoveal choroidal thickness and percentage of Sattler layer area were demonstrated in the progression of AMD. The choroidal change was related to atrophy of the microstructural changes of underlying capillaries and medium-sized vessels.

  4. Microstructural evolution of nanochannel CrN films under ion irradiation at elevated temperature and post-irradiation annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jun; Hong, Mengqing; Wang, Yongqiang; Qin, Wenjing; Ren, Feng; Dong, Lan; Wang, Hui; Hu, Lulu; Cai, Guangxu; Jiang, Changzhong

    2018-03-01

    High-performance radiation tolerance materials are crucial for the success of future advanced nuclear reactors. In this paper, we present a further investigation that the "vein-like" nanochannel films can enhance radiation tolerance under ion irradiation at high temperature and post-irradiation annealing. The chromium nitride (CrN) nanochannel films with different nanochannel densities and the compact CrN film are chosen as a model system for these studies. Microstructural evolution of these films were investigated using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD) and Grazing Incidence X-ray Diffraction (GIXRD). Under the high fluence He+ ion irradiation at 500 °C, small He bubbles with low bubble densities are observed in the irradiated nanochannel CrN films, while the aligned large He bubbles, blistering and texture reconstruction are found in the irradiated compact CrN film. For the heavy Ar2+ ion irradiation at 500 °C, the microstructure of the nanochannel CrN RT film is more stable than that of the compact CrN film due to the effective releasing of defects via the nanochannel structure. Under the He+ ion irradiation and subsequent annealing, compared with the compact film, the nanochannel films have excellent performance for the suppression of He bubble growth and possess the strong microstructural stability. Basing on the analysis on the sizes and number densities of bubbles as well as the concentrations of He retained in the nanochannel CrN films and the compact CrN film under different experimental conditions, potential mechanism for the enhanced radiation tolerance are discussed. Nanochannels play a crucial role on the release of He/defects under ion irradiation. We conclude that the tailored "vein-like" nanochannel structure may be used as advanced radiation tolerance materials for future nuclear reactors.

  5. Shearing Nanometer-Thick Confined Hydrocarbon Films: Friction and Adhesion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sivebæk, I. M.; Persson, B. N. J.

    2016-01-01

    We present molecular dynamics (MD) friction and adhesion calculations for nanometer-thick confined hydrocarbon films with molecular lengths 20, 100 and 1400 carbon atoms. We study the dependency of the frictional shear stress on the confining pressure and sliding speed. We present results...

  6. Structural Properties Characterized by the Film Thickness and Annealing Temperature for La2O3 Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Liu, Hongxia; Zhao, Lu; Fei, Chenxi; Feng, Xingyao; Chen, Shupeng; Wang, Yongte

    2017-12-01

    La 2 O 3 films were grown on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition technique with different thickness. Crystallization characteristics of the La 2 O 3 films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction after post-deposition rapid thermal annealing treatments at several annealing temperatures. It was found that the crystallization behaviors of the La 2 O 3 films are affected by the film thickness and annealing temperatures as a relationship with the diffusion of Si substrate. Compared with the amorphous La 2 O 3 films, the crystallized films were observed to be more unstable due to the hygroscopicity of La 2 O 3 . Besides, the impacts of crystallization characteristics on the bandgap and refractive index of the La 2 O 3 films were also investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry, respectively.

  7. Inhomogeneity of Microstructure and Properties of 7085-T651 Aluminum Alloy Extra-thick Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Chengbo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Inhomogeneity of microstructure and properties of 7085-T651 aluminum alloy extra-thick plate were investigated by tensile properties, exfoliation corrosion, optical microscopy(OM, composition analysis, scanning electron microscopy(SEM,differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The results show that the microstructure, tensile property and exfoliation corrosion in different layers of 7085-T651 aluminum alloy of 110 mm thick are inhomogeneous. For the 1/4 thickness layer, the tensile strength is the minimum, 540 MPa, and the resistance to exfoliation corrosion of this layer is the worst, with exfoliation corrosion classification of EB. For the core layer, the tensile strength is the maximum, 580 MPa. The resistance to exfoliation corrosion of the surface layer is the best, with exfoliation corrosion classification of EA. For the 1/4 thickness layer, it has the largest recrystallized fraction up to about 47.7% and the grain size is about 105 μm; there are equilibrium phase particles precipitated on grain boundaries or within grains; the size of aging precipitates is small; and thus both mechanical properties and resistance to exfoliation corrosion are the worst. For the core layer, it has the smallest recrystallized fraction of about 14.8% and there are a large amount of sub-grains; the fraction of residual phase Al7Cu2Fe almost reaches up to about 1.43%; the size of the equilibrium phase on grain boundaries, the size of aging precipitates and the width of PFZ are large, and therefore good mechanical properties and bad resistance to exfoliation corrosion are obtained.

  8. Effect of thickness and temperature of copper phthalocyanine films on their properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alieva Kh. S.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The research has shown that copper phthalocyanine films, having a set of unique properties, can be successfully used as gas-sensitive coating of resistive structures. The thickness of the film, in contrast to its temperature, is not the determining factor for high sensitivity. Low operating temperature of structures with copper phthalocyanine films allows to exploit them in economy mode.

  9. Quantitative characterization of the composition, thickness and orientation of thin films in the analytical electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.B.; Watanabe, M.; Papworth, A.J.; Li, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Compositional variations in thin films can introduce lattice-parameter changes and thus create stresses, in addition to the more usual stresses introduced by substrate-film mismatch, differential thermal expansion, etc. Analytical electron microscopy comprising X-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry within a probe-forming field-emission gun scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) is one of the most powerful methods of composition measurement on the nanometer scale, essential for thin-film analysis. Recently, with the development of improved X-ray collection efficiencies and quantitative computation methods it has proved possible to map out composition variations in thin films with a spatial resolution approaching 1-2 nm. Because the absorption of X-rays is dependent on the film thickness, concurrent composition and film thickness determination is another advantage of X-ray microanalysis, thus correlating thickness and composition variations, either of which may contribute to stresses in the film. Specific phenomena such as segregation to interfaces and boundaries in the film are ideally suited to analysis by X-ray mapping. This approach also permits multiple boundaries to be examined, giving some statistical certainty to the analysis particularly in nano-crystalline materials with grain sizes greater than the film thickness. Boundary segregation is strongly affected by crystallographic misorientation and it is now possible to map out the orientation between many different grains in the (S)TEM

  10. Effects of Thickness, Pulse Duration, and Size of Strip Electrode on Ferroelectric Electron Emission of Lead Zirconate Titanate Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Ren, Wei; Chen, Xiaofeng; Feng, Yujun; Shi, Peng; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2018-02-01

    Sol-gel-derived lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-film emitters with thickness up to 9.8 μm have been prepared on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si wafer via chemical solution deposition with/without polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) modification, and the relationship between the film thickness and electron emission investigated. Notable electron emission was observed on application of a trigger voltage of 120 V for PZT film with thickness of 1.1 μm. Increasing the film thickness decreased the threshold field to initiate electron emission for non-PVP-modified films. In contrast, the electron emission behavior of PVP-modified films did not show significant dependence on film thickness, probably due to their porous structure. The emission current increased with decreasing strip width and space between strips. Furthermore, it was observed that increasing the duration of the applied pulse increased the magnitude of the emission current. The stray field on the PZT film thickness was also calculated and found to increase with increasing ferroelectric sample thickness. The PZT emitters were found to be fatigue free up to 105 emission cycles. Saturated emission current of around 25 mA to 30 mA was achieved for the electrode pattern used in this work.

  11. Thickness dependent electrical properties of CdO thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, L.C.S.; Rao, K.S.R.K.

