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Sample records for thick field oxide

  1. Oxide thickness measurement for monitoring fuel performance at high burnup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, M.A.; Van Swam, L.F.P.; Brueck-Neufeld, K.

    1991-01-01

    For on-site monitoring of the fuel performance at high burnup, Advanced Nuclear Fuels uses the linear scan eddy current method to determine the oxide thickness of irradiated Zircaloy fuel cans. Direct digital data acquisition methods are employed to collect the data on magnetic storage media. This field-proven methodology allows oxide thickness measurements and rapid interpretation of the data during the reactor outages and makes it possible to immediately reinsert the assemblies for the next operating cycle. The accuracy of the poolside measurements and data acquisition/interpretation techniques have been verified through hot cell metallographic measurements of rods previously measured in the fuel pool. The accumulated data provide a valuable database against which oxide growth models have been benchmarked and allow for effective monitoring of fuel performance. (orig.) [de

  2. Impact of oxide thickness on SEGR failure in vertical power MOSFETs: Development of a semi-empirical expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, J.L.; Wheatley, C.F.; Burton, D.I.; Mouret, I.; Allenspach, M.; Brews, J.; Schrimpf, R.; Galloway, K.; Pease, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    This paper investigates the role that the gate oxide thickness (T ox ) plays on the gate and drain failure threshold voltages required to induce the onset of single-event gate rupture (SEGR). The impact of gate oxide thickness on SEGR is experimentally determined from vertical power metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) having identical process and design parameters, except for the gate oxide thickness. Power MOSFETs from five variants were specially fabricated with nominal gate oxide thicknesses of 30, 50, 70, 100, and 150 nm. Devices from each variant were characterized to mono-energetic ion beams of Nickel, Bromine, Iodine, and Gold, Employing different bias conditions, failure thresholds for the onset of SEGR were determined for each oxide thickness. Applying these experimental test results, the previously published empirical expression is extended to include the effects of gate oxide thickness. In addition, observations of ion angle, temperature, cell geometry, channel conductivity, and curvature at high drain voltages are briefly discussed

  3. The critical oxide thickness for Pb-free reflow soldering on Cu substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, C. Key [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Assembly Test Global Materials, Intel Microelectronics Asia Ltd, B1, No. 205, Tun-Hwa North Road, 10595 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.J.; Li, C.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Kao, C.R., E-mail: crkao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-01

    Oxidation is an undesirable effect of reflow soldering. Non-wetting occurs when the oxide layer grows above the critical thickness. Characterizing the critical oxide thickness for soldering is challenging due to oxide's nano-scale thickness and irregular topographic surface. In this paper, the critical copper oxide thickness was characterized by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Copper substrates were coated with an Organic-Solderable-Preservative (OSP) layer and baked at 150 Degree-Sign C and 85% Relative Humidity for different amounts of time. The onset of the non-wetting phenomenon occurred when the oxide thickness reached 18 {+-} 5 nm. As the oxide grew beyond this critical thickness, the percentage of non-wetting solder joint increased exponentially. The growth of the oxide thickness followed a parabolic rate law. The rate constant of oxidation was 0.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1}. Oxidation resulted from interdiffusion of copper and oxygen atoms through the OSP and oxide layers. The oxidation mechanism will be presented and discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical oxide thickness for Pb free solder on Cu substrate is 18 {+-} 5 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Above the critical oxide, non-wet solder joint increases exponentially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum 13-nm oxide thickness is suggested for good solder joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial growth of oxide thickness is logarithmic and then parabolic after 12 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thick oxide (360-560 nm) is formed as pores shorten the oxidation path.

  4. Thick-film effects in the oxidation and hydriding of zirconium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    One of the fundamental discoveries involving radiation effects on the oxidation of Zircaloy in low-oxygen aqueous environments is the influence of thick oxide films. Zircaloy oxidation rates in low-oxygen (hydrogen-rich) coolants initially proceed at relatively low rates, often almost uninfluenced by radiation. Marked upturns in oxidation rate have signaled the onset of radiation effects. The radiation effects appear to correlate with a threshold oxide thickness. Results of the test reactor experiments lead to formulation of the Thick-Film Hypothesis: beyond a threshold oxide thickness, radiolysis of water that infiltrates oxide cracks and pores controls the oxidation rate; radiation creates microenvironments inside the oxide film, producing highly oxidizing conditions, that are no longer suppressed by the coolant-borne hydrogen. Upturns in oxidation rate on high-exposure Zircaloy pressure tubes add confirmatory evidence for the thick-film effect. This paper summarizes the early evidence for thick-film behavior, including oxidation and hydriding trends, updates confirmatory evidence from Zircaloy reactor and fuel assembly components, and highlights other observations from the test reactor series that have potential fundamental significance to explanations of radiation effects on Zircaloy. 23 refs., 10 figs

  5. Development of examination technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, D. S.; Park, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Seo, H. S.; Min, D. K.; Kim, E. K.; Chun, Y. B.; Bang, K. S.

    1999-06-01

    Technique for oxide layer thickness measurement of irradiated fuel rods was developed to measure oxide layer thickness and study characteristic of fuel rods. Oxide layer thickness of irradiated fuels were measured, analyzed. Outer oxide layer thickness of 3 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were 20 - 30 μm, inner oxide layer thickness 0 - 10 μm and inner oxide layer thickness on cracked cladding about 30 μm. Oxide layer thickness of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rods were about 2 times as thick as those of 1 cycle-irradiated fuel rods. Oxide layer on lower region of irradiated fuel rods was thin and oxide layer from lower region to upper region indicated gradual increase in thickness. Oxide layer thickness from 2500 to 3000 mm showed maximum and oxide layer thickness from 3000 to top region of irradiated fuel rods showed decreasing trend. Inner oxide layer thicknesses of 4 cycle-irradiated fuel rod were about 8 μm at 750 - 3500 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. Outer oxide layer thickness were about 8 μm at 750 - 1000 mm from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel rod. These indicated gradual increase up to upper region from the bottom end of fuel. Oxide layer thickness technique will apply safety evaluation and study of reactor fuels. (author). 6 refs., 14 figs

  6. The thickness of native oxides on aluminum alloys and single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evertsson, J., E-mail: jonas.evertsson@sljus.lu.se [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bertram, F. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Zhang, F. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Drottning Kristinas Vg 51, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Rullik, L.; Merte, L.R.; Shipilin, M. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Soldemo, M.; Ahmadi, S. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, ICT, Material Physics, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Vinogradov, N.; Carlà, F. [ESRF, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble (France); Weissenrieder, J.; Göthelid, M. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, ICT, Material Physics, 16440 Kista (Sweden); Pan, J. [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Chemistry, Division of Surface and Corrosion Science, Drottning Kristinas Vg 51, 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden); Mikkelsen, A. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden); Nilsson, J.-O. [Sapa Technology, Kanalgatan 1, 612 31 Finspång (Sweden); Lundgren, E. [Division of Synchrotron Radiation Research, Lund University, Box 118, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • We have determined the native oxide film thickness on several Al samples. • The results obtained from XRR and XPS show excellent agreement. • The results obtained from EIS show consistently thinner oxide films. • The oxides on the alloys are thicker than the oxides on the single crystals. - Abstract: We present results from measurements of the native oxide film thickness on four different industrial aluminum alloys and three different aluminum single crystals. The thicknesses were determined using X-ray reflectivity, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. In addition, atomic force microscopy was used for micro-structural studies of the oxide surfaces. The reflectivity measurements were performed in ultra-high vacuum, vacuum, ambient, nitrogen and liquid water conditions. The results obtained using X-ray reflectivity and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrate good agreement. However, the oxide thicknesses determined from the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy show a larger discrepancy from the above two methods. In the present contribution the reasons for this discrepancy are discussed. We also address the effect of the substrate type and the presence of water on the resultant oxide thickness.

  7. Direct comparison of the electrical properties in metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon and metal/aluminum oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon capacitors with equivalent oxide thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Ho-Myoung; Seo, Yu Jeong; Kim, Hee Dong; Kim, Kyoung Chan; Kim, Jong-Guk [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Won-Ju; Koh, Jung-Hyuk [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Kwangwoon University, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Yun Mo [Department of Materials and Science Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Geun, E-mail: tgkim1@korea.ac.k [School of Electrical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-31

    We examine the electrical properties of metal/oxide/nitride/oxide/silicon (MONOS) capacitors with two different blocking oxides, SiO{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, under the influence of the same electric field. The thickness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is set to 150 A, which is electrically equivalent to a thickness of the SiO{sub 2} layer of 65 A, in the MONOS structure for this purpose. The capacitor with the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blocking layer shows a larger capacitance-voltage memory window of 8.6 V, lower program voltage of 7 V, faster program/erase speeds of 10 ms/1 {mu}s, lower leakage current of 100 pA and longer data retention than the one with the SiO{sub 2} blocking layer does. These improvements are attributed to the suppression of the carrier transport to the gate electrode afforded by the use of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} blocking layer physically thicker than the SiO{sub 2} one, as well as the effective charge-trapping by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the deep energy levels in the nitride layer.

  8. Aluminum oxide film thickness and emittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.K.; Ondrejcin, R.S.

    1991-11-01

    Aluminum reactor components which are not actively cooled could be subjected to high temperatures due to gamma heating after the core coolant level dropped during the ECS phase of a hypothetical LOCA event. Radiative heat transfer is the dominant heat transfer process in this scenario and therefore the emittance of these components is of interest. Of particular interest are the safety rod thimbles and Mark 60B blanket assemblies; for the K Reactor, these components have been exposed to low temperature (< 55 degrees C) moderator for about a year. The average moderator temperature was assumed to be 30 degrees C. The Al oxide film thickness at this temperature, after one year of exposure, is predicted to be 6.4 μm ± 10%; insensitive to exposure time. Dehydration of the film during the gamma heating accident would result in a film thickness of 6.0 μm ± 11%. Total hemispherical emittance is predicted to be 0.69 at 96 degrees C, decreasing to 0.45 at 600 degrees C. Some phenomena which would tend to yield thicker oxide films in the reactor environment relative to those obtained under experimental conditions were neglected and the predicted film thickness values are therefore conservative. The emittance values predicted for a given film thickness are also conservative. The conservativisms inherent in the predicted emittance are particularly relevant for uncertainty analysis of temperatures generated using these values

  9. Field oxide radiation damage measurements in silicon strip detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laakso, M [Particle Detector Group, Fermilab, Batavia, IL (United States) Research Inst. for High Energy Physics (SEFT), Helsinki (Finland); Singh, P; Shepard, P F [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, Univ. Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-04-01

    Surface radiation damage in planar processed silicon detectors is caused by radiation generated holes being trapped in the silicon dioxide layers on the detector wafer. We have studied charge trapping in thick (field) oxide layers on detector wafers by irradiating FOXFET biased strip detectors and MOS test capacitors. Special emphasis was put on studying how a negative bias voltage across the oxide during irradiation affects hole trapping. In addition to FOXFET biased detectors, negatively biased field oxide layers may exist on the n-side of double-sided strip detectors with field plate based n-strip separation. The results indicate that charge trapping occurred both close to the Si-SiO[sub 2] interface and in the bulk of the oxide. The charge trapped in the bulk was found to modify the electric field in the oxide in a way that leads to saturation in the amount of charge trapped in the bulk when the flatband/threshold voltage shift equals the voltage applied over the oxide during irradiation. After irradiation only charge trapped close to the interface is annealed by electrons tunneling to the oxide from the n-type bulk. (orig.).

