WorldWideScience

Sample records for thick film layers

  1. The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoshiri, Mizue; Mikami, Masashi; Ozaki, Kimihiro

    2013-01-01

    The effect of Cr buffer layer thickness on the open-circuit voltage generated by thin-film thermoelectric modules of Bi 0.5 Sb 1.5 Te 3 (p-type) and Bi 2 Te 2.7 Se 0.3 (n-type) materials was investigated. A Cr buffer layer, whose thickness generally needs to be optimized to improve adhesion depending on the substrate surface condition, such as roughness, was deposited between thermoelectric thin films and glass substrates. When the Cr buffer layer was 1 nm thick, the Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivity of 1 µm thermoelectric thin films with the buffer layers were approximately equal to those of the thermoelectric films without the buffer layers. When the thickness of the Cr buffer layer was 1 µm, the same as the thermoelectric films, the Seebeck coefficients of the bilayer films were reduced by an electrical current flowing inside the Cr buffer layer and the generation of Cr 2 Te 3 . The open-circuit voltage of the thin-film thermoelectric modules decreased with an increase in the thickness of the Cr buffer layer, which was primarily induced by the electrical current flow. The reduction caused by the Cr 2 Te 3 generation was less than 10% of the total voltage generation of the modules without the Cr buffer layers. The voltage generation of thin-film thermoelectric modules could be controlled by the Cr buffer layer thickness. (paper)

  2. Solid-state dewetting of Au-Ni bi-layer films mediated through individual layer thickness and stacking sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, Andreas; Theska, Felix; Rossberg, Diana; Kups, Thomas; Wang, Dong; Schaaf, Peter

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, the solid-state dewetting of Au-Ni bi-layer thin films deposited on SiO2/Si is systematically studied with respect to individual layer thickness and stacking sequence. For this purpose, a rapid heat treatment at medium temperatures is applied in order to examine void formation at the early stages of the dewetting. Compositional variations are realized by changing the thickness ratio of the bi-layer films, while the total thickness is maintained at 20 nm throughout the study. In the event of Au/Ni films annealed at 500 °C, crystal voids exposing the substrate are missing regardless of chemical composition. In reverse order, the number of voids per unit area in two-phase Au-Ni thin films is found to be governed by the amount of Au-rich material. At higher temperatures up to 650 °C, a decreased probability of nucleation comes at the expense of a major portion of cavities, resulting in the formation of bubbles in 15 nm Ni/5 nm Au bi-layers. Film buckling predominantly occurred at phase boundaries crossing the bubbles.

  3. Correlation between active layer thickness and ambient gas stability in IGZO thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xu; Mao, Bao-Hua; Wang, Sui-Dong; Lin, Meng-Fang; Shimizu, Maki; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Ou-Yang, Wei; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Nabatame, Toshihide; Liu, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing the active layer thickness has been recently reported as an alternative way to achieve fully depleted oxide thin-film transistors for the realization of low-voltage operations. However, the correlation between the active layer thickness and device resistivity to environmental changes is still unclear, which is important for the optimized design of oxide thin-film transistors. In this work, the ambient gas stability of IGZO thin-film transistors is found to be strongly correlated to the IGZO thickness. The TFT with the thinnest IGZO layer shows the highest intrinsic electron mobility in a vacuum, which is greatly reduced after exposure to O 2 /air. The device with a thick IGZO layer shows similar electron mobility in O 2 /air, whereas the mobility variation measured in the vacuum is absent. The thickness dependent ambient gas stability is attributed to a high-mobility region in the IGZO surface vicinity with less sputtering-induced damage, which will become electron depleted in O 2 /air due to the electron transfer to adsorbed gas molecules. The O 2 adsorption and deduced IGZO surface band bending is demonstrated by the ambient-pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results. (paper)

  4. Impact of active layer thickness of nitrogen-doped In–Sn–Zn–O films on materials and thin film transistor performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yue; Yang, Hao-Zhi; Chen, Sheng-Chi; Lu, Ying-Bo; Xin, Yan-Qing; Yang, Tian-Lin; Sun, Hui

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped indium tin zinc oxide (ITZO:N) thin film transistors (TFTs) were deposited on SiO2 (200 nm)/p-Si〈1 0 0〉 substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The structural, chemical compositions, surface morphology, optical and electrical properties as a function of the active layer thickness were investigated. As the active layer thickness increases, Zn content decreases and In content increases gradually. Meanwhile, Sn content is almost unchanged. When the thickness of the active layer is more than 45 nm, the ITZO:N films become crystallized and present a crystal orientation along InN(0 0 2) plan. No matter what the thickness is, ITZO:N films always display a high transmittance above 80% in the visible region. Their optical band gaps fluctuate between 3.4 eV and 3.62 eV. Due to the dominance of low interface trap density and high carrier concentration, ITZO:N TFT shows enhanced electrical properties as the active layer thickness is 35 nm. Its field-effect mobility, on/off radio and sub-threshold swing are 17.53 cm2 V‑1 · s‑1, 106 and 0.36 V/dec, respectively. These results indicate that the suitable thickness of the active layer can enhance the quality of ITZO:N films and decrease the defects density of ITZO:N TFT. Thus, the properties of ITZO:N TFT can be optimized by adjusting the thickness of the active layer.

  5. Investigation of Top/Bottom electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT Thick Film MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Thomsen, Erik Vilain

    2008-01-01

    Top and bottom electrodes for screen printed piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate, Pb(ZrxTi1 - x)O3 (PZT) thick film are investigated with respect to future MEMS devices. Down to 100 nm thick E-beam evaporated Al and Pt films are patterned as top electrodes on the PZT using a lift-off process...... with a line width down to 3 μ m. A 700 nm thick ZrO2 layer as insolating diffusion barrier layer is found to be insufficient as barrier layer for PZT on a silicon substrate sintered at 850°C. EDX shows diffusion of Si into the PZT layer....

  6. Gold nanoparticle plasmon resonance in near-field coupled Au NPs layer/Al film nanostructure: Dependence on metal film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A.; Kozachenko, Viktor V.; Naumenko, Antonina P.; Berezovska, Nataliya I.; Kutsevol, Nataliya V.; Chumachenko, Vasyl A.; Haftel, Michael; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.

    2018-05-01

    We study the effects of coupling between plasmonic metal nanoparticles and a thin metal film by using light extinction spectroscopy. A planar monolayer of gold nanoparticles located near an aluminum thin film (thicknesses within the range of 0-62 nm) was used to analyze the coupling between the monolayer and the thin metal film. SPR peak area increase for polymer coated Au NPs, non-monotonical behavior of the peak area for bare Au NPs, as well as red shift and broadening of SPR at the increase of the Al film thickness have been observed. These effects are rationalized as a result of coupling of the layer of Au NPs with Al film through the field of localized surface plasmons in Au NPs that causes the excitation of collective plasmonic gap mode in the nanostructure. An additional mechanism for bare Au NPs is the non-radiative damping of SPR that is caused by the electrical contact between metal NPs and film.

  7. Effect of film thickness, type of buffer layer, and substrate temperature on the morphology of dicyanovinyl-substituted sexithiophene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Alexandr A., E-mail: alexander.levin@iapp.de [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Levichkova, Marieta [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Heliatek GmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Hildebrandt, Dirk; Klisch, Marina; Weiss, Andre [Heliatek GmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Wynands, David; Elschner, Chris [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Pfeiffer, Martin [Heliatek GmbH, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Leo, Karl; Riede, Moritz [Institut fuer Angewandte Photophysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2012-01-31

    The influence of film thickness, type of buffer underlayer, and deposition substrate temperature on the crystal structure, microstructure, and morphology of the films of dicyanovinyl-substituted sexithiophene with four butyl-chains (DCV6T-Bu{sub 4}) is investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectivity methods. A neat Si wafer or a Si wafer covered by a 15 nm buffer underlayer of fullerene C{sub 60} or 9,9-Bis[4-(N,N-bis-biphenyl-4-yl-amino)phenyl]-9H-fluorene (BPAPF) is used as a substrate. The crystalline nature and ordered molecular arrangement of the films are recorded down to 6 nm film thickness. By using substrates heated up to 90 Degree-Sign C during the film deposition, the size of the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} crystallites in direction perpendicular to the film surface increases up to value of the film thickness. With increasing deposition substrate temperature or film thickness, the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} film relaxes, resulting in reducing the interplane distances closer to the bulk values. For the films of the same thickness deposited at the same substrate temperature, the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} film relaxes for growth on Si to BPAPF to C{sub 60}. Thicker films grown at heated substrates are characterized by smaller density, higher roughness and crystallinity and better molecular ordering. A thin (up to about 6 nm-thick) intermediate layer with linear density-gradient is formed at the C{sub 60}/DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} interface for the films with buffer C{sub 60} layer. The XRD pattern of the DCV6T-Bu{sub 4} powder is indexed using triclinic unit cell parameters.

  8. Influence of layer thickness on the structure and the magnetic properties of Co/Pd epitaxial multilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobari, Kousuke, E-mail: tobari@futamoto.elect.chuo-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan); Ohtake, Mitsuru; Nagano, Katsumasa; Futamoto, Masaaki [Faculty of Science and Engineering, Chuo University, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 112-8551 (Japan)

    2012-03-15

    Co/Pd epitaxial multilayer films were prepared on Pd(111){sub fcc} underlayers hetero-epitaxially grown on MgO(111){sub B1} single-crystal substrates at room temperature by ultra-high vacuum RF magnetron sputtering. In-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction shows that the in-plane lattice spacing of Co on Pd layer gradually decreases with increasing the Co layer thickness, whereas that of Pd on Co layer remains unchanged during the Pd layer formation. The CoPd alloy phase formation is observed around the Co/Pd interface. The atomic mixing is enhanced for thinner Co and Pd layers in multilayer structure. With decreasing the Co and the Pd layer thicknesses and increasing the repetition number of Co/Pd multilayer film, stronger perpendicular magnetic anisotropy is observed. The relationships between the film structure and the magnetic properties are discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Epitaxial Co/Pd multilayer films are prepared on Pd(111){sub fcc} underlayers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lattice strain in Co layer and CoPd-alloy formation are noted around the interface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic property dependence on layer thickness is reported.

  9. Magnetic and magnetoresistance studies of nanometric electrodeposited Co films and Co/Cu layered structures: Influence of magnetic layer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zsurzsa, S., E-mail: zsurzsa.sandor@wigner.mta.hu; Péter, L.; Kiss, L.F.; Bakonyi, I.

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic properties and the magnetoresistance behavior were investigated for electrodeposited nanoscale Co films, Co/Cu/Co sandwiches and Co/Cu multilayers with individual Co layer thicknesses ranging from 1 nm to 20 nm. The measured saturation magnetization values confirmed that the nominal and actual layer thicknesses are in fairly good agreement. All three types of layered structure exhibited anisotropic magnetoresistance for thick magnetic layers whereas the Co/Cu/Co sandwiches and Co/Cu multilayers with thinner magnetic layers exhibited giant magnetoresistance (GMR), the GMR magnitude being the largest for the thinnest Co layers. The decreasing values of the relative remanence and the coercive field when reducing the Co layer thickness down to below about 3 nm indicated the presence of superparamagnetic (SPM) regions in the magnetic layers which could be more firmly evidenced for these samples by a decomposition of the magnetoresistance vs. field curves into a ferromagnetic and an SPM contribution. For thicker magnetic layers, the dependence of the coercivity (H{sub c}) on magnetic layer thickness (d) could be described for each of the layered structure types by the usual equation H{sub c}=H{sub co}+a/d{sup n} with an exponent around n=1. The common value of n suggests a similar mechanism for the magnetization reversal by domain wall motion in all three structure types and hints also at the absence of coupling between magnetic layers in the Co/Cu/Co sandwiches and Co/Cu multilayers. - Highlights: • Electrodeposited nanoscale Co films and Co/Cu layered structures. • Co layer thickness (d) dependence of coercivity (H{sub c}) and magnetoresistance. • H{sub c} depends on Co layer thickness according to H{sub c}=H{sub co}+a/d{sup n} with n around 1. • The common n value suggests a similar mechanism of magnetization reversal. • The common n value suggests the absence of coupling between magnetic layers.

  10. Effect of precursor concentration and film thickness deposited by layer on nanostructured TiO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affendi, I. H. H.; Sarah, M. S. P.; Alrokayan, Salman A. H.; Khan, Haseeb A.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Sol-gel spin coating method is used in the production of nanostructured TiO2 thin film. The surface topology and morphology was observed using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). The electrical properties were investigated by using two probe current-voltage (I-V) measurements to study the electrical resistivity behavior, hence the conductivity of the thin film. The solution concentration will be varied from 14.0 to 0.01wt% with 0.02wt% interval where the last concentration of 0.02 to 0.01wt% have 0.01wt% interval to find which concentrations have the highest conductivity then the optimized concentration's sample were chosen for the thickness parameter based on layer by layer deposition from 1 to 6 layer. Based on the result, the lowest concentration of TiO2, the surface becomes more uniform and the conductivity will increase. As the result, sample of 0.01wt% concentration have conductivity value of 1.77E-10 S/m and will be advanced in thickness parameter. Whereas in thickness parameter, the 3layer deposition were chosen as its conductivity is the highest at 3.9098E9 S/m.

  11. Effect of Ga2O3 buffer layer thickness on the properties of Cu/ITO thin films deposited on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Huihui; Yan Jinliang; Xu Chengyang; Meng Delan

    2014-01-01

    Cu and Cu/ITO films were prepared on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates with a Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer using radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering. The effect of Cu layer thickness on the optical and electrical properties of the Cu film deposited on a PET substrate with a Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer was studied, and an appropriate Cu layer thickness of 4.2 nm was obtained. Changes in the optoelectrical properties of Cu(4.2 nm)/ITO(30 nm) films were investigated with respect to the Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer thickness. The optical and electrical properties of the Cu/ITO films were significantly influenced by the thickness of the Ga 2 O 3 buffer layer. A maximum transmission of 86%, sheet resistance of 45 Ω/□ and figure of merit of 3.96 × 10 −3 Ω −1 were achieved for Cu(4.2 nm)/ITO(30 nm) films with a Ga 2 O 3 layer thickness of 15 nm. (semiconductor materials)

  12. Influences of layer thickness on the compatibility and physical properties of polycarbonate/polystyrene multilayered film via nanolayer coextrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Junfeng; Chen, Zhiru; Zhou, Jiaqi; Cao, Zheng; Wu, Dun; Liu, Chunlin; Pu, Hongting

    2018-05-01

    The effects of layer thickness on the compatibility between polycarbonate (PC) and polystyrene (PS) and physical properties of PC/PS multilayered film via nanolayer coextrusion are studied. The morphology of multilayered structure is observed using a scanning electron microscope. This multilayered structure may have a negative impact on the transparency, but it can improve the water resistance and heat resistance of film. To characterize the compatibility between PC and PS, differential scanning calorimetry is used to measure the glass transition temperature. The compatibility is found to be improved with the decrease of layer thickness. Therefore, the viscosity of multilayered film is also reduced with the decrease of layer thickness. In addition, the multilayered structure can improve the tensile strength with the increase of layer numbers. Because of the complete and continuous layer structure of PC, the PC/PS multilayered film can retain its mechanical strength at the temperature above Tg of PS.

  13. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffheins, Barbara S.; Lauf, Robert J.

    1995-01-01

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  14. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battiston, G A; Gerbasi, R [CNR, Padua (Italy). Istituto di Chimica e Tecnologie Inorganiche e dei Materiali Avanzati

    1996-09-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive.

  15. Film thickness determination by grazing incidence diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battiston, G. A.; Gerbasi, R.

    1996-01-01

    Thin films deposited via MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapour Deposition) are layers in the thickness range of a few manometers to about ten micrometers. An understanding of the physics and chemistry of films is necessary for a better comprehension of the phenomena involved in the film deposition procedure and its optimisation. Together with the crystalline phase a parameter that must be determined is the thickness of the layer. In this work the authors present a method for the measurement of the film thickness. This procedure, based on diffraction intensity absorption of the X-rays, both incident and diffracted in passing through the layers, resulted quite simple, rapid and non-destructive

  16. Magnetic properties of Pr-Fe-B thick-film magnets deposited on Si substrates with glass buffer layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, M.; Kurosaki, A.; Kondo, H.; Shimizu, D.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamashita, A.; Yanai, T.; Fukunaga, H.

    2018-05-01

    In order to improve the magnetic properties of PLD-made Pr-Fe-B thick-film magnets deposited on Si substrates, an adoption of a glass buffer layer was carried out. The glass layer could be fabricated under the deposition rate of approximately 70 μm/h on a Si substrate using a Nd-YAG pulse laser in the vacuum atmosphere. The use of the layer enabled us to reduce the Pr content without a mechanical destruction and enhance (BH)max value by approximately 20 kJ/m3 compared with the average value of non-buffer layered Pr-Fe-B films with almost the same thickness. It is also considered that the layer is also effective to apply a micro magnetization to the films deposited on Si ones.

  17. TiN films by Atomic Layer Deposition: Growth and electrical characterization down to sub-nm thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the growth and characterization of TiN thib films obtained by atomic layer deposition at 350-425 ◦C. We observe a growth of the continuous layers from the very beginning of the process, i.e. for a thickness of 0.65 nm, which is equivalent to 3 monolayers of TiN. The film growth

  18. Controlling the Performance of P-type Cu2O/SnO Bilayer Thin-Film Transistors by Adjusting the Thickness of the Copper Oxide Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jawhari, Hala A.

    2014-11-11

    The effect of copper oxide layer thickness on the performance of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors was investigated. By using sputtered Cu2O films produced at an oxygen partial pressure, Opp, of 10% as the upper layer and 3% Opp SnO films as the lower layer we built a matrix of bottom-gate Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors of different thickness. We found that the thickness of the Cu2O layer is of major importance in oxidation of the SnO layer underneath. The thicker the Cu2O layer, the more the underlying SnO layer is oxidized, and, hence, the more transistor mobility is enhanced at a specific temperature. Both device performance and the annealing temperature required could be adjusted by controlling the thickness of each layer of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors.

  19. Thickness measurement of a thin hetero-oxide film with an interfacial oxide layer by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Joong; Lee, Seung Mi; Jang, Jong Shik; Moret, Mona

    2012-02-01

    The general equation Tove = L cos θ ln(Rexp/R0 + 1) for the thickness measurement of thin oxide films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to a HfO2/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) as a thin hetero-oxide film system with an interfacial oxide layer. The contribution of the thick interfacial SiO2 layer to the thickness of the HfO2 overlayer was counterbalanced by multiplying the ratio between the intensity of Si4+ from a thick SiO2 film and that of Si0 from a Si(1 0 0) substrate to the intensity of Si4+ from the HfO2/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) film. With this approximation, the thickness levels of the HfO2 overlayers showed a small standard deviation of 0.03 nm in a series of HfO2 (2 nm)/SiO2 (2-6 nm)/Si(1 0 0) films. Mutual calibration with XPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to verify the thickness of HfO2 overlayers in a series of HfO2 (1-4 nm)/SiO2 (3 nm)/Si(1 0 0) films. From the linear relation between the thickness values derived from XPS and TEM, the effective attenuation length of the photoelectrons and the thickness of the HfO2 overlayer could be determined.

  20. Investigation of Top/bottom Electrode and Diffusion Barrier Layer for PZT thick film MEMS Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas; Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lou-Møller, R.

    2007-01-01

    In this work screen printed piezoelectric Ferroperm PZ26 lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thick film is used for two MEMS devices. A test structure is used to investigate several aspects regarding bottom and top electrodes. 450 nm ZrO2 thin film is found to be an insufficient diffusion barrier layer...... for thick film PZT sintered at 850degC. E-beam evaporated Al and Pt is patterned on PZT with a lift-off process with a line width down to 3 mum. The roughness of the PZT is found to have a strong influence on the conductance of the top electrode....

  1. Thickness dependent growth of low temperature atomic layer deposited zinc oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel-González, Z.; Castelo-González, O.A.; Aguilar-Gama, M.T.; Ramírez-Morales, E.; Hu, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline columnar ZnO thin films deposited by ALD at low temperatures. • Higher deposition temperature leads to a greater surface roughness in the ALD ZnO films. • Higher temperature originates larger refractive index values of the ALD ZnO films. • ZnO thin films were denser as the numbers of ALD deposition cycles were larger. • XPS analysis revels mayor extent of the DEZ reaction during the ALD process. - Abstract: Zinc oxide films are promising to improve the performance of electronic devices, including those based on organic materials. However, the dependence of the ZnO properties on the preparation conditions represents a challenge to obtain homogeneous thin films that satisfy specific applications. Here, we prepared ZnO films of a wide range of thicknesses by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at relatively low temperatures, 150 and 175 °C. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry it is concluded that the polycrystalline structure of the wurtzite is the main phase of the ALD samples, with OH groups on their surface. Ellipsometry revealed that the temperature and the deposition cycles have a strong effect on the films roughness. Scanning electron micrographs evidenced such effect, through the large pyramids developed at the surface of the films. It is concluded that crystalline ZnO thin films within a broad range of thickness and roughness can be obtained for optic or optoelectronic applications.

  2. The Effect of Film Thickness on the Gas Sensing Properties of Ultra-Thin TiO₂ Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rachel L; Simion, Cristian Eugen; Blackman, Christopher S; Carmalt, Claire J; Stanoiu, Adelina; Di Maggio, Francesco; Covington, James A

    2018-03-01

    Analyte sensitivity for gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxides should be highly dependent on the film thickness, particularly when that thickness is on the order of the Debye length. This thickness dependence has previously been demonstrated for SnO₂ and inferred for TiO₂. In this paper, TiO₂ thin films have been prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) using titanium isopropoxide and water as precursors. The deposition process was performed on standard alumina gas sensor platforms and microscope slides (for analysis purposes), at a temperature of 200 °C. The TiO₂ films were exposed to different concentrations of CO, CH₄, NO₂, NH₃ and SO₂ to evaluate their gas sensitivities. These experiments showed that the TiO₂ film thickness played a dominant role within the conduction mechanism and the pattern of response for the electrical resistance towards CH₄ and NH₃ exposure indicated typical n -type semiconducting behavior. The effect of relative humidity on the gas sensitivity has also been demonstrated.

  3. The roles of buffer layer thickness on the properties of the ZnO epitaxial films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Kun, E-mail: ktang@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Huang, Shimin [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Gu, Shulin, E-mail: slgu@nju.edu.cn [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Zhu, Shunming [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ye, Jiandong [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Nanjing University Institute of Optoelectronics at Yangzhou, Yangzhou 225009 (China); Xu, Zhonghua; Zheng, Youdou [Nanjing National Laboratory of Microstructures and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • The growth mechanism has been revealed for the ZnO buffers with different thickness. • The surface morphology has been determined as the key factor to affect the epitaxial growth. • The relation between the hexagonal pits from buffers and epi-films has been established. • The hexagonal pits formed in the epi-films have been attributed to the V-shaped defects inheriting from the dislocations in the buffers. • The structural and electrical properties of the V-defects have been presented and analyzed. - Abstract: In this article, the authors have investigated the optimization of the buffer thickness for obtaining high-quality ZnO epi-films on sapphire substrates. The growth mechanism of the buffers with different thickness has been clearly revealed, including the initial nucleation and vertical growth, the subsequent lateral growth with small grain coalescence, and the final vertical growth along the existing larger grains. Overall, the quality of the buffer improves with increasing thickness except the deformed surface morphology. However, by a full-scale evaluation of the properties for the epi-layers, the quality of the epi-film is briefly determined by the surface morphology of the buffer, rather than the structural, optical, or electrical properties of it. The best quality epi-layer has been grown on the buffer with a smooth surface and well-coalescent grains. Meanwhile, due to the huge lattice mismatch between sapphire and ZnO, dislocations are inevitably formed during the growth of buffers. More importantly, as the film grows thicker, the dislocations may attracting other smaller dislocations and defects to reduce the total line energy and thus result in the formation of V-shape defects, which are connected with the bottom of the threading dislocations in the buffers. The V-defects appear as deep and large hexagonal pits from top view and they may act as electron traps which would affect the free carrier concentration of the epi-layers.

  4. The roles of buffer layer thickness on the properties of the ZnO epitaxial films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Kun; Huang, Shimin; Gu, Shulin; Zhu, Shunming; Ye, Jiandong; Xu, Zhonghua; Zheng, Youdou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The growth mechanism has been revealed for the ZnO buffers with different thickness. • The surface morphology has been determined as the key factor to affect the epitaxial growth. • The relation between the hexagonal pits from buffers and epi-films has been established. • The hexagonal pits formed in the epi-films have been attributed to the V-shaped defects inheriting from the dislocations in the buffers. • The structural and electrical properties of the V-defects have been presented and analyzed. - Abstract: In this article, the authors have investigated the optimization of the buffer thickness for obtaining high-quality ZnO epi-films on sapphire substrates. The growth mechanism of the buffers with different thickness has been clearly revealed, including the initial nucleation and vertical growth, the subsequent lateral growth with small grain coalescence, and the final vertical growth along the existing larger grains. Overall, the quality of the buffer improves with increasing thickness except the deformed surface morphology. However, by a full-scale evaluation of the properties for the epi-layers, the quality of the epi-film is briefly determined by the surface morphology of the buffer, rather than the structural, optical, or electrical properties of it. The best quality epi-layer has been grown on the buffer with a smooth surface and well-coalescent grains. Meanwhile, due to the huge lattice mismatch between sapphire and ZnO, dislocations are inevitably formed during the growth of buffers. More importantly, as the film grows thicker, the dislocations may attracting other smaller dislocations and defects to reduce the total line energy and thus result in the formation of V-shape defects, which are connected with the bottom of the threading dislocations in the buffers. The V-defects appear as deep and large hexagonal pits from top view and they may act as electron traps which would affect the free carrier concentration of the epi-layers.

  5. Structural Properties Characterized by the Film Thickness and Annealing Temperature for La2O3 Films Grown by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing; Liu, Hongxia; Zhao, Lu; Fei, Chenxi; Feng, Xingyao; Chen, Shupeng; Wang, Yongte

    2017-12-01

    La 2 O 3 films were grown on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition technique with different thickness. Crystallization characteristics of the La 2 O 3 films were analyzed by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction after post-deposition rapid thermal annealing treatments at several annealing temperatures. It was found that the crystallization behaviors of the La 2 O 3 films are affected by the film thickness and annealing temperatures as a relationship with the diffusion of Si substrate. Compared with the amorphous La 2 O 3 films, the crystallized films were observed to be more unstable due to the hygroscopicity of La 2 O 3 . Besides, the impacts of crystallization characteristics on the bandgap and refractive index of the La 2 O 3 films were also investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry, respectively.

  6. THE THICKNESS DEPENDENCE OF OXYGEN PERMEABILITY IN SOL-GEL DERIVED CGO-COFE2O4 THIN FILMS ON POROUS CERAMIC SUBSTRATES: A SPUTTERED BLOCKING LAYER FOR THICKNESS CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K

    2009-01-08

    Mixed conductive oxides are a topic of interest for applications in oxygen separation membranes as well as use in producing hydrogen fuel through the partial oxidation of methane. The oxygen flux through the membrane is governed both by the oxygen ionic conductivity as well as the material's electronic conductivity; composite membranes like Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} (CGO)-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) use gadolinium doped ceria oxides as the ionic conducting material combined with cobalt iron spinel which serves as the electronic conductor. In this study we employ {approx} 50 nm sputtered CeO{sub 2} layers on the surface of porous CGO ceramic substrates which serve as solution 'blocking' layers during the thin film fabrication process facilitating the control of film thickness. Films with thickness of {approx} 2 and 4 microns were prepared by depositing 40 and 95 separate sol-gel layers respectively. Oxygen flux measurements indicated that the permeation increased with decreasing membrane thickness; thin film membrane with thickness on the micron level showed flux values an order of magnitude greater (0.03 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2} s) at 800 C as compared to 1mm thick bulk ceramic membranes (0.003 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2}).

  7. Large exchange bias induced by polycrystalline Mn3Ga antiferromagnetic films with controlled layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haokaifeng; Sudoh, Iori; Xu, Ruihan; Si, Wenshuo; Vaz, C. A. F.; Kim, Jun-young; Vallejo-Fernandez, Gonzalo; Hirohata, Atsufumi

    2018-05-01

    Polycrystalline Mn3Ga layers with thickness in the range from 6–20 nm were deposited at room temperature by a high target utilisation sputtering. To investigate the onset of exchange-bias, a ferromagnetic Co0.6Fe0.4 layer (3.3–9 nm thick) capped with 5 nm Ta, were subsequently deposited. X-ray diffraction measurements confirm the presence of Mn3Ga (0 0 0 2) and (0 0 0 4) peaks characteristic of the D019 antiferromagnetic structure. The 6 nm thick Mn3Ga film shows the largest exchange bias of 430 Oe at 120 K with a blocking temperature of 225 K. The blocking temperature is found to decrease with increasing Mn3Ga thickness. These results in combination with x-ray reflectivity measurements confirm that the quality of the Mn3Ga/Co0.6Fe0.4 interface controls the exchange bias, with the sharp interface with the 6-nm-thick Mn3Ga inducing the largest exchange bias. The magneto-crystalline anisotropy for 6 nm thick Mn3Ga thin film sample is calculated to be . Such a binary antiferromagnetic Heusler alloy is compatible with the current memory fabrication process and hence has a great potential for antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  8. Determination of accurate metal silicide layer thickness by RBS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchhoff, J.F.; Baumann, S.M.; Evans, C.; Ward, I.; Coveney, P.

    1995-01-01

    Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) is a proven useful analytical tool for determining compositional information of a wide variety of materials. One of the most widely utilized applications of RBS is the study of the composition of metal silicides (MSi x ), also referred to as polycides. A key quantity obtained from an analysis of a metal silicide is the ratio of silicon to metal (Si/M). Although compositional information is very reliable in these applications, determination of metal silicide layer thickness by RBS techniques can differ from true layer thicknesses by more than 40%. The cause of these differences lies in how the densities utilized in the RBS analysis are calculated. The standard RBS analysis software packages calculate layer densities by assuming each element's bulk densities weighted by the fractional atomic presence. This calculation causes large thickness discrepancies in metal silicide thicknesses because most films form into crystal structures with distinct densities. Assuming a constant layer density for a full spectrum of Si/M values for metal silicide samples improves layer thickness determination but ignores the underlying physics of the films. We will present results of RBS determination of the thickness various metal silicide films with a range of Si/M values using a physically accurate model for the calculation of layer densities. The thicknesses are compared to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cross-section micrographs. We have also developed supporting software that incorporates these calculations into routine analyses. (orig.)

  9. The Effect of Film Thickness on the Gas Sensing Properties of Ultra-Thin TiO2 Films Deposited by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Wilson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyte sensitivity for gas sensors based on semiconducting metal oxides should be highly dependent on the film thickness, particularly when that thickness is on the order of the Debye length. This thickness dependence has previously been demonstrated for SnO2 and inferred for TiO2. In this paper, TiO2 thin films have been prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD using titanium isopropoxide and water as precursors. The deposition process was performed on standard alumina gas sensor platforms and microscope slides (for analysis purposes, at a temperature of 200 °C. The TiO2 films were exposed to different concentrations of CO, CH4, NO2, NH3 and SO2 to evaluate their gas sensitivities. These experiments showed that the TiO2 film thickness played a dominant role within the conduction mechanism and the pattern of response for the electrical resistance towards CH4 and NH3 exposure indicated typical n-type semiconducting behavior. The effect of relative humidity on the gas sensitivity has also been demonstrated.

  10. Measurement of the thickness of thin films by backscattered protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samaniego, L.E.Q.

    1976-07-01

    The method of backscattered protons has been used to measure the thickness of thin films. A monoenergetic beam of protons is directed on the film to be measured and the backscattered protons are detected with a particle detector. The film thickness is calculated from the energy spectrum of the protons. In the case of films consisting of several layers of elements with well separated atomic masses, it is possible to separate the spectra of protons scattered from the different elements, permitting a measurement of the thicknesses of the different layers. The method consists of calculating the energy loss of the protons throughout their trajectory, from the point of incidence on the film to the final detection. Thicknesses were measured for the following film combinations: gold on mylar, chromium on mylar, gold on chromium on mylar, and pure mylar. (Author) [pt

  11. Polymer thin film as coating layer to prevent corrosion of metal/metal oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman; Kundu, Sarathi

    2018-04-01

    Thin film of polymer is used as coating layer and the corrosion of metal/metal oxide layer is studied with the variation of the thickness of the coating layer. The thin layer of polystyrene is fabricated using spin coating method on copper oxide (CuO) film which is deposited on glass substrate using DC magnetron sputtering technique. Thickness of the polystyrene and the CuO layers are determined using X-ray reflectivity (XRR) technique. CuO thin films coated with the polystyrene layer are exposed to acetic acid (2.5 v/v% aqueous CH3COOH solution) environments and are subsequently analyzed using UV-Vis spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface morphology of the film before and after interaction with the acidic environment is determined using AFM. Results obtained from the XRR and UV-Vis spectroscopy confirm that the thin film of polystyrene acts as an anticorrosion coating layer and the strength of the coating depends upon the polymer layer thickness at a constant acid concentration.

  12. The Thickness Dependence of Optical Constants of Ultrathin Iron Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shang; Lian Jie; Wang Xiao; Li Ping; Sun Xiao-Fen; Li Qing-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin iron films with different thicknesses from 7.1 to 51.7 nm are deposited by magnetron sputtering and covered by tantalum layers protecting them from being oxidized. These ultrathin iron films are studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurement. An extra tantalum film is deposited under the same sputtering conditions and its optical constants and film thickness are obtained by a combination of ellipsometry and transmission measurement. After introducing these obtained optical constants and film thickness into the tantalum-iron film, the optical constants and film thicknesses of ultrathin iron films with different thicknesses are obtained. The results show that combining ellipsometry and transmission measurement improves the uniqueness of the obtained film thickness. The optical constants of ultrathin iron films depend strongly on film thicknesses. There is a broad absorption peak at about 370 nm and it shifts to 410 nm with film thickness decreasing

  13. Top layer's thickness dependence on total electron-yield X-ray standing-wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ejima, Takeo; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Banse, Takanori; Hatano, Tadashi

    2005-01-01

    A Mo single-layer film with a stepwise thickness distribution was fabricated on the same Mo/Si reflection multilayer film. Total electron-yield X-ray standing-wave (TEY-XSW) spectra of the aperiodic multilayer were measured with reflection spectra. The peak positions of the standing waves in the TEY-XSW spectra changed as the film thickness of the top Mo-layer increased

  14. Controlling the Performance of P-type Cu2O/SnO Bilayer Thin-Film Transistors by Adjusting the Thickness of the Copper Oxide Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jawhari, Hala A.; Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso; Hedhili, Mohamed N.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of copper oxide layer thickness on the performance of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors was investigated. By using sputtered Cu2O films produced at an oxygen partial pressure, Opp, of 10% as the upper layer and 3% Opp SnO films

  15. Thickness-Dependent Surfactant Behavior in Trilayer Polymer Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Shull, Kenneth; Wang, Jin

    2010-03-01

    The ability for thin liquid films to wet and remain thermodynamically stable on top of one another is a fundamental challenge in developing high quality paints, coatings, adhesives, and other industrial products. Since intermolecular interactions and interfacial energies dominate in the film thickness regime from tens to hundreds of nanometers, it is desirable to tune these long-range and short-range forces in a simple, controllable manner. Starting from an unstable model homopolymer bilayer (poly(styrene)/poly(4-vinylpyridine)), we demonstrate that sandwiching an additional homopolymer layer (poly(4-bromostyrene)) between the two layers can provide needed surfactancy. As the thickness of this center layer is increased, the full trilayer transitions from unstable (thin) to stable (moderate) to unstable (thick). We experimentally show using x-ray standing waves generated via total external reflection (TER-XSW), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) that this behavior can be directly attributed to the autophobic dewetting phenomenon, in which the surfactant layer is thin enough to remain stable but thick enough to shield the neighboring layers, highlighting a general approach to stabilizing multilayer systems.

  16. Microstructure and thermoelectric properties of screen-printed thick-films of misfit-layered cobalt oxides with Ag addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Samson, Alfred Junio; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    Thermoelectric properties of thick (~60 μm) films prepared by a screen-printing technique using p-type misfit-layered cobalt oxide Ca3Co4O9+δ with Ag addition have been studied. The screen-printed films were sintered in air at various temperatures ranging from 973 K to 1223 K. After each sintering...... process, crystal and microstructure analyses were carried out to determine the optimal sintering condition. The results show that the thermoelectric properties of pure Ca3Co4O9+δ thick film are comparable to those of cold isostatic pressing (CIP) samples. We found that the maximum power factor...... was improved by about 67% (to 0.3 mW/m K2) for film with proper silver (Ag) metallic inclusions as compared with 0.18 mW/m K2 for pure Ca3Co4O9+δ film under the same sintering condition of 1223 K for 2 h in air....

  17. Growth of nanocrystalline silicon thin film with layer-by-layer technique for fast photo-detecting applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-Y.; Fang, Y.-K.; Chen, S.-F.; Lin, P.-C.; Lin, C.-S.; Chou, T.-H; Hwang, J.S.; Lin, K.I.

    2006-01-01

    High mobility nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) films with layer-by-layer technique for fast photo-detecting applications were studied. The structure and morphology of films were studied by means of XRD, micro-Raman scattering, SEM and AFM. The Hall mobility and absorption properties have been investigated and found they were seriously affected by the number of layers in growing, i.e., with increasing of layer number, Hall mobility increased but absorption coefficient decreased. The optimum layer number of nc-Si films for fast near-IR photo-detecting is 7 with film thickness of 1400 nm, while that for fast visible photo-detecting is 17 with film thickness of 3400 nm

  18. Dependence of magnetic properties on ferromagnetic layer thickness in trilayer Co/Ge/Co films with granular semiconducting spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrin, G.S.; Lee, C.-G.; Turpanov, I.A.; Zharkov, S.M.; Velikanov, D.A.; Maltsev, V.K.; Li, L.A.; Lantsev, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    We have investigated the magnetic properties of trilayer films of Co-Ge-Co. At a fixed thickness of germanium of 3.5 nm, the formation and distribution of metastable amorphous and cubic phases depends on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer. The portion of the stable hexagonal phase is affected, too. Possible mechanisms for forming the observed magnetic structure are discussed

  19. Persistent quantum-size effect in aluminum films up to twelve atoms thick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettger, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Total energies and work functions have been calculated for unrelaxed, free-standing Al(111) films, 1 endash 12 layers thick, using the all-electron, full-potential linear combination of Gaussian-type orbitals endash fitting-function technique. The work function exhibits a significant quantum-size effect (at least 0.1 eV) over the entire range of thickness considered. This result contradicts an old prediction that the work function of an Al(111) N-layer film will converge to within a few hundredths of an eV by N=6. The present result, which is consistent with earlier jellium calculations, demonstrates the risk of mistaking an accidental coincidence of work functions for two films, differing in thickness by one layer, for a true convergence with respect to thickness. The implications for thin-film calculations of surface properties are discussed. A linear fit to the film binding energy vs thickness is used to extract the Al(111) surface energy (0.45 eV) and the binding energy of bulk Al (4.06 eV). copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  20. Relaxation in Thin Polymer Films Mapped across the Film Thickness by Astigmatic Single-Molecule Imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Oba, Tatsuya

    2012-06-19

    We have studied relaxation processes in thin supported films of poly(methyl acrylate) at the temperature corresponding to 13 K above the glass transition by monitoring the reorientation of single perylenediimide molecules doped into the films. The axial position of the dye molecules across the thickness of the film was determined with a resolution of 12 nm by analyzing astigmatic fluorescence images. The average relaxation times of the rotating molecules do not depend on the overall thickness of the film between 20 and 110 nm. The relaxation times also do not show any dependence on the axial position within the films for the film thickness between 70 and 110 nm. In addition to the rotating molecules we observed a fraction of spatially diffusing molecules and completely immobile molecules. These molecules indicate the presence of thin (<5 nm) high-mobility surface layer and low-mobility layer at the interface with the substrate. (Figure presented) © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  1. Effect of thickness on the structural and optical properties of CuO thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaltun, Yunus

    2015-01-01

    CuO thin films were synthesised on glass substrates at room temperature using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of film thickness on characteristic parameters such as the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all of the films exhibited polycrystalline structure with monoclinic phases and covered the glass substrates well. The crystalline and morphology of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The optical band gap decreased from 2.03 to 1.79 eV depending on the film thickness. The refractive index (n), electron effective mass (m_e"⁎/m_o) and static and frequency dielectric constants (ε_o, ε_∞) were determined using the energy band gap values. - Highlights: • CuO thin films were deposited using SILAR method. • The electron effective mass, refractive index, dielectric constant values were calculated. • Characterisation of the films has been performed using XRD, SEM, Raman and optical measurements. • The d values of the planes of with thickness show no variation.

  2. Magnetic properties of permalloy films with different thicknesses deposited onto obliquely sputtered Cu underlayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Sun, Xiaojun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of obliquely sputtered Cu underlayer of 10 nm on the magnetic properties of normally sputtered Permalloy thin films with different thicknesses from 10 nm to 150 nm has been investigated. It has been found that the samples with the Permalloy layer thickness ranging from 10 nm to 70 nm exhibit a good in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, and the increase of the film thickness leads to a decrease of the anisotropy field and the natural resonance frequency. The critical Permalloy layer thickness for stripe domain initiation of these films is about 80 nm, which is thinner than that of obliquely sputtered Permalloy thin films without an underlayer. The characteristic shapes of hysteresis loops which can be called ''transcritical'' are observed above the critical thickness. The condition and mechanism of appearing stripe domain structure were discussed and it has been found that the frequency response of permeability of the anisotropic films shows the characteristics of multi-peak resonance. - Highlights: • Py films were fabricated on obliquely sputtered Cu underlayers by RF magnetron sputtering. • Effects of Py layer thickness on anisotropy, ferromagnetic resonance frequency have been studied. • Samples with Py layer (<70 nm) show a good in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. • Samples with Py layer (>80 nm) show stripe domains and multi-peaks in permeability spectra

  3. Orientation and magnetic properties of the thick multilayered [NdFeBxTby]n films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Weifang; Suzuki, Shunji; Machida, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    Multilayered [NdFeB x /Tb y ] n films were prepared by a three-demensional sputtering system. From the thickness of NdFeB layer dependence on the orientation and magnetic properties of multilayered [NdFeB (xμm)/Tb (50nm)] n films with 7.2μm as a total thickness of NdFeB layers, it was found that the orientation of NdFeB grains was maintained. However, the coercivity was enhanced with decreasing the thickness of each NdFeB thin layer. The (BH) max value of 240kJ/m 3 was obtained on the layered [NdFeB (1.2μm)/Tb (50 nm)] 6 film as an optimal value. For the multilayered [NdFeB (1.2μm)/Tb (50 nm)] n films with various multiple layer sets (n), the coercivity value increased with the film thickness without any deterioration of the c-axis texture and consequently, multilayered NdFeB/Tb film magnets with total thickness values around 70μm showed the superior magnetic properties (H cj approx. = 1360kA/m, I r approx.= 1.05T, and (BH) max approx.= 202kJ/m 3 ). (author)

  4. Film thickness determining method of the silicon isotope superlattices by SIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Akio; Shimizu, Yasuo; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2008-01-01

    It is becoming important to evaluate silicon self-diffusion with progress of a silicon semiconductor industry. In order to evaluate the self-diffusion of silicon, silicon isotope superlattices (SLs) is the only marker. For this reason, it is important to correctly evaluate a film thickness and a depth distribution of isotope SLs by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As for film thickness, it is difficult to estimate the thicknesses correctly if the cycles of SLs are short. In this work, first, we report the determination of the film thickness for short-period SLs using mixing roughness-information (MRI) analysis to SIMS profile. Next, the uncertainty of the conventional method to determine the film thicknesses of SLs is determined. It was found that the conventional methods cannot correctly determine film thickness of short-period-isotope SLs where film thickness differs for every layer

  5. Effect of separated layer thickness on magnetoresistance and magnetic properties of Co/Dy/Co and Ni/Dy/Ni film systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabelnyk, T. M.; Shutylieva, O. V.; Vorobiov, S. I.; Pazukha, I. M.; Chornous, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Co(5 nm)/Dy(tDy)/Co(20 nm)/S and Ni(5 nm)/Dy(tDy)/Ni(20 nm)/S trilayer films are prepared by electron-beam sputtering to investigate the influence of dysprosium layer thickness (tDy) and thermal annealing on the crystal structure, magnetoresistance (MR) and magnetic properties of thin films. The thickness of Dy layer changed in the range from 1 nm to 20 nm. The samples annealed for 20 min at 700 K. Electron diffraction patterns reveal that the as-deposited and annealed systems Co/Dy/Co and Ni/Dy/Ni had fcc-Co + hcp-Dy and fcc-Ni + hcp-Dy phase state, respectively. It is also shown that at the tDy = 15 nm the transition from amorphous to crystalline structures of Dy layer is observed. An increase in the Dy layer thickness results in changes in the MR and magnetic properties of the trilayer systems. It is shown that MR is most thermally stable against annealing to 700 K at tDy = 15 nm for Co/Dy/Co as well as for Ni/Dy/Ni. For tDy = 15 nm the, value of MR for both system increases by two times compared to those of pure ferromagnetic (FM) samples. The coercivity (Bc), remanent (Mr) and saturation (Ms) magnetization of the in-plain magnetization hysteresis loops are related to the Dy layer thickness too. The coercivity depends on the FM materials type and diffusion processes at the layer boundary. Accordingly, Mr and Ms are reduced with tDy increasing before and after annealing for both trilayer systems.

  6. Temperature- and thickness-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ao Zhimin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The mechanical properties of polymer ultrathin films are usually different from those of their counterparts in bulk. Understanding the effect of thickness on the mechanical properties of these films is crucial for their applications. However, it is a great challenge to measure their elastic modulus experimentally with in situ heating. In this study, a thermodynamic model for temperature- (T and thickness (h-dependent elastic moduli of polymer thin films Ef(T,h is developed with verification by the reported experimental data on polystyrene (PS thin films. For the PS thin films on a passivated substrate, Ef(T,h decreases with the decreasing film thickness, when h is less than 60 nm at ambient temperature. However, the onset thickness (h*, at which thickness Ef(T,h deviates from the bulk value, can be modulated by T. h* becomes larger at higher T because of the depression of the quenching depth, which determines the thickness of the surface layer δ.

  7. 4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as a conducting diffusion barrier layer for integrating ferroelectric capacitor on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, X.H.; Guo, J.X.; Zhang, L.; Jia, D.M.; Qi, C.G.; Zhou, Y.; Li, X.H.; Shi, J.B.; Fu, Y.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Lou, J.Z.; Ma, L.X.; Zhao, H.D.; Liu, B.T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 4-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film is first used as the conducting barrier layer. • No obvious interdiffusion/reaction can be found from the LSCO/PZT/LSCO/Nb–Ni/Si. • The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties. • Ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal to fabricate silicon-based FRAM. - Abstract: We have successfully integrated La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 /PbZr 0.4 Ti 0.6 O 3 /La 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 (LSCO/PZT/LSCO) capacitors on silicon substrate using a ∼4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as the conducting diffusion barrier layer. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms that the Nb–Ni film is still amorphous after fabrication of the capacitors, and the interfaces related to Nb–Ni are clean and sharp without any findable interdiffusion/reaction. The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties, such as large remanent polarization of ∼22.1 μC/cm 2 , small coercive voltage of ∼1.27 V, good fatigue-resistance, and small pulse width dependence, implying that ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal as the conducting diffusion barrier layer to fabricate high-density silicon-based ferroelectric random access memories

  8. 4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as a conducting diffusion barrier layer for integrating ferroelectric capacitor on Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, X.H. [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China); College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Guo, J.X.; Zhang, L.; Jia, D.M.; Qi, C.G.; Zhou, Y.; Li, X.H.; Shi, J.B.; Fu, Y.J.; Wang, Y.L.; Lou, J.Z. [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China); Ma, L.X. [Department of Physics, Blinn College, Bryan, TX 77805 (United States); Zhao, H.D. [College of Electronic and Information Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401 (China); Liu, B.T., E-mail: btliu@hbu.cn [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, College of Physics Science & Technology, Hebei University, Hebei 071002 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • 4-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film is first used as the conducting barrier layer. • No obvious interdiffusion/reaction can be found from the LSCO/PZT/LSCO/Nb–Ni/Si. • The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties. • Ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal to fabricate silicon-based FRAM. - Abstract: We have successfully integrated La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3}/PbZr{sub 0.4}Ti{sub 0.6}O{sub 3}/La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}CoO{sub 3} (LSCO/PZT/LSCO) capacitors on silicon substrate using a ∼4.0-nm-thick amorphous Nb–Ni film as the conducting diffusion barrier layer. Transmission electron microscopy technique confirms that the Nb–Ni film is still amorphous after fabrication of the capacitors, and the interfaces related to Nb–Ni are clean and sharp without any findable interdiffusion/reaction. The LSCO/PZT/LSCO capacitor, measured at 5 V, possesses very good properties, such as large remanent polarization of ∼22.1 μC/cm{sup 2}, small coercive voltage of ∼1.27 V, good fatigue-resistance, and small pulse width dependence, implying that ultrathin amorphous Nb–Ni film is ideal as the conducting diffusion barrier layer to fabricate high-density silicon-based ferroelectric random access memories.

  9. Influence of a ZnO Buffer Layer on the Structural, Optical, and Electrical Properties of ITO/ZnO Bi-Layered Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Sung-Bo; Moon, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Daeil; Kim, Jun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Sn-doped indium oxide (ITO) films and ITO/ZnO bi-layered films were prepared on polycarbonate substrates by RF magnetron sputtering without intentional substrate heating. In order to consider the influence of the ZnO thickness on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of ITO/ZnO films, the thickness of the ZnO buffer layer was varied from 5 to 20 nm. As-deposited ITO films show an average optical transmittance of 79.2% in the visible range and an electrical resistivity of 3.0×10"-"4 Ωcm, while films with a 5-nm thick ZnO buffer layer film show an electrical resistivity of 2.6×10"-"4 Ωcm and films with a 20-nm thick ZnO buffer layer show an optical transmittance of 82.0%. Based on the figure of merit, it is concluded that the ZnO buffer layer enhances the optical and electrical performance of ITO films used as transparent conducting oxides in flexible display applications.

  10. Effect of thickness on the structural and optical properties of CuO thin films grown by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaltun, Yunus, E-mail: yakaltun@erzincan.edu.tr

    2015-11-02

    CuO thin films were synthesised on glass substrates at room temperature using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effect of film thickness on characteristic parameters such as the structural, morphological and optical properties of the films was investigated. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that all of the films exhibited polycrystalline structure with monoclinic phases and covered the glass substrates well. The crystalline and morphology of the films improved with increasing film thickness. The optical band gap decreased from 2.03 to 1.79 eV depending on the film thickness. The refractive index (n), electron effective mass (m{sub e}{sup ⁎}/m{sub o}) and static and frequency dielectric constants (ε{sub o}, ε{sub ∞}) were determined using the energy band gap values. - Highlights: • CuO thin films were deposited using SILAR method. • The electron effective mass, refractive index, dielectric constant values were calculated. • Characterisation of the films has been performed using XRD, SEM, Raman and optical measurements. • The d values of the planes of with thickness show no variation.

  11. Layer-by-layer films for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Picart, Catherine; Voegel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition technique is a versatile approach for preparing nanoscale multimaterial films: the fabrication of multicomposite films by the LbL procedure allows the combination of literally hundreds of different materials with nanometer thickness in a single device to obtain novel or superior performance. In the last 15 years the LbL technique has seen considerable developments and has now reached a point where it is beginning to find applications in bioengineering and biomedical engineering. The book gives a thorough overview of applications of the LbL technique in the c

  12. Layer-by-layer assembly of thin film oxygen barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Woo-Sik; Rawson, Ian; Grunlan, Jaime C.

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of sodium montmorillonite clay and cationic polyacrylamide were grown on a polyethylene terephthalate film using layer-by-layer assembly. After 30 clay-polymer layers are deposited, with a thickness of 571 nm, the resulting transparent film has an oxygen transmission rate (OTR) below the detection limit of commercial instrumentation ( 2 /day/atm). This low OTR, which is unprecedented for a clay-filled polymer composite, is believed to be due to a brick wall nanostructure comprised of completely exfoliated clay in polymeric mortar. With an optical transparency greater than 90% and potential for microwaveability, this thin composite is a good candidate for foil replacement in food packaging and may also be useful for flexible electronics packaging

  13. Influence of interface layer on optical properties of sub-20 nm-thick TiO2 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yue-Jie; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Li, Da-Hai; Zhan, Yi-Qiang; Lu, Hong-Liang; Jiang, An-Quan; Chen, Xin; Liu, Juan; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Song-You; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2018-02-01

    The sub-20 nm ultrathin titanium dioxide (TiO2) films with tunable thickness were deposited on Si substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD). The structural and optical properties were acquired by transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and spectroscopic ellipsometry. Afterwards, a constructive and effective method of analyzing interfaces by applying two different optical models consisting of air/TiO2/Ti x Si y O2/Si and air/effective TiO2 layer/Si, respectively, was proposed to investigate the influence of interface layer (IL) on the analysis of optical constants and the determination of band gap of TiO2 ultrathin films. It was found that two factors including optical constants and changing components of the nonstoichiometric IL could contribute to the extent of the influence. Furthermore, the investigated TiO2 ultrathin films of 600 ALD cycles were selected and then annealed at the temperature range of 400-900 °C by rapid thermal annealing. Thicker IL and phase transition cause the variation of optical properties of TiO2 films after annealing and a shorter electron relaxation time reveals the strengthened electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in the TiO2 ultrathin films at high temperature. The as-obtained results in this paper will play a role in other studies of high dielectric constants materials grown on Si substrates and in the applications of next generation metal-oxide-semiconductor devices.

  14. Equilibrium helium film in the thick film limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klier, J.; Schletterer, F.; Leiderer, P.; Shikin, V.

    2003-01-01

    For the thickness of a liquid or solid quantum film, like liquid helium or solid hydrogen, there exist still open questions about how the film thickness develops in certain limits. One of these is the thick film limit, i.e., the crossover from the thick film to bulk. We have performed measurements in this range using the surface plasmon resonance technique and an evaporated Ag film deposited on glass as substrate. The thickness of the adsorbed helium film is varied by changing the distance h of the bulk reservoir to the surface of the substrate. In the limiting case, when h > 0, the film thickness approaches about 100 nm following the van der Waals law in the retarded regime. The film thickness and its dependence on h is precisely determined and theoretically modeled. The equilibrium film thickness behaviour is discussed in detail. The agreement between theory and experiment is very good

  15. Study of Sb/SnO{sub 2} bi-layer films prepared by ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chun-Min [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Chun-Chieh [Department of Electrical Engineering, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Road, Niaosong Township, Kaohsiung 833, Taiwan, ROC (China); Kuo, Jui-Chao [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Huang, Jow-Lay, E-mail: jlh888@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 811, Taiwan, ROC (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2014-11-03

    In the present work, bi-layer thin films of Sb/SnO{sub 2} were produced on unheated glass substrates using ion beam sputtering (IBS) technique without post annealing treatment. The thickness of Sb layers was varied from 2 to 10 nm and the Sb layers were deposited on SnO{sub 2} layers having thicknesses of 40 nm to 115 nm. The effect of thickness was studied on the morphological, electrical and optical properties. The Sb/SnO{sub 2} bi-layer resulted in lowering the electrical resistivity as well as reducing the optical transmittance. However, the optical and electrical properties of the bi-layer films were mainly influenced by the thickness of Sb layers due to progressive transfer in structures from aggregate to continuous films. The bi-layer films show the electrical resistivity of 1.4 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm and an optical transmittance of 26% for Sb film having 10 nm thickness. - Highlights: • Bi-layer Sb/SnO{sub 2} structures were synthesized by ion beam sputtering (IBS) technique. • The 6 nm-thick Sb film is a transition region in this study. • The conductivity of the bi-layer films is increased as Sb thickness increases. • The transmittance of the bi-layer films is decreased as Sb thickness increases.

  16. Ultrasonic Measurement of Interfacial Layer Thickness of Sub-Quarter-Wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, No Hyu; Lee, Sang Soon [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    This paper describes a new technique for thickness measurement of a very thin layer less than one-quarter of the wavelength of ultrasonic wave used in the ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements. The technique determines the thickness of a thin layer in a tapered medium from constructive interference of multiple reflection waves. The interference characteristics are derived and investigated in theoretical and experimental approaches. Modified total reflection wave g(t) defined as difference between total and first reflection waves increases in amplitude as the interfacial layer thickness decreases down to zero. A layer thickness less than one-tenth of the ultrasonic wavelength is measured using the maximum amplitude of g(t) with a good accuracy and sensitivity. The method also requires no inversion process to extract the thickness information from the waveforms of reflected waves, so that it makes possible to have the on-line thickness measurement of a thin layer such as a lubricating oil film in thrust bearings and journal bearings during manufacturing process

  17. Ultrasonic Measurement of Interfacial Layer Thickness of Sub-Quarter-Wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, No Hyu; Lee, Sang Soon

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a new technique for thickness measurement of a very thin layer less than one-quarter of the wavelength of ultrasonic wave used in the ultrasonic pulse-echo measurements. The technique determines the thickness of a thin layer in a tapered medium from constructive interference of multiple reflection waves. The interference characteristics are derived and investigated in theoretical and experimental approaches. Modified total reflection wave g(t) defined as difference between total and first reflection waves increases in amplitude as the interfacial layer thickness decreases down to zero. A layer thickness less than one-tenth of the ultrasonic wavelength is measured using the maximum amplitude of g(t) with a good accuracy and sensitivity. The method also requires no inversion process to extract the thickness information from the waveforms of reflected waves, so that it makes possible to have the on-line thickness measurement of a thin layer such as a lubricating oil film in thrust bearings and journal bearings during manufacturing process

  18. Enhanced Optical and Electrical Properties of TiO_2 Buffered IGZO/TiO_2 Bi-Layered Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Daeil

    2016-01-01

    In and Ga doped ZnO (IGZO, 100-nm thick) thin films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering without intentional substrate heating on a bare glass substrate and a TiO_2-deposited glass substrate to determine the effect of the thickness of a thin TiO_2 buffer layer on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films. The thicknesses of the TiO_2 buffer layers were 5, 10 and 15 nm, respectively. As-deposited IGZO films with a 10 nm-thick TiO_2 buffer layer had an average optical transmittance of 85.0% with lower resistivity (1.83×10-2 Ω cm) than that of IGZO single layer films. The figure of merit (FOM) reached a maximum of 1.44×10-4 Ω-1 for IGZO/10 nm-thick TiO_2 bi-layered films, which is higher than the FOM of 6.85×10-5 Ω-1 for IGZO single layer films. Because a higher FOM value indicates better quality transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, the IGZO/10 nm-thick TiO_2 bi-layered films are likely to perform better in TCO applications than IGZO single layer films.

  19. Multi-layer film flow down an inclined plane: experimental investigation

    KAUST Repository

    Henry, Daniel

    2014-11-19

    We report the results from an experimental study of the flow of a film down an inclined plane where the film itself is comprised of up to three layers of different liquids. By measuring the total film thickness for a broad range of parameters including flow rates and liquid physical properties, we provide a thorough and systematic test of the single-layer approximation for multi-layer films for Reynolds numbers Re = ρQ/μ≈0.03-60. In addition, we also measure the change in film thickness of individual layers as a function of flow rates for a variety of experimental configurations. With the aid of high-speed particle tracking, we derive the velocity fields and free-surface velocities to compare to the single-layer approximation. Furthermore, we provide experimental evidence of small capillary ridge formations close to the point where two layers merge and compare our experimental parameter range for the occurrence of this phenomenon to those previously reported.

  20. Effect of substrates and thickness on optical properties in atomic layer deposition grown ZnO thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dipayan; Singhal, Jaya; Mathur, Aakash; Singh, Ajaib; Dutta, Surjendu; Zollner, Stefan; Chattopadhyay, Sudeshna

    2017-11-01

    Atomic Layer Deposition technique was used to grow high quality, very low roughness, crystalline, Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films on silicon (Si) and fused quartz (SiO2) substrates to study the optical properties. Spectroscopic ellipsometry results of ZnO/Si system, staggered type-II quantum well, demonstrate that there is a significant drop in the magnitudes of both the real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric constants and in near-band gap absorption along with a blue shift of the absorption edge with decreasing film thickness at and below ∼20 nm. Conversely, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy of ZnO/SiO2, thin type-I quantum well, consisting of a narrower-band gap semiconductor grown on a wider-band gap (insulator) substrate, shows the similar thickness dependent blue-shift of the absorption edge but with an increase in the magnitude of near-band gap absorption with decreasing film thickness. Thickness dependent blue shift, energy vs. 1/d2, in two different systems, ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2, show a difference in their slopes. The observed phenomena can be consistently explained by the corresponding exciton (or carrier/s) deconfinement and confinement effects at the ZnO/Si and ZnO/SiO2 interface respectively, where Tanguy-Elliott amplitude pre-factor plays the key role through the electron-hole overlap factor at the interface.