    1999-01-01

    A large number of thin films of cadmium oxide have been prepared on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis method. The prepared films have uniform thickness varying from 200-600 nm and good adherence to the glass substrate. A systematic study has been made on the influence of thickness on resistivity, sheet resistance, carrier concentration and mobility of the films. The resistivity, sheet resistance, carrier concentration and mobility values varied from 1.56-5.72x10 -3 Ω-cm, 128-189 Ω/□, 1.6-3.9x10 21 cm -3 and 0.3-3 cm 2 /Vs, respectively for varying film thickness. A systematic increase in mobility with grain size clearly indicates the reduction of overall scattering of charge carriers at the grain boundaries. The large concentration of charge carriers and low mobility values have been attributed to the presence of Cd as an impurity in CdO microcrystallites. Using the optical transmission data, the band gap was estimated and found to vary from 2.20-2.42 eV. These films have transmittance around 77% and average reflectance is below 2.6% in the spectral range 350-850 nm. The films are n-type and polycrystalline in nature. SEM micrographs of the CdO films were taken and the films exhibit clear grains and grain boundary formation at a substrate temperature as low as 523 K. (author)

  12. Effect of Layer Thickness in Selective Laser Melting on Microstructure of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 Powder Consolidated Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Dadbakhsh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ reaction was activated in the powder mixture of Al/5 wt.%Fe2O3 by using selective laser melting (SLM to directly fabricate aluminium metal matrix composite parts. The microstructural characteristics of these in situ consolidated parts through SLM were investigated under the influence of thick powder bed, 75 μm layer thickness, and 50 μm layer thickness in various laser powers and scanning speeds. It was found that the layer thickness has a strong influence on microstructural outcome, mainly attributed to its impact on oxygen content of the matrix. Various microstructural features (such as granular, coralline-like, and particulate appearance were observed depending on the layer thickness, laser power, and scanning speed. This was associated with various material combinations such as pure Al, Al-Fe intermetallics, and Al(-Fe oxide phases formed after in situ reaction and laser rapid solidification. Uniformly distributed very fine particles could be consolidated in net-shape Al composite parts by using lower layer thickness, higher laser power, and lower scanning speed. The findings contribute to the new development of advanced net-shape manufacture of Al composites by combining SLM and in situ reaction process.

  13. Preparation and Study the Electrical, Structural and Gas Sensing Properties of ZnO Thick Film Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. DEORE

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Thick films of AR grade ZnO were prepared on glass substrate by screen-printing technique. These films were dried and fired at different temperatures between 550 oC, 600 oC and 650 oC for one hour in air atmosphere. The gas sensing performance of thick films was tested for various gases. ZnO films showed larger response (sensitivity to H2S gas (100 ppm at 250 oC for firing temperature 650 oC. The Morphological, Compositional and Structural properties of the ZnO thick films were performed by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX and XRD technique respectively. Chemical composition of ZnO film samples changes with firing temperature showing non-stoichiometric behaviours. XRD study indicated the formation of polycrystalline ZnO films with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The gas response (sensitivity, selectivity, response and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  14. Microstructure and morphology of SiOx film deposited by APCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiliang; Li Jian; Luo Laima; Wo Yinhua

    2009-01-01

    A kind of silicon rich oxide (SiO x ) film deposited on aluminum substrate by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) was reported. The morphology and microstructure of the film were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron diffraction (TED). The deposition process is proposed to be a series of nucleation, growth and close stacking of non-uniform SiO x cells, which are stacked up by lots of SiO x laminae. A growth mechanism of the film according to the Stranski-Krastanov model is presented. In the growth process, the SiO x molecules incline to cluster like an island and merge into a layer and, then, form a laminar structure of SiO x cell. High resolution transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) picture shows that the film is basically amorphous with a little micro crystalline zone in it, which is certified by the XRD and TED results. The differences between this SiO x film and the common polycrystalline SiO 2 are also discussed in this paper

  15. The study of adhesion and nanomechanical properties of DLC films deposited on tool steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kuan-Wei; Lin, Jen-Fin

    2009-01-01

    In this study, thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited onto a steel substrate. By using the plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) technique, a nitrogen layer was formed on the steel surface before depositing the DLC films. This PIII formed nitrogen layer, which acts as the buffer layer, has apparently increased the adhesion between the DLC film and the steel substrate. The microstructures, the nanomechanical properties, and the adhesion of the DLC were investigated by the techniques of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoindentation, and nanoscratch. Results show that the hardness and Young's modulus were significantly improved, up to 2 to 9 times; while the implantation depth and the microstructure of the nitrogen layers vary with nitrogen/hydrogen ratio (N:H = 1:0, 1:1, 1:3). Raman analyses indicate that the I(D)/I(G) ratio increases with the thickness of DLC film. By using the PIII technique in the steel substrate, the adhesion of the DLC film onto the substrate is greatly enhanced, and wear resistance is elevated if the DLC film is sufficiently thick.

  16. Effect of cell thickness on the electrical and optical properties of thin film silicon solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, A. A.; El-Amin, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    In this work Electrical and optical properties of silicon thin films with different thickness were measured. The thickness of the Si films varied from 100 to 800 μm. The optical properties of the cell were studied at different thickness. A maximum achievable current density (MACD) generated by a planar solar cell, was measured for different values of the cell thickness which was performed by using photovoltaic (PV) optics method. It was found that reducing the values of the cell thickness improves the open-circuit voltage (VOC) and the fill factor (FF) of the solar cell. The optical properties were measured for thin film Si (TF-Si) at different thickness by using the double beam UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 300-2000 nm. Some of optical parameters such as refractive index with dispersion relation, the dispersion energy, the oscillator energy, optical band gap energy were calculated by using the spectra for the TF-Si with different thickness.

  17. The Effects of Film Thickness and Evaporation Rate on Si-Cu Thin Films for Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, B Deniz; Keles, Ozgul

    2015-12-01

    The reversible cyclability of Si based composite anodes is greatly improved by optimizing the atomic ratio of Si/Cu, the thickness and the evaporation rates of films fabricated by electron beam deposition method. The galvanostatic test results show that 500 nm thick flim, having 10%at. Cu-90%at. Si, deposited with a moderate evaporation rate (10 and 0.9 Å/s for Si and Cu respectively) delivers 2642.37 mAh g(-1) as the first discharge capacity with 76% Coulombic efficiency. 99% of its initial capacity is retained after 20 cycles. The electron conductive pathway and high mechanical tolerance induced by Cu atoms, the low electrical resistivity of the film due to Cu3Si particles, and the homogeneously distributed nano-sized/amorphous particles in the composite thin film could explain this outstanding electrochemical performance of the anode.

  18. Scale Dependence of the Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of Crustaceans Thin Films as Biomimetic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Devendra; Qu, Tao; Tomar, Vikas

    2015-04-01

    The exoskeletons of crustacean species in the form of thin films have been investigated by several researchers to better understand the role played by the exoskeletal structure in affecting the functioning of species such as shrimps, crabs, and lobsters. These species exhibit similar designs in their exoskeleton microstructure, such as a Bouligand pattern (twisted plywood structure), layers of different thickness across cross section, change in mineral content through the layers, etc. Different parts of crustaceans exhibit a significant variation in mechanical properties based on the variation in the above-mentioned parameters. This change in mechanical properties has been analyzed by using imaging techniques such as scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and by using mechanical characterization techniques such as nanoindentation and atomic force microscopy. In this article, the design principles of these biological composites are discussed based on two shrimp species: Rimicaris exoculata and Pandalus platyceros.

  19. Determination of oxide film thickness on aluminium using 14-MeV neutron activation and BET method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, H.