  10. Metallic oxide switches using thick film technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, D. N.; Williams, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Metallic oxide thick film switches were processed on alumina substrates using thick film technology. Vanadium pentoxide in powder form was mixed with other oxides e.g., barium, strontium copper and glass frit, ground to a fine powder. Pastes and screen printable inks were made using commercial conductive vehicles and appropriate thinners. Some switching devices were processed by conventional screen printing and firing of the inks and commercial cermet conductor terminals on 96% alumina substrates while others were made by applying small beads or dots of the pastes between platinum wires. Static, and dynamic volt-ampere, and pulse tests indicate that the switching and self-oscillatory characteristics of these devices could make them useful in memory element, oscillator, and automatic control applications.

  11. A comparison of oxide thickness predictability from the perspective of codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo-Young; Shin, Hye-In; Kim, Kyung-Tae; Han, Hee-Tak; Kim, Hong-Jin; Kim, Yong-Hwan [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In Korea, OPR1000 and Westinghouse type nuclear power plant reactor fuel rods oxide thickness has been evaluated by imported code A. Because of this, there have been multiple constraints in operation and maintenance of fuel rod design system. For this reason, there has been a growing demand to establish an independent fuel rod design system. To meet this goal, KNF has recently developed its own code B for fuel rod design. The objective of this study is to compare oxide thickness prediction performance between code A and code B and to check the validity of predicting corrosion behaviors of newly developed code B. This study is based on Pool Side Examination (PSE) data for the performance confirmation. For the examination procedures, the oxide thickness measurement methods and equipment of PSE are described in detail. In this study, code B is confirmed conservatism and validity on evaluating cladding oxide thickness through the comparison with code A. Code prediction values show higher value than measured data from PSE. Throughout this study, the values by code B are evaluated and proved to be valid in a view point of the oxide thickness evaluation. However, the code B input for prediction has been made by designer's judgment with complex handwork that might be lead to excessive conservative result and ineffective design process with some possibility of errors.

  12. Molecular-beam-deposited yttrium-oxide dielectrics in aluminum-gated metal - oxide - semiconductor field-effect transistors: Effective electron mobility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragnarsson, L.-A degree.; Guha, S.; Copel, M.; Cartier, E.; Bojarczuk, N. A.; Karasinski, J.

    2001-01-01

    We report on high effective mobilities in yttrium-oxide-based n-channel metal - oxide - semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with aluminum gates. The yttrium oxide was grown in ultrahigh vacuum using a reactive atomic-beam-deposition system. Medium-energy ion-scattering studies indicate an oxide with an approximate composition of Y 2 O 3 on top of a thin layer of interfacial SiO 2 . The thickness of this interfacial oxide as well as the effective mobility are found to be dependent on the postgrowth anneal conditions. Optimum conditions result in mobilities approaching that of SiO 2 -based MOSFETs at higher fields with peak mobilities at approximately 210 cm 2 /Vs. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  13. Preparation and spectroscopic analysis of zinc oxide nanorod thin films of different thicknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Nasrul Haque

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zinc oxide thin films with different thicknesses were prepared on microscopic glass slides by sol-gel spin coating method, then hydrothermal process was applied to produce zinc oxide nanorod arrays. The nanorod thin films were characterized by various spectroscopic methods of analysis. From the images of field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM, it was observed that for the film thickness up to 200 nm the formed nanorods with wurtzite hexagonal structure were uniformly distributed over the entire surface substrate. From X-ray diffraction analysis it was revealed that the thin films had good polycrystalline nature with highly preferred c-axis orientation along (0 0 2 plane. The optical characterization done by UV-Vis spectrometer showed that all the films had high transparency of 83 % to 96 % in the visible region and sharp cut off at ultraviolet region of electromagnetic spectrum. The band gap of the films decreased as their thickness increased. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS showed the presence of zinc and oxygen elements in the films and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR revealed the chemical composition of ZnO in the film.

  14. The magnetic characteristics of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction with MgO and Al-O oxidation layers in various thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, T.-J.; Canizo-Cabrera, A.; Chang, C.-H.; Liao, K.-A.; Li, Simon C.; Hou, C.-K.; Wu Teho

    2006-01-01

    In this work we show the magnetic characteristics of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junction (pMTJ) with different oxidation layers. The pMTJs structures were made by RF and DC magnetron sputtering. Individual depositions of magnesium oxide layers and of aluminum oxide films were prepared by plasma oxidation. The experimental results showed that the initial switching field was decreased as the magnesium oxide thickness was increased. Further work of the aluminum oxide surface roughness and hysteresis loop influenced by different oxidation layers on pMTJs structures will be discussed as well

  15. Rapid optical determination of topological insulator nanoplate thickness and oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The stability of 2D antimony telluride (Sb2Te3 nanoplates in ambient conditions is elucidated. These materials exhibit an anisotropic oxidation mode, and CVD synthesized samples oxidize at a much faster rate than exfoliated samples investigated in previous studies. Optical measurement techniques are introduced to rapidly measure the oxidation modes and thickness of 2D materials. Auger characterization were conducted to confirm that oxygen replaces tellurium as opposed to antimony under ambient conditions. No surface morphology evolution was detected in AFM before and after exposure to air. These techniques were employed to determine the origin of the thickness dependent color change effect in Sb2Te3. It is concluded that this effect is a combination of refractive index change due to oxidation and Fresnel effects.

  16. Sunglasses with thick temples and frame constrict temporal visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denion, Eric; Dugué, Audrey Emmanuelle; Augy, Sylvain; Coffin-Pichonnet, Sophie; Mouriaux, Frédéric

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to compare the impact of two types of sunglasses on visual field and glare: one ("thick sunglasses") with a thick plastic frame and wide temples and one ("thin sunglasses") with a thin metal frame and thin temples. Using the Goldmann perimeter, visual field surface areas (cm²) were calculated as projections on a 30-cm virtual cupola. A V4 test object was used, from seen to unseen, in 15 healthy volunteers in the primary position of gaze ("base visual field"), then allowing eye motion ("eye motion visual field") without glasses, then with "thin sunglasses," followed by "thick sunglasses." Visual field surface area differences greater than the 14% reproducibility error of the method and having a p thick sunglasses." This decrease was most severe in the temporal quadrant (-33%; p thick sunglasses" than with the "thin sunglasses" (p thick sunglasses" is offset by the much poorer ability to use lateral space exploration; this results in a loss of most, if not all, of the additional visual field gained through eye motion.

  17. Thickness measurement of a thin hetero-oxide film with an interfacial oxide layer by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Joong; Lee, Seung Mi; Jang, Jong Shik; Moret, Mona

    2012-02-01

    The general equation Tove = L cos θ ln(Rexp/R0 + 1) for the thickness measurement of thin oxide films by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was applied to a HfO2/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) as a thin hetero-oxide film system with an interfacial oxide layer. The contribution of the thick interfacial SiO2 layer to the thickness of the HfO2 overlayer was counterbalanced by multiplying the ratio between the intensity of Si4+ from a thick SiO2 film and that of Si0 from a Si(1 0 0) substrate to the intensity of Si4+ from the HfO2/SiO2/Si(1 0 0) film. With this approximation, the thickness levels of the HfO2 overlayers showed a small standard deviation of 0.03 nm in a series of HfO2 (2 nm)/SiO2 (2-6 nm)/Si(1 0 0) films. Mutual calibration with XPS and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to verify the thickness of HfO2 overlayers in a series of HfO2 (1-4 nm)/SiO2 (3 nm)/Si(1 0 0) films. From the linear relation between the thickness values derived from XPS and TEM, the effective attenuation length of the photoelectrons and the thickness of the HfO2 overlayer could be determined.

  18. Thickness-Dependent Bioelectrochemical and Energy Applications of Thickness-Controlled Meso-Macroporous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mieritz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of hierarchically meso-macroporous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO enable interfacing adsorbed species, such as biomacromolecules, with an electronic circuit. The coating thickness is a limiting factor for the surface coverage of adsorbates, that are electrochemically addressable. To overcome this challenge, a carbon black-based templating method was developed by studying the composition of the template system, and finding the right conditions for self-standing templates, preventing the reaction mixture from flowing out of the mask. The thicknesses of as-fabricated coatings were measured using stylus profilometry to establish a relationship between the mask thickness and the coating thickness. Cyclic voltammetry was performed on coatings with adsorbed cytochrome c to check whether the entire coating thickness was electrochemically addressable. Further, bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers were incorporated into the coatings, and photocurrent with respect to coating thickness was studied. The template mixture required enough of both carbon black and polymer, roughly 7% carbon black and 6% poly(ethylene glycol. Coatings were fabricated with thicknesses approaching 30 µm, and thickness was shown to be controllable up to at least 15 µm. Under the experimental conditions, photocurrent was found to increase linearly with the coating thickness, up to around 12 µm, above which were diminished gains.

  19. Tunnel Oxides Formed by Field-Induced Anodisation for Passivated Contacts of Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingnan Tong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel silicon oxides form a critical component for passivated contacts for silicon solar cells. They need to be sufficiently thin to allow carriers to tunnel through and to be uniform both in thickness and stoichiometry across the silicon wafer surface, to ensure uniform and low recombination velocities if high conversion efficiencies are to be achieved. This paper reports on the formation of ultra-thin silicon oxide layers by field-induced anodisation (FIA, a process that ensures uniform oxide thickness by passing the anodisation current perpendicularly through the wafer to the silicon surface that is anodised. Spectroscopical analyses show that the FIA oxides contain a lower fraction of Si-rich sub-oxides compared to wet-chemical oxides, resulting in lower recombination velocities at the silicon and oxide interface. This property along with its low temperature formation highlights the potential for FIA to be used to form low-cost tunnel oxide layers for passivated contacts of silicon solar cells.

  20. Electrical characteristics of AlO sub x N sub y prepared by oxidation of sub-10-nm-thick AlN films for MOS gate dielectric applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jeon, S H; Kim, H S; Noh, D Y; Hwang, H S

    2000-01-01

    In this research, the feasibility of ultrathin AlO sub x N sub y prepared by oxidation of sub 100-A-thick AlN thin films for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate dielectric applications was investigated. Oxidation of 51-A-and 98-A-thick as-deposited AlN at 800 .deg. C was used to form 72-A-and 130-A-thick AlO sub x N sub y , respectively. Based on the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the MOS capacitor, the dielectric constants of 72 A-thick and 130 A-thick Al-oxynitride were 5.15 and 7, respectively. The leakage current of Al-oxynitride at low field was almost the same as that of thermal SiO sub 2. based on the CV data, the interface state density of Al-oxynitride was relatively higher than that of SiO sub 2. Although process optimization is still necessary, the Al-oxynitride exhibits some possibility for future MOS gate dielectric applications.