  1. Through-thickness thermal conductivity enhancement of graphite film/epoxy composite via short duration acidizing modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Shaokai; Lu, Weibang; Li, Min; Gu, Yizhou; Zhang, Yongyi; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2018-06-01

    Graphite films have excellent in-plane thermal conductivity but extremely low through-thickness thermal conductivity because of their intrinsic inter-layer spaces. To improve the inter-layer heat transfer of graphite films, we developed a simple interfacial modification with a short duration mixed-acid treatment. The effects of the mixture ratio of sulfuric and nitric acids and treatment time on the through-thickness thermal properties of graphite films were studied. The modification increased the through-thickness thermal conductivity by 27% and 42% for the graphite film and its composite, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the acidification process had two competing effects: the positive contribution made by the enhanced interaction between the graphite layers induced by the functional groups and the negative effect from the destruction of the graphite layers. As a result, an optimal acidification method was found to be sulfuric/nitric acid treatment with a mixture ratio of 3:1 for 15 min. The resultant through-thickness thermal conductivity of the graphite film could be improved to 0.674 W/mK, and the corresponding graphite/epoxy composite shows a through-thickness thermal conductivity of 0.587 W/mK. This method can be directly used for graphite films and their composite fabrication to improve through-thickness thermal conductivity.

  2. Channel layer thickness dependence of In-Ti-Zn-O thin-film transistors fabricated using pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q.; Shan, F. K.; Liu, G. X.; Liu, A.; Lee, W. J.; Shin, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous indium-titanium-zinc-oxide (ITZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with various channel thicknesses were fabricated at room temperature by using pulsed laser deposition. The channel layer thickness (CLT) dependence of the TFTs was investigated. All the ITZO thin films were amorphous, and the surface roughnesses decreased slightly first and then increased with increasing CLT. With increasing CLT from 35 to 140 nm, the on/off current ratio and the field-effect mobility increased, and the subthreshold swing decreased. The TFT with a CLT of 210 nm exhibited the worst performance, while the ITZO TFT with a CLT of 140 nm exhibited the best performance with a subthreshold voltage of 2.86 V, a mobility of 53.9 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , a subthreshold swing of 0.29 V/decade and an on/off current ratio of 10 9 .

  3. Dual-layer ultrathin film optics: I. Theory and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Qian; Lim, Kim Peng

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits dual-layer ultrathin film optics, which can be used for functional graded refractive index thin film stack. We present the detailed derivation including s-polarized and p-polarized light under arbitrary incidence angle showing the equivalence between the dual-layer ultrathin films and a negative birefringent thin film and also the approximations made during the derivation. Analysis of the approximations shows the influence of thickness of dual-layer thin films, the incidence angle and desired refractive index of the birefringent film. Numerical comparison between the titanium dioxide/aluminum oxide based dual-layer ultrathin film stack and the equivalent birefringent film verifies the theoretical analysis. The detailed theoretical study and numerical comparison provide a physical insight and design guidelines for dual-layer ultrathin film based optical devices. (paper)

  4. Structural, transport and microwave properties of 123/sapphire films: Thickness effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Predtechensky, MR.; Smal, A.N.; Varlamov, Y.D. [Institute of Thermophysics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    The effect of thickness and growth conditions on the structure and microwave properties has been investigated for the 123/sapphire films. It has been shown that in the conditions of epitaxial growth and Al atoms do not diffuse from substrate into the film and the films with thickness up to 100nm exhibit the excellent DC properties. The increase of thickness of GdBaCuO films causes the formation of extended line-mesh defects and the increase of the surface resistance (R{sub S}). The low value of surface resistance R{sub S}(75GHz,77K)=20 mOhm has been obtained for the two layer YBaCuO/CdBaCuO/sapphire films.

  5. Subtractive fabrication of ferroelectric thin films with precisely controlled thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ievlev, Anton V.; Chyasnavichyus, Marius; Leonard, Donovan N.; Agar, Joshua C.; Velarde, Gabriel A.; Martin, Lane W.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Maksymovych, Petro; Ovchinnikova, Olga S.

    2018-04-01

    The ability to control thin-film growth has led to advances in our understanding of fundamental physics as well as to the emergence of novel technologies. However, common thin-film growth techniques introduce a number of limitations related to the concentration of defects on film interfaces and surfaces that limit the scope of systems that can be produced and studied experimentally. Here, we developed an ion-beam based subtractive fabrication process that enables creation and modification of thin films with pre-defined thicknesses. To accomplish this we transformed a multimodal imaging platform that combines time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry with atomic force microscopy to a unique fabrication tool that allows for precise sputtering of the nanometer-thin layers of material. To demonstrate fabrication of thin-films with in situ feedback and control on film thickness and functionality we systematically studied thickness dependence of ferroelectric switching of lead-zirconate-titanate, within a single epitaxial film. Our results demonstrate that through a subtractive film fabrication process we can control the piezoelectric response as a function of film thickness as well as improve on the overall piezoelectric response versus an untreated film.

  6. Temperature dependence of magnetically dead layers in ferromagnetic thin-films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tokaç

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Polarized neutron reflectometry has been used to study interface magnetism and magnetic dead layers in model amorphous CoFeB:Ta alloy thin-film multilayers with Curie temperatures tuned to be below room-temperature. This allows temperature dependent variations in the effective magnetic thickness of the film to be determined at temperatures that are a significant fraction of the Curie temperature, which cannot be achieved in the material systems used for spintronic devices. In addition to variation in the effective magnetic thickness due to compositional grading at the interface with the tantalum capping layer, the key finding is that at the interface between ferromagnetic film and GaAs(001 substrate local interfacial alloying creates an additional magnetic dead-layer. The thickness of this magnetic dead-layer is temperature dependent, which may have significant implications for elevated-temperature operation of hybrid ferromagnetic metal-semiconductor spintronic devices.

  7. Spacer layer effect and microstructure on multi-layer [NdFeB/Nb]n films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, J.-L.; Yao, Y.-D.; Chin, T.-S.; Kronmueller, H.

    2002-01-01

    Spacer layer effect on multi-layer [NdFeB/Nb] n films has been investigated from the variation of magnetic properties and microstructure of the films. From a HRTEM cross-section view observation, the average grain size of [NdFeB/Nb] n multi-layers was controlled by both annealing temperature and thickness of NdFeB layer. Selected area diffraction pattern indicated that the structure of Nb spacer layer was amorphous. The grain size and coercivity of [NdFeB x /Nb] n films change from 50 nm and 16.7 kOe to 167 nm and 9 kOe for films with x=40 nm, n=10 and x=200 nm, n=2, respectively

  8. Atomic layer deposition of a MoS₂ film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Lee Kheng; Liu, Bo; Teng, Jing Hua; Guo, Shifeng; Low, Hong Yee; Tan, Hui Ru; Chong, Christy Yuen Tung; Yang, Ren Bin; Loh, Kian Ping

    2014-09-21

    A mono- to multilayer thick MoS₂ film has been grown by using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique at 300 °C on a sapphire wafer. ALD provides precise control of the MoS₂ film thickness due to pulsed introduction of the reactants and self-limiting reactions of MoCl₅ and H₂S. A post-deposition annealing of the ALD-deposited monolayer film improves the crystallinity of the film, which is evident from the presence of triangle-shaped crystals that exhibit strong photoluminescence in the visible range.

  9. Triboelectric charge generation by semiconducting SnO2 film grown by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, No Ho; Yoon, Seong Yu; Kim, Dong Ha; Kim, Seong Keun; Choi, Byung Joon

    2017-07-01

    Improving the energy harvesting efficiency of triboelectric generators (TEGs) requires exploring new types of materials that can be used, and understanding their properties. In this study, we have investigated semiconducting SnO2 thin films as friction layers in TEGs, which has not been explored thus far. Thin films of SnO2 with various thicknesses were grown by atomic layer deposition on Si substrates. Either polymer or glass was used as counter friction layers. Vertical contact/separation mode was utilized to evaluate the TEG efficiency. The results indicate that an increase in the SnO2 film thickness from 5 to 25 nm enhances the triboelectric output voltage of the TEG. Insertion of a 400-nm-thick Pt sub-layer between the SnO2 film and Si substrate further increased the output voltage up to 120 V in a 2 cm × 2 cm contact area, while the enhancement was cancelled out by inserting a 10-nm-thick insulating Al2O3 film between SnO2 and Pt films. These results indicate that n-type semiconducting SnO2 films can provide triboelectric charge to counter-friction layers in TEGs.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Electroplated thick-film cobalt platinum permanent magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Qi, Bin; Arnold, David P.

    2016-01-01

    The material and magnetic properties of multi-micron-thick (up to 6 μm) L1 0 CoPt magnetic films electroplated onto silicon substrates are investigated as candidate materials for integration in silicon-based microsystems. The influence of various process conditions on the structure and magnetic properties of electroplated CoPt thick-films is studied in order to better understand the complex process/structure/property relationships associated with the electroplated films. Process variables studied here include different seed layers, electroplating current densities (ranging from 25–200 mA/cm 2 ), deposition times (up to 60 min), and post-deposition annealing times and temperatures. Analyses include film morphology, film thickness, composition, surface roughness, grain size, phase volume fractions, and L1 0 ordering parameter. Key correlations are found relating process and structure variations to the extrinsic magnetic properties (remanence, coercivity, squareness, and energy product). Strong hard magnetic properties (B r ~0.8 T, H ci ~800 kA/m, squareness close to 0.9, and BH max of 100 kJ/m 3 ) are obtained for films deposited on Si/TiN/Ti/Cu at current densities of 100 mA/cm 2 , pH of 7, and subsequently annealed at 675 °C for 30 min. - Highlights: • CoPt films plated up to 6 μm thick on silicon substrates. • A1 to L1 0 phase transformation by annealing in forming gas. • Various process–structure–property relationships explored. • Key results: B r ~0.8 T, H ci ~800 kA/m, squareness 0.9, and BH max ~100 kJ/m 3 .

  11. Planar Zeolite Film-Based Potentiometric Gas Sensors Manufactured by a Combined Thick-Film and Electroplating Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Isabella; Reiß, Sebastian; Hagen, Gunter; Moos, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Zeolites are promising materials in the field of gas sensors. In this technology-oriented paper, a planar setup for potentiometric hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas sensors using zeolites as ionic sodium conductors is presented, in which the Pt-loaded Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is applied using a thick-film technique between two interdigitated gold electrodes and one of them is selectively covered for the first time by an electroplated chromium oxide film. The influence of the sensor temperature, the type of hydrocarbons, the zeolite film thickness, and the chromium oxide film thickness is investigated. The influence of the zeolite on the sensor response is briefly discussed in the light of studies dealing with zeolites as selectivity-enhancing cover layers. PMID:22164042

  12. Planar Zeolite Film-Based Potentiometric Gas Sensors Manufactured by a Combined Thick-Film and Electroplating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Hagen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are promising materials in the field of gas sensors. In this technology-oriented paper, a planar setup for potentiometric hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas sensors using zeolites as ionic sodium conductors is presented, in which the Pt-loaded Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is applied using a thick-film technique between two interdigitated gold electrodes and one of them is selectively covered for the first time by an electroplated chromium oxide film. The influence of the sensor temperature, the type of hydrocarbons, the zeolite film thickness, and the chromium oxide film thickness is investigated. The influence of the zeolite on the sensor response is briefly discussed in the light of studies dealing with zeolites as selectivity-enhancing cover layers.

  13. Investigation of top electrode for PZT thick films based MEMS sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Pedersen, Thomas; Kristiansen, Paw T.

    2010-01-01

    In this work processing of screen printed piezoelectric PZT thick films on silicon substrates is investigated for use in future MEMS devices. E-beam evaporated Al and Pt are patterned on PZT as a top electrode using a lift-off process with a line width down to 3 mu m. Three test structures are used...... to investigate the optimal thickness of the top electrode, the degradation of the piezoelectric properties of the PZT film in absence of a diffusion barrier layer and finally how to fabricate electrical interconnects down the edge of the PZT thick film. The roughness of the PZT is found to have a strong...... influence on the conductance of the top electrode influencing the optimal top electrode thickness. A 100 nm thick top electrode on the PZT thick film with a surface roughness of 273 nm has a 4.5 times higher resistance compared to a similar wire on a planar SiO2 surface which has a surface roughness of less...

  14. Synthesis of the Thickness Profile of the Waveguide Layer of the Thin Film Generalized Waveguide Luneburg Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayryan E.A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A local variation in the thickness of the waveguide layer of integrated optics waveguide causes a local decrease of phase velocity, and hence bending of rays and of the wave front. The relationship of the waveguide layer thickness profile h (y, z with the distribution of the effective refractive index of the waveguide β (y, z is described in terms of a particular model of waveguide solutions of the Maxwell equations. In the model of comparison waveguides the support of the thickness irregularity of the waveguide layer Δh coincides with the support of inhomogeneity of the effective refractive index Δβ. A more adequate but more cumbersome model of the adiabatic waveguide modes allows them to mismatch supp Δh ⊃ supp Δβ. In this paper, we solve the problem of the Δh reconstruction on the base of given Δβ of the thin film generalized waveguide Luneburg lens in a model of adiabatic waveguide modes. The solution is found in the form of a linear combination of Gaussian exponential functions and in the form of a cubic spline for the cylindrically symmetric Δh (r and in the form of a cubic spline for Δβ (r.

  15. Versatile technique for assessing thickness of 2D layered materials by XPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemlyanov, Dmitry Y.; Jespersen, Michael; Zakharov, Dmitry N.; Hu, Jianjun; Paul, Rajib; Kumar, Anurag; Pacley, Shanee; Glavin, Nicholas; Saenz, David; Smith, Kyle C.; Fisher, Timothy S.; Voevodin, Andrey A.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been utilized as a versatile method for thickness characterization of various two-dimensional (2D) films. Accurate thickness can be measured simultaneously while acquiring XPS data for chemical characterization of 2D films having thickness up to approximately 10 nm. For validating the developed technique, thicknesses of few-layer graphene (FLG), MoS2 and amorphous boron nitride (a-BN) layer, produced by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD), plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), and pulsed laser deposition (PLD) respectively, were accurately measured. The intensity ratio between photoemission peaks recorded for the films (C 1s, Mo 3d, B 1s) and the substrates (Cu 2p, Al 2p, Si 2p) is the primary input parameter for thickness calculation, in addition to the atomic densities of the substrate and the film, and the corresponding electron attenuation length (EAL). The XPS data was used with a proposed model for thickness calculations, which was verified by cross-sectional transmission electron microscope (TEM) measurement of thickness for all the films. The XPS method determines thickness values averaged over an analysis area which is orders of magnitude larger than the typical area in cross-sectional TEM imaging, hence provides an advanced approach for thickness measurement over large areas of 2D materials. The study confirms that the versatile XPS method allows rapid and reliable assessment of the 2D material thickness and this method can facilitate in tailoring growth conditions for producing very thin 2D materials effectively over a large area. Furthermore, the XPS measurement for a typical 2D material is non-destructive and does not require special sample preparation. Therefore, after XPS analysis, exactly the same sample can undergo further processing or utilization.

  16. Preparation of multi-layer film consisting of hydrogen-free DLC and nitrogen-containing DLC for conductive hard coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yushi; Harigai, Toru; Isono, Ryo; Degai, Satoshi; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Suda, Yoshiyuki; Takikawa, Hirofumi; Yasui, Haruyuki; Kaneko, Satoru; Kunitsugu, Shinsuke; Kamiya, Masao; Taki, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Conductive hard-coating films have potential application as protective films for contact pins used in the electrical inspection process for integrated circuit chips. In this study, multi-layer diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were prepared as conductive hard-coating films. The multi-layer DLC films consisting of DLC and nitrogen-containing DLC (N-DLC) film were prepared using a T-shape filtered arc deposition method. Periodic DLC/N-DLC four-layer and eight-layer films had the same film thickness by changing the thickness of each layer. In the ball-on-disk test, the N-DLC mono-layer film showed the highest wear resistance; however, in the spherical polishing method, the eight-layer film showed the highest polishing resistance. The wear and polishing resistance and the aggressiveness against an opponent material of the multi-layer DLC films improved by reducing the thickness of a layer. In multi-layer films, the soft N-DLC layer between hard DLC layers is believed to function as a cushion. Thus, the tribological properties of the DLC films were improved by a multi-layered structure. The electrical resistivity of multi-layer DLC films was approximately half that of the DLC mono-layer film. Therefore, the periodic DLC/N-DLC eight-layer film is a good conductive hard-coating film.

  17. Presentation and characterization of novel thick-film PZT microactuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalvet, Vincent; Habineza, Didace, E-mail: didace.habineza@femto-st.fr; Rakotondrabe, Micky; Clévy, Cédric

    2016-04-01

    We propose in this paper the characterization of a new generation of piezoelectric cantilevers called thick-films piezoelectric actuators. Based on the bonding and thinning process of a bulk PZT layer onto a silicon layer, these cantilevers can provide better static and dynamic performances compared to traditional piezocantilevers, additionally to the small dimensions.

  18. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO2 evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI oxide (WO3 which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO3 is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO3 nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  19. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herz, A., E-mail: andreas.herz@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Franz, A.; Theska, F.; Hentschel, M.; Kups, Th.; Wang, D., E-mail: andreas.herz@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Schaaf, P. [Department of Materials for Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, TU Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO{sub 2} evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI) oxide (WO{sub 3}) which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO{sub 3} is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO{sub 3} nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  20. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Adachi, Michael M.; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Wong, Chris T. O.; McDowell, Jeffrey J.; Xu, Jixian; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Ning, Zhijun; Houtepen, Arjan J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  1. Perovskite Thin Films via Atomic Layer Deposition

    KAUST Repository

    Sutherland, Brandon R.

    2014-10-30

    © 2014 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. (Graph Presented) A new method to deposit perovskite thin films that benefit from the thickness control and conformality of atomic layer deposition (ALD) is detailed. A seed layer of ALD PbS is place-exchanged with PbI2 and subsequently CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite. These films show promising optical properties, with gain coefficients of 3200 ± 830 cm-1.

  2. Freestanding films of crosslinked gold nanoparticles prepared via layer-by-layer spin-coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicke, Hendrik; Schröder, Jan H.; Trebbin, Martin; Petrov, Alexey; Ijeh, Michael; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2011-07-01

    A new, extremely efficient method for the fabrication of films comprised of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) crosslinked by organic dithiols is presented in this paper. The method is based on layer-by-layer spin-coating of both components, GNPs and crosslinker, and enables the deposition of films several tens of nanometers in thickness within a few minutes. X-ray diffraction and conductance measurements reveal the proper adjustment concentration of the crosslinker solution of the critical is in order to prevent the destabilization and coalescence of particles. UV/vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and conductivity measurements indicate that films prepared via layer-by-layer spin-coating are of comparable quality to coatings prepared via laborious layer-by-layer self-assembly using immersion baths. Because spin-coated films are not bound chemically to the substrate, they can be lifted-off by alkaline underetching and transferred onto 3d-electrodes to produce electrically addressable, freely suspended films. Comparative measurements of the sheet resistances indicate that the transfer process does not compromise the film quality.

  3. Freestanding films of crosslinked gold nanoparticles prepared via layer-by-layer spin-coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlicke, Hendrik; Schroeder, Jan H; Trebbin, Martin; Petrov, Alexey; Ijeh, Michael; Weller, Horst; Vossmeyer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    A new, extremely efficient method for the fabrication of films comprised of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) crosslinked by organic dithiols is presented in this paper. The method is based on layer-by-layer spin-coating of both components, GNPs and crosslinker, and enables the deposition of films several tens of nanometers in thickness within a few minutes. X-ray diffraction and conductance measurements reveal the proper adjustment concentration of the crosslinker solution of the critical is in order to prevent the destabilization and coalescence of particles. UV/vis spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and conductivity measurements indicate that films prepared via layer-by-layer spin-coating are of comparable quality to coatings prepared via laborious layer-by-layer self-assembly using immersion baths. Because spin-coated films are not bound chemically to the substrate, they can be lifted-off by alkaline underetching and transferred onto 3d-electrodes to produce electrically addressable, freely suspended films. Comparative measurements of the sheet resistances indicate that the transfer process does not compromise the film quality.

  4. The effect of bubble acceleration on the liquid film thickness in micro tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Youngbae, E-mail: bhan@feslab.t.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shikazono, Naoki, E-mail: shika@feslab.t.u-tokyo.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    Liquid film thickness is an important parameter for predicting boiling heat transfer in micro tubes. In the previous study (), liquid film thickness under the steady condition was investigated and an empirical correlation for the initial liquid film thickness based on capillary number, Reynolds number and Weber number was proposed. However, under flow boiling conditions, bubble velocity is not constant but accelerated due to evaporation. It is necessary to consider this bubble acceleration effect on the liquid film thickness, since it affects viscous, surface tension and inertia forces in the momentum equation. In addition, viscous boundary layer develops, and it may also affect the liquid film thickness. In the present study, the effect of bubble acceleration is investigated. Laser focus displacement meter is used to measure the liquid film thickness. Ethanol, water and FC-40 are used as working fluids. Circular tubes with three different inner diameters, D = 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mm, are used. The increase of liquid film thickness with capillary number is restricted by the bubble acceleration. Finally, an empirical correlation is proposed for the liquid film thickness of accelerated flows in terms of capillary number and Bond number based on the bubble acceleration.

  5. The effect of bubble acceleration on the liquid film thickness in micro tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Youngbae; Shikazono, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    Liquid film thickness is an important parameter for predicting boiling heat transfer in micro tubes. In the previous study (), liquid film thickness under the steady condition was investigated and an empirical correlation for the initial liquid film thickness based on capillary number, Reynolds number and Weber number was proposed. However, under flow boiling conditions, bubble velocity is not constant but accelerated due to evaporation. It is necessary to consider this bubble acceleration effect on the liquid film thickness, since it affects viscous, surface tension and inertia forces in the momentum equation. In addition, viscous boundary layer develops, and it may also affect the liquid film thickness. In the present study, the effect of bubble acceleration is investigated. Laser focus displacement meter is used to measure the liquid film thickness. Ethanol, water and FC-40 are used as working fluids. Circular tubes with three different inner diameters, D = 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 mm, are used. The increase of liquid film thickness with capillary number is restricted by the bubble acceleration. Finally, an empirical correlation is proposed for the liquid film thickness of accelerated flows in terms of capillary number and Bond number based on the bubble acceleration.

  6. Enhanced Optical and Electrical Properties of TiO{sub 2} Buffered IGZO/TiO{sub 2} Bi-Layered Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun-Joo; Kim, Daeil [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    In and Ga doped ZnO (IGZO, 100-nm thick) thin films were deposited by radio frequency magnetron sputtering without intentional substrate heating on a bare glass substrate and a TiO{sub 2}-deposited glass substrate to determine the effect of the thickness of a thin TiO{sub 2} buffer layer on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of the films. The thicknesses of the TiO{sub 2} buffer layers were 5, 10 and 15 nm, respectively. As-deposited IGZO films with a 10 nm-thick TiO{sub 2} buffer layer had an average optical transmittance of 85.0% with lower resistivity (1.83×10-2 Ω cm) than that of IGZO single layer films. The figure of merit (FOM) reached a maximum of 1.44×10-4 Ω-1 for IGZO/10 nm-thick TiO{sub 2} bi-layered films, which is higher than the FOM of 6.85×10-5 Ω-1 for IGZO single layer films. Because a higher FOM value indicates better quality transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, the IGZO/10 nm-thick TiO{sub 2} bi-layered films are likely to perform better in TCO applications than IGZO single layer films.

  7. Modification of the laser triangulation method for measuring the thickness of optical layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khramov, V. N.; Adamov, A. A.

    2018-04-01

    The problem of determining the thickness of thin films by the method of laser triangulation is considered. An expression is derived for the film thickness and the distance between the focused beams on the photo detector. The possibility of applying the chosen method for measuring thickness is in the range [0.1; 1] mm. We could resolve 2 individual light marks for a minimum film thickness of 0.23 mm. We resolved with the help of computer processing of photos with a resolution of 0.10 mm. The obtained results can be used in ophthalmology for express diagnostics during surgical operations on the corneal layer.

  8. Use of buffy coat thick films in detecting malaria parasites in patients with negative conventional thick films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duangdee, Chatnapa; Tangpukdee, Noppadon; Krudsood, Srivicha; Wilairatana, Polrat

    2012-04-01

    To determine the frequency of malaria parasite detection from the buffy coat blood films by using capillary tube in falciparum malaria patients with negative conventional thick films. Thirty six uncomplicated falciparum malaria patients confirmed by conventional thick and thin films were included in the study. The patients were treated with artemisinin combination therapy at Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, Thailand for 28 day. Fingerpricks for conventional blood films were conducted every 6 hours until negative parasitemia, then daily fingerpricks for parasite checks were conducted until the patients were discharged from hospital. Blood samples were also concurrently collected in 3 heparinized capillary tubes at the same time of fingerpricks for conventional blood films when the prior parasitemia was negative on thin films and parasitemia was lower than 50 parasites/200 white blood cells by thick film. The first negative conventional thick films were compared with buffy coat thick films for parasite identification. Out of 36 patients with thick films showing negative for asexual forms of parasites, buffy coat films could detect remaining 10 patients (27.8%) with asexual forms of Plasmodium falciparum. The study shows that buffy coat thick films are useful and can detect malarial parasites in 27.8% of patients whose conventional thick films show negative parasitemia.

  9. Electroplated thick-film cobalt platinum permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Qi, Bin; Arnold, David P., E-mail: darnold@ufl.edu

    2016-10-15

    The material and magnetic properties of multi-micron-thick (up to 6 μm) L1{sub 0} CoPt magnetic films electroplated onto silicon substrates are investigated as candidate materials for integration in silicon-based microsystems. The influence of various process conditions on the structure and magnetic properties of electroplated CoPt thick-films is studied in order to better understand the complex process/structure/property relationships associated with the electroplated films. Process variables studied here include different seed layers, electroplating current densities (ranging from 25–200 mA/cm{sup 2}), deposition times (up to 60 min), and post-deposition annealing times and temperatures. Analyses include film morphology, film thickness, composition, surface roughness, grain size, phase volume fractions, and L1{sub 0} ordering parameter. Key correlations are found relating process and structure variations to the extrinsic magnetic properties (remanence, coercivity, squareness, and energy product). Strong hard magnetic properties (B{sub r} ~0.8 T, H{sub ci} ~800 kA/m, squareness close to 0.9, and BH{sub max} of 100 kJ/m{sup 3}) are obtained for films deposited on Si/TiN/Ti/Cu at current densities of 100 mA/cm{sup 2}, pH of 7, and subsequently annealed at 675 °C for 30 min. - Highlights: • CoPt films plated up to 6 μm thick on silicon substrates. • A1 to L1{sub 0} phase transformation by annealing in forming gas. • Various process–structure–property relationships explored. • Key results: B{sub r} ~0.8 T, H{sub ci} ~800 kA/m, squareness 0.9, and BH{sub max} ~100 kJ/m{sup 3}.

  10. Thickness effect on the microstructure, morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prathap, P; Revathi, N; Subbaiah, Y P Venkata; Reddy, K T Ramakrishna

    2008-01-01

    Thin films of ZnS with thicknesses ranging from 100 to 600 nm have been deposited on glass substrates by close spaced thermal evaporation. All the films were grown at the same deposition conditions except the deposition time. The effect of thickness on the physical properties of ZnS films has been studied. The experimental results indicated that the thickness affects the structure, lattice strain, surface morphology and optoelectronic properties of ZnS films significantly. The films deposited at a thickness of 100 nm showed hexagonal structure whereas films of thickness 300 nm or more showed cubic structure. However, coexistence of both cubic and hexagonal structures was observed in the films of 200 nm thickness. The surface roughness of the films showed an increasing trend at higher thicknesses of the films. A blue-shift in the energy band gap along with an intense UV emission band was observed with the decrease of film thickness, which are ascribed to the quantum confinement effect. The behaviour of optical constants such as refractive index and extinction coefficient were analysed. The variation of refractive index and extinction coefficient with thickness was explained on the basis of the contribution from the packing density of the layers. The electrical resistivity as well as the activation energy were evaluated and found to decrease with the increase of film thickness. The thickness had a significant influence on the optical band gap as well as the luminescence intensity

  11. Effect of thickness on electrical properties of SILAR deposited SnS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaltun, Yunus; Astam, Aykut; Cerhan, Asena; ćayir, Tuba

    2016-03-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS) thin films of different thickness were prepared on glass substrates by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method at room temperature using tin (II) chloride and sodium sulfide aqueous solutions. The thicknesses of the films were determined using spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements and found to be 47.2, 65.8, 111.0, and 128.7nm for 20, 25, 30 and 35 deposition cycles respectively. The electrical properties of the films were investigated using d.c. two-point probe method at room temperature and the results showed that the resistivity was found to decrease with increasing film thickness.

  12. AZO/Au/AZO tri-layer thin films for the very low resistivity transparent electrode applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, Chien-Hsun [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Wu, Hung-Wei, E-mail: hwwu@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Computer and Communication, Kun Shan University, Tainan 71003, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jow-Lay [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National University of Kaohsiung, Kaohsiung 81148, Taiwan (China); Research Center for Energy Technology and Strategy, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • High-quality Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Au/AZO transparent conducting oxide films. • AZO films (30 nm) made by RF sputtering; ion sputtering for Au film (5–20 nm). • Effects of Au thickness on optical and electrical properties were analyzed. • The resistivity of 9 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm and the transmittance of 86.2% of the multilayer films were obtained in this study. - Abstract: Aluminum-doped ZnO (AZO)/gold/AZO tri-layer structures with very low resistivity and high transmittance are prepared by simultaneous RF magnetron sputtering (for AZO) and ion sputtering (for Au). The properties of the tri-layer films are investigated at different Au layer thicknesses (5–20 nm). The effects of Au layer thickness and the role of Au on the transmission properties of the tri-layer films were investigated. The very low resistivity of 1.01 × 10{sup −5} Ω cm, mobility of 27.665 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}, and carrier concentration of 4.563 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup −3} were obtained at an Au layer thickness of 20 nm. The peak transmittance of 86.18% at 650-nm wavelength was obtained at an Au layer thickness of 8 nm. These results show the films to be a good candidate for high-quality electrode scheme in various display applications.

  13. Enhancement in (BHmax of PLD-made isotropic Nd-Fe-B thick film magnets deposited on Si substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nakano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Increase in Nd contents of a PLD-made isotropic Nd-Fe-B thick-film magnet enabled us to enhance the thickness of the film magnet deposited on a Si substrate because the linear expansion coefficient of Nd is an intermediate value between Nd2Fe14B and Si. The large amount of Nd, however, degraded the residual magnetic polarization and (BHmax. In the study, we reduced the Nd contents of each Nd-Fe-B film by inserting a Nd or a Nd-rich Nd-Fe-B buffer layer between a Nd-Fe-B film and a Si substrate in order to suppress the mechanical destruction together with the improvement in magnetic properties. It was found that the mechanical property of a Nd-Fe-B film comprising the Nd-Fe-B buffer layer in the thickness range from 10 to 60 μm was superior than that of a sample with the Nd buffer layer. Resultantly, an average (BHmax value of Nd-Fe-B films with each Nd-Fe-B buffer layer deposited on Si substrates could be enhanced by approximately 15 kJ/m3 compared to that of non-buffer-layered films.

  14. Miniaturized, Planar Ion-selective Electrodes Fabricated by Means of Thick-film Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Koncki

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Various planar technologies are employed for developing solid-state sensorshaving low cost, small size and high reproducibility; thin- and thick-film technologies aremost suitable for such productions. Screen-printing is especially suitable due to itssimplicity, low-cost, high reproducibility and efficiency in large-scale production. Thistechnology enables the deposition of a thick layer and allows precise pattern control.Moreover, this is a highly economic technology, saving large amounts of the used inks. Inthe course of repetitions of the film-deposition procedure there is no waste of material dueto additivity of this thick-film technology. Finally, the thick films can be easily and quicklydeposited on inexpensive substrates. In this contribution, thick-film ion-selective electrodesbased on ionophores as well as crystalline ion-selective materials dedicated forpotentiometric measurements are demonstrated. Analytical parameters of these sensors arecomparable with those reported for conventional potentiometric electrodes. All mentionedthick-film strip electrodes have been totally fabricated in only one, fully automated thick-film technology, without any additional manual, chemical or electrochemical steps. In allcases simple, inexpensive, commercially available materials, i.e. flexible, plastic substratesand easily cured polymer-based pastes were used.

  15. Percolation effect in thick film superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sali, R.; Harsanyi, G. [Technical Univ. of Budapest (Hungary)

    1994-12-31

    A thick film superconductor paste has been developed to study the properties of granulated superconductor materials, to observe the percolation effect and to confirm the theory of the conducting mechanism in the superconducting thick films. This paste was also applied to make a superconducting planar transformer. Due to high T{sub c} and advantageous current density properties the base of the paste was chosen to be of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO system. For contacts a conventional Ag/Pt paste was used. The critical temperature of the samples were between 110 K and 115 K depending on the printed layer thickness. The critical current density at the boiling temperature of the liquid He- was between 200-300 A/cm{sup 2}. The R(T) and V(I) functions were measured with different parameters. The results of the measurements have confirmed the theory of conducting mechanism in the material. The percolation structure model has been built and described. As an application, a superconducting planar thick film transformer was planned and produced. Ten windings of the transformer were printed on one side of the alumina substrate and one winding was printed on the other side. The coupling between the two sides was possible through the substrate. The samples did not need special drying and firing parameters. After the preparation, the properties of the transformer were measured. The efficiency and the losses were determined. Finally, some fundamental advantages and problems of the process were discussed.

  16. Percolation effect in thick film superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sali, R.; Harsanyi, G.

    1994-01-01

    A thick film superconductor paste has been developed to study the properties of granulated superconductor materials, to observe the percolation effect and to confirm the theory of the conducting mechanism in the superconducting thick films. This paste was also applied to make a superconducting planar transformer. Due to high T c and advantageous current density properties the base of the paste was chosen to be of Bi(Pb)SrCaCuO system. For contacts a conventional Ag/Pt paste was used. The critical temperature of the samples were between 110 K and 115 K depending on the printed layer thickness. The critical current density at the boiling temperature of the liquid He- was between 200-300 A/cm 2 . The R(T) and V(I) functions were measured with different parameters. The results of the measurements have confirmed the theory of conducting mechanism in the material. The percolation structure model has been built and described. As an application, a superconducting planar thick film transformer was planned and produced. Ten windings of the transformer were printed on one side of the alumina substrate and one winding was printed on the other side. The coupling between the two sides was possible through the substrate. The samples did not need special drying and firing parameters. After the preparation, the properties of the transformer were measured. The efficiency and the losses were determined. Finally, some fundamental advantages and problems of the process were discussed

  17. Multifunctional thick-film structures based on spinel ceramics for environment sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vakiv, M; Hadzaman, I; Klym, H; Shpotyuk, O; Brunner, M

    2011-01-01

    Temperature sensitive thick films based on spinel-type NiMn 2 O 4 -CuMn 2 O 4 -MnCo 2 O 4 manganites with p- and p + -types of electrical conductivity and their multilayer p + -p structures were studied. These thick-film elements possess good electrophysical characteristics before and after long-term ageing test at 170 deg. C. It is shown that degradation processes connected with diffusion of metallic Ag into film grain boundaries occur in one-layer p-and p + -conductive films. Some part of the p + -p structures were of high stability, the relative electrical drift being no more than 1 %.

  18. Residual stress analysis in thick uranium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, A.M.; Foreman, R.J.; Gallegos, G.F.

    2005-01-01

    Residual stress analysis was performed on thick, 1-25 μm, depleted uranium (DU) films deposited on an Al substrate by magnetron sputtering. Two distinct characterization techniques were used to measure substrate curvature before and after deposition. Stress evaluation was performed using the Benabdi/Roche equation, which is based on beam theory of a bi-layer material. The residual stress evolution was studied as a function of coating thickness and applied negative bias voltage (0, -200, -300 V). The stresses developed were always compressive; however, increasing the coating thickness and applying a bias voltage presented a trend towards more tensile stresses and thus an overall reduction of residual stresses

  19. Controlling the optical parameters of self-assembled silver films with wetting layers and annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Arkadiusz; Skowronski, Lukasz; Trzcinski, Marek; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    We investigated the influence of presence of Ni and Ge wetting layers as well as annealing on the permittivity of Ag films with thicknesses of 20, 35 and 65 nm. Most of the research on thin silver films deals with very small (wetting and capping material, post-process annealing). Our study, based on atomic force microscopy, ellipsometric and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, shows that utilizing a wetting layer is comparable to increasing the thickness of the silver film. Both operations decrease the roughness-to-thickness ratio, thus decreasing the scattering losses and both narrow the Lorentz-shaped interband transition peak. However, while increasing silver thickness increases absorption on the free carriers, the use of wetting layers influences the self-assembled internal structure of silver films in such a way, that the free carrier absorption decreases. Wetting layers also introduce additional contributions from effects like segregation or diffusion, which evolve in time and due to annealing.

  20. Experimental study of the polymer powder film thickness uniformity produced by the corona discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlyyyakhmatov, Marsel

    2017-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the polymer powder film thickness uniformity are presented. Polymer powder films are produced by the electrostatic field of corona discharge. Epoxy and epoxy-polyester powder films with thickness in the range of 30-120 microns are studied. Experimentally confirmed possibility of using these coatings as protective matching layer of piezoceramic transducers at frequencies of 0.5-15 MHz.

  1. Thickness dependent ferromagnetism in thermally decomposed NiO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravikumar, Patta; Kisan, Bhagaban; Perumal, Alagarsamy, E-mail: perumal@iitg.ernet.in

    2016-11-15

    We report the effects of film thickness, annealing temperature and annealing environments on thermal decomposition behavior and resulting magnetic properties of NiO (t=50–300 nm) thin films. All the NiO films were prepared directly on thermally oxidized Si at ambient temperature using magnetron sputtering technique and post annealed at different temperatures (T{sub A}) under vacuum and oxygen atmospheres. As-deposited films exhibit face centered cubic structure with large lattice constant due to strain induced during sputtering process. With increasing T{sub A}, the lattice constant decreases due to the release of strain and thickness dependent thermal decomposition reaction of NiO into Ni has been observed for the NiO films annealed at 500 °C under vacuum condition. As a result, the antiferromagnetic nature of the as-deposited NiO films transforms into ferromagnetic one with dominant thickness dependent ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. In addition, the existence of both Ni and NiO phases in the annealed NiO films shows noticeable exchange bias under field cooling condition. The behavior of thermal decomposition was not observed for the NiO films annealed under oxygen condition which results in no detectable change in the magnetic properties. The observed results are discussed on the basis of thickness dependent thermal decomposition in NiO films with increasing T{sub A} and changing annealing conditions. - Highlights: • Preparation of highly strained single layer NiO films with different thicknesses. • Study the effects of annealing under different environments on crystal structure. • Understanding the origin of thickness dependent thermal decomposition reaction. • Investigate the role of thermal decomposition reaction on the magnetic properties. • Study the interaction between NiO and Ni phases on the exchange bias mechanism.

  2. Effect of ZrO2 film thickness on the photoelectric properties of mixed-cation perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanyan; Zhao, Li; Wei, Shoubin; Xiao, Meng; Dong, Binghai; Wan, Li; Wang, Shimin

    2018-05-01

    In this work, perovskite solar cells (PSCs) were fabricated in the ambient air, with a scaffold layer composed of TiO2/ZrO2 double layer as the mesoscopic layer and carbon as the counter electrode. The effect of ZrO2 thin film thickness on the photovoltaic performances of PSCs was also studied in detail. Results showed that the photoelectric properties of as-prepared PSCs largely depend on the thin film thickness due to a series of factors, including surface roughness, charge transport resistance, and electron-hole recombination rate. The power conversion efficiency of PSCs increased from 8.37% to 11.33% by varying the thin film thickness from 75 nm to 305 nm, and the optimal power conversion efficiency was realized up to the 11.33% with a thin film thickness of 167 nm. This research demonstrates a promising route for the high-efficiency and low-cost photovoltaic technology.

  3. Layer-by-layer modification of thin-film metal-semiconductor multilayers with ultrashort laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romashevskiy, S. A.; Tsygankov, P. A.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Agranat, M. B.

    2018-05-01

    The surface modifications in a multilayer thin-film structure (50-nm alternating layers of Si and Al) induced by a single Gaussian-shaped femtosecond laser pulse (350 fs, 1028 nm) in the air are investigated by means of atomic-force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and optical microscopy (OM). Depending on the laser fluence, various modifications of nanometer-scale metal and semiconductor layers, including localized formation of silicon/aluminum nanofoams and layer-by-layer removal, are found. While the nanofoams with cell sizes in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers are produced only in the two top layers, layer-by-layer removal is observed for the four top layers under single pulse irradiation. The 50-nm films of the multilayer structure are found to be separated at their interfaces, resulting in a selective removal of several top layers (up to 4) in the form of step-like (concentric) craters. The observed phenomenon is associated with a thermo-mechanical ablation mechanism that results in splitting off at film-film interface, where the adhesion force is less than the bulk strength of the used materials, revealing linear dependence of threshold fluences on the film thickness.

  4. Magnetic structure of Tb-Fe films with an artificially layered structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, K.; Habu, K.; Sato, N.

    1988-01-01

    The magnetic structure of Tb-Fe films with an artificially layered structure has been investigated by measuring the temperature dependence of the magnetization of the films. Ferrimagnetic coupling between Tb and Fe through the interface was explicitly observed up to about 9-A Tb and 10-A Fe layers. Films with thinner Tb and Fe layers than these thicknesses are composed of only ferrimagnetically coupled Tb-Fe regions. Films with thicker layers of Tb and Fe are composed of ferrimagnetically coupled Tb-Fe, ferromagnetic Fe, ferromagnetic Tb, and/or magnetically compensated Tb regions. The Tb-Fe films exhibit various temperature dependencies of the magnetization corresponding to these magnetic structures

  5. Multifunctional thick-film structures based on spinel ceramics for environment sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakiv, M; Hadzaman, I; Klym, H; Shpotyuk, O [Institute of Materials of SRC ' Carat' , 202 Stryjska str., Lviv, 79031 (Ukraine); Brunner, M, E-mail: shpotyuk@novas.lviv.ua, E-mail: klymha@yahoo.com [Fachhochschule Koeln/University of Applied Sciences, 2 Betzdorfer str., Koeln, 50679 (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    Temperature sensitive thick films based on spinel-type NiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-CuMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}-MnCo{sub 2}O{sub 4} manganites with p- and p{sup +}-types of electrical conductivity and their multilayer p{sup +}-p structures were studied. These thick-film elements possess good electrophysical characteristics before and after long-term ageing test at 170 deg. C. It is shown that degradation processes connected with diffusion of metallic Ag into film grain boundaries occur in one-layer p-and p{sup +}-conductive films. Some part of the p{sup +}-p structures were of high stability, the relative electrical drift being no more than 1 %.

  6. Bismuth iron oxide thin films using atomic layer deposition of alternating bismuth oxide and iron oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Vehkamäki, Marko [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kukli, Kaupo, E-mail: kaupo.kukli@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, W. Ostwald 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dimri, Mukesh Chandra [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kemell, Marianna; Hatanpää, Timo; Heikkilä, Mikko J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mizohata, Kenichiro [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Stern, Raivo [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-29

    Bismuth iron oxide films with varying contributions from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared using atomic layer deposition. Bismuth (III) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butoxide, was used as the bismuth source, iron(III) tert-butoxide as the iron source and water vapor as the oxygen source. The films were deposited as stacks of alternate Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Films grown at 140 °C to the thickness of 200–220 nm were amorphous, but crystallized upon post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in nitrogen. Annealing of films with intermittent bismuth and iron oxide layers grown to different thicknesses influenced their surface morphology, crystal structure, composition, electrical and magnetic properties. Implications of multiferroic performance were recognized in the films with the remanent charge polarization varying from 1 to 5 μC/cm{sup 2} and magnetic coercivity varying from a few up to 8000 A/m. - Highlights: • Bismuth iron oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition at 140 °C. • The major phase formed in the films upon annealing at 500 °C was BiFeO{sub 3}. • BiFeO{sub 3} films and films containing excess Bi favored electrical charge polarization. • Slight excess of iron oxide enhanced saturative magnetization behavior.

  7. Droplet Impacting on Liquid Film: Evolution of Entrapped Air Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoyu; Saha, Abhishek; Law, Chung K.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we experimentally studied the dynamics of droplet impacting films of various thicknesses within a range of h / R <= 1 (h: film thickness; R: droplet radius). High speed imaging and color interferometry enabled the investigation of the evolution of the air layer trapped between two surfaces, which plays a critical role in determining the collision outcome. Globally, two distinct regimes of impaction outcome, namely bouncing and merging, are observed at low and high impact inertia, respectively. Impaction with high inertia depletes the air layer before the droplet significantly deforms, resulting in permanent merging. At low impact inertia, however, color interferometry shows the existence of three phases prior to bouncing. Upon impaction, droplet endures significant deformation trapping the air layer between the interfaces, hence increasing the resistance force. This phase is characterized by fast deformation of the air film, followed by a period of pseudo equilibrium, with minimal changes in the interfacial air-film profile. The droplet also lacks kinetic energy to penetrate further into the film, resulting in a temporary balance between the droplet weight and air-film pressure. The deformed droplet eventually relaxes towards spherical shape to destroy the equilibrium. Fast change occurs in air-layer and pressure distribution favoring the droplet bouncing.

  8. Influence of Ag thickness of aluminum-doped ZnO/Ag/aluminum-doped ZnO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hung-Wei, E-mail: hwwu@mail.ksu.edu.tw [Department of Computer and Communication, Kun Shan University, No. 949, Dawan Rd., Yongkang Dist., Tainan City 710, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ru-Yuan [Graduate Institute of Materials Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung City 912, Taiwan (China); Hsiung, Chin-Min; Chu, Chien-Hsun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Pingtung University of Science and Technology, 1, Shuefu Rd., Neipu, Pingtung City 912, Taiwan (China)

    2012-10-01

    Highly conducting aluminum-doped ZnO (30 nm)/Ag (5-15 nm)/aluminum-doped ZnO (30 nm) multilayer thin films were deposited on glass substrate by rf magnetron sputtering (for top/bottom aluminum-doped ZnO films) and e-beam evaporation (for Ag film). The transmittance is more than 70% for wavelengths above 400 nm with the Ag layer thickness of 10 nm. The resistivity is 3.71 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}-cm, which can be decreased to 3.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} {Omega}-cm with the increase of the Ag layer thickness to 15 nm. The Haacke figure of merit has been calculated for the films with the best value being 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} {Omega}{sup -1}. It was shown that the multilayer thin films have potential for applications in optoelectronics. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-quality Al-doped ZnO (AZO)/Ag/AZO Transparent Conducting Oxide films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AZO films (30 nm) made by RF sputtering; E-beam evaporation for Ag film (5-15 nm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Influence of Ag thickness on optical and electrical properties were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High quality multilayer film with optimal intermediate Ag layer thickness of 10 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3.71 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega}-cm resistivity, 91.89% transmittance at 470 nm obtained and reproducible.

  9. Effect of film thickness on morphological evolution in dewetting and crystallization of polystyrene/poly(ε-caprolactone) blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; He, Zhoukun; Yang, Jinghui; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Qin; Deng, Hua; Fu, Qiang

    2011-11-01

    In this Article, the morphological evolution in the blend thin film of polystyrene (PS)/poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was investigated via mainly AFM. It was found that an enriched two-layer structure with PS at the upper layer and PCL at the bottom layer was formed during spinning coating. By changing the solution concentration, different kinds of crystal morphologies, such as finger-like, dendritic, and spherulitic-like, could be obtained at the bottom PCL layer. These different initial states led to the morphological evolution processes to be quite different from each other, so the phase separation, dewetting, and crystalline morphology of PS/PCL blend films as a function of time were studied. It was interesting to find that the morphological evolution of PS at the upper layer was largely dependent on the film thickness. For the ultrathin (15 nm) blend film, a liquid-solid/liquid-liquid dewetting-wetting process was observed, forming ribbons that rupture into discrete circular PS islands on voronoi finger-like PCL crystal. For the thick (30 nm) blend film, the liquid-liquid dewetting of the upper PS layer from the underlying adsorbed PCL layer was found, forming interconnected rim structures that rupture into discrete circular PS islands embedded in the single lamellar PCL dendritic crystal due to Rayleigh instability. For the thicker (60 nm) blend film, a two-step liquid-liquid dewetting process with regular holes decorated with dendritic PCL crystal at early annealing stage and small holes decorated with spherulite-like PCL crystal among the early dewetting holes at later annealing stage was observed. The mechanism of this unusual morphological evolution process was discussed on the basis of the entropy effect and annealing-induced phase separation.

  10. Critical current density and microstructure of YBa2Cu3O7-x films as a function of film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogro-Campero, A.; Turner, L.G.; Hall, E.L.; Lewis, N.

    1990-01-01

    Thin films of nominal composition YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) were produced on (100) SrTiO 3 substrates by coevaporation and furnace annealing. Film thicknesses in the range of 0.2 to 2.4 μm were analyzed. Microstructural investigations by cross sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal a continuous layer of about 0.4 μm thickness adjacent to the substrate with c-axis normal to the substrate plane. In thicker films the remaining top portion has the c-axis in the film plane. The critical current density (J c ) at 77 K decreases with increasing thickness in the thickness range exceeding 0.4 μm, qualitatively consistent with the microstructural observation, but quantitatively inconsistent with a simple model based on the microstructural data

  11. XPS and TEM study of W-DLC/DLC double-layered film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeno, Takanori; Komiyama, Takao; Miki, Hiroyuki; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Aoyama, Takashi

    2009-01-01

    A double-layered film of tungsten-containing diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) and DLC, (W-DLC)/DLC, was investigated. A film of 1.6 μm in thickness was deposited onto silicon substrate. The investigate double-layered coating was deposited by using the combination of PECVD and co-sputtering of tungsten metal target. Structure, interface and chemical bonding state of the investigated film were analyzed by Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). From the results of the analyses, the structure of double-layered film is that amorphous phase of carbon is continued from DLC to W-DLC and tungsten metal clusters are dispersed in W-DLC layer.

  12. Thickness and roughness measurements of nano thin films by interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sabzalipour

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the standard optical interference fringes approach, by measuring shift of the interference fringes due to step edge of thin film on substrate, thickness of the layer has already been measured. In order to improve the measurement precision of this popular method, the interference fringes intensity curve was extracted and analyzed before and after the step preparation. By this method, one can measure a few nanometers films thickness. In addition, using the interference fringes intensity curve and its fluctuations, the roughness of surface is measured within a few nanometers accuracy. Comparison of our results with some direct methods of thickness and roughness measurements, i.e. using surface profilemeter and atomic force microscopy confirms the accuracy of the suggested improvements.

  13. Ion beam-based characterization of multicomponent oxide thin films and thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krauss, A.R.; Rangaswamy, M.; Lin, Yuping; Gruen, D.M.; Schultz, J.A.; Schmidt, H.K.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1992-01-01

    Fabrication of thin film layered structures of multi-component materials such as high temperature superconductors, ferroelectric and electro-optic materials, and alloy semiconductors, and the development of hybrid materials requires understanding of film growth and interface properties. For High Temperature Superconductors, the superconducting coherence length is extremely short (5--15 Angstrom), and fabrication of reliable devices will require control of film properties at extremely sharp interfaces; it will be necessary to verify the integrity of thin layers and layered structure devices over thicknesses comparable to the atomic layer spacing. Analytical techniques which probe the first 1--2 atomic layers are therefore necessary for in-situ characterization of relevant thin film growth processes. However, most surface-analytical techniques are sensitive to a region within 10--40 Angstrom of the surface and are physically incompatible with thin film deposition and are typically restricted to ultra high vacuum conditions. A review of ion beam-based analytical methods for the characterization of thin film and multi-layered thin film structures incorporating layers of multicomponent oxides is presented. Particular attention will be paid to the use of time-of-flight techniques based on the use of 1- 15 key ion beams which show potential for use as nondestructive, real-time, in-situ surface diagnostics for the growth of multicomponent metal and metal oxide thin films

  14. Photo-induced wettability of TiO{sub 2} film with Au buffer layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purkayastha, Debarun Dhar; Sangani, L. D. Varma; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam [School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500046 (India); Madhurima, V., E-mail: madhurima.v@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur-610004 (India)

    2014-04-24

    The effect of thickness of Au buffer layer (15-25 nm) between TiO{sub 2} film and substrate on the wettability of TiO{sub 2} films is reported. TiO{sub 2} films grown on Au buffer layer have a higher contact angle of 96-;100° as compared to 47.6o for the film grown without buffer layer. The transition from hydrophobicity to hydrophilicity under UV irradiation occurs within 10 min. for the buffer layered films whereas it is almost 30 min. for the film grown without buffer layer. The enhanced photo induced hydrophilicity is shown to be surface energy driven.

  15. Fabrication and Characterization of PZT Thick Films for Sensing and Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ching Kuo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Lead Zirconate Titanate oxide (PZT thick films with thicknesses of up to 10 μmwere developed using a modified sol-gel technique. Usually, the film thickness is less than1 μm by conventional sol-gel processing, while the electrical charge accumulation whichreveals the direct effect of piezoelectricity is proportional to the film thickness and thereforerestricted. Two approaches were adopted to conventional sol-gel processing – precursorconcentration modulation and rapid thermal annealing. A 10 μm thick film was successfullyfabricated by coating 16 times via this technique. The thickness of each coating layer wasabout 0.6 μm and the morphology of the film was dense with a crack-free area as large as 16mm2. In addition, the structure, surface morphology and physical properties werecharacterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomicforce microscopy (AFM and electrical performance. The dielectric constant and hysteresisloops were measured as electric characteristics. This study investigates the actuation andsensing performance of the vibrating structures with the piezoelectric thick film. Theactuation tests demonstrated that a 4 mm x 4 mm x 6.5 μm PZT film drove a 40 mm x 7 mmx 0.5 mm silicon beam as an actuator. Additionally, it generated an electrical signal of 60mVpp as a sensor, while vibration was input by a shaker. The frequencies of the first twomodes of the beam were compared with the theoretical values obtained by Euler-Bernoullibeam theory. The linearity of the actuation and sensing tests were also examined.

  16. Determination of oxide film thickness on aluminium using 14-MeV neutron activation and BET method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, H.

    1983-01-01

    A new method is described for the determination of the mean film thickness of aluminium oxides by 14-MeV neutron activation analysis of the oxygen and by BET measurement of the surface area. The mean film thickness obtained is independent of the surface roughness. Stable oxide films consisting of only a few atomic layers of oxygen are detected on aluminium. (author)

  17. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  18. Simultaneous reflectometry and interferometry for measuring thin-film thickness and curvature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, A. A.; Germain, T. M.; Owens, J. F.; Putnam, S. A.

    2018-05-01

    A coupled reflectometer-interferometer apparatus is described for thin-film thickness and curvature characterization in the three-phase contact line region of evaporating fluids. Validation reflectometry studies are provided for Au, Ge, and Si substrates and thin-film coatings of SiO2 and hydrogel/Ti/SiO2. For interferometry, liquid/air and solid/air interferences are studied, where the solid/air samples consisted of glass/air/glass wedges, cylindrical lenses, and molded polydimethylsiloxane lenses. The liquid/air studies are based on steady-state evaporation experiments of water and isooctane on Si and SiO2/Ti/SiO2 wafers. The liquid thin-films facilitate characterization of both (i) the nano-scale thickness of the absorbed fluid layer and (ii) the macro-scale liquid meniscus thickness, curvature, and curvature gradient profiles. For our validation studies with commercial lenses, the apparatus is shown to measure thickness profiles within 4.1%-10.8% error.

  19. Layer-by-layer deposition of superconducting Sr-Ca-Cu-O films by the spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawar, S.H.; Pawaskar, P.N.; Ubale, M.J.; Kulkarni, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of Sr-Ca-Cu-O films has been carried out using the spray pyrolysis technique. Reagent-grade nitrates of strontium, calcium and copper were used to prepare starting solutions for spray pyrolysis. A two-step procedure was used for every layer of the constituents in the sequence Sr-Cu-Ca-Cu-Sr: first, deposition onto silver substrate at 350 C, then firing at T≥450 C, both at atmospheric pressure. The films were 2-3 μm thick and showed adequate adhesion to the substrate. The films were then characterised by studying their electron micrographs, X-ray diffraction patterns and electrical resistivity. The films showed superconductivity below 104 K. ((orig.))

  20. The effect of different thickness alumina capping layers on the final morphology of dewet thin Ni films

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Benjamin C.; Behbahanian, Amir; Stoker, T. McKay; Fowlkes, Jason D.; Hartnett, Chris; Rack, Phillip D.; Roberts, Nicholas A.

    2018-03-01

    Nanoparticles on a substrate have numerous applications in nanotechnology, from enhancements to solar cell efficiency to improvements in carbon nanotube growth. Producing nanoparticles in a cost effective fashion with control over size and spacing is desired, but difficult to do. This work presents a scalable method for altering the radius and pitch distributions of nickel nanoparticles. The introduction of alumina capping layers to thin nickel films during a pulsed laser-induced dewetting process has yielded reductions in the mean and standard deviation of radii and pitch for dewet nanoparticles with no noticeable difference in final morphology with increased capping layer thickness. The differences in carbon nanotube mats grown, on the uncapped sample and one of the capped samples, is also presented here, with a more dense mat being present for the capped case.

  1. Amorphous-tetrahedral diamondlike carbon layered structures resulting from film growth energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M. P.; Barbour, J. C.; Provencio, P. N.; Tallant, D. R.; Friedmann, T. A.

    1998-08-01

    High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows that amorphous-tetrahedral diamondlike carbon (a-tC) films grown by pulsed-laser deposition on Si(100) consist of three-to-four layers, depending on the growth energetics. We estimate the density of each layer using both HRTEM image contrast and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The first carbon layer and final surface layer have relatively low density. The bulk of the film between these two layers has higher density. For films grown under the most energetic conditions, there exists a superdense a-tC layer between the interface and bulk layers. The density of all four layers, and the thickness of the surface and interfacial layers, correlate well with the energetics of the depositing carbon species.

  2. Hydroxyapatite screen-printed thick films: optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.C.; Rocha, H.H.B.; Freire, F.N.A.; Santos, M.R.P.; Saboia, K.D.A.; Goes, J.C.; Sombra, A.S.B.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we did a study on the structural and electrical properties of bioceramic hydroxiapatite (HA) thick films. The films were prepared in two layers using the screen-printing technique on Al 2 O 3 substrates. Mechanical alloying has been used successfully to produce nanocrystalline powders of hydroxyapatite to be used in the films. We also look for the effect of the grain size of the HA in the final properties of the film. The samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared and Raman scattering spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We did a study of the dielectric permittivity and the loss of the films in the radio-frequency of the spectra. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the films indicate that all the peaks associated to HA phase is present in the films. One can notice that, for all the films there is a decrease of the DC (dielectric constant) with the increase of the frequency. The values of the dielectric constant of the films are in between 4 and 9 (at 1 kHz), as a function of the flux concentration. The loss is decreasing as we increase the frequency for all the films. These results strongly suggest that the screen-printing HA thick films are good candidates for applications in biocompatible coatings of implant materials

  3. Hydroxyapatite screen-printed thick films: optical and electrical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C.C. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Rocha, H.H.B. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Freire, F.N.A. [Departamento de Quimica Orga-circumflex nica e Inorga-circumflex nica-UFC, Caixa Postal 6030, CEP 60455-760, Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Santos, M.R.P. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Saboia, K.D.A. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Goes, J.C. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Sombra, A.S.B. [Laboratorio de Telecomunicaco-tilde es e Ciencia e Engenharia de Materiais (LOCEM), Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Campus do Pici, Caixa Postal 6030, 60455-760 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)]. E-mail: sombra@fisica.ufc.br

    2005-07-15

    In this paper, we did a study on the structural and electrical properties of bioceramic hydroxiapatite (HA) thick films. The films were prepared in two layers using the screen-printing technique on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. Mechanical alloying has been used successfully to produce nanocrystalline powders of hydroxyapatite to be used in the films. We also look for the effect of the grain size of the HA in the final properties of the film. The samples were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), infrared and Raman scattering spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We did a study of the dielectric permittivity and the loss of the films in the radio-frequency of the spectra. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the films indicate that all the peaks associated to HA phase is present in the films. One can notice that, for all the films there is a decrease of the DC (dielectric constant) with the increase of the frequency. The values of the dielectric constant of the films are in between 4 and 9 (at 1 kHz), as a function of the flux concentration. The loss is decreasing as we increase the frequency for all the films. These results strongly suggest that the screen-printing HA thick films are good candidates for applications in biocompatible coatings of implant materials.