    1983-01-01

    A new method is described for the determination of the mean film thickness of aluminium oxides by 14-MeV neutron activation analysis of the oxygen and by BET measurement of the surface area. The mean film thickness obtained is independent of the surface roughness. Stable oxide films consisting of only a few atomic layers of oxygen are detected on aluminium. (author)

  20. Thickness determination of large-area films of yttria-stabilized zirconia produced by pulsed laser deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryds, N.; Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Bilde-Sørensen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    of the attenuation for various values of film thickness with the program CASINO. These results have been compared with direct measurements in the SEM of the film thickness on a cross-section on one of the wafers. The results of these measurements demonstrate the ability of this technique to accurately determine...

  1. Thickness dependent growth of low temperature atomic layer deposited zinc oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel-González, Z.; Castelo-González, O.A.; Aguilar-Gama, M.T.; Ramírez-Morales, E.; Hu, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline columnar ZnO thin films deposited by ALD at low temperatures. • Higher deposition temperature leads to a greater surface roughness in the ALD ZnO films. • Higher temperature originates larger refractive index values of the ALD ZnO films. • ZnO thin films were denser as the numbers of ALD deposition cycles were larger. • XPS analysis revels mayor extent of the DEZ reaction during the ALD process. - Abstract: Zinc oxide films are promising to improve the performance of electronic devices, including those based on organic materials. However, the dependence of the ZnO properties on the preparation conditions represents a challenge to obtain homogeneous thin films that satisfy specific applications. Here, we prepared ZnO films of a wide range of thicknesses by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at relatively low temperatures, 150 and 175 °C. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry it is concluded that the polycrystalline structure of the wurtzite is the main phase of the ALD samples, with OH groups on their surface. Ellipsometry revealed that the temperature and the deposition cycles have a strong effect on the films roughness. Scanning electron micrographs evidenced such effect, through the large pyramids developed at the surface of the films. It is concluded that crystalline ZnO thin films within a broad range of thickness and roughness can be obtained for optic or optoelectronic applications.

  2. Properties of second phase (BaSnO3, Sn) added-YBCO thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, E.; Matsuoka, Y.

    1997-01-01

    The improvement of the critical current density J c of YBCO thick films has been attempted by adding BaSnO 3 powder and ultrafine Sn particles, whose diameter is about 2 μm and 7 x 10 -2 μm, respectively. It was found that the addition of a small amount of these particles was effective for the enhancement of J c of thick films prepared by a liquid-phase processing method. The 1 wt.% BaSnO 3 films fired at T s =1040-1060 C and the 3 wt.% Sn films (T s =1030-1060 C) showed J c values (77 K, 0 T) of about 2.1-2.4 x 10 3 Acm -2 and 3.1-3.5 x 10 3 Acm -2 , respectively, as compared to 2.0 x 10 3 Acm -2 for the undoped films. (orig.)

  3. Modification of the microstructure of the films formed by gamma irradiated starch examined by SEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieśla, K.; Sartowska, B.

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns the effect of gamma irradiation carried out for starch on the microstructure of the films prepared using the starch and its composition with sodium laurate (NaLau) and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Potato starch was irradiated with 60Co gamma rays applying a dose of 30 kGy. Films were prepared by the solution casting method with the addition of 30 wt% glycerol as a plasticizer. Films containing NaLau and CTAB were prepared after performing the procedure, leading to starch-surfactant complexes. Mechanical tests and wetting angle measurements were performed for the films. SEM observations were carried out for the surfaces, fractures and/or sections of the films subjected to chemical fixation and for the dried films. The films obtained using irradiated starch are characterized by a smoother and more homogeneous structure as compared to those based on the non-irradiated starch. Besides, a number of small precipitates were observed on the films surfaces after drying and the number of those precipitates seemed to be higher after irradiation. The results can be related to differences in the microstructure of gels formed on the intermediate step of the films preparation and to the presence of two phases in the system and might serve for explanation of the radiation induced improvement of the hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties, a modification of the mechanical properties of the films, as well as for the changes of those properties resulting after storage.

  4. Reaction products between Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide thick films and alumina substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarco, J.A.; Ilushechkin, A.; Yamashita, T.; Bhargava, A.; Barry, J.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The structure and composition of reaction products between Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide (BSCCO) thick films and alumina substrates have been characterized using a combination of electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sr and Ca are found to be the most reactive cations with alumina. Sr 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 is formed between the alumina substrates and BSCCO thick films prepared from paste with composition close to Bi-2212 (and Bi-2212+10 wt.% Ag). For paste with composition close to Bi(Pb)-2223 +20 wt.% Ag, a new phase with f.c.c. structure, lattice parameter about a=24.5 A and approximate composition Al 3 Sr 2 CaBi 2 CuO x has been identified in the interface region. Understanding and control of these reactions is essential for growth of high quality BSCCO thick films on alumina. (orig.)

  5. An experimental assessment of the size effects on the strength and ductility of freestanding copper films under macroscopically homogenous deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Shakti Singh

    Metallic interconnects and circuitry has been experiencing excessive deformation beyond their elastic limits in many applications, ranging from micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) to flexible electronics. These broad applications are creating needs to understand the extent of strength and ductility of freestanding metallic films at scales approaching the micron and sub micron range. This work aims to elucidate the effects of microstructural constraint as well as geometric dimensional constraint on the strength and ductility of freestanding Cu films under uniaxial tension. Two types of films are tested (i) high purity rolled films of 12.5-100microm thickness and average grain sizes of 11-47microm and (ii) electroplated films of 2-50 microm thickness and average grain sizes of 1.8-5microm. Several experimental tools including residual electrical resistivity measurements, surface strain measurements and surface roughness measurements are employed to highlight the underlying deformation mechanisms leading to the observed size effects. With respect to the strength of the specimens, we find that the nature and magnitude of thickness effects is very sensitive to the average grain size. In all cases, coupled thickness and grain size effects were observed. This study shows that this observed coupling, unique to the case of freestanding specimen, arises because the observed size effects are an outcome of the size dependence of two fundamental microstructural parameters i.e. volume fraction of surface grains and grain boundary area per unit specimen volume. For films having thickness and grain sizes greater than 5microm, thickness dependent weakening is observed for a constant grain size. Reducing thickness results in an increase in the volume fraction of grains exposed to the free surface as well as a reduction in the grain boundary area per unit specimen volume. The former effect leads to a reduction in the effective microstructural constraint on the intragranular

  6. A method for thickness determination of thin films of amalgamable metals by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennun, L.; Greaves, E.D.; Barros, H.; Diaz-Valdes, J.

    2009-01-01

    A method for thickness determination of thin amalgamable metallic films by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is presented. The peak's intensity in TXRF spectra are directly related to the surface density of the sample, i.e. to its thickness in a homogeneous film. Performing a traditional TXRF analysis on a thin film of an amalgamated metal, and determining the relative peak intensity of a specific metal line, the layer thickness can be precisely obtained. In the case of gold thickness determination, mercury and gold peaks overlap, hence we have developed a general data processing scheme to achieve the most precise results.