  1. Electrical characteristics of AlO{sub x}N{sub y} prepared by oxidation of sub-10-nm-thick AlN films for MOS gate dielectric applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Sang Hun; Jang, Hyeon Woo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Noh, Do Young; Hwang, Hyun Sang [Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-12-01

    In this research, the feasibility of ultrathin AlO{sub x}N{sub y} prepared by oxidation of sub 100-A-thick AlN thin films for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) gate dielectric applications was investigated. Oxidation of 51-A-and 98-A-thick as-deposited AlN at 800 .deg. C was used to form 72-A-and 130-A-thick AlO{sub x}N{sub y}, respectively. Based on the capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements of the MOS capacitor, the dielectric constants of 72 A-thick and 130 A-thick Al-oxynitride were 5.15 and 7, respectively. The leakage current of Al-oxynitride at low field was almost the same as that of thermal SiO{sub 2}. based on the CV data, the interface state density of Al-oxynitride was relatively higher than that of SiO{sub 2}. Although process optimization is still necessary, the Al-oxynitride exhibits some possibility for future MOS gate dielectric applications.

  2. Measurement of oxide-layer thickness of internal granules in high-purity aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, S.; Ditroi, F.; Mahunka, I.

    1989-01-01

    Charged-particle activation analysis was used for the determination of bulk oxygen concentration in aluminium. High-purity aluminium samples and mixtures containing different amounts of alumina were irradiated by 13 MeV 3 He particles. The aim of the investigation was to determine the oxide-layer thickness on the surface of internal aluminium granules. The measurement was carried out by determining the bulk oxygen concentration in the samples, and calculating the oxide-layer thickness, by using model conditions about the microstructure of the aluminium samples. (author) 5 refs

  3. Characterization of 10 μm thick porous silicon dioxide obtained by complex oxidation process for RF application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Jong-Hyun

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a 10 μm thick oxide layer structure, which can be used as a substrate for RF circuits. The structure has been fabricated by anodic reaction and complex oxidation, which is a combined process of low temperature thermal oxidation (500 deg. C, for 1 h at H 2 O/O 2 ) and a rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) process (1050 deg. C, for 1 min). The electrical characteristics of oxidized porous silicon layer (OPSL) were almost the same as those of standard thermal silicon dioxide. The leakage current through the OPSL of 10 μm was about 100-500 pA in the range of 0-50 V. The average value of breakdown field was about 3.9 MV cm -1 . From the X-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, surface and internal oxide films of OPSL, prepared by complex process were confirmed to be completely oxidized and also the role of RTO process was important for the densification of porous silicon layer (PSL) oxidized at a lower temperature. For the RF-test of Si substrate with thick silicon dioxide layer, we have fabricated high performance passive devices such as coplanar waveguide (CPW) on OPSL substrate. The insertion loss of CPW on OPSL prepared by complex oxidation process was -0.39 dB at 4 GHz and similar to that of CPW on OPSL prepared by a temperature of 1050 deg. C (1 h at H 2 O/O 2 ). Also the return loss of CPW on OPSL prepared by complex oxidation process was -23 dB at 10 GHz, which is similar to that of CPW on OPSL prepared by high temperature

  4. Effect of Thickness on Oxidation Behavior of Cr coated Zircaloy-4 using Arc Ion Plating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eui Jung; Kim, Sun Jin [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Hwan; Kim, Hyun Gil; Jung, Yang Il; Park, Dong Jun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Ever since the Fukushima accident, accident tolerant fuel (ATF) has been widely studied. To increase the life time and safety of nuclear claddings, there are increasing demands for protective coatings exhibiting excellent oxidation resistance. Many metal and oxide films are produced by using this method because of the high kinetic energy of the ions, ionization efficiency and deposition rate. Candidate materials for a protective layer have higher thermal neutron absorption cross sections than Zr. However, there is no systematic study of thickness effect on oxidation resistance of protective layer. In this study, Cr films with different thickness (from 1 μm to 50 μm) were deposited on the cladding surfaces by AIP. The high temperature oxidation resistance of Cr films with different thicknesses has been investigated. Uniform oxide layer with nanoporous structures have been fabricated on the surface of Zr-Nb-Sn alloy. Oxidation behavior of the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy and the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer evaluated by measuring weight gain (TGA).

  5. Effects of self-absorption on simultaneous estimation of temperature distribution and concentration fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles in nanofluid fuel flames using a spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guannan; Liu, Dong

    2018-06-01

    An improved inverse reconstruction model with consideration of self-absorption effect for the temperature distribution and concentration fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles in nanofluid fuel flames was proposed based on the flame emission spectrometry. The effects of self-absorption on the temperature profile and concentration fields were investigated for various measurement errors, flame optical thicknesses and detecting lines numbers. The model neglecting the self-absorption caused serious reconstruction errors especially in the nanofluid fuel flames with large optical thicknesses, while the improved model was used to successfully recover the temperature distribution and concentration fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles for the flames regardless of the optical thickness. Through increasing detecting lines number, the reconstruction accuracy can be greatly improved due to more flame emission information received by the spectrometer. With the adequate detecting lines number, the estimations for the temperature distribution and concentration fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles in flames with large optical thicknesses were still satisfying even from the noisy radiation intensities with signal to noise ratio (SNR) as low as 46 dB. The results showed that the improved reconstruction model was effective and robust to concurrently retrieve the temperature distribution and volume fraction fields of soot and metal-oxide nanoparticles for the exact and noisy data in nanofluid fuel sooting flames with different optical thicknesses.

  6. A comparison of Zircaloy oxide thicknesses on Millstone-3 and North Anna-1 PWR fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polley, M.V.; Evans, H.E.

    1993-08-01

    High concentrations of lithium in the coolant may enhance the corrosion rate of Zircaloy fuel cladding. In the present work, oxide thicknesses on fuel cladding from the Millstone 3 PWR were compared with those from the North Anna 1 PWR. The intention was to identify whether the higher lithium levels (up to 3.5 ppM) in the Millstone 3 primary coolant during cycles 2 and 3 led to significantly greater oxidation rates than in North Anna 1 which operated generally with lithium levels lower than 2.2 ppM. The comparisons were made by comparing the measurements with code predictions of Zircaloy oxidation in order to factor out the effect of operational variables on the oxide thicknesses achieved. Overall, Millstone 3 oxide thicknesses were found to be approximately 14% greater than North Anna 1 values. However, approximately 29% lower oxide thicknesses were found on reload Millstone 3 rods exposed to one cycle of elevated lithium chemistry than on Millstone 3 initial fuel exposed to one cycle of normal lithium chemistry during cycle 1. Furthermore, oxide thicknesses on Millstone 3 rods exposed to two cycles of elevated lithium chemistry were approximately 36% lower than on Millstone 3 rods exposed to one cycle of normal lithium chemistry plus one cycle of elevated lithium chemistry. Therefore, it cannot be concluded that elevated lithium operation in Millstone 3 led to enhanced Zircaloy fuel clad corrosion

  7. Field Investigation of Steamside Oxidation for TP347H

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, Ole Hede; Jensen, Søren Aakjær

    2004-01-01

    The steamside oxide formed on two TP347H superheater tubes was compared. The two specimens investigated were exposed in situ in power plants in Denmark, one specimen was coarse-grained and the other was fine-grained. Parts of both the coarse-grained and the fine-grained specimens were turned...... (machined on the inner side) to give a constant metal thickness so more precise wall thickness measurements could be undertaken. Machined and non-machined areas were investigated using light optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analysis. The oxide on the fine-grained specimen...... was also investigated with grazing incidence X-ray diffraction. Results from coarse-grained and fine-grained specimens (machined and non-machined) show that grain size influenced oxide thickness and morphology. The oxides from non-machined specimens has an outer iron rich oxide and an inner iron chromium...

  8. Ellipsometry measurements of thickness of oxide and water layers on spherical and flat silicon surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenny, M.J.; Netterfield, R.; Wielunski, L.S.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Ellipsometry has been used to measure the thickness of oxide layers on single crystal silicon surfaces, both flat and spherical and also to measure the extent of adsorption of moisture on the surface as a function of partial water vapour pressure. The measurements form part of an international collaborative project to make a precise determination of the Avogadro constant (ΔN A /N A -8 ) which will then be used to obtain an absolute definition of the kilogram, rather than one in terms of an artefact. Typically the native oxide layer on a cleaned silicon wafer is about 2 nm thick. On a polished sphere this oxide layer is typically 8 to 10 nm thick, the increased thickness being attributed to parameters related to the polishing process. Ellipsometry measurements on an 89 mm diameter polished silicon sphere at both VUW and CSIRO indicated a SiO 2 layer at 7 to 10 nm thick. It was observed that this thickness varied regularly. The crystal orientation of the sphere was determined using electron patterns generated from an electron microscope and the oxide layer was then measured through 180 arcs of great circles along (110) and (100) planes. It was observed that the thickness varied systematically with orientation. The minimum thickness was 7.4 nm at the axis (softest direction in silicon) and the greatest thickness was 9.5 nm at the axis (hardest direction in silicon). This is similar to an orientation dependent cubic pattern which has been observed to be superimposed on polished silicon spheres. At VUW, the sphere was placed in an evacuated bell jar and the ellipsometry signal was observed as the water vapour pressure was progressively increased up to saturation. The amount of water vapour adsorbed at saturation was one or two monolayers, indicating that the sphere does not wet

  9. Colloidal titania-silica-iron oxide nanocomposites and the effect from silica thickness on the photocatalytic and bactericidal activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanhom, Padtaraporn [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Charoenlap, Nisanart [Laboratory of Biotechnology, Chulabhorn Research Institute, Bangkok 10210 (Thailand); Tomapatanaget, Boosayarat [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Insin, Numpon, E-mail: Numpon.I@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2017-04-01

    New types of colloidal multifunctional nanocomposites that combine superparamagnetic character and high photocatalytic activity were synthesized and investigated. The superparamagnetic nanocomposites composed of anatase titania, silica, and iron oxide nanoparticles (TSI) were synthesized using thermal decomposition method followed by microemulsion method, without calcination at high temperature. Different techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) were used to characterize and confirm the structure of the nanocomposites. These nanocomposites showed high photocatalytic activity when used in the photodegradation of methylene blue under irradiation with a black light lamp. Moreover, the nanocomposites exhibited high antibacterial properties. From our study, the nanocomposites can be useful in various applications such as removal of pollutants with readily separation from the environment using an external magnetic field. These composites could effectively photo-degrade the dye at least three cycles without regeneration. The effects of silica shell thickness on the photocatalytic activity was investigated, and the thickness of 6 nm of the silica interlayer is enough for the inhibition of electron translocation between titania and iron oxide nanoparticles and maintaining the efficiency of photocatalytic activity of titania nanoparticles. - Highlights: • New colloidal nanocomposites of iron oxide-silica-titania were prepared. • The nanocomposites exhibited high photocatalytic activity with magnetic response. • The effects of silica thickness on photocatalytic activity were investigated. • Bactericidal activity of the nanocomposites was demonstrated.