  4. Low-Power Super-resolution Readout with Antimony Bismuth Alloy Film as Mask layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai-Xin, Jiang; Yi-Qun, Wu; Yang, Wang; Jing-Song, Wei; Fu-Xi, Gan

    2009-01-01

    Sb–Bi alloy films are proposed as a new kind of super-resolution mask layer with low readout threshold power. Using the Sb–Bi alloy film as a mask layer and SiN as a protective layer in a read-only memory disc, the super-resolution pits with diameters of 380 nm are read out by a dynamic setup, the laser wavelength is 780 nm and the numerical aperture of pickup lens is 0.45. The effects of the Sb–Bi thin film thickness, laser readout power and disc rotating velocity on the readout signal are investigated. The results show that the threshold laser power of super-resolution readout of the Sb–Bi mask layer is about 0.5 mW, and the corresponding carrier-to-noise ratio is about 20 dB at the film thickness of 50 nm. The super-resolution mechanism of the Sb–Bi alloy mask layer is discussed based on its temperature dependence of reflection

  5. Thickness-Dependent Order-to-Order Transitions of Bolaform-like Giant Surfactant in Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chih-Hao; Yue, Kan; Wang, Jing; Dong, Xue-Hui; Xia, Yanfeng; Jiang, Zhang [X-ray; Thomas, Edwin L. [Department; Cheng, Stephen Z. D.

    2017-09-07

    Controlling self-assembled nanostructures in thin films allows the bottom-up fabrication of ordered nanoscale patterns. Here we report the unique thickness-dependent phase behavior in thin films of a bolaform-like giant surfactant, which consists of butyl- and hydroxyl-functionalized polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (BPOSS and DPOSS) cages telechelically located at the chain ends of a polystyrene (PS) chain with 28 repeating monomers on average. In the bulk, BPOSS-PS28-DPOSS forms a double gyroid (DG) phase. Both grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques are combined to elucidate the thin film structures. Interestingly, films with thicknesses thinner than 200 nm exhibit an irreversible phase transition from hexagonal perforated layer (HPL) to compressed hexagonally packed cylinders (c-HEX) at 130 °C, while films with thickness larger than 200 nm show an irreversible transition from HPL to DG at 200 °C. The thickness-controlled transition pathway suggests possibilities to obtain diverse patterns via thin film self-assembly.

  6. Description of spin reorientation transition in Au/Co/Au sandwich with Co film thickness within a simple phenomenological model of ferromagnetic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Simple phenomenological model of ferromagnetic film characterized by equal energies of surface anisotropies at two sides of a film (symmetric film) is considered. The model is used to describe a two-step spin reorientation transition (SRT) in Au/Co/Au sandwich with Co film thickness: the SRT from perpendicular to canted noncollinear (CNC) state at N ⊥ =6.3 atomic layers and the subsequent SRT from CNC to in-plane state at N ∥ =10.05 atomic layers. Analytic expressions for the stability criterion of collinear perpendicular and in-plane states of a film are derived with account of discrete location of atomic layers. The dependence of borders that separate regions corresponding to various magnetic states of a film in the (k B ,k S )-diagram on film thickness N is established. k S (k B ) is surface (bulk) reduced anisotropy constant. The comparison of theory with experiment related to Au/Co/Au sandwich shows that there is a whole region in the (k B ,k S )-diagram corresponding to experimentally determined values of threshold film thicknesses N ⊥ =6.3 and N ∥ =10.05. The comparison of this region with similar region determined earlier for a bare Co/Au film within the same model of asymmetric film and characterized by N ⊥ =3.5, N ∥ =5.5 shows that the intersection of these regions is not empty. Hence, both the SRT in Au/Co/Au sandwich and in bare Co/Au film with Co film thickness can be described within the same model using the same magnitudes of model parameters k S , k B . Based on this result we conclude that the energy of Neel surface anisotropy at free Co surface is negligible compared to the energy of Co–Au interface anisotropy. It is demonstrated that the destabilization of collinear states in symmetric film leads to occurrence of the ground CNC state and two novel metastable CNC states. These three CNC states exhibit different kinds of symmetry. In case of asymmetric film only ground CNC state occurs on destabilization of collinear states of a film

  7. Thickness-dependent piezoelectric behaviour and dielectric properties of lanthanum modified BiFeO3 thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda Biasotto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Bi0.85La0.15FeO3 (BLFO thin films were deposited on Pt(111/Ti/SiO2 /Si substrates by the soft chemical method. Films with thicknesses ranging from 140 to 280 nm were grown on platinum coated silicon substrates at 500°C for 2 hours. The X-ray diffraction analysis of BLFO films evidenced a hexagonal structure over the entire thickness range investigated. The grain size of the film changes as the number of the layers increases, indicating thickness dependence. It is found that the piezoelectric response is strongly influenced by the film thickness. It is shown that the properties of BiFeO3 thin films, such as lattice parameter, dielectric permittivity, piezoeletric coefficient etc., are functions of misfit strains.

  8. Thickness periodicity in the auger line shape from epitaxial (111)Cu films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Namba, Y; Vook, R W; Chao, S S

    1981-01-01

    The 61 eV MMM Cu Auger line doublet was recorded in the derivative mode as a function of thickness for epitaxial (111)Cu films approximately 1500 angstrom thick. The overlap of the doublet lines makes it possible to define a measure of the doublet profile called the ''R-factor'' as a ratio of the peak-to-peak heights of the small overlap oscillation to that of the major oscillation. To within the experimental error, it was found that the R-factor varies with a periodicity of approximately one monoatomic layer as the film thickens. Since these films grow by a layer growth mechaniism, the surface topography varies periodically with the number of monolayers deposited, going from a smooth to a rough to a smooth, etc. surface. It is believed that the occurrence of such a periodicity implies that there is a difference in the electronic structure at the surface of the flat areas of the film from that at the edges of monolayer high, flat islands. The amplitude of the oscillation in R is interpreted to be a measure of the relative amounts of edge area compared to flat area. These results show that it is possible to use Auger electron spectroscopy to monitor surface topography and the electronic structure changes that accompany the topographical changes occurring when epitaxial films grow by a layer growth mechanism.

  9. The thickness effect of Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 buffer layer in PbZr0.58Ti0.42O3/Bi3.25La0.75Ti3O12 (PZT/BLT) multilayered ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jianjun; Li Ping; Zhang Guojun; Yu Jun; Wu Yunyi; Wen Xinyi

    2011-01-01

    A series of PbZr 0.58 Ti 0.42 O 3 (PZT) thin films with various Bi 3.25 La 0.75 Ti 3 O 12 (BLT) buffer layer thicknesses were deposited on Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /p-Si(100) substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. The X-ray diffraction measurements of PZT film and PZT/BLT multilayered films illustrate that the pure PZT film shows (111) preferential orientation, and the PZT/BLT films show (110) preferential orientation with increasing thickness of the BLT layer. There are no obvious diffraction peaks for the BLT buffer layer in the multilayered films, for interaction effect between the bottom BLT and top PZT films during annealing at the same time. From the surface images of field-emission scanning electron microscope, there are the maximum number of largest-size grains in PZT/BLT(30 nm) film among all the samples. The growth direction and grain size have significant effects on ferroelectric properties of the multilayered films. The fatigue characteristics of PZT and PZT/BLT films suggest that 30-nm-thick BLT is just an effective buffer layer enough to alleviate the accumulation of oxygen vacancies near the PZT/BLT interface. The comparison of these results with that of PZT/Pt/TiO 2 /SiO 2 /p-Si(100) basic structured film suggests that the buffer layer with an appropriate thickness can improve the ferroelectric properties of multilayered films greatly.

  10. Dielectric enhancement of PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} multilayer thick film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Yasong; Chen, Xiaoyang; Habibul, Arzigul; Zhang, Danyang; Yu, Ping [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Multilayer thick films (∝4 μm) with compositional PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} layers and one-layer PZT thick films were prepared on the silicon substrate by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} multilayer thick film are characterized by highly preferential (100)-oriented growth and columnar microstructure due to alternately introducing LaNiO{sub 3} seeding layers. The effects of LaNiO{sub 3} layers on microstructure and electrical properties of PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3} thick films were investigated in detail. The results show that both PZT and PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} multilayer thick film were pure perovskite crystalline phase. The PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3} film texture was dense and well adhered on the LaNiO{sub 3} layer. PbZr{sub 0.3}Ti{sub 0.7}O{sub 3}/LaNiO{sub 3} multilayer thick film possessed obvious enhanced dielectric properties compared with PZT thick film: ε{sub r} ∝2450 (10 kHz) and tanδ ∝0.02 (10 kHz). Rayleigh law was used to analysis the behavior of the enhanced dielectric properties and the pinched-shaped polarization-electric field hysteresis loops. The larger Rayleigh parameter, α ∝51.1408 cm kV{sup -1} (1 kHz) indicates the larger extrinsic contribution to permittivity and strong domain-wall-defect charge interaction. The leakage current behaviors of the multilayer thick film were also investigated in detail. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. Critical heat flux enhancement regarding to the thickness of graphene films under pool boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Man; Park, Hyun Sun; Park, Youngjae; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Dong Eok; Kim, Moo Hwan; Ahn, Ho Seon

    2014-01-01

    The large thermal conductivity of the graphene films inhibits the formation of hot spots, thereby increasing the CHF. An infrared high-speed visualization showed graphene effect on boiling characteristics during operation. The graphene-coated heater showed an increase in BHT and CHF. As the thickness of the graphene films increased, the CHF also increased up to an asymptotic limit when the graphene layer was approximately 150 nm thick. The increased BHT was explained by the slight decrease in the wettability and the folded edges of the RGO flakes, which led to a decrease in the diameter of the departing bubbles, a larger bubble generation frequency, and an increase in the areal density of the bubble nucleation sites. The increase in the CHF was explained by considering the thermal activity of the graphene films, and the dependence thereof on the thickness and thermal properties of the layer, which was calculated based on high-speed IR visualization data

  12. Enhancing Performance of Large-Area Organic Solar Cells with Thick Film via Ternary Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianqi; Zhao, Yifan; Fang, Jin; Yuan, Liu; Xia, Benzheng; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Zaiyu; Zhang, Yajie; Ma, Wei; Yan, Wei; Su, Wenming; Wei, Zhixiang

    2017-06-01

    Large-scale fabrication of organic solar cells requires an active layer with high thickness tolerability and the use of environment-friendly solvents. Thick films with high-performance can be achieved via a ternary strategy studied herein. The ternary system consists of one polymer donor, one small molecule donor, and one fullerene acceptor. The small molecule enhances the crystallinity and face-on orientation of the active layer, leading to improved thickness tolerability compared with that of a polymer-fullerene binary system. An active layer with 270 nm thickness exhibits an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.78%, while the PCE is less than 8% with such thick film for binary system. Furthermore, large-area devices are successfully fabricated using polyethylene terephthalate (PET)/Silver gride or indium tin oxide (ITO)-based transparent flexible substrates. The product shows a high PCE of 8.28% with an area of 1.25 cm 2 for a single cell and 5.18% for a 20 cm 2 module. This study demonstrates that ternary organic solar cells exhibit great potential for large-scale fabrication and future applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effects of flexible substrate thickness on Al-induced crystallization of amorphous Ge thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oya, Naoki [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Toko, Kaoru, E-mail: toko@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Saitoh, Noriyuki; Yoshizawa, Noriko [Electron Microscope Facility, TIA, AIST, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8569 (Japan); Suemasu, Takashi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan)

    2015-05-29

    Amorphous germanium (a-Ge) thin films were directly crystallized on flexible plastic substrates at 325 °C using Al-induced crystallization. The thickness of the plastic substrate strongly influenced the crystal quality of the resulting polycrystalline Ge layers. Using a thicker substrate lowered the stress on the a-Ge layer during annealing, which increased the grain size and fraction of (111)-oriented grains within the Ge layer. Employing a 125-μm-thick substrate led to 95% (111)-oriented Ge with grains having an average size of 100 μm. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the Ge grains had a low-defect density. Production of high-quality Ge films on plastic substrates allows for the possibility for developing Ge-based electronic and optical devices on inexpensive flexible substrates. - Highlights: • Polycrystalline Ge thin films are directly formed on flexible plastic substrates. • Al-induced crystallization allows the low-temperature growth (325 °C) of amorphous Ge. • The substrate bending during annealing strongly influences the crystal quality of poly-Ge. • A thick substrate (125 μm) leads to 95% (111)-oriented Ge with grains 100 μm in size.

  14. X-ray diffractometry of 10 nm thick YBa2Cu3O7-x films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdov, Yu.N.; Moldavskaya, L.D.; Parafin, A.E.

    1998-01-01

    We report on some specific features of the X-ray diffraction spectra for ultrathin c-axis-oriented YBCO films. The films were prepared by laser deposition on LaAlO 3 substrates. A DRON-4 powder diffractometer was used to analyze a structure and to measure thickness of the films. We find that this conventional technique can detect the YBCO films as thin as 5 nm. The X-ray interference fringes in the vicinity of the (005) YBCO reflections for the films from 10 to 20 nm thick were clearly visible. The oscillation period of the fringes depends on the thickness of the film and the intensity modulation yields some structural information. The I(-1)/I(+1) fringes intensity ratio was found to be sensitive to the type of atomic layer at the top and bottom of YBCO film [ru

  15. Ceramic thick film humidity sensor based on MgTiO3 + LiF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kassas, Ahmad; Bernard, Jérôme; Lelièvre, Céline; Besq, Anthony; Guhel, Yannick; Houivet, David; Boudart, Bertrand; Lakiss, Hassan; Hamieh, Tayssir

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabricated sensor based on MgTiO 3 + LiF materials used the spin coating technology. • The response time is 70 s to detect variation between 5 and 95% relative humidity. • The addition of Scleroglucan controls the viscosity and decreases the roughness of thick film surface. • This humidity sensor is a promising, low-cost, high-quality, reliable ceramic films, that is highly sensitive to humidity. - Abstract: The feasibility of humidity sensor, consisting of a thick layer of MgTiO 3 /LiF materials on alumina substrate, was studied. The thermal analysis TGA-DTGA and dilatometric analysis worked out to confirm the sintering temperature. An experimental plan was applied to describe the effects of different parameters in the development of the thick film sensor. Structural and microstructural characterizations of the developed thick film were made. Rheological study with different amounts of a thickener (scleroglucan “sclg”), showing the behavior variation, as a function of sclg weight % was illustrated and rapprochement with the results of thickness variation as a function of angular velocity applied in the spin coater. The electrical and dielectric measurements confirmed the sensitivity of the elaborated thick film against moisture, along with low response time

  16. Atomic Layer Control of Thin Film Growth Using Binary Reaction Sequence Chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, Steven

    1997-01-01

    Our research is focusing on the atomic layer control of thin film growth. Our goal is to deposit films with precise control of thickness and conformality on both flat and high aspect ratio structures...

  17. Mocvd Growth of Group-III Nitrides on Silicon Carbide: From Thin Films to Atomically Thin Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Balushi, Zakaria Y.

    Group-III nitride semiconductors (AlN, GaN, InN and their alloys) are considered one of the most important class of materials for electronic and optoelectronic devices. This is not limited to the blue light-emitting diode (LED) used for efficient solid-state lighting, but other applications as well, such as solar cells, radar and a variety of high frequency power electronics, which are all prime examples of the technological importance of nitride based wide bandgap semiconductors in our daily lives. The goal of this dissertation work was to explore and establish new growth schemes to improve the structural and optical properties of thick to atomically thin films of group-III nitrides grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on SiC substrates for future novel devices. The first research focus of this dissertation was on the growth of indium gallium nitride (InGaN). This wide bandgap semiconductor has attracted much research attention as an active layer in LEDs and recently as an absorber material for solar cells. InGaN has superior material properties for solar cells due to its wavelength absorption tunability that nearly covers the entire solar spectrum. This can be achieved by controlling the indium content in thick grown material. Thick InGaN films are also of interest as strain reducing based layers for deep-green and red light emitters. The growth of thick films of InGaN is, however, hindered by several combined problems. This includes poor incorporation of indium in alloys, high density of structural and morphological defects, as well as challenges associated with the segregation of indium in thick films. Overcoming some of these material challenges is essential in order integrate thick InGaN films into future optoelectronics. Therefore, this dissertation research investigated the growth mechanism of InGaN layers grown in the N-polar direction by MOCVD as a route to improve the structural and optical properties of thick InGaN films. The growth

  18. Wear resistant PTFE thin film enabled by a polydopamine adhesive layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckford, Samuel; Zou, Min

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a polydopamine (PDA) adhesive layer on the friction and wear resistance of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) thin films coated on stainless steel was investigated. The friction and wear tests were carried out using a ball on flat configuration under a normal load of 50 g, sliding speed of 2.5 mm/s, and stroke length of 15 mm. It is found that the PDA/PTFE film is able to withstand approximately 500 times more rubbing cycles than the PTFE film alone. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results show that a tenacious layer of PTFE remains adhered to the PDA layer, which enables the durability of the PDA/PTFE film. Because of the relatively low thickness of the film, PDA/PTFE shows great potential for use in applications where durable, thin films are desirable

  19. Effect of thickness on structure, microstructure, residual stress and soft magnetic properties of DC sputtered Fe65Co35 soft magnetic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanna Kumari, T.; Manivel Raja, M.; Kumar, Atul; Srinath, S.; Kamat, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on structure, microstructure, residual stress and soft magnetic properties of Fe 65 Co 35 thin films deposited on Si(001) and MgO(001) substrates was investigated by varying film thickness from 30 to 600 nm. X-ray diffraction studies showed that the FeCo films are polycrystalline in the as-deposited condition irrespective of deposition on Si or MgO substrate. The microstructure of films consisted of spherical grains for 30 nm film thickness and columnar grains for all other film thicknesses. The grain size for the films was found to increase from 15 to 50 nm with increasing film thickness. The sputtered films also exhibited tensile residual stresses with the magnitude of stress decreasing with increasing film thickness. The Fe 65 Co 35 films deposited on both substrates also exhibited very good in-plane soft magnetic properties with a saturation magnetization 4πM s of ∼23.6–23.8 kG and coercivity of ∼27–30 Oe without any under-layer only for films with thickness of 30 nm. For all other thicknesses, these films exhibited a significantly higher coercivity. The observed variations in soft magnetic properties with film thickness were explained in terms of residual stress and microstructure of the films. - Highlights: • Spherical grain morphology transformed to columnar above 30 nm film thickness. • Sputtered films exhibited tensile residual stresses decreasing with film thickness. • An in-plane coercivity of ∼27–30 Oe was achieved without any under-layer

  20. Thickness evaluation using a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness in radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sung Sik; Kim, Young H.

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracies in the thickness evaluation using radiography, a new relationship between film density and penetrated thickness has been proposed, and experimental verification of the proposed relationship was carried out by using the X- and γ-ray radiographs of two carbon steel step wedges. A new parameter, the logarithmic gradient of film density, was defined in order to express the characteristics of the radiographic film for wider range of film density. A new relationship between the film density and the penetrated thickness were formulated using the logarithmic gradient of the film density. In experiment, the logarithmic gradient of the film density was independent on both the exposure and the film density and measured for the radiographic film used in the present work from the slope of the fitting lines for the same penetrated thickness. Experimental results verifies the accuracy of the proposed relationship between film density and the penetrated thickness for the range of film density from 1.0 to 3.5. The thickness can be more accurately determined by using the proposed relationship and the parameters determined by experiment. It is also found that the γ-ray having simple energy spectrum is more appropriate radiation source for the evaluation of the thickness from the film density of the radiograph

  1. Photoresponsive layer-by-layer ultrathin films prepared from a hyperbranched azobenzene-containing polymeric diazonium salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinyang; Fan Pengwei; Tuo Xinlin; He Yaning; Wang Xiaogong

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a hyperbranched diazonium salt (HB-DAS), prepared through azo-coupling reaction of an AB 2 monomer (N, N-bis[2-(4-aminobenzoyloxy)ethyl]aniline), was used to prepare self-assembled multilayers and ultrathin films. Multilayer films were fabricated by dipping substrates in HB-DAS and other polyelectrolyte solutions alternately in a layer-by-layer (LBL) manner. It was somewhat surprising to observe that HB-DAS forms multilayer films with either a polyanion (poly(styrenesulfonate sodium salt), PSS) or a polycation (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDAC) through alternate deposition in the solutions. Ultrathin films were formed in a sequential growth manner by dipping the substrates in the HB-DAS solution, washing with deionized water and drying repeatedly. In all the processes, the absorbance and thickness of the thin films linearly increase as the number of the dipping cycle increases. HB-DAS/PSS multilayer possesses an obviously larger bilayer thickness and lower density compared with the other two counterparts. The drying step after each deposition is necessary for the HB-DAS ultrathin film growth through the repeated dip-coating of HB-DAS. The multilayer and ultrathin films prepared by the above methods all show high resistance to erosion by organic solvents. The multilayers and ultrathin films exhibit photoinduced dichroism upon the irradiation of a polarized Ar + laser beam

  2. Photoresponsive layer-by-layer ultrathin films prepared from a hyperbranched azobenzene-containing polymeric diazonium salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Xinyang; Fan Pengwei; Tuo Xinlin; He Yaning [Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Wang Xiaogong [Department of Chemical Engineering, Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China)], E-mail: wxg-dce@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn

    2009-01-30

    In this work, a hyperbranched diazonium salt (HB-DAS), prepared through azo-coupling reaction of an AB{sub 2} monomer (N, N-bis[2-(4-aminobenzoyloxy)ethyl]aniline), was used to prepare self-assembled multilayers and ultrathin films. Multilayer films were fabricated by dipping substrates in HB-DAS and other polyelectrolyte solutions alternately in a layer-by-layer (LBL) manner. It was somewhat surprising to observe that HB-DAS forms multilayer films with either a polyanion (poly(styrenesulfonate sodium salt), PSS) or a polycation (poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), PDAC) through alternate deposition in the solutions. Ultrathin films were formed in a sequential growth manner by dipping the substrates in the HB-DAS solution, washing with deionized water and drying repeatedly. In all the processes, the absorbance and thickness of the thin films linearly increase as the number of the dipping cycle increases. HB-DAS/PSS multilayer possesses an obviously larger bilayer thickness and lower density compared with the other two counterparts. The drying step after each deposition is necessary for the HB-DAS ultrathin film growth through the repeated dip-coating of HB-DAS. The multilayer and ultrathin films prepared by the above methods all show high resistance to erosion by organic solvents. The multilayers and ultrathin films exhibit photoinduced dichroism upon the irradiation of a polarized Ar{sup +} laser beam.

  3. The Recovery of a Magnetically Dead Layer on the Surface of an Anatase (Ti,CoO2 Thin Film via an Ultrathin TiO2 Capping Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thantip S. Krasienapibal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of an ultrathin TiO2 capping layer on an anatase Ti0.95Co0.05O2−δ (001 epitaxial thin film on magnetism at 300 K was investigated. Films with a capping layer showed increased magnetization mainly caused by enhanced out-of-plane magnetization. In addition, the ultrathin capping layer was useful in prolonging the magnetization lifetime by more than two years. The thickness dependence of the magnetic domain structure at room temperature indicated the preservation of magnetic domain structure even for a 13 nm thick film covered with a capping layer. Taking into account nearly unchanged electric conductivity irrespective of the capping layer’s thickness, the main role of the capping layer is to prevent surface oxidation, which reduces electron carriers on the surface.

  4. Effect of antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling on spin-wave resonance frequency of multi-layer film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Rong-ke, E-mail: rkqiu@163.com; Cai, Wei

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • A quantum approach is developed to study the SWR of a bicomponent multi-layer films. • The comparison of the SWR in films with FM and AFM interfacial coupling has been made. • The present results show the method to enhance and adjust the SWR frequency of films. - Abstract: We investigate the spin-wave resonance (SWR) frequency in a bicomponent bilayer and triple-layer films with antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interfacial couplings, as function of interfacial coupling, surface anisotropy, interface anisotropy, thickness and external magnetic field, using the linear spin-wave approximation and Green’s function technique. The microwave properties for multi-layer magnetic film with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling is different from those for multi-layer magnetic film with ferromagnetic interfacial coupling. For the bilayer film with antiferromagnetic interfacial couplings, as the lower (upper) surface anisotropy increases, only the SWR frequencies of the odd (even) number modes increase. The lower (upper) surface anisotropy does not affect the SWR frequencies of the even (odd) number modes{sub .} For the multi-layer film with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling, the SWR frequency of modes m = 1, 3 and 4 decreases while that of mode m = 2 increases with increasing thickness of the film within a proper parameter region. The present results could be useful in enhancing our fundamental understanding and show the method to enhance and adjust the SWR frequency of bicomponent multi-layer magnetic films with antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interfacial coupling.

  5. Fabrication and characterization of MEMS-based PZT/PZT bimorph thick film vibration energy harvesters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    We describe the fabrication and characterization of a significantly improved version of a microelectromechanical system-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass; the harvester is fabricated in a fully monolithic process. The main advantage...... yield of 98%. The robust fabrication process allowed a high pressure treatment of the screen printed PZT thick films prior to sintering. The high pressure treatment improved the PZT thick film performance and increased the harvester power output to 37.1 μW at 1 g root mean square acceleration. We also...... characterize the harvester performance when only one of the PZT layers is used while the other is left open or short circuit....

  6. Macular Choroidal Small-Vessel Layer, Sattler's Layer and Haller's Layer Thicknesses: The Beijing Eye Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Wang, Ya Xing; Zhang, Qi; Wei, Wen Bin; Xu, Liang; Jonas, Jost B

    2018-03-13

    To study macular choroidal layer thickness, 3187 study participants from the population-based Beijing Eye Study underwent spectral-domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging for thickness measurements of the macular small-vessel layer, including the choriocapillaris, medium-sized choroidal vessel layer (Sattler's layer) and large choroidal vessel layer (Haller's layer). In multivariate analysis, greater thickness of all three choroidal layers was associated (all P  0.05) associated with the prevalence of open-angle glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy. There was a tendency (0.07 > P > 0.02) toward thinner choroidal layers in chronic angle-closure glaucoma. The ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness increased (P layer and Haller's layer thickness to total choroidal thickness decreased. A higher ratio of small-vessel layer thickness to total choroidal thickness was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of AMD (early type, intermediate type, late geographic type). Axial elongation-associated and aging-associated choroidal thinning affected Haller's and Sattler's layers more markedly than the small-vessel layer. Non-exudative and exudative AMD, except for geographic atrophy, was associated with slightly increased choroidal thickness.

  7. Confined methane-water interfacial layers and thickness measurements using in situ Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Bruno; Liu, Yukun; Rizkin, Benjamin; Hartman, Ryan L

    2017-11-07

    Gas-liquid interfaces broadly impact our planet, yet confined interfaces behave differently than unconfined ones. We report the role of tangential fluid motion in confined methane-water interfaces. The interfaces are created using microfluidics and investigated by in situ 1D, 2D and 3D Raman spectroscopy. The apparent CH 4 and H 2 O concentrations are reported for Reynolds numbers (Re), ranging from 0.17 to 8.55. Remarkably, the interfaces are comprised of distinct layers of thicknesses varying from 23 to 57 μm. We found that rarefaction, mixture, thin film, and shockwave layers together form the interfaces. The results indicate that the mixture layer thickness (δ) increases with Re (δ ∝ Re), and traditional transport theory for unconfined interfaces does not explain the confined interfaces. A comparison of our results with thin film theory of air-water interfaces (from mass transfer experiments in capillary microfluidics) supports that the hydrophobicity of CH 4 could decrease the strength of water-water interactions, resulting in larger interfacial thicknesses. Our findings help explain molecular transport in confined gas-liquid interfaces, which are common in a broad range of societal applications.

  8. Electrostatic layer-by-layer a of platinum-loaded multiwall carbon nanotube multilayer: A tunable catalyst film for anodic methanol oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Junhua; Wang Zhijuan; Zhang Yuanjian; Shen Yanfei; Han Dongxue; Zhang Qixian; Xu Xiaoyu; Niu Li

    2008-01-01

    A simple layer-by-layer (LBL) electrostatic adsorption technique was developed for deposition of films composed of alternating layers of positively charged poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) and negatively charged multiwall carbon nanotubes bearing platinum nanoparticles (Pt-CNTs). PDDA/Pt-CNT film structure and morphology up to six layers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, showing the Pt-CNT layers to be porous and uniformly deposited within the multilayer films. Electrochemical properties of the PDDA/Pt-CNT films, as well as electrocatalytic activity toward methanol oxidation, were investigated with cyclic voltammetry. Significant activity toward anodic methanol oxidation was observed and is readily tunable through changing film thickness and/or platinum-nanoparticle loading. Overall, the observed properties of these PDDA/Pt-CNT multilayer films indicated unique potential for application in direct methanol fuel cell

  9. A method for thickness determination of thin films of amalgamable metals by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennun, L.; Greaves, E.D.; Barros, H.; Diaz-Valdes, J.

    2009-01-01

    A method for thickness determination of thin amalgamable metallic films by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) is presented. The peak's intensity in TXRF spectra are directly related to the surface density of the sample, i.e. to its thickness in a homogeneous film. Performing a traditional TXRF analysis on a thin film of an amalgamated metal, and determining the relative peak intensity of a specific metal line, the layer thickness can be precisely obtained. In the case of gold thickness determination, mercury and gold peaks overlap, hence we have developed a general data processing scheme to achieve the most precise results.

  10. Using synchrotron-based FT-IR microspectroscopy to study erucamide migration in 50-micron-thick bilayer linear low-density polyethylene and polyolefin plastomer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhe, Shilpa Y; Hirt, Douglas E

    2003-01-01

    The diffusion of additives in thick (approximately 500 microns) single layer and multilayer films has been characterized using FT-IR microspectroscopy. The objective of this research was to investigate additive migration and concentration profiles in coextruded multilayer films of industrially relevant thicknesses. In particular, the investigation focused on the migration of an erucamide slip agent in 50-micron-thick coextruded bilayer films of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and a polyolefin plastomer (POP). Erucamide concentration profiles were successfully mapped using synchrotron-based FT-IR microspectroscopy. The synchrotron radiation helped to achieve a higher spatial resolution for the thin films. Meticulous sample preparation was needed to map the thin film samples. Results with FT-IR microspectroscopy showed that the additive-concentration profiles were relatively uniform across the multilayer-film thickness irrespective of the intended initial additive distribution. For example, a bilayer planned for 1 wt % erucamide in an LLDPE layer and no erucamide in a POP layer showed significant additive migration into the POP layer at the extrusion rates used. FT-IR microspectroscopy results also showed that more erucamide migrated to the surface of a POP layer than an LLDPE layer. Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy was used to confirm the time-dependent increase of erucamide surface concentration and that the increase was more pronounced at the surface of the POP layers.

  11. Thick-film analysis: literature search and bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehman, R.W.

    1981-09-01

    A literature search was conducted to support development of in-house diagnostic testing of thick film materials for hybrid microcircuits. A background literature review covered thick film formulation, processing, structure, and performance. Important material properties and tests were identified and several test procedures were obtained. Several tests were selected for thick film diagnosis at Bendix Kansas City. 126 references

  12. Growth of layered superconductor β-PdBi{sub 2} films using molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisov, N.V., E-mail: denisov@iacp.dvo.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Matetskiy, A.V.; Tupkalo, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Zotov, A.V. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Department of Electronics, Vladivostok State University of Economics and Service, 690600 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); Saranin, A.A. [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, 5 Radio Street, 690041 Vladivostok (Russian Federation); School of Natural Sciences, Far Eastern Federal University, 690950 Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} is layered material with advanced properties of topological superconductor. • We present a method for growing β-PdBi{sub 2} films of a desired thickness. • Method utilizes MBE growth of β-PdBi{sub 2}, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. • Electronic and superconducting properties of the films are similar to those of bulk β-PdBi{sub 2}. - Abstract: Bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} layered material exhibits advanced properties and is supposed to be probable topological superconductor. We present a method based on molecular beam epitaxy that allows us to grow β-PdBi{sub 2} films from a single β-PdBi{sub 2} triple layer up to the dozens of triple layers, using Bi(111) film on Si(111) as a template. The grown films demonstrate structural, electronic and superconducting properties similar to those of bulk β-PdBi{sub 2} crystals. Ability to grow the β-PdBi{sub 2} films of desired thickness opens the promising possibilities to explore fascinating properties of this advanced material.

  13. Growth of thick La2Zr2O7 buffer layers for coated conductors by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xin; Zhao, Yong; Xia, Yudong; Guo, Chunsheng; Cheng, C.H.; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Han

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We develops a low-cost and high-efficient technology of fabricating LZO buffer layers. • Sufficient thickness LZO buffer layers have been obtained on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate. • Highly biaxially textured YBCO thin film has been deposited on LZO/NiW. - Abstract: La 2 Zr 2 O 7 (LZO) epitaxial films have been deposited on LaAlO 3 (LAO) (1 0 0) single-crystal surface and bi-axially textured NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition, and afterwards studied with XRD, SEM and AFM approaches. Highly in-plane and out-of-plane oriented, dense, smooth, crack free and with a sufficient thickness (>240 nm) LZO buffer layers have been obtained on LAO (1 0 0) single-crystal surface; The films deposited on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate are also found with high degree in-plane and out-of-plane texturing, good density with pin-hole-free, micro-crack-free nature and a thickness of 300 nm. Highly epitaxial 500 nm thick YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−x (YBCO) thin film exhibits the self-field critical current density (Jc) reached 1.3 MA/cm 2 at 77 K .These results demonstrate the LZO epi-films obtained with current techniques have potential to be a buffer layer for REBCO coated conductors

  14. The film thickness dependent thermal stability of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag thin films as high-temperature solar selective absorbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao Xiudi; Xu Gang, E-mail: xiudixiao@163.com; Xiong Bin; Chen Deming; Miao Lei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy and Gas Hydrates, Guangzhou Institute of Energy Conversion (China)

    2012-03-15

    The monolayer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag thin films were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The microstructure and optical properties of thin film after annealing at 700 Degree-Sign C in air were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and spectrophotometer. It revealed that the particle shape, size, and distribution across the film were greatly changed before and after annealing. The surface plasmon resonance absorption and thermal stability of the film were found to be strongly dependent on the film thickness, which was believed to be associated with the evolution process of particle diffusion, agglomeration, and evaporation during annealing at high temperature. When the film thickness was smaller than 90 nm, the film SPR absorption can be attenuated until extinct with increasing annealing time due to the evaporation of Ag particles. While the film thickness was larger than 120 nm, the absorption can keep constant even after annealing for 64 h due to the agglomeration of Ag particles. On the base of film thickness results, the multilayer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag solar selective thin films were prepared and the thermal stability test illustrated that the solar selectivity of multilayer films with absorbing layer thickness larger than 120 nm did not degrade after annealing at 500 Degree-Sign C for 70 h in air. It can be concluded that film thickness is an important factor to control the thermal stability of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:Ag thin films as high-temperature solar selective absorbers.

  15. Functionalized Thick Film Impedance Sensors for Use in In Vitro Cell Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, Heike; Baca, Martin; Fernekorn, Uta; Müller, Jens; Schober, Andreas; Witte, Hartmut

    2018-04-05

    Multi-electrode arrays find application in electrophysiological recordings. The quality of the captured signals depends on the interfacial contact between electrogenic cells and the electronic system. Therefore, it requires reliable low-impedance electrodes. Low-temperature cofired ceramic technology offers a suitable platform for rapid prototyping of biological reactors and can provide both stable fluid supply and integrated bio-hardware interfaces for recordings in electrogenic cell cultures. The 3D assembly of thick film gold electrodes in in vitro bio-reactors has been demonstrated for neuronal recordings. However, especially when dimensions become small, their performance varies strongly. This work investigates the influence of different coatings on thick film gold electrodes with regard to their influence on impedance behavior. PSS layer, titanium oxynitride and laminin coatings are deposited on LTCC gold electrodes using different 2D and 3D MEA chip designs. Their impedance characteristics are compared and discussed. Titanium oxynitride layers emerged as suitable functionalization. Small 86-µm-electrodes have a serial resistance R s of 32 kOhm and serial capacitance C s of 4.1 pF at 1 kHz. Thick film gold electrodes with such coatings are thus qualified for signal recording in 3-dimensional in vitro cell cultures.

  16. Functionalized Thick Film Impedance Sensors for Use in In Vitro Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Bartsch

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Multi-electrode arrays find application in electrophysiological recordings. The quality of the captured signals depends on the interfacial contact between electrogenic cells and the electronic system. Therefore, it requires reliable low-impedance electrodes. Low-temperature cofired ceramic technology offers a suitable platform for rapid prototyping of biological reactors and can provide both stable fluid supply and integrated bio-hardware interfaces for recordings in electrogenic cell cultures. The 3D assembly of thick film gold electrodes in in vitro bio-reactors has been demonstrated for neuronal recordings. However, especially when dimensions become small, their performance varies strongly. This work investigates the influence of different coatings on thick film gold electrodes with regard to their influence on impedance behavior. PEDOT:PSS layer, titanium oxynitride and laminin coatings are deposited on LTCC gold electrodes using different 2D and 3D MEA chip designs. Their impedance characteristics are compared and discussed. Titanium oxynitride layers emerged as suitable functionalization. Small 86-µm-electrodes have a serial resistance Rs of 32 kOhm and serial capacitance Cs of 4.1 pF at 1 kHz. Thick film gold electrodes with such coatings are thus qualified for signal recording in 3-dimensional in vitro cell cultures.

  17. Low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy of AlN ultrathin films by layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Huan-Yu; Lee, Wei-Hao; Kao, Wei-Chung; Chuang, Yung-Chuan; Lin, Ray-Ming; Lin, Hsin-Chih; Shiojiri, Makoto; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2017-01-03

    Low-temperature epitaxial growth of AlN ultrathin films was realized by atomic layer deposition (ALD) together with the layer-by-layer, in-situ atomic layer annealing (ALA), instead of a high growth temperature which is needed in conventional epitaxial growth techniques. By applying the ALA with the Ar plasma treatment in each ALD cycle, the AlN thin film was converted dramatically from the amorphous phase to a single-crystalline epitaxial layer, at a low deposition temperature of 300 °C. The energy transferred from plasma not only provides the crystallization energy but also enhances the migration of adatoms and the removal of ligands, which significantly improve the crystallinity of the epitaxial layer. The X-ray diffraction reveals that the full width at half-maximum of the AlN (0002) rocking curve is only 144 arcsec in the AlN ultrathin epilayer with a thickness of only a few tens of nm. The high-resolution transmission electron microscopy also indicates the high-quality single-crystal hexagonal phase of the AlN epitaxial layer on the sapphire substrate. The result opens a window for further extension of the ALD applications from amorphous thin films to the high-quality low-temperature atomic layer epitaxy, which can be exploited in a variety of fields and applications in the near future.

  18. Influence of artificial pinning centers on structural and superconducting properties of thick YBCO films on ABAD-YSZ templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlke, Patrick; Sieger, Max; Ottolinger, Rick; Lao, Mayraluna; Eisterer, Michael; Meledin, Alexander; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Hänisch, Jens; Holzapfel, Bernhard; Schultz, Ludwig; Nielsch, Kornelius; Hühne, Ruben

    2018-04-01

    Recent efforts in the development of YBa2Cu3O7-x (YBCO) coated conductors are devoted to the increase of the critical current I c in magnetic fields. This is typically realized by growing thicker YBCO layers as well as by the incorporation of artificial pinning centers. We studied the growth of doped YBCO layers with a thickness of up to 7 μm using pulsed laser deposition with a growth rate of about 1.2 nm s-1. Industrially fabricated ion-beam textured YSZ templates based on metal tapes were used as substrates for this study. The incorporation of BaHfO3 (BHO) or Ba2Y(Nb0.5Ta0.5)O6 (BYNTO) secondary phase additions leads to a denser microstructure compared to undoped films. A purely c-axis-oriented YBCO growth is preserved up to a thickness of about 4 μm, whereas misoriented texture components were observed in thicker films. The critical temperature is slightly reduced compared to undoped films and independent of film thickness. The critical current density J c of the BHO- and BYNTO-doped YBCO layers is lower at 77 K and self-field compared to pure YBCO layers; however, I c increases up to a thickness of 5 μm. A comparison between films with a thickness of 1.3 μm revealed that the anisotropy of the critical current density J c(θ) strongly depends on the incorporated pinning centers. Whereas BHO nanorods lead to a strong B∣∣c-axis peak, the overall anisotropy is significantly reduced by the incorporation of BYNTO forming a mixture of short c-axis-oriented nanorods and small (a-b)-oriented platelets. As a result, the J c values of the doped films outperform the undoped samples at higher fields and lower temperatures for most magnetic field directions.

  19. Crystallization of silicon films of submicron thickness by blue-multi-laser-diode annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugiraneza, Jean de Dieu; Shirai, Katsuya; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Okada, Tatsuya; Noguchi, Takashi [University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa (Japan); Matsushima, Hideki; Hashimoto, Takao; Ogino, Yoshiaki; Sahota, Eiji [Hitachi Computer Peripherals Co. Ltd, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2012-01-15

    Blue-Multi-Laser-Diode Annealing (BLDA) was performed in the continuous wave (CW) mode on Si films as thick as 0.5 {mu}m and 1 {mu}m deposited by rf sputtering. As a result of controlling the laser power from 4.0 to 4.8 W, a whole Si layer of 0.5 {mu}m in thickness was completely crystallized and consisted of a columnar structure of fine grains beneath a partially melted Si surface owing to the high temperature gradient along the depth in the Si layer. After additional hydrogenation in a furnace ambient, the ratio of the photo/dark current under AM 1.5 illumination distinctly improved to 6 times higher than that of as-deposited condition. The BLDA is expected to be applied to thin-film solar cells and/or to thin film transistor (TFT) photo-sensor systems on panels as a new low-temperature poly-silicon (LTPS) fabrication technique.

  20. Fabrication and analysis of single-crystal KTiOPO₄ films with thicknesses in the micrometer range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Changdong; Lu, Fei; Xu, Bo; Fan, Ranran

    2016-02-01

    Single-crystal potassium titanyl phosphate (KTiOPO4, KTP) films with thicknesses less than 5 μm are obtained by using helium (He) implantation combined with ion-beam-enhanced etching. A heavily damaged layer created by a 4×10(16)  cm(-2) fluence of 2 MeV He implantation is removed by means of wet chemical etching in hydrofluoric acid (HF). Thus, free-standing films of KTP with thicknesses in the range of 3-5 μm are obtained. The etching rate can be adjusted over a wide range by choosing temperature and HF concentration, as well as annealing conditions. Sharp etching edges and the smooth surface of the film indicate that a high selective-etching rate is achieved in the damaged layer, and the remaining part of the crystal is undamaged. X-ray and Raman-scattering results prove that KTP films have good single-crystal properties.

  1. Influence of processing parameters on PZT thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Oliver; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Bose, Susmita

    2005-01-01

    We have studied influence of processing parameters on the microstructure and ferroelectric properties of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based thick films in the range of 5-25 μm. PZT and 2% La-doped PZT thick films were processed using a modified sol-gel process. In this process, PZT- and La-doped PZT powders were first prepared via sol-gel. These powders were calcined and then used with respective sols to form a slurry. Slurry composition was optimized to spin-coat thick films on platinized Si substrate (Si/SiO 2 /Ti/Pt). Spinning rate, acceleration and slurry deposition techniques were optimized to form thick films with uniform thickness and without any cracking. Increasing solids loading was found to enhance the surface smoothness of the film and decrease porosity. Films were tested for their electrical properties and ferroelectric fatigue response. The maximum polarization obtained was 40 μC/cm 2 at 250 kV/cm for PZT thick film and 30 μC/cm 2 at 450 kV/cm for La-doped PZT thick film. After 10 9 cycles of fatiguing at 35 kHz, La-doped PZT showed better resistance for ferroelectric fatigue compared with un-doped PZT films

  2. Ceramic thick film humidity sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassas, Ahmad, E-mail: a.kassas.mcema@ul.edu.lb [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Bernard, Jérôme; Lelièvre, Céline; Besq, Anthony; Guhel, Yannick; Houivet, David; Boudart, Bertrand [Laboratoire Universitaire des Sciences Appliquées de Cherbourg (LUSAC), 50130 Cherbourg-Octeville (France); Lakiss, Hassan [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Faculty of Engineering, Section III, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon); Hamieh, Tayssir [Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Materials, Catalysis, Environment and Analytical Methods (MCEMA), Faculty of Sciences and Doctoral School of Sciences and Technology (EDST), Lebanese University, Hariri Campus, Hadath, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The fabricated sensor based on MgTiO{sub 3} + LiF materials used the spin coating technology. • The response time is 70 s to detect variation between 5 and 95% relative humidity. • The addition of Scleroglucan controls the viscosity and decreases the roughness of thick film surface. • This humidity sensor is a promising, low-cost, high-quality, reliable ceramic films, that is highly sensitive to humidity. - Abstract: The feasibility of humidity sensor, consisting of a thick layer of MgTiO{sub 3}/LiF materials on alumina substrate, was studied. The thermal analysis TGA-DTGA and dilatometric analysis worked out to confirm the sintering temperature. An experimental plan was applied to describe the effects of different parameters in the development of the thick film sensor. Structural and microstructural characterizations of the developed thick film were made. Rheological study with different amounts of a thickener (scleroglucan “sclg”), showing the behavior variation, as a function of sclg weight % was illustrated and rapprochement with the results of thickness variation as a function of angular velocity applied in the spin coater. The electrical and dielectric measurements confirmed the sensitivity of the elaborated thick film against moisture, along with low response time.

  3. Eddy current measurement of the thickness of top Cu film of the multilayer interconnects in the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zilian; Meng, Yonggang; Zhao, Qian

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes a new eddy current method, named equivalent unit method (EUM), for the thickness measurement of the top copper film of multilayer interconnects in the chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) process, which is an important step in the integrated circuit (IC) manufacturing. The influence of the underneath circuit layers on the eddy current is modeled and treated as an equivalent film thickness. By subtracting this equivalent film component, the accuracy of the thickness measurement of the top copper layer with an eddy current sensor is improved and the absolute error is 3 nm for sampler measurement.

  4. Epitaxially influenced boundary layer model for size effect in thin metallic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazant, Zdenek P.; Guo Zaoyang; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Zhu Yong; Peng Bei

    2005-01-01

    It is shown that the size effect recently observed by Espinosa et al., [J. Mech. Phys. Solids51, 47 (2003)] in pure tension tests on free thin metallic films can be explained by the existence of a boundary layer of fixed thickness, located at the surface of the film that was attached onto the substrate during deposition. The boundary layer is influenced by the epitaxial effects of crystal growth on the dislocation density and texture (manifested by prevalent crystal plane orientations). This influence is assumed to cause significantly elevated yield strength. Furthermore, the observed gradual postpeak softening, along with its size independence, which is observed in short film strips subjected to pure tension, is explained by slip localization, originating at notch-like defects, and by damage, which can propagate in a stable manner when the film strip under pure tension is sufficiently thin and short. For general applications, the present epitaxially influenced boundary layer model may be combined with the classical strain-gradient plasticity proposed by Gao et al., [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47, 1239 (1999)], and it is shown that this combination is necessary to fit the test data on both pure tension and bending of thin films by one and the same theory. To deal with films having different crystal grain sizes, the Hall-Petch relation for the yield strength dependence on the grain size needs to be incorporated into the combined theory. For very thin films, in which a flattened grain fills the whole film thickness, the Hall-Petch relation needs a cutoff, and the asymptotic increase of yield strength with diminishing film thickness is then described by the extension of Nix's model of misfit dislocations by Zhang and Zhou [J. Adv. Mater. 38, 51 (2002)]. The final result is a proposal of a general theory for strength, size effect, hardening, and softening of thin metallic films

  5. Epitaxially influenced boundary layer model for size effect in thin metallic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bažant, Zdeněk P.; Guo, Zaoyang; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Zhu, Yong; Peng, Bei

    2005-04-01

    It is shown that the size effect recently observed by Espinosa et al., [J. Mech. Phys. Solids51, 47 (2003)] in pure tension tests on free thin metallic films can be explained by the existence of a boundary layer of fixed thickness, located at the surface of the film that was attached onto the substrate during deposition. The boundary layer is influenced by the epitaxial effects of crystal growth on the dislocation density and texture (manifested by prevalent crystal plane orientations). This influence is assumed to cause significantly elevated yield strength. Furthermore, the observed gradual postpeak softening, along with its size independence, which is observed in short film strips subjected to pure tension, is explained by slip localization, originating at notch-like defects, and by damage, which can propagate in a stable manner when the film strip under pure tension is sufficiently thin and short. For general applications, the present epitaxially influenced boundary layer model may be combined with the classical strain-gradient plasticity proposed by Gao et al., [J. Mech. Phys. Solids 47, 1239 (1999)], and it is shown that this combination is necessary to fit the test data on both pure tension and bending of thin films by one and the same theory. To deal with films having different crystal grain sizes, the Hall-Petch relation for the yield strength dependence on the grain size needs to be incorporated into the combined theory. For very thin films, in which a flattened grain fills the whole film thickness, the Hall-Petch relation needs a cutoff, and the asymptotic increase of yield strength with diminishing film thickness is then described by the extension of Nix's model of misfit dislocations by Zhang and Zhou [J. Adv. Mater. 38, 51 (2002)]. The final result is a proposal of a general theory for strength, size effect, hardening, and softening of thin metallic films.

  6. Field emission mechanism from a single-layer ultra-thin semiconductor film cathode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Zhiqiang; Wang Ruzhi; Yuan Ruiyang; Yang Wei; Wang Bo; Yan Hui

    2007-01-01

    Field emission (FE) from a single-layer ultra-thin semiconductor film cathode (SUSC) on a metal substrate has been investigated theoretically. The self-consistent quantum FE model is developed by synthetically considering the energy band bending and electron scattering. As a typical example, we calculate the FE properties of ultra-thin AlN film with an adjustable film thickness from 1 to 10 nm. The calculated results show that the FE characteristic is evidently modulated by varying the film thickness, and there is an optimum thickness of about 3 nm. Furthermore, a four-step FE mechanism is suggested such that the distinct FE current of a SUSC is rooted in the thickness sensitivity of its quantum structure, and the optimum FE properties of the SUSC should be attributed to the change in the effective potential combined with the attenuation of electron scattering

  7. Hydrodynamic thickness of petroleum oil adsorbed layers in the pores of reservoir rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkafeef, Saad F; Algharaib, Meshal K; Alajmi, Abdullah F

    2006-06-01

    The hydrodynamic thickness delta of adsorbed petroleum (crude) oil layers into the pores of sandstone rocks, through which the liquid flows, has been studied by Poiseuille's flow law and the evolution of (electrical) streaming current. The adsorption of petroleum oil is accompanied by a numerical reduction in the (negative) surface potential of the pore walls, eventually stabilizing at a small positive potential, attributed to the oil macromolecules themselves. After increasing to around 30% of the pore radius, the adsorbed layer thickness delta stopped growing either with time or with concentrations of asphaltene in the flowing liquid. The adsorption thickness is confirmed with the blockage value of the rock pores' area determined by the combination of streaming current and streaming potential measurements. This behavior is attributed to the effect on the disjoining pressure across the adsorbed layer, as described by Derjaguin and Churaev, of which the polymolecular adsorption films lose their stability long before their thickness has approached the radius of the rock pore.

  8. Transparent Conductive In and Ga Doped ZnO/Cu Bi-Layered Films Deposited by DC and RF Magnetron Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Hyun-Joo; Song, Young-Hwan; Oh, Jung-Hyun; Heo, Sung-Bo; Kim, Daeil

    2016-01-01

    In- and Ga-doped ZnO (IGZO) films were deposited on 5 nm thick Cu film buffered poly-carbonate substrates with RF magnetron sputtering and the effects of the Cu buffer layer on the optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated. The IGZO single layer films exhibited an electrical resistivity of 1.2×10"-1 Ω cm while the IGZO/Cu bi-layered films exhibited a lower resistivity of 1.6×10"-3 Ω cm. With respect to optical properties, the optical band gap of the IGZO films appeared to decrease as a result of an increasing carrier concentration due to the Cu buffer layer. In addition, the RMS roughness (8.2 nm) of the IGZO films also decreased to 6.8 nm by a Cu buffer layer in AFM observation. Although the optical transmittance in the range of visible wavelengths was deteriorated by the Cu buffer layer, the IGZO films with a 5 nm thick Cu buffer layer exhibited a higher figure of merit of 2.6×10"-4 Ω"-1 compared with the IGZO single layer films due to enhanced optoelectrical performance.

  9. Transparent Conductive In and Ga Doped ZnO/Cu Bi-Layered Films Deposited by DC and RF Magnetron Sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Hyun-Joo; Song, Young-Hwan; Oh, Jung-Hyun; Heo, Sung-Bo; Kim, Daeil [University of Ulsan, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In- and Ga-doped ZnO (IGZO) films were deposited on 5 nm thick Cu film buffered poly-carbonate substrates with RF magnetron sputtering and the effects of the Cu buffer layer on the optical and electrical properties of the films were investigated. The IGZO single layer films exhibited an electrical resistivity of 1.2×10{sup -}1 Ω cm while the IGZO/Cu bi-layered films exhibited a lower resistivity of 1.6×10{sup -}3 Ω cm. With respect to optical properties, the optical band gap of the IGZO films appeared to decrease as a result of an increasing carrier concentration due to the Cu buffer layer. In addition, the RMS roughness (8.2 nm) of the IGZO films also decreased to 6.8 nm by a Cu buffer layer in AFM observation. Although the optical transmittance in the range of visible wavelengths was deteriorated by the Cu buffer layer, the IGZO films with a 5 nm thick Cu buffer layer exhibited a higher figure of merit of 2.6×10{sup -}4 Ω{sup -}1 compared with the IGZO single layer films due to enhanced optoelectrical performance.

  10. Development of liquid film thickness measurement technique by high-density multipoint electrodes method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Takahiro; Furuya, Masahiro; Kanai, Taizo

    2010-01-01

    High-density multipoint electrode method was developed to measure a liquid film thickness transient on a curved surface. The devised method allows us to measure spatial distribution of liquid film with its conductance between electrodes. The sensor was designed and fabricated as a multilayer print circuit board, where electrode pairs were distributed in reticular pattern with narrow interval. In order to measure a lot of electrode pairs at a high sampling rate, signal-processing method used by the wire mesh sensor measurement system was applied. An electrochemical impedance spectrometry concludes that the sampling rate of 1000 slices/s is feasible without signal distortion by electric double layer. The method was validated with two experimental campaigns: (1) a droplet impingement on a flat film and (2) a jet impingement on a rod-shape sensor surface. In the former experiment, a water droplet having 4 mm in diameter impinged onto the 1 mm thick film layer. A visual observation study with high-speed video camera shows after the liquid impingement, the water layer thinning process was clearly demonstrated with the sensor. For the latter experiment, the flexible circuit board was bended to form a cylindrical shape to measure water film on a simulated fuel rod in bundle geometry. A water jet having 3 mm in diameter impinged onto the rod-shape sensor surface. The process of wetting area enlargement on the rod surface was demonstrated in the same manner that the video-frames showed. (author)

  11. Thickness Dependent on Photocatalytic Activity of Hematite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hua Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematite (Fe2O3 thin films with different thicknesses are fabricated by the rf magnetron sputtering deposition. The effects of film thicknesses on the photocatalytic activity of hematite films have been investigated. Hematite films possess a polycrystalline hexagonal structure, and the band gap decreases with an increase of film thickness. Moreover, all hematite films exhibit good photocatalytic ability under visible-light irradiation; the photocatalytic activity of hematite films increases with the increasing film thickness. This is because the hematite film with a thicker thickness has a rougher surface, providing more reaction sites for photocatalysis. Another reason is a lower band gap of a hematite film would generate more electron-hole pairs under visible-light illumination to enhance photocatalytic efficiency. Experimental data are well fitted with Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. The photocatalytic rate constant of hematite films ranges from 0.052 to 0.068 min-1. This suggests that the hematite film is a superior photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation.

  12. Ultrasound-based measurement of liquid-layer thickness: A novel time-domain approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praher, Bernhard; Steinbichler, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Measuring the thickness of a thin liquid layer between two solid materials is important when the adequate separation of metallic parts by a lubricant film (e.g., in bearings or mechanical seals) is to be assessed. The challenge in using ultrasound-based systems for such measurements is that the signal from the liquid layer is a superposition of multiple reflections. We have developed an algorithm for reconstructing this superimposed signal in the time domain. By comparing simulated and measured signals, the time-of-flight of the ultrasonic pulse in a layer can be estimated. With the longitudinal sound velocity known, the layer thickness can then be calculated. In laboratory measurements, we validate successfully (maximum relative error 4.9%) our algorithm for layer thicknesses ranging from 30 μm to 200 μm. Furthermore, we tested our method in the high-temperature environment of polymer processing by measuring the clearance between screw and barrel in the plasticisation unit of an injection moulding machine. The results of such measurements can indicate (i) the wear status of the tribo-mechanical screw-barrel system and (ii) unsuitable process conditions.

  13. Magnetooptic effects and Auger electron spectroscopy of two-layer NiFe-Dy and Fe-Dy films with nonuniform layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehdel'man, I.S.; Markov, V.V.; Khudyakov, A.E.; Ivantsov, R.D.; Bondarenko, G.V.; Ovchinnikov, S.G.; Kesler, V.G.; Parshin, A.S.; Ronzhin, I.P.

    2001-01-01

    Magneto-optical effects (magnetic circular dichroism and meridional Kerr effect) and element distribution with layer thickness in two-layer NiFe-Dy and Fe-Dy films, prepared by thermal sputtering of component in ultrahigh vacuum, are investigated. It is shown, that Dy in a two-layer film in the temperature range of 80-300 K makes constant contributions to both effects investigated which are approximately equal to the values of the effects observed in an isolated Dy film only at temperatures below the temperature T c of Dy transition into a ferromagnetic state (T c ∼ 100 K for the films under study). This behaviour of magneto-optical effects is assumed to be due to the influence of a NiFe layer spin system on magnetic state of a Dy layer, this influence is enhanced by the deep penetration of Ni and Fe ions into Dy layer as it follows from the data obtained using Auger electron spectroscopy [ru

  14. Influence of film thickness and Fe doping on LPG sensing properties of Mn3O4 thin film grown by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhedkar, M. R.; Ubale, A. U.

    2018-05-01

    Nanocrystalline Fe doped and undoped Mn3O4 thin films have been deposited by Successive Ionic Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) method onto glass substrates using MnCl2 and NaOH as cationic and anionic precursors. The grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM)) have been carried out to analyze structural and surface morphological properties of the films. The LPG sensing performance of Mn3O4thin films have been studied by varying temperature, concentration of LPG, thickness of the film and doping percentage of Fe. The LPG response of the Mn3O4thin films were found to be enhances with film thickness and decreases with increased Fe doping (0 to 8 wt. %) at 573 K temperature.

  15. Film-thickness and composition dependence of epitaxial thin-film PZT-based

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Duc Minh; Dekkers, Jan M.; Vu, Hung Ngoc; Rijnders, Augustinus J.H.M.

    2013-01-01

    The transverse piezoelectric coefficient e31,f and mass-sensitivity were measured on piezoelectric cantilevers based on epitaxial PZT thin-films with film-thicknesses ranging from 100 to 2000 nm. The highest values of e31,f and mass-sensitivity were observed at a film thickness of 500–750 nm, while

  16. Wafer scale lead zirconate titanate film preparation by sol-gel method using stress balance layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jian; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Yi Zhang; Maeda, Ryutaro; Mihara, Takashi

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, platinum/titanium (Pt/Ti) film was introduced as a residual stress balance layer into wafer scale thick lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film fabrication by sol-gel method. The stress developing in PZT film's bottom electrode as well as in PZT film itself during deposition were analyzed; the wafer curvatures, PZT crystallizations and PZT electric properties before and after using Pt/Ti stress balance layer were studied and compared. It was found that this layer is effective to balance the residual stress in PZT film's bottom electrode induced by thermal expansion coefficient mismatch and Ti diffusion, thus can notably reduce the curvature of 4-in. wafer from - 40.5 μm to - 12.9 μm after PZT film deposition. This stress balance layer was also found effective to avoid the PZT film cracking even when annealed by rapid thermal annealing with heating-rate up to 10.5 deg. C/s. According to X-ray diffraction analysis and electric properties characterization, crack-free uniform 1-μm-thick PZT film with preferred pervoskite (001) orientation, excellent dielectric constant, as high as 1310, and excellent remanent polarization, as high as 39.8 μC/cm 2 , can be obtained on 4-in. wafer

  17. Mesoscopic layered structure in conducting polymer thin film fabricated by potential-programmed electropolymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitsuka, Mamoru (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Nakahara, Reiko (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Iyoda, Tomokazu (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Shimidzu, Takeo (Div. of Molecular Engineering, Kyoto Univ. (Japan)); Tomita, Shigehisa (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Hatano, Yayoi (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Soeda, Fusami (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Ishitani, Akira (Toray Research Center Co., Ltd., Shiga (Japan)); Tsuchiya, Hajime (Nitto Technical Information Center Co., Ltd., Shimohozumi Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan)); Ohtani, Akira (Central Research Lab., Nitto Denko Co., Ltd., Shimohozumi Ibaraki, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-11-01

    Mesoscopic layered structures in conducting polymer thin films are fabricated by the potential-programmed electropolymerization method. High lateral quality in the layered structure is realized by the improvement of polymerization conditions, i.e., a mixture of pyrrole and bithiophene as monomers, a silicon single-crystal wafer as a working electrode and propylene carbonate as a solvent. SIMS depth profiling of the resulting layered films indicates a significant linear correlation between the electric charge passed and the thickness of the individual layers on a 100 A scale. (orig.)