  7. Aerosol deposition of (Cu,Ti) substituted bismuth vanadate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Exner, Jörg, E-mail: Functional.Materials@Uni-Bayreuth.de [University of Bayreuth, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Fuierer, Paul [Materials and Metallurgical Engineering Department, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Moos, Ralf [University of Bayreuth, Department of Functional Materials, Universitätsstraße 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

    2014-12-31

    Bismuth vanadate, Bi{sub 4}V{sub 2}O{sub 11}, and related compounds with various metal (Me) substitutions, Bi{sub 4}(Me{sub x}V{sub 1−x}){sub 2}O{sub 11−δ}, show some of the highest ionic conductivities among the known solid oxide electrolytes. Films of Cu and Ti substituted bismuth vanadate were prepared by an aerosol deposition method, a spray coating process also described as room temperature impact consolidation. Resultant films, several microns in thickness, were dense with good adhesion to the substrate. Scanning electron microscopy and high temperature X-ray diffraction were used to monitor the effects of temperature on the structure and microstructure of the film. The particle size remained nano-scale while microstrain decreased rapidly up to 500 °C, above which coarsening and texturing increased rapidly. Impedance measurements of films deposited on inter-digital electrodes revealed an annealing effect on the ionic conductivity, with the conductivity exceeding that of a screen printed film, and approaching that of bulk ceramic. - Highlights: • Cu and Ti doped bismuth vanadate films were prepared by aerosol deposition (AD). • Dense 3–5 μm thick films were deposited on alumina, silicon and gold electrodes. • Annealing of the AD-layer increases the conductivity by 1.5 orders of magnitude. • Effect of temperature on structure and microstructure was investigated.

  8. Microstructural properties of BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics and thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fundora C, A.; Portelles, J.J.; Siqueiros, J.M. [Posgrado en Fisica de Materiales, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada. Apartado Postal 2861, 22800 Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    A microstructural study of BaTiO{sub 3} ceramics obtained by the conventional ceramic method is presented. Targets were produced to grow BaTiO{sub 3} thin films by pulsed laser deposition on Pt/Ti/Si (100) substrates. X-ray diffraction, Auger Electron Spectroscopy, X-ray Photon Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to study the properties of the BaTiO{sub 3} ceramic samples and thin films, as deposited and after an annealing process. (Author)

  9. Interaction domains in high-performance NdFeB thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodcock, T.G. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)], E-mail: t.woodcock@ifw-dresden.de; Khlopkov, K. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Walther, A. [Insitut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 avenue de Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); CEA Leti - MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Dempsey, N.M.; Givord, D. [Insitut Neel, CNRS-UJF, 25 avenue de Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Schultz, L.; Gutfleisch, O. [IFW Dresden, Institute for Metallic Materials, P.O. Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    The magnetic domain structure in sputtered NdFeB thick films has been imaged by magnetic force microscopy. The local texture of the films was investigated by electron backscatter diffraction. The average misorientation of the grains was shown to decrease with increasing substrate temperature during deposition. Interaction domains were observed and are discussed with reference (i) to the sample grain size compared to the single domain particle size and (ii) to sample texture.

  10. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to MTR environment measurements. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to Material Testing Reactor environment measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very, F.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Combette, P.; Ferrandis, J.Y.; Fourmentel, D.; Destouches, C.; Villard, J.F.

    2015-01-01

    The development of advanced instrumentation for in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor constitutes a main goal for the improvement of the nuclear fuel behavior knowledge. An acoustic method for fission gas release detection was tested with success during a first experiment called REMORA 3 in 2010 and 2011, and the results were used to differentiate helium and fission gas release kinetics under transient operating conditions. This experiment was lead at OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay, France). The maximal temperature on the sensor during the irradiation was about 150 deg. C. In this paper we present a thick film transducer produce by screen printing process. The screen printing of piezoelectric offers a wide range of possible applications for the development of acoustic sensors and piezoelectric structure for measurements in high temperature environment. We firstly produced a Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based paste composed of Pz27 powder from Ferroperm, CF7575 glass, and organic solvent ESL 400. Likewise a Bismuth Titanate based paste synthesized in our laboratory was produced. With these inks we produced thick film up to 130 μm by screen printing process. Material properties characterizations of these thick-film resonators are essential for device design and applications. The piezoelectric coefficients d33 and pyro-electric P(T) coefficient are investigated. The highest P(T) and d33 are respectively 80 μC.m -2 .K -1 and 130 μC.N -1 for the PZT transducer -which validates the fabrication process-. In view of the development of this transducer oriented for high temperature and irradiation environment, we investigated the electrical properties of the transducers for different ranges of frequencies and temperature - from 20 Hz up to 40 MHz between 30 and 400 deg. C. We highlight the evolution of the impedance response and piezoelectric parameters of screen printed piezoelectric structures on alumina. Shortly an irradiation will be realized in order to

  11. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to MTR environment measurements. Thick Films acoustic sensors devoted to Material Testing Reactor environment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Very, F.; Rosenkrantz, E.; Combette, P.; Ferrandis, J.Y. [University Montpellier, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); CNRS, IES, UMR 5214, F-34000, Montpellier (France); Fourmentel, D.; Destouches, C.; Villard, J.F. [CEA, DEN, Instrumentation Sensors and Dosimetry Laboratory, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)

    2015-07-01

    The development of advanced instrumentation for in-pile experiments in Material Testing Reactor constitutes a main goal for the improvement of the nuclear fuel behavior knowledge. An acoustic method for fission gas release detection was tested with success during a first experiment called REMORA 3 in 2010 and 2011, and the results were used to differentiate helium and fission gas release kinetics under transient operating conditions. This experiment was lead at OSIRIS reactor (CEA Saclay, France). The maximal temperature on the sensor during the irradiation was about 150 deg. C. In this paper we present a thick film transducer produce by screen printing process. The screen printing of piezoelectric offers a wide range of possible applications for the development of acoustic sensors and piezoelectric structure for measurements in high temperature environment. We firstly produced a Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) based paste composed of Pz27 powder from Ferroperm, CF7575 glass, and organic solvent ESL 400. Likewise a Bismuth Titanate based paste synthesized in our laboratory was produced. With these inks we produced thick film up to 130 μm by screen printing process. Material properties characterizations of these thick-film resonators are essential for device design and applications. The piezoelectric coefficients d33 and pyro-electric P(T) coefficient are investigated. The highest P(T) and d33 are respectively 80 μC.m{sup -2}.K{sup -1} and 130 μC.N{sup -1} for the PZT transducer -which validates the fabrication process-. In view of the development of this transducer oriented for high temperature and irradiation environment, we investigated the electrical properties of the transducers for different ranges of frequencies and temperature - from 20 Hz up to 40 MHz between 30 and 400 deg. C. We highlight the evolution of the impedance response and piezoelectric parameters of screen printed piezoelectric structures on alumina. Shortly an irradiation will be realized in

  12. The effect of the film thickness and doping content of SnO2:F thin films prepared by the ultrasonic spray method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal Achour; Benramache Said; Benhaoua Boubaker

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of film thickness and doping content on the optical and electrical properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide. Tin (II) chloride dehydrate, ammonium fluoride dehydrate, ethanol and HCl were used as the starting materials, dopant source, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The doped films were deposited on a glass substrate at different concentrations varying between 0 and 5 wt% using an ultrasonic spray technique. The SnO 2 :F thin films were deposited at a 350 °C pending time (5, 15, 60 and 90 s). The average transmission was about 80%, and the films were thus transparent in the visible region. The optical energy gap of the doped films with 2.5 wt% F was found to increase from 3.47 to 3.89 eV with increasing film thickness, and increased after doping at 5 wt%. The decrease in the Urbach energy of the SnO 2 :F thin films indicated a decrease in the defects. The increase in the electrical conductivity of the films reached maximum values of 278.9 and 281.9 (Ω·cm) −1 for 2.5 and 5 wt% F, respectively, indicating that the films exhibited an n-type semiconducting nature. A systematic study on the influence of film thickness and doping content on the properties of SnO 2 :F thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray was reported. (semiconductor materials)