  10. Localization of abelian gauge fields on thick branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaquera-Araujo, Carlos A. [Universidad de Colima, Facultad de Ciencias, CUICBAS, Colima (Mexico); Corradini, Olindo [Universidad Autonoma de Chiapas, Ciudad Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias en Fisica y Matematicas, Tuxtla Gutierrez (Mexico); Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Informatiche e Matematiche, Modena (Italy)

    2015-02-01

    In this work, we explore a mechanism for abelian gauge field localization on thick branes based on a five-dimensional Stueckelberg-like action. A normalizable zero mode is found through the identification of a suitable coupling function between the brane and the gauge field. The same mechanism is studied for the localization of the abelian Kalb-Ramond field. (orig.)

  11. Studies on Gas Sensing Performance of Cr-doped Indium Oxide Thick Film Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Chavan

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of In1-xCrxO3 composites, with x ranging from 0.01 to 0.5wt% were prepared by mechanochemically starting from InCl3 and CrO3. Structural and micro structural characteristics of the sample were investigated by XRD, SEM with EDAX. Thick films of pure Indium Oxide and composites were prepared by standard screen printing technique. The gas sensitivity of these thick films was tested for various gases. The pure Indium Oxide thick film (x=0 shows maximum sensitivity to ethanol vapour (80 ppm at 350 oC, but composite-A (x=0.01 thick film shows maximum sensitivity to H2S gas (40 ppm at 250 oC, composite-B (x=0.1 thick film shows higher sensitivity to NH3 gas (80 ppm at 250 oC and composite-C (x=0.5 thick film shows maximum sensitivity to Cl2 gas (80 ppm at 350 oC. A systematic study of gas sensing performance of the sensors indicates the key role played by concentration variation of Cr doped species. The sensitivity, selectivity and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  12. Oxide thickness measurement technique for duplex-layer Zircaloy-4 cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, R.G.; O'Leary, P.M.

    1992-01-01

    Siemens Nuclear Power Corporation (SNP) is investigating the use of duplex-layer Zircaloy-4 tubing to improve the waterside corrosion resistance of cladding for high-burnup pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel designs. Standard SNP PWR cladding is typically 0.762-mm (0.030-in.)-thick Zircaloy-4. The SNP duplex cladding is nominally 0.660-mm (0.026-in.)-thick Zircalloy-4 with an ∼0.102-mm (0.004-in.) outer layer of another, more corrosion-resistant, zirconium-based alloy. It is common industry practice to monitor the in-reactor corrosion behavior of Zircaloy cladding by using an eddy-current 'lift-off' technique to measure the oxide thickness on the outer surface of the fuel cladding. The test program evaluated three different cladding samples, all with the same outer diameter and wall thickness: Zircaloy-4 and duplex clad types D2 and D4

  13. Changes in Nitric Oxide Level and Thickness Index of Synovial Fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in Nitric Oxide Level and Thickness Index of Synovial Fluid in Osteoarthritis Patients ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ... and moderate phase patients after intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate, while the effect ...

  14. A new SOI high-voltage device with a step-thickness drift region and its analytical model for the electric field and breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Xiaorong; Zhang Wei; Zhang Bo; Li Zhaoji; Yang Shouguo; Zhan Zhan; Fu Daping

    2008-01-01

    A new SOI high-voltage device with a step-thickness drift region (ST SOI) and its analytical model for the two-dimension electric field distribution and the breakdown voltage are proposed. The electric field in the drift region is modulated and that of the buried layer is enhanced by the variable thickness SOI layer, thereby resulting in the enhancement of the breakdown voltage. Based on the Poisson equation, the expression for the two-dimension electric field distribution is presented taking the modulation effect into account, from which the RESURF (REduced SURface Field) condition and the approximate but explicit expression for the maximal breakdown voltage are derived. The analytical model can explain the effects of the device parameters, such as the step height and the step length of the SOI layer, the doping concentration and the buried oxide thickness, on the electric field distribution and the breakdown voltage. The validity of this model is demonstrated by a comparison with numerical simulations. Improvement on both the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance (R on ) for the ST SOI is obtained due to the variable thickness SOI layer

  15. Effects of stress on the oxide layer thickness and post-oxidation creep strain of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Young Ku

    1986-01-01

    Effects of compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and its subsequent relief on oxidation rate and post-oxidation creep characteristics of zircaloy-4 were investigated by oxidation studies in steam with and without applied tensile stress and by creep testing at 700 deg C in high purity argon. The thickness of oxide layer increased with the magnitude of tensile stress applied during oxidation at 650 deg C in steam whereas similar phenomenon was not observed during oxidation at 800 deg C. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C in steam without applied stress exhibited higher creep strain than that shown by unoxidized specimens when creep-tested in argon. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C steam under the applied stress of 8.53MPa and oxidized at 800 deg C under the applied stress of 0 and 8.53MPa exhibited lower strain than that shown by unoxidized specimen. The above experimental results were accounted for on the basis of interactions among applied stress during oxidation, compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and elasticity of zircaloy-4 matrix. (Author)

  16. A direct current potential drop method for evaluating oxide film thickness formed in high-temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzai, Hideya; Ishibashi, Ryo; Saka, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    To establish an evaluation technique for oxide film thickness in-situ, the applicability of a four-point-probe direct current potential drop method is discussed in this study. Several samples of JIS SUS316L stainless steel with different oxide film thickness were prepared after immersing them in oxygenated pure water at 288°C for different periods. The oxide film thickness was measured by cross sectional observation using a transmission electron microscope. Potential drop on the oxide surface was measured every second during an acquisition period of about 20 s while a constant current was being injected into the sample simultaneously. This kind of measurement was repeatedly carried out at several arbitrary contact positions on the surface of the same sample. The measurement results showed that the potential drop slightly changed during the acquisition period and the tendency varied at the different contact positions. Multiple measurements at different contact positions revealed that the tendency could be categorized into two general types: the decreasing potential drop and the increasing potential drop, defined by the overall trend of the potential drop during the acquisition time. It was found that the ratio of contact positions with a decreasing potential drop tendency to all the contact positions of measurement tended to increase as applied current increased. This tendency depended on the oxide film thickness. The threshold value of applied current was found to correlate well with the oxide film thickness when the occurrence rate of decreasing potential drop ranged from 70 to 90% showing the best correlation at 70%. (author)

  17. Electrical characteristics of tunneling field-effect transistors with asymmetric channel thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungsik; Oh, Hyeongwan; Kim, Jiwon; Meyyappan, M.; Lee, Jeong-Soo

    2017-02-01

    Effects of using asymmetric channel thickness in tunneling field-effect transistors (TFET) are investigated in sub-50 nm channel regime using two-dimensional (2D) simulations. As the thickness of the source side becomes narrower in narrow-source wide-drain (NSWD) TFETs, the threshold voltage (V th) and the subthreshold swing (SS) decrease due to enhanced gate controllability of the source side. The narrow source thickness can make the band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) distance shorter and induce much higher electric field near the source junction at the on-state condition. In contrast, in a TFET with wide-source narrow-drain (WSND), the SS shows almost constant values and the V th slightly increases with narrowing thickness of the drain side. In addition, the ambipolar current can rapidly become larger with smaller thickness on the drain side because of the shorter BTBT distance and the higher electric-field at the drain junction. The on-current of the asymmetric channel TFET is lower than that of conventional TFETs due to the volume limitation of the NSWD TFET and high series resistance of the WSND TFET. The on-current is almost determined by the channel thickness of the source side.

  18. Effect of coating thickness of iron oxide nanoparticles on their relaxivity in the MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzaneh Hajesmaeelzadeh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Iron oxide nanoparticles have found prevalent applications in various fields including drug delivery, cell separation and as contrast agents. Super paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles allow researchers and clinicians to enhance the tissue contrast of an area of interest by increasing the relaxation rate of water. In this study, we evaluate the dependency of hydrodynamic size of iron oxide nanoparticles coated with Polyethylene  glycol (PEG on their relativities with 3 Tesla clinical MRI. Materials and Methods: We used three groups of nanoparticles with nominal sizes 20, 50 and 100 nm with a core size of 8.86 nm, 8.69 nm and 10.4 nm that they were covered with PEG 300 and 600 Da. A clinical magnetic resonance scanner determines the T1 and T2 relaxation times for various concentrations of PEG-coated nanoparticles. Results: The size measurement by photon correlation spectroscopy showed the hydrodynamic sizes of MNPs with nominal 20, 50 and 100 nm with 70, 82 and 116 nm for particles with PEG 600 coating and 74, 93 and 100 nm for  particles with PEG 300 coating, respectively. We foud that the relaxivity decreased with increasing overall particle size (via coating thickness. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that by increasing the size of the nanoparticles, r2/r1 increases linearly. Conclusion: According to the data obtained from this study it can be concluded that increments in coating thickness have more influence on relaxivities compared to the changes in core size of magnetic nanoparticles.

  19. Low power loss and field-insensitive permeability of Fe-6.5%Si powder cores with manganese oxide-coated particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junnan, E-mail: junnanli1991@163.com, E-mail: rzhgong@hust.edu.cn; Wang, Xian; Xu, Xiaojun; Gong, Rongzhou, E-mail: junnanli1991@163.com, E-mail: rzhgong@hust.edu.cn; Feng, Zekun [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Chen, Yajie; Harris, V. G. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Center for Microwave Magnetic Materials and Integrated Circuits, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    Fe-6.5%Si alloy powders coated with manganese oxides using an innovative in situ process were investigated. The in-situ coating of the insulating oxides was realized with a KMnO{sub 4} solution by a chemical process. The insulating manganese oxides with mixed valance state were verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. The thickness of the insulating layer on alloy particles was determined to be in a range of 20–210 nm, depending upon the KMnO{sub 4} concentration. The powder core loss and the change in permeability under a DC-bias field were measured at frequencies ranging from 50 to 100 kHz. The experiments indicated that the Fe-6.5%Si powder cores with a 210 nm-thick manganese oxide layer not only showed a low core loss of 459 mW/cm{sup 3} at 100 kHz but also showed a small reduction in permeability (μ(H)/μ(0) = 85% for μ = 42) at a DC-bias field of 80 Oe. This work has defined a novel pathway to realizing low core loss and field-insensitive permeability for Fe-Si powder cores.

  20. Determination of oxide film thickness on aluminium using 14-MeV neutron activation and BET method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, H.