  18. Temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers in multilayer thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Hsu, Jen-Hwa; Perumal, Alagarsamy

    2016-01-01

    We report systematic investigations on temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers and resulting magnetic properties of multilayer structured [FeTaC (~67 nm)/Ta(x nm)] 2 /FeTaC(~67 nm)] thin films, which are fabricated directly on thermally oxidized Si substrate. As-deposited amorphous films are post annealed at different annealing temperatures (T A =200, 300 and 400 °C). Structural analyzes reveal that the films annealed at T A ≤200 °C exhibit amorphous nature, while the films annealed above 200 °C show nucleation of nanocrystals at T A =300 °C and well-defined α-Fe nanocrystals with size of about 9 nm in amorphous matrix for 400 °C annealed films. Room temperature and temperature dependent magnetic hysteresis (M–H) loops reveal that magnetization reversal behaviors and magnetic properties are strongly depending on spacer layer thickness (x), T A and temperature. A large reduction in coercivity (H C ) was observed for the films annealed at 200 °C and correlated to relaxation of stress quenched in during the film deposition. On the other hand, the films annealed at 300 °C exhibit unusual variation of H C (T), i.e., a broad minimum in H C (T) vs T curve. This is caused by change in magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic layers having different microstructure. In addition, the broad minimum in the H C (T) curve shifts from 150 K for x=1 film to 80 K for x=4 film. High-temperature thermomagnetization data show a strong (significant) variation of Curie temperature (T C ) with T A (x). The multilayer films annealed at 200 °C exhibit low value of T C with a minimum of 350 K for x=4 film. But, the films annealed at 400 °C show largest T C with a maximum of 869 K for x=1 film. The observed results are discussed on the basis of variations in magnetic couplings between FeTaC layers, which are majorly driven by temperature, spacer layer thickness, annealing temperature and nature of interfaces. - Highlights: • Preparation and

  19. Thickness oscillations of the transport properties in n-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogacheva, E.I., E-mail: rogacheva@kpi.kharkov.ua [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, 21 Frunze Street, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Budnik, A.V.; Sipatov, A.Yu.; Nashchekina, O.N. [National Technical University “Kharkov Polytechnic Institute”, 21 Frunze Street, Kharkov 61002 (Ukraine); Fedorov, A.G. [Institute for Single Crystals of NAS of Ukraine, 60 Lenin Prospect, Kharkov 61001 (Ukraine); Dresselhaus, M.S.; Tang, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    The dependences of the electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and Hall coefficient on the thickness (d = 20–155 nm) of the n-type thin films grown on the glass substrates by the thermal evaporation in vacuum of the n-type Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} topological insulator crystals have been measured. It has been established that these dependences have an oscillatory character with a substantial amplitude. The obtained results are interpreted in terms of quantum size effects, taking into account the peculiar properties of the surface layers of the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films connected with the topological insulator nature of the bismuth telluride. - Highlights: • The thickness dependences of Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films kinetic coefficients were obtained. • The dependences have oscillatory character with a substantial undamped amplitude. • The oscillation period increases with decreasing film thickness. • The oscillations are attributed to electron confinement in the film growth direction. • It is suggested that topological surface layer affects quantum processes in films.

  20. Effects of spacer layer on growth, stress and magnetic properties of sputtered permalloy film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, S.F.; Lubitz, P.; Zheng, Y.; Edelstein, A.S.

    2004-01-01

    A microelectromechanical (MEMS) flux concentrator (J. Appl. phys. 91 (2002) 7795), is a device that will minimize 1/f noise in magnetic sensors by modulating the magnetic field at the position of the sensor. This requires high permeability and low stress permalloy (Py) films to be deposited on the MEMS flaps (J. Appl. phys. 91 (2002) 7795). Py (Ni 80 Fe 20 ) films from 100 to 560 nm thick were deposited on Si substrates using DC magnetron sputtering. The effects of deposition conditions on the grain morphology, texture, stress and magnetic properties were studied. Lower sputtering pressure changes film stress from tension to compression and increases the out of film plane texture, while higher power increases tension and texture. Neutral film stress was obtained with 100 W of sputtering power and 1.25 mTorr of Ar gas pressure. With increasing thickness, the Py film was found to develop a stripe-like domain configuration at low fields because of strong out-of-plane magnetic anisotropy. The critical thickness is around 180 nm.This may be explained by a competition between planar demagnetization fields and columnar magnetic anisotropy. Adding 5 nm of Ta or Cr layer as spacer successfully broke up the continuity of the magnetic structure and allowed us to produce high-permeability films by fabricating (Ta/Py) or (Cr/Py) multilayer films with each Py layer thinner than the critical thickness

  1. Spacer Thickness-Dependent Electron Transport Performance of Titanium Dioxide Thick Film for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda E. El-Shater

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A titanium dioxide (P25 film was deposited by cast coating as conductive photoelectrode and subsequently immersed in dye solution (N719 to fabricate the photoanode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. A plastic spacer was used as a separation and sealant layer between the photoanode and the counter electrode. The effect of the thickness of this spacer on the transfer of electrons in the liquid electrolyte of the DSSCs was studied by means of both IV curves and electrochemical impedance. Using a spacer thickness range of 20 μm to 50 μm, efficiency ranges from 3.73% to 7.22%. The highest efficiency of 7.22% was obtained with an optimal spacer thickness of 40 μm.

  2. Aggregation Strength Tuning in Difluorobenzoxadiazole-Based Polymeric Semiconductors for High-Performance Thick-Film Polymer Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Shi, Shengbin; Wang, Hang; Qiu, Fanglong; Wang, Yuxi; Tang, Yumin; Feng, Jian-Rui; Guo, Han; Cheng, Xing; Guo, Xugang

    2018-06-27

    High-performance polymer solar cells (PSCs) with thick active layers are essential for large-scale production. Polymer semiconductors exhibiting a temperature-dependent aggregation property offer great advantages toward this purpose. In this study, three difluorobenzoxadiazole (ffBX)-based donor polymers, PffBX-T, PffBX-TT, and PffBX-DTT, were synthesized, which contain thiophene (T), thieno[3,2- b]thiophene (TT), and dithieno[3,2- b:2',3'- d]thiophene (DTT) as the π-spacers, respectively. Temperature-dependent absorption spectra reveal that the aggregation strength increases in the order of PffBX-T, PffBX-TT, and PffBX-DTT as the π-spacer becomes larger. PffBX-TT with the intermediate aggregation strength enables well-controlled disorder-order transition in the casting process of blend film, thus leading to the best film morphology and the highest performance in PSCs. Thick-film PSCs with an average power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.91% and the maximum value of 9.10% are achieved using PffBX-TT:PC 71 BM active layer with a thickness of 250 nm. The neat film of PffBX-TT also shows a high hole mobility of 1.09 cm 2 V -1 s -1 in organic thin-film transistors. When PffBX-DTT and PffBX-T are incorporated into PSCs utilizing PC 71 BM acceptor, the average PCE decreases to 6.54 and 1.33%, respectively. The performance drop mainly comes from reduced short-circuit current, as a result of nonoptimal blend film morphology caused by a less well-controlled film formation process. A similar trend was also observed in nonfullerene type thick-film PSCs using IT-4F as the electron acceptor. These results show the significance of polymer aggregation strength tuning toward optimal bulk heterojunction film morphology using ffBX-based polymer model system. The study demonstrates that adjusting π-spacer is an effective method, in combination with other important approaches such as alkyl chain optimization, to generate high-performance thick-film PSCs which are critical for

  3. Quantification the Effect of the Thickness of Thin Films on their Elastic Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gacem, A.; Doghmane, A.; Hadjoub, Z

    2011-01-01

    The determination of the characteristics and properties of thin films deposited on substrates is necessary in any device application in various fields. Adequate mechanical properties are highly required for the majority of surface waves and semiconductor devices. In this context, modelling the ultrasonic-material interaction, we present results of simulation curves of acoustic signatures for multiple thin film/substrate combinations. The results obtained on several structures (Al, SiO 2 , ZnO, Cu, AlN, SiC and Cr)/(Al 2 O 3 , Si, Cu or Quartz) showed a velocity dispersion of the Rayleigh wave as a function of layer thickness. The development of a theoretical calculation model based on the acoustic behaviour of these structures has enabled us to quantify the dispersive evolution (positive and negative) density. Thus, we have established a universal relationship describing the density-thickness variation. In addition, networks of dispersion curves, representing the evolution of elasticity modulus (Young and shear), were determined. These charts can be used to extract the influence of thickness of layers on the variation of elastic constants.(author)

  4. Fabrication of tubed functionally graded material by slurry dipping process. Thickness control of dip-coated layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Ryuzo

    1997-03-01

    In order to obtain long life fuel cladding tubes for the fast breeder reactor, the concept of functionally graded material was applied for the material combination of Molybdenum/stainless steel/Titanium, in which Titanium and Molybdenum were placed at the inner and outer sides, respectively. Slurry dipping method was employed because of its capability of shape forming and microstructural control. We have hitherto reported the design criteria for the graded layers, preparation of the slurry, and microstructural control of the dip-coated layers. In the present report, the thickness control of the dip-coated layer is described in detail. The thickness of the dip-coated layer depends primarily on the viscosity of the slurry. Nevertheless, for the stable dispersion of the powder in the slurry, which dominates the microstructural homogeneity, an optimum viscosity value is present for the individual slurries. With stable slurries of Ti, Mo, stainless steel powders and their mixtures, the thicknesses of dip-coated layers were controlled in dependence of their viscosities and yield values. For Ti and stainless steel powders and their mixture a PAANa was used as a dispersing agent. A NaHMP was found to be effective for the dispersion of Mo powder and Mo/stainless steel powder mixture. For all slurries tested in the present investigation PVA addition was helpful for the viscosity control. Dip-coating maps have been drawn for the stabilization of the slurries and for the formation of films with a sufficient strength for further manipulation for the slurries with low viscosity (∼10 mPa s). The final film thickness for the low-viscosity slurry with the optimum condition was about 200 μm. The slurries with high viscosities of several hundreds mPa s had a good stability and the yield value was easy to be controlled. The film thickness was able to be adjusted in the size range between several tens and several hundreds μm. The final thickness of the graded layer was determined

  5. Engineering of nearly strain-free ZnO films on Si(1 1 1) by tuning AlN buffer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan; Galeckas, Augustinas; Lee, In-Hwan; Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu.

    2012-01-01

    ZnO properties were investigated as a function of AlN buffer layer thickness (0–100 nm) in ZnO/AlN/Si(1 1 1) structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. A significant improvement of ZnO film crystallinity by tuning AlN buffer thickness was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, topography and photoluminescence measurements. An optimal AlN buffer layer thickness of 50 nm is defined, which allows for growth of nearly strain-free ZnO films. The presence of free excitons at 10 K suggests high crystal quality for all ZnO samples grown on AlN/Si(1 1 1) templates. The intensities of neutral and ionized donor bound exciton lines are found to correlate with the in-plane and out-of-plane strain in the films, respectively.

  6. Engineering of nearly strain-free ZnO films on Si(1 1 1) by tuning AlN buffer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatachalapathy, Vishnukanthan, E-mail: vishnukanthan.venkatachalapathy@smn.uio.no [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Galeckas, Augustinas [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway); Lee, In-Hwan [School of Advanced Materials Engineering, Research Centre for Advanced Materials Development (RCAMD), Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Kuznetsov, Andrej Yu. [Department of Physics/Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, NO-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-05-15

    ZnO properties were investigated as a function of AlN buffer layer thickness (0-100 nm) in ZnO/AlN/Si(1 1 1) structures grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. A significant improvement of ZnO film crystallinity by tuning AlN buffer thickness was confirmed by x-ray diffraction, topography and photoluminescence measurements. An optimal AlN buffer layer thickness of 50 nm is defined, which allows for growth of nearly strain-free ZnO films. The presence of free excitons at 10 K suggests high crystal quality for all ZnO samples grown on AlN/Si(1 1 1) templates. The intensities of neutral and ionized donor bound exciton lines are found to correlate with the in-plane and out-of-plane strain in the films, respectively.

  7. Influence of the spacer layer on microstructure and magnetic properties of [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiriac, H. [National Institute of R and D for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Blvd., 700050 Iasi (Romania); Grigoras, M. [National Institute of R and D for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Blvd., 700050 Iasi (Romania); Urse, M. [National Institute of R and D for Technical Physics, 47 Mangeron Blvd., 700050 Iasi (Romania)]. E-mail: urse@phys-iasi.ro

    2007-09-15

    Some results concerning the influence of the composition and thickness of NbCu spacer layer on the microstructure and magnetic properties of multilayer [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn films, in view of their utilization for manufacturing the thin film permanent magnets are presented. A comparison between the microstructure and magnetic properties of NdFeB single layer and [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn multilayer is also presented. The multilayer [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn thin films with the thickness of the NdFeB layer of 180nm and the thickness of the NbCu spacer layer of 3nm, exhibit good hard magnetic characteristics such as coercive force H{sub c} of about 1510kA/m and the remanence ratio M{sub r}/M{sub s} of about 0.8.

  8. Influence of the spacer layer on microstructure and magnetic properties of [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiriac, H.; Grigoras, M.; Urse, M.

    2007-01-01

    Some results concerning the influence of the composition and thickness of NbCu spacer layer on the microstructure and magnetic properties of multilayer [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn films, in view of their utilization for manufacturing the thin film permanent magnets are presented. A comparison between the microstructure and magnetic properties of NdFeB single layer and [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn multilayer is also presented. The multilayer [NdFeB/(NbCu)]xn thin films with the thickness of the NdFeB layer of 180nm and the thickness of the NbCu spacer layer of 3nm, exhibit good hard magnetic characteristics such as coercive force H c of about 1510kA/m and the remanence ratio M r /M s of about 0.8

  9. Analysis of influence of buffer layers on microwave propagation through high-temperature superconducting thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceremuga, J.; Barton, M.; Miranda, F.

    1994-01-01

    Methods of analysis of microwave propagation through superconducting thin films with buffer layers on dielectric substrates have been discussed. Expressions describing the transmission coefficient S 21 through the structure and the complex conductivity sigma of a superconductor in an analytical form have been derived. The derived equations are valid for microwave propagation in waveguides as well as in free space with relevant definition of impedances. Using the obtained solutions, the influences of buffer layers' parameters (thickness, relative permittivity and loss tangent) on the transmission coefficient has been investigated using MATLAB. Simulations have been performed for 10 GHz transmission through YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films on sapphire with SrTiO 3 and CeO 2 buffer layers and on silicon with CaF 2 and YSZ buffer layers. To illustrate the simulations, measurements of the transmission through YBCO film on sapphire with SrTiO 3 buffer layer have been performed. It has been shown that even lossy buffer layers have very little impact (smaller than 1% in magnitude and 0.3% in phase) on the transmission coefficient through superconducting thin films, providing their thickness is below 10 mu m. (author)

  10. Leaping shampoo glides on a 500-nm-thick lubricating air layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erqiang; Lee, Sanghyun; Marston, Jeremy; Bonito, Andrea; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur

    2013-11-01

    When a stream of shampoo is fed onto a pool in one's hand, a jet can leap sideways or rebound from the liquid surface in an intriguing phenomenon known as the Kaye effect. Earlier studies have debated whether non-Newtonian effects are the underlying cause of this phenomenon, making the jet glide on top of a shear-thinning liquid layer, or whether an entrained air layer is responsible. Herein we show unambiguously that the jet slides on a lubricating air layer [Lee et al., Phys. Rev. E 87, 061001 (2013)]. We identify this layer by looking through the pool liquid and observing its rupture into fine micro-bubbles. The resulting micro-bubble sizes suggest that the thickness of this air layer is around 500 nm. This thickness estimate is also supported by the tangential deceleration of the jet during the rebounding, with the shear stress within the thin air layer sufficient for the observed deceleration. Particle tracking within the jet shows uniform velocity, with no pronounced shear, which would be required for shear-thinning effects. The role of the surfactant may primarily be to stabilize the air film.

  11. Experimental observation of the layering and wetting of multilayer liquid helium-4 films on graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, S.

    1987-01-01

    The multilayer adsorption of liquid 4 He on graphite was studied by using third sound, a substrate-induced surface wave in a superfluid film, to probe the 4 He film-vapor interface. The third-sound velocity decreases with increasing film thickness and can be used to monitor the film growth. Graphite, forms of which have large areas of atomic uniformity, is an ideal substrate for the study of film growth and layering. An annular resonator made out of graphite fibers was used for the experiments. Such a resonator avoids problems such as capillary condensation present in earlier resonance experiments with graphite foam and vapor sound interference present in time-of-flight experiments with highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG). Measurements of film growth were made between temperatures of 0.35 and 1.25 K. The third-sound resonance frequency, which is proportional to the third-sound velocity, was used to follow the film growth. Simultaneous measurements of the third-sound velocity on glass provide an independent measure of the film thickness. Results obtained show continuous film growth up to at least 25 to 30 layers on graphite. Oscillations of the third-sound velocity for low film coverages shown evidence of layering of the film

  12. Impact of thickness on the structural properties of high tin content GeSn layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, J.; Hartmann, J. M.; Gassenq, A.; Milord, L.; Pauc, N.; Reboud, V.; Calvo, V.

    2017-09-01

    We have grown various thicknesses of GeSn layers in a 200 mm industrial Reduced Pressure - Chemical Vapor Deposition cluster tool using digermane (Ge2H6) and tin tetrachloride (SnCl4). The growth pressure (100 Torr) and the F(Ge2H6)/F(SnCl4) mass-flow ratio were kept constant, and incorporation of tin in the range of 10-15% was achieved with a reduction in temperature: 325 °C for 10% to 301 °C for 15% of Sn. The layers were grown on 2.5 μm thick Ge Strain Relaxed Buffers, themselves on Si(0 0 1) substrates. We used X-ray Diffraction, Atomic Force Microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy to measure the Sn concentration, the strain state, the surface roughness and thickness as a function of growth duration. A dramatic degradation of the film was seen when the Sn concentration and layer thickness were too high resulting in rough/milky surfaces and significant Sn segregation.

  13. Soft magnetic properties of hybrid ferromagnetic films with CoFe, NiFe, and NiFeCuMo layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jong-Gu [Eastern-western Biomedical Engineering, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Do-Guwn [Dept. of Oriental Biomedical Engineering, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Jang-Roh [Dept. of Physics, Sookmyung Women' s University, Seoul 140-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Suk, E-mail: sslee@sangji.ac.kr [Dept. of Oriental Biomedical Engineering, Sangji University, Wonju 220-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-30

    Two-layered ferromagnetic alloy films (NiFe and CoFe) with intermediate NiFeCuMo soft magnetic layers of different thicknesses were investigated to understand the relationship between coercivity and magnetization process by taking into account the strength of hard-axis saturation field. The thickness dependence of H{sub EC} (easy-axis coercivity), H{sub HS} (hard-axis saturation field), and {chi} (susceptibility) of the NiFeCuMo thin films in glass/Ta(5 nm)/[CoFe or NiFe(5 nm-t/2)]/NiFeCuMo(t = 0, 4, 6, 8, 10 nm)/[CoFe or NiFe(5 nm-t/2)]/Ta(5 nm) films prepared using the ion beam deposition method was determined. The magnetic properties (H{sub EC}, H{sub HS}, and {chi}) of the ferromagnetic CoFe, NiFe three-layers with an intermediate NiFeCuMo super-soft magnetic layer were strongly dependent on the thickness of the NiFeCuMo layer.

  14. Effect of Ag film thickness on the optical and the electrical properties in CuAlO2/Ag/CuAlO2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Dohyun; No, Young Soo; Kim, Su Youn; Cho, Woon Jo; Kwack, Kae Dal; Kim, Tae Whan

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: The CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films were grown on glass substrates using radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Effects of Ag film thickness on the optical and the electrical properties in CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates were investigated. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the phase of the CuAlO 2 layer was amorphous. Atomic force microscopy images showed that Ag films with a thickness of a few nanometers had island structures. The morphology Ag films with a thickness of 8 nm was uniform. The morphology of the Ag films inserted in the CuAlO 2 films significantly affected the optical transmittance and the resistivity of the CuAlO 2 films deposited on glass substrates. The maximum transmittance of the CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films with a thickness of 8 nm was 89.16%. The resistivity of the CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films with an Ag film thickness of 18 nm was as small as about 2.8 x 10 -5 Ω cm. The resistivity of the CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films was decreased as a result of the thermal annealing treatment. These results indicate that CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates hold promise for potential applications as TCO films in solar cells. - Abstract: Effects of Ag film thickness on the optical and the electrical properties in CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates were investigated. Atomic force microscopy images showed that Ag films with a thickness of a few nanometers had island structures. X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the phase of the CuAlO 2 layer was amorphous. The resistivity of the 40 nm-CuAlO 2 /18 nm-Ag/40 nm-CuAlO 2 multilayer films was 2.8 x 10 -5 Ω cm, and the transmittance of the multilayer films with an Ag film thickness of 8 nm was approximately 89.16%. These results indicate that CuAlO 2 /Ag/CuAlO 2 multilayer films grown on glass substrates hold promise for potential applications as

  15. Characteristics of gravure printed InGaZnO thin films as an active channel layer in thin film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yuri; Kim, Gun Hee; Jeong, Woong Hee; Kim, Hyun Jae; Chin, Byung Doo; Yu, Jae-Woong

    2010-01-01

    Characteristics of oxide semiconductor thin film transistor prepared by gravure printing technique were studied. This device had inverted staggered structure of glass substrate/MoW/SiNx/ printed active layer. The active layer was printed with precursor of indium gallium zinc oxide solution and then annealed at 550 o C for 2 h. Influences of printing parameters (i.e. speed and force) were studied. As the gravure printing force was increased, the thickness of printed film was decreased and the refractive index of printed active layer was increased. The best printed result in our study was obtained with printing speed of 0.4 m/s, printing force of 400 N and the thickness of printed active layer was 45 nm. According to AFM image, surface of printed active layer was quite smooth and the root-mean square roughness was approximately 0.5 nm. Gravure printed active layer had a field-effect mobility of 0.81 cm 2 /Vs and an on-off current ratio was 1.36 x 10 6 .

  16. Thick epitaxial CdTe films grown by close space sublimation on Ge substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Q; Haliday, D P; Tanner, B K; Brinkman, A W [Department of Physics, University of Durham. Science Site, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Cantwell, B J; Mullins, J T; Basu, A [Durham Scientific Crystals Ltd., NetPark, Thomas Wright Way, Sedgefield, County Durham, TS21 3FD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Q.Z.Jiang@durham.ac.uk

    2009-01-07

    This paper reports, for the first time, the successful growth of 200 {mu}m thick CdTe films on mis-oriented Ge(1 0 0) substrates by a cost-effective optimized close space sublimation method. It is found that, as the thickness increases to a few hundred micrometres, subgrains are formed probably as a result of the large density of dislocations and strain within the initial interfacial layers. The films are of high quality (x-ray rocking curve width {approx}100 arcsec) and high resistance ({approx}10{sup 9} {omega} cm), and are thus candidates for x-ray and {gamma}-ray detectors. (fast track communication)

  17. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55 degrees C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30 degrees C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 μm ± 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 μm ± 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96 degrees C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600 degrees C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values

  18. Enhanced photocurrent density in graphene/Si based solar cell (GSSC) by optimizing active layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad; Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Syuhada, Ibnu; Winata, Toto

    2015-01-01

    Thickness dependent photocurrent density in active layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been investigated via analytical – simulation study. This report is a preliminary comparison of experimental and analytical investigation of graphene/Si based solar cell. Graphene sheet was interfaced with Si thin film forming heterojunction solar cell that was treated as a device model for photocurrent generator. Such current can be enhanced by optimizing active layer thickness and involving metal oxide as supporting layer to shift photons absorption. In this case there are two type of devices model with and without TiO 2 in which the silicon thickness varied at 20 – 100 nm. All of them have examined and also compared with each other to obtain an optimum value. From this calculation it found that generated currents almost linear with thickness but there are saturated conditions that no more enhancements will be achieved. Furthermore TiO 2 layer is effectively increases photon absorption but reducing device stability, maximum current is fluctuates enough. This may caused by the disturbance of excitons diffusion and resistivity inside each layer. Finally by controlling active layer thickness, it is quite useful to estimate optimization in order to develop the next solar cell devices

  19. Enhanced photocurrent density in graphene/Si based solar cell (GSSC) by optimizing active layer thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosikhin, Ahmad, E-mail: a.rosikhin86@yahoo.co.id; Hidayat, Aulia Fikri; Syuhada, Ibnu; Winata, Toto, E-mail: toto@fi.itb.ac.id [Department of physics, physics of electronic materials research division Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Jawa Barat – Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Thickness dependent photocurrent density in active layer of graphene/Si based solar cell has been investigated via analytical – simulation study. This report is a preliminary comparison of experimental and analytical investigation of graphene/Si based solar cell. Graphene sheet was interfaced with Si thin film forming heterojunction solar cell that was treated as a device model for photocurrent generator. Such current can be enhanced by optimizing active layer thickness and involving metal oxide as supporting layer to shift photons absorption. In this case there are two type of devices model with and without TiO{sub 2} in which the silicon thickness varied at 20 – 100 nm. All of them have examined and also compared with each other to obtain an optimum value. From this calculation it found that generated currents almost linear with thickness but there are saturated conditions that no more enhancements will be achieved. Furthermore TiO{sub 2} layer is effectively increases photon absorption but reducing device stability, maximum current is fluctuates enough. This may caused by the disturbance of excitons diffusion and resistivity inside each layer. Finally by controlling active layer thickness, it is quite useful to estimate optimization in order to develop the next solar cell devices.

  20. Electroplating moulds using dry film thick negative photoresist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukharenka, E.; Farooqui, M. M.; Grigore, L.; Kraft, M.; Hollinshead, N.

    2003-07-01

    This paper reports on progress on the feasibility of fabricating moulds for electroplating using Ordyl P-50100 (negative) acrylate polymer based dry film photoresist, commercially available from Elga Europe (http://www.elgaeurope.it). We used this photoresist as an alternative to SU8 negative epoxy based photoresist, which is very difficult to process and remove after electroplating (Lorenz et al 1998 Microelectron. Eng. 41/42 371-4, Eyre et al 1998 Proc. MEMS'98 (Heidelberg) (Piscataway, NJ: IEEE) pp 218-22). Ordyl P-50100 is easy to work with and can be easily removed after processing. A single layer of Ordyl P-50100 was deposited by lamination up to 20 µm thickness. Thicker layers (200 µm and more) can be achieved with multilayer lamination using a manual laminator. For our applications we found that Ordyl P-50100 dry film photoresist is a very good alternative to SU8 for the realization of 100 µm high moulds. The results presented will open up new possibilities for low-cost LIGA-type processes for MEMS applications.

  1. Chitosan-Sodium Phytate Films with a Strong Water Barrier and Antimicrobial Properties Produced via One-Step-Consecutive-Stripping and Layer-by-Layer-Casting Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Xiong, Liu; Li, Man; Sun, Qingjie

    2018-06-20

    The pursuit of sustainable functional materials requires the development of materials based on renewable resources and efficient fabrication methods. Here, we first fabricated chitosan-sodium phytate films via one-step-stripping and layer-by-layer-casting technologies. The proposed film-fabrication methods are general, facile, environmentally benign, cost-effective, and easy to scale up. The resultant one-step-stripped film was thin (9 ± 1 μm), soft, transparent, and strong, whereas the thickness of the layer-by-layer-cast film was 70 ± 3 μm. FTIR analysis of the films indicated the formation of interactions between the phosphoric groups in sodium phytate and the amino groups in chitosan. More importantly, the water-vapor-permeability values of the one-step-stripped and cast films were 4-5 orders of magnitude lower than chitosan films reported before. Layer-by-layer-cast films in particular exhibited high tensile strength (49.21 ± 1.12 MPa) and were more than three times stronger than other polyelectrolyte multilayer films. Both types of films remained stable in an acidic environment. Furthermore, the layer-by-layer-assembled films presented greater antimicrobial activity than the stripped films. The developed chitosan-sodium phytate films can enhance several biomedical and environmental applications, such as packaging, drug delivery, diagnostics, microfluidics, and biosensing.

  2. Interferometric measurement of film thickness during bubble blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Mandracchia, B.; Ferraro, V.; Tammaro, D.; Di Maio, E.; Maffettone, P. L.; Ferraro, P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we propose digital holography in transmission configuration as an effective method to measure the time-dependent thickness of polymeric films during bubble blowing. We designed a complete set of experiments to measure bubble thickness, including the evaluation of the refractive index of the polymer solution. We report the measurement of thickness distribution along the film during the bubble formation process until the bubble`s rupture. Based on those data, the variation range and variation trend of bubble film thickness are clearly measured during the process of expansion to fracture is indicated.

  3. Temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers in multilayer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India); Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Jen-Hwa [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Perumal, Alagarsamy, E-mail: perumal@iitg.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati 781039 (India)

    2016-11-15

    We report systematic investigations on temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers and resulting magnetic properties of multilayer structured [FeTaC (~67 nm)/Ta(x nm)]{sub 2}/FeTaC(~67 nm)] thin films, which are fabricated directly on thermally oxidized Si substrate. As-deposited amorphous films are post annealed at different annealing temperatures (T{sub A}=200, 300 and 400 °C). Structural analyzes reveal that the films annealed at T{sub A}≤200 °C exhibit amorphous nature, while the films annealed above 200 °C show nucleation of nanocrystals at T{sub A}=300 °C and well-defined α-Fe nanocrystals with size of about 9 nm in amorphous matrix for 400 °C annealed films. Room temperature and temperature dependent magnetic hysteresis (M–H) loops reveal that magnetization reversal behaviors and magnetic properties are strongly depending on spacer layer thickness (x), T{sub A} and temperature. A large reduction in coercivity (H{sub C}) was observed for the films annealed at 200 °C and correlated to relaxation of stress quenched in during the film deposition. On the other hand, the films annealed at 300 °C exhibit unusual variation of H{sub C}(T), i.e., a broad minimum in H{sub C}(T) vs T curve. This is caused by change in magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic layers having different microstructure. In addition, the broad minimum in the H{sub C}(T) curve shifts from 150 K for x=1 film to 80 K for x=4 film. High-temperature thermomagnetization data show a strong (significant) variation of Curie temperature (T{sub C}) with T{sub A} (x). The multilayer films annealed at 200 °C exhibit low value of T{sub C} with a minimum of 350 K for x=4 film. But, the films annealed at 400 °C show largest T{sub C} with a maximum of 869 K for x=1 film. The observed results are discussed on the basis of variations in magnetic couplings between FeTaC layers, which are majorly driven by temperature, spacer layer thickness, annealing temperature and

  4. Study of ion beam sputtered Fe/Si interfaces as a function of Si layer thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Brajpuriya, Ranjeet; Singh, Priti

    2018-01-01

    The exchange interaction in metal/semiconductor interfaces is far from being completely understood. Therefore, in this paper, we have investigated the nature of silicon on the Fe interface in the ion beam deposited Fe/Si/Fe trilayers keeping the thickness of the Fe layers fixed at 3 nm and varying the thickness of the silicon sandwich layer from 1.5 nm to 4 nm. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy techniques were used, respectively, to study the structural and morphological changes in the deposited films as a function of layer thickness. The structural studies show silicide formation at the interfaces during deposition and better crystalline structure of Fe layers at a lower spacer layer thickness. The magnetization behavior was investigated using magneto-optical Kerr effect, which clearly shows that coupling between the ferromagnetic layers is highly influenced by the semiconductor spacer layer thickness. A strong antiferromagnetic coupling was observed for a value of tSi = 2.5 nm but above this value an unexpected behavior of hysteresis loop (step like) with two coercivity values is recorded. For spacer layer thickness greater than 2.5 nm, an elemental amorphous Si layer starts to appear in the spacer layer in addition to the silicide layer at the interfaces. It is observed that in the trilayer structure, Fe layers consist of various stacks, viz., Si doped Fe layers, ferromagnetic silicide layer, and nonmagnetic silicide layer at the interfaces. The two phase hysteresis loop is explained on the basis of magnetization reversal of two ferromagnetic layers, independent of each other, with different coercivities. X-ray photo electron spectroscopy technique was also used to study interfaces characteristics as a function of tSi.

  5. Development of the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO Triple-Layer Structure Films for the Application of Transparent Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun-Neng; Yang, Cheng-Fu; Wu, Chia-Ching; Chen, Yu-Hsin

    2017-02-24

    We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of amorphous IGZO/silver/amorphous IGZO (α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO) triple-layer structures that were deposited at room temperature on Eagle XG glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates through the sputtering method. Thin Ag layers with different thicknesses were inserted between two IGZO layers to form a triple-layer structure. Ag was used because of its lower absorption and resistivity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements of the triple-layer structures revealed that the thicknesses of the Ag layers ranged from 13 to 41 nm. The thickness of the Ag layer had a large effect on the electrical and optical properties of the electrodes. The optimum thickness of the Ag metal thin film could be evaluated according to the optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, and figure of merit of the electrode. This study demonstrates that the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer transparent electrode can be fabricated with low sheet resistance (4.2 Ω/□) and high optical transmittance (88.1%) at room temperature without postannealing processing on the deposited thin films.

  6. Effects of film thickness and preferred orientation on the dielectric properties of (Bi1.5Zn0.5)(Zn0.5Nb1.5)O7 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, L Z; Fu, W Y; Wang, S F; Wang, Q; Sun, Z H; Yang, H; Cheng, B L; Wang, H; Zhou, Y L

    2007-01-01

    (Bi 1.5 Zn 0.5 )(Zn 0.5 Nb 1.5 )O 7 (BZN) films with different thicknesses and preferred orientations have been fabricated on Nb doped SrTiO 3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. As the thickness increases, the permittivity increases, and the dielectric loss decreases, while the tunability only has a little variation. The asymmetric behaviour of the electric field dependent permittivity reduces gradually with the increasing thickness, which should be attributed to the decrease in the effect of the interfacial layer between the dielectric film and substrate (electrode). Furthermore, compared with the (1 0 0) oriented BZN film, BZN film with (1 1 1) preferred orientation exhibits high dielectric loss

  7. Enhanced sensitivity to dielectric function and thickness of absorbing thin films by combining total internal reflection ellipsometry with standard ellipsometry and reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizana, A.; Foldyna, M.; Stchakovsky, M.; Georges, B.; Nicolas, D.; Garcia-Caurel, E.

    2013-03-01

    High sensitivity of spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry for the characterization of thin films can strongly decrease when layers, typically metals, absorb a significant fraction of the light. In this paper, we propose a solution to overcome this drawback using total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) and exciting a surface longitudinal wave: a plasmon-polariton. As in the attenuated total reflectance technique, TIRE exploits a minimum in the intensity of reflected transversal magnetic (TM) polarized light and enhances the sensitivity of standard methods to thicknesses of absorbing films. Samples under study were stacks of three films, ZnO : Al/Ag/ZnO : Al, deposited on glass substrates. The thickness of the silver layer varied from sample to sample. We performed measurements with a UV-visible phase-modulated ellipsometer, an IR Mueller ellipsometer and a UV-NIR reflectometer. We used the variance-covariance formalism to evaluate the sensitivity of the ellipsometric data to different parameters of the optical model. Results have shown that using TIRE doubled the sensitivity to the silver layer thickness when compared with the standard ellipsometry. Moreover, the thickness of the ZnO : Al layer below the silver layer can be reliably quantified, unlike for the fit of the standard ellipsometry data, which is limited by the absorption of the silver layer.

  8. NdFeB thick films prepared by tape casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlowski, B.; Schwarzer, S.; Rahmig, A.; Toepfer, J.

    2003-01-01

    NdFeB films of thickness between 100 and 800 μm were prepared by tape casting of a slurry containing 84-95 wt% of commercial NdFeB powder (MQP-B, -Q and -S). After curing the flexible green tapes at 120 deg. C non-porous magnetic films are obtained. The remanence of the films is in the range of 350-450 mT and the coercivity is between 300 and 800 kA/m depending on the type of MQP powder used. The magnetic properties of the films are discussed in relation to film composition and type of magnetic material. For MEMS applications the thick films are magnetized with a multi-pole stripe pattern with 1 mm pole pitch. The induction at the surface of the films was measured with a Hall probe and compared to theoretical calculations. The results indicate that the films are completely magnetized regardless of the film thickness. Tape-casted NdFeB thick films are promising candidates for applications in micro-systems or actuators. Miniaturization of the magnet components is one of the key issues in the development of electromagnetic micro-systems, thus creating a need for replacement of small sintered magnets by magnetic thick film components. Other applications include encoders

  9. Excimer laser sintering of indium tin oxide nanoparticles for fabricating thin films of variable thickness on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Taesoon; Kim, Dongsik

    2015-01-01

    Technology to fabricate electrically-conducting, transparent thin-film patterns on flexible substrates has possible applications in flexible electronics. In this work, a pulsed-laser sintering process applicable to indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film fabrication on a substrate without thermal damage to the substrate was developed. A nanosecond pulsed laser was used to minimize thermal penetration into the substrate and to control the thickness of the sintered layer. ITO nanoparticles (NPs) of ~ 20 nm diameter were used to lower the process temperature by exploiting their low melting point. ITO thin film patterns were fabricated by first spin coating the NPs onto a surface, then sintering them using a KrF excimer laser. The sintered films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrical resistivity and transparency of the film were measured by varying the process parameters. A single laser pulse could generate the polycrystalline structure (average grain size ~ 200 nm), reducing the electrical resistivity of the film by a factor of ~ 1000. The sintering process led to a minimum resistivity of 1.1 × 10 −4 Ω·m without losing the transparency of the film. The thickness of the sintered layer could be varied up to 150 nm by adjusting the laser fluence. Because the estimated thermal penetration depth in the ITO film was less than 200 nm, no thermal damage was observed in the substrate. This work suggests that the proposed process, combined with various particle deposition methods, can be an effective tool to form thin-film ITO patterns on flexible substrates. - Highlights: • Excimer laser sintering can fabricate ITO thin films on flexible substrates. • The laser pulse can form a polycrystalline structure without thermal damage. • The laser sintering process can reduce the electrical resistivity substantially. • The thickness of the sintered layer can be varied effectively

  10. Excimer laser sintering of indium tin oxide nanoparticles for fabricating thin films of variable thickness on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Taesoon; Kim, Dongsik, E-mail: dskim87@postech.ac.kr

    2015-03-02

    Technology to fabricate electrically-conducting, transparent thin-film patterns on flexible substrates has possible applications in flexible electronics. In this work, a pulsed-laser sintering process applicable to indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film fabrication on a substrate without thermal damage to the substrate was developed. A nanosecond pulsed laser was used to minimize thermal penetration into the substrate and to control the thickness of the sintered layer. ITO nanoparticles (NPs) of ~ 20 nm diameter were used to lower the process temperature by exploiting their low melting point. ITO thin film patterns were fabricated by first spin coating the NPs onto a surface, then sintering them using a KrF excimer laser. The sintered films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrical resistivity and transparency of the film were measured by varying the process parameters. A single laser pulse could generate the polycrystalline structure (average grain size ~ 200 nm), reducing the electrical resistivity of the film by a factor of ~ 1000. The sintering process led to a minimum resistivity of 1.1 × 10{sup −4} Ω·m without losing the transparency of the film. The thickness of the sintered layer could be varied up to 150 nm by adjusting the laser fluence. Because the estimated thermal penetration depth in the ITO film was less than 200 nm, no thermal damage was observed in the substrate. This work suggests that the proposed process, combined with various particle deposition methods, can be an effective tool to form thin-film ITO patterns on flexible substrates. - Highlights: • Excimer laser sintering can fabricate ITO thin films on flexible substrates. • The laser pulse can form a polycrystalline structure without thermal damage. • The laser sintering process can reduce the electrical resistivity substantially. • The thickness of the sintered layer can be varied effectively.

  11. Effect of diffraction and film-thickness gradients on wafer-curvature measurements of thin-film stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breiland, W.G.; Lee, S.R.; Koleske, D.D.

    2004-01-01

    When optical measurements of wafer curvature are used to determine thin-film stress, the laser beams that probe the sample are usually assumed to reflect specularly from the curved surface of the film and substrate. Yet, real films are not uniformly thick, and unintended thickness gradients produce optical diffraction effects that steer the laser away from the ideal specular condition. As a result, the deflection of the laser in wafer-curvature measurements is actually sensitive to both the film stress and the film-thickness gradient. We present a Fresnel-Kirchhoff optical diffraction model of wafer-curvature measurements that provides a unified description of these combined effects. The model accurately simulates real-time wafer-curvature measurements of nonuniform GaN films grown on sapphire substrates by vapor-phase epitaxy. During thin-film growth, thickness gradients cause the reflected beam to oscillate asymmetrically about the ideal position defined by the stress-induced wafer curvature. This oscillating deflection has the same periodicity as the reflectance of the growing film, and the deflection amplitude is a function of the film-thickness gradient, the mean film thickness, the wavelength distribution of the light source, the illuminated spot size, and the refractive indices of the film and substrate. For typical GaN films grown on sapphire, misinterpretation of these gradient-induced oscillations can cause stress-measurement errors that approach 10% of the stress-thickness product; much greater errors occur in highly nonuniform films. Only transparent films can exhibit substantial gradient-induced deflections; strongly absorbing films are immune

  12. The measurement of conductivity of copper indium disulphide thin films against temperature and thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yussof Wahab; Roslinda Zainal; Samsudi Sakrani

    1996-01-01

    Ternary semiconductor copper indium disulphide (CuInS sub 2) thin films have been prepared by thermal evaporation. Three stacked layers of film starting with copper, indium and finally sulphur was deposited on glass substrate in the thickness ratio of 1: 1: I0. The films were then annealed in carbon block by method known as encapsulated sulphurization at 350 degree C for 4 hours. The XRD analysis for four samples of thickness of 449.5, 586, 612 and 654 nm showed that stoichiometric CuInS sub 2, were formed at this annealing condition. The electrical conductivity of CuInS sub 2 thin films were measured against temperature from 150K to 300K. The conductivity values were between 76.6 Sm sup -1 to 631.26 Sm sup -1 and the result showed that it increase exponentially with temperature for the above temperature range. The resulting activation energies were found to be in the range 0.05 to 0.08 eV. This suggested that hopping mechanism predominant to the conducting process. It also found that the conductivity decreased with increasing film thickness

  13. Advantages of PZT thick film for MEMS sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Lou-Moller, R.; Hansen, K.

    2010-01-01

    For all MEMS devices a high coupling between the mechanical and electrical domain is desired. Figures of merit describing the coupling are important for comparing different piezoelectric materials. The existing figures of merit are discussed and a new figure of merit is introduced for a fair comp....... Improved figure of merit is reached in the piezoelectric PZT thick film, TF2100CIP, by using cold isostatic pressure in the PZT preparation process. The porosity of TF2100 is decreased 38%, hence, allowing an increase of charge sensitivity for MEMS sensors of 59%....... thin film and PZT thick film. It is shown that MEMS sensors with the PZT thick film TF2100 from InSensor A/S have potential for significant higher voltage sensitivities compared to PZT thin film base MEMS sensors when the total thickness of the MEMS cantilever, beam, bridge or membrane is high...

  14. Film Thickness Formation in Nanoscale due to Effects of Elastohydrodynamic, Electrostatic and Surface force of Solvation and Van der Waals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Abd Al-Samieh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of oil film with a thickness in the nanoscale is discussed in this paper. A polar lubricant of propylene carbonate is used as the intervening liquid between contiguous bodies in concentrated contacts. A pressure caused by the hydrodynamic viscous action in addition to double layer electrostatic force, Van der Waals inter-molecular forces, and solvation pressure due to inter-surface forces is considered in calculating the ultrathin lubricating films. The numerical solution has been carried out, using the Newton-Raphson iteration technique, applied for the convergence of the hydrodynamic pressure. The results show that, at separations beyond about five molecular diameters of the intervening liquid, the formation of a lubricant film thickness is governed by combined effects of viscous action and surface force of an attractive Van der Waals force and a repulsive double layer force. At smaller separations below about five molecular diameters of the intervening liquid, the effect of solvation force is dominant in determining the oil film thickness

  15. Growth of thick La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} buffer layers for coated conductors by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin, E-mail: xzhang@my.swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Electrical Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhao, Yong, E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Xia, Yudong [State Key Lab of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Guo, Chunsheng [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, 2052 NSW (Australia); Zhang, Yong [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains, Ministry of Education of China, Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhang, Han [Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • We develops a low-cost and high-efficient technology of fabricating LZO buffer layers. • Sufficient thickness LZO buffer layers have been obtained on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate. • Highly biaxially textured YBCO thin film has been deposited on LZO/NiW. - Abstract: La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} (LZO) epitaxial films have been deposited on LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) (1 0 0) single-crystal surface and bi-axially textured NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate by polymer-assisted chemical solution deposition, and afterwards studied with XRD, SEM and AFM approaches. Highly in-plane and out-of-plane oriented, dense, smooth, crack free and with a sufficient thickness (>240 nm) LZO buffer layers have been obtained on LAO (1 0 0) single-crystal surface; The films deposited on NiW (2 0 0) alloy substrate are also found with high degree in-plane and out-of-plane texturing, good density with pin-hole-free, micro-crack-free nature and a thickness of 300 nm. Highly epitaxial 500 nm thick YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7−x} (YBCO) thin film exhibits the self-field critical current density (Jc) reached 1.3 MA/cm{sup 2} at 77 K .These results demonstrate the LZO epi-films obtained with current techniques have potential to be a buffer layer for REBCO coated conductors.

  16. Ultrathin ZnS and ZnO Interfacial Passivation Layers for Atomic-Layer-Deposited HfO2 Films on InP Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hyun; Joo, So Yeong; Jin, Hyun Soo; Kim, Woo-Byoung; Park, Tae Joo

    2016-08-17

    Ultrathin ZnS and ZnO films grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were employed as interfacial passivation layers (IPLs) for HfO2 films on InP substrates. The interfacial layer growth during the ALD of the HfO2 film was effectively suppressed by the IPLs, resulting in the decrease of electrical thickness, hysteresis, and interface state density. Compared with the ZnO IPL, the ZnS IPL was more effective in reducing the interface state density near the valence band edge. The leakage current density through the film was considerably lowered by the IPLs because the film crystallization was suppressed. Especially for the film with the ZnS IPL, the leakage current density in the low-voltage region was significantly lower than that observed for the film with the ZnO IPL, because the direct tunneling current was suppressed by the higher conduction band offset of ZnS with the InP substrate.

  17. [Epidemiologic study of tear film lipid layer thickness measurement in the population of Taishitun Community in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q F; Du, X H; Su, Y D; Wang, N L; Wei, Z J; Labbé, Antoine

    2017-07-11

    Objective: To investigate the distribution of tear film lipid layer thickness (LLT) and the relationship between symptoms and signs of dry eye and tear film LLT in the population of Taishitun Community in Beijing. Methods: A cross-sectional study. From May 2016 to August 2016, three streets of Taishitun Community were randomly selected as survey districts and 540 persons were taken as investigation subjects. Every participant completed 6 items of dry eye examinations as follows: questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index, OSDI), measurement of tear film LLT, tear film break-up time (TBUT), corneal and conjunctival staining, SchirmerⅠtest and the infrared meibomian photography. According to their age, all participants were divided into four groups: junior group (analysis and multivariate Logistic regression analysis, distribution of the variables of LLT and the relationship between dry eye symptoms and LLT were studied. Results: A total of 473 residents finally participated in this study, and the response ratio was 87.6%. The values of LLT were normally distributed. The average LLT was (59.87±18.50) nm [(60.16±19.15) nm in males and (59.67±18.57) nm in females], and the comparison of LLT with different genders was not statistically significant ( t= 0.198, P= 0.843). The tear film LLT of four different age groups had statistical significance ( F= 15.092, P0.05. F= 0.538, P >0.05). In the OSDI symptom questionnaire, only blurred vision and decreased visual acuity were related to the tear film LLT ( Pfilm LLT ( P> 0.05). Conclusions: In Taishitun Community of Beijing, the values of tear film LLT had a normal distribution. The LLT was positively correlated with age, but inversely correlated with the severity of the symptoms of dry eye. There was no significant correlation between the LLT and the TBUT, SchirmerⅠtest result and meibomian gland loss rate. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 495-501) .

  18. Thickness controlled sol-gel silica films for plasmonic bio-sensing devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figus, Cristiana, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Quochi, Francesco, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Artizzu, Flavia, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Saba, Michele, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Marongiu, Daniela, E-mail: cristiana.figus@dsf.unica.it; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Fisica - University of Cagliari, S.P. Km 0.7, I-09042 Monserrato (Canada) (Italy); Floris, Francesco; Marabelli, Franco; Patrini, Maddalena; Fornasari, Lucia [Dipartimento di Fisica - University of Pavia, Via Agostino Bassi 6, I-27100 Pavia (PV) (Italy); Pellacani, Paola; Valsesia, Andrea [Plasmore S.r.l. -Via Grazia Deledda 4, I-21020 Ranco (Vatican City State, Holy See) (Italy)

    2014-10-21

    Plasmonics has recently received considerable interest due to its potentiality in many fields as well as in nanobio-technology applications. In this regard, various strategies are required for modifying the surfaces of plasmonic nanostructures and to control their optical properties in view of interesting application such as bio-sensing, We report a simple method for depositing silica layers of controlled thickness on planar plasmonic structures. Tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was used as silica precursor. The control of the silica layer thickness was obtained by optimizing the sol-gel method and dip-coating technique, in particular by properly tuning different parameters such as pH, solvent concentration, and withdrawal speed. The resulting films were characterized via atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier-transform (FT) spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Furthermore, by performing the analysis of surface plasmon resonances before and after the coating of the nanostructures, it was observed that the position of the resonance structures could be properly shifted by finely controlling the silica layer thickness. The effect of silica coating was assessed also in view of sensing applications, due to important advantages, such as surface protection of the plasmonic structure.

  19. Multiple High Voltage Pulse Stressing of Polymer Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busi Rambabu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study high voltage interactions in polymer thick film resistors, namely, polyvinyl chloride- (PVC- graphite thick film resistors, and their applications in universal trimming of these resistors. High voltages in the form of impulses for various pulse durations and with different amplitudes have been applied to polymer thick film resistors and we observed the variation of resistance of these resistors with high voltages. It has been found that the resistance of polymer thick film resistors decreases in the case of higher resistivity materials and the resistance of polymer thick film resistor increases in the case of lower resistivity materials when high voltage impulses are applied to them. It has been also found that multiple high voltage pulse (MHVP stressing can be used to trim the polymer thick film resistors either upwards or downwards.

  20. Evolution of optical constants of silicon dioxide on silicon from ultrathin films to thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Qingyuan; Zheng Yuxiang; Mao Penghui; Zhang Rongjun; Zhang Dongxu; Liu Minghui; Chen Liangyao, E-mail: yxzheng@fudan.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures, Ministry of Education, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2010-11-10

    A series of SiO{sub 2} films with thickness range 1-600 nm have been deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) substrates by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) in combination with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer substrate) was used to determine the optical constants and thicknesses of the investigated films. The refractive indices of SiO{sub 2} films thicker than 60 nm are close to those of bulk SiO{sub 2}. For the thin films deposited at the rate of {approx}1.0 nm s{sup -1}, the refractive indices increase with decreasing thickness from {approx}60 to {approx}10 nm and then drop sharply with decreasing thickness below {approx}10 nm. However, for thin films deposited at the rates of {approx}0.4 and {approx}0.2 nm s{sup -1}, the refractive indices monotonically increase with decreasing thickness below 60 nm. The optical constants of the ultrathin film depend on the morphology of the film, the stress exerted on the film, as well as the stoichiometry of the oxide film.

  1. Evolution of optical constants of silicon dioxide on silicon from ultrathin films to thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qingyuan; Zheng Yuxiang; Mao Penghui; Zhang Rongjun; Zhang Dongxu; Liu Minghui; Chen Liangyao

    2010-01-01

    A series of SiO 2 films with thickness range 1-600 nm have been deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) substrates by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) in combination with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer substrate) was used to determine the optical constants and thicknesses of the investigated films. The refractive indices of SiO 2 films thicker than 60 nm are close to those of bulk SiO 2 . For the thin films deposited at the rate of ∼1.0 nm s -1 , the refractive indices increase with decreasing thickness from ∼60 to ∼10 nm and then drop sharply with decreasing thickness below ∼10 nm. However, for thin films deposited at the rates of ∼0.4 and ∼0.2 nm s -1 , the refractive indices monotonically increase with decreasing thickness below 60 nm. The optical constants of the ultrathin film depend on the morphology of the film, the stress exerted on the film, as well as the stoichiometry of the oxide film.

  2. Use of a Soluble Anode in Electrodeposition of Thick Bismuth Telluride Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, M.; Diliberto, S.; de Vaulx, C.; Azzouz, K.; Boulanger, C.

    2014-10-01

    Integration of thermoelectric devices within an automotive heat exchanger could enable conversion of lost heat into electrical energy, contributing to improved total output from the engine. For this purpose, synthesis of thick bismuth telluride (Bi2Te3) films is required. Bismuth telluride has been produced by an electrochemical method in nitric acid with a sacrificial bismuth telluride anode as the source of cations. The binary layer grows on the working electrode while the counter-electrode, a Bi2Te3 disk obtained by high frequency melting, is oxidized to BiIII and TeIV. This process leads to auto-regeneration of the solution without modification of its composition. The thickness of films deposited by use of the Bi2Te3 anode was approximately 10 times that without. To demonstrate the utility of a soluble anode in electrochemical deposition, we report characterization of the composition and morphology of the films obtained under different experimental conditions. Perfectly dense and regular Bi2Te3 films (˜400 μm) with low internal stress and uniform composition across the cross-section were prepared. Their thermoelectric properties were assessed.

  3. Characterization of Films with Thickness Less than 10 nm by Sensitivity-Enhanced Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muraoka Mikio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We present a method for characterizing ultrathin films using sensitivity-enhanced atomic force acoustic microscopy, where a concentrated-mass cantilever having a flat tip was used as a sensitive oscillator. Evaluation was aimed at 6-nm-thick and 10-nm-thick diamond-like carbon (DLC films deposited, using different methods, on a hard disk for the effective Young's modulus defined as E/(1 - ν2, where E is the Young's modulus, and ν is the Poisson's ratio. The resonant frequency of the cantilever was affected not only by the film's elasticity but also by the substrate even at an indentation depth of about 0.6 nm. The substrate effect was removed by employing a theoretical formula on the indentation of a layered half-space, together with a hard disk without DLC coating. The moduli of the 6-nm-thick and 10-nm-thick DLC films were 392 and 345 GPa, respectively. The error analysis showed the standard deviation less than 5% in the moduli.

  4. The effect of Ag layer thickness on the properties of WO{sub 3}/Ag/MoO{sub 3} multilayer films as anode in organic light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zadsar, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi_zadsar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fallah, Hamid Reza; Mahmoodzadeh, Morteza Haji [Physics Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Quantum Optics Research Group, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tabatabaei, Seyed Vahid [Physics Department, University of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-04-15

    Transparent conductive WO{sub 3}/Ag/MoO{sub 3} (WAM) multilayer electrodes were fabricated by thermal evaporation and the effects of Ag layer thickness on the optoelectronic and structural properties of multilayer electrode as anode in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) were investigated using different analytical methods. For Ag layers with thickness varying between 5 and 20 nm, the best WAM performances, high optical transmittance (81.7%, at around 550 nm), and low electrical sheet resistance (9.75 {Omega}/cm{sup 2}) were obtained for 15 nm thickness. Also, the WAM structure with 15 nm of Ag layer thickness has a very smooth surface with an RMS roughness of 0.37 nm, which is suitable for use as transparent conductive anode in OLEDs. The current density-voltage-luminance (J-V-L) characteristics measurement shows that the current density of WAM/PEDOT:PSS/TPD/Alq{sub 3}/LiF/Al organic diode increases with the increase in thickness of Ag and WO{sub 3}/Ag (15 nm)/MoO{sub 3} device exhibits a higher luminance intensity at lower voltage than ITO/PEDOT:PSS/TPD/Alq{sub 3}/LiF/Al control device. Furthermore, this device shows the highest power efficiency (0.31 lm/W) and current efficiency (1.2 cd/A) at the current density of 20 mA/cm{sup 2}, which is improved 58% and 41% compared with those of the ITO-based device, respectively. The lifetime of the WO{sub 3}/Ag (15 nm)/MoO{sub 3} device was measured to be 50 h at an initial luminance of 50 cd/m{sup 2}, which is five times longer than 10 h for ITO-based device. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigation of Ag thickness effect on the properties of WO{sub 3}/Ag/MoO{sub 3} films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electrical conductivity of multilayer films increases with increasing Ag thickness. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optical transmittance increases by Ag thickness and at 15 nm, reaches 81.7%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Power efficiency of WO{sub 3}/Ag (15 nm)/MoO{sub 3} based devices is higher than that of

  5. Influence of strain on the growth of thick InGaN layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellmach, J.; Leyer, M.; Pristovsek, M.; Kneissl, M.

    2008-01-01

    The growth of high quality InGaN alloys is critical for a number of various optoelectronic device applications like LEDs and laser diodes. Nevertheless, the exact growth mechanisms of InGaN with high indium content is still not fully understood. In the present study the growth of thick InGaN layers was systematically investigated. InGaN films with thicknesses between ∝35 nm and ∝200 nm were grown on GaN templates with metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE). The group III partial pressures of 1.1 Pa for TMGa, 0.45 Pa for TMIn and the V/III-ratio of 1600 were kept constant. The growth temperature was varied between 750 C and 800 C. The growth of InGaN layer was characterized by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). Up to temperatures of 790 C structural analysis by XRD showed two strained layers with different indium content. The formation of the layer structure was investigated by varying the growth times at 770 C. In the first 500 s (35 nm) a rough (rms=9 nm) and pseudomorphically strained InGaN layer with low indium content (4%) is formed. Between 500 s and 1000 s this strained layer becomes smoother (rms=3.4 nm). For thicknesses beyond the In content increases (8% at 84 nm) and reaches 11% at 200 nm. We propose that the transition from a first layer with a low indium content to a second layer with an higher indium content is due to a gradual release of strain

  6. Frequency Invariability of (Pb,La)(Zr,Ti)O₃ Antiferroelectric Thick-Film Micro-Cantilevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Kun; Jin, Xuechen; Meng, Jiang; Li, Xiao; Ren, Yifeng

    2018-05-13

    Micro-electromechanical systems comprising antiferroelectric layers can offer both actuation and transduction to integrated technologies. Micro-cantilevers based on the (Pb 0.97 La 0.02 )(Zr 0.95 Ti 0.05 )O₃ (PLZT) antiferroelectric thick film are fabricated by the micro-nano manufacturing process, to utilize the effect of phase transition induced strain and sharp phase switch of antiferroelectric materials. When micro-cantilevers made of antiferroelectric thick films were driven by sweep voltages, there were two resonant peaks corresponding to the natural frequency shift from 27.8 to 27.0 kHz, before and after phase transition. This is the compensation principle for the PLZT micro-cantilever to tune the natural frequency by the amplitude modulation of driving voltage, rather than of frequency modulation. Considering the natural frequency shift about 0.8 kHz and the frequency tuning ability about 156 Hz/V before the phase transition, this can compensate the frequency shift caused by increasing temperature by tuning only the amplitude of driving voltage, when the ultrasonic micro-transducer made of antiferroelectric thick films works for such a long period. Therefore, antiferroelectric thick films with hetero-structures incorporated into PLZT micro-cantilevers not only require a lower driving voltage (no more than 40 V) than rival bulk piezoelectric ceramics, but also exhibit better performance of frequency invariability, based on the amplitude modulation.