  13. Effect of Ag film thickness on the optical and the electrical properties in CuAlO2/Ag/CuAlO2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Dohyun; No, Young Soo; Kim, Su Youn; Cho, Woon Jo; Kwack, Kae Dal; Kim, Tae Whan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: The CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films were grown on glass substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Effects of Ag film thickness on the optical and the electrical properties in CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the phase of the CuAlO 2 layer was amorphous. Atomic force microscopy images showed that Ag films with a thickness of a few nanometers had island structures. The morphology Ag films with a thickness of 8 nm was uniform. The morphology of the Ag films inserted in the CuAlO 2 films significantly affected the optical transmittance and the resistivity of the CuAlO 2 films deposited on glass substrates. The maximum transmittance of the CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films with a thickness of 8 nm was 89.16%. The resistivity of the CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films with an Ag film thickness of 18 nm was as small as about 2.8 x 10 -5 Ω cm. The resistivity of the CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films was decreased as a result of the thermal annealing treatment. These results indicate that CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates hold promise for potential applications as TCO films in solar cells. - Abstract: Effects of Ag film thickness on the optical and the electrical properties in CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates were investigated. Atomic force microscopy images showed that Ag films with a thickness of a few nanometers had island structures. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the phase of the CuAlO 2 layer was amorphous. The resistivity of the 40 nm-CuAlO 2 /18 nm-Ag/40 nm-CuAlO 2 multilayer films was 2.8 x 10 -5 Ω cm, and the transmittance of the multilayer films with an Ag film thickness of 8 nm was approximately 89.16%. These results indicate that CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates hold promise for potential applications as

  14. Frequency Invariability of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O₃ Antiferroelectric Thick-Film Micro-Cantilevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kun; Jin, Xuechen; Meng, Jiang; Li, Xiao; Ren, Yifeng

    2018-05-13

    Micro-electromechanical systems comprising antiferroelectric layers can offer both actuation and transduction to integrated technologies. Micro-cantilevers based on the (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O₃ (PLZT) antiferroelectric thick film are fabricated by the micro-nano manufacturing process, to utilize the effect of phase transition induced strain and sharp phase switch of antiferroelectric materials. When micro-cantilevers made of antiferroelectric thick films were driven by sweep voltages, there were two resonant peaks corresponding to the natural frequency shift from 27.8 to 27.0 kHz, before and after phase transition. This is the compensation principle for the PLZT micro-cantilever to tune the natural frequency by the amplitude modulation of driving voltage, rather than of frequency modulation. Considering the natural frequency shift about 0.8 kHz and the frequency tuning ability about 156 Hz/V before the phase transition, this can compensate the frequency shift caused by increasing temperature by tuning only the amplitude of driving voltage, when the ultrasonic micro-transducer made of antiferroelectric thick films works for such a long period. Therefore, antiferroelectric thick films with hetero-structures incorporated into PLZT micro-cantilevers not only require a lower driving voltage (no more than 40 V) than rival bulk piezoelectric ceramics, but also exhibit better performance of frequency invariability, based on the amplitude modulation.

  15. Microstructural and magnetic properties of L10 FePt-C (0 0 1) textured nanocomposite films grown on different intermediate layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J S; Chow, G M; Lim, B C; Hu, J F; Ding, Y F; Ju, G

    2008-01-01

    The FePt : C films with different volume fractions of carbon and different thicknesses were epitaxially grown on a CrRu(2 0 0) underlayer with Pt and MgO intermediate layers. The magnetic properties and microstructure of these FePt : C films were investigated. The FePt : C films grown on the Pt intermediate layer consisted of a continuous layer of FePt, with overlying granular FePt grains, while the FePt : C films grown on the MgO intermediate layer consisted of granular FePt : C layers with overlying granular grains. The formation of the overlying granular FePt grains was attributed to carbon diffusion to the surface which resulted in the second nucleation of FePt. The different interface energies and surface energies of FePt on Pt and MgO intermediate layers caused the formation of an initial continuous FePt layer on the Pt intermediate layer and initial granular FePt layers on the MgO intermediate layer. The coupling between the continuous FePt layer or the granular FePt layer and the overlying granular FePt grains resulted in simultaneous magnetization reversal and thus strong exchange coupling in FePt : C films.

  16. The Effect of Film Thickness on the Gas Sensing Properties of Ultra-Thin TiO2 Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Wilson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyte sensitivity for gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxides should be highly dependent on the film thickness, particularly when that thickness is on the order of the Debye length. This thickness dependence has previously been demonstrated for SnO2 and inferred for TiO2. In this paper, TiO2 thin films have been prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD using titanium isopropoxide and water as precursors. The deposition process was performed on standard alumina gas sensor platforms and microscope slides (for analysis purposes, at a temperature of 200 °C. The TiO2 films were exposed to different concentrations of CO, CH4, NO2, NH3 and SO2 to evaluate their gas sensitivities. These experiments showed that the TiO2 film thickness played a dominant role within the conduction mechanism and the pattern of response for the electrical resistance towards CH4 and NH3 exposure indicated typical n-type semiconducting behavior. The effect of relative humidity on the gas sensitivity has also been demonstrated.

  17. Analysis of the influence of structure on mechanical properties of multilayer Ni/Cu thin films for use in microelectronic technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamovec Jelena S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer Ni/Cu thin films were produced by dual-bath electrodeposition technique (DBT on polycrystalline cold-rolled Cu substrate. Different Ni/Cu multilayer structures were realized by changing of process parameters such as total film thickness, sublayer thickness and Ni/Cu sublayer thickness ratio. The mechanical properties of Vickers microhardness and interfacial adhesion in the films were investigated. Decreasing of sublayer thickness down to 300 nm and increasing of Ni:Cu sublayer thickness ratio to 1:4, lead to higher values of Vickers microhardness compared to monolayer metal films. Thin films with sublayer thicknesses from 75 nm to 5 μm show strong interfacial adhesion. A weak adhesion and sublayer exfoliation for the films with sublayer thickness greater than 5μm were found. Three-dimensional Ni microstructures can be fabricated using multilayer Ni/Cu film by selective etching of Cu layers in an acidic thiourea solution ('surface micromachining' technique.

  18. Influence of Ag thickness of aluminum-doped ZnO/Ag/aluminum-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hung-Wei, E-mail: hwwu@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Computer and Communication, Kun Shan University, No. 949, Dawan Rd., Yongkang Dist., Tainan City 710, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ru-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Materials Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung City 912, Taiwan (China); Hsiung, Chin-Min; Chu, Chien-Hsun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung City 912, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highly conducting aluminum-doped ZnO (30 nm)/Ag (5-15 nm)/aluminum-doped ZnO (30 nm) multilayer thin films were deposited on glass substrate by rf magnetron sputtering (for top/bottom aluminum-doped ZnO films) and e-beam evaporation (for Ag film). The transmittance is more than 70% for wavelengths above 400 nm with the Ag layer thickness of 10 nm. The resistivity is 3.71 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}-cm, which can be decreased to 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} {Omega}-cm with the increase of the Ag layer thickness to 15 nm. The Haacke figure of merit has been calculated for the films with the best value being 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}. It was shown that the multilayer thin films have potential for applications in optoelectronics. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-quality Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Ag/AZO Transparent Conducting Oxide films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AZO films (30 nm) made by RF sputtering; E-beam evaporation for Ag film (5-15 nm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of Ag thickness on optical and electrical properties were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High quality multilayer film with optimal intermediate Ag layer thickness of 10 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3.71 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}-cm resistivity, 91.89% transmittance at 470 nm obtained and reproducible.