    1983-01-01

    A new method is described for the determination of the mean film thickness of aluminium oxides by 14-MeV neutron activation analysis of the oxygen and by BET measurement of the surface area. The mean film thickness obtained is independent of the surface roughness. Stable oxide films consisting of only a few atomic layers of oxygen are detected on aluminium. (author)

  1. CANDU fuel sheath integrity and oxide layer thickness determination by Eddy current technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gheorghe, Gabriela; Man, Ion; Parvan, Marcel; Valeca, Serban

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents results concerning the integrity assessment of the fuel elements cladding and measurements of the oxide layer on sheaths, using the eddy current technique. Flaw detection using eddy current provides information about the integrity of fuel element sheath or presence of defects in the sheath produced by irradiation. The control equipment consists of a flaw detector with eddy currents, operable in the frequency range 10 Hz to 10 MHz, and a differential probe. The calibration of the flaw detector is done using artificial defects (longitudinal, transversal, external and internal notches, bored and unbored holes) obtained on Zircaloy-4 tubes identical to those out of which the sheath of the CANDU fuel element is manufactured (having a diameter of 13.08 mm and a wall thickness of 0.4 mm). When analyzing the behavior of the fuel elements' cladding facing the corrosion is important to know the thickness of the zirconium oxide layer. The calibration of the device measuring the thickness of the oxide layer is done using a Zircaloy-4 tube identical to that which the cladding of the CANDU fuel element is manufactured of, and calibration foils, as well. (authors)

  2. The application of the barrier-type anodic oxidation method to thickness testing of aluminum films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianwen; Yao, Manwen; Xiao, Ruihua; Yang, Pengfei; Hu, Baofu; Yao, Xi

    2014-09-01

    The thickness of the active metal oxide film formed from a barrier-type anodizing process is directly proportional to its formation voltage. The thickness of the consumed portion of the metal film is also corresponding to the formation voltage. This principle can be applied to the thickness test of the metal films. If the metal film is growing on a dielectric substrate, when the metal film is exhausted in an anodizing process, because of the high electrical resistance of the formed oxide film, a sudden increase of the recorded voltage during the anodizing process would occur. Then, the thickness of the metal film can be determined from this voltage. As an example, aluminum films are tested and discussed in this work. This method is quite simple and is easy to perform with high precision.

  3. A field-scale test of in situ chemical oxidation through recirculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, O.R.; Cline, S.R.; Holden, W.L.; Gardner, F.G.; Schlosser, B.M.; Siegrist, R.L.; Houk, T.C.

    1998-01-01

    In situ chemical oxidation is a developing class of remediation technologies in which organic contaminants are degraded in place by powerful oxidants. Successful implementation of this technology requires an effective means for dispersing the oxidant to contaminated regions in the subsurface. An oxidant delivery technique has been developed wherein the treatment solution is made by adding an oxidant to extracted groundwater. The oxidant-laden groundwater is then injected and recirculated into a contaminated aquifer through multiple horizontal and/or vertical wells. This technique, referred to as in situ chemical oxidation through recirculation (ISCOR), can be applied to saturated and hydraulically conductive formations and used with relatively stable oxidants such as potassium permanganate (KMnO 4 ). A field-scale test of ISCOR was conducted at a site (Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant) where groundwater in a 5-ft thick silty gravel aquifer is contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) at levels that indicate the presence of residual dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). The field test was implemented using a pair of parallel horizontal wells with 200-ft screened sections. For approximately one month, groundwater was extracted from one horizontal well, dosed with crystalline KMnO 4 , and re-injected into the other horizontal well 90 ft away. Post-treatment characterization showed that ISCOR was effective at removing TCE in the saturated region. Lateral and vertical heterogeneities within the treatment zone impacted the uniform delivery of the oxidant solution. However, TCE was not detected in groundwater samples collected from monitoring wells and soil samples from borings in locations where the oxidant had permeated

  4. CdO Doped Indium Oxide Thick Film as a Low Temperature H2S Gas Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. CHAVAN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The thick films of AR grade In2O3 were prepared by standard screen-printing technique. The gas sensing performance of thick film was tested for various gases. It showed maximum gas response to ethanol vapor at 350 oC for 80 ppm. To improve the gas response and selectivity of the film towards a particular gas, In2O3 thick films were modified by dipping them in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M CdCl2 for different intervals of time. The surface modified (10 min In2O3 thick film showed maximum response to H2S gas (10 ppm than pure In2O3 thick film at 150 oC. Cadmium oxide on the surface of the film shifts the gas response from ethanol vapor to H2S gas. A systematic study of sensing performance of the thick films indicates the key role played by cadmium oxide on the surface of thick films. The selectivity, gas response and recovery time of the thick films were measured and presented.

  5. Thickness and clearance visualization based on distance field of 3D objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatomo Inui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel method for visualizing the thickness and clearance of 3D objects in a polyhedral representation. The proposed method uses the distance field of the objects in the visualization. A parallel algorithm is developed for constructing the distance field of polyhedral objects using the GPU. The distance between a voxel and the surface polygons of the model is computed many times in the distance field construction. Similar sets of polygons are usually selected as close polygons for close voxels. By using this spatial coherence, a parallel algorithm is designed to compute the distances between a cluster of close voxels and the polygons selected by the culling operation so that the fast shared memory mechanism of the GPU can be fully utilized. The thickness/clearance of the objects is visualized by distributing points on the visible surfaces of the objects and painting them with a unique color corresponding to the thickness/clearance values at those points. A modified ray casting method is developed for computing the thickness/clearance using the distance field of the objects. A system based on these algorithms can compute the distance field of complex objects within a few minutes for most cases. After the distance field construction, thickness/clearance visualization at a near interactive rate is achieved.

  6. Synchrotron X-ray irradiation effects on the device characteristics and the resistance to hot-carrier damage of MOSFETs with 4 nm thick gate oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yuusuke; Tanabe, Akira; Suzuki, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    The effects of synchrotron x-ray irradiation on the device characteristics and hot-carrier resistance of n- and p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) with 4 nm thick gate oxides are investigated. In p-channel MOSFETs, device characteristics were significantly affected by the x-ray irradiation but completely recovered after annealing, while the device characteristics in n-channel MOSFETs were not noticeably affected by the irradiation. This difference appears to be due to a difference in interface-state generation. In p-channel MOSFETs, defects caused by boron-ion penetration through the gate oxides may be sensitive to x-ray irradiation, causing the generation of many interface states. These interface states are completely eliminated after annealing in hydrogen gas. The effects of irradiation on the resistance to hot-carrier degradation in annealed 4 nm thick gate-oxide MOSFETs were negligible even at an x-ray dose of 6,000 mJ/cm 2

  7. Studies on Gas Sensing Performance of Pure and Surface Chrominated Indium Oxide Thick Film Resistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. CHAVAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The thick films of AR grade In2O3 were prepared by standard screen-printing technique. The gas sensing performance of thick film was tested for various gases. It showed maximum gas response to ethanol vapor at 350 oC for 80 ppm. To improve the gas response and selectivity of the film towards a particular gas, In2O3 thick films were modified by dipping them in an aqueous solution of 0.1 M CrO3 for different intervals of time. The surface chrominated (20 min In2O3 thick film showed maximum response to H2S gas (40 ppm than pure In2O3 thick film at 250 oC. Chromium oxide on the surface of the film shifts the gas response from ethanol vapor to H2S gas. A systematic study of sensing performance of the sensor indicates the key role played by chromium oxide on the surface of thick film. The selectivity, gas response and recovery time of the sensor were measured and presented.

  8. Usage of neural network to predict aluminium oxide layer thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Peter; Vagaská, Alena; Gombár, Miroslav; Kmec, Ján; Spišák, Emil; Kučerka, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage) and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A · dm(-2) and 3 A · dm(-2) for creating aluminium oxide layer.

  9. Usage of Neural Network to Predict Aluminium Oxide Layer Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Michal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows an influence of chemical composition of used electrolyte, such as amount of sulphuric acid in electrolyte, amount of aluminium cations in electrolyte and amount of oxalic acid in electrolyte, and operating parameters of process of anodic oxidation of aluminium such as the temperature of electrolyte, anodizing time, and voltage applied during anodizing process. The paper shows the influence of those parameters on the resulting thickness of aluminium oxide layer. The impact of these variables is shown by using central composite design of experiment for six factors (amount of sulphuric acid, amount of oxalic acid, amount of aluminium cations, electrolyte temperature, anodizing time, and applied voltage and by usage of the cubic neural unit with Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm during the results evaluation. The paper also deals with current densities of 1 A·dm−2 and 3 A·dm−2 for creating aluminium oxide layer.

  10. Angiotensin II stimulates superoxide production by nitric oxide synthase in thick ascending limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Saikumar, Jagannath H; Massey, Katherine J; Hong, Nancy J; Dominici, Fernando P; Carretero, Oscar A; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2016-02-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) causes nitric oxide synthase (NOS) to become a source of superoxide (O2 (-)) via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent process in endothelial cells. Ang II stimulates both NO and O2 (-) production in thick ascending limbs. We hypothesized that Ang II causes O2 (-) production by NOS in thick ascending limbs via a PKC-dependent mechanism. NO production was measured in isolated rat thick ascending limbs using DAF-FM, whereas O2 (-) was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions using the lucigenin assay. Consistent stimulation of NO was observed with 1 nmol/L Ang II (P thick ascending limbs via a PKC- and NADPH oxidase-dependent process; and (2) the effect of Ang II is not due to limited substrate. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  11. The Effect of Thickness and Chemical Reduction of Graphene Oxide on Nanoscale Friction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sangku; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Hyunsoo; Koh, Sang Joon; Ko, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kim, Sang Ouk; Park, Jeong Young

    2018-01-18

    The tribological properties of two-dimensional (2D) atomic layers are quite different from three-dimensional continuum materials because of the unique mechanical responses of 2D layers. It is known that friction on graphene shows a remarkable decreasing behavior as the number of layers increases, which is caused by the puckering effect. On other graphene derivatives, such as graphene oxide (GO) or reduced graphene oxide (rGO), the thickness dependence of friction is important because of the possibilities for technical applications. In this report, we demonstrate unexpected layer-dependent friction behavior on GO and rGO layers. Friction force microscopy measurements show that nanoscale friction on GO does not depend on the number of layers; however, after reduction, friction on rGO shows an inverse thickness dependence compared with pristine graphene. We show that the friction on rGO is higher than that on SiO 2 at low load, and that an interesting crossover behavior at higher load occurs because of the lower friction coefficient and higher adhesion of the rGO. We provide a relevant interpretation that explains the effect of thickness and chemical reduction on nanoscale friction.

  12. Thick Disks in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Elmegreen, Debra Meloy; Tompkins, Brittany; Jenks, Leah G., E-mail: bge@us.ibm.com, E-mail: elmegreen@vassar.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vassar College, Poughkeepsie, NY 12604 (United States)

    2017-09-20

    Thick disk evolution is studied using edge-on galaxies in two Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field Parallels. The galaxies were separated into 72 clumpy types and 35 spiral types with bulges. Perpendicular light profiles in F435W, F606W, and F814W ( B , V , and I ) passbands were measured at 1 pixel intervals along the major axes and fitted to sech{sup 2} functions convolved with the instrument line spread function (LSF). The LSF was determined from the average point spread function of ∼20 stars in each passband and field, convolved with a line of uniform brightness to simulate disk blurring. A spread function for a clumpy disk was also used for comparison. The resulting scale heights were found to be proportional to galactic mass, with the average height for a 10{sup 10±0.5} M {sub ⊙} galaxy at z = 2 ± 0.5 equal to 0.63 ± 0.24 kpc. This value is probably the result of a blend between thin and thick disk components that cannot be resolved. Evidence for such two-component structure is present in an inverse correlation between height and midplane surface brightness. Models suggest that the thick disk is observed best between the clumps, and there the average scale height is 1.06 ± 0.43 kpc for the same mass and redshift. A 0.63 ± 0.68 mag V − I color differential with height is also evidence for a mixture of thin and thick components.