  7. Thin Cu film resistivity using four probe techniques: Effect of film thickness and geometrical shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sumita; Narula, Rahul; Gangopadhyay, Subhashis

    2018-05-01

    Precise measurement of electrical sheet resistance and resistivity of metallic thin Cu films may play a significant role in temperature sensing by means of resistivity changes which can further act as a safety measure of various electronic devices during their operation. Four point probes resistivity measurement is a useful approach as it successfully excludes the contact resistance between the probes and film surface of the sample. Although, the resistivity of bulk samples at a particular temperature mostly depends on its materialistic property, however, it may significantly differ in the case of thin films, where the shape and thickness of the sample can significantly influence on it. Depending on the ratio of the film thickness to probe spacing, samples are usually classified in two segments such as (i) thick films or (ii) thin films. Accordingly, the geometric correction factors G can be related to the sample resistivity r, which has been calculated here for thin Cu films of thickness up to few 100 nm. In this study, various rectangular shapes of thin Cu films have been used to determine the shape induced geometric correction factors G. An expressions for G have been obtained as a function of film thickness t versus the probe spacing s. Using these expressions, the correction factors have been plotted separately for each cases as a function of (a) film thickness for fixed linear probe spacing and (b) probe distance from the edge of the film surface for particular thickness. Finally, we compare the experimental results of thin Cu films of various rectangular geometries with the theoretical reported results.

  8. High-frequency permeability in double-layered structure of amorphous Co-Ta-Zr films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Y.; Hayakawa, M.; Hayashi, K.; Aso, K.

    1988-01-01

    The high-frequency permeability of amorphous Co-Ta-Zr films was studied and the frequency dependence was described in terms of the eddy-current-loss formula. For the double-layered structure intervened with SiO 2 film, the degradation of the permeability became apparent with the decrease of SiO 2 thickness

  9. Enhanced sensitivity to dielectric function and thickness of absorbing thin films by combining total internal reflection ellipsometry with standard ellipsometry and reflectometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lizana, A; Foldyna, M; Garcia-Caurel, E; Stchakovsky, M; Georges, B; Nicolas, D

    2013-01-01

    High sensitivity of spectroscopic ellipsometry and reflectometry for the characterization of thin films can strongly decrease when layers, typically metals, absorb a significant fraction of the light. In this paper, we propose a solution to overcome this drawback using total internal reflection ellipsometry (TIRE) and exciting a surface longitudinal wave: a plasmon-polariton. As in the attenuated total reflectance technique, TIRE exploits a minimum in the intensity of reflected transversal magnetic (TM) polarized light and enhances the sensitivity of standard methods to thicknesses of absorbing films. Samples under study were stacks of three films, ZnO : Al/Ag/ZnO : Al, deposited on glass substrates. The thickness of the silver layer varied from sample to sample. We performed measurements with a UV–visible phase-modulated ellipsometer, an IR Mueller ellipsometer and a UV–NIR reflectometer. We used the variance–covariance formalism to evaluate the sensitivity of the ellipsometric data to different parameters of the optical model. Results have shown that using TIRE doubled the sensitivity to the silver layer thickness when compared with the standard ellipsometry. Moreover, the thickness of the ZnO : Al layer below the silver layer can be reliably quantified, unlike for the fit of the standard ellipsometry data, which is limited by the absorption of the silver layer. (paper)

  10. Development of the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO Triple-Layer Structure Films for the Application of Transparent Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Neng Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the structural, optical, and electrical properties of amorphous IGZO/silver/amorphous IGZO (α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer structures that were deposited at room temperature on Eagle XG glass and flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates through the sputtering method. Thin Ag layers with different thicknesses were inserted between two IGZO layers to form a triple-layer structure. Ag was used because of its lower absorption and resistivity. Field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements of the triple-layer structures revealed that the thicknesses of the Ag layers ranged from 13 to 41 nm. The thickness of the Ag layer had a large effect on the electrical and optical properties of the electrodes. The optimum thickness of the Ag metal thin film could be evaluated according to the optical transmittance, electrical conductivity, and figure of merit of the electrode. This study demonstrates that the α-IGZO/Ag/α-IGZO triple-layer transparent electrode can be fabricated with low sheet resistance (4.2 Ω/□ and high optical transmittance (88.1% at room temperature without postannealing processing on the deposited thin films.

  11. Effects of thickness and geometric variations in the oxide gate stack on the nonvolatile memory behaviors of charge-trap memory thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Jun Yong; Kim, So-Jung; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Ryu, Min-Ki; Hwang, Chi Sun; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Device designs of charge-trap oxide memory thin-film transistors (CTM-TFTs) were investigated to enhance their nonvolatile memory performances. The first strategy was to optimize the film thicknesses of the tunneling and charge-trap (CT) layers in order to meet requirements of both higher operation speed and longer retention time. While the program speed and memory window were improved for the device with a thinner tunneling layer, a long retention time was obtained only for the device with a tunneling layer thicker than 5 nm. The carrier concentration and charge-trap densities were optimized in the 30-nm-thick CT layer. It was observed that 10-nm-thick tunneling, 30-nm-thick CT, and 50-nm-thick blocking layers were the best configuration for our proposed CTM-TFTs, where a memory on/off margin higher than 107 was obtained, and a memory margin of 6.6 × 103 was retained even after the lapse of 105 s. The second strategy was to examine the effects of the geometrical relations between the CT and active layers for the applications of memory elements embedded in circuitries. The CTM-TFTs fabricated without an overlap between the CT layer and the drain electrode showed an enhanced program speed by the reduced parasitic capacitance. The drain-bias disturbance for the memory off-state was effectively suppressed even when a higher read-out drain voltage was applied. Appropriate device design parameters, such as the film thicknesses of each component layer and the geometrical relations between them, can improve the memory performances and expand the application fields of the proposed CTM-TFTs.

  12. Bi-layer sandwich film for antibacterial catheters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Gerhard; Schamberger, Florian; Zare, Hamideh Heidari; Bröskamp, Sara Felicitas; Jocham, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Approximately one quarter of all nosocomial infections can be attributed to the urinary tract. The infections are supposed to be mainly caused by implantations of urethral catheters and stents. A new catheter design is introduced with the aim to lower the high number of nosocomial urethral infections. In order to avoid limitations to use, the design is first applied to conventional commercially available balloon catheters. Results: The main feature of the design is a sandwich layer on both sides of the catheter wall, which is composed of a fragmented base layer of silver capped by a thin film of poly( p -xylylene). This top layer is mainly designed to release a controlled amount of Ag + ions, which is bactericidal, but not toxic to humans. Simultaneously, the lifetime is prolonged to at least one year. The base layer is electrolessly deposited applying Tollens' reagens, the cap layer is deposited by using chemical vapor deposition. Conclusion: The three main problems of this process, electroless deposition of a fragmented silver film on the surface of an electrically insulating organic polymer, irreproducible evaporation during heating of the precursor, and exponential decrease of the layer thickness along the capillary, have been solved trough the application of a simple electrochemical reaction and two standard principles of physics: Papin's pot and the principle of Le Chatelier.

  13. Bi-layer sandwich film for antibacterial catheters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Franz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately one quarter of all nosocomial infections can be attributed to the urinary tract. The infections are supposed to be mainly caused by implantations of urethral catheters and stents. A new catheter design is introduced with the aim to lower the high number of nosocomial urethral infections. In order to avoid limitations to use, the design is first applied to conventional commercially available balloon catheters.Results: The main feature of the design is a sandwich layer on both sides of the catheter wall, which is composed of a fragmented base layer of silver capped by a thin film of poly(p-xylylene. This top layer is mainly designed to release a controlled amount of Ag+ ions, which is bactericidal, but not toxic to humans. Simultaneously, the lifetime is prolonged to at least one year. The base layer is electrolessly deposited applying Tollens’ reagens, the cap layer is deposited by using chemical vapor deposition.Conclusion: The three main problems of this process, electroless deposition of a fragmented silver film on the surface of an electrically insulating organic polymer, irreproducible evaporation during heating of the precursor, and exponential decrease of the layer thickness along the capillary, have been solved trough the application of a simple electrochemical reaction and two standard principles of physics: Papin’s pot and the principle of Le Chatelier.

  14. Influence of thickness on properties of plasticized oat starch films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melicia Cintia Galdeano

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of thickness (between 80 and 120 µm on apparent opacity, water vapor permeability and mechanical properties (tensile and puncture of oat starch films plasticized with glycerol, sorbitol, glycerol:sorbitol mixture, urea and sucrose. Films were stored under 11, 57, 76 and 90% relative humidity (RH to study the mechanical properties. It was observed that the higher the thickness, the higher was the opacity values. Films without the plasticizer were more opaque in comparison with the plasticized ones. Glycerol:sorbitol films presented increased elongation with increasing thickness at all RH. Puncture force showed a strong dependence on the film thickness, except for the films plasticized with sucrose. In general, thickness did not affect the water permeability.

  15. Effects of the thickness of NiO hole transport layer on the performance of all-inorganic quantum dot light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao Li; Dai, Hai Tao; Zhao, Jun Liang; Li, Chen; Wang, Shu Guo; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    All-inorganic quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs) have recently gained great attention owing to their high stability under oxygenic, humid environment and higher operating currents. In this work, we fabricated all-inorganic CdSe/ZnS core-shell QLEDs composed of ITO/NiO/QDs/ZnO/Al, in which NiO and ZnO thin film deposited via all-solution method were employed as hole and electron transport layer, respectively. To achieve high light emitting efficiency, the balance transport between electrons and holes play a key role. In this work, the effects of the thickness of NiO film on the performance of QLEDs were explored experimentally in details. NiO layers with various thicknesses were prepared with different rotation speeds. Experimental results showed that thinner NiO layer deposited at higher rotation speed had higher transmittance and larger band gap. Four typical NiO thickness based QLEDs were fabricated to optimize the hole transport layer. Thinner NiO layer based device performs bright emission with high current injection, which is ascribed to the reduced barrier height between hole transport layer and quantum dot. - Highlights: • All-inorganic quantum dot light emitting diodes (QLEDs) were fabricated. • Thinner NiO film can effectively enhance on–off properties of devices. • Improved performance of QLEDs is mainly attributed to energy barrier reduction

  16. Film thickness in gas-liquid two-phase flow, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekoguchi, Kotohiko; Fukano, Toru; Kawakami, Yasushi; Shimizu, Hideo.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of four rectangular obstacles inserted into a circular tube has been studied in gas-liquid two-phase flow. The obstacles are set on the inner wall of the tube, and the ratio of the opening is 0.6. The water film flows partially through the obstacles. The minimum thickness of water film was measured in relation to flow speed. The serious effect of the obstacles was seen against the formation of water film, and drainage under the obstacles and backward flow play important roles. Since water film can flow partially through the obstacles, the film in case of the rectangular obstacles in thicker than that in case of an orifice when the gas flow speed was slower than 5 m/s. However, when the gas flow speed is over 5 m/s, the film thickness was thinner. The minimum film thickness of downstream of the obstacles was almost same as that in case of no obstacle. The minimum film thickness of up stream depends on the location of measurement due to the effect of drainage. (Kato, T.)

  17. One-step aerosol synthesis of nanoparticle agglomerate films: simulation of film porosity and thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maedler, Lutz; Lall, Anshuman A; Friedlander, Sheldon K

    2006-01-01

    A method is described for designing nanoparticle agglomerate films with desired film porosity and film thickness. Nanoparticle agglomerates generated in aerosol reactors can be directly deposited on substrates to form uniform porous films in one step, a significant advance over existing technologies. The effect of agglomerate morphology and deposition mechanism on film porosity and thickness are discussed. Film porosity was calculated for a given number and size of primary particles that compose the agglomerates, and fractal dimension. Agglomerate transport was described by the Langevin equation of motion. Deposition enhancing forces such as thermophoresis are incorporated in the model. The method was validated for single spherical particles using previous theoretical studies. An S-shape film porosity dependence on the particle Peclet number typical for spherical particles was also observed for agglomerates, but films formed from agglomerates had much higher porosities than films from spherical particles. Predicted film porosities compared well with measurements reported in the literature. Film porosities increased with the number of primary particles that compose an agglomerate and higher fractal dimension agglomerates resulted in denser films. Film thickness as a function of agglomerate deposition time was calculated from the agglomerate deposition flux in the presence of thermophoresis. The calculated film thickness was in good agreement with measured literature values. Thermophoresis can be used to reduce deposition time without affecting the film porosity

  18. Thickness-dependent enhancement of damping in C o2FeAl /β -Ta thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akansel, Serkan; Kumar, Ankit; Behera, Nilamani; Husain, Sajid; Brucas, Rimantas; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Svedlindh, Peter

    2018-04-01

    In the present work C o2FeAl (CFA) thin films were deposited by ion beam sputtering on Si (100) substrates at the optimized deposition temperature of 300 °C. A series of CFA films with different thicknesses (tCFA), 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, and 20 nm, were prepared and all samples were capped with a 5-nm-thick β-Ta layer. The thickness-dependent static and dynamic properties of the films were studied by SQUID magnetometry, in-plane as well as out-of-plane broadband vector network analyzer-ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) measurements, and angle-dependent cavity FMR measurements. The saturation magnetization and the coercive field were found to be weakly thickness dependent and lie in the range 900-950 kA/m and 0.53-0.87 kA/m, respectively. The effective damping parameter (αeff) extracted from in-plane and out-of-plane FMR results reveals a 1/tCFA dependence, the values for the in-plane αeff being larger due to two-magnon scattering (TMS). The origin of the αeff thickness dependence is spin pumping into the nonmagnetic β-Ta layer and in the case of the in-plane αeff, also a thickness-dependent TMS contribution. From the out-of-plane FMR results, it was possible to disentangle the different contributions to αeff and to the extract values for the intrinsic Gilbert damping (αG) and the effective spin-mixing conductance (geff↑↓) of the CFA/ β-Ta interface, yielding αG=(1.1 ±0.2 ) ×10-3 and geff↑↓=(2.90 ±0.10 ) ×1019m-2 .

  19. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  20. Influence of Thickness on Ethanol Sensing Characteristics of Doctor-bladed Thick Film from Flame-made ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukon Phanichphant

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP using zincnaphthenate as a precursor dissolved in toluene/acetonitrile (80/20 vol%. The particleproperties were analyzed by XRD, BET, and HR-TEM. The sensing films were produced bymixing the particles into an organic paste composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose as avehicle binder and were fabricated by doctor-blade technique with various thicknesses (5,10, 15 μm. The morphology of the sensing films was analyzed by SEM and EDS analyses.The gas sensing characteristics to ethanol (25-250 ppm were evaluated as a function of filmthickness at 400°C in dry air. The relationship between thickness and ethanol sensingcharacteristics of ZnO thick film on Al2O3 substrate interdigitated with Au electrodes wereinvestigated. The effects of film thickness, as well as the cracking phenomenon, though,many cracks were observed for thicker sensing films. Crack widths increased withincreasing film thickness. The film thickness, cracking and ethanol concentration havesignificant effect on the sensing characteristics. The sensing characteristics with variousthicknesses were compared, showing the tendency of the sensitivity to ethanol decreasedwith increasing film thickness and response time. The relationship between gas sensingproperties and film thickness was discussed on the basis of diffusively and reactivity of thegases inside the oxide films. The thinnest sensing film (5 μm showed the highest sensitivityand the fastest response time (within seconds.

  1. Thickened boundary layer theory for air film drag reduction on a van body surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Cao, Lifeng; Huang, Heng

    2018-05-01

    To elucidate drag reduction mechanism on a van body surface under air film condition, a thickened boundary layer theory was proposed and a frictional resistance calculation model of the van body surface was established. The frictional resistance on the van body surface was calculated with different parameters of air film thickness. In addition, the frictional resistance of the van body surface under the air film condition was analyzed by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation and different air film states that influenced the friction resistance on the van body surface were discussed. As supported by the CFD simulation results, the thickened boundary layer theory may provide reference for practical application of air film drag reduction on a van body surface.

  2. Superhydrophobic Thin Films Fabricated by Reactive Layer-by-Layer Assembly of Azlactone-Functionalized Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Maren E; Schwartz, Sarina C; Lynn, David M

    2010-09-11

    We report an approach to the fabrication of superhydrophobic thin films that is based on the 'reactive' layer-by-layer assembly of azlactone-containing polymer multilayers. We demonstrate that films fabricated from alternating layers of the azlactone functionalized polymer poly(2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone) (PVDMA) and poly(ethyleneimine) (PEI) exhibit micro- and nanoscale surface features that result in water contact angles in excess of 150º. Our results reveal that the formation of these surface features is (i) dependent upon film thickness (i.e., the number of layers of PEI and PVDMA deposited) and (ii) that it is influenced strongly by the presence (or absence) of cyclic azlactone-functionalized oligomers that can form upon storage of the 2-vinyl-4,4-dimethylazlactone (VDMA) used to synthesize PVDMA. For example, films fabricated using polymers synthesized in the presence of these oligomers exhibited rough, textured surfaces and superhydrophobic behavior (i.e., advancing contact angles in excess of 150º). In contrast, films fabricated from PVDMA polymerized in the absence of this oligomer (e.g., using freshly distilled monomer) were smooth and only moderately hydrophobic (i.e., advancing contact angles of ~75º). The addition of authentic, independently synthesized oligomer to samples of distilled VDMA at specified and controlled concentrations permitted reproducible fabrication of superhydrophobic thin films on the surfaces of a variety of different substrates. The surfaces of these films were demonstrated to be superhydrophobic immediately after fabrication, but they became hydrophilic after exposure to water for six days. Additional experiments demonstrated that it was possible to stabilize and prolong the superhydrophobic properties of these films (e.g., advancing contact angles in excess of 150° even after complete submersion in water for at least six weeks) by exploiting the reactivity of residual azlactones to functionalize the surfaces of the films

  3. Preventing dewetting during rapid-thermal annealing of FePt films with enhanced L10 ordering by introducing Ag cap-layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, S.N.; Wu, S.C.; Liu, S.H.; Tsai, J.L.; Chen, S.K.; Chang, Y.C.; Lee, H.Y.

    2015-01-01

    High-order FePt continuous films with a strong (001) texture were fabricated on a glass substrate by introducing Ag layers and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The dewetting of the (001)-textured FePt was suppressed during RTA with high heating rates (>80 K/s). The Ag cap layers not only increased the in-plane tensile stress, but also improved the (001) anisotropy and L1 0 ordering of the FePt layers. All continuous Ag/FePt bilayer films possessed strong perpendicular anisotropies and high-ordered states irrespective of the Ag layer thickness. - Highlights: • Dewetting of (001) FePt fims were suppressed by introducing Ag cap layers. • Ag layers enhanced in-plane tensile stress, (001) texture and L1 0 ordering. • Irrespective of Ag thickness, the Ag/FePt films exhibited strong (001) texture

  4. Thickness-dependent spontaneous dewetting morphology of ultrathin Ag films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, H; Favazza, C [Department of Physics, Washington University in St Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Sachan, R; Strader, J; Kalyanaraman, R [Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Khenner, M, E-mail: ramki@utk.edu [Department of Mathematics, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY 42101 (United States)

    2010-04-16

    We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO{sub 2} under nanosecond laser melting is dependent on film thickness. For films with thickness h of 2 nm {<=} h {<=} 9.5 nm, the morphology during the intermediate stages of dewetting consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films with 11.5 nm {<=} h {<=} 20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films (Sharma and Khanna 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3463-6; Seemann et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 4925-38). Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for the intermolecular forces for Ag on SiO{sub 2}. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.

  5. A new attempt of measurement film thickness by x-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosaka, Masao; Kobayashi, Hideo

    1987-01-01

    In order to make film thickness measurements independent from the property or the structure of the film materials or the substrate, it is needed to adopt instead of directly utilizing the X-ray diffraction intensity, or attenuation information obtained from the substrate or film material, other new methods for measurement. Among the information obtained by X-ray diffraction, if intensity is excluded, others are F.W.H.M. and diffraction angle, only. If it is possible to investigate the film thickness dependency of the diffraction angle, it should be possible to measure the film thickness by diffraction angle. However, since diffraction angle has no film thickness dependency, it cannot be used directly for measurement. However, if we consider the principle of the X-ray diffractometer method, although it may be very slight, the substrate will be eccentric from the revolving center of the goniometer on account of the thickness of the film. If eccentricity occurs, this will cause changes in the diffraction angle. If we set the radius of the goniometer as R, diffraction angle θ, and the eccentricity from the revolving center of the specimen surface X, the deflection angle Δ2θ of 2θ may be expressed by Δ2θ = -2X · COSθ/R Thus, if X is caused by the film thickness, and by measuring the Δ2θ, it will be possible to measure the film thickness. As a result of the experiment, it was found that X-ray diffraction method can be used for the measurement of the film thickness of a few microns or above by utilizing the eccentricity caused by the film thickness. Especially it has the advantage of being able to measure thick films that X-rays will not penetrate, without being influenced by the chemical structure of the film or the substrates. (author)

  6. Effect of thickness on optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.S.; Gouda, M.E.; El-Shaarawy, M.G.; Salem, A.M.; Abd El-Ghany, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of film thickness on the structure and optical properties of thermally evaporated SnS film has been studied. SnS films with different thicknesses in the range 152–585 nm were deposited onto clean glass substrates at room temperature. X-ray diffraction study revealed that SnS films of thickness ≥ 283 nm are crystalline, whereas films of lower thickness exhibit poor crystalline with more amorphous background. The crystalline nature of the lower film thickness has been confirmed using transmission electron microscope and the corresponding electron diffraction pattern. The thicker film samples showed nearly stoichiometric chemical composition; however, thinner samples are deficient in S and rich in Sn. The optical property of the deposited films has been investigated in the wavelength range 350–2500 nm. The refractive index increases notably with increasing film thickness. The refractive index for the investigated film thicknesses are adequately described by the effective-single-oscillator model. The static refractive index and the static dielectric constant have been calculated. Analysis of the optical absorption coefficient revealed the presence of direct optical transition and the corresponding band gap values were found to decrease as the film thickness increases. - Highlights: ► X-ray diffraction was used to study the structure of SnS films. ► Transmission electron microscope confirms the crystalline state of SnS films. ► The refractive index increases notably with increasing the film thickness. ► The optical band gap of SnS films decreases with increasing film thickness

  7. P-type surface effects for thickness variation of 2um and 4um of n-type layer in GaN LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, N. S. A. Abdul; Wahid, M. H. A.; Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Rashid, S.; Ramli, M. M.; Shahimin, M. M.

    2017-09-01

    The internal quantum efficiency of III-Nitrides group, GaN light-emitting diode (LED) has been considerably limited due to the insufficient hole injection and this is caused by the lack of performance p-type doping and low hole mobility. The low hole mobility makes the hole less energetic, thus reduced the performance operation of GaN LED itself. The internal quantum efficiency of GaN-based LED with surface roughness (texture) can be changed by texture size, density, and thickness of GaN film or by the combined effects of surface shape and thickness of GaN film. Besides, due to lack of p-type GaN, attempts to look forward the potential of GaN LED relied on the thickness of n-type layer and surface shape of p-type GaN layer. This work investigates the characteristics of GaN LED with undoped n-GaN layer of different thickness and the surface shape of p-type layer. The LEDs performance is significantly altered by modifying the thickness and shape. Enhancement of n-GaN layer has led to the annihilation of electrical conductivity of the chip. Different surface geometry governs the emission rate extensively. Internal quantum efficiency is also predominantly affected by the geometry of n-GaN layer which subjected to the current spreading. It is recorded that the IQE droop can be minimized by varying the thickness of the active layer without amplifying the forward voltage. Optimum forward voltage (I-V), total emission rate relationship with the injected current and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) for 2,4 µm on four different surfaces of p-type layer are also reported in this paper.

  8. Advantages of using amorphous indium zinc oxide films for window layer in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warasawa, Moe [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan); Kaijo, Akira [Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., 1280 Kami-izumi, Sodegaura, 229-0293 (Japan); Sugiyama, Mutsumi, E-mail: mutsumi@rs.noda.tus.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Science, 2641 Yamazaki, Noda 278-8510 (Japan)

    2012-01-01

    The advantages of using indium zinc oxide (IZO) films instead of conventional Ga-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Ga) films for Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells are described. The electrical properties of IZO are independent of film thickness. IZO films have higher mobility (30-40 cm{sup 2}/Vs) and lower resistivity (4-5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm) compared to ZnO:Ga films deposited without intentional heating, because the number of grain boundaries in amorphous IZO films is small. The properties of a CIGS solar cell using IZO at the window layer were better than those obtained using a conventional ZnO:Ga at the window layer; moreover, the properties tended to be independent of thickness. These results indicate that use of IZO as a transparent conducting oxide layer is expected to increase the efficiency of CIGS solar cells.

  9. Ultra-Thin Atomic Layer Deposited TiN Films: Non-Linear I–V Behaviour and the Importance of Surface Passivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the electrical resistivity of atomic layer deposited TiN thin films in the thickness range 2.5-20 nm. The measurements were carried out using the circular transfer length method structures. For the films with thickness in the range of 10-20 nm, the measurements exhibited linear

  10. Investigation of the correlation between dielectric function, thickness and morphology of nano-granular ZnO very thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliot, Mickaël, E-mail: mickael.gilliot@univ-reims.fr [Laboratoire d' Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (France); Hadjadj, Aomar [Laboratoire d' Ingénierie et Sciences des Matériaux, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne (France); Martin, Jérôme [Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique, Université de Technologie de Troyes (France)

    2015-12-31

    Thin nano-granular ZnO layers were prepared using a sol–gel synthesis and spin-coating deposition process with a thickness ranging between 20 and 120 nm. The complex dielectric function (ϵ) of the ZnO film was determined from spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. Up to a critical thickness close to 60 nm, the magnitude of both the real and the imaginary parts of ϵ rapidly increases and then slowly tends to values closer to the bulk ZnO material. This trend suggests a drastic change in the film porosity at both sides of this critical thickness, due to the pre-heating and post-crystallization processes, as confirmed by additional characterization of the structure and the morphology of the ZnO films. - Highlights: • c-Axis oriented ZnO thin films were grown with different morphological states. • The morphology and structures are controlled by controlling the thickness. • The optical properties are correlated to morphological evolution. • Two growth behaviors and property evolutions are identified around a critical thickness.

  11. Universal biomimetic preparation and immobilization of layered double hydroxide films and adsorption behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Wei; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • An in situ method is developed for immobilization of nanoscale LDHs. • The universal method can be applied on multiple substrates. • The homogeneous LDHs film can be synthesis and immobilized in one step. • The LDHs film showed good adsorption performance towards anionic compounds. - Abstract: Preparation and immobilization of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) film onto multiple substrates is important and challenging in functional materials fields by date. In this work, a simple and universal polydopamine (PD)-based layer-by-layer assembly strategy was developed for the immobilization of LDHs film onto surfaces such as polypropylene chip, glass slides and metal coins. The surface of substrates was firstly modified by polydopamine functionalization, and then LDHs film was synthesized via urea method and directly immobilized on the PD layer by in situ growing strategy in one step. The PD layer as well as the final LDHs film was characterized by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction pattern and X-ray photoelectron spectra. It has been demonstrated the formation of the dense and homogeneous nanoscaled LDHs film with 400 nm thickness. Adsorption behavior of the fabricated NiAl-LDHs film toward anionic dyes and pharmaceuticals was further assessed. To demonstrate their extensive application, fast and high efficient adsorption of anionic dyes and pharmaceuticals was achieved by NiAl-LDHs-modified polypropylene centrifugal tube.

  12. Fabrication of Crack-Free Barium Titanate Thin Film with High Dielectric Constant Using Sub-Micrometric Scale Layer-by-Layer E-Jet Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junsheng Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dense and crack-free barium titanate (BaTiO3, BTO thin films with a thickness of less than 4 μm were prepared by using sub-micrometric scale, layer-by-layer electrohydrodynamic jet (E-jet deposition of the suspension ink which is composed of BTO nanopowder and BTO sol. Impacts of the jet height and line-to-line pitch of the deposition on the micro-structure of BTO thin films were investigated. Results show that crack-free BTO thin films can be prepared with 4 mm jet height and 300 μm line-to-line pitch in this work. Dielectric constant of the prepared BTO thin film was recorded as high as 2940 at 1 kHz at room temperature. Meanwhile, low dissipation factor of the BTO thin film of about 8.6% at 1 kHz was also obtained. The layer-by-layer E-jet deposition technique developed in this work has been proved to be a cost-effective, flexible and easy to control approach for the preparation of high-quality solid thin film.

  13. Layer-by-Layer Motif Architectures: Programmed Electrochemical Syntheses of Multilayer Mesoporous Metallic Films with Uniformly Sized Pores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bo; Li, Cuiling; Qian, Huayu; Hossain, Md Shahriar A; Malgras, Victor; Yamauchi, Yusuke

    2017-06-26

    Although multilayer films have been extensively reported, most compositions have been limited to non-catalytically active materials (e.g. polymers, proteins, lipids, or nucleic acids). Herein, we report the preparation of binder-free multilayer metallic mesoporous films with sufficient accessibility for high electrocatalytic activity by using a programmed electrochemical strategy. By precisely tuning the deposition potential and duration, multilayer mesoporous architectures consisting of alternating mesoporous Pd layers and mesoporous PdPt layers with controlled layer thicknesses can be synthesized within a single electrolyte, containing polymeric micelles as soft templates. This novel architecture, combining the advantages of bimetallic alloys, multilayer architectures, and mesoporous structures, exhibits high electrocatalytic activity for both the methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) and the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. High-throughput measurement of polymer film thickness using optical dyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunlan, Jaime C.; Mehrabi, Ali R.; Ly, Tien

    2005-01-01

    Optical dyes were added to polymer solutions in an effort to create a technique for high-throughput screening of dry polymer film thickness. Arrays of polystyrene films, cast from a toluene solution, containing methyl red or solvent green were used to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. Measurements of the peak visible absorbance of each film were converted to thickness using the Beer-Lambert relationship. These absorbance-based thickness calculations agreed within 10% of thickness measured using a micrometer for polystyrene films that were 10-50 µm. At these thicknesses it is believed that the absorbance values are actually more accurate. At least for this solvent-based system, thickness was shown to be accurately measured in a high-throughput manner that could potentially be applied to other equivalent systems. Similar water-based films made with poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) dyed with malachite green oxalate or congo red did not show the same level of agreement with the micrometer measurements. Extensive phase separation between polymer and dye resulted in inflated absorbance values and calculated thickness that was often more than 25% greater than that measured with the micrometer. Only at thicknesses below 15 µm could reasonable accuracy be achieved for the water-based films.

  15. Thick film magnetic nanoparticulate composites and method of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinqing (Inventor); Zhang, Yide (Inventor); Ge, Shihui (Inventor); Zhang, Zongtao (Inventor); Yan, Dajing (Inventor); Xiao, Danny T. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Thick film magnetic/insulating nanocomposite materials, with significantly reduced core loss, and their manufacture are described. The insulator coated magnetic nanocomposite comprises one or more magnetic components, and an insulating component. The magnetic component comprises nanometer scale particles (about 1 to about 100 nanometers) coated by a thin-layered insulating phase. While the intergrain interaction between the immediate neighboring magnetic nanoparticles separated by the insulating phase provides the desired soft magnetic properties, the insulating material provides high resistivity, which reduces eddy current loss.

  16. Thickness-controlled direct growth of nanographene and nanographite film on non-catalytic substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lei; Yang, Liu; Hu, Zhiting; Zhang, Jiazhen; Huang, Chunlai; Sun, Liaoxin; Wang, Lin; Wei, Dacheng; Chen, Gang; Lu, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has been broadly employed for large-scale production of high-quality graphene. However, a following transfer process to targeted substrates is needed, which is incompatible with current silicon technology. We here report a new CVD approach to form nanographene and nanographite films with accurate thickness control directly on non-catalytic substrates such as silicon dioxide and quartz at 800 °C. The growth time is as short as a few seconds. The approach includes using 9-bis(diethylamino)silylanthracene as the carbon source and an atomic layer deposition (ALD) controlling system. The structure of the formed nanographene and nanographite films were characterized using atomic force microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering, and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The nanographite film exhibits a transmittance higher than 80% at 550 nm and a sheet electrical resistance of 2000 ohms per square at room temperature. A negative temperature-dependence of the resistance of the nanographite film is also observed. Moreover, the thickness of the films can be precisely controlled via the deposition cycles using an ALD system, which promotes great application potential for optoelectronic and thermoelectronic-devices.

  17. Layer-by-layer strippable Ag multilayer films fabricated by modular assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Li, Qianqian; Song, Kai; Wang, Shihui; Chen, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Kai; Fu, Yu; Jiao, Yong-Hua; Sun, Ting; Liu, Fu-Chun; Han, En-Hou

    2014-01-21

    We have developed a new method to fabricate multilayer films, which uses prepared thin films as modular blocks and transfer as operation mode to build up multilayer structures. In order to distinguish it from the in situ fabrication manner, this method is called modular assembly in this study. On the basis of such concept, we have fabricated a multilayer film using the silver mirror film as the modular block and poly(lactic acid) as the transfer tool. Due to the special double-layer structure of the silver mirror film, the resulting multilayer film had a well-defined stratified architecture with alternate porous/compact layers. As a consequence of the distinct structure, the interaction between the adjacent layers was so weak that the multilayer film could be layer-by-layer stripped. In addition, the top layer in the film could provide an effective protection on the morphology and surface property of the underlying layers. This suggests that if the surface of the film was deteriorated, the top layer could be peeled off and the freshly exposed surface would still maintain the original function. The successful preparation of the layer-by-layer strippable silver multilayer demonstrates that modular assembly is a feasible and effective method to build up multilayer films capable of creating novel and attractive micro/nanostructures, having great potential in the fabrication of nanodevices and coatings.

  18. Adhesion-enhanced thick copper film deposition on aluminum oxide by an ion-beam-mixed Al seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Park, Jae-Won

    2012-01-01

    We report a highly-adherent 30-μm Cu conductive-path coating on an aluminum-oxide layer anodized on an aluminum-alloy substrate for a metal-printed circuit-board application. A 50-nm Al layer was first coated with an e-beam evaporative deposition method on the anodized oxide, followed by ion bombardment to mix the interfacial region. Subsequently, a Cu coating was deposited onto the mixed seed layer to the designed thickness. Adhesions of the interface were tested by using tape adhesion test, and pull-off tests and showed commercially acceptable adhesions for such thick coating layers. The ion beam mixing (IBM) plays the role of fastening the thin seed coating layer to the substrate and enhancing the adhesion of the Cu conductive path on the anodized aluminum surface.

  19. Film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films

    CERN Document Server

    Gutmann, J S; Stamm, M

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the film-thickness dependence of structure formation in ultra-thin polymer blend films prepared from solution. As a model system we used binary blends of statistical poly(styrene-co-p-bromostyrene) copolymers of different degrees of bromination. Ultra-thin-film samples differing in miscibility and film thickness were prepared via spin coating of common toluene solutions onto silicon (100) substrates. The resulting morphologies were investigated with scanning force microscopy, reflectometry and grazing-incidence scattering techniques using both X-rays and neutrons in order to obtain a picture of the sample structure at and below the sample surface. (orig.)

  20. Impact of thickness reduction of the ZnO:Al window layer on opto-electronical properties of CIGSSe solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Jan; Knipper, M.; Parisi, J.; Riedel, I. [Thin Film Photovoltaics, University of Oldenburg, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Dalibor, T.; Avellan, A. [AVANCIS GmbH and Co. KG, D-81739 Munich (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The application of highly doped transparent conducting oxides in chalcopyrite solar cells requires an optimized trade-off between optical transmission and sheet-conductivity. In this respect we studied the thickness variation of ZnO:Al films used as window layer in Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2} (CIGSSe) thin film solar cells. Thin ZnO:Al layers (200nm) on glass exhibit significantly enhanced transmission at wavelengths {lambda}<400nm while a considerable sub-bandgap absorption at {lambda}>800nm appears in thicker films which is attributed to free charge carrier absorption. The IV-characteristics of CIGSSe solar cells with d{sub ZnO:Al}=200nm exhibit a strong enhancement of the short-circuit current density J{sub SC} ({delta}J{sub SC}=3mA) as compared to samples with conventional ZnO:Al-film thickness. However, the reduced parallel (R{sub p}) and increased series (R{sub s}) resistance of samples with thin ZnO:Al-layer cause reduction of the fill factor, which has direct consequences for the series connection of cells in a CIGSSe-module. XRD-diffractograms suggest that the high R{sub s} in thin ZnO:Al is not only related to the thickness but also due to reduced (002)-texture that appears to be beneficial for lateral conductivity. By thermographic investigations we are able to directly locate the cell-regimes responsible for the decreased R{sub p}.

  1. Fused-Ring Acceptors with Asymmetric Side Chains for High-Performance Thick-Film Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shiyu; Zhang, Cai'e; Liu, Yahui; Bi, Zhaozhao; Zhang, Zhe; Xu, Xinjun; Ma, Wei; Bo, Zhishan

    2017-11-01

    A kind of new fused-ring electron acceptor, IDT-OB, bearing asymmetric side chains, is synthesized for high-efficiency thick-film organic solar cells. The introduction of asymmetric side chains can increase the solubility of acceptor molecules, enable the acceptor molecules to pack closely in a dislocated way, and form favorable phase separation when blended with PBDB-T. As expected, PBDB-T:IDT-OB-based devices exhibit high and balanced hole and electron mobility and give a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.12%. More importantly, the IDT-OB-based devices are not very sensitive to the film thickness, a PCE of 9.17% can still be obtained even the thickness of active layer is up to 210 nm. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Thickness-dependent spontaneous dewetting morphology of ultrathin Ag films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, H; Sachan, R; Strader, J; Favazza, C; Khenner, M; Kalyanaraman, R

    2010-04-16

    We show here that the morphological pathway of spontaneous dewetting of ultrathin Ag films on SiO2 under nanosecond laser melting is dependent on film thickness. For films with thickness h of 2 nm < or = h < or = 9.5 nm, the morphology during the intermediate stages of dewetting consisted of bicontinuous structures. For films with 11.5 nm < or = h < or = 20 nm, the intermediate stages consisted of regularly sized holes. Measurement of the characteristic length scales for different stages of dewetting as a function of film thickness showed a systematic increase, which is consistent with the spinodal dewetting instability over the entire thickness range investigated. This change in morphology with thickness is consistent with observations made previously for polymer films (Sharma and Khanna 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 3463-6; Seemann et al 2001 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 13 4925-38). Based on the behavior of free energy curvature that incorporates intermolecular forces, we have estimated the morphological transition thickness for the intermolecular forces for Ag on SiO2. The theory predictions agree well with observations for Ag. These results show that it is possible to form a variety of complex Ag nanomorphologies in a consistent manner, which could be useful in optical applications of Ag surfaces, such as in surface enhanced Raman sensing.

  3. Optical evidence for a self-propagating molten buried layer in germanium films upon nanosecond laser irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, F.; Chaoui, N.; Solis, J.; Armengol, J.; Afonso, C.N.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes the phase transitions occurring at the film-substrate interface of amorphous germanium films upon nanosecond laser-pulse-induced melting of the surface. Films with thickness ranging from 50 to 130 nm deposited on glass substrates were studied. Real-time reflectivity measurements with subnanosecond time resolution performed both at the air-film and film-substrate interfaces were used to obtain both surface and in-depth information of the process. In the thicker films (≥80 nm), the enthalpy released upon solidification of a shallow molten surface layer induces a thin buried liquid layer that self-propagates in-depth towards the film-substrate interface. This buried liquid layer propagates with a threshold velocity of 16±1 m/s and causes, eventually, melting at the film-substrate interface. In the thinnest film (50 nm) there is no evidence of the formation of the buried layer. The presence of the self-propagating buried layer for films thicker than 80 nm at low and intermediate laser fluences is discussed in terms of the thermal gradient in the primary melt front and the heat released upon solidification

  4. Interface feature characterization and Schottky interfacial layer confirmation of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hongchao [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China); Chongyi Zhangyuan Tungsten Industry Corporation Limited, 341300 Ganzhou (China); Tang, Ningxin; Yang, Hongzhi; Leng, Xian [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China); Zou, Jianpeng, E-mail: zoujp@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, 410083 Changsha (China)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Interfacial fusion of TiO{sub 2} nanotube film increases with annealing temperature. • Interface bonding force of the film increases with annealing temperature. • We report the forth stage of nanofibers formation in the growing mechanism. • TiO{sub 2} nanotubes grow from Schottky interface layer rather than from Ti substrate. • Schottky interface layer's thickness of 35–45 nm is half the diameter of nanotube. - Abstract: We report here characterization of the interfacial microstructure and properties of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanotube array films fabricated by anodization. Field effect scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), nanoindentation, atomic force microscopy (AFM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) were used to characterize the interface of the film. With increasing annealing temperature from 200 °C to 800 °C, the interfacial fusion between the film and the Ti substrate increased. The phase transformation of the TiO{sub 2} nanotube film from amorphous to anatase to rutile took place gradually; as the phase transformation progressed, the force needed to break the film increased. The growth of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays occurs in four stages: barrier layer formation, penetrating micropore formation, regular nanotube formation, and nanofiber formation. The TiO{sub 2} nanotubes grow from the Schottky interface layer rather than from the Ti substrate. The Schottky interface layer's thickness of 35–45 nm was identified as half the diameter of the corresponding nanotube, which shows good agreement to the Schottky interface layer growth model. The TiO{sub 2} nanotube film was amorphous and the Ti substrate was highly crystallized with many dislocation walls.

  5. Effect of sputtered lanthanum hexaboride film thickness on field emission from metallic knife edge cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirley, M. P.; Novakovic, B.; Sule, N.; Weber, M. J.; Knezevic, I.; Booske, J. H.

    2012-03-01

    We report experiments and analysis of field emission from metallic knife-edge cathodes, which are sputter-coated with thin films of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6), a low-work function material. The emission current is found to depend sensitively on the thickness of the LaB6 layer. We find that films thinner than 10 nm greatly enhance the emitted current. However, cathodes coated with a thicker layer of LaB6 are observed to emit less current than the uncoated metallic cathode. This result is unexpected due to the higher work function of the bare metal cathode. We show, based on numerical calculation of the electrostatic potential throughout the structure, that the external (LaB6/vacuum) barrier is reduced with respect to uncoated samples for both thin and thick coatings. However, this behavior is not exhibited at the internal (metal/LaB6) barrier. In thinly coated samples, electrons tunnel efficiently through both the internal and external barrier, resulting in current enhancement with respect to the uncoated case. In contrast, the thick internal barrier in thickly coated samples suppresses current below the value for uncoated samples in spite of the lowered external barrier. We argue that this coating thickness variation stems from a relatively low (no higher than 1018 cm-3) free carrier density in the sputtered polycrystalline LaB6.

  6. Nano-Hydroxyapatite Thick Film Gas Sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairnar, Rajendra S.; Mene, Ravindra U.; Munde, Shivaji G.; Mahabole, Megha P.

    2011-01-01

    In the present work pure and metal ions (Co and Fe) doped hydroxyapatite (HAp) thick films have been successfully utilized to improve the structural, morphological and gas sensing properties. Nanocrystalline HAp powder is synthesized by wet chemical precipitation route, and ion exchange process is employed for addition of Co and Fe ions in HAp matrix. Moreover, swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI) technique is used to modify the surface of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp with various ion fluence. The structural investigation of pure and metal ion exchanged HAp thick films are carried out using X-ray diffraction and the presence of functional group is observed by means FTIR spectroscopy. Furthermore, surface morphology is visualized by means of SEM and AFM analysis. CO gas sensing study is carried out for, pure and metal ions doped, HAp thick films with detail investigation on operating temperature, response/recovery time and gas uptake capacity. The surface modifications of sensor matrix by SHI enhance the gas response, response/recovery and gas uptake capacity. The significant observation is here to note that, addition of Co and Fe in HAp matrix and surface modification by SHI improves the sensing properties of HAp films drastically resulting in gas sensing at relatively lower temperatures.

  7. Temperature stability of c-axis oriented LiNbO3/SiO2/Si thin film layered structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomar, Monika; Gupta, Vinay; Mansingh, Abhai; Sreenivas, K.

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical calculations have been performed for the temperature stability of the c-axis oriented LiNbO 3 thin film layered structures on passivated silicon (SiO 2 /Si) substrate with and without a non-piezoelectric SiO 2 overlayer. The phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) have been calculated. The thicknesses of various layers have been determined for optimum SAW performance with zero TCD. The presence of a non-piezoelectric SiO 2 overlayer on LiNbO 3 film is found to significantly enhance the coupling coefficient. The optimized results reveal that a high coupling coefficient of K 2 =3.45% and a zero TCD can be obtained in the SiO 2 /LiNbO 3 /SiO 2 /Si structure with a 0.235λ thick LiNbO 3 layer sandwiched between 0.1λ thick SiO 2 layers. (author)

  8. Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krimi, Soufiene; Klier, Jens; Jonuscheit, Joachim; von Freymann, Georg; Urbansky, Ralph; Beigang, René

    2016-07-01

    In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for thickness measurements of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed method combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the paint coatings, a generalized Rouard's method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Within the framework of this work, a self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the painting process.

  9. Layer-by-layer-assembled healable antifouling films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongdong; Wu, Mingda; Li, Bochao; Ren, Kefeng; Cheng, Zhongkai; Ji, Jian; Li, Yang; Sun, Junqi

    2015-10-21

    Healable antifouling films are fabricated by the exponential layer-by-layer assembly of PEGylated branched poly(ethylenimine) and hyaluronic acid followed by post-crosslinking. The antifouling function originates from the grafted PEG and the extremely soft nature of the films. The rapid and multiple healing of damaged antifouling functions caused by cuts and scratches can be readily achieved by immersing the films in normal saline solution. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Effect of Ti seed and spacer layers on structure and magnetic properties of FeNi thin films and FeNi-based multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svalov, A.V., E-mail: andrey.svalov@ehu.es [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation); Larrañaga, A. [SGIker, Servicios Generales de Investigación, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Kurlyandskaya, G.V. [Departamento de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU), 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Department of Magnetism and Magnetic Nanomaterials, Ural Federal University, 620002 Ekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Fe{sub 19}Ni{sub 81} films and FeNi-based multilayers were prepared by magnetron sputtering. • The samples were deposited onto glass substrates at room temperature. • Ti/FeNi films exhibit good (1 1 1) texture and crystallinity. • The thick Cu seed increases the coercive force of the magnetic layer. • The thin Ti spacer restores the magnetic softness of the Cu/Ti/FeNi multilayers. - Abstract: The microstructure and magnetic properties of sputtered permalloy films and FeNi-based multilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering have been studied. X-ray diffraction measurements indicate that Ti/FeNi films exhibit good (1 1 1) texture and crystallinity. Ti/FeNi bilayers with high crystallographic quality have relatively low resistivity. The Ti seed layer does not influence the magnetic properties of FeNi film in Ti/FeNi bilayers, but the thick Cu seed layer leads to an increase of the coercive force of the magnetic layer. For the FeNi films deposited on thick Cu seed layer, the (0 1 0) and (0 0 2) diffraction peaks of hcp nickel were clearly observed. The thin Ti spacer between Cu and FeNi layers prevents the formation of the nickel phase and restores the magnetic softness of the FeNi layer in the Cu/Ti/FeNi sample. Obtained results can be important for the development of multilayer sensitive elements for giant magnetoimpedance or magnetoresistance detectors.

  11. Control of thickness uniformity and grain size in graphene films for transparent conductive electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wei; Yu Qingkai; Pei, Shin-Shem; Peng Peng; Bao Jiming; Liu Zhihong

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale and transferable graphene films grown on metal substrates by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) still hold great promise for future nanotechnology. To realize the promise, one of the key issues is to further improve the quality of graphene, e.g., uniform thickness, large grain size, and low defects. Here we grow graphene films on Cu foils by CVD at ambient pressure, and study the graphene nucleation and growth processes under different concentrations of carbon precursor. On the basis of the results, we develop a two-step ambient pressure CVD process to synthesize continuous single-layer graphene films with large grain size (up to hundreds of square micrometers). Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy characterizations confirm the film thickness and uniformity. The transferred graphene films on cover glass slips show high electrical conductivity and high optical transmittance that make them suitable as transparent conductive electrodes. The growth mechanism of CVD graphene on Cu is also discussed, and a growth model has been proposed. Our results provide important guidance toward the synthesis of high quality uniform graphene films, and could offer a great driving force for graphene based applications. (paper)

  12. Evolution of Ternary AuAgPd Nanoparticles by the Control of Temperature, Thickness, and Tri-Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Kunwar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Metallic alloy nanoparticles (NPs possess great potential to enhance the optical, electronic, chemical, and magnetic properties for various applications by the control of morphology and elemental composition. This work presents the fabrication of ternary AuAgPd alloy nanostructures on sapphire (0001 via the solid-state dewetting of sputter-deposited tri-metallic layers. Based on the systematic control of temperature, thickness, and deposition order of tri-layers, the composite AuAgPd alloy nanoparticles (NPs with various shape, size, and density are demonstrated. The metallic tri-layers exhibit various stages of dewetting based on the increasing growth temperatures between 400 and 900 °C at 15 nm tri-layer film thickness. Specifically, the nucleation of tiny voids and hillocks, void coalescence, the growth and isolated nanoparticle formation, and the shape transformation with Ag sublimation are observed. With the reduced film thickness (6 nm, tiny alloy NPs with improved structural uniformity and spatial arrangement are obtained due to enhanced dewetting. The growth trend of alloy NPs is drastically altered by changing the deposition order of metallic tri-layers. The overall evolution is governed by the surface diffusion and inter-mixing of metallic atoms, Rayleigh-like instability, surface and interface energy minimization, and equilibrium state of the system. The UV-VIS-NIR reflectance spectra reveal the formation of an absorption band and reflectance maxima at specific wavelengths based on the morphology and composition of AuAgPd alloy NPs. In addition, Raman spectra analysis shows the modulation of intensity and peak position of natural vibration modes of sapphire (0001.

  13. Self-Poling of BiFeO3 Thick Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakova, Evgeniya; Sadl, Matej; Ursic, Hana; Daniels, John; Malic, Barbara; Bencan, Andreja; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rojac, Tadej

    2016-08-03

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is difficult to pole because of the combination of its high coercive field and high electrical conductivity. This problem is particularly pronounced in thick films. The poling, however, must be performed to achieve a large macroscopic piezoelectric response. This study presents evidence of a prominent and reproducible self-poling effect in few-tens-of-micrometer-thick BiFeO3 films. Direct and converse piezoelectric measurements confirmed that the as-sintered BiFeO3 thick films yield d33 values of up to ∼20 pC/N. It was observed that a significant self-poling effect only appears in cases when the films are heated and cooled through the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition (Curie temperature TC ∼ 820 °C). These self-poled films exhibit a microstructure with randomly oriented columnar grains. The presence of a compressive strain gradient across the film thickness cooled from above the TC was experimentally confirmed and is suggested to be responsible for the self-poling effect. Finally, the macroscopic d33 response of the self-poled BiFeO3 film was characterized as a function of the driving-field frequency and amplitude.

  14. Layer-by-layer deposition of zirconium oxide films from aqueous solutions for friction reduction in silicon-based microelectromechanical system devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Junfu; Nistorica, Corina; Gory, Igor; Skidmore, George; Mantiziba, Fadziso M.; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2005-01-01

    This work reports layer-by-layer deposition of zirconium oxide on a Si surface from aqueous solutions using the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction technique. The process consists of repeated cycles of adsorption of zirconium precursors, water rinse, and hydrolysis. The film composition was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The film thickness was determined by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, by measuring the Zr atom concentration. The average deposition rate from a 0.1 M Zr(SO 4 ) 2 solution on a SiO 2 /Si surface is 0.62 nm per cycle. Increasing the acidity of the zirconium precursor solution inhibits the deposition of the zirconium oxide film. Atomic force microscopy shows that the zirconium oxide film consists of nanoparticles of 10-50 nm in the lateral dimension. The surface roughness increased with increasing number of deposition cycles. Friction measurements made with a microelectromechanical system device reveal a reduction of 45% in the friction coefficient of zirconium oxide-coated surfaces vs. uncoated surfaces in air

  15. Zirconium titanate thin film prepared by surface sol-gel process and effects of thickness on dielectric property

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, C H

    2002-01-01

    Single phase of multicomponent oxide ZrTiO sub 4 film could be prepared through surface sol-gel route simply by coating the mixture of 100mM zirconium butoxide and titanium butoxide on Pt/Ti/SiO sub 2 /Si(100) substrate, following pyrolysis at 450 .deg. C, and annealing it at 770 .deg. C. The dielectric constant of the film was reduced as the film thickness decreased due to of the interfacial effects caused by layer/electrode and a few voids inside the multilayer. However, the dielectric property was independent of applied dc bias sweeps voltage (-2 to +2 V). The dielectric constant of bulk film, 31.9, estimated using series-connected capacitor model was independent of film thickness and frequency in the measurement range, but theoretical interfacial thickness, t sub i , was dependent on the frequency. It reached a saturated t sub i value, 6.9 A, at high frequency by extraction of some capacitance component formed at low frequency range. The dielectric constant of bulk ZrTiO sub 4 pellet-shaped material was 3...

  16. Planar structured perovskite solar cells by hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition with optimized perovskite film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiangyang; Peng, Yanke; Jing, Gaoshan; Cui, Tianhong

    2018-05-01

    The thickness of perovskite absorber layer is a critical parameter to determine a planar structured perovskite solar cell’s performance. By modifying the spin coating speed and PbI2/N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solution concentration, the thickness of perovskite absorber layer was optimized to obtain high-performance solar cells. Using a PbI2/DMF solution of 1.3 mol/L, maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of a perovskite solar cell is 15.5% with a perovskite film of 413 nm at 5000 rpm, and PCE of 14.3% was also obtained for a solar cell with a perovskite film of 182 nm thick. It is derived that higher concentration of PbI2/DMF will result in better perovskite solar cells. Additionally, these perovskite solar cells are highly uniform. In 14 sets of solar cells, standard deviations of 11 sets of solar cells were less than 0.50% and the smallest standard deviation was 0.25%, which demonstrates the reliability and effectiveness of hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method.

  17. High-throughput characterization of film thickness in thin film materials libraries by digital holographic microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Yiuwai; Hofmann, Martin R; Ludwig, Alfred; Krause, Michael; Savan, Alan; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Koukourakis, Nektarios

    2011-01-01

    A high-throughput characterization technique based on digital holography for mapping film thickness in thin-film materials libraries was developed. Digital holographic microscopy is used for fully automatic measurements of the thickness of patterned films with nanometer resolution. The method has several significant advantages over conventional stylus profilometry: it is contactless and fast, substrate bending is compensated, and the experimental setup is simple. Patterned films prepared by different combinatorial thin-film approaches were characterized to investigate and demonstrate this method. The results show that this technique is valuable for the quick, reliable and high-throughput determination of the film thickness distribution in combinatorial materials research. Importantly, it can also be applied to thin films that have been structured by shadow masking.

  18. High-throughput characterization of film thickness in thin film materials libraries by digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yiu Wai; Krause, Michael; Savan, Alan; Thienhaus, Sigurd; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Hofmann, Martin R; Ludwig, Alfred

    2011-10-01

    A high-throughput characterization technique based on digital holography for mapping film thickness in thin-film materials libraries was developed. Digital holographic microscopy is used for fully automatic measurements of the thickness of patterned films with nanometer resolution. The method has several significant advantages over conventional stylus profilometry: it is contactless and fast, substrate bending is compensated, and the experimental setup is simple. Patterned films prepared by different combinatorial thin-film approaches were characterized to investigate and demonstrate this method. The results show that this technique is valuable for the quick, reliable and high-throughput determination of the film thickness distribution in combinatorial materials research. Importantly, it can also be applied to thin films that have been structured by shadow masking.

  19. Measurement of Young’s modulus and residual stress of atomic layer deposited Al2O3 and Pt thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkl, Fabian; Daus, Alwin; English, Timothy S.; Provine, J.; Feyh, Ando; Urban, Gerald; Kenny, Thomas W.

    2017-08-01

    The accurate measurement of mechanical properties of thin films is required for the design of reliable nano/micro-electromechanical devices but is increasingly challenging for thicknesses approaching a few nanometers. We apply a combination of resonant and static mechanical test structures to measure elastic constants and residual stresses of 8-27 nm thick Al2O3 and Pt layers which have been fabricated through atomic layer deposition. Young’s modulus of poly-crystalline Pt films was found to be reduced by less than 15% compared to the bulk value, whereas for amorphous Al2O3 it was reduced to about half of its bulk value. We observed no discernible dependence of the elastic constant on thickness or deposition method for Pt, but the use of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition was found to increase Young’s modulus of Al2O3 by 10% compared to a thermal atomic layer deposition. As deposited, the Al2O3 layers had an average tensile residual stress of 131 MPa. The stress was found to be higher for thinner layers and layers deposited without the help of a remote plasma. No residual stress values could be extracted for Pt due to insufficient adhesion of the film without an underlying layer to promote nucleation.

  20. Effects of thickness and annealing condition on magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta sandwiched films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wen-Feng; Zhang Min-Gang; Zhang Ke-Wei; Zhang Hai-Jie; Chai Yue-Sheng; Xu Xiao-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta sandwiched films are deposited by magnetron sputtering on Si (100) substrates, and subsequently annealed in vacuum at different temperatures for different time. It is found that both the thickness of NdFeB and Nd layer and the annealing condition can affect the magnetic properties of Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films. Interestingly, the thickness and annealing temperature show the relevant behaviors that can affect the magnetic properties of the film. The high coercivity of 24.1 kOe (1 Oe = 79.5775 A/m) and remanence ratio (remanent magnetization/saturation magnetization) of 0.94 can be obtained in a Ta/Nd(250 nm)/NdFeB(600 nm)/Nd(250 nm)/Ta film annealed for 3 min at 1023 K. In addition, the thermal stability of the film is also linked to the thickness of NdFeB and Nd layer and the annealing temperature as well. The excellent thermal stability can be achieved in a Ta/Nd(250 nm)/NdFeB(600 nm)/Nd(250 nm)/Ta film annealed at 1023 K. (paper)

  1. Sputter Deposited TiOx Thin-Films as Electron Transport Layers in Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Bomholt Jensen, Pia; Lakhotiya, Harish

    transparency and favorable energy-level alignment with many commonly used electron-acceptor materials. There are several methods available for fabricating compact TiOx thin-films for use in organic solar cells, including sol-gel solution processing, spray pyrolysis and atomic-layer deposition; however...... of around 7%, by incorporating sputter deposited TiOx thin-films as electron-transport and exciton-blocking layers. In the work, we report on the effect of different TiOx deposition temperatures and thicknesses on the organic-solar-cell device performance. Besides optical characterization, AFM and XRD...... analyses are performed to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of the films, and external quantum efficiency measurements are employed to shed further light on the device performance. Our study presents a novel method for implementation of TiOx thin-films as electron-transport layer in organic...

  2. Layer-by-Layer Nanoassembly of Copper Indium Gallium Selenium Nanoparticle Films for Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hemati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of CIGS nanoparticles interdigited with polymers have been fabricated through a cost-effective nonvacuum film deposition process called layer-by-layer (LbL nanoassembly. CIGS nanoparticles synthesized by heating copper chloride, indium chloride, gallium chloride, and selenium in oleylamine were dispersed in water, and desired surface charges were obtained through pH regulation and by coating the particles with polystyrene sulfonate (PSS. Raising the pH of the nanoparticle dispersion reduced the zeta-potential from +61 mV at pH 7 to −51 mV at pH 10.5. Coating the CIGS nanoparticles with PSS (CIGS-PSS produced a stable dispersion in water with −56.9 mV zeta-potential. Thin films of oppositely charged CIGS nanoparticles (CIGS/CIGS, CIGS nanoparticles and PSS (CIGS/PSS, and PSS-coated CIGS nanoparticles and polyethylenimine (CIGS-PSS/PEI were constructed through the LbL nanoassembly. Film thickness and resistivity of each bilayer of the films were measured, and photoelectric properties of the films were studied for solar cell applications. Solar cell devices fabricated with a 219 nm CIGS film, when illuminated by 50 W light-source, produced 0.7 V open circuit voltage and 0.3 mA/cm2 short circuit current density.

  3. Intrinsic flux pinning mechanisms in different thickness MgB2 films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available MgB2 films in four thickness (60 nm, 200nm, 600nm and 1μm have been fabricated by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition technique (HPCVD. By measuring the magnetization hysteresis loops and the resistivity, we have obtained the transport and magnetic properties of the four films. After that, the pinning mechanisms in them were discussed. Comparing the pinning behaviors in these ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, it was found that there exist different pinning types in MgB2 films of different thickness. In combination with the study of the surface morphology, cross-section and XRD results, we concluded that MgB2 films had different growth modes in different growth stages. For thin films, films grew along c axis, and grain boundaries acted as surface pinning. While for thick films, films grew along c axis at first, and then changed to a-b axis growth. As a result, the a-b axis grains acted as strong volume pinning.