  19. Microstructural study by XPS and GISAXS of surface layers formed via phase separation and percolation in polystyren/tetrabutyl titanate/alumina composite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yanwei; Tian Changan; Liu Junliang

    2006-01-01

    The XPS and GISAXS have been employed as useful tools to probe the chemical compositional and microstructural evolutions in the surface layers formed via phase separation and percolation in polystyren/Ti(OBut) 4 /alumina composite thick films. The surface enrichment of Ti species due to the migration of Ti(OBut) 4 molecules in the films was found to show an incubation period of ∼15 h while the samples were treated at 100 deg. C before a remarkable progress can be identified. According to the XPS and GISAXS data, Key mechanism to govern this surface process is phenomenologically considered to be the specific phase separation behavior in Ti(OBut) 4 /PS blend and the subsequent percolating process. The extended thermal treatment was found to make the surface layer microstructure evolve from local phase separation featured with an increasing population of individual microbeads of Ti(OBut) 4 (∼1.5 nm in radius) to the formation of large size clusters of microbeads due to their interconnections, accompanied by the growth of every microbead itself to ∼10 nm on the average, which provokes and then enhances the surface enrichment of Ti(OBut) 4 since these clusters act as a fast diffusion network due to percolation effect

  20. Structural, optical and gas sensing properties of screen-printed nanostructured Sr-doped SnO2 thick film sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, F.I.; Chikhale, L.P.; Patil, J.Y.; Rajgure, A.V.; Suryavanshi, S.S.; Mulla, I.S.

    2013-01-01

    The nanocrystalline materials of strontium doped tin oxide powders were synthesized by conventional co-precipitation method. Synthesized nanophase SnO 2 powders were used to fabricate thick films of pure and Sr-doped SnO 2 using screen-printing technology and investigated for their gas sensing properties towards LPG, ethanol, ammonia and acetone vapor. The crystal structure and phase of the sintered powders were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and microstructure by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All the doped and undoped SnO 2 compositions revealed single phase and solid solution formation. X-ray diffractometer (XRD) results indicated that well crystallized Sr-doped SnO 2 particles of size about 10 nm were obtained at sintering temperature 700℃. The optical properties viz. UV-Vis, FTIR and Raman were used to characterize various physico-chemical properties of samples. The reduction of grain size in metal oxide is a key factor to enhance the gas sensing properties. The doping of Sr in SnO 2 has reduced the grain size and improved the gas response. The results of gas sensing measurements showed that the thick films deposited on alumina substrates using screen-printing technique exhibited high gas response, quick response time and fast recovery time to acetone gas at a working temperature of 250℃. Further, the selectivity of sensor towards acetone with respect to other reducing gases (LPG, ethanol, ammonia) was studied. (author)

  1. Thickness Dependent Optical Properties of Sol-gel based MgF2 – TiO2 Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddarth Krishnaraja Achar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available MgF2 – TiO2 thin films were prepared by cost effective solgel technique onto glass substrates and optical parameters were determined by envelope technique. Thin films were characterized by optical transmission spectroscopy in the spectral range 290 – 1000 nm. The refractive index, extinction coefficient, Optical thickness and band gap dependency on thickness were evaluated. Thickness dependency of thin films showed direct allowed transition with band gap of 3.66 to 3.73 eV.

  2. Effect of modulation periods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of DLC/TiC multilayer films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Zhaoying; Sun, H.; Leng, Y.X.; Li, Xueyuan; Yang, Wenmao; Huang, N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • DLC/TiC multilayer films with different modulation periods at same modulation ratio 1:1 were deposited by FCVA. • The residual stress of DLC/TiC multilayer films decreases with the modulation periods decrease. • The hardness of the multilayer DLC films decreases with modulation periods increasing. - Abstract: The high stress of diamond-like carbon (DLC) film limits its thickness and adhesion on substrate. Multilayer structure is one approach to overcome this disadvantage. In this paper, the DLC/TiC multilayer films with different modulation periods (80 nm, 106 nm or 160 nm) at same modulation ratio of 1:1 were deposited on Si(1 0 0) wafer and Ti-6Al-4V substrate by filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) technology. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), nanoindention and wear test were employed to investigate the effect of modulation periods on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the multilayer films. The results showed that the residual stress of the DLC/TiC multilayer films could be effectively reduced and the residual stress decreased with the modulation periods decreasing. The hardness of the DLC/TiC multilayer films increased with modulation periods decreasing. The DLC/TiC multilayer film with modulation period of 106 nm had the best wear resistance due to the good combination of hardness, ductility and low compressive stress

  3. Microstructure and thermochromic properties of VO{sub X}-WO{sub X}-VO{sub X} ceramic thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khamseh, S.; Ghahari, M. [Institute for Color Science and Technology, Department of Nanomaterial and Nanocoatings, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Araghi, H. [Islamic Azad University, Department of Materials Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faghihi Sani, M.A. [Sharif University of Technology, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    W-doped VO{sub 2} films have been synthesized via oxygen annealing of V-W-V (vanadium-tungsten-vanadium) multilayered films. The effects of middle layer's thickness of V-W-V multilayered film on structure and properties of VO{sub X}-WO{sub X}-VO{sub X} ceramic thin films were investigated. The as-deposited V-W-V multilayered film showed amorphous-like structure when mixed structure of VO{sub 2} (M) and VO{sub 2} (B) was formed in VO{sub X}-WO{sub X}-VO{sub X} ceramic thin films. Tungsten content of VO{sub X}-WO{sub X}-VO{sub X} ceramic thin films increased with increasing middle layer's thickness. With increasing middle layer's thickness, room temperature square resistance (R{sub sq}) of VO{sub X}-WO{sub X}-VO{sub X} ceramic thin films increased from 65 to 86 kΩ/sq. The VO{sub X}-WO{sub X}-VO{sub X} ceramic thin film with the thinnest middle layer showed significant SMT (semiconductor-metal transition) when SMT became negligible on increasing middle layer's thickness. (orig.)

  4. The measurement of conductivity of copper indium disulphide thin films against temperature and thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussof Wahab; Roslinda Zainal; Samsudi Sakrani

    1996-01-01

    Ternary semiconductor copper indium disulphide (CuInS sub 2) thin films have been prepared by thermal evaporation. Three stacked layers of film starting with copper, indium and finally sulphur was deposited on glass substrate in the thickness ratio of 1: 1: I0. The films were then annealed in carbon block by method known as encapsulated sulphurization at 350 degree C for 4 hours. The XRD analysis for four samples of thickness of 449.5, 586, 612 and 654 nm showed that stoichiometric CuInS sub 2, were formed at this annealing condition. The electrical conductivity of CuInS sub 2 thin films were measured against temperature from 150K to 300K. The conductivity values were between 76.6 Sm sup -1 to 631.26 Sm sup -1 and the result showed that it increase exponentially with temperature for the above temperature range. The resulting activation energies were found to be in the range 0.05 to 0.08 eV. This suggested that hopping mechanism predominant to the conducting process. It also found that the conductivity decreased with increasing film thickness

  5. Thickness measurement of a thin hetero-oxide film with an interfacial oxide layer by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Joong; Lee, Seung Mi; Jang, Jong Shik; Moret, Mona

    2012-02-01

    The general equation Tove = L cos θ ln(Rexp/R0 + 1) for the thickness measurement of thin oxide films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to a HfO2/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) as a thin hetero-oxide film system with an interfacial oxide layer. The contribution of the thick interfacial SiO2 layer to the thickness of the HfO2 overlayer was counterbalanced by multiplying the ratio between the intensity of Si4+ from a thick SiO2 film and that of Si0 from a Si(1 0 0) substrate to the intensity of Si4+ from the HfO2/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) film. With this approximation, the thickness levels of the HfO2 overlayers showed a small standard deviation of 0.03 nm in a series of HfO2 (2 nm)/SiO2 (2-6 nm)/Si(1 0 0) films. Mutual calibration with XPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to verify the thickness of HfO2 overlayers in a series of HfO2 (1-4 nm)/SiO2 (3 nm)/Si(1 0 0) films. From the linear relation between the thickness values derived from XPS and TEM, the effective attenuation length of the photoelectrons and the thickness of the HfO2 overlayer could be determined.