  13. Thickness-dependent photocatalytic performance of graphite oxide for degrading organic pollutants under visible light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Junghoon; Chang, Yun Hee; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Sungjin

    2016-04-28

    Photocatalysts use sustainable solar light energy to trigger various catalytic reactions. Metal-free nanomaterials have been suggested as cost-effective and environmentally friendly photocatalysts. In this work, we propose thickness-controlled graphite oxide (GO) as a metal-free photocatalyst, which is produced by exfoliating thick GO particles via stirring and sonication. All GO samples exhibit photocatalytic activity for degrading an organic pollutant, rhodamine B under visible light, and the thickest sample shows the best catalytic performance. UV-vis-NIR diffuse reflectance absorption spectra indicate that thicker GO samples absorb more vis-NIR light than thinner ones. Density-functional theory calculations show that GO has a much smaller band gap than that of single-layer graphene oxide, and thus suggest that the largely-reduced band gap is responsible for this trend of light absorption.

  14. Correlation between Macular Thickness and Visual Field in Early Open Angle Glaucoma: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi Motlagh, Behzad; Sadeghi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate macular thickness and visual field parameters in early glaucoma. A total of 104 eyes affected with early glaucoma were examined in a cross-sectional, prospective study. Visual field testing using both standard automated perimetry (SAP) and shortwave automated perimetry (SWAP) was performed. Global visual field parameters, including mean deviation (MD) and pattern standard deviation (PSD), were recorded and correlated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)-measured macular thickness and asymmetry. Average macular thickness correlated significantly with all measures of visual field including MD-SWAP (r = 0.42), MD-SAP (r = 0.41), PSD-SWAP (r = -0.23), and PSD-SAP (r = -0.21), with P-values field parameters in early glaucoma. The results of this study should make macular thickness measurements even more meaningful to glaucoma specialists.

  15. Optimization of Plastic Scintillator Thicknesses for Online Beta Detection in Mixed Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourtangestani, K.; Machrafi, R. [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada)

    2013-07-15

    For efficient beta detection in a mixed beta-gamma field, Monte Carlo simulation models have been developed to optimize the thickness of a plastic scintillator used in whole body monitor. The simulation has been performed using MCNP/X code and different thicknesses of plastic scintillators ranging from 150 to 600 {mu}m have been used. The relationship between the thickness of the scintillator and the efficiency of the detector has been analysed. For 150 {mu}m thickness, an experimental investigation has been conducted with different beta sources at different positions on the scintillator and the counting efficiency of the unit has been measured. Evaluated data along with experimental ones have been discussed. A thickness of 300 {mu}m to 500 {mu}m has been found to be an optimum thickness for better beta detection efficiency in the presence of low energy gamma ray. (author)

  16. Analysis of zircaloy oxide thickness data from PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheppard, K.D.; Speyer, D.M.; Chan, Y.Y.; Frankl, I.; Strasser, A.A.

    1990-02-01

    Prior EPRI funded research (Project 1250-1) resulted in a set of Zircaloy waterside corrosion models. These models were based principally on KWU reactor data. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of the KWU corrosion models to predict available domestic USA data for all domestic PWR vendors in order to further validate the models and to provide a consistent basis to judge the corrosion data of the domestic plants. A methodology for analyzing the large amount of data was developed and implemented in a single channel model. This model includes the capability, by a method described herein, of accounting for open core related effects (crossflow) and the effect of the immediately adjacent fuel rods, guide tubes, etc., on the coolant conditions around the fuel rods that were measured for oxide thickness. Data from the Arkansas Unit number-sign 2 (ANO-2) Combustion Engineering (C-E), Oconee Units 1 and 2 built by Babcock ampersand Wilcox (B ampersand W), and the Trojan reactor built by Westinghouse (W) were used in this study. The corrosion models previously developed, and the present single channel model methodology, were able to predict the corrosion data quite well. The maximum corrosion thickness was on the order of 20 to 40 microns in all plants studied. 13 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  17. Graphene-graphite oxide field-effect transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Brian; Mendez, Anthony; Schmidgall, Emma; Bockrath, Marc

    2012-03-14

    Graphene's high mobility and two-dimensional nature make it an attractive material for field-effect transistors. Previous efforts in this area have used bulk gate dielectric materials such as SiO(2) or HfO(2). In contrast, we have studied the use of an ultrathin layered material, graphene's insulating analogue, graphite oxide. We have fabricated transistors comprising single or bilayer graphene channels, graphite oxide gate insulators, and metal top-gates. The graphite oxide layers show relatively minimal leakage at room temperature. The breakdown electric field of graphite oxide was found to be comparable to SiO(2), typically ~1-3 × 10(8) V/m, while its dielectric constant is slightly higher, κ ≈ 4.3. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  18. Impact of metal nano layer thickness on tunneling oxide and memory performance of core-shell iridium-oxide nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, W.; Maikap, S. [Thin Film Nano Tech. Lab., Department of Electronic Engineering, Chang Gung University, Tao-Yuan, Taiwan 333, Taiwan (China); Tien, T.-C. [Material Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan 310, Taiwan (China); Li, W.-C.; Yang, J.-R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)

    2011-10-01

    The impact of iridium-oxide (IrO{sub x}) nano layer thickness on the tunneling oxide and memory performance of IrO{sub x} metal nanocrystals in an n-Si/SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/IrO{sub x} structure has been investigated. A thinner (1.5 nm) IrO{sub x} nano layer has shown better memory performance than that of a thicker one (2.5 nm). Core-shell IrO{sub x} nanocrystals with a small average diameter of 2.4 nm and a high density of {approx}2 x 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} have been observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The IrO{sub x} nanocrystals are confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A large memory window of 3.0 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-}5 V and 7.2 V at a sweeping gate voltage of {+-} 8 V has been observed for the 1.5 nm-thick IrO{sub x} nano layer memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of 8 nm. The electrons and holes are trapped in the core and annular regions of the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals, respectively, which is explained by Gibbs free energy. High electron and hole-trapping densities are found to be 1.5 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2} and 2 x 10{sup 13}/cm{sup 2}, respectively, due to the small size and high-density of IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of >10{sup 6} cycles and good retention of 10{sup 4} s with a good memory window of >1.2 V under a small operation voltage of {+-} 5 V are obtained. A large memory size of >10 Tbit/sq. in. can be designed by using the IrO{sub x} nanocrystals. This study is not only important for the IrO{sub x} nanocrystal charge-trapping memory investigation but it will also help to design future metal nanocrystal flash memory.

  19. Impact of metal nano layer thickness on tunneling oxide and memory performance of core-shell iridium-oxide nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, W.; Maikap, S.; Tien, T.-C.; Li, W.-C.; Yang, J.-R.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of iridium-oxide (IrO x ) nano layer thickness on the tunneling oxide and memory performance of IrO x metal nanocrystals in an n-Si/SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 /IrO x /Al 2 O 3 /IrO x structure has been investigated. A thinner (1.5 nm) IrO x nano layer has shown better memory performance than that of a thicker one (2.5 nm). Core-shell IrO x nanocrystals with a small average diameter of 2.4 nm and a high density of ∼2 x 10 12 /cm 2 have been observed by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The IrO x nanocrystals are confirmed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. A large memory window of 3.0 V at a sweeping gate voltage of ±5 V and 7.2 V at a sweeping gate voltage of ± 8 V has been observed for the 1.5 nm-thick IrO x nano layer memory capacitors with a small equivalent oxide thickness of 8 nm. The electrons and holes are trapped in the core and annular regions of the IrO x nanocrystals, respectively, which is explained by Gibbs free energy. High electron and hole-trapping densities are found to be 1.5 x 10 13 /cm 2 and 2 x 10 13 /cm 2 , respectively, due to the small size and high-density of IrO x nanocrystals. Excellent program/erase endurance of >10 6 cycles and good retention of 10 4 s with a good memory window of >1.2 V under a small operation voltage of ± 5 V are obtained. A large memory size of >10 Tbit/sq. in. can be designed by using the IrO x nanocrystals. This study is not only important for the IrO x nanocrystal charge-trapping memory investigation but it will also help to design future metal nanocrystal flash memory.

  20. Inversion of potential-field data for layers with uneven thickness

    OpenAIRE

    Caratori Tontini, F.; Cocchi, L.; Carmisciano, C.; Stefanelli, P.

    2008-01-01

    AB: Inversion of large-scale potential-field anomalies, aimed at determining density or magnetization, is usually made in the Fourier domain. The commonly adopted geometry is based on a layer of constant thickness, characterized by a bottom surface at a fixed distance from the top surface.....

  1. Reaction products between Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide thick films and alumina substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alarco, J.A.; Ilushechkin, A.; Yamashita, T.; Bhargava, A.; Barry, J.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The structure and composition of reaction products between Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-oxide (BSCCO) thick films and alumina substrates have been characterized using a combination of electron diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). Sr and Ca are found to be the most reactive cations with alumina. Sr 4 Al 6 O 12 SO 4 is formed between the alumina substrates and BSCCO thick films prepared from paste with composition close to Bi-2212 (and Bi-2212+10 wt.% Ag). For paste with composition close to Bi(Pb)-2223 +20 wt.% Ag, a new phase with f.c.c. structure, lattice parameter about a=24.5 A and approximate composition Al 3 Sr 2 CaBi 2 CuO x has been identified in the interface region. Understanding and control of these reactions is essential for growth of high quality BSCCO thick films on alumina. (orig.)

  2. Magnetic properties and microstructure investigation of electrodeposited FeNi/ITO films with different thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Derang; Wang, Zhenkun; Feng, Erxi; Wei, Jinwu; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •FeNi alloy thin films with different thickness deposited on Indium Tin Oxides (ITOs) conductive glass substrates by electrodeposition method. •A columnar crystalline microstructure and domain structure were obtained in FeNi thin films. •Particular FMR spectra of FeNi alloy with different thickness were studied. -- Abstract: FeNi alloy thin films with different thickness deposited on Indium Tin Oxides (ITOs) conductive glass substrates from the electrolytes by electrodeposition method have been studied by magnetic force microscopy (MFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) technique. For these films possessing an in-plane isotropy, the remanence decreases with the increasing of film thickness and the critical thickness that a stripe domain structure emerges is about 116 nm. Characteristic differences of the FMR spectra of different thickness are also observed. The results show that the resonance field at high measured angle increases firstly then decreases with increasing thickness, which may be related to the striped domain structure

  3. Resveratrol increases nitric oxide production in the rat thick ascending limb via Ca2+/calmodulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Vicente, Agustin; Cabral, Pablo D; Garvin, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    The thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle reabsorbs 30% of the NaCl filtered through the glomerulus. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by NO synthase 3 (NOS3) inhibits NaCl absorption by this segment. Resveratrol, a polyphenol, has beneficial cardiovascular and renal effects, many of which are mediated by NO. Resveratrol increases intracellular Ca2+ (Cai) and AMP kinase (AMPK) and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin1 (SIRT1) activities, all of which could activate NO production. We hypothesized that resveratrol stimulates NO production by thick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent mechanism. To test this, the effect of resveratrol on NO bioavailability was measured in thick ascending limb suspensions. Cai was measured in single perfused thick ascending limbs. SIRT1 activity and expression were measured in thick ascending limb lysates. Resveratrol (100 µM) increased NO bioavailability in thick ascending limb suspensions by 1.3±0.2 AFU/mg/min (pthick ascending limbs via a Ca2+/calmodulin dependent mechanism, and SIRT1 and AMPK do not participate. Resveratrol-stimulated NO production in thick ascending limbs may account for part of its beneficial effects.