  4. Thickness-dependent appearance of ferromagnetism in Pd(100) ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, S.; Sakai, T.; Urata, S.; Aihara, S.; Shinto, A.; Kageshima, H.; Sawada, M.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Sato, T.

    2014-08-01

    We report the appearance of ferromagnetism in thin films of Pd(100), which depends on film thickness in the range of 3-5 nm on SrTiO3(100) substrates. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurement shows the intrinsic nature of ferromagnetism in Pd(100) films. The spontaneous magnetization in Pd(100) films, corresponding to is 0.61μB/atom, is comparable to Ni, and it changes in an oscillatory manner depending on film thickness, where the period quantitatively agrees with the theoretical prediction based on the two-dimensional quantum well in the film. This indicates that the discrete electronic states in the quantum well shift to Fermi energy to satisfy the condition for ferromagnetism (Stoner criterion) at a specific film thickness.

  5. The effect of zinc thickness on corrosion film breakdown of Colombian galvanized steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoval-Amador, A.; E Torres Ramirez, J.; Cabrales-Villamizar, P. A.; Laverde Cataño, D.; Y Peña-Ballesteros, D.

    2017-12-01

    This work studies the corrosion behaviour of Colombian galvanized steel in solutions of chloride and sulphate ions. The effect of the thickness and exposure time on the film’s breakdown susceptibility and protectiveness of the corrosion products were studied using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The corrosion products were analysed using SEM-EDS and XRD. The samples with a higher thickness level in the zinc film (Z180) have the lowest corrosion rate. In this case, one of the products that was formed by the chemical reactions that occurred was Zinc hydroxide, which exhibits a passive behaviour as observed in the Pourbaix curves of the obtained potentials and in how the different Ph levels of the solutions worked. The sheets with the highest thickness (Z180) had the best performance, since at the end of the study they showed the least amount of damage on the surface of the zinc layer. This is because the thickness of the zinc layer favours the formation of simonkolleite, which is the corrosion product that protects the material under the conditions of the study.

  6. A „Hybrid“ Thin-Film pH Sensor with Integrated Thick-Film Reference

    OpenAIRE

    Simonis, Anette; Krings, Thomas; Lüth, Hans; Wang, Joseph; Schöning, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    A reference electrode fabricated by means of thick-film technique is deposited onto a silicon substrate and combined with a thin-film pH sensor to a “hybrid†chip system. To evaluate the suitability of this combination, first investigations were carried out. The characteristics of the thin-film pH sensor were studied towards the thick-film Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Measurements were performed in the capacitance/voltage (C/V) and constant capacitance (Concap) mode for different pH ...

  7. Low-temperature atomic layer deposition of MgO thin films on Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vangelista, S; Mantovan, R; Lamperti, A; Tallarida, G; Kutrzeba-Kotowska, B; Spiga, S; Fanciulli, M

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) films have been grown by atomic layer deposition in the wide deposition temperature window of 80–350 °C by using bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium and H 2 O precursors. MgO thin films are deposited on both HF-last Si(1 0 0) and SiO 2 /Si substrates at a constant growth rate of ∼0.12 nm cycle −1 . The structural, morphological and chemical properties of the synthesized MgO thin films are investigated by x-ray reflectivity, grazing incidence x-ray diffraction, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry and atomic force microscopy measurements. MgO layers are characterized by sharp interface with the substrate and limited surface roughness, besides good chemical uniformity and polycrystalline structure for thickness above 7 nm. C–V measurements performed on Al/MgO/Si MOS capacitors, with MgO in the 4.6–11 nm thickness range, allow determining a dielectric constant (κ) ∼ 11. Co layers are grown by chemical vapour deposition in direct contact with MgO without vacuum-break (base pressure 10 −5 –10 −6  Pa). The as-grown Co/MgO stacks show sharp interfaces and no elements interdiffusion among layers. C–V and I–V measurements have been conducted on Co/MgO/Si MOS capacitors. The dielectric properties of MgO are not influenced by the further process of Co deposition. (paper)

  8. Modulation of spin-orbit torque efficiency by thickness control of heavy metal layers in Co/Pt multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, P.; Krishnia, S.; Li, S.H.; Lew, W.S., E-mail: wensiang@ntu.edu.sg

    2017-03-15

    We investigate and quantify spin-orbit torque (SOT) strength by current induced effective in-plane magnetic fields and spin Hall angle (SHA) using AC harmonic Hall voltage measurements techniques on Ta/Pt/Co/Pt/Co/Ta thin film structures. The proposed Co/Pt thin film double stack gives property enhancement on thermal stability and perpendicular magnetization anisotropy strength over the single stack Pt/Co/Ta. In the proposed Co/Pt double stack we observed that increasing the Ta capping thickness to three times enhances the SHA in similar order, consistent with larger spin injection efficiency. Doubling the Pt spacer layer thickness reduces the SHA by nearly 1.4 times, due to partial cancellation of SOT by bottom layer Pt, negating the increase from the top Co/Pt interface. The in-plane current threshold for magnetization switching is lower with the increase of the SHA.

  9. Preventing dewetting during rapid-thermal annealing of FePt films with enhanced L1{sub 0} ordering by introducing Ag cap-layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, S.N., E-mail: pmami.hsiao@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Wu, S.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Liu, S.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Tsai, J.L., E-mail: tsaijl@dragon.nchu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan (China); Chen, S.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Chang, Y.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Lee, H.Y. [Scientific Research Division, National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu 30077, Taiwan (China)

    2015-11-15

    High-order FePt continuous films with a strong (001) texture were fabricated on a glass substrate by introducing Ag layers and rapid thermal annealing (RTA). The dewetting of the (001)-textured FePt was suppressed during RTA with high heating rates (>80 K/s). The Ag cap layers not only increased the in-plane tensile stress, but also improved the (001) anisotropy and L1{sub 0} ordering of the FePt layers. All continuous Ag/FePt bilayer films possessed strong perpendicular anisotropies and high-ordered states irrespective of the Ag layer thickness. - Highlights: • Dewetting of (001) FePt fims were suppressed by introducing Ag cap layers. • Ag layers enhanced in-plane tensile stress, (001) texture and L1{sub 0} ordering. • Irrespective of Ag thickness, the Ag/FePt films exhibited strong (001) texture.

  10. Improvement of Self-Heating of Indium Gallium Zinc Aluminum Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Using Al2O3 Barrier Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Li-Yi; Lee, Hsin-Ying; Lin, Yung-Hao; Lee, Ching-Ting

    2018-02-01

    To study the self-heating effect, aluminum oxide (Al2O3) barrier layers of various thicknesses have been inserted between the channel layer and insulator layer in bottom-gate-type indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). Each IGZAO channel layer was deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate by using a magnetron radiofrequency cosputtering system with dual targets composed of indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) and Al. The 3 s orbital of Al cation provided an extra transport pathway and widened the conduction-band bottom, thus increasing the electron mobility of the IGZAO films. The Al-O bonds were able to sustain the oxygen stability of the IGZAO films. The self-heating behavior of the resulting IGZAO TFTs was studied by Hall measurements on the IGZAO films as well as the electrical performance of the IGZAO TFTs with Al2O3 barrier layers of various thicknesses at different temperatures. IGZAO TFTs with 50-nm-thick Al2O3 barrier layer were stressed by positive gate bias stress (PGBS, at gate-source voltage V GS = 5 V and drain-source voltage V DS = 0 V); at V GS = 5 V and V DS = 10 V, the threshold voltage shifts were 0.04 V and 0.2 V, respectively, much smaller than for the other IGZAO TFTs without Al2O3 barrier layer, which shifted by 0.2 V and 1.0 V when stressed under the same conditions.

  11. Inverted organic solar cells with solvothermal synthesized vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films as efficient electron transport layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehdi Ahmadi; Sajjad Rashidi Dafeh; Samaneh Ghazanfarpour; Mohammad Khanzadeh

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of using different thicknesses of pure and vanadium-doped thin films of TiO2 as the electron transport layer in the inverted configuration of organic photovoltaic cells based on poly (3-hexylthiophene) P3HT:[6-6] phenyl-(6) butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM).1% vanadium-doped TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized via the solvothermal method.Crystalline structure,morphology,and optical properties of pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films were studied by different techniques such as x-ray diffraction,scanning electron microscopy,transmittance electron microscopy,and UV-visible transmission spectrum.The doctor blade method which is compatible with roll-2-roll printing was used for deposition of pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 thin films with thicknesses of 30 nm and 60 nm.The final results revealed that the best thickness of TiO2 thin films for our fabricated cells was 30 nm.The cell with vanadium-doped TiO2 thin film showed slightly higher power conversion efficiency and great Jsc of 10.7 mA/cm2 compared with its pure counterpart.In the cells using 60 nm pure and vanadium-doped TiO2 layers,the cell using the doped layer showed much higher efficiency.It is remarkable that the extemal quantum efficiency of vanadium-doped TiO2 thin film was better in all wavelengths.

  12. Dependences of microstructure and critical current density on the thickness of YBa2Cu3O7-x film prepared by pulsed laser deposition on buffered Ni–W tape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Da; Wang, Ying; Liu, Linfei; Li, Yijie

    2013-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−x (YBCO) films with different thicknesses were fabricated on buffered Ni–W tapes by pulsed laser deposition. The thickness dependences of microstructure and critical current density (J c ) of YBCO film were systematically investigated. The microstructure and surface morphology of YBCO film were characterized by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. And the critical current (I c ) of YBCO film was measured by the conventional four-probe method. We found that the full width at half maximum values of both omega and phi scan rocking curves, the content of a-axis oriented grain, and surface roughness of YBCO film all increased with augmenting the thickness of YBCO film. It was also found that with increasing the thickness of YBCO film from 0.3 μm to 1.5 μm, the I c of YBCO film increased from 72 A/cm to 248 A/cm and yet J c of YBCO film decreased from 2.1 × 10 6 A/cm 2 to 1.6 × 10 6 A/cm 2 . Our results indicated that the microstructure and J c of YBCO film were largely dependent on the thickness of YBCO film under the optimized deposition condition of substrate temperature. - Highlights: ► YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7−x (YBCO) films with different thicknesses were grown on metallic tapes. ► The texture and critical current were dependent on the thickness of YBCO film. ► Thickness effect was weakened by fabricating YBCO film layer by layer

  13. ALD grown nanostructured ZnO thin films: Effect of substrate temperature on thickness and energy band gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Iqbal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured ZnO thin films with high transparency have been grown on glass substrate by atomic layer deposition at various temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 300 °C. Efforts have been made to observe the effect of substrate temperature on the thickness of the deposited thin films and its consequences on the energy band gap. A remarkably high growth rate of 0.56 nm per cycle at a substrate temperature of 200 °C for ZnO thin films have been achieved. This is the maximum growth rate for ALD deposited ZnO thin films ever reported so far to the best of our knowledge. The studies of field emission scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry patterns confirm the deposition of uniform and high quality nanosturtured ZnO thin films which have a polycrystalline nature with preferential orientation along (100 plane. The thickness of the films deposited at different substrate temperatures was measured by ellipsometry and surface profiling system while the UV–visible and photoluminescence spectroscopy studies have been used to evaluate the optical properties of the respective thin films. It has been observed that the thickness of the thin film depends on the substrate temperatures which ultimately affect the optical and structural parameters of the thin films.

  14. Highly accurate thickness measurement of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krimi, Soufiene; Beigang, René; Klier, Jens; Jonuscheit, Joachim; Freymann, Georg von; Urbansky, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution, we present a highly accurate approach for thickness measurements of multi-layered automotive paints using terahertz time domain spectroscopy in reflection geometry. The proposed method combines the benefits of a model-based material parameters extraction method to calibrate the paint coatings, a generalized Rouard's method to simulate the terahertz radiation behavior within arbitrary thin films, and the robustness of a powerful evolutionary optimization algorithm to increase the sensitivity of the minimum thickness measurement limit. Within the framework of this work, a self-calibration model is introduced, which takes into consideration the real industrial challenges such as the effect of wet-on-wet spray in the painting process.

  15. Characterization of in-situ annealed sub-micron thick Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Byoung-Soo; Sung, Shi-Joon; Hwang, Dae-Kue, E-mail: dkhwang@dgist.ac.kr

    2015-09-01

    Sub-micron thick Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) thin films were deposited on Mo-coated soda-lime glass substrates under various conditions by single-stage co-evaporation. Generally, the short circuit current (J{sub sc}) decreased with the decreasing thickness of the absorber layer. However, in this study, J{sub sc} was nearly unchanged with decreasing thickness, while the open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) and fill factor (FF) decreased by 31.9 and 31.1%, respectively. We believe that the remarkable change of V{sub oc} and FF can be attributed to the difference in the total amount of injected thermal energy. Using scanning electron microscopy, we confirmed that the surface morphology becomes smooth and the grain size increased after the annealing process. In the X-ray diffraction patterns, the CIGS thin film also showed an improved crystal quality. We observed that the electric properties were improved by the in-situ annealing of CIGS thin films. The reverse saturation current density of the annealed CIGS solar cell was 100 times smaller than that of reference solar cell. Thus, sub-micron CIGS thin films annealed under a constant Se rate showed a 64.7% improvement in efficiency. - Highlights: • The effects of in-situ annealing the sub-micron CIGS film have been investigated. • The surface morphology and the grain size were improved by in-situ annealing. • The V{sub oc} and FF of the films were increased by about 30% after in-situ annealing. • In-situ annealing of sub-micron thick CIGS films can be improved an efficiency.

  16. Order in nanometer thick intergranular films at Au-sapphire interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baram, Mor [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Garofalini, Stephen H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8065 (United States); Kaplan, Wayne D., E-mail: kaplan@tx.technion.ac.il [Department of Materials Engineering, Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Au particles were equilibrated on (0 0 0 1) sapphire in the presence of anorthite. {yields} 1.2 nm thick equilibrium films (complexions) were formed at the Au-sapphire interfaces. {yields} Quantitative HRTEM was used to study the atomistic structure of the films. {yields} Structural order was observed in the 1.2 nm thick films adjacent to the sapphire crystal. {yields} This demonstrates that ordering is an intrinsic part of equilibrium intergranular films. - Abstract: In recent years extensive studies on interfaces have shown that {approx}1 nm thick intergranular films (IGF) exist at interfaces in different material systems, and that IGF can significantly affect the materials' properties. However, there is great deal of uncertainty whether such films are amorphous or partially ordered. In this study specimens were prepared from Au particles that were equilibrated on sapphire substrates in the presence of anorthite glass, leading to the formation of 1.2 nm thick IGF at the Au-sapphire interfaces. Site-specific cross-section samples were characterized using quantitative high resolution transmission electron microscopy to study the atomistic structure of the films. Order was observed in the 1.2 nm thick films adjacent to the sapphire crystal in the form of 'Ca cages', experimentally demonstrating that ordering is an intrinsic part of IGF, as predicted from molecular dynamics and diffuse interface theory.

  17. Effect of heat sink layer on ultrafast magnetization recovery of FeCo films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Y; Zhao, J Q; Zhang, Z Z; Jin, Q Y; Hu, H N; Zhou, S M

    2008-01-01

    For FeCo alloy thin films with Ag, Cu, Pt, Ta and Cr as heat sink layers, ultrafast demagnetization and recovery processes of transient magnetization have been studied by the time-resolved magneto-optical Kerr effect. For all samples, the ultrafast demagnetization process is accomplished within almost the same time interval of 500 fs, which is independent of the heat sink layer material and the pump fluence. The recovery rate of the FeCo film grown on the Si(1 0 0) substrate is enhanced with a heat sink layer. In addition, the recovery rate is found to be independent of the heat sink layer thickness; it decreases with increasing pump fluence. Among all heat sink layers, the sample with the Cr layer achieves the highest recovery rate because it has the same bcc structure as that of the FeCo layer and the small lattice mismatch. The sample with the Ta layer, has the largest damage threshold of pump fluence because of the highest melting point

  18. A method to measure the mean thickness and non-uniformity of non-uniform thin film by alpha-ray thickness gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Makoto; Watanabe, Tamaki

    1977-01-01

    The α-ray thickness gauge is used to measure non-destructively the thicknesses of thin films, and up to the present day, a thin film with uniform thickness is only taken up as the object of α-ray thickness gauge. When the thickness is determined from the displacement between the absorption curves in the presence and absence of thin film, the absorption curve must be displaced in parallel. When many uniform particles were dispersed as sample, the shape of the absorption curve was calculated as the sum of many absorption curves corresponding to the thin films with different thicknesses. By the comparison of the calculated and measured absorption curves, the number of particles, or the mean superficial density can be determined. This means the extension of thickness measurement from uniform to non-uniform films. Furthermore, these particle models being applied to non-uniform thin film, the possibility of measuring the mean thickness and non-uniformity was discussed. As the result, if the maximum difference of the thickness was more than 0.2 mg/cm 2 , the nonuniformity was considered to distinguish by the usual equipment. In this paper, an α-ray thickness gauge using the absorption curve method was treated, but one can apply this easily to an α-ray thickness gauge using α-ray energy spectra before and after the penetration of thin film. (auth.)

  19. Oxygen sensor using proton-conductor thick-film operative at room temperature. Puroton dodentai atsumaku wo mochiita joon sadogata sanso sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Norio; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Matayoshi, Naoko; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yamazoe, Noboru; Kuwata, Shigeki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka, (Japan) Niihama National College of Tech., Ehime, (Japan)

    1989-10-01

    An amperometric solid-state oxygen sensor using a proton-conductor thick-film was examined as a miniaturized and intelligent oxygen sensor operative at room temperature. The good-conditioned proton-conductor film of about 10{mu}m in thickness without holes was formed on a porous alumina substrate by spin-coating the paste containing antimonic acid and a polyvinyl alcohol binder. Using this material, the thick-film oxygen sensor was made. A limiting current, controlled by oxygen permeation through the gas-diffusion layer, was observed when an external voltage was over 1.4V. The limiting current increased linearly with an increase in oxygen partial pressure up to 1.0 atm at an external voltage of 1.6V. The 90% response time for increasing oxygen partial pressure was about 40 seconds at 30 centigrade. Moreover, it was found that the sensor could also respond to dissolved oxygen in water at room temperature. With a sensor using a hydrophobic gas-diffusion layer containing a polystyrene binder, the limiting current was linear to the dissolved oxygen concentration up to 20ppm. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Ultrafast demagnetisation dependence on film thickness: A TDDFT calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Sharma, S.

    2018-04-01

    Ferromagnetic materials when subjected to intense laser pulses leads to reduction of their magnetisation on an ultrafast scale. Here, we perform an ab-initio calculation to study the behavior of ultrafast demagnetisation as a function of film thickness for Nickel as compared to the bulk of the material. In thin films surface formation results in amplification of demagnetisation with the percentage of demagnetisation depending upon the film thickness.

  1. Highly transparent and conductive double-layer oxide thin films as anodes for organic light-emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yu; Wang Lian; Yan He; Jin Shu; Marks, Tobin J.; Li Shuyou

    2006-01-01

    Double-layer transparent conducting oxide thin film structures containing In-doped CdO (CIO) and Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO) layers were grown on glass by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition and ion-assisted deposition (IAD), respectively, and used as anodes for polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs). These films have a very low overall In content of 16 at. %. For 180-nm-thick CIO/ITO films, the sheet resistance is 5.6 Ω/□, and the average optical transmittance is 87.1% in the 400-700 nm region. The overall figure of merit (Φ=T 10 /R sheet ) of the double-layer CIO/ITO films is significantly greater than that of single-layer CIO, IAD-ITO, and commercial ITO films. CIO/ITO-based PLEDs exhibit comparable or superior device performance versus ITO-based control devices. CIO/ITO materials have a much lower sheet resistance than ITO, rendering them promising low In content electrode materials for large-area optoelectronic devices

  2. Applicability of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy as method to determine thickness and composition of stacks of metal thin films: A comparison with imaging and profilometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrielink, J.A.M.; Tiggelaar, R.M.; Gardeniers, J.G.E.; Lefferts, L.

    2012-01-01

    In this work the applicability of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) for fast, accurate and non-destructive determination of the thickness of a variety of single-layer and multi-layer metal thin films deposited on glass and silicon is investigated. Data obtained with XRF is compared with information from profilometry and images from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Whereas thickness determinations based on profilometry and cross-sectional SEM-imaging have restrictions with respect to thickness of metal stacks or hardness of the metals, XRF has no such limitations. Moreover, XRF can discriminate between sublayers in a multi-layer film, and can also be utilized for compositional analysis and density estimations. Good agreement between thickness data obtained with XRF, profilometry and SEM-images is found, under the justifiable assumption that the density of sputter-deposited and evaporated thin films is ca. 5% below that of bulk metals. Similar XRF-results are found for non-patterned areas (64 mm 2 metal) as well as lithographically patterned areas containing a series of small metal lines (total metal surface ca. 8 mm 2 ). As a consequence, it is concluded that XRF is a versatile technique for analysis, verification, control or evaluation of the thickness, density or (elemental) composition of thin metal film line-patterns, during their fabrication as well as prior or post to applications.

  3. Thick film laser induced forward transfer for deposition of thermally and mechanically sensitive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kattamis, Nicholas T.; Purnick, Priscilla E.; Weiss, Ron; Arnold, Craig B.

    2007-01-01

    Laser forward transfer processes incorporating thin absorbing films can be used to deposit robust organic and inorganic materials but the deposition of more delicate materials has remained elusive due to contamination and stress induced during the transfer process. Here, we present the approach to high resolution patterning of sensitive materials by incorporating a thick film polymer absorbing layer that is able to dissipate shock energy through mechanical deformation. Multiple mechanisms for transfer as a function of incident laser energy are observed and we show viable and contamination-free deposition of living mammalian embryonic stem cells

  4. Surface characterization of Zr/Ti/Nb tri-layered films deposited by magnetron sputtering on Si(111) and stainless steel substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallarico, Denise A.; Gobbi, Angelo L.; Filho, Pedro I. Paulin; Galtayries, Anouk; Nascente, Pedro A. P. [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Department of Materials Engineering, Via Washington Luis km 235, CEP 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory, Microfabrication Laboratory, Rua Giuseppe Maximo Scolfaro 10.000, CEP 13083-100, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Federal University of Sao Carlos, Department of Materials Engineering, Via Washington Luis km 235, CEP 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris (Chimie ParisTech), Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Surfaces, UMR CNRS 7045, F-75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Federal University of Sao Carlos, Department of Materials Engineering, Via Washington Luis km 235, CEP 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    Among metallic materials, commercially pure titanium and titanium alloys are very often used as biomaterials for implants. Among these alloys, titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy Ti-6 A-4 V is one of the most commonly used due to its excellent biocompatibility and ability to allow bone-implant integration. A new class of Ti alloys employs Zr for solid-solution hardening and Nb as {beta}-phase stabilizer. Metals such as Ti, Nb, and Zr-known as valve metals-usually have their surfaces covered by a thin oxide film that forms spontaneously in air. This oxide film constitutes a barrier between the metal and the medium. The Ti-Nb-Zr alloys have mechanical and corrosion resistance characteristics which make them suitable for use as implants. Tri-layered films of Ti-Nb-Zr were deposited on both Si(111) and stainless steel (SS) substrates using dc magnetron sputtering equipment, under an argon atmosphere according to the following methodology: a 100 nm thick layer of Nb was deposited on the substrate, followed by a 200 nm thick layer of Ti, and finally a 50 nm thick layer of Zr, on top of the multilayer stack. The morphology and chemical composition of the films were analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). AFM images showed that the Zr/Ti/Nb tri-layer films presented nanostructured grains and low roughness. The ToF-SIMS depth profiles confirmed the formation of a three-layered film on Si(111) with well-defined and sharp interfaces between the layers, while the deposition on the stainless steel substrate caused slight intermixing at the different alloy/Nb, Nb/Ti and Ti/Zr interfaces, reflecting the greater roughness of the raw substrate. The XPS results for the Zr/Ti/Nb layers deposited on Si(111) and SS confirmed that the outermost layer consisted of Zr only, with a predominance of ZrO{sub 2}, as the metal layer is passivated in air. An oxidation treatment of 1000 Degree

  5. Engineering the mechanical properties of ultrabarrier films grown by atomic layer deposition for the encapsulation of printed electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulusu, A.; Singh, A.; Kim, H.; Wang, C. Y.; Dindar, A.; Fuentes-Hernandez, C.; Kippelen, B.; Cullen, D.; Graham, S.

    2015-01-01

    Direct deposition of barrier films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto printed electronics presents a promising method for packaging devices. Films made by ALD have been shown to possess desired ultrabarrier properties, but face challenges when directly grown onto surfaces with varying composition and topography. Challenges include differing nucleation and growth rates across the surface, stress concentrations from topography and coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, elastic constant mismatch, and particle contamination that may impact the performance of the ALD barrier. In such cases, a polymer smoothing layer may be needed to coat the surface prior to ALD barrier film deposition. We present the impact of architecture on the performance of aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 )/hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) ALD nanolaminate barrier films deposited on fluorinated polymer layer using an optical calcium (Ca) test under damp heat. It is found that with increasing polymer thickness, the barrier films with residual tensile stress are prone to cracking resulting in rapid failure of the Ca sensor at 50 °C/85% relative humidity. Inserting a SiN x layer with residual compressive stress between the polymer and ALD layers is found to prevent cracking over a range of polymer thicknesses with more than 95% of the Ca sensor remaining after 500 h of testing. These results suggest that controlling mechanical properties and film architecture play an important role in the performance of direct deposited ALD barriers

  6. Engineering the mechanical properties of ultrabarrier films grown by atomic layer deposition for the encapsulation of printed electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulusu, A.; Singh, A.; Kim, H. [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Wang, C. Y.; Dindar, A.; Fuentes-Hernandez, C.; Kippelen, B. [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Cullen, D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 MS-6064, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Graham, S., E-mail: sgraham@gatech.edu [Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008 MS-6064, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2015-08-28

    Direct deposition of barrier films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) onto printed electronics presents a promising method for packaging devices. Films made by ALD have been shown to possess desired ultrabarrier properties, but face challenges when directly grown onto surfaces with varying composition and topography. Challenges include differing nucleation and growth rates across the surface, stress concentrations from topography and coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch, elastic constant mismatch, and particle contamination that may impact the performance of the ALD barrier. In such cases, a polymer smoothing layer may be needed to coat the surface prior to ALD barrier film deposition. We present the impact of architecture on the performance of aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3})/hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) ALD nanolaminate barrier films deposited on fluorinated polymer layer using an optical calcium (Ca) test under damp heat. It is found that with increasing polymer thickness, the barrier films with residual tensile stress are prone to cracking resulting in rapid failure of the Ca sensor at 50 °C/85% relative humidity. Inserting a SiN{sub x} layer with residual compressive stress between the polymer and ALD layers is found to prevent cracking over a range of polymer thicknesses with more than 95% of the Ca sensor remaining after 500 h of testing. These results suggest that controlling mechanical properties and film architecture play an important role in the performance of direct deposited ALD barriers.

  7. Thickness dependence of electro-optical properties of WO{sub 3} films as an electrochromic functional material for energy-efficient applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esmail, Ayat; Hashem, Hany; Soltan, Soltan; Hammam, Mahmoud; Ramadan, Ahmed [Faculty of Science, Department of Physics, Helwan University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2017-01-15

    WO{sub 3} films of different thicknesses (100, 200, and 300 nm) were prepared by two vacuum physical vapor deposition (PVD) methods (thermal evaporation and an electron gun). Electrophysical measurements (cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry) were carried out using a potentiostat in an electrochromic cell (liquid device) that consists of a substrate coated with double layers of F: SnO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} served as working electrodes. X-ray diffraction showed an amorphous structure for all the deposited WO{sub 3} thin films. While the transmission in the bleached state does not change and it is close to the as-deposited state, it is slightly less at larger thickness. The cyclic voltammogram was more open (more current flow) for thicker films due to the less dense structure with many channels. Also, the coloration efficiency was higher at low thickness. The response time was of the order of seconds and decreased for coloration, while it increased for the bleaching process as the film thickness increases. According to the proposed figure of merit, the electrochromic performance deteriorates as the WO{sub 3} film thickness decreases. However, the thickness is more effective in the case of an electron gun. Generally, continuous films but thinner than 200 nm, are recommended for deposition methods. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Investigation of Al2O3 barrier film properties made by atomic layer deposition onto fluorescent tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium molecular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maindron, Tony; Aventurier, Bernard; Ghazouani, Ahlem; Jullien, Tony; Rochat, Névine; Simon, Jean-Yves; Viasnoff, Emilie

    2013-01-01

    Al 2 O 3 films have been deposited at 85 °C by atomic layer deposition onto single 100 nm thick tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (AlQ 3 ) films made onto silicon wafers. It has been found that a thick ALD-deposited Al 2 O 3 layer (> 11 nm) greatly prevents the photo-oxidation of AlQ 3 films when exposed to continuous UV irradiation (350 mW/cm 2 ). Thin Al 2 O 3 thicknesses (< 11 nm) on the contrary yield lower barrier performances. Defects in the Al 2 O 3 layer have been easily observed as non-fluorescent AlQ 3 singularities, or black spots, under UV light on the system Si/AlQ 3 /Al 2 O 3 stored into laboratory conditions (22 °C/50% Relative Humidity (RH)) for long time scale (∼ 2000 h). Accelerated aging conditions in a climatic chamber (85 °C/85% RH) also allow faster visualization of the same defects (168 h). The black spot density grows upon time and the black spot density occurrence rates have been calculated to be 0.024 h −1 ·cm −2 and 0.243 h −1 ·cm −2 respectively for the two testing conditions. A detailed investigation of these defects did show that they cannot be ascribed to the presence of a detectable particle. In that sense they are presumably the consequence of the existence of nanometre-scaled defects which cannot be detected onto fresh samples. Interestingly, an additional overcoating of ebeam-deposited SiO 2 onto the Si/AlQ 3 /Al 2 O 3 sample helps to decrease drastically the black spot density occurrence rates down to 0.004 h −1 ·cm −2 and 0.04 h −1 ·cm −2 respectively for 22 °C/50% RH and 85 °C/85% RH testing conditions. These observations highlight the moisture sensitivity of low temperature ALD-deposited Al 2 O 3 films and confirm the general idea that a single Al 2 O 3 ALD film performs as an ultra-high barrier but needs to be overprotected from water condensation by an additional moisture-stable layer. - Highlights: • Thin Al 2 O 3 films have been deposited by atomic layer deposition onto organic films.

  9. Thickness dependence of J_c (0) in MgB_2 films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yiling; Yang, Can; Jia, Chunyan; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A serial of MgB_2 superconducting films from 10 nm to 8 µm have been prepared. • T_c and J_c (5 K, 0 T) of films are high. • J_c (5 K, 0 T) reaches its maximum 2.3 × 10"8 A cm"−"2 for 100 nm films. • The relationship between thickness and J_c has been discussed in detail. - Abstract: MgB_2 superconducting films, whose thicknesses range from 10 nm to 8 µm, have been fabricated on SiC substrates by hybrid physical–chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) method. It is the first time that the T_c and the J_c of MgB_2 films are studied on such a large scale. It is found that with the increasing of thickness, T_c elevates first and then keeps roughly stable except for some slight fluctuations, while J_c (5 K, 0 T) experiences a sharp increase followed by a relatively slow fall. The maximum J_c (5 K, 0 T) = 2.3 × 10"8 A cm"−"2 is obtained for 100 nm films, which is the experimental evidence for preparing high-quality MgB_2 films by HPCVD method. Thus, this work may provide guidance on choosing the suitable thickness for applications. Meanwhile, the films prepared by us cover ultrathin films, thin films and thick films, so the study on them will bring a comprehensive understanding of MgB_2 films.

  10. Micro-layers of polystyrene film preventing metal oxidation: implications in cultural heritage conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giambi, Francesca; Carretti, Emiliano; Dei, Luigi; Baglioni, Piero

    2014-12-01

    Protection of surfaces directly exposed to the detrimental action of degradative agents (i.e. oxygen, air pollutants and bacteria) is one of the most important challenges in the field of conservation of works of art. Metallic objects are subjected to specific surface corrosion phenomena that, over the years, make mandatory the research of innovative materials that should avoid the direct contact between the metal surface and the weathering agents. In this paper, the set-up, characterisation and application of a new reversible material for preserving metal artefacts are reported. Micro-layers constituted of low-adhesive polystyrene (PS) films obtained from recycling waste packaging materials made of expanded PS were studied. The morphology and thickness of PS films were characterised by optical, atomic force and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A further check on thickness was carried out by means of visible spectrophotometry doping the films with a hydrophobic dye. Thermal properties of the PS micro-layers were studied by means of differential scanning calorimetry coupled with optical microscopy. Permeability of the PS films to water vapour was also determined. The potential of the low-adhesive PS films, that enabled an easy removal in case of film deterioration, for preventing metal oxidation was investigated on brass specimens by simulating standard artificial corrosion programmes. Morphological and chemical (coupling the energy-dispersive X-rays spectrometry to SEM measurements) analyses carried out on these metal samples showed promising results in terms of surface protection against corrosion.

  11. Capping layer-tailored interface magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin Co2FeAl films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belmeguenai, M.; Zighem, F.; Chérif, S. M.; Gabor, M. S.; Petrisor, T.; Tiusan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Co 2 FeAl (CFA) thin films of various thicknesses (2 nm ≤ d ≤ 50 nm) have been grown on (001) MgO single crystal substrates and then capped with Cr, V, and Ta. Their magnetic and structural properties have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry, and broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (MS-FMR). The XRD revealed that the films are epitaxial with the cubic [001] CFA axis normal to the substrate plane and that the chemical order varies from the B2 phase to the A2 phase when decreasing the thickness. The deduced lattice parameters showed that the Cr-capped films exhibit a larger tetragonal distortion, as compared with the films capped with V or Ta. The presence of magnetic dead layers has been observed in CFA samples capped with V and Ta but not in the case of the Cr-capped ones. The effective magnetization, deduced from the fit of MS-FMR measurements, increases (decreases) linearly with the CFA inverse thickness (1/d) for the Cr-capped (Ta-capped) films while it is constant for the V-capped ones. This allows quantifying the perpendicular surface anisotropy coefficients of −0.46 erg/cm 2 and 0.74 erg/cm 2 for Cr and Ta-capped films, respectively. Moreover, the fourfold and the uniaxial anisotropy fields, measured in these films, showed different trends with a respect to the CFA inverse thickness. This allows inferring that a non-negligible part of the fourfold magnetocrystalline term is of interfacial origin

  12. Preparation of hydrogenated-TiO2/Ti double layered thin films by water vapor plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pranevicius, L.L.; Milcius, D.; Tuckute, S.; Gedvilas, K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated reaction of water plasma with nanocrystalline TiO 2 films. ► Simultaneous oxidation and hydrogenation of Ti was observed during plasma treatment. ► Water plasma treatment forms hydrogenated nanocrystalline TiO 2 in the shallow surface. - Abstract: We have investigated the structural and compositional variations in 200–500 nm thick Ti films deposited by magnetron sputter-deposition technique and treated in water vapor plasma at different processing powers. It was found that the upper layer of treated film with the thickness of 110 nm was changed into the black hydrogenated-TiO 2 with around 16 nm sized nanocystals during 10 min for dissipated power 200 W at room temperature. Analysis of the experimental results is used to obtain insights into the effects of water layer adsorbed on hydrophilic oxidized titanium surfaces exposed to plasma radiation.

  13. Transition behavior of asymmetric polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) films: A stable hexagonally modulated layer structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sungmin; Koo, Kyosung; Kim, Kyunginn; Ahn, Hyungju; Lee, Byeongdu; Park, Cheolmin; Ryu, Du Yeol

    2015-03-09

    The phase transitions in the films of an asymmetric polystyrene-b-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) were investigated by grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Compared with the sequential transitions in the bulk, hexagonally perforated layer (HPL) – gyroid (GYR) – disorder (DIS) upon heating, the transitions in film geometry were dramatically changed with decreasing thickness due to the growing preferential interactions from substrate, resulting in a thickness-dependent transition diagram including four different morphologies of hexagonally modulated layer (HML), coexisting (HML and GYR), GYR, and DIS. Particularly in the films ≤10Lo, where Lo is d-spacing at 150 °C, a stable HML structure was identified even above the order-to-disorder transition (ODT) temperature of the bulk, which was attributed to the suppressed compositional fluctuations by the enhanced substrate interactions.

  14. Properties, ageing behavior and stability of bipolar films containing nano-layers of allylamine and acrylic acid plasma polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Gaelle; Asadian, Mahtab; Declercq, Heidi; Morent, Rino; De Geyter, Nathalie

    2018-06-01

    In this work, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been used for the deposition of bipolar films containing alternating nano-layers of plasma polymerized allylamine (PPAam) and acrylic acid (PPAac). Various films were obtained by varying the single-layer thickness of each plasma polymer while maintaining a constant total film thickness and two kinds of films were fabricated via different depositing sequences (PPAam/Aac and PPAac/Aam). Films properties, ageing in air and stability in water over a 7 days period were investigated. Results showed that, COO- and NH3+ polar entities, generated from the interaction of PPAam and PPAac, are present in the bipolar films. Concerning the films stability, the different reaction mechanisms involved in the formation of each kind of films resulted in a higher amount of polar groups in the PPAam/Aac films; this conferred these films a higher stability than PPAac/Aam. Concerning the films ageing behavior, all prepared samples underwent some kind of ageing which was found to be dependent on the deposition sequence. Results also showed that bipolar coatings exhibited better cell-material interactions compared to PPAam and PPAac films; with a better cell viability observed on PPAam/Aac coatings after 1 and 7 days culture.

  15. Enhancement of L10 ordering with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate in FePt alloy film by using an epitaxial cap-layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Ohtake

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available FePt alloy thin films with cap-layers of MgO or C are prepared on MgO(001 single-crystal substrates by using a two-step method consisting of low-temperature deposition at 200 °C followed by high-temperature annealing at 600 °C. The FePt film thickness is fixed at 10 nm, whereas the cap-layer thickness is varied from 1 to 10 nm. The influences of cap-layer material and cap-layer thickness on the variant structure and the L10 ordering are investigated. Single-crystal FePt(001 films with disordered fcc structure (A1 grow epitaxially on the substrates at 200 °C. Single-crystal MgO(001 cap-layers grow epitaxially on the FePt films, whereas the structure of C cap-layers is amorphous. The phase transformation from A1 to L10 occurs when the films are annealed at 600 °C. The FePt films with MgO cap-layers thicker than 2 nm consist of L10(001 variant with the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface, whereas those with C cap-layers involve small volumes of L10(100 and (010 variants with the c-axis lying in the film plane. The in-plane and the out-of-plane lattices are respectively more expanded and contracted in the continuous-lattice MgO/FePt/MgO structure due to accommodations of misfits of FePt film with respect to not only the MgO substrate but also the MgO cap-layer. The lattice deformation promotes phase transformation along the perpendicular direction and L10 ordering. The FePt films consisting of only L10(001 variant show strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropies and low in-plane coercivities. The present study shows that an introduction of epitaxial cap-layer is effective in controlling the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate surface.

  16. Organic photovoltaic effects depending on CuPc layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Sung Woo; Kim, Tae Wan; Chung, Dong Hoe; Oh, Hyun Seok; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Lee, Joon Ung; Park, Jong Wook

    2004-01-01

    Organic photovoltaic effects were studied in device structures of ITO/CuPc/Al and ITO/CuPc/C 60 /BCP/Al by varying the CuPc layer thickness. Since the exciton diffusion length is relatively short in organic semiconductors, a study on the thickness-dependent photovoltaic effects is important. The thickness of the CuPc layer was varied from 10 nm to 50 nm. We found that the optimum CuPc layer thickness was around 40 nm from the analysis of the current density-voltage characteristics in an ITO/CuPc/Al photovoltaic cell. The efficiency of the device shows that the multi-layered heterojunction structure is more appropriate for photovoltaic cells.

  17. Preparation and properties of [(NdFeB)x/(Nb)z]n multi-layer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, J.-L.; Chin, T.-S.; Yao, Y.-D.; Melsheimer, A.; Fisher, S.; Drogen, T.; Kelsch, M.; Kronmueller, H.

    2003-01-01

    Multi-layer [(NdFeB) x /(Nb) z ] n films with 200 nm≥x≥10 nm, 10 nm≥z≥0, 40≥n≥2, prepared by ion beam sputtering and subsequent annealing, show significantly enhanced coercivity due to the reduced grain size that enhances the anisotropy of individual grains. After annealing at 630 deg. C, some Nd 2 Fe 14 B grains were enriched with Nb and isolated as the thickness of the Nb spacer layer increases. For multi-layer (NdFeB x /Nb z ) n films with 100 nm ≥x≥25 nm, 5 nm≥z≥2 nm, their coercivity and remanence ratio are better than that of a single NdFeB film. Up to 17.8 kOe room temperature coercivity has been obtained for a sample with x=25 nm, z=5 nm and n=16

  18. A Study on the Thickness Measurement of Thin Film by Ultrasonic Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Eung Kyo; Lee, Jae Joon; Kim, Jae Yeol

    1988-01-01

    Recently, it is gradually raised necessity that thickness of thin film is measured accurately and managed in industrial circles and medical world. In this study, regarding to the thickness of film which is in opaque object and is beyond distance resolution capacity, thickness measurement was done by MEM-cepstrum analysis of received ultrasonic wave. In measurement results, film thickness which is beyond distance resolution capacity was measured accurately. And within thickness range that don't exist interference, thickness measurement by MEM-ceptrum analysis was impossible

  19. Anomalous size effect in conductivity of Bi films of small thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anopchenko, A.S.; Kashirin, V.Yu.; Komnik, Yu.F.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental data are obtained at helium temperature, which describe the kinetic properties (conductivity, magnetoresistance and Hall coefficient) of Bi films whose thicknesses are within 100-500 A. The small-thickness Bi films display an anomalous size effect- the growing conductivity at decreasing thickness, and pronounced quantum interference effects - weak electron localization and enhancing electron-electron interaction in a disordered system. The information derived on the kinetic properties of the films is used to identify the character of the changes in the electron and hole concentrations and mobilities with a decreasing thickness. The isotropy of the properties in the films plane due to the axial texture has permitted us to use the equations for a conductor with two types of charge carriers. The used kinetic characteristics correctly take into account the contribution of the quantum corrections related to quantum interference. It is found that the concentration of the charge carries increases appreciably (by about two orders of magnitude) as the film thickness decreases to 100 A, which determines the anomalous size effect in the conductivity of the films

  20. Hexaferrite multiferroics: from bulk to thick films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutzarova, T.; Ghelev, Ch; Peneva, P.; Georgieva, B.; Kolev, S.; Vertruyen, B.; Closset, R.

    2018-03-01

    We report studies of the structural and microstructural properties of Sr3Co2Fe24O41 in bulk form and as thick films. The precursor powders for the bulk form were prepared following the sol-gel auto-combustion method. The prepared pellets were synthesized at 1200 °C to produce Sr3Co2Fe24O41. The XRD spectra of the bulks showed the characteristic peaks corresponding to the Z-type hexaferrite structure as a main phase and second phases of CoFe2O4 and Sr3Fe2O7-x. The microstructure analysis of the cross-section of the bulk pellets revealed a hexagonal sheet structure. Large areas were observed of packages of hexagonal sheets where the separate hexagonal particles were ordered along the c axis. Sr3Co2Fe24O41 thick films were deposited from a suspension containing the Sr3Co2Fe24O41 powder. The microstructural analysis of the thick films showed that the particles had the perfect hexagonal shape typical for hexaferrites.

  1. Effects of film thickness on scintillation characteristics of columnar CsI:Tl films exposed to high gamma radiation doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinde, Seema; Singh, S.G.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C., E-mail: gadkari@barc.gov.in

    2016-02-21

    Oriented columnar films of Tl doped CsI (CsI:Tl) of varying thicknesses from 50 µm to 1000 µm have been deposited on silica glass substrates by a thermal evaporation technique. The SEM micrographs confirmed the columnar structure of the film while the powder X-ray diffraction pattern recorded for the films revealed a preferred orientation of the grown columns along the <200> direction. Effects of high energy gamma exposure up to 1000 Gy on luminescence properties of the films were investigated. Results of radio-luminescence, photo-luminescence and scintillation studies on the films are compared with those of a CsI:Tl single crystal with similar thickness. A possible correlation between the film thicknesses and radiation damage in films has been observed. - Highlights: • CsI:Tl films of different thicknesses deposited for γ and α detection. • Pulse-height spectra found to degrade with increasing thickness. • Radiation damage is found more in films than single crystal of comparable thickness. • Detection efficiency increases for γ while it is invariant for α beyond 50 µm.

  2. Effects of film thickness on scintillation characteristics of columnar CsI:Tl films exposed to high gamma radiation doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinde, Seema; Singh, S.G.; Sen, S.; Gadkari, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Oriented columnar films of Tl doped CsI (CsI:Tl) of varying thicknesses from 50 µm to 1000 µm have been deposited on silica glass substrates by a thermal evaporation technique. The SEM micrographs confirmed the columnar structure of the film while the powder X-ray diffraction pattern recorded for the films revealed a preferred orientation of the grown columns along the direction. Effects of high energy gamma exposure up to 1000 Gy on luminescence properties of the films were investigated. Results of radio-luminescence, photo-luminescence and scintillation studies on the films are compared with those of a CsI:Tl single crystal with similar thickness. A possible correlation between the film thicknesses and radiation damage in films has been observed. - Highlights: • CsI:Tl films of different thicknesses deposited for γ and α detection. • Pulse-height spectra found to degrade with increasing thickness. • Radiation damage is found more in films than single crystal of comparable thickness. • Detection efficiency increases for γ while it is invariant for α beyond 50 µm.

  3. Structure and electronic properties of Zn-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin single- and multi-layers films grown on Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussetti, Gianlorenzo, E-mail: gianlorenzo.bussetti@polimi.it; Calloni, Alberto; Celeri, Matteo; Yivlialin, Rossella; Finazzi, Marco; Bottegoni, Federico; Duò, Lamberto; Ciccacci, Franco

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • ZnTPP/Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O is a prototypical system to investigate the porphyrin/thin metal oxide film interaction. • Oxygen layer plays a crucial role in decreasing the porphyrin-substrate interaction. • An ordered ZnTPP (5 × 5) reconstruction is found on the nominal 1 ML-thick film. • On Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O the electronic properties of the ZnTPP film are preserved with respect to other substrates. - Abstract: The structure and the electronic properties of thin (1 molecular layer) and thick (20 molecular layers) Zn-tetra-phenyl-porphyrin (ZnTPP) films grown on a single metal oxide (MO) layer, namely Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O, are shown and discussed. During the first stages of deposition, the ultra-thin MO layer reduces the molecule-substrate interaction enhancing the molecular diffusivity with the respect to other investigated substrates [namely, Si(111), Au(001) and oxygen-free Fe(001)]. On Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O, ZnTPP molecules form an ordered and stable square-lattice array. The photoemission analysis of the valence bands reveals that all the characteristic features of the molecule are already visible in the 1 monolayer-thick sample spectrum. Similarly, the core level investigation suggests a weak molecule perturbation. The ZnTPP/Fe(001)-p(1 × 1)O interface represents a prototypical system to investigate the organic film adhesion on ultra-thin MO layers and the processes involved during the film growth.

  4. Temperature stability of c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Si thin film layered structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomar, Monika [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India)]. E-mail: mtomar@physics.du.ac.in; monikatomar@rediffmail.com; Gupta, Vinay; Mansingh, Abhai; Sreenivas, K. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi (India)

    2001-08-07

    Theoretical calculations have been performed for the temperature stability of the c-axis oriented LiNbO{sub 3} thin film layered structures on passivated silicon (SiO{sub 2}/Si) substrate with and without a non-piezoelectric SiO{sub 2} overlayer. The phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of delay (TCD) have been calculated. The thicknesses of various layers have been determined for optimum SAW performance with zero TCD. The presence of a non-piezoelectric SiO{sub 2} overlayer on LiNbO{sub 3} film is found to significantly enhance the coupling coefficient. The optimized results reveal that a high coupling coefficient of K{sup 2}=3.45% and a zero TCD can be obtained in the SiO{sub 2}/LiNbO{sub 3}/SiO{sub 2}/Si structure with a 0.235{lambda} thick LiNbO{sub 3} layer sandwiched between 0.1{lambda} thick SiO{sub 2} layers. (author)

  5. Film thickness dependence of phase separation and dewetting behaviors in PMMA/SAN blend films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jichun; Liao, Yonggui; Men, Yongfeng; Shi, Tongfei; An, Lijia

    2010-09-21

    Film thickness dependence of complex behaviors coupled by phase separation and dewetting in blend [poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile) (SAN)] films on silicon oxide substrate at 175 °C was investigated by grazing incidence ultrasmall-angle X-ray scattering (GIUSAX) and in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the dewetting pathway was under the control of the parameter U(q0)/E, which described the initial amplitude of the surface undulation and original thickness of film, respectively. Furthermore, our results showed that interplay between phase separation and dewetting depended crucially on film thickness. Three mechanisms including dewetting-phase separation/wetting, dewetting/wetting-phase separation, and phase separation/wetting-pseudodewetting were discussed in detail. In conclusion, it is relative rates of phase separation and dewetting that dominate the interplay between them.

  6. Silicon surface passivation using thin HfO2 films by atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gope, Jhuma; Vandana; Batra, Neha; Panigrahi, Jagannath; Singh, Rajbir; Maurya, K.K.; Srivastava, Ritu; Singh, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • HfO 2 films using thermal ALD are studied for silicon surface passivation. • As-deposited thin film (∼8 nm) shows better passivation with surface recombination velocity (SRV) <100 cm/s. • Annealing improves passivation quality with SRV ∼20 cm/s for ∼8 nm film. - Abstract: Hafnium oxide (HfO 2 ) is a potential material for equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) scaling in microelectronics; however, its surface passivation properties particularly on silicon are not well explored. This paper reports investigation on passivation properties of thermally deposited thin HfO 2 films by atomic layer deposition system (ALD) on silicon surface. As-deposited pristine film (∼8 nm) shows better passivation with <100 cm/s surface recombination velocity (SRV) vis-à-vis thicker films. Further improvement in passivation quality is achieved with annealing at 400 °C for 10 min where the SRV reduces to ∼20 cm/s. Conductance measurements show that the interface defect density (D it ) increases with film thickness whereas its value decreases after annealing. XRR data corroborate with the observations made by FTIR and SRV data.

  7. Remote query measurement of pressure, fluid-flow velocity, and humidity using magnetoelastic thick-film sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, C. A.; Kouzoudis, D.

    2000-01-01

    Free-standing magnetoelastic thick-film sensors have a characteristic resonant frequency that can be determined by monitoring the magnetic flux emitted from the sensor in response to a time varying magnetic field. This property allows the sensors to be monitored remotely without the use of direct physical connections, such as wires, enabling measurement of environmental parameters from within sealed, opaque containers. In this work, we report on application of magnetoelastic sensors to measurement of atmospheric pressure, fluid-flow velocity, temperature, and mass load. Mass loading effects are demonstrated by fabrication of a remote query humidity sensor, made by coating the magnetoelastic thick film with a thin layer of solgel deposited Al2O3 that reversibly changes mass in response to humidity. c2000 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. MEMS-based thick film PZT vibrational energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Anders; Xu, Ruichao; Thyssen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using a mechan......We present a MEMS-based unimorph silicon/PZT thick film vibrational energy harvester with an integrated proof mass. We have developed a process that allows fabrication of high performance silicon based energy harvesters with a yield higher than 90%. The process comprises a KOH etch using...... a mechanical front side protection of an SOI wafer with screen printed PZT thick film. The fabricated harvester device produces 14.0 μW with an optimal resistive load of 100 kΩ from 1g (g=9.81 m s-2) input acceleration at its resonant frequency of 235 Hz....

  9. Spatial and thickness dependence of coupling interaction of surface states and influence on transport and optical properties of few-layer Bi2Se3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongjun; Chen, Shi; Sun, Jiuyu; Li, Xingxing; Qiu, Huaili; Yang, Jinlong

    2018-02-01

    Coupling interaction between the bottom and top surface electronic states and the influence on transport and optical properties of Bi2Se3 thin films with 1-8 quintuple layers (QLs) have been investigated by first principles calculations. Obvious spatial and thickness dependences of coupling interaction are found by analyzing hybridization of two surface states. In the thin film with a certain thickness, from the outer to inner atomic layers, the coupling interaction exhibits an increasing trend. On the other hand, as thickness increases, the coupling interaction shows a disproportionate decrease trend. Moreover, the system with 3 QLs exhibits stronger interaction than that with 2 QLs. The presence of coupling interaction would suppress destructive interference of surface states and enhance resistance in various degrees. In view of the inversely proportional relation to transport channel width, the resistance of thin films should show disproportionate thickness dependence. This prediction is qualitatively consistent with the transport measurements at low temperature. Furthermore, the optical properties also exhibit obvious thickness dependence. Especially as the thickness increases, the coupling interaction results in red and blue shifts of the multiple-peak structures in low and high energy regions of imaginary dielectric function, respectively. The red shift trend is in agreement with the recent experimental observation and the blue shift is firstly predicted by the present calculation. The present results give a concrete understanding of transport and optical properties in devices based on Bi2Se3 thin films with few QLs.

  10. Strain-free GaN thick films grown on single crystalline ZnO buffer layer with in situ lift-off technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S. W.; Minegishi, T.; Lee, W. H.; Goto, H.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, S. H.; Lee, Hyo-Jong; Ha, J. S.; Goto, T.; Hanada, T.; Cho, M. W.; Yao, T.

    2007-01-01

    Strain-free freestanding GaN layers were prepared by in situ lift-off process using a ZnO buffer as a sacrificing layer. Thin Zn-polar ZnO layers were deposited on c-plane sapphire substrates, which was followed by the growth of Ga-polar GaN layers both by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The MBE-grown GaN layer acted as a protecting layer against decomposition of the ZnO layer and as a seeding layer for GaN growth. The ZnO layer was completely in situ etched off during growth of thick GaN layers at low temperature by hydride vapor phase epitaxy. Hence freestanding GaN layers were obtained for the consecutive growth of high-temperature GaN thick layers. The lattice constants of freestanding GaN agree with those of strain-free GaN bulk. Extensive microphotoluminescence study indicates that strain-free states extend throughout the high-temperature grown GaN layers

  11. Layer-by-layer assembled polyaniline nanofiber/multiwall carbon nanotube thin film electrodes for high-power and high-energy storage applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Md Nasim; Lee, Seung Woo; Cebeci, Fevzi Ç; Schmidt, Daniel J; Shao-Horn, Yang; Hammond, Paula T

    2011-11-22

    Thin film electrodes of polyaniline (PANi) nanofibers and functionalized multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) are created by layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly for microbatteries or -electrochemical capacitors. Highly stable cationic PANi nanofibers, synthesized from the rapid aqueous phase polymerization of aniline, are assembled with carboxylic acid functionalized MWNT into LbL films. The pH-dependent surface charge of PANi nanofibers and MWNTs allows the system to behave like weak polyelectrolytes with controllable LbL film thickness and morphology by varying the number of bilayers. The LbL-PANi/MWNT films consist of a nanoscale interpenetrating network structure with well developed nanopores that yield excellent electrochemical performance for energy storage applications. These LbL-PANi/MWNT films in lithium cell can store high volumetric capacitance (~238 ± 32 F/cm(3)) and high volumetric capacity (~210 mAh/cm(3)). In addition, rate-dependent galvanostatic tests show LbL-PANi/MWNT films can deliver both high power and high energy density (~220 Wh/L(electrode) at ~100 kW/L(electrode)) and could be promising positive electrode materials for thin film microbatteries or electrochemical capacitors. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. The effect of the gas factor on selecting the thickness of a layer during two-layer getting of thick seams. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varekha, Zh P; Kurkin, A S; Vechera, V N

    1979-01-01

    For technico-economic verification of the selection of the efficient removed thickness of upper and lower layers under conditions of high gas abundance of seams, the KNIUI has developed an economic model of converted costs within a getting field, allowing for natural and technical factors. The calculation considers specific costs for stoping work when getting the upper and lower layers, digging and maintenance of development workings, coal transport, assembly-disassembly work, ventilation, labor costs, degassing, etc. The calculation dependences and nomogram obtained enable comparatively easy definition of efficient thicknesses of removed layers when designing stoping work at thick, gently sloping seams, as well as calculation converted costs using as the initial data the total thickness of the seam, its natural gas content, and the expected degree of preliminary degassing.

  13. The effect of the thicknesses of the various layers on the colour emitted by an organic electroluminescent device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolinat, P.; Clergereaux, R.; Farenc, J.; Destruel, P.

    1998-05-01

    Organic electroluminescent diodes based on thin organic layers are one of the most promising next-generation systems for the backlighting of the liquid crystal screens. Among other methods to obtain white light, three-layer luminescent devices with each layer emitting one of the three fundamental colours have been studied here. Red, green and blue light were produced by 0022-3727/31/10/018/img1 doped with Nile red, 0022-3727/31/10/018/img1 and TPD layers respectively. A fourth thin film of TAZ has been inserted between TPD and 0022-3727/31/10/018/img1 to control injection of electrons into the TPD. The effect of the layers' thicknesses on the spectral emission of the device has been examined. Results show that the thicknesses of TAZ and doped 0022-3727/31/10/018/img1 layers have to be controlled to within a precision of better than 5 Å. The discussion turns on the possibility of applying this technology to screen backlighting.

  14. The post-growth treatment of PbI2 thick films as an attempt to suppress the films surface effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitriev, Yuri; Bennett, Paul R.; Cirignano, Leonard J.; Klugerman, Mikhail; Shah, Kanai S.

    2008-01-01

    PbI 2 thick films were coated with different materials (Parylene C, HumiSeal and PbBr 2 ) in order to improve the films' surface properties. It was shown that Parylene C and HumiSeal coating decreased the dark current of PbI 2 films and changed the shape of the I-V and I-t curves. X-ray-irradiated films demonstrated a significant increase in signal-to-noise ratio due to a decrease in the dark current, a slightly increased rise time, and a decreased decay time compared to non-coated PbI 2 films. In addition, Pd atoms from the electrical contact easily penetrated the Parylene C protective layer over a period of 1-2 h. The Pd diffusion coefficient and Parylene C dark resistivity estimated from these experiments were D Pd =(3.6±2.1)x10 -13 cm 2 /s and ρ ParyleneC =(130±70) T Ω cm, respectively. Only the PbBr 2 coating led to decreased rise and decay times compared to non-coated PbI 2 films

  15. Sol–gel derived scattering layers as substrates for thin-film photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hegmann, Jan [Lehrstuhl für Chemische Technologie der Materialsynthese, Universität Würzburg, Röntgenring 11, 97070 Würzburg (Germany); Mandl, Magdalena [Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung, Neunerplatz 2, 97082 Würzburg (Germany); Löbmann, Peer, E-mail: peer.loebmann@isc.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer-Institut für Silicatforschung, Neunerplatz 2, 97082 Würzburg (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Agglomerated silica particles were coated on glass by dip-coating; the resulting films exhibited optical scattering. With constant optical transmittances > 80% their haze could be modified by the withdrawal rate applied for the respective deposition procedure. Film thickness, surface topography and coverage of the substrate were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. For the use in radiation management in thin-film silicon solar cells in a first step the scattering layers were coated with aluminum-doped zinc oxide by sputtering; the optical performance of the resulting bilayer was characterized by haze measurements and angle resolved scattering spectroscopy. Quantum efficiencies of complete solar cells could be determined after the deposition of a hydrogenated amorphous Si/hydrogenated microcrystalline Si tandem absorber and application of metallic back contacts. It turned out that the external quantum efficiency of the resulting cells is not directly related to the light scattering performance of the scattering layer used. - Highlights: • Characterization of sol–gel scattering layers • Combination of different coating-technologies to prepare stacks with optical functionality • Comprehensive material preparation and characterization for complex multilayer.