  6. Thickness characteristics of YBaCuO system thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Hideo; Jinno, Makoto; Takashima, Osamu; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Akinori; Kojima, Kenzo; Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Ohashi, Asao

    1994-01-01

    The practical use of oxide high temperature superconductors for electronics field has been advanced. The oxide high temperature superconductor thin films is very sensitive to the production conditions, and their making with good reproducibility is difficult. In this study, the method of producing the thin films having good quality with good reproducibility by RF magnetron sputtering, and the relation of the film thickness with the superconductivity characteristics of YBaCuO system thin films in the different methods of substrate washing were examined. The sputtering conditions are shown. For the purpose of preventing the worsening of the film quality due to the reverse sputtering of oxygen negative ions to the thin film surface, sputtering gas pressure was set up high at 30 Pa. The film thickness and the temperature-resistance characteristics were measured. The experimental method and the experimental results are reported. By keeping the temperature on substrate surfaces constant, the reproducibility in the production of the thin films was improved remarkably. The effect of substrate washing was large. (K.I.)

  7. Influence of film thickness and Fe doping on LPG sensing properties of Mn3O4 thin film grown by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhedkar, M. R.; Ubale, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe doped and undoped Mn3O4 thin films have been deposited by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method onto glass substrates using MnCl2 and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)) have been carried out to analyze structural and surface morphological properties of the films. The LPG sensing performance of Mn3O4thin films have been studied by varying temperature, concentration of LPG, thickness of the film and doping percentage of Fe. The LPG response of the Mn3O4thin films were found to be enhances with film thickness and decreases with increased Fe doping (0 to 8 wt. %) at 573 K temperature.

  8. Screen printed PZT/PZT thick film bimorph MEMS cantilever device for vibration energy harvesting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We present a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. Most piezoelectric energy harvesting devices use a cantilever beam of a non piezoelectric material as support beneath or in-between the piezoelectric...... elements. We show experimental results from two types PZT/PZT harvesting devices, one where the Pb(ZrxTi1−x)O3 (PZT) thick films are high pressure treated during the fabrication and the other where the treatment is omitted. We find that with the high pressure treatment prior to PZT sintering, the films...

  9. Correlation between active layer thickness and ambient gas stability in IGZO thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xu; Mao, Bao-Hua; Wang, Sui-Dong; Lin, Meng-Fang; Shimizu, Maki; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Ou-Yang, Wei; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Nabatame, Toshihide; Liu, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing the active layer thickness has been recently reported as an alternative way to achieve fully depleted oxide thin-film transistors for the realization of low-voltage operations. However, the correlation between the active layer thickness and device resistivity to environmental changes is still unclear, which is important for the optimized design of oxide thin-film transistors. In this work, the ambient gas stability of IGZO thin-film transistors is found to be strongly correlated to the IGZO thickness. The TFT with the thinnest IGZO layer shows the highest intrinsic electron mobility in a vacuum, which is greatly reduced after exposure to O 2 /air. The device with a thick IGZO layer shows similar electron mobility in O 2 /air, whereas the mobility variation measured in the vacuum is absent. The thickness dependent ambient gas stability is attributed to a high-mobility region in the IGZO surface vicinity with less sputtering-induced damage, which will become electron depleted in O 2 /air due to the electron transfer to adsorbed gas molecules. The O 2 adsorption and deduced IGZO surface band bending is demonstrated by the ambient-pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results. (paper)

  10. Quantum dot sensitized solar cells: Light harvesting versus charge recombination, a film thickness consideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu Wei; Wang, Ye Feng; Zeng, Jing Hui; Shi, Feng; Chen, Yu; Jiang, Jiaxing

    2017-08-01

    Sensitizer loading level is one of the key factors determined the performance of sensitized solar cells. In this work, we systemically studied the influence of photo-anode thicknesses on the performance of the quantum-dot sensitized solar cells. It is found that the photo-to-current conversion efficiency enhances with increased film thickness and peaks at around 20 μm. The optimal value is about twice as large as the dye counterparts. Here, we also uncover the underlying mechanism about the influence of film thickness over the photovoltaic performance of QDSSCs from the light harvesting and charge recombination viewpoint.

  11. Triaxial MEMS accelerometer with screen printed PZT thick film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Almind, Ninia Sejersen; Brodersen, Simon Hedegaard

    2010-01-01

    . In this work integration of a screen printed piezoelectric PZT thick film with silicon MEMS technology is shown. A high bandwidth triaxial accelerometer has been designed, fabricated and characterized. The voltage sensitivity is 0.31 mV/g in the vertical direction, 0.062 mV/g in the horizontal direction...

  12. Silicon and aluminum doping effects on the microstructure and properties of polymeric amorphous carbon films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoqiang, E-mail: lxq_suse@sina.com [Material Corrosion and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Hao, Junying, E-mail: jyhao@licp.cas.cn [State Key Laboratory of Solid Lubrication, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Xie, Yuntao [Material Corrosion and Protection Key Laboratory of Sichuan province, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • Evolution of nanostructure and properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films were firstly studied. • Si doping enhanced polymerization of the hydrocarbon chains and Al doping resulted in increase in the ordered carbon clusters of polymeric amorphous carbon films. • Soft polymeric amorphous carbon films exhibited an unconventional frictional behaviors with a superior wear resistance. • The mechanical and vacuum tribological properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films were significantly improved by Si and Al co-doping. - Abstract: Polymeric amorphous carbon films were prepared by radio frequency (R.F. 13.56 MHz) magnetron sputtering deposition. The microstructure evolution of the deposited polymeric films induced by silicon (Si) and aluminum(Al) doping were scrutinized through infrared spectroscopy, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The comparative results show that Si doping can enhance polymerization and Al doping results in an increase in the ordered carbon clusters. Si and Al co-doping into polymeric films leads to the formation of an unusual dual nanostructure consisting of cross-linked polymer-like hydrocarbon chains and fullerene-like carbon clusters. The super-high elasticity and super-low friction coefficients (<0.002) under a high vacuum were obtained through Si and Al co-doping into the films. Unconventionally, the co-doped polymeric films exhibited a superior wear resistance even though they were very soft. The relationship between the microstructure and properties of the polymeric amorphous carbon films with different elements doping are also discussed in detail.

  13. Thickness and structure of the water film deposited from vapour on calcite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Wogelius, Roy A.; Morris, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray reflectivity (SXR) was used to measure the thickness of the water film that adsorbs on a {10¯14} cleavage surface of calcite (CaCO3) in a sample chamber where relative humidity could be controlled within the range from......Synchrotron X-ray reflectivity (SXR) was used to measure the thickness of the water film that adsorbs on a {10¯14} cleavage surface of calcite (CaCO3) in a sample chamber where relative humidity could be controlled within the range from...

  14. An Optoelectronic Sensor Configuration Using ZnO Thick Film for Detection of Methanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobhna DIXIT

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper sensitivity of a nanocrystalline ZnO thick film to methanol vapors is reported. The sensing mechanism is the modulation in the intensity of light reflected from glass film interface. Modulation occurs due to the change in refractive index of ZnO film upon adsorption of vapor molecules. The film has been characterized by XRD, SEM, and optical transmission studies. XRD pattern reveals polycrystalline structure of the film with grain size 33.5 nm.

  15. The influence of deposition temperature on vanadium dioxide thin films microstructure and physical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velaphi Msomi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide thin films were successfully prepared on soda lime glass substrates using the optimised conditions for r.f-inverted cylindrical magnetron sputtering. The optimised deposition parameters were fixed and then a systematic study of the effect of deposition temperature, ranging from 450 °C to 550 °C, on the microstructure of thermochromic thin films was carried out. The deposited films were found to be well crystallised, showing strong texture corresponding to the (011 plane, indicating the presence of vanadium dioxide.