  4. doped ZnO thick film resistors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characterization and ethanol gas sensing properties of pure and doped ZnO thick films were investigated. Thick films of pure zinc oxide were prepared by the screen printing technique. Pure zinc oxide was almost insensitive to ethanol. Thick films of Al2O3 (1 wt%) doped ZnO were observed to be highly sensitive to ...

  5. Effects of Zinc Injection on the Cladding Oxide Thickness in the Domestic Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hak Kyu; Kim, Hong Jin; Shin, Jung Cheol

    2013-01-01

    The first commercial plant for zinc injection demonstration was Farley-2 in 1994, and the effect of zinc injection was successfully demonstrated. Since then the PWR with zinc injection has been increased, there are about 80 PWR with zinc injection in the world in 2012. Zinc injection at the high duty plant has potential risk of increasing the cladding oxide thickness. Zinc injection doesn't affect the cladding corrosion directly but it may negatively affect crud deposit in the subcooled boiling region of the fuel. So the effect of zinc injection on fuel integrity has been evaluated. For low duty plant it is confirmed that zinc injection doesn't affect the fuel integrity. For high duty plant Callaway in U. S. and Vandellos II in Spain were successfully demonstrated but the experience with zinc injection of high duty plant was still lacking. Thus EPRI recommend the fuel surveillance programs for the high duty plant to apply zinc. The High Duty Core Index (HDCI) of most domestic nuclear power plant is above 150 Btu/ft 2 -gal- .deg. F. Those plants with a HDCI of 150 Btu/ft 2 -gal- .deg. F or greater may be considered as 'high duty'. As aforementioned, the experience with zinc injection of high duty plant was lacking. Thus to apply zinc injection in domestic plant with high duty, prudent approach is needed. In this study the effect of zinc injection in Hanul unit 1 with a HDCI of around 150 Btu/ft 2 -gal- .deg. F was evaluated. And in the next study the effect of zinc injection in the plant of HDCI of around 200 Btu/ft 2 -gal- .deg. F will be evaluated. Zinc injection had not caused any increase in oxide thickness in Hanul unit 1. Most of the oxide thickness measurement data with zinc injection are well within the non-zinc injection database. And the computer code which was developed based on non-zinc injection database well predicts oxide thickness for fuel rod with zinc injection. Thus, it can be concluded that zinc injection doesn't accelerate clad corrosion. Based

  6. Improvement of the effective work function and transmittance of thick indium tin oxide/ultrathin ruthenium doped indium oxide bilayers as transparent conductive oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taweesup, Kattareeya; Yamamoto, Ippei; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Lothongkum, Gobboon; Tsukagoshi, Kazutoshi; Ohishi, Tomoji; Tungasmita, Sukkaneste; Visuttipitukul, Patama; Ito, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Makoto; Nabatame, Toshihide

    2016-01-01

    Ruthenium doped indium oxide (In_1_−_xRu_xO_y) films fabricated using DC magnetron co-sputtering with In_2O_3 and Ru targets were investigated for use as transparent conductive oxides. The In_1_−_xRu_xO_y films had an amorphous structure in the wide compositional range of x = 0.3–0.8 and had an extremely smooth surface. The transmittance and resistivity of the In_1_−_xRu_xO_y films increased as the Ru content increased. The transmittance of the In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y film improved to over 80% when the film thickness was less than 5 nm, while the specific resistivity (ρ) was kept to a low value of 1.6 × 10"−"4 Ω cm. Based on these experimental data, we demonstrated that thick indium tin oxide (In_0_._9Sn_0_._1O_y, ITO) (150 nm)/ultrathin In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y (3 nm) bilayers have a high effective work function of 5.3 eV, transmittance of 86%, and low ρ of 9.2 × 10"−"5 Ω cm. This ITO/In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y bilayer is a candidate for use as an anode for organic electroluminescent devices. - Highlights: • We investigated characteristics of thick ITO/ultrathin Ru doped In_2O_3 bilayers. • Effect of Ru addition in In_2O_3 results in smooth surface because of an amorphous structure. • The In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y film with less than 5 nm improves to high transmittance over 80%. • ITO/In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y bilayer has a high effective work function of 5.3 eV. • We conclude that ITO/ultrathin In_0_._3_8Ru_0_._6_2O_y bilayer is a candidate as an anode of OEL.

  7. Analysis of the thickness-dependent electrical characteristics in pentacene field-effect devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Hyunji; Choi, Jongsun; Zhang, Xue; Park, Jiho; Baang, Sungkeun; Park, Jaehoon

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the important relationship among the capacitance-voltage (C - V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, the output currents of pentacene based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and the semiconductor layer's thickness. The effect of the semiconductor layer's thickness on the effective channel capacitance, when the MIS capacitors are fully accumulated with sufficient negative bias, was observed to be directly correlated with the magnitude of the saturated output current. The variation in accumulation capacitance of MIS capacitors due to changes in layer thickness is shown to indicate the existence of a channel capacitance. This determines the output currents in the saturation region. Furthermore, the accumulation capacitance appears to decrease notably when the thickness of the pentacene layer is reduced below 20 nm.

  8. Analysis of the thickness-dependent electrical characteristics in pentacene field-effect devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongwook; Shin, Hyunji; Choi, Jongsun [Hongik University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Xue; Park, Jiho; Baang, Sungkeun; Park, Jaehoon [Hallym University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, we report on the important relationship among the capacitance-voltage (C - V) characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) capacitors, the output currents of pentacene based organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), and the semiconductor layer's thickness. The effect of the semiconductor layer's thickness on the effective channel capacitance, when the MIS capacitors are fully accumulated with sufficient negative bias, was observed to be directly correlated with the magnitude of the saturated output current. The variation in accumulation capacitance of MIS capacitors due to changes in layer thickness is shown to indicate the existence of a channel capacitance. This determines the output currents in the saturation region. Furthermore, the accumulation capacitance appears to decrease notably when the thickness of the pentacene layer is reduced below 20 nm.

  9. Effect of thermal processing on silver thin films of varying thickness deposited on zinc oxide and indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, K.; Ngo, A. T.; Alford, T. L.; Iyer, S.

    2009-01-01

    Silver films of varying thicknesses (25, 45, and 60 nm) were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) on silicon and zinc oxide (ZnO) on silicon. The films were annealed in vacuum for 1 h at different temperatures (300-650 deg. C). Four-point-probe measurements were used to determine the resistivity of the films. All films showed an abrupt change in resistivity beyond an onset temperature that varied with thickness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements revealed agglomeration of the Ag films upon annealing as being responsible for the resistivity change. X-ray pole figure analysis determined that the annealed films took on a preferential texturing; however, the degree of texturing was significantly higher in Ag/ZnO/Si than in Ag/ITO/Si samples. This observation was accounted for by interface energy minimization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements revealed an increasing surface roughness of the annealed films with temperature. The resistivity behavior was explained by the counterbalancing effects of increasing crystallinity and surface roughness. Average surface roughness obtained from the AFM measurements were also used to model the agglomeration of Ag based on Ostwald ripening theory

  10. Tunable field emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires coated with varied thickness of lanthanum boride thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, C.X.; Li, Y.F.; Chen, Jun; Deng, S.Z.; Xu, N.S.

    2013-01-01

    Lanthanum boride (LaB x ) thin films with various thicknesses were deposited on ZnO nanowire arrays by electron beam evaporation. Field emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires show close dependence on LaB x coating thickness. The turn-on field increases with increasing LaB x coating thickness from 10 nm to 50 nm. The observed phenomena were explained by a model that the tunneling at ZnO/LaB x interface dominates the emission process. - Highlights: ► Coating thickness dependence of field emission characteristics of ZnO nanowires was observed from LaB x coated ZnO nanowires. ► More stable field emission was observed from ZnO nanowires with LaB x coating. ► A model was proposed that the tunneling at ZnO/LaB x interface dominates the emission process

  11. A theoretical analysis of the response of an air-cored eddy current coil for remote oxide thickness measurements on reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.

    1979-10-01

    It is shown how the impedance of an air-cored eddy current coil in close proximity to an oxidised steel component may be calculated. Representative values were selected for the oxide thickness, lift off, operating frequency, conductivities and permeabilities of the oxide coating and steel base. The values of these parameters in the calculations were allowed to vary between suitable limits to quantify the effect of each one on coil impedance. The results of the calculations are used to determine the most suitable conditions for the measurement of oxide thickness on steel components using an air-cored eddy current probe. (author)

  12. Impact of oxide thickness on gate capacitance – Modelling and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National ... conventional HEMT, Schottky barrier diode is formed at the gate electrode. .... term corresponds to the energy required for the electric field in the oxide layer and the.

  13. Enhanced low-temperature oxidation of zirconium alloys under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, B.; Fidleris, V.

    1989-01-01

    The linear growth of relatively thick (>300 nm) interference-colored oxide films on zirconium alloy specimens exposed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) coolant at ≤55 o C was unexpected. Initial ideas were that this was a photoconduction effect. Experiments to study photoconduction in thin anodic zirconium oxide (ZrO 2 ) films in the laboratory were initiated to provide background data. It was found that, in the laboratory, provided a high electric field was maintained across the oxide during ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, enhanced growth of oxide occurred in the irradiated area. Similarly enhanced growth could be obtained on thin thermally formed oxide films that were immersed in an electrolyte with a high electric field superimposed. This enhanced growth was found to be caused by the development of porosity in the barrier oxide layer by an enhanced local dissolution and reprecipitation process during UV irradiation. Similar porosity was observed in the oxide films on the ATR specimens. Since it is not thought that a high electric field could have been present in this instance, localized dissolution of fast-neutron primary recoil tracks may be the operative mechanism. In all instances, the specimens attempt to maintain the normal barrier-layer oxide thickness, which causes the additional oxide growth. Similar mechanisms may have operated during the formation of thick loosely adherent, porous oxides in homogeneous reactor solutions under irradiation, and may be the cause of enhanced oxidation of zirconium alloys in high-temperature water-cooled reactors in some water chemistries. (author)

  14. Exchange biased FeNi/FeMn bilayers with coercivity and switching field enhanced by FeMn surface oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Svalov

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available FeNi/FeMn bilayers were grown in a magnetic field and subjected to heat treatments at temperatures of 50 to 350 °C in vacuum or in a gas mixture containing oxygen. In the as-deposited state, the hysteresis loop of 30 nm FeNi layer was shifted. Low temperature annealing leads to a decrease of the exchange bias field. Heat treatments at higher temperatures in gas mixture result in partial oxidation of 20 nm thick FeMn layer leading to a nonlinear dependence of coercivity and a switching field of FeNi layer on annealing temperature. The maximum of coercivity and switching field were observed after annealing at 300 °C.