  16. Accurate thickness measurement of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Stapleton, Andrew J; Shapter, Joseph G; Gibson, Christopher T

    2016-01-01

    Graphene has emerged as a material with a vast variety of applications. The electronic, optical and mechanical properties of graphene are strongly influenced by the number of layers present in a sample. As a result, the dimensional characterization of graphene films is crucial, especially with the continued development of new synthesis methods and applications. A number of techniques exist to determine the thickness of graphene films including optical contrast, Raman scattering and scanning probe microscopy techniques. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), in particular, is used extensively since it provides three-dimensional images that enable the measurement of the lateral dimensions of graphene films as well as the thickness, and by extension the number of layers present. However, in the literature AFM has proven to be inaccurate with a wide range of measured values for single layer graphene thickness reported (between 0.4 and 1.7 nm). This discrepancy has been attributed to tip-surface interactions, image feedback settings and surface chemistry. In this work, we use standard and carbon nanotube modified AFM probes and a relatively new AFM imaging mode known as PeakForce tapping mode to establish a protocol that will allow users to accurately determine the thickness of graphene films. In particular, the error in measuring the first layer is reduced from 0.1–1.3 nm to 0.1–0.3 nm. Furthermore, in the process we establish that the graphene-substrate adsorbate layer and imaging force, in particular the pressure the tip exerts on the surface, are crucial components in the accurate measurement of graphene using AFM. These findings can be applied to other 2D materials. (paper)

  17. Analysis of Factors Associated With the Tear Film Lipid Layer Thickness in Normal Eyes and Patients With Dry Eye Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ji Won; Park, Si Yoon; Kim, Jin Sun; Kim, Eung Kweon; Seo, Kyoung Yul; Kim, Tae-Im

    2016-08-01

    To determine the effects of clinical variables, including age, sex, history of refractive or cataract surgery, contact lens use, and ocular surface and meibomian gland parameters on the lipid layer thickness (LLT) in normal subjects and patients with dry eye syndrome (DES). A total of 64 normal subjects and 326 patients with DES were enrolled, and they underwent measurements of LLT with a LipiView interferometer and tear meniscus height using optical coherence tomography, tear film break-up time (TBUT) determination, ocular surface staining, Schirmer's test, examination of the lid margins and meibomian glands, and assessment using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI). In normal subjects, the median (range) LLT was 67 (33-100) nm, and age was the only factor that was significantly associated with LLT (β = 0.678, P = 0.028). In patients with DES, the median (range) LLT was 84 (20-100) nm, and 79.0% of the participants fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). In a multivariate analysis, increased age and female sex were significantly related to increased LLT (β = 0.282, P = 0.005 and β = 11.493, P < 0.001), and hypersecretory MGD and lid margin inflammation were independently associated with increased LLT (β = 11.299, P = 0.001 and β = 12.747, P = 0.001). Lipid layer thickness measurements using a new interferometer are significantly affected by demographic factors such as age, sex, ocular surgical history, and MGD type. Therefore, all of these factors must be considered in the diagnosis of ocular surface diseases.

  18. Thick-film effects in the oxidation and hydriding of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    One of the fundamental discoveries involving radiation effects on the oxidation of Zircaloy in low-oxygen aqueous environments is the influence of thick oxide films. Zircaloy oxidation rates in low-oxygen (hydrogen-rich) coolants initially proceed at relatively low rates, often almost uninfluenced by radiation. Marked upturns in oxidation rate have signaled the onset of radiation effects. The radiation effects appear to correlate with a threshold oxide thickness. Results of the test reactor experiments lead to formulation of the Thick-Film Hypothesis: beyond a threshold oxide thickness, radiolysis of water that infiltrates oxide cracks and pores controls the oxidation rate; radiation creates microenvironments inside the oxide film, producing highly oxidizing conditions, that are no longer suppressed by the coolant-borne hydrogen. Upturns in oxidation rate on high-exposure Zircaloy pressure tubes add confirmatory evidence for the thick-film effect. This paper summarizes the early evidence for thick-film behavior, including oxidation and hydriding trends, updates confirmatory evidence from Zircaloy reactor and fuel assembly components, and highlights other observations from the test reactor series that have potential fundamental significance to explanations of radiation effects on Zircaloy. 23 refs., 10 figs

  19. A study on the evolution of dielectric function of ZnO thin films with decreasing film thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, X. D.; Chen, T. P.; Liu, P.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Leong, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric function, band gap, and exciton binding energies of ultrathin ZnO films as a function of film thickness have been obtained with spectroscopic ellipsometry. As the film thickness decreases, both real (ε 1 ) and imaginary (ε 2 ) parts of the dielectric function decrease significantly, and ε 2 shows a blue shift. The film thickness dependence of the dielectric function is shown related to the changes in the interband absorption, discrete-exciton absorption, and continuum-exciton absorption, which can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect on both the band gap and exciton binding energies

  20. Second Harmonic Generation characterization of SOI wafers: Impact of layer thickness and interface electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damianos, D.; Vitrant, G.; Lei, M.; Changala, J.; Kaminski-Cachopo, A.; Blanc-Pelissier, D.; Cristoloveanu, S.; Ionica, I.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we investigate Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) as a non-destructive characterization method for Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) materials. For thick SOI stacks, the SHG signal is related to the thickness variations of the different layers. However, in thin SOI films, the comparison between measurements and optical modeling suggests a supplementary SHG contribution attributed to the electric fields at the SiO2/Si interfaces. The impact of the electric field at each interface of the SOI on the SHG is assessed. The SHG technique can be used to evaluate interfacial electric fields and consequently interface charge density in SOI materials.

  1. [Assessment of lipid layer thickness of tear film in the diagnosis of dry-eye syndrome in children after the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpińska, Małgorzata; Gorczyńska, Ewa; Owoc-Lempach, Joanna; Bernacka, Aleksandra; Misiuk-Hojło, Marta; Chybicka, Alicja

    2011-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES), also known as keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is recognized as the most frequent ocular complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). KCS can appear either due to insufficient tear production or excessive tear evaporation, both resulting in tears hyperosmolarity that leads to ocular damage. The evaporation rate and better film stability is determined primarily by the status of the lipid layer. Observation and classification of tear film lipid layer interference patterns in normal and dry eyes in patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation with a follow-up time of 6 months-5 years (median 26.54 months). Investigation of the relation between the lipid layer interference patterns in normal and dry eyes and the results of other dry eye examinations and complaints. Relation between DES and conditioning regimes, including total body irradiation and high-dose chemotherapy, immunosuppressive drugs, the time after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and chronic graft-versus-host disease. Precorneal tears lipid layer interference patterns, were examined in 114 eyes in treatment group with the Tearscope-plus. Patient with dry eye were identified on the basis of Schirmer test scores and/or tear breakup time, and positive lissamine and/or fluorescein staining. 42 of 114 eyes (36.8%) developed DES after allo-SCT A significant correlation between thickness of lipid layer and BUT, Schirmer test, lissamine green and fluorescein staining was found in the treatment group. A significant association was found between present chronic GVHD and DES in children. DES was not associated with TBI, corticosteroids, immunosuppressive drugs and the time in the present study. Tears lipid layer interference patterns are highly correlated with the diagnosis of DES. Tears lipid layer interference patterns ( noninvasive method), can be used to diagnose early DES in children after allo-SCT. Chronic GVHD play a major role in development of DES

  2. Effect of thickness on surface morphology, optical and humidity sensing properties of RF magnetron sputtered CCTO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadipour, Mohsen [Structural Materials Niche Area, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ain, Mohd Fadzil [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Ahmad, Zainal Arifin, E-mail: srzainal@usm.my [Structural Materials Niche Area, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • CCTO thin film was synthesized by RF magnetron sputtering successfully. • Increase in thickness lead to increase in grain size and decrease in band gap. • Short response times and recovery times of lead CCTO humidity sensor. • Sensor could detect humidity range (30–90%). - Abstract: In this study, calcium copper titanate (CCTO) thin films were deposited on ITO substrates successfully by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method in argon atmosphere. The CCTO thin films present a polycrystalline, uniform and porous structure. The surface morphology, optical and humidity sensing properties of the synthesized CCTO thin films have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), UV–vis spectrophotometer and current-voltage (I–V) analysis. XRD and AFM confirmed that the intensity of peaks and pore size of CCTO thin films were enhanced by increasing the thin films. Tauc plot method was adopted to estimate the optical band gaps. The surface structure and energy band gaps of the deposited films were affected by film thickness. Energy band gap of the layers were 3.76 eV, 3.68 eV and 3.5 eV for 200 nm, 400 nm, and 600 nm CCTO thin films layer, respectively. The humidity sensing properties were measured by using direct current (DC) analysis method. The response times were 12 s, 22 s, and 35 s while the recovery times were 500 s, 600 s, and 650 s for 200 nm, 400 nm, and 600 nm CCTO thin films, respectively at humidity range of 30–90% relative humidity (RH).

  3. Experimental study on effects of inlet boundary layer thickness and boundary layer fence in a turbine cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Y. M.; Chung, J. T.

    2000-01-01

    The working fluid from the combustor to the turbine stage of a gas turbine makes various boundary layer thickness. Since the inlet boundary layer thickness is one of the important factors that affect the turbine efficiency, It is necessary to investigate secondary flow and loss with various boundary layer thickness conditions. In the present study, the effect of various inlet boundary layer thickness on secondary flow and loss and the proper height of the boundary layer fences for various boundary layer thickness were investigated. Measurements of secondary flow velocity and total pressure loss within and downstream of the passage were taken under 5 boundary layer thickness conditions, 16, 36, 52, 69, 110mm. It was found that total pressure loss and secondary flow areas were increased with increase of thickness but they were maintained almost at the same position. At the following research about the boundary layer fences, 1/6, 1/3, 1/2 of each inlet boundary layer thickness and 12mm were used as the fence heights. As a result, it was observed that the proper height of the fences was generally constant since the passage vortex remained almost at the same position. Therefore once the geometry of a cascade is decided, the location of the passage vortex and the proper fence height are appeared to be determined at the same time. When the inlet boundary layer thickness is relatively small, the loss caused by the proper fence becomes bigger than end wall loss so that it dominates secondary loss. In these cases the proper fence height is decided not by the cascade geometry but by the inlet boundary layer thickness as previous investigations

  4. The effects of film thickness on the electrical, optical, and structural properties of cylindrical, rotating, magnetron-sputtered ITO films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ho; Seong, Tae-Yeon; Ahn, Kyung-Jun; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Seok, Hae-Jun; Seo, Hyeong-Jin; Kim, Han-Ki

    2018-05-01

    We report the characteristics of Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO) films intended for use as transparent conducting electrodes; the films were prepared via a five-generation, in-line type, cylindrical, rotating magnetron sputtering (CRMS) system as a function of film thickness. By using a rotating cylindrical ITO target with high usage (∼80%), we prepared high conductivity, transparent ITO films on five-generation size glass. The effects of film thickness on the electrical, optical, morphological, and structural properties of CRMS-grown ITO films are investigated in detail to correlate the thickness and performance of ITO films. The preferred orientation changed from the (2 2 2) to the (4 0 0) plane with increasing thickness of ITO is attributed to the stability of the (4 0 0) plane against resputtering during the CRMS process. Based on X-ray diffraction, surface field emission scanning electron microscopy, and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, we suggest a possible mechanism to explain the preferred orientation and effects of film thickness on the performance of CRMS-grown ITO films.

  5. Influence of the film thickness on the structure, optical and electrical properties of ITO coatings deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and plastic substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillén, C; Herrero, J

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) films with thickness between 0.2 and 0.7 µm were deposited by sputtering at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. All films were polycrystalline, with crystallite size increasing and lattice distortion decreasing when the film thickness was increased. Besides, transmission in the near-infrared region is found to be decreasing and carrier concentration increasing when the film thickness was increased. For the same thickness, the lattice distortion is slightly lower and the carrier concentration higher for the layers grown on PET substrates. A direct relationship between the lattice distortion and the free carrier concentration has been established, applying to the films grown on glass and plastic substrates. By adjusting ITO coating thickness, sheet resistance below 15 Ω sq −1 and average visible transmittance about 90% have been achieved by sputtering at room temperature

  6. Toward maximum transmittance into absorption layers in solar cells: investigation of lossy-film-induced mismatches between reflectance and transmittance extrema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yin-Jung; Lai, Chi-Sheng

    2013-09-01

    The mismatch in film thickness and incident angle between reflectance and transmittance extrema due to the presence of lossy film(s) is investigated toward the maximum transmittance design in the active region of solar cells. Using a planar air/lossy film/silicon double-interface geometry illustrates important and quite opposite mismatch behaviors associated with TE and TM waves. In a typical thin-film CIGS solar cell, mismatches contributed by TM waves in general dominate. The angular mismatch is at least 10° in about 37%-53% of the spectrum, depending on the thickness combination of all lossy interlayers. The largest thickness mismatch of a specific interlayer generally increases with the thickness of the layer itself. Antireflection coating designs for solar cells should therefore be optimized in terms of the maximum transmittance into the active region, even if the corresponding reflectance is not at its minimum.

  7. Imaging and thickness measurement of amorphous intergranular films using TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLaren, I.

    2004-01-01

    Fresnel fringe analysis is shown to be unreliable for grain boundaries in yttrium-doped alumina: the determined thicknesses do not agree well with those measured from high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), the asymmetry between under- and overfocus is very large, and Fresnel fringes are sometimes shown at boundaries which contain no amorphous film. An alternative approach to the analysis of HRTEM images of grain boundary films is demonstrated: Fourier filtering is used to remove the lattice fringes from the image thereby significantly enhancing the visibility of the intergranular films. The apparent film thickness shows a discrepancy between measurements from the original HRTEM image and the filtered image. It was shown that fringe delocalisation and diffuseness of the amorphous/crystalline interfaces will lead to a significant underestimate of the thickness in unprocessed HRTEM images. In contrast to this, the average thickness can be much more accurately measured from the Fourier-filtered image, provided the boundary is oriented accurately edge-on

  8. Capping layer-tailored interface magnetic anisotropy in ultrathin Co{sub 2}FeAl films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belmeguenai, M., E-mail: belmeguenai.mohamed@univ-paris13.fr; Zighem, F.; Chérif, S. M. [LSPM (CNRS-UPR 3407), Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 99 Avenue Jean-Baptiste Clément, 93430 Villetaneuse (France); Gabor, M. S., E-mail: mihai.gabor@phys.utcluj.ro; Petrisor, T. [Center for Superconductivity, Spintronics and Surface Science, Department of Physics and Chemistry, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Str. Memorandumului No. 28, RO-400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Tiusan, C. [Center for Superconductivity, Spintronics and Surface Science, Department of Physics and Chemistry, Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Str. Memorandumului No. 28, RO-400114 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Institut Jean Lamour, CNRS, Lorraine Université, BP 70239, F-54506 Vandoeuvre (France)

    2015-01-14

    Co{sub 2}FeAl (CFA) thin films of various thicknesses (2 nm ≤ d ≤ 50 nm) have been grown on (001) MgO single crystal substrates and then capped with Cr, V, and Ta. Their magnetic and structural properties have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometry, and broadband microstrip ferromagnetic resonance (MS-FMR). The XRD revealed that the films are epitaxial with the cubic [001] CFA axis normal to the substrate plane and that the chemical order varies from the B2 phase to the A2 phase when decreasing the thickness. The deduced lattice parameters showed that the Cr-capped films exhibit a larger tetragonal distortion, as compared with the films capped with V or Ta. The presence of magnetic dead layers has been observed in CFA samples capped with V and Ta but not in the case of the Cr-capped ones. The effective magnetization, deduced from the fit of MS-FMR measurements, increases (decreases) linearly with the CFA inverse thickness (1/d) for the Cr-capped (Ta-capped) films while it is constant for the V-capped ones. This allows quantifying the perpendicular surface anisotropy coefficients of −0.46 erg/cm{sup 2} and 0.74 erg/cm{sup 2} for Cr and Ta-capped films, respectively. Moreover, the fourfold and the uniaxial anisotropy fields, measured in these films, showed different trends with a respect to the CFA inverse thickness. This allows inferring that a non-negligible part of the fourfold magnetocrystalline term is of interfacial origin.

  9. Development of examination technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, D. S.; Park, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Min, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Bang, K. S.

    1999-06-01

    Technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods was developed to measure oxide layer thickness and study characteristic of fuel rods. Oxide layer thickness of irradiated fuels were measured, analyzed. Outer oxide layer thickness of 3 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were 20 - 30 μm, inner oxide layer thickness 0 - 10 μm and inner oxide layer thickness on cracked cladding about 30 μm. Oxide layer thickness of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were about 2 times as thick as those of 1 cycle-irradiated fuel rods. Oxide layer on lower region of irradiated fuel rods was thin and oxide layer from lower region to upper region indicated gradual increase in thickness. Oxide layer thickness from 2500 to 3000 mm showed maximum and oxide layer thickness from 3000 to top region of irradiated fuel rods showed decreasing trend. Inner oxide layer thicknesses of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rod were about 8 μm at 750 - 3500 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. Outer oxide layer thickness were about 8 μm at 750 - 1000 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel. Oxide layer thickness technique will apply safety evaluation and study of reactor fuels. (author). 6 refs., 14 figs

  10. Thickness-dependent radiative properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelan, P.E.; Chen, G.; Tien, C.L.

    1991-01-01

    Some applications of high-temperature superconductors where their thermal radiative behavior is important, such as bolometers, optically-triggered switches and gates, and space-cooled electronics, required the superconductor to be in the form of a very thin film whose radiative behavior cannot be adequately represented by a semi-infinite analysis. Two properties of particular importance are the film absorptance and the combined film/substrate absorptance, which are crucial to the operation of many devices. This paper reports on calculations of the absorptance of superconducting-state Y-Ba-Cu-O films on MgO substrates which suggest that for film thicknesses less than about 50 nm, a decrease in the film thickness leads to an increase in both the film absorptance and the film/substrate absorptance. Furthermore, the film absorptance is maximum at some optimal value of film thickness. Assuming the film to be a smooth, continuous slab with a refractive index equal to that of the bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O is verified, at least in the normal state and for films as thin as 35 nm, by room-temperature reflectance and transmittance measurements

  11. The effect of the MgO buffer layer thickness on magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe/Cr/MgO buffer/MgO(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozioł-Rachwał, Anna, E-mail: a.koziolrachwal@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Nozaki, Takayuki; Zayets, Vadym; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Yuasa, Shinji [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Suzuki, Yoshishige [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Spintronics Research Center, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan)

    2016-08-28

    The relationship between the magnetic properties and MgO buffer layer thickness d was studied in epitaxial MgO/Fe(t)/Cr/MgO(d) layers grown on MgO(001) substrate in which the Fe thickness t ranged from 0.4 nm to 1.1 nm. For 0.4 nm ≤ t ≤ 0.7 nm, a non-monotonic coercivity dependence on the MgO buffer thickness was shown by perpendicular magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometry. For thicker Fe films, an increase in the buffer layer thickness resulted in a spin reorientation transition from perpendicular to the in-plane magnetization direction. Possible origins of these unusual behaviors were discussed in terms of the suppression of carbon contamination at the Fe surface and changes in the magnetoelastic anisotropy in the system. These results illustrate a method to control magnetic anisotropy in MgO/Fe/Cr/MgO(d) via an appropriate choice of MgO buffer layer thickness d.

  12. Design and fabrication of optical thin film layers with variable thickness profile for producing variable reflectivity mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R fallah

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available   The design method and fabrication of mirrors with variable reflectivity are presented. To fabricate such a mirror a fixed mask with a circular aperture is used. The circular aperture is considered as an extended source with cosx(θas its diffusion distribution function and is the parameter for the distribution function of the particles through the aperture. The thickness profile of deposited layer is a function of this distribution. In this work, the coating system is calibrated for the materials which are used and then the parameter of the diffusion distribution function of the particles through the circular aperture is defined by experiments. Using these results, a graph is presented which connects the parameter of the circular aperture to the parameters of the thickness profile. It is then possible to deposit any type of variable reflectivity mirror using this graph. Finally, the effect of the uncertainty in measuring layer thicknesses on the phase of reflected wave and transmitted wave is investigated.

  13. Thickness dependence of Hall mobility of HWE grown PbTe films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaya, P.R.; Majhi, J.; Gopalam, B.S.V.; Dattatreyan, C.

    1985-01-01

    Thin epitaxial n-PbTe films of various thicknesses are grown on KCl substrates by hot wall epitaxy (HWE) technique. The X-ray, SEM and TEM studies of these films revealed their single crystalline nature. The Hall mobility (μ/sub H/) of these films is measured by Van der Pauw technique and compared with the numerically calculated values of PbTe. It is observed that μ/sub H/ very strongly depends on thickness for thin films but becomes independent of film thickness beyond 5 μm approaching its bulk value. The constant value of Hall coefficient in the temperature range 77 to 300 K show the extrinsic nature of these films. It is also noticed that the rate of increase of mobility with decreasing temperature becomes higher with film thickness. The diffused scattering mobility due to the size effect is calculated and compared with experimental data. A large discrepancy observed between these two is explained on the basis of the residual mobility contribution. The residual mobility is attributed to overall scattering due to grain boundaries, dislocations, defects, cleavage steps, and other surface effects. (author)

  14. Fabrication of CIS Absorber Layers with Different Thicknesses Using A Non-Vacuum Spray Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chen Diao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new thin-film deposition process, spray coating method (SPM, was investigated to deposit the high-densified CuInSe2 absorber layers. The spray coating method developed in this study was a non-vacuum process, based on dispersed nano-scale CuInSe2 precursor and could offer a simple, inexpensive, and alternative formation technology for CuInSe2 absorber layers. After spraying on Mo/glass substrates, the CuInSe2 thin films were annealed at 550 °C by changing the annealing time from 5 min to 30 min in a selenization furnace, using N2 as atmosphere. When the CuInSe2 thin films were annealed, without extra Se or H2Se gas used as the compensation source during the annealing process. The aim of this project was to investigate the influence of annealing time on the densification and crystallization of the CuInSe2 absorber layers to optimize the quality for cost effective solar cell production. The thickness of the CuInSe2 absorber layers could be controlled as the volume of used dispersed CuInSe2-isopropyl alcohol solution was controlled. In this work, X-ray diffraction patterns, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and Hall parameter measurements were performed in order to verify the quality of the CuInSe2 absorber layers obtained by the Spray Coating Method.

  15. Influence of titanium-substrate roughness on Ca–P–O thin films grown by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananda Sagari, A.R., E-mail: arsagari@gmail.com [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Malm, Jari [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Laitinen, Mikko [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Rahkila, Paavo [Department of Biology of Physical Activity, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Hongqiang, Ma [Department of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 35 (L), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland); Putkonen, Matti [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Beneq Oy, P.O. Box 262, FI-01511 Vantaa (Finland); Karppinen, Maarit [Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 16100, FI-00076 Aalto University, Espoo (Finland); Whitlow, Harry J.; Sajavaara, Timo [Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FIN-40014 University of Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-03-01

    Amorphous Ca–P–O films were deposited on titanium substrates using atomic layer deposition, while maintaining a uniform Ca/P pulsing ratio of 6/1 with varying number of atomic layer deposition cycles starting from 10 up to 208. Prior to film deposition the titanium substrates were mechanically abraded using SiC abrasive paper of 600, 1200, 2000 grit size and polished with 3 μm diamond paste to obtain surface roughness R{sub rms} values of 0.31 μm, 0.26 μm, 0.16 μm, and 0.10 μm, respectively. The composition and film thickness of as-deposited amorphous films were studied using Time-Of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis. The results showed that uniform films could be deposited on rough metal surfaces with a clear dependence of substrate roughness on the Ca/P atomic ratio of thin films. The in vitro cell-culture studies using MC3T3 mouse osteoblast showed a greater coverage of cells on the surface polished with diamond paste in comparison to rougher surfaces after 24 h culture. No statistically significant difference was observed between Ca–P–O coated and un-coated Ti surfaces for the measured roughness value. The deposited 50 nm thick films did not dissolve during the cell culture experiment. - Highlights: ► Atomic layer deposition of Ca–P–O films on abraded Ti substrate ► Surface analysis using Time-Of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis ► Dependence of substrate roughness on the Ca/P atomic ratio of thin films ► An increase in Ca/P atomic ratio with decreasing roughness ► Mouse osteoblast showed greater coverage of cells in polished surface.

  16. Laser-induced surface recrystallization of polycrystalline PbI2 thick films for X-ray detector application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hui; Zhao, Beijun; Zhu, Xinghua; Zhu, Shifu; Yang, Dingyu; Wangyang, Peihua; Gao, Xiuyin

    2018-01-01

    In this work, laser-induced surface recrystallization process was developed to improve the surface properties and device performance of the polycrystalline PbI2 thick films prepared by using close space vapor deposition method. A continuous polycrystalline PbI2 recrystallized layer with a better mechanical strength and reflectivity improved from 2% to 4%-6% was obtained by this recrystallization process for the films with mechanical pretreatment. Other polytypes is absent in the recrystallized layer with the 2H-polytype remaining before and after treatment and obtaining improved electrical and X-ray photoelectric response performance. The pretreatment such as mechanical cutting/polishing and hydrogenation is necessary to lower the non-wetting crystallization behavior during the recrystallization process due to the rough surface state and oxygen contamination.

  17. Experimental Comparison of the Behavior between Base Oil and Grease Starvation Based on Inlet Film Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Kostal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the experimental study of an elastohydrodynamic contact under conditions of insufficient lubricant supply. Starvation level of this type of the contact may be experimentally determined based on the position of the meniscus, but this way can't determine all levels of starvation. Consequent development in the field of tribology achieved theoretical model that can determine all levels of starvation by dependency on the thickness of the lubricant film entering the contact, but it is difficult for experimental verification. The main goal of this work is an experimental study and description of the behavior of the elastohydrodynamic contact with controlled thickness of the lubricant film at the contact input. Contact was lubricated by the base oil and the grease and compared. Results were surprising because the only differences between oil and grease were observed for more viscous lubricants at thicker film layer entering to the contact.

  18. Thickness of residual wetting film in liquid-liquid displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresnev, Igor; Gaul, William; Vigil, R. Dennis

    2011-08-01

    Core-annular flow is common in nature, representing, for example, how streams of oil, surrounded by water, move in petroleum reservoirs. Oil, typically a nonwetting fluid, tends to occupy the middle (core) part of a channel, while water forms a surrounding wall-wetting film. What is the thickness of the wetting film? A classic theory has been in existence for nearly 50 years offering a solution, although in a controversial manner, for moving gas bubbles. On the other hand, an acceptable, experimentally verified theory for a body of one liquid flowing in another has not been available. Here we develop a hydrodynamic, testable theory providing an explicit relationship between the thickness of the wetting film and fluid properties for a blob of one fluid moving in another, with neither phase being gas. In its relationship to the capillary number Ca, the thickness of the film is predicted to be proportional to Ca2 at lower Ca and to level off at a constant value of ˜20% the channel radius at higher Ca. The thickness of the film is deduced to be approximately unaffected by the viscosity ratio of the fluids. We have conducted our own laboratory experiments and compiled experimental data from other studies, all of which are mutually consistent and confirm the salient features of the theory. At the same time, the classic law, originally deduced for films surrounding moving gas bubbles but often believed to hold for liquids as well, fails to explain the observations.

  19. Preparation of nanoporous polyimide thin films via layer-by-layer self-assembly of cowpea mosaic virus and poly(amic acid)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng Bo; Wu Guojun; Lin Yuan [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China); Wang Qian [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC, 29208 (United States); Su Zhaohui, E-mail: zhsu@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2011-09-01

    Low dielectric (low-{kappa}) materials are of key importance for the performance of microchips. In this study, we show that nanosized cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles can be assembled with poly(amic acid) (PAA) in aqueous solutions via the layer-by-layer technique. Then, upon thermal treatment CPMV particles are removed and PAA is converted into polyimide in one step, resulting in a porous low-{kappa} polyimide film. The multilayer self-assembly process was monitored by quartz crystal microbalance and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Imidization and the removal of the CPMV template was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy respectively. The dielectric constant of the nanoporous polyimide film thus prepared was 2.32 compared to 3.40 for the corresponding neat polyimide. This work affords a facile approach to fabrication of low-{kappa} polyimide ultrathin films with tunable thickness and dielectric constant.

  20. Highly textured films of layered metal disulfide 2H-WS{sub 2}: Preparation and optoelectronic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthaeus, A.; Ennaoui, A.; Fiechter, S. [Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Berlin (Germany)] [and others

    1997-03-01

    Highly textured films of 2H-WS{sub 2} can be obtained by sulfurization of up to 4 {micro}m thick WO{sub 3} layers in the presence of hydrogen using amorphous (quartz glass, glassy carbon) or crystalline (sapphire, Muscovite, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite) substrates. Best conditions have been found employing (00.1) oriented sapphire substrates with a 5 nm thick nickel layer interposed between substrate and oxide film (0.5 to 4 {micro}m thickness) and a reaction temperature ranging from 973 to 1,173 K. Depending on time the crystallites, oriented with their hexagonal basal planes parallel to the substrate, exhibited a lateral extension of up to 20 {micro}m and a thickness of {le}300 nm. Conductivity measurements of the films showed a p-type conductivity in the range from 0.1 to 3 {Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} and a lateral mobility as high as 105 cm{sup 2}/V s at room temperature. The conductivity type has been confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy which were compared with n-type single crystals. A freestanding film pealed off from a Pt coated quartz substrate and mounted on a brass holder was investigated photoelectrochemically. Using a 0.2 M Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} redox electrolyte in 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} an open-circuit voltage of {approx}100 mV and a short-circuit current of 5 mA/cm{sup 2} has been detected for the first time.

  1. Robust TaNx diffusion barrier for Cu-interconnect technology with subnanometer thickness by metal-organic plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H.; Detavenier, C.; Straten, O. van der; Rossnagel, S.M.; Kellock, A.J.; Park, D.-G.

    2005-01-01

    TaN x diffusion barriers with good barrier properties at subnanometer thickness were deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD) from pentakis(dimethylamino)Ta. Hydrogen and/or nitrogen plasma was used as reactants to produce TaN x thin films with a different nitrogen content. The film properties including the carbon and oxygen impurity content were affected by the nitrogen flow during the process. The deposited film has nanocrystalline grains with hydrogen-only plasma, while the amorphous structure was obtained for nitrogen plasma. The diffusion barrier properties of deposited TaN films for Cu interconnects have been studied by thermal stress test based on synchrotron x-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the PE-ALD TaN films are good diffusion barriers even at a small thickness as 0.6 nm. Better diffusion barrier properties were obtained for higher nitrogen content. Based on a diffusion kinetics analysis, the nanocrystalline microstructure of the films was responsible for the better diffusion barrier properties compared to polycrystalline PE-ALD TaN films deposited from TaCl 5

  2. Comparison of different methods for measuring the passive film thickness on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Marie; Bataillon, Christian; Gwinner, Benoit; Miserque, Frédéric; Orazem, Mark E.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M.; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In situ EIS and ex situ XPS were used for the characterization of zirconium oxide films. • The film thicknesses can be obtained from the analysis of a single EIS diagram. • A convenient graphical method to extract film properties is proposed. - Abstract: In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements on electrogenerated zirconium oxide films on zirconium (Zr/ZrO_2) were used to quantify the oxide film thickness and resistivity profiles through the oxide. The EIS analysis presented here takes advantage of the high-frequency domain at which the constant-phase element (CPE) behavior of the oxide film reverts to a capacitive response and the Cole-Cole representations of the complex capacitance to extract the high-frequency capacitance of the oxide film without reference to the nature of the time-constant distribution within the oxide film. The film thickness of the ZrO_2 samples measured from the high-frequency capacitance of EIS were in good agreement with the thickness obtained from XPS. Moreover, the EIS analysis presented is based on the use of the integral solution of the power law model, which allows to obtain in one single EIS experiment, both the film thickness and the resistivity profile in the ZrO_2 film. This work suggests a convenient graphical method to extract film properties and serves to validate a key assumption of the power-law model for interpretation of CPE parameters in terms of physical properties.

  3. Effect of layer thickness on the thermal release from Be-D co-deposited layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, M. J.; Doerner, R. P.

    2014-08-01

    The results of previous work (Baldwin et al 2013 J. Nucl. Mater. 438 S967-70 and Baldwin et al 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 073005) are extended to explore the influence of layer thickness on the thermal D2 release from co-deposited Be-(0.05)D layers produced at ˜323 K. Bake desorption of layers of thickness 0.2-0.7 µm are explored with a view to examine the influence of layer thickness on the efficacy of the proposed ITER bake procedure, to be carried out at the fixed temperatures of 513 K on the first wall and 623 K in the divertor. The results of experiment and modelling with the TMAP-7 hydrogen transport code, show that thicker Be-D co-deposited layers are relatively more difficult to desorb (time-wise) than thinner layers with the same concentrations of intrinsic traps and retained hydrogen isotope fraction.

  4. Application of β plastic film thickness gauge in automatic production of agricultural film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Longzhi; Guo Juhao

    1996-01-01

    The author briefly explains the importance of agricultural film at home, and mainly explains the measuring principles of plastic film thickness, the design of β detector, the temperature compensation technology and the design of automatic control device

  5. Surface and Interface Properties of 10–12 Unit Cells Thick Sputter Deposited Epitaxial CeO2 Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Saraf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrathin and continuous epitaxial films with relaxed lattice strain can potentially maintain more of its bulk physical and chemical properties and are useful as buffer layers. We study surface, interface, and microstructural properties of ultrathin (∼10–12 unit cells thick epitaxial ceria films grown on single crystal YSZ substrates. The out-of -plane and in-plane lattice parameters indicate relaxation in the continuous film due to misfit dislocations seen by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM and substrate roughness of ∼1-2 unit cells, confirmed by atomic force microscopy and HRTEM. A combination of secondary sputtering, lattice mismatch, substrate roughness, and surface reduction creating secondary phase was likely the cause of surface roughness which should be reduced to a minimum level for effective use of it as buffer layers.

  6. The determination of the pressure-viscosity coefficient of a lubricant through an accurate film thickness formula and accurate film thickness measurements : part 2 : high L values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van H.J.

    2011-01-01

    The pressure-viscosity coefficient of a traction fluid is determined by fitting calculation results on accurate film thickness measurements, obtained at different speeds, loads, and temperatures. Through experiments, covering a range of 5.6 film thickness values are

  7. Angular multiplexing holograms of four images recorded on photopolymer films with recording-film-thickness-dependent holographic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osabe, Keiichi; Kawai, Kotaro

    2017-03-01

    In this study, angular multiplexing hologram recording photopolymer films were studied experimentally. The films contained acrylamide as a monomer, eosin Y as a sensitizer, and triethanolamine as a promoter in a polyvinyl alcohol matrix. In order to determine the appropriate thickness of the photopolymer films for angular multiplexing, photopolymer films with thicknesses of 29-503 μm were exposed to two intersecting beams of a YVO laser at a wavelength of 532 nm to form a holographic grating with a spatial frequency of 653 line/mm. The diffraction efficiencies as a function of the incident angle of reconstruction were measured. A narrow angular bandwidth and high diffraction efficiency are required for angular multiplexing; hence, we define the Q value, which is the diffraction efficiency divided by half the bandwidth. The Q value of the films depended on the thickness of the films, and was calculated based on the measured diffraction efficiencies. The Q value of a 297-μm-thick film was the highest of the all films. Therefore, the angular multiplexing experiments were conducted using 300-μm-thick films. In the angular multiplexing experiments, the object beam transmitted by a square aperture was focused by a Fourier transform lens and interfered with a reference beam. The maximum order of angular multiplexing was four. The signal intensity that corresponds to the squared-aperture transmission and the noise intensity that corresponds to transmission without the square aperture were measured. The signal intensities decreased as the order of angular multiplexing increased, and the noise intensities were not dependent on the order of angular multiplexing.

  8. Influence of film thickness on structural, optical, and electrical properties of spray deposited antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhijit A., E-mail: aay_physics@yahoo.co.in

    2015-09-30

    Transparent conducting antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films with varying thickness were deposited by chemical spray pyrolysis technique from non-aqueous solvent Propan-2-ol. The effect of film thickness on the properties of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films have been studied. X-ray diffraction measurements showed tetragonal crystal structure of as-deposited antimony doped SnO{sub 2} films irrespective of film thickness. The surface morphology of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin film is spherical with the continuous distribution of grains. Electrical and optical properties were investigated by Hall Effect and optical measurements. The average optical transmittance of films decreased from 89% to 73% within the visible range (350–850 nm) with increase in film thickness. The minimum value of sheet resistance observed is 4.81 Ω/cm{sup 2}. The lowest resistivity found is 3.76 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm at 660 nm film thickness. - Highlights: • Effect of film thickness on the properties of antimony doped SnO{sub 2} thin films • Crystalline size in the range of 34–37 nm • Average transmittance decreased from 89% to 73% in the visible region. • Minimum sheet resistance of 4.81 Ω/cm{sup 2} • Lowest resistivity is found to be 3.76 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm at 660 nm film thickness.

  9. Molecular beam epitaxy of large-area SnSe2 with monolayer thickness fluctuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Woon; Jerng, Sahng-Kyoon; Jeon, Jae Ho; Roy, Sanjib Baran; Akbar, Kamran; Kim, Jeong; Sim, Yumin; Seong, Maeng-Je; Kim, Jung Hwa; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Minju; Yi, Yeonjin; Kim, Jinwoo; Noh, Do Young; Chun, Seung-Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The interest in layered materials is largely based on the expectation that they will be beneficial for a variety of applications, from low-power-consuming, wearable electronics to energy harvesting. However, the properties of layered materials are highly dependent on thickness, and the difficulty of controlling thickness over a large area has been a bottleneck for commercial applications. Here, we report layer-by-layer growth of SnSe2, a layered semiconducting material, via van der Waals epitaxy. The films were fabricated on insulating mica substrates with substrate temperatures in the range of 210 °C-370 °C. The surface consists of a mixture of N and (N ± 1) layers, showing that the thickness of the film can be defined with monolayer accuracy (±0.6 nm). High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals a polycrystalline film with a grain size of ˜100 nm and clear Moiré patterns from overlapped grains with similar thickness. We also report field effect mobility values of 3.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 6.7 cm2 V-1 s-1 for 11 and 22 nm thick SnSe2, respectively. SnSe2 films with customizable thickness can provide valuable platforms for industry and academic researchers to fully exploit the potential of layered materials.

  10. Screen-printed piezoceramic thick films for miniaturised devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lou-Moeller, R.; Hindrichsen, Christian Carstensen; Thamdrup, Lasse Højlund

    2007-01-01

    machining. On the other hand, the process of screen printing thick films involves potential problems of thermal matching and chemical compatibility at the processing temperatures between the functional film, the substrate and the electrodes. As an example of such a miniaturised device, a MEMS accelerometer...

  11. Structural transition with thickness in films of poly-(styrene-b-2vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) diblock copolymer/homopolymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Vindhya; Kramer, Edward; Hur, Su-Mi; Fredrickson, Glenn; Sprung, Michael

    2009-03-01

    In multilayer thin films of spherical morphology block copolymers, the surface layers prefer hexagonal symmetry while the inner layers prefer BCC. Thin films with spherical morphology of PS-b-P2VP blends with short homopolymer polystyrene (hPS) chains have an HCP structure up to a thickness n* at which there is a transition to a face centered orthorhombic structure. Using grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy we show that that n* increases from 5 to 9 with increase in hPS from 0 to 12 vol%. For thicknesses just below n* the HCP and FCO structures coexist, but on long annealing HCP prevails. We hypothesize that the PS segregates to the interstices in the HCP structure reducing the stretching of the PS blocks and the free energy penalty of HCP versus BCC inner layers. Self consistent field theoretic simulations are being carried out to see if this idea is correct.

  12. Enhanced performance of organic light-emitting devices by using electropolymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) film as the anode modification layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Xiaona [Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Yan Jun [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Meng Lingchuan [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Sun Chenghua; Hu Xiujie; Chen Ping [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhou Shuyun, E-mail: zhou_shuyun@mail.ipc.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Photochemical Conversion and Optoelectronic Materials, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Teng Feng [Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Optical Information, Ministry of Education, Institute of Optoelectronic Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2012-01-31

    Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) films were prepared by electropolymerization on patterned indium tin oxide substrates in isopropanol solution. The thickness and doping level of the PEDOT:PSS films were controlled by adjusting the electropolymerization time and the concentration of poly(styrene sulfonate) acid, respectively. Organic light-emitting diodes were fabricated using the electropolymerized PEDOT:PSS film as the anode modification layer. The dependence of the performance on thickness of PEDOT:PSS films was investigated. It is shown that the performance of the device can be further enhanced when the thickness of PEDOT:PSS films reached an optimum condition. This method facilitates manufacturing procedures of conducting polymers films and may offer an economical route for producing organic electroluminescent devices.

  13. Stepwise crystallization and the layered distribution in crystallization kinetics of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Biao, E-mail: chemizuo@zstu.edu.cn, E-mail: wxinping@yahoo.com; Xu, Jianquan; Sun, Shuzheng; Liu, Yue; Yang, Juping; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xinping, E-mail: chemizuo@zstu.edu.cn, E-mail: wxinping@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of the Education Ministry, Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, Hangzhou 310018 (China)

    2016-06-21

    Crystallization is an important property of polymeric materials. In conventional viewpoint, the transformation of disordered chains into crystals is usually a spatially homogeneous process (i.e., it occurs simultaneously throughout the sample), that is, the crystallization rate at each local position within the sample is almost the same. Here, we show that crystallization of ultra-thin poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films can occur in the heterogeneous way, exhibiting a stepwise crystallization process. We found that the layered distribution of glass transition dynamics of thin film modifies the corresponding crystallization behavior, giving rise to the layered distribution of the crystallization kinetics of PET films, with an 11-nm-thick surface layer having faster crystallization rate and the underlying layer showing bulk-like behavior. The layered distribution in crystallization kinetics results in a particular stepwise crystallization behavior during heating the sample, with the two cold-crystallization temperatures separated by up to 20 K. Meanwhile, interfacial interaction is crucial for the occurrence of the heterogeneous crystallization, as the thin film crystallizes simultaneously if the interfacial interaction is relatively strong. We anticipate that this mechanism of stepwise crystallization of thin polymeric films will allow new insight into the chain organization in confined environments and permit independent manipulation of localized properties of nanomaterials.

  14. TEM and ellipsometry studies of nanolaminate oxide films prepared using atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, D.R.G. [Materials and Engineering Science, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)]. E-mail: drm@ansto.gov.au; Attard, D.J. [Materials and Engineering Science, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Finnie, K.S. [Materials and Engineering Science, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Triani, G. [Materials and Engineering Science, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Barbe, C.J. [Materials and Engineering Science, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Depagne, C. [Materials and Engineering Science, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia); Bartlett, J.R. [Materials and Engineering Science, ANSTO, PMB 1, Menai, NSW 2234 (Australia)

    2005-04-30

    Nanolaminate oxide layers consisting of TiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} have been deposited on silicon using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Characterisation of these films has been achieved by use of a range of modern transmission electron microscopy (TEM)-based techniques, including plasmon loss imaging, energy filtered imaging and scanning TEM (STEM) X-ray line profiling. These have shown that the target thickness of the individual layers in the nanolaminate structures (20 nm) has been met with a high degree of accuracy, that the layers are extremely flat and parallel and that the interfaces between the layers are compositionally abrupt. Localised crystallisation within the stacks, and responses to electron beam irradiation point to the presence of a stress gradient within the layers. The performance of ellipsometry in characterising multilayer stacks has been benchmarked against the TEM measurements. Errors in determination of individual layer thicknesses were found to increase with growing stack size, as expected given the increasing number of interfaces incorporated in each model. The most sophisticated model gave maximum deviations of {+-}4 nm from the TEM determined values for the 5- and 10-layer stacks.

  15. Effect of layer thickness on the thermal release from Be–D co-deposited layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    The results of previous work (Baldwin et al 2013 J. Nucl. Mater. 438 S967–70 and Baldwin et al 2014 Nucl. Fusion 54 073005) are extended to explore the influence of layer thickness on the thermal D 2 release from co-deposited Be–(0.05)D layers produced at ∼323 K. Bake desorption of layers of thickness 0.2–0.7 µm are explored with a view to examine the influence of layer thickness on the efficacy of the proposed ITER bake procedure, to be carried out at the fixed temperatures of 513 K on the first wall and 623 K in the divertor. The results of experiment and modelling with the TMAP-7 hydrogen transport code, show that thicker Be–D co-deposited layers are relatively more difficult to desorb (time-wise) than thinner layers with the same concentrations of intrinsic traps and retained hydrogen isotope fraction. (paper)

  16. Influence of cement film thickness on the retention of implant-retained crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehl, Christian; Harder, Sönke; Steiner, Martin; Vollrath, Oliver; Kern, Matthias

    2013-12-01

    The main goal of this study was to establish a new, high precision procedure to evaluate the influence of cement film thickness on the retention of cemented implant-retained crowns. Ninety-six tapered titanium abutments (6° taper, 4.3 mm diameter, Camlog) were shortened to 4 mm. Computer-aided design was used to design the crowns, and selective laser sintering, using a cobalt-chromium alloy, was used to produce the crowns. This method used a focused high-energy laser beam to fuse a localized region of metal powder to build up the crowns gradually. Before cementing, preset cement film thicknesses of 15, 50, 80, or 110 μm were established. Glass ionomer, polycarboxylate, or resin cements were used for cementation. After 3 days storage in demineralized water, the retention of the crowns was measured in tension using a universal testing machine. The cement film thicknesses could be achieved with a high level of precision. Interactions between the factors cement and cement film thickness could be found (p ≤ 0.001). For all cements, crown retention decreased significantly between a cement film thickness of 15 and 50 μm (p ≤ 0.001). At 15 μm cement film thickness, the resin cement was the most retentive cement, followed by the polycarboxylate and then the glass ionomer cement (p ≤ 0.05). The results suggest that cement film thickness has an influence on the retentive strength of cemented implant-retained crowns. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. Fabrication of thick superconducting films by decantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Betancourt M.

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available We have found superconducting behavior in thick films fabricated by decantation. In this paper we present the experimental method and results obtained using commercial copper substrates.

  18. Growth model and structure evolution of Ag layers deposited on Ge films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielski, Arkadiusz; Skowronski, Lukasz; Górecka, Ewa; Kierdaszuk, Jakub; Szoplik, Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    We investigated the crystallinity and optical parameters of silver layers of 10-35 nm thickness as a function 2-10 nm thick Ge wetting films deposited on SiO 2 substrates. X-ray reflectometry (XRR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements proved that segregation of germanium into the surface of the silver film is a result of the gradient growth of silver crystals. The free energy of Ge atoms is reduced by their migration from boundaries of larger grains at the Ag/SiO 2 interface to boundaries of smaller grains near the Ag surface. Annealing at different temperatures and various durations allowed for a controlled distribution of crystal dimensions, thus influencing the segregation rate. Furthermore, using ellipsometric and optical transmission measurements we determined the time-dependent evolution of the film structure. If stored under ambient conditions for the first week after deposition, the changes in the transmission spectra are smaller than the measurement accuracy. Over the course of the following three weeks, the segregation-induced effects result in considerably modified transmission spectra. Two months after deposition, the slope of the silver layer density profile derived from the XRR spectra was found to be inverted due to the completed segregation process, and the optical transmission spectra increased uniformly due to the roughened surfaces, corrosion of silver and ongoing recrystallization. The Raman spectra of the Ge wetted Ag films were measured immediately after deposition and ten days later and demonstrated that the Ge atoms at the Ag grain boundaries form clusters of a few atoms where the Ge-Ge bonds are still present.

  19. Properties of conductive thick-film inks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtze, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    Ten different conductive inks used in the fabrication of thick-film circuits were evaluated for their physical and handling properties. Viscosity, solid contents, and spectrographic analysis of the unfired inks were determined. Inks were screened on ceramic substrates and fired for varying times at specified temperatures. Selected substrates were given additional firings to simulate the heat exposure received if thick-film resistors were to be added to the same substrate. Data are presented covering the (1) printing characteristics, (2) solderability using Sn-63 and also a 4 percent silver solder, (3) leach resistance, (4) solder adhesion, and (5) wire bonding properties. Results obtained using different firing schedules were compared. A comparison was made between the various inks showing general results obtained for each ink. The changes in firing time or the application of a simulated resistor firing had little effect on the properties of most inks.

  20. Enhanced off-resonance magnetoelectric response in laser annealed PZT thick film grown on magnetostrictive amorphous metal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palneedi, Haribabu [Materials Interface Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Functional Ceramics Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Maurya, Deepam; Priya, Shashank [Bio-inspired Materials and Devices Laboratory (BMDL), Center for Energy Harvesting Materials and Systems (CEHMS), Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Kim, Gi-Yeop; Choi, Si-Young, E-mail: youngchoi@kims.re.kr [Materials Modeling and Characterization Department, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Suk-Joong L. [Materials Interface Laboratory, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Ho [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jungho, E-mail: jhryu@kims.re.kr [Functional Ceramics Group, Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS), Changwon 641-831 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-06

    A highly dense, 4 μm-thick Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) film is deposited on amorphous magnetostrictive Metglas foil (FeBSi) by granule spray in vacuum process at room temperature, followed by its localized annealing with a continuous-wave 560 nm ytterbium fiber laser radiation. This longer-wavelength laser radiation is able to anneal the whole of thick PZT film layer without any deteriorative effects, such as chemical reaction and/or atomic diffusion, at the interface and crystallization of amorphous Metglas substrate. Greatly enhanced dielectric and ferroelectric properties of the annealed PZT are attributed to its better crystallinity and grain growth induced by laser irradiation. As a result, a colossal off-resonance magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficient that is two orders of magnitude larger than previously reported output from PZT/Metglas film-composites is achieved. The present work addresses the problems involved in the fabrication of PZT/Metglas film-composites and opens up emerging possibilities in employing piezoelectric materials with low thermal budget substrates (suitable for integrated electronics) and designing laminate composites for ME based devices.

  1. Depth profiling of fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) film: Localized fluorine in the top-most thin layer can enhance the non-thrombogenic properties of F-DLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasebe, Terumitsu [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Tachikawa Hospital, 4-2-22, Nishiki-cho, Tachikawa, Tokyo 190-8531 (Japan)], E-mail: teru_hasebe@hotmail.com; Nagashima, So [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Kamijo, Aki [Department of Transfusion Medicine, the University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Yoshimura, Taichi; Ishimaru, Tetsuya; Yoshimoto, Yukihiro; Yohena, Satoshi; Kodama, Hideyuki; Hotta, Atsushi [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Takahashi, Koki [Department of Transfusion Medicine, the University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Suzuki, Tetsuya [Center for Science of Environment, Resources and Energy, Keio University Faculty of Science and Technology, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan)

    2007-12-03

    Fluorine-doped diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) has recently drawn a great deal of attention as a more non-thrombogenic coating than conventional DLC for blood-contacting medical devices. We conducted quantitative depth profiling of F-DLC film by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to elucidate the effects of fluorine and fluorine distribution in F-DLC film in connection with the prevention of surface blood adhesion. F-DLC films were prepared on silicon substrates using the radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition method, and the thickness of films was {approx} 50 nm. 50-nm-thick F-DLC film samples were etched at 10-nm thickness intervals using argon plasma, and each surface was examined by XPS. Thereafter, each etched film layer was incubated with platelet-rich plasma isolated from human whole blood, and the platelet-covered area per unit area was evaluated for each surface. XPS spectra showed the localization of doped fluorine in the top-most thin layer of the film. Platelet-covered areas represented progressively larger portions of the surfaces of deeper etched layers, corresponding to the decreasing fluorine content in such sample surfaces. These results indicate that the localized fluorine in the top-most thin layer is one of the key factors in the promotion of the non-thrombogenicity of F-DLC film.

  2. Optimization of phantom backscatter thickness and lateral scatter volume for radiographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.P.; De Wagter, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimal backscatter thickness and lateral phantom dimension beyond the irradiated volume for the dosimetric verification with radiographic film when applying large field sizes. Polystyrene and Virtual Water™ phantoms were used to study the influence of the phantom backscatter thickness. EDR2 and XV films were used in 6 and 18 MV photon beams. The results show 11.4% and 6.4% over-response of the XV2 film when compared to the ion chamber for 6 MV 30×30 and 10×10 cm 2 field sizes, respectively, when the phantom backscatter thickness is 5 cm. For the same setup, measurements with EDR2 films indicate 8.5% and 1.7% over-response. The XV2 film response in the polystyrene phantom is about 2.0% higher than in the Virtual Water™ phantom for the 6 MV beam and 20 cm backscatter thickness. Similar results were obtained for EDR2 film. In the lateral scatter study, film response was nearly constant within 5 cm of lateral thickness and it increases when lateral thickness increases due to more multiple scatter of low energy photons. The backscatter thickness of the phantom should be kept below 7 cm for the accuracy of the film dosimetry. The lateral extension of the phantom should not be more than 5 cm from the field boundary in case of large irradiated volumes.

  3. Numerical analysis of the influence of buffer layer thickness on the residual stresses in YBCO/La2Zr2O7/Ni superconducting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Erdal; Sayman, Onur; Karakuzu, Ramazan; Ozman, Yilmaz

    2007-01-01

    The present paper addresses a numerical investigation of the influence of buffer layer thickness on the residual stress in YBCO/La 2 Zr 2 O 7 /Ni architectured materials under cryogenic conditions by using classical lamination theory (CLT) and finite element method (FEM) for coated conductor applications. YBCO/La 2 Zr 2 O 7 multilayer films were fabricated on Ni tape substrate using reel-to-reel sol-gel and pulse laser deposition (PLD) systems. The microstructural evolution of high temperature superconducting YBCO film and buffer layers with La 2 Zr 2 O 7 configuration grown on textured Ni tape substrates was investigated by using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Thermal stress analysis of YBCO/La 2 Zr 2 O 7 /Ni multilayer sample was performed by using CLT in the temperature range of 298-175 K in liquid helium media. The YBCO/La 2 Zr 2 O 7 /Ni sample strip was solved by using FEM for linear or nonlinear cases in the temperature range of 298-3 K in liquid helium media. SEM observations revealed that crack-free, pinhole-free, continuous superconducting film and buffer layer were obtained by sol-gel and PLD systems. In addition to microstructural observations, it was found that the largest compressive stresses and failure occur in La 2 Zr 2 O 7 buffer layer due to its smallest thermal expansion coefficient. The thickness of La 2 Zr 2 O 7 buffer layer affects the failure. The stress component of σ x is the smallest in Ni tape substrate due to its largest thickness

  4. Effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, F.A., E-mail: felipe.garces@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Budini, N. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Arce, R.D.; Schmidt, J.A. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, Santa Fe S3000AOM (Argentina)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films. Transparent conducting oxide films were grown by the spray pyrolysis technique from precursors prepared via the sol–gel method. We determined the structural properties of the films by performing X-ray diffraction and mosaicity measurements, which evidenced an increase of disorder and inhomogeneity between crystalline domains as the films thickened. This behavior was contrasted with results obtained from electrical measurements and was attributed to plastic deformation of the films as their thickness increased. As a result, the carrier mobility, the optical gap and the activation energy are affected due to emerging grain boundaries and a higher degree of disorder. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin films on glass with different thicknessesFilm thickness affects the morphological and electrical properties. • Increasing time deposition allows modification of resistivity and Hall mobility. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increases with film thickness.

  5. Effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, F.A.; Budini, N.; Arce, R.D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films. Transparent conducting oxide films were grown by the spray pyrolysis technique from precursors prepared via the sol–gel method. We determined the structural properties of the films by performing X-ray diffraction and mosaicity measurements, which evidenced an increase of disorder and inhomogeneity between crystalline domains as the films thickened. This behavior was contrasted with results obtained from electrical measurements and was attributed to plastic deformation of the films as their thickness increased. As a result, the carrier mobility, the optical gap and the activation energy are affected due to emerging grain boundaries and a higher degree of disorder. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin films on glass with different thicknessesFilm thickness affects the morphological and electrical properties. • Increasing time deposition allows modification of resistivity and Hall mobility. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increases with film thickness

  6. Metallic oxide switches using thick film technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D. N.; Williams, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic oxide thick film switches were processed on alumina substrates using thick film technology. Vanadium pentoxide in powder form was mixed with other oxides e.g., barium, strontium copper and glass frit, ground to a fine powder. Pastes and screen printable inks were made using commercial conductive vehicles and appropriate thinners. Some switching devices were processed by conventional screen printing and firing of the inks and commercial cermet conductor terminals on 96% alumina substrates while others were made by applying small beads or dots of the pastes between platinum wires. Static, and dynamic volt-ampere, and pulse tests indicate that the switching and self-oscillatory characteristics of these devices could make them useful in memory element, oscillator, and automatic control applications.

  7. Mems-based pzt/pzt bimorph thick film vibration energy harvester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Ruichao; Lei, Anders; Dahl-Petersen, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We describe fabrication and characterization of a significantly improved version of a MEMS-based PZT/PZT thick film bimorph vibration energy harvester with an integrated silicon proof mass. The main advantage of bimorph vibration energy harvesters is that strain energy is not lost in mechanical...... support materials since only PZT is strained, and thus it has a potential for significantly higher output power. An improved process scheme for the energy harvester resulted in a robust fabrication process with a record high fabrication yield of 98.6%. Moreover, the robust fabrication process allowed...... a high pressure treatment of the screen printed PZT thick films prior to sintering, improving the PZT thick film performance and harvester power output reaches 37.1 μW at 1 g....

  8. Contact problems of a rectangular block on an elastic layer of finite thickness: Part II: The thick layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alblas, J.B.; Kuipers, M.

    1970-01-01

    We consider a layer of finite thickness loaded in plane strain by a stamp with a straight horizontal base, which is smooth and rigid. The stamp is pressed vertically into the layer and is slightly rotated by an external moment load subsequently. Two cases are considered successively: the lower side

  9. Investigation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} barrier film properties made by atomic layer deposition onto fluorescent tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium molecular films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maindron, Tony; Aventurier, Bernard [LETI/DOPT/SCOOP/Laboratoire des Composants pour la Visualisation, CEA-LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ghazouani, Ahlem; Jullien, Tony [LETI/DTSI/SDEP/Laboratoire Dépôt Equipe 2, CEA-LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Rochat, Névine [LETI/DTSI/Service de Caractérisation des Matériaux et Composants, CEA-LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Simon, Jean-Yves; Viasnoff, Emilie [LETI/DOPT/SCOOP/Laboratoire des Composants pour la Visualisation, CEA-LETI, MINATEC Campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F-38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2013-12-02

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films have been deposited at 85 °C by atomic layer deposition onto single 100 nm thick tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminium (AlQ{sub 3}) films made onto silicon wafers. It has been found that a thick ALD-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer (> 11 nm) greatly prevents the photo-oxidation of AlQ{sub 3} films when exposed to continuous UV irradiation (350 mW/cm{sup 2}). Thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thicknesses (< 11 nm) on the contrary yield lower barrier performances. Defects in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer have been easily observed as non-fluorescent AlQ{sub 3} singularities, or black spots, under UV light on the system Si/AlQ{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stored into laboratory conditions (22 °C/50% Relative Humidity (RH)) for long time scale (∼ 2000 h). Accelerated aging conditions in a climatic chamber (85 °C/85% RH) also allow faster visualization of the same defects (168 h). The black spot density grows upon time and the black spot density occurrence rates have been calculated to be 0.024 h{sup −1}·cm{sup −2} and 0.243 h{sup −1}·cm{sup −2} respectively for the two testing conditions. A detailed investigation of these defects did show that they cannot be ascribed to the presence of a detectable particle. In that sense they are presumably the consequence of the existence of nanometre-scaled defects which cannot be detected onto fresh samples. Interestingly, an additional overcoating of ebeam-deposited SiO{sub 2} onto the Si/AlQ{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample helps to decrease drastically the black spot density occurrence rates down to 0.004 h{sup −1}·cm{sup −2} and 0.04 h{sup −1}·cm{sup −2} respectively for 22 °C/50% RH and 85 °C/85% RH testing conditions. These observations highlight the moisture sensitivity of low temperature ALD-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films and confirm the general idea that a single Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD film performs as an ultra-high barrier but needs to be overprotected from water condensation by an

  10. Correlation of Gear Surface Fatigue Lives to Lambda Ratio (Specific Film Thickness)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Timothy Lewis

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the lubrication regime on gear performance has been recognized, qualitatively, for decades. Often the lubrication regime is characterized by the specific film thickness being the ratio of lubricant film thickness to the composite surface roughness. Three studies done at NASA to investigate gearing pitting life are revisited in this work. All tests were done at a common load. In one study, ground gears were tested using a variety of lubricants that included a range of viscosities, and therefore the gears operated with differing film thicknesses. In a second and third study, the performance of gears with ground teeth and superfinished teeth were assessed. Thicker oil films provided longer lives as did improved surface finish. These datasets were combined into a common dataset using the concept of specific film thickness. This unique dataset of more 258 tests provides gear designers with some qualitative information to make gear design decisions.

  11. The research of device for measuring film thickness of intelligent coating machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Wanjun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ion beam sputtering machine uses computer to real time monitor the change of film thickness in the preparation process of soft X ray multilayer element fabrication. It solves the problems of uneven film thickness and too thick film thickness and so on, which exist in the original preparation process. The high-precision quartz crystal converts film thickness measurement into frequency measurement. The equal precision frequency meter based on FPGA measures the frequency. It can reduce the signal delay and interference signal of discrete components, accordingly improving the accuracy of measurement. Then it sents the count value to the host computer through the single chip microcomputer serial port. It calculates and displays the value by the GUI of LabVIEW. The experimental results show that, the relative measurement error can be decreased to 1/10, i.e., the measurement accuracy can be improved by more than ten times.