  16. Development and Characterization of Edible Films Based on Fruit and Vegetable Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Roberta M S; Ferreira, Mariana S L; Gonçalves, Édira C B A

    2016-02-01

    Edible films were developed from the solid residue of the processing of whole fruits and vegetables. The solid residue, processed into flour (FVR flour) was chemically and structurally characterized by microstructure, elemental composition, structural links, and moisture sorption isotherm. Films were prepared by casting using aqueous extracts of 8% and 10% of flour (w/w) and characterized in terms of thickness, water solubility, mechanical properties, water vapor permeability, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). The analysis of microstructure and elemental composition, performed on flour (mean particle size 350 μm), showed an essentially granular aspect, with the presence of fibrous particles having potassium as one of the most abundant elements. FTIR results showed similarity between the characteristic bands of other raw materials used in edible films. The sorption isotherm of FVR flour showed a typical profile of foods rich in soluble components, such as sugars. Dried films presented an average thickness of 0.263 ± 0.003 mm, a homogenous aspect, bright yellow color, pronounced fruit flavor, and high water solubility. The FTIR spectra of the edible films revealed that addition of potato skin flour did not change the molecular conformation. Moreover, the films presented low tensile strength at break when compared with fruit starch-based films. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  17. Optical scattering characteristic of annealed niobium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Fachun; Li Ming; Wang Haiqian; Hu Hailong; Wang Xiaoping; Hou, J.G.; Song Yizhou; Jiang Yousong

    2005-01-01

    Niobium oxide (Nb 2 O 5 ) films with thicknesses ranging from 200 to 1600 nm were deposited on fused silica at room temperature by low frequency reactive magnetron sputtering system. In order to study the optical losses resulting from the microstructures, the films with 500 nm thickness were annealed at temperatures between 600 and 1100 deg. C, and films with thicknesses from 200 to 1600 nm were annealed at 800 deg. C. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images show that the root mean square of surface roughness, the grain size, voids, microcracks, and grain boundaries increase with increasing both the annealing temperature and the thickness. Correspondingly, the optical transmittance and reflectance decrease, and the optical loss increases. The mechanisms of the optical losses are discussed. The results suggest that defects in the volume and the surface roughness should be the major source for the optical losses of the annealed films by causing pronounced scattering. For samples with a determined thickness, there is a critical annealing temperature, above which the surface scattering contributes to the major optical losses. In the experimental scope, for the films annealed at temperatures below 900 deg. C, the major optical losses resulted from volume scattering. However, surface roughness was the major source for the optical losses when the 500-nm films were annealed at temperatures above 900 deg. C

  18. Effect of lattice mismatch on the magnetic properties of nanometer-thick La0.9Ba0.1MnO3 (LBM) films and LBM/BaTiO3/LBM heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh Vaghefi, P.; Baghizadeh, A.; Willinger, M.; Lourenço, A. A. C. S.; Amaral, V. S.

    2017-12-01

    Oxide multiferroic thin films and heterostructures offer a wide range of properties originated from intrinsic coupling between lattice strain and nanoscale magnetic/electronic ordering. La0.9Ba0.1MnO3 (LBM) thin-films and LBM/BaTiO3/LBM (LBMBT) heterostructures were grown on single crystalline [100] silicon and [0001] Al2O3 using RF magnetron sputtering to study the effect of crystallinity and induced lattice mismatch in the film on magnetic properties of deposited films and heterostructures. The thicknesses of the films on Al2O3 and Si are 70 and 145 nm, respectively, and for heterostructures are 40/30/40 nm on both substrates. The microstructure of the films, state of strain and growth orientations was studied by XRD and microscopy techniques. Interplay of microstructure, strain and magnetic properties is further investigated. It is known that the crystal structure of substrates and imposed tensile strain affect the physical properties; i.e. magnetic behavior of the film. The thin layer grown on Al2O3 substrate shows out-of-plane compressive strain, while Si substrate induces tensile strain on the deposited film. The magnetic transition temperatures (Tc) of the LBM film on the Si and Al2O3 substrates are found to be 195 K and 203 K, respectively, slightly higher than the bulk form, 185 K. The LBMBT heterostructure on Si substrate shows drastic decrease in magnetization due to produced defects created by diffusion of Ti ions into magnetic layer. Meanwhile, the Tc in LBMBTs increases in respect to other studied single layers and heterostructure, because of higher tensile strain induced at the interfaces.

  19. Method for applying a thin film barrier stack to a device with microstructures, and device provided with such a thin film barrier stack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A method for applying a thin film barrier stack to a device with microstructures, such as, for instance, an OLED, wherein the thin film barrier stack forms a barrier to at least moisture and oxygen, wherein the stack is built up from a combination of org. and inorg. layers, characterized in that a

  20. Investigation of cellular microstructure and enhanced coercivity in sputtered Sm{sub 2}(CoCuFeZr){sub 17} film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Ranu, E-mail: rbhatt@barc.gov.in; Schütz, G. [Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems (formerly Max Planck Institute for Metals Research), Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bhatt, Pramod [Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-03-14

    We have investigated the effect of annealing temperature on the microstructure and magnetic properties of Sm{sub 2}(CoCuFeZr){sub 17} films prepared using ion beam sputtering at room temperature. The as-deposited film shows randomly oriented polycrystalline grains and exhibits small coercivity (H{sub C}) of 0.04 T at room temperature. Post annealing of these films at 700 °C under Ar atmosphere shows significant changes in the microstructure transforming it to the development of cellular growth, concomitant with enhanced coercivity up to 1.3 T. The enhanced coercivity is explained using the domain wall pinning mechanism.

  1. Comparative microstructure and electrical property studies of lead scandium tantalate thin films as prepared by LDCVD, sol-gel and sputtering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z; Donohue, P P; Zhang, Q; Williams, D J; Anthony, C J; Whatmore, R W; Todd, M A

    2003-01-01

    Lead scandium tantalate (PST) thin films for uncooled infrared (IR) detector applications have been deposited by liquid delivery chemical vapour deposition (LDCVD), sputtering and sol-gel techniques. The sol-gel and sputtered films were deposited at low temperature into a non-ferroelectric phase with the required perovskite structure being formed using a high temperature rapid thermal anneal (RTA). In contrast to this, the LDCVD films were deposited at high temperature directly into the perovskite phase but were found to still require a high temperature RTA step to optimize their merit for IR detection. Detailed structural and electrical characterization of the PST films deposited by these different methods have revealed that there is no simple relationship between microstructure and electrical properties. The sol-gel and LDCVD techniques produce thin films with excellent microstructures, as determined by x-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy, but inferior electrical properties and relatively low merit figures. By contrast, the sputtered and then rapid thermal annealed films have inferior microstructures, characterized by extensive voiding, but excellent electrical properties and high merit figures

  2. Synthesis, microstructural characterization and optical properties of undoped, V and Sc doped ZnO thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amezaga-Madrid, P.; Antunez-Flores, W.; Ledezma-Sillas, J.E.; Murillo-Ramirez, J.G.; Solis-Canto, O.; Vega-Becerra, O.E.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.; Miki-Yoshida, M.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Undoped, V and Sc doped ZnO thin films by Aerosol Assisted Chemical Vapour Deposition. → Optimum substrate temperatures of 673 K and 623 K for Sc and V doped films. → Around one third of the dopants in solution were deposited into the films. → Crystallite and grain size decreased with the increase of dopant concentration. → Optical band gap increased from 3.29 to 3.32 eV for undoped to 7 Sc/Zn at. %. - Abstract: Many semiconductor oxides (ZnO, TiO 2 , SnO 2 ) when doped with a low percentage of non-magnetic (V, Sc) or magnetic 3d (Co, Mn, Ni, Fe) cation behave ferromagnetically. They have attracted a great deal of interest due to the integration of semiconducting and m