  15. Room temperature synthesis of indium tin oxide nanotubes with high precision wall thickness by electroless deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Boehme

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Conductive nanotubes consisting of indium tin oxide (ITO were fabricated by electroless deposition using ion track etched polycarbonate templates. To produce nanotubes (NTs with thin walls and small surface roughness, the tubes were generated by a multi-step procedure under aqueous conditions. The approach reported below yields open end nanotubes with well defined outer diameter and wall thickness. In the past, zinc oxide films were mostly preferred and were synthesized using electroless deposition based on aqueous solutions. All these methods previously developed, are not adaptable in the case of ITO nanotubes, even with modifications. In the present work, therefore, we investigated the necessary conditions for the growth of ITO-NTs to achieve a wall thickness of around 10 nm. In addition, the effects of pH and reductive concentrations for the formation of ITO-NTs are also discussed.

  16. Dependence of the optical constants and the performance in the SPREE gas measurement on the thickness of doped tin oxide over coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, D.; Hertwig, A.; Beck, U.; Negendank, D.; Lohse, V.; Kormunda, M.; Esser, N.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, thickness related changes of the optical properties of doped tin oxide were studied. Two different sets of samples were prepared. The first set was doped with iron or nickel on silicon substrate with thicknesses of 29-56 nm, the second was iron doped on gold/glass substrate with 1.6-6.3 nm. The optical constants were determined by using spectral ellipsometry (SE) followed by modelling of the dielectric function with an oscillator model using Gaussian peaks. The analysis of the optical constants shows a dependence of the refraction and the absorption on the thickness of the doped tin oxide coating. In addition to the tin oxide absorption in the UV, one additional absorption peak was found in the near-IR/red which is related to plasmonic effects due to the doping. This peak shifts from the near-IR to the red part of the visible spectrum and becomes stronger by reducing the thickness, probably due to the formation of metal nanoparticles in this layer. These results were found for two different sets of samples by using the same optical model. Afterwards the second sample set was tested in the Surface Plasmon Resonance Enhanced Ellipsometric (SPREE) gas measurement with CO gas. It was found that the thickness has significant influence on the sensitivity and thus the adsorption of the CO gas. By increasing the thickness from 1.6 nm to 5.1 nm, the sensing ability is enhanced due to a higher coverage of the surface with the over coating. This is explained by the high affinity of CO molecules to the incorporated Fe-nanoparticles in the tin oxide coating. By increasing the thickness further to 6.3 nm, the sensing ability drops because the layer disturbs the SPR sensing effect too much.

  17. Effects of Zinc Injection on the Cladding Oxide Thickness in the Domestic Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hak Kyu; Kim, Hong Jin; Shin, Jung Cheol [KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The first commercial plant for zinc injection demonstration was Farley-2 in 1994, and the effect of zinc injection was successfully demonstrated. Since then the PWR with zinc injection has been increased, there are about 80 PWR with zinc injection in the world in 2012. Zinc injection at the high duty plant has potential risk of increasing the cladding oxide thickness. Zinc injection doesn't affect the cladding corrosion directly but it may negatively affect crud deposit in the subcooled boiling region of the fuel. So the effect of zinc injection on fuel integrity has been evaluated. For low duty plant it is confirmed that zinc injection doesn't affect the fuel integrity. For high duty plant Callaway in U. S. and Vandellos II in Spain were successfully demonstrated but the experience with zinc injection of high duty plant was still lacking. Thus EPRI recommend the fuel surveillance programs for the high duty plant to apply zinc. The High Duty Core Index (HDCI) of most domestic nuclear power plant is above 150 Btu/ft{sup 2}-gal- .deg. F. Those plants with a HDCI of 150 Btu/ft{sup 2}-gal- .deg. F or greater may be considered as 'high duty'. As aforementioned, the experience with zinc injection of high duty plant was lacking. Thus to apply zinc injection in domestic plant with high duty, prudent approach is needed. In this study the effect of zinc injection in Hanul unit 1 with a HDCI of around 150 Btu/ft{sup 2}-gal- .deg. F was evaluated. And in the next study the effect of zinc injection in the plant of HDCI of around 200 Btu/ft{sup 2}-gal- .deg. F will be evaluated. Zinc injection had not caused any increase in oxide thickness in Hanul unit 1. Most of the oxide thickness measurement data with zinc injection are well within the non-zinc injection database. And the computer code which was developed based on non-zinc injection database well predicts oxide thickness for fuel rod with zinc injection. Thus, it can be concluded that zinc injection doesn

  18. Second Harmonic Generation characterization of SOI wafers: Impact of layer thickness and interface electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damianos, D.; Vitrant, G.; Lei, M.; Changala, J.; Kaminski-Cachopo, A.; Blanc-Pelissier, D.; Cristoloveanu, S.; Ionica, I.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we investigate Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) as a non-destructive characterization method for Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) materials. For thick SOI stacks, the SHG signal is related to the thickness variations of the different layers. However, in thin SOI films, the comparison between measurements and optical modeling suggests a supplementary SHG contribution attributed to the electric fields at the SiO2/Si interfaces. The impact of the electric field at each interface of the SOI on the SHG is assessed. The SHG technique can be used to evaluate interfacial electric fields and consequently interface charge density in SOI materials.

  19. Adhesion-enhanced thick copper film deposition on aluminum oxide by an ion-beam-mixed Al seed layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung-Jin; Park, Jae-Won

    2012-01-01

    We report a highly-adherent 30-μm Cu conductive-path coating on an aluminum-oxide layer anodized on an aluminum-alloy substrate for a metal-printed circuit-board application. A 50-nm Al layer was first coated with an e-beam evaporative deposition method on the anodized oxide, followed by ion bombardment to mix the interfacial region. Subsequently, a Cu coating was deposited onto the mixed seed layer to the designed thickness. Adhesions of the interface were tested by using tape adhesion test, and pull-off tests and showed commercially acceptable adhesions for such thick coating layers. The ion beam mixing (IBM) plays the role of fastening the thin seed coating layer to the substrate and enhancing the adhesion of the Cu conductive path on the anodized aluminum surface.

  20. Controlling the Performance of P-type Cu2O/SnO Bilayer Thin-Film Transistors by Adjusting the Thickness of the Copper Oxide Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jawhari, Hala A.

    2014-11-11

    The effect of copper oxide layer thickness on the performance of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors was investigated. By using sputtered Cu2O films produced at an oxygen partial pressure, Opp, of 10% as the upper layer and 3% Opp SnO films as the lower layer we built a matrix of bottom-gate Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors of different thickness. We found that the thickness of the Cu2O layer is of major importance in oxidation of the SnO layer underneath. The thicker the Cu2O layer, the more the underlying SnO layer is oxidized, and, hence, the more transistor mobility is enhanced at a specific temperature. Both device performance and the annealing temperature required could be adjusted by controlling the thickness of each layer of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors.

  1. Estimation of residual life of boiler tubes using steamside oxide scale thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vikrant, K.S.N.; Ramareddy, G.V.; Pavan, A.H.V.; Singh, Kulvir

    2013-01-01

    In thermal power plants, remaining-life-estimation of boiler tubes is required at regular intervals for a safer and a better functionality of boilers. In this paper, a new method is proposed for the residual life estimation of service exposed boiler tubes using Non-Destructive Ultrasonic Oxide scale thickness measurements, average metal temperature and creep master curve. While steady state conduction heat transfer equations are solved to calculate the average metal temperature, creep master curve is generated from short term stress rupture data of rupture life less than 5000 h on a virgin material. In the present study, the residual life of T22 (2.25Cr-1Mo) service exposed Platen Superheater tube is estimated using two master creep curves, i.e. Larson-Miller Parametric (LMP) method of standard ASME T22 creep data and Wilshire approach of short term stress rupture data of T22. As the residual life is calculated from fundamental conduction heat transfer theory and creep rupture data, the proposed method can be applied for different grades of boiler materials. -- Highlights: ► Residual life is calculated from non-destructive oxide scale thickness, creep master curve and average metal temperature. ► A new method is proposed for calculating residual life using above parameters and from conduction heat transfer principles. ► The method can be applied to different boiler grades for estimating residual life and hence the method is generic

  2. Fringing field effects in negative capacitance field-effect transistors with a ferroelectric gate insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Junichi; Fukuda, Koichi; Ikegami, Tsutomu; Ota, Hiroyuki; Migita, Shinji; Asai, Hidehiro; Toriumi, Akira

    2018-04-01

    We study the effects of fringing electric fields on the behavior of negative-capacitance (NC) field-effect transistors (FETs) with a silicon-on-insulator body and a gate stack consisting of an oxide film, an internal metal film, a ferroelectric film, and a gate electrode using our own device simulator that can properly handle the complicated relationship between the polarization and the electric field in ferroelectric materials. The behaviors of such NC FETs and the corresponding metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) FETs are simulated and compared with each other to evaluate the effects of the NC of the ferroelectric film. Then, the fringing field effects are evaluated by comparing the NC effects in NC FETs with and without gate spacers. The fringing field between the gate stack, especially the internal metal film, and the source/drain region induces more charges at the interface of the film with the ferroelectric film. Accordingly, the function of the NC to modulate the gate voltage and the resulting function to improve the subthreshold swing are enhanced. We also investigate the relationships of these fringing field effects to the drain voltage and four design parameters of NC FETs, i.e., gate length, gate spacer permittivity, internal metal film thickness, and oxide film thickness.

  3. Performance of in situ chemical oxidation field demonstrations at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, S.R.; West, O.R.; Siegrist, R.L.; Holden, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been investigating the use of in situ chemical oxidation to remediate organic contaminants (VOCs, SVOCs, and PCBs) in soils and groundwater at the laboratory and field scales. Field scale design parameters (e.g., oxidant loading rates and oxidant delivery techniques) are often dictated by site conditions (e.g., soil properties and initial contaminant concentrations). Chemical destruction of organic compounds can be accomplished using a variety of oxidants. Recent research has involved field scale in situ chemical oxidation demonstrations using H 2 O 2 and KMnO 4 in conjunction with soil mixing as the oxidant delivery mechanism. A description of some of these fields activities and future field-scale work is presented here

  4. Thickness effects of yttria-doped ceria interlayers on solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zeng; An, Jihwan; Iancu, Andrei; Prinz, Fritz B.

    2012-11-01

    Determining the optimal thickness range of the interlayed yttria-doped ceria (YDC) films promises to further enhance the performance of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) at low operating temperatures. The YDC interlayers are fabricated by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) method with one super cycle of the YDC deposition consisting of 6 ceria deposition cycles and one yttria deposition cycle