  12. Room temperature H{sub 2}S gas sensing characteristics of platinum (Pt) coated porous alumina (PoAl) thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, P.S., E-mail: p_smore@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Mumbai 400 032 (India); Raut, R.W. [Department of Botany, Institute of Science, Mumbai 400 032 (India); Ghuge, C.S. [Department of Physics, Institute of Science, Mumbai 400 032 (India)

    2014-02-14

    The study reports H{sub 2}S gas sensing characteristics of platinum (Pt) coated porous alumina (PoAl) films. The porous alumina (PoAl) thick layers were formed in the dark on aluminum substrates using an electrochemical anodization method. Thin semitransparent platinum (Pt) films were deposited on PoAl samples using chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The films were characterized using energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thicknesses of coated and bare films were measured using ellipsometry. The sensing properties such as sensitivity factor (S.F.), response time, recovery time and repeatability were measured using a static gas sensing system for H{sub 2}S gas. The EDAX studies confirmed the purity of Pt–PoAl film and indicated the formation of pure platinum (Pt) phase. The ellipsometry studies revealed the thickness of PoAl layer of about 15–17 μm on aluminum substrates. The SEM studies demonstrated uniform distribution of spherical pores with a size between 0.250 and 0.500 μm for PoAl film and nearly spherical platinum particles with average particle size ∼100 nm for Pt–PoAl film. The gas-sensing properties of these samples were studied in a home-built static gas characterization system. The H{sub 2}S gas sensing properties of Pt–PoAl at 1000 ppm of H{sub 2}S gave maximum sensitivity factor (S.F.) = 1200. The response time and recovery time were found to be 2–3 min and ∼1 min respectively. Further, the measurement of H{sub 2}S gas sensing properties clearly indicated the repeatability of gas sensing response of Pt–PoAl film. The present study indicated the significant potential of Pt coated PoAl films for H{sub 2}S gas sensing applications in diverse areas. - Highlights: • Electrochemical anodization, cheap and effective method for fabrication of PoAl. • Chemical bath deposition, a simple and effective method for deposition of Pt on PoAl. • A nano-composite film sensor with high sensitivity

  13. Effect of antiferromagnetic layer thickness on exchange bias, training effect, and magnetotransport properties in ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic antidot arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, W. J.; Liu, W., E-mail: wliu@imr.ac.cn; Feng, J. N.; Zhang, Z. D. [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Kim, D. S.; Choi, C. J. [Functional Materials Division, Korea Institute of Materials Science, 531 Changwon- daero, Changwon 631-831 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-07

    The effect of antiferromagnetic (AFM) layer on exchange bias (EB), training effect, and magnetotransport properties in ferromagnetic (FM) /AFM nanoscale antidot arrays and sheet films Ag(10 nm)/Co(8 nm)/NiO(t{sub NiO})/Ag(5 nm) at 10 K is studied. The AFM layer thickness dependence of the EB field shows a peak at t{sub NiO} = 2 nm that is explained by using the random field model. The misalignment of magnetic moments in the three-dimensional antidot arrays causes smaller decrease of EB field compared with that in the sheet films for training effect. The anomalous magnetotransport properties, in particular positive magnetoresistance (MR) for antidot arrays but negative MR for sheet films are found. The training effect and magnetotransport properties are strongly affected by the three-dimensional spin-alignment effects in the antidot arrays.

  14. CdO Doped Indium Oxide Thick Film as a Low Temperature H2S Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. CHAVAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The thick films of AR grade In2O3 were prepared by standard screen-printing technique. The gas sensing performance of thick film was tested for various gases. It showed maximum gas response to ethanol vapor at 350 oC for 80 ppm. To improve the gas response and selectivity of the film towards a particular gas, In2O3 thick films were modified by dipping them in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M CdCl2 for different intervals of time. The surface modified (10 min In2O3 thick film showed maximum response to H2S gas (10 ppm than pure In2O3 thick film at 150 oC. Cadmium oxide on the surface of the film shifts the gas response from ethanol vapor to H2S gas. A systematic study of sensing performance of the thick films indicates the key role played by cadmium oxide on the surface of thick films. The selectivity, gas response and recovery time of the thick films were measured and presented.

  15. The magnetic characteristics of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction with MgO and Al-O oxidation layers in various thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.-J.; Canizo-Cabrera, A.; Chang, C.-H.; Liao, K.-A.; Li, Simon C.; Hou, C.-K.; Wu Teho

    2006-01-01

    In this work we show the magnetic characteristics of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (pMTJ) with different oxidation layers. The pMTJs structures were made by RF and DC magnetron sputtering. Individual depositions of magnesium oxide layers and of aluminum oxide films were prepared by plasma oxidation. The experimental results showed that the initial switching field was decreased as the magnesium oxide thickness was increased. Further work of the aluminum oxide surface roughness and hysteresis loop influenced by different oxidation layers on pMTJs structures will be discussed as well

  16. Thick-Film and LTCC Passive Components for High-Temperature Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dziedzic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At this very moment an increasing interest in the field of high-temperature electronics is observed. This is a result of development in the area of wide-band semiconductors’ engineering but this also generates needs for passives with appropriate characteristics. This paper presents fabrication as well as electrical and stability properties of passive components (resistors, capacitors, inductors made in thick-film or Low-Temperature Co-fired Ceramics (LTCC technologies fulfilling demands of high-temperature electronics. Passives with standard dimensions usually are prepared by screen-printing whereas combination of standard screen-printing with photolithography or laser shaping are recommenced for fabrication of micropassives. Attainment of proper characteristics versus temperature as well as satisfactory long-term high-temperature stability of micropassives is more difficult than for structures with typical dimensions for thick-film and LTCC technologies because of increase of interfacial processes’ importance. However it is shown that proper selection of thick-film inks together with proper deposition method permit to prepare thick-film micropassives (microresistors, air-cored microinductors and interdigital microcapacitors suitable for the temperature range between 150°C and 400°C.

  17. Gas Sensing Performance of Pure and Modified BST Thick Film Resistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. JAIN

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Barium Strontium Titanate (BST-(Ba0.87Sr0.13TiO3 ceramic powder was prepared by mechanochemical process. The thick films of different thicknesses of BST were prepared by screen-printing technique and gas-sensing performance of these films was tested for various gases. The films showed highest response and selectivity to ammonia gas. The pure BST film was surface modified by surfactant CrO3 by using dipping technique. The surface modified film suppresses the response to ammonia and enhances to H2S gas. The surface modification of films changes the adsorption-desorption relationship with the target gas and shifts its selectivity. The gas response, selectivity, response and recovery time of the pure and modified films were measured and presented.

  18. Studies on Gas Sensing Performance of Cr-doped Indium Oxide Thick Film Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Chavan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of In1-xCrxO3 composites, with x ranging from 0.01 to 0.5wt% were prepared by mechanochemically starting from InCl3 and CrO3. Structural and micro structural characteristics of the sample were investigated by XRD, SEM with EDAX. Thick films of pure Indium Oxide and composites were prepared by standard screen printing technique. The gas sensitivity of these thick films was tested for various gases. The pure Indium Oxide thick film (x=0 shows maximum sensitivity to ethanol vapour (80 ppm at 350 oC, but composite-A (x=0.01 thick film shows maximum sensitivity to H2S gas (40 ppm at 250 oC, composite-B (x=0.1 thick film shows higher sensitivity to NH3 gas (80 ppm at 250 oC and composite-C (x=0.5 thick film shows maximum sensitivity to Cl2 gas (80 ppm at 350 oC. A systematic study of gas sensing performance of the sensors indicates the key role played by concentration variation of Cr doped species. The sensitivity, selectivity and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  19. Thickness-dependence of optical constants for Ta2O5 ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dong-Xu; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Wei; Wu, Kang-Ning; Mao, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zhao, Hai-bin; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2012-01-01

    An effective method for determining the optical constants of Ta 2 O 5 thin films deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer-substrate) was presented. Ta 2 O 5 thin films with thickness range of 1-400 nm have been prepared by the electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. We find that the refractive indices of Ta 2 O 5 ultrathin films less than 40 nm drop with the decreasing thickness, while the other ones are close to those of bulk Ta 2 O 5 . This phenomenon was due to the existence of an interfacial oxide region and the surface roughness of the film, which was confirmed by the measurement of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical properties of ultrathin film varying with the thickness are useful for the design and manufacture of nano-scaled thin-film devices. (orig.)

  20. Thickness-dependence of optical constants for Ta2O5 ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xu; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Wei; Wu, Kang-Ning; Mao, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zhao, Hai-bin; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2012-09-01

    An effective method for determining the optical constants of Ta2O5 thin films deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer-substrate) was presented. Ta2O5 thin films with thickness range of 1-400 nm have been prepared by the electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. We find that the refractive indices of Ta2O5 ultrathin films less than 40 nm drop with the decreasing thickness, while the other ones are close to those of bulk Ta2O5. This phenomenon was due to the existence of an interfacial oxide region and the surface roughness of the film, which was confirmed by the measurement of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical properties of ultrathin film varying with the thickness are useful for the design and manufacture of nano-scaled thin-film devices.

  1. Effect of boundary layer thickness on the flow characteristics around a rectangular prism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ho Seong; Kim, Kyung Chun

    2001-01-01

    Effect of boundary layer thickness on the flow characteristics around a rectangular prism has been investigated by using a PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) technique. Three different boundary layers (thick, medium and thin) were generated in the atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel at Pusan National University. The thick boundary layer having 670mm thickness was generated by using spires and roughness elements. The medium thickness of boundary layer(δ=270mm) was the natural turbulent boundary layer at the test section with fully long developing length(18m). The thin boundary layer with 36.5mm thickness was generated by on a smooth panel elevated 70cm from the wind tunnel floor. The Reynolds number based on the free stream velocity and the height of the model was 7.9X10 3 . The mean velocity vector fields and turbulent kinetic energy distribution were measured and compared. The effect of boundary layer thickness is clearly observed not only in the length of separation bubble but also in the reattachment points. The thinner boundary layer thickness, the higher turbulent kinetic energy peak around the model roof. It is strongly recommended that the height ratio between model and approaching boundary layer thickness should be a major parameter

  2. CZTS absorber layer for thin film solar cells from electrodeposited metallic stacked precursors (Zn/Cu-Sn)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M.I., E-mail: mdibrahim.khalil@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Atici, O. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy); Lucotti, A. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Binetti, S.; Le Donne, A. [Department of Materials Science and Solar Energy Research Centre (MIB-SOLAR), University of Milano- Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Magagnin, L., E-mail: luca.magagnin@polimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ing. Chimica “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, Via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano (Italy)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • CZTS absorber layer was fabricated by electrodeposition—annealing route from stacked bilayer precursor (Zn/Cu-Sn). • Different characterization techniques have ensured the well formed Kesterite CZTS along the film thickness also. • Two different excitation wavelengths of laser lines (514.5 and 785 nm) have been used for the Raman characterization of the films. • No significant Sn loss is observed in CZTS films after the sulfurization of the stacked bilayer precursors. • Photoluminescence spectroscopy reveals the PL peak of CZTS at 1.15 eV at low temperature (15 K). - Abstract: In the present work, Kesterite-Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films were successfully synthesized from stacked bilayer precursor (Zn/Cu-Sn) through electrodeposition-annealing route. Adherent and homogeneous Cu-poor, Zn-rich stacked metal Cu-Zn-Sn precursors with different compositions were sequentially electrodeposited, in the order of Zn/Cu-Sn onto Mo foil substrates. Subsequently, stacked layers were soft annealed at 350 °C for 20 min in flowing N{sub 2} atmosphere in order to improve intermixing of the elements. Then, sulfurization was completed at 585 °C for 15 min in elemental sulfur environment in a quartz tube furnace with N{sub 2} atmosphere. Morphological, compositional and structural properties of the films were investigated using SEM, EDS and XRD methods. Raman spectroscopy with two different excitation lines (514.5 and 785 nm), has been carried out on the sulfurized films in order to fully characterize the CZTS phase. Higher excitation wavelength showed more secondary phases, but with low intensities. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) has also been performed on films showing well formed Kesterite CZTS along the film thickness as compositions of the elements do not change along the thickness. In order to investigate the electronic structure of the CZTS, Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been carried out on the films, whose

  3. Study of buffer layer thickness on bulk heterojunction solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seunguk; Suman, C K; Lee, Donggu; Kim, Seohee; Lee, Changhee

    2010-10-01

    We studied the effect of the buffer layer (molybdenum-oxide (MoO3)) thickness on the performance of organic solar cell based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester fullerene derivative (PCBM). The thickness of MoO3 was varied from 1 nm to 30 nm for optimization of device performance. The photocurrent-voltage and impedance spectroscopy were measured under dark and AM1.5G solar simulated illumination of 100 mW/cm2 for exploring the role of the buffer layer thickness on carrier collection at an anode. The MoO3 thickness of the optimized device (efficiency approximately 3.7%) was found to be in the range of 5 approximately 10 nm. The short-circuit current and the shunt resistance decrease gradually for thicker MoO3 layer over 5 nm. The device can be modeled as the combination of three RC parallel circuits (each one for the active layer, buffer layer and interface between the buffer layer and the active layer) in series with contact resistance (Rs approximately 60 ohm).

  4. Orientation and thickness dependence of magnetization at the interfacesof highly spin-polarized manganite thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopdekar, Rajesh V.; Arenholz, Elke; Suzuki, Y.

    2008-08-18

    We have probed the nature of magnetism at the surface of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films. The spin polarization of La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} thin films is not intrinsically suppressed at all surfaces and interfaces but is highly sensitive to both the epitaxial strain state as well as the substrate orientation. Through the use of soft x-ray spectroscopy, the magnetic properties of (001), (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces have been investigated and compared to bulk magnetometry and resistivity measurements. The magnetization of (110) and (111)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces are more bulk-like as a function of thickness whereas the magnetization at the (001)-oriented La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface is suppressed significantly below a layer thickness of 20 nm. Such findings are correlated with the biaxial strain state of the La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films; for a given film thickness it is the tetragonal distortion of (001) La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} that severely impacts the magnetization, whereas the trigonal distortion for (111)-oriented films and monoclinic distortion for (110)-oriented films have less of an impact. These observations provide evidence that surface magnetization and thus spin polarization depends strongly on the crystal surface orientation as well as epitaxial strain.

  5. Effects of thickness and annealing condition on magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta sandwiched films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Min-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Wei; Zhang, Hai-Jie; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Chai, Yue-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta sandwiched films are deposited by magnetron sputtering on Si (100) substrates, and subsequently annealed in vacuum at different temperatures for different time. It is found that both the thickness of NdFeB and Nd layer and the annealing condition can affect the magnetic properties of Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films. Interestingly, the thickness and annealing temperature show the relevant behaviors that can affect the magnetic properties of the film. The high coercivity of 24.1 kOe (1 Oe = 79.5775 A/m) and remanence ratio (remanent magnetization/saturation magnetization) of 0.94 can be obtained in a Ta/Nd(250 nm)/NdFeB(600 nm)/Nd(250 nm)/Ta film annealed for 3 min at 1023 K. In addition, the thermal stability of the film is also linked to the thickness of NdFeB and Nd layer and the annealing temperature as well. The excellent thermal stability can be achieved in a Ta/Nd(250 nm)/NdFeB(600 nm)/Nd(250 nm)/Ta film annealed at 1023 K. Program supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51305290), the Higher Education Technical Innovation Project of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013133), the Fund Program for the Scientific Activities of Selected Returned Overseas Professionals of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2015003), and the Program for the Key Team of Scientific and Technological Innovation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013131009).

  6. Effect of the Ti-Nanolayer Thickness on the Self-Lift-off of Thick GaN Epitaxial Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugov, A. A.; Malahov, S. S.; Donskov, A. A.; Duhnovskii, M. P.; Knyazev, S. N.; Kozlova, Yu. P.; Yugova, T. G.; Belogorokhov, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of the type of substrate, sapphire substrate (c- and r-orientation) or GaN/Al_2O_3 template (c- and r-orientations), on the nitridation of an amorphous titanium nanolayer is shown. The effect of the titanium-nanolayer thickness on thick GaN epitaxial layer self-separation from the substrate is revealed. The titanium-nanolayer thickness at which thick GaN layer is reproducibly self-separated is within 20–40 nm.

  7. Thin dielectric film thickness determination by advanced transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, A.C.; Foran, B.; Kisielowski, C.; Muller, D.; Pennycook, S.; Principe, E.; Stemmer, S.

    2003-09-01

    High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HR-TEM) has been used as the ultimate method of thickness measurement for thin films. The appearance of phase contrast interference patterns in HR-TEM images has long been confused as the appearance of a crystal lattice by non-specialists. Relatively easy to interpret crystal lattice images are now directly observed with the introduction of annular dark field detectors for scanning TEM (STEM). With the recent development of reliable lattice image processing software that creates crystal structure images from phase contrast data, HR-TEM can also provide crystal lattice images. The resolution of both methods was steadily improved reaching now into the sub Angstrom region. Improvements in electron lens and image analysis software are increasing the spatial resolution of both methods. Optimum resolution for STEM requires that the probe beam be highly localized. In STEM, beam localization is enhanced by selection of the correct aperture. When STEM measurement is done using a highly localized probe beam, HR-TEM and STEM measurement of the thickness of silicon oxynitride films agree within experimental error. In this paper, the optimum conditions for HR-TEM and STEM measurement are discussed along with a method for repeatable film thickness determination. The impact of sample thickness is also discussed. The key result in this paper is the proposal of a reproducible method for film thickness determination.

  8. Misfit strain-film thickness phase diagrams and related electromechanical properties of epitaxial ultra-thin lead zirconate titanate films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Q.Y.; Mahjoub, R. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Alpay, S.P. [Materials Science and Engineering Program and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Nagarajan, V., E-mail: nagarajan@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The phase stability of ultra-thin (0 0 1) oriented ferroelectric PbZr{sub 1-x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 3} (PZT) epitaxial thin films as a function of the film composition, film thickness, and the misfit strain is analyzed using a non-linear Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire thermodynamic model taking into account the electrical and mechanical boundary conditions. The theoretical formalism incorporates the role of the depolarization field as well as the possibility of the relaxation of in-plane strains via the formation of microstructural features such as misfit dislocations at the growth temperature and ferroelastic polydomain patterns below the paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transformation temperature. Film thickness-misfit strain phase diagrams are developed for PZT films with four different compositions (x = 1, 0.9, 0.8 and 0.7) as a function of the film thickness. The results show that the so-called rotational r-phase appears in a very narrow range of misfit strain and thickness of the film. Furthermore, the in-plane and out-of-plane dielectric permittivities {epsilon}{sub 11} and {epsilon}{sub 33}, as well as the out-of-plane piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 33} for the PZT thin films, are computed as a function of misfit strain, taking into account substrate-induced clamping. The model reveals that previously predicted ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients due to misfit-strain-induced phase transitions are practically achievable only in an extremely narrow range of film thickness, composition and misfit strain parameter space. We also show that the dielectric and piezoelectric properties of epitaxial ferroelectric films can be tailored through strain engineering and microstructural optimization.

  9. Formation process of graphite film on Ni substrate with improved thickness uniformity through precipitation control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seul-Gi; Hu, Qicheng; Nam, Ki-Bong; Kim, Mun Ja; Yoo, Ji-Beom

    2018-04-01

    Large-scale graphitic thin film with high thickness uniformity needs to be developed for industrial applications. Graphitic films with thicknesses ranging from 3 to 20 nm have rarely been reported, and achieving the thickness uniformity in that range is a challenging task. In this study, a process for growing 20 nm-thick graphite films on Ni with improved thickness uniformity is demonstrated and compared with the conventional growth process. In the film grown by the process, the surface roughness and coverage were improved and no wrinkles were observed. Observations of the film structure reveal the reasons for the improvements and growth mechanisms.

  10. Realistic reflectance spectrum of thin films covering a transparent optically thick substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaria, M., E-mail: maura.cesaria@le.infn.it; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “Ennio De Giorgi,” University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    A spectrophotometric strategy is presented and discussed for calculating realistically the reflectance spectrum of an absorbing film deposited over a thick transparent or semi-transparent substrate. The developed route exploits simple mathematics, has wide range of applicability (high-to-weak absorption regions and thick-to-ultrathin films), rules out numerical and curve-fitting procedures as well as model-functions, inherently accounts for the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface as well as substrate backside, and describes the film reflectance spectrum as determined by the experimental situation (deposition approach and parameters). The reliability of the method is tested on films of a well-known material (indium tin oxide) by deliberately changing film thickness and structural quality through doping. Results are found consistent with usual information yielded by reflectance, its inherent relationship with scattering processes and contributions to the measured total reflectance.

  11. Design guidelines for advanced LSI microcircuit packaging using thick film multilayer technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckinpaugh, C. J.

    1974-01-01

    Ceramic multilayer circuitry results from the sequential build-up of two or more layers of pre-determined conductive interconnections separated by dielectric layers and fired at an elevated temperature to form a solidly fused structure. The resultant ceramic interconnect matrix is used as a base to mount active and passive devices and provide the necessary electrical interconnection to accomplish the desired electrical circuit. Many methods are known for developing multilevel conductor mechanisms such as multilayer printed circuits, welded wire matrices, flexible copper tape conductors, and thin and thick-film ceramic multilayers. Each method can be considered as a specialized field with each possessing its own particular set of benefits and problems. This design guide restricts itself to the art of design, fabrication and assembly of ceramic multilayer circuitry and the reliability of the end product.

  12. Solvent annealing induced phase separation and dewetting in PMMA∕SAN blend film: film thickness and solvent dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jichun; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Huang, Gang; Shi, Tongfei; Li, Yongjin

    2013-06-28

    The competition between "dewetting" and "phase separation" behaviors in polymer blend films attracts significant attention in the last decade. The simultaneous phase separation and dewetting in PMMA∕SAN [poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(styrene-ran-acrylonitrile)] blend ultrathin films upon solvent annealing have been observed for the first time in our previous work. In this work, film thickness and annealing solvent dependence of phase behaviors in this system has been investigated using atomic force microscopy and grazing incidence small-angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS). On one hand, both vertical phase separation and dewetting take place upon selective solvent vapor annealing, leading to the formation of droplet∕mimic-film structures with various sizes (depending on original film thickness). On the other hand, the whole blend film dewets the substrate and produces dispersed droplets on the silicon oxide upon common solvent annealing. GISAXS results demonstrate the phase separation in the big dewetted droplets resulted from the thicker film (39.8 nm). In contrast, no period structure is detected in small droplets from the thinner film (5.1 nm and 9.7 nm). This investigation indicates that dewetting and phase separation in PMMA∕SAN blend film upon solvent annealing depend crucially on the film thickness and the atmosphere during annealing.

  13. Flexoelectricity induced increase of critical thickness in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hao; Hong Jiawang; Zhang Yihui; Li Faxin; Pei Yongmao; Fang Daining

    2012-01-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the coupling between polarization and strain/stress gradients in insulating crystals. In this paper, using the Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach, we found that flexoelectricity could increase the theoretical critical thickness in epitaxial BaTiO 3 thin films, below which the switchable spontaneous polarization vanishes. This increase is remarkable in tensile films while trivial in compressive films due to the electrostriction caused decrease of potential barrier, which can be easily destroyed by the flexoelectricity, between the ferroelectric state and the paraelectric state in tensile films. In addition, the films are still in a uni-polar state even below the critical thickness due to the flexoelectric effect.

  14. Flexoelectricity induced increase of critical thickness in epitaxial ferroelectric thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Hao [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Hong Jiawang; Zhang Yihui [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li Faxin [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Pei Yongmao, E-mail: peiym@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang Daining, E-mail: fangdn@pku.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory for Turbulence and Complex Systems, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Flexoelectricity describes the coupling between polarization and strain/stress gradients in insulating crystals. In this paper, using the Landau-Ginsburg-Devonshire phenomenological approach, we found that flexoelectricity could increase the theoretical critical thickness in epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} thin films, below which the switchable spontaneous polarization vanishes. This increase is remarkable in tensile films while trivial in compressive films due to the electrostriction caused decrease of potential barrier, which can be easily destroyed by the flexoelectricity, between the ferroelectric state and the paraelectric state in tensile films. In addition, the films are still in a uni-polar state even below the critical thickness due to the flexoelectric effect.

  15. Magnetic properties and microstructure investigation of electrodeposited FeNi/ITO films with different thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Derang; Wang, Zhenkun; Feng, Erxi; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •FeNi alloy thin films with different thickness deposited on Indium Tin Oxides (ITOs) conductive glass substrates by electrodeposition method. •A columnar crystalline microstructure and domain structure were obtained in FeNi thin films. •Particular FMR spectra of FeNi alloy with different thickness were studied. -- Abstract: FeNi alloy thin films with different thickness deposited on Indium Tin Oxides (ITOs) conductive glass substrates from the electrolytes by electrodeposition method have been studied by magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique. For these films possessing an in-plane isotropy, the remanence decreases with the increasing of film thickness and the critical thickness that a stripe domain structure emerges is about 116 nm. Characteristic differences of the FMR spectra of different thickness are also observed. The results show that the resonance field at high measured angle increases firstly then decreases with increasing thickness, which may be related to the striped domain structure

  16. Ethanol vapour sensing properties of screen printed WO 3 thick films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ethanol vapour sensing properties of these thick films were investigated at different operating temperatures and ethanol vapour concentrations. The WO3 thick films exhibit excellent ethanol vapour sensing properties with a maximum sensitivity of ∼1424.6% at 400°C in air atmosphere with fast response and recovery ...

  17. Microstructure and thermochromic properties of VOX-WOX-VOX ceramic thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khamseh, S.; Ghahari, M.; Araghi, H.; Faghihi Sani, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    W-doped VO 2 films have been synthesized via oxygen annealing of V-W-V (vanadium-tungsten-vanadium) multilayered films. The effects of middle layer's thickness of V-W-V multilayered film on structure and properties of VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin films were investigated. The as-deposited V-W-V multilayered film showed amorphous-like structure when mixed structure of VO 2 (M) and VO 2 (B) was formed in VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin films. Tungsten content of VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin films increased with increasing middle layer's thickness. With increasing middle layer's thickness, room temperature square resistance (R sq ) of VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin films increased from 65 to 86 kΩ/sq. The VO X -WO X -VO X ceramic thin film with the thinnest middle layer showed significant SMT (semiconductor-metal transition) when SMT became negligible on increasing middle layer's thickness. (orig.)

  18. Preparation and layer-by-layer solution deposition of Cu(In,GaO2 nanoparticles with conversion to Cu(In,GaS2 films.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter J Dressick

    Full Text Available We present a method of Cu(In,GaS2 (CIGS thin film formation via conversion of layer-by-layer (LbL assembled Cu-In-Ga oxide (CIGO nanoparticles and polyelectrolytes. CIGO nanoparticles were created via a novel flame-spray pyrolysis method using metal nitrate precursors, subsequently coated with polyallylamine (PAH, and dispersed in aqueous solution. Multilayer films were assembled by alternately dipping quartz, Si, and/or Mo substrates into a solution of either polydopamine (PDA or polystyrenesulfonate (PSS and then in the CIGO-PAH dispersion to fabricate films as thick as 1-2 microns. PSS/CIGO-PAH films were found to be inadequate due to weak adhesion to the Si and Mo substrates, excessive particle diffusion during sulfurization, and mechanical softness ill-suited to further processing. PDA/CIGO-PAH films, in contrast, were more mechanically robust and more tolerant of high temperature processing. After LbL deposition, films were oxidized to remove polymer and sulfurized at high temperature under flowing hydrogen sulfide to convert CIGO to CIGS. Complete film conversion from the oxide to the sulfide is confirmed by X-ray diffraction characterization.

  19. SEM and XPS study of layer-by-layer deposited polypyrrole thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigois-Landureau, E.; Nicolau, Y. F.; Delamar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of thin films (a few nm) of polypyrrole was carried out on various substrates such as silver, platinum, electrochemically oxidized aluminum and pretreated glass. SEM micrographs showed that the deposited layers nucleate by an island-type mechanism on hydrated alumina and KOH-pretreated (hydrophilic) glass before forming a continuous film. However, continuous thin films are obtained on chromic acid pretreated (hydrophobic) glass and sputtered Ag or Pt on glass after only 3-4 deposition cycles. The mean deposition rate evaluated by XPS for the first deposition cycles on Ag and Pt is 3 and 4 nm/cycle, respectively, in agreement with previous gravimetric determinations on thicker films, proving the constancy of the deposition rate. The XPS study of the very thin films obtained by a few deposition cycles shows that the first polypyrrole layers are dedoped by hydroxydic (basic) substrate surfaces.

  20. Tuning the thickness of electrochemically grafted layers in large area molecular junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluteau, T.; Bessis, C.; Barraud, C., E-mail: clement.barraud@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Della Rocca, M. L.; Lafarge, P. [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, MPQ, UMR 7162, CNRS, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France); Martin, P.; Lacroix, J.-C. [Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, ITODYS, UMR 7086, CNRS, 15 rue J.-A. de Baïf, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)

    2014-09-21

    We have investigated the thickness, the surface roughness, and the transport properties of oligo(1-(2-bisthienyl)benzene) (BTB) thin films grafted on evaporated Au electrodes, thanks to a diazonium-based electro-reduction process. The thickness of the organic film is tuned by varying the number of electrochemical cycles during the growth process. Atomic force microscopy measurements reveal the evolution of the thickness in the range of 2–27 nm. Its variation displays a linear dependence with the number of cycles followed by a saturation attributed to the insulating behavior of the organic films. Both ultrathin (2 nm) and thin (12 and 27 nm) large area BTB-based junctions have then been fabricated using standard CMOS processes and finally electrically characterized. The electronic responses are fully consistent with a tunneling barrier in case of ultrathin BTB film whereas a pronounced rectifying behavior is reported for thicker molecular films.

  1. Towards a new thickness-independent gamma radiation plastic film dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Marli Barbosa; Araujo, Patricia L.; Araujo, Elma S.

    2013-01-01

    A 100% national single-use gamma radiation plastic film dosimeter is presented in this work. A new approach for the development of this material allowed a step forward in the performance of poly (methyl metacrylate) films (PMMA) colored with bromothymol blue (BTB) acid-base indicator. We manage to improve dosimeter performance by introducing a gamma radiation insensitive dye to compensate film thickness variations. By doing so, we were able to obtain consistent dose-response correlations within a set of samples presenting 46 to 110 micrometers in thickness. Hence, our PMMA/BTB-P film dosimeter is suitable to measure absorbed dose in the 2-100kGy range even when film thickness undergoes more than 100% of variation. In addition, dose response data remain practically unaltered for four months after the exposure, when dosimeter films are kept in dark conditions and under refrigeration. The radiation effects on the optical properties were evaluated for Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometric analysis. Data of characteristic dose-response correlation in terms of changes in the maximum UV-Vis absorption due to radiation, and stability in time are also described. This potential new product is a promising tool for industrial radiation facilities, especially in gamma sterilization of medical supplies. (author)

  2. Noise properties of Pb/Cd-free thick film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stadler, Adam Witold; Kolek, Andrzej; Zawislak, Zbigniew; Mleczko, Krzysztof; Jakubowska, Malgorzata; Kielbasinski, Konrad Rafal; Mlozniak, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Low-frequency noise spectroscopy has been used to examine noise properties of Pb/Cd-free RuO 2 - and CaRuO 3 -based thick films screen printed on alumina substrates. Experiments were performed in the temperature range 77-300 K and the frequency range 0.5-5000 Hz with multiterminal devices. The measured noise has been recognized as resistance noise that consists of background 1/f noise and components generated by several thermally activated noise sources (TANSs) of different activation energies. The total noise has been composed of the contributions generated in the resistive layer and in the resistive/conductive layers interface. These noise sources are non-uniformly distributed in the resistor volume. Noise intensity of new-resistive layers has been described by the noise parameter C bulk . Pb/Cd-free layers turned out to be noisier than their Pb-containing counterparts; however, the removal of Pb and Cd from resistive composition is hardly responsible for the increase in the noise. In the case of RuO 2 layers noise increases most likely due to larger grain size of RuO 2 powder used to prepare resistive pastes. Information on the quality of the resistive-to-conductive layers interface occurred to be stored in the values of noise parameter C int . Pb/Cd-free RuO 2 -based resistive pastes form well-behaved interfaces with various Ag-based conductive pastes. In contrast, CaRuO 3 -based paste forms bad contacts with AgPd terminations because the density of TANSs increases in the interface area.

  3. Electro-physical properties of superconducting ceramic thick film prepared by partial melting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Heon

    2013-05-01

    BiSrCaCuO superconductor thick films were prepared at several curing temperatures, and their electro-physical properties were determined to find an optimum fabrication conditions. Critical temperatures of the superconductors were decreased with increasing melting temperature, which was related to the amount of equilibrium phases of the superconducting materials with temperature. The critical temperature of BiSrCaCuO bulk and thick film superconductors were 107 K and 96 K, respectively. The variation of susceptibility of the superconductor thick film formed at 950 degrees C had multi-step-type curve for 70 G externally applied field, whereas, a superconductor thick film formed at 885 degrees C had a single step-type curve like a bulk BiSrCaCuO ceramic superconductor in the temperature-susceptibility curves. A partial melting at 865 degrees C is one of optimum conditions for making a superconductor thick film with a relatively homogeneous phase.

  4. Effect of multi-layered bottom electrodes on the orientation of strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskaran, M. [Microelectronics and Materials Technology Centre, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)], E-mail: madhu.bhaskaran@gmail.com; Sriram, S. [Microelectronics and Materials Technology Centre, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia); Mitchell, D.R.G.; Short, K.T. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), PMB 1, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Holland, A.S. [Microelectronics and Materials Technology Centre, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, RMIT University, GPO Box 2476V, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)

    2008-09-30

    This article discusses the results from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of piezoelectric strontium-doped lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) thin films deposited on multi-layer coatings on silicon. The films were deposited by RF magnetron sputtering on a metal coated substrate. The aim was to exploit the pronounced piezoelectric effect that is theoretically expected normal to the substrate. This work highlighted the influence that the bottom electrode architecture exerts on the final crystalline orientation of the deposited thin films. A number of bottom electrode architectures were used, with the uppermost metal layer on which PSZT was deposited being gold or platinum. The XRD analysis revealed that the unit cell of the PSZT thin films deposited on gold and on platinum were deformed, relative to expected unit cell dimensions. Experimental results have been used to estimate the unit cell parameters. The XRD results were then indexed based on these unit cell parameters. The choice and the thickness of the intermediate adhesion layers influenced the relative intensity, and in some cases, the presence of perovskite peaks. In some cases, undesirable reactions between the bottom electrode layers were observed, and layer architectures to overcome these reactions are also discussed.

  5. Optical and photoelectrochemical studies on Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} double-layer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chuan, E-mail: cli10@yahoo.com [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan 11221 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taoyuan, Taiwan 32001 (China); Hsieh, J.H. [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Taishan, Taipei, Taiwan 24301 (China); Cheng, J.C. [Department of Electronic Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan 10608 (China); Huang, C.C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan 11221 (China)

    2014-11-03

    When two different oxides films stacked together, if the absorption (upper) layer has both its conduction and valence bands more negatively lower than that of the layer underneath, then the photo-excited electrons can be forwarded to the underneath layer to become an effect of energy storage. Recent studies discovered that the double-layers of Cu{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} films possess such capacity. In order to investigate this specific phenomenon, we use a DC magnetron reactive sputtering to deposit a double-layer of Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} films on glass substrate. The film thicknesses of the double-layer are 300 nm and 200 nm respectively. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and UV–VIS–NIR photospectrometer and photoluminance tests were used to study the structure, morphology, optical absorption and band gaps of the stacked films. From XRD and SEM, we can confirm the microstructures of each layer. The UV–VIS–NIR spectrum revealed that the optical absorption of Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} fell in between the single film of Ag{sub 2}O and TiO{sub 2}. Further, two band gaps were estimated for Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} films based on the Beer-Lambert law and Tauc plot. Photoluminance and photoelectrochemical tests indicated that delayed emission by electron-hole recombination and photoelectrical current was effectively support the mechanism of electrons transfer from Ag{sub 2}O to TiO{sub 2} at Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} interface in the double-layer films. - Highlights: • A double-layer of Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2} films was deposited on glass substrate by sputtering. • XRD confirms the nanocrystalline structures of the stack deposited films. • UV–VIS–NIR spectroscopy shows the enhanced of optical absorption in Ag{sub 2}O/TiO{sub 2}. • Photoluminance and photoelectrochemical tests show electron-hole separation effect.

  6. Spin-transfer torque in tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic layer of finite thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilczynski, M.

    2011-01-01

    Two components of the spin torque exerted on a free ferromagnetic layer of finite thickness and a half-infinite ferromagnetic electrode in single tunnel junctions have been calculated in the spin-polarized free-electron-like one-band model. It has been found that the torque oscillates with the thickness of ferromagnetic layer and can be enhanced in the junction with the special layer thickness. The bias dependence of torque components also significantly changes with layer thickness. It is non-symmetric for the normal torque, in contrast to the symmetric junctions with two identical half-infinite ferromagnetic electrodes. The asymmetry of the bias dependence of the normal component of the torque can be also observed in the junctions with different spin splitting of the electron bands in the ferromagnetic electrodes. - Research highlights: → The torque oscillates with the thickness of ferromagnetic layer. → Bias dependence of the torque changes with the layer thickness. → Bias dependence of the normal torque can be asymmetric.

  7. Refraction of polarized neutrons on the boundary in thick magnetic film FeAlSi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksenov, V L; Kozhevnikov, S V; Nikitenko, Yu V [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation). Frank Lab. of Neutron Physics

    1999-07-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Refraction of polarized neutrons in multilayer structure FeAlSi(20 mkm)/Cr(0.05 mkm)/CaTiO{sub 3}(1000 mkm) has been investigated. An external magnetic field was applied under an angle to the sample surface. Refraction on themagnetic boundaries of two types has been investigated. First type is the boundary vacuum-magnetic film. Second type is magnetic film - non-magnetic substrate CaTiO{sub 3} (thin non-magnetic Cr layer doesn't refract the beam). On the boundary there are spin-flip and beam-splitting. Four spatial splitted beams were observed for different spin transitions on each type of the boundary: '+-', '++', '-+' and '--'. From the experimental values of the glancing angles of refracted beam the following parameters has been derives: the nuclear potentials of the magnetic film and the non-magnetic substrate, the magnitude and the direction of a magnetic induction in the magnetic film. It has been shown that the method of refractometry of polarized neutrons can be used for investigation of thick (about mkm) magnetic films. (author)

  8. Thickness control in electrophoretic deposition of WO3 nanofiber thin films for solar water splitting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Yuanxing; Lee, Wei Cheat; Canciani, Giacomo E.; Draper, Thomas C.; Al-Bawi, Zainab F.; Bedi, Jasbir S.; Perry, Christopher C.; Chen, Qiao

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel method combining electrospinning and electrophoretic deposition was established for the creation of nanostructured semiconductor thin films. • The created thin films displayed a high chemical stability with a controllable thickness. • The PEC water splitting performance of the thin films was optimized by fine-tuning the thickness of the films. • A maximum photoconversion efficiency was achieved by 18 μm nanofibrous thin films. - Abstract: Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of ground electrospun WO 3 nanofibers was applied to create photoanodes with controlled morphology for the application of photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting. The correlations between deposition parameters and film thicknesses were investigated with theoretical models to precisely control the morphology of the nanostructured porous thin film. The photoconversion efficiency was further optimized as a function of film thickness. A maximum photoconversion efficiency of 0.924% from electrospun WO 3 nanofibers that EPD deposited on a substrate was achieved at a film thickness of 18 μm.

  9. High-performance piezoelectric thick film based energy harvesting micro-generators for MEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zawada, Tomasz; Hansen, Karsten; Lou-Moeller, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    and are transformed by the energy harvesting micro-generator into usable electrical signal. The micro-generator comprises a silicon cantilever with integrated InSensor® TF2100 PZT thick film deposited using screen-printing. The output power versus frequency and electrical load has been investigated. Furthermore......, devices based on modified, pressure treated thick film materials have been tested and compared with the commercial InSensor® TF2100 PZT thick films. It has been found that the structures based on the pressure treated materials exhibit superior properties in terms of energy output....

  10. Atomic-layer-deposited WNxCy thin films as diffusion barrier for copper metallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soo-Hyun; Oh, Su Suk; Kim, Ki-Bum; Kang, Dae-Hwan; Li, Wei-Min; Haukka, Suvi; Tuominen, Marko

    2003-06-01

    The properties of WNxCy films deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using WF6, NH3, and triethyl boron as source gases were characterized as a diffusion barrier for copper metallization. It is noted that the as-deposited film shows an extremely low resistivity of about 350 μΩ cm with a film density of 15.37 g/cm3. The film composition measured from Rutherford backscattering spectrometry shows W, C, and N of ˜48, 32, and 20 at. %, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy analyses show that the as-deposited film is composed of face-centered-cubic phase with a lattice parameter similar to both β-WC1-x and β-W2N with an equiaxed microstructure. The barrier property of this ALD-WNxCy film at a nominal thickness of 12 nm deposited between Cu and Si fails only after annealing at 700 °C for 30 min.

  11. Effect of p-Layer and i-Layer Properties on the Electrical Behaviour of Advanced a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H Thin Film Solar Cell from Numerical Modeling Prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peyman Jelodarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of p-layer and i-layer characteristics such as thickness and doping concentration on the electrical behaviors of the a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H thin film heterostructure solar cells such as electric field, photogeneration rate, and recombination rate through the cell is investigated. Introducing Ge atoms to the Si lattice in Si-based solar cells is an effective approach in improving their characteristics. In particular, current density of the cell can be enhanced without deteriorating its open-circuit voltage. Optimization shows that for an appropriate Ge concentration, the efficiency of a-Si:H/a-SiGe solar cell is improved by about 6% compared with the traditional a-Si:H solar cell. This work presents a novel numerical evaluation and optimization of amorphous silicon double-junction (a-Si:H/a-SiGe:H thin film solar cells and focuses on optimization of a-SiGe:H midgap single-junction solar cell based on the optimization of the doping concentration of the p-layer, thicknesses of the p-layer and i-layer, and Ge content in the film. Maximum efficiency of 23.5%, with short-circuit current density of 267 A/m2 and open-circuit voltage of 1.13 V for double-junction solar cell has been achieved.

  12. Enhanced Visible Transmittance of Thermochromic VO2 Thin Films by SiO2 Passivation Layer and Their Optical Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hoon Yu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the preparation of high-quality vanadium dioxide (VO2 thermochromic thin films with enhanced visible transmittance (Tvis via radio frequency (RF sputtering and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. VO2 thin films with high Tvis and excellent optical switching efficiency (Eos were successfully prepared by employing SiO2 as a passivation layer. After SiO2 deposition, the roughness of the films was decreased 2-fold and a denser structure was formed. These morphological changes corresponded to the results of optical characterization including the haze, reflectance and absorption spectra. In spite of SiO2 coating, the phase transition temperature (Tc of the prepared films was not affected. Compared with pristine VO2, the total layer thickness after SiO2 coating was 160 nm, which is an increase of 80 nm. Despite the thickness change, the VO2 thin films showed a higher Tvis value (λ 650 nm, 58% compared with the pristine samples (λ 650 nm, 43%. This enhancement of Tvis while maintaining high Eos is meaningful for VO2-based smart window applications.

  13. Microstructural and magnetic properties of L10 FePt-C (0 0 1) textured nanocomposite films grown on different intermediate layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J S; Chow, G M; Lim, B C; Hu, J F; Ding, Y F; Ju, G

    2008-01-01

    The FePt : C films with different volume fractions of carbon and different thicknesses were epitaxially grown on a CrRu(2 0 0) underlayer with Pt and MgO intermediate layers. The magnetic properties and microstructure of these FePt : C films were investigated. The FePt : C films grown on the Pt intermediate layer consisted of a continuous layer of FePt, with overlying granular FePt grains, while the FePt : C films grown on the MgO intermediate layer consisted of granular FePt : C layers with overlying granular grains. The formation of the overlying granular FePt grains was attributed to carbon diffusion to the surface which resulted in the second nucleation of FePt. The different interface energies and surface energies of FePt on Pt and MgO intermediate layers caused the formation of an initial continuous FePt layer on the Pt intermediate layer and initial granular FePt layers on the MgO intermediate layer. The coupling between the continuous FePt layer or the granular FePt layer and the overlying granular FePt grains resulted in simultaneous magnetization reversal and thus strong exchange coupling in FePt : C films.

  14. Photon up-converting (Yb,Er){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuomisto, Minnea [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku (Finland); Doctoral Programme in Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of Turku Graduate School (UTUGS), Turku (Finland); Giedraityte, Zivile; Karppinen, Maarit [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, School of Chemical Engineering, Aalto University (Finland); Lastusaari, Mika [Department of Chemistry, University of Turku (Finland); Turku University Centre for Materials and Surfaces (MatSurf), Turku (Finland)

    2017-06-15

    We report up-converting (Yb,Er){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films grown with the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The films are crystalline and show a homogeneous morphology with a roughness less than 1 nm for 40 nm thick films. High-intensity near-infrared (NIR) to green and red two-photon up-conversion emission is obtained with 974 nm excitation through an absorption by Yb{sup 3+}, followed by a Yb{sup 3+}-Er{sup 3+} energy transfer and emission from Er{sup 3+}. The ALD technique promises to be excellent for producing up-converting films for many applications such as near-infrared radiation absorbing layers for solar cells and sensors in point-of-care biomedical diagnostics. Schematic picture of the ALD-grown (Yb,Er){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film including the up-conversion emission spectra. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Fabrication of highly conductive Ta-doped SnO2 polycrystalline films on glass using seed-layer technique by pulse laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Shoichiro; Yamada, Naoomi; Hitosugi, Taro; Hirose, Yasushi; Shimada, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the fabrication of highly conductive Ta-doped SnO 2 (Sn 1-x Ta x O 2 ; TTO) thin films on glass by pulse laser deposition. On the basis of the comparison of X-ray diffraction patterns and resistivity (ρ) values between epitaxial films and polycrystalline films deposited on bare glass, we proposed the use of seed-layers for improving the conductivity of the TTO polycrystalline films. We investigated the use of rutile TiO 2 and NbO 2 as seed-layers; these are isostructural materials of SnO 2, which are expected to promote epitaxial-like growth of the TTO films. The films prepared on the 10-nm-thick seed-layers exhibited preferential growth of the TTO (110) plane. The TTO film with x = 0.05 on rutile TiO 2 exhibited ρ = 3.5 x 10 -4 Ω cm, which is similar to those of the epitaxial films grown on Al 2 O 3 (0001).

  16. BaF2 POST-DEPOSITION REACTION PROCESS FOR THICK YBCO FILMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SUENAGA, M.; SOLOVYOV, V.F.; WU, L.; WIESMANN, H.J.; ZHU, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The basic processes of the so-called BaF 2 process for the formation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 , YBCO, films as well as its advantages over the in situ formation processes are discussed in the previous chapter. The process and the properties of YBCO films by this process were also nicely described in earlier articles by R. Feenstra, (et al.) Here, we will discuss two pertinent subjects related to fabrication of technologically viable YBCO conductors using this process. These are (1) the growth of thick (>> 1 microm) c-axis-oriented YBCO films and (2) their growth rates. Before the detail discussions of these subjects are given, we first briefly discuss what geometrical structure a YBCO-coated conductor should be. Then, we will provide examples of simple arguments for how thick the YBCO films and how fast their growth rates need to be. Then, the discussions in the following two sections are devoted to: (1) the present understanding of the nucleation and the growth process for YBCO, and why it is so difficult to grow thick c-axis-oriented films (> 3 microm), and (2) our present understanding of the YBCO growth-limiting mechanism and methods to increase the growth rates. The values of critical-current densities J c in these films are of primary importance for the applications,. and the above two subjects are intimately related to the control of J c of the films. In general, the lower the temperatures of the YBCO formation are the higher the values of J c of the films. Thus, the present discussion is limited to those films which are reacted at ∼735 C. This is the lowest temperature at which c-axis-oriented YBCO films (1-3 microm thick) are comfortably grown. It is also well known that the non-c-axis oriented YBCO platelets are extremely detrimental to the values of J c such that their effects on J c dwarf essentially all of other microstructural effects which control J c . Hence, the discussion given below is mainly focused on how to avoid the growth of these crystallites

  17. Study of lead free ferroelectrics using overlay technique on thick film microstrip ring resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shridhar N. Mathad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The lead free ferroelectrics, strontium barium niobates, were synthesized via the low cost solid state reaction method and their fritless thick films were fabricated by screen printing technique on alumina substrate. The X band response (complex permittivity at very high frequencies of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator perturbed with strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6 in form of bulk and thick film was measured. A new approach for determination of complex permittivity (ε′ and ε′′ in the frequency range 8–12 GHz, using perturbation of Ag thick film microstrip ring resonator (MSRR, was applied for both bulk and thick film of strontium barium niobates (SrxBa1-xNb2O6. The microwave conductivity of the bulk and thick film lie in the range from 1.779 S/cm to 2.874 S/cm and 1.364 S/cm to 2.296 S/cm, respectively. The penetration depth of microwave in strontium barium niobates is also reported.

  18. SEM and XPS study of layer-by-layer deposited polypyrrole thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigois-Landureau, E.; Nicolau, Y.F.; Delamar, M.

    1996-01-01

    Layer-by-layer deposition of thin films (a few nm) of polypyrrole was carried out on various substrates such as silver, platinum, electrochemically oxidized aluminum and pretreated glass. SEM micrographs showed that the deposited layers nucleate by an island-type mechanism on hydrated alumina and KOH-pretreated (hydrophilic) glass before forming a continuous film. However, continuous thin films are obtained on chromic acid pretreated (hydrophobic) glass and sputtered Ag or Pt on glass after only 3 endash 4 deposition cycles. The mean deposition rate evaluated by XPS for the first deposition cycles on Ag and Pt is 3 and 4 nm/cycle, respectively, in agreement with previous gravimetric determinations on thicker films, proving the constancy of the deposition rate. The XPS study of the very thin films obtained by a few deposition cycles shows that the first polypyrrole layers are dedoped by hydroxydic (basic) substrate surfaces. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  19. Wet/dry film thickness measurement of paint by absorption spectroscopy with acousto-optic tunable filter spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Pranay G.; Xiong, Xiangchun; Jin, Feng; Trivedi, Sudhir; Prasad, Narashima S.

    2005-08-01

    Controlling/monitoring the thickness of applied paint in real time is important to many situations including painting ship and submarine hulls in dry docks for maintaining health of ships and submarines against the harshness of the sea, in automobile and aerospace industries, and in a variety of other industries as a control sensor that plays significant role in product quality, process control, and cost control. Insufficient thickness results to inadequate protection while overspray leads to waste and pollution of the environment. A rugged instrumentation for the real time non-contact accurate measurement of wet and dry paint film thickness measurement will be immensely valuable. As paint is applied with several layers of the same or different type, thickness of each newly sprayed wet layer is of most interest, but measurement on dry paint is also useful. In this study, we use acousto-optic tunable filter-based near infrared spectrometer to obtain the absorption spectrum of layers of paint sprayed on sand blasted steel surface and thus measure the thickness of coating under both wet and dry situations. NIR spectra are obtained from 1100 to 2300 nm on four sample of different thickness of paint up to 127 micron. Partial least squares model built with the spectra shows good correlation with standard error of prediction within ~ 0.7 micron. Results indicate that the spectra also respond to the amount of organic solvent in the wet paint and can be used to monitor the degree of dryness of the paint in real time.

  20. Studies on Gas Sensing Performance of Pure and Surface Chrominated Indium Oxide Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. CHAVAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The thick films of AR grade In2O3 were prepared by standard screen-printing technique. The gas sensing performance of thick film was tested for various gases. It showed maximum gas response to ethanol vapor at 350 oC for 80 ppm. To improve the gas response and selectivity of the film towards a particular gas, In2O3 thick films were modified by dipping them in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M CrO3 for different intervals of time. The surface chrominated (20 min In2O3 thick film showed maximum response to H2S gas (40 ppm than pure In2O3 thick film at 250 oC. Chromium oxide on the surface of the film shifts the gas response from ethanol vapor to H2S gas. A systematic study of sensing performance of the sensor indicates the key role played by chromium oxide on the surface of thick film. The selectivity, gas response and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  1. Electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of a thin silver layer deposited onto PET film via atmospheric pressure plasma reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyo-Jun; Dao, Van-Duong; Choi, Ho-Suk

    2018-03-01

    This study presents the first use of a plasma reduction reaction under atmospheric pressure to fabricate a thin silver layer on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film without the use of toxic chemicals, high voltages, or an expensive vacuum apparatus. The developed film is applied to electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding. After repeatedly depositing a silver layer through a plasma reduction reaction on PET, we can successfully fabricate a uniformly deposited thin silver layer. It was found that both the particle size and film thickness of thin silver layers fabricated at different AgNO3 concentrations increase with an increase in the concentration of AgNO3. However, the roughness of the thin silver layer decreases when increasing the concentration of AgNO3 from 100 to 500 mM, and the roughness increases with a further increase in the concentration of AgNO3. The EMI shielding effectiveness (SE) of the film is measured in the frequency range of 0.045 to 1 GHz. As a result of optimizing the electrical conductivity by measuring sheet resistance of the thin silver layer, the film fabricated from 500 mM AgNO3 exhibits the highest EMI SE among all fabricated films. The maximum values of the EMI SE are 60.490 dB at 0.1 GHz and 54.721 dB at 1.0 GHz with minimum sheet resistance of 0.244 Ω/□. Given that the proposed strategy is simple and effective, it is promising for fabricating various low-cost metal films with high EMI SE.

  2. n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride–oxide heterostructure with various thickness of VO{sub 2} layer grown by MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Minhuan [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, Jiming, E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China (China); Sun, Hongjun; Liu, Weifeng [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Yuzhi [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China (China); Luo, Yingmin [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The significant influences of VO{sub 2} layer thickness on the structural, electrical and contact properties of the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure were investigated systemically. - Highlights: • High quality VO{sub 2} films with precisely controlled thickness were grown on p-GaN/sapphire substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). • A distinct reversible SMT phase transition was observed for the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure. • The clear rectifying transport characteristics originated from the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN interface were demonstrated before and after SMT of the VO{sub 2} over layer. • The XPS analyses confirmed the valence state of V in VO{sub 2} films was principally composed of V{sup 4+} with trace amount of V{sup 5+}. • The design and modulation of the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based heterostructure devices will benefit significantly from these achievements. - Abstract: High quality VO{sub 2} films with precisely controlled thickness were grown on p-GaN/sapphire substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). Results indicated that a distinct reversible semiconductor-to-metal (SMT) phase transition was observed for all the samples in the temperature dependent electrical resistance measurement, and the influence of VO{sub 2} layer thickness on the SMT properties of the as-grown n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure was investigated. Meanwhile, the clear rectifying transport characteristics originated from the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN interface were demonstrated before and after SMT of the VO{sub 2} over layer, which were attributed to the p-n junction behavior and Schottky contact character, respectively. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed the valence state of vanadium (V) in VO{sub 2} films was principally composed of V{sup 4+} with trace amount of V{sup 5+}. The design and modulation of the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based heterostructure

  3. Effects of Alclad Layer and Anodizing Time on Sulfuric Acid Anodizing and Film Properties of 2E12 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Gao-hong

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Alclad and unclad 2E12 aerospace aluminum alloy were treated by sulfuric acid anodic oxidation. The effects of alclad layer and anodizing time on the anodization behaviour and corrosion resistance of anodic oxide layer on 2E12 aluminum alloy were studied. Surface and cross-section morphology of anodic oxide films were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical properties of anodic oxide films were analyzed by potentiodynamic polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the protective anodic oxide layers are formed on alclad and unclad 2E12 aluminum alloy. The film thickness increases with anodizing time extending. The copper rich second phase particles lead to more cavity defects and even micro cracks on anodic oxide films of unclad 2E12 aluminum alloy. The anodic oxide films on alclad 2E12 aluminum alloy are thicker and have fewer cavity defects, resulting in better corrosion resistance. The films obtained after 30min and 45min anodic oxidation treatment exhibit lower corrosion current and higher impedance of the porous layer than other anodizing time.

  4. Effect of Cu buffer layer on magnetic anisotropy of cobalt thin films deposited on MgO(001 substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Sheraz Ahmad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalt thin films with 5 nm thickness were prepared on single-crystal MgO (001 substrates with different thickness Cu buffer (0 nm, 5 nm, 10 nm, 20 nm. The structure, magnetic properties and transport behaviors were investigated by employing low-energy-electron-diffraction (LEED, magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE and anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR. By comparing the magnetic properties of the sample as-deposited (without Cu buffer layer one with those having the buffer Cu, we found that the magnetic anisotropy was extremely affected by the Cu buffer layer. The magnetic anisotropy of the as-deposited, without buffer layer, sample shows the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy (UMA. We found that the symmetry of the magnetic anisotropy is changed from UMA to four-fold when the thickness of the Cu buffer layer reaches to 20 nm. Meanwhile, the coercivity increased from 49 Oe (without buffer layer to 300 Oe (with 20 nm Cu buffer, in the easy axis direction, as the thickness of the buffer layer increases. Moreover, the magnitudes of various magnetic anisotropy constants were determined from torque curves on the basis of AMR results. These results support the phenomenon shown in the MOKE.

  5. Attempt to produce both thick and thinned flowing superfluid films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwoh, D.S.W.; Goodstein, D.L.

    1977-01-01

    As discussed in the preceding paper by Graham, a controversy has arisen over conflicting reports of whether a superfluid film becomes thinned when it is set into motion. We have performed an experiment designed to reproduce as nearly as possible two previous measurements giving opposite results. Our experiment is also designed to test directly a theory proposed by Goodstein and Saffman which would have reconciled the apparently contradictory observations. We are unable to reproduce the thick-film result, finding kinetic thinning in all cases, even where the Goodstein--Saffman theory would lead us to expect a thick film. We conclude, in agreement with Graham, that the film is always thinned when it flows, and that the theory is therefore unnecessary

  6. Laser Cutting of Thick Diamond Films Using Low-Power Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y.J.; Baik, Y.J. [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    Laser cutting of thick diamond films is studied rising a low-power(10 W) copper vapor laser. Due to the existence of the saturation depth in laser cutting, thick diamond films are not easily cut by low-power lasers. In this study, we have adopted a low thermal- conductivity underlayer of alumina and a heating stage (up to 500 deg. C in air) to prevent the laser energy from consuming-out and, in turn, enhance the cutting efficiency. Aspect ratio increases twice from 3.5 to 7 when the alumina underlayer used. Adopting a heating stage also increases aspect ratio and more than 10 is obtained at higher temperatures than 400 deg. C. These results show that thick diamond films can be cut, with low-power lasers, simply by modifying the thermal property of underlayer. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Vortex pinning in artificially layered Ba(Fe,Co)2As2 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, M. J.; Lee, Jongmin; Seo, Sehun; Yoon, Sejun; Seo, M. S.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, Ho-Sup; Ha, Dong-Woo; Lee, Sanghan; Jo, Youn Jung

    2018-06-01

    Static high critical current densities (Jc) > 1 MA/cm2 with magnetic field parallel or perpendicular to c-axis were realized in Co-doped/undoped multilayerd BaFe2As2 films. We made a current bridge by FIB to allow precise measurements, and confirmed that the boundary quality using FIB was considerably better than the quality achieved using a laser. The presence of a high in-plane Jc suggested the existence of c-axis correlated vortex pinning centers. To clarify the relationship between the Jc performance and superstructures, we investigated the magnetic flux pinning mechanism using scaling theory of the volume pinning force Fp(H). The Jc(H) curves, Fp/Fp,max vs. h = H/Hirr curves, and parameters p and q depended on the characteristics of the flux pinning mechanism. It was found that the dominant pinning mechanism of Co-doped/undoped multilayerd BaFe2As2 films was Δl-pinning and the inserted undoped BaFe2As2 layers remained non-superconducting. The dominant pin geometry varied when the magnetic field direction changed. It was concluded that the artificially layered BaFe2As2 film is a 3-D superconductor due to its long correlation length compared to the thickness of the non-superconducting layer.

  8. Layer-by-Layer-Assembled High-Performance Broadband Antireflection Coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Shimomura, Hiroomi; Gemici, Zekeriyya; Cohen, Robert E.; Rubner, Michael F.

    2010-01-01

    uniformity, thickness control, roughness control, mechanical durability, and incorporation of a diverse set of functional organic molecules into nanoparticle thin films are major challenges. We have used the electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly technique

  9. Thickness-modulated anisotropic ferromagnetism in Fe-doped epitaxial HfO2 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenlong; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Ruyi; Ma, Rong; Wang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Epitaxial tetragonal Fe-doped Hf0.95Fe0.05O2 (FHO) thin films with various thicknesses were deposited on (001)-oriented NdCaAlO4 (NCAO) substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) system. The crystal structure and epitaxial nature of the FHO thin films were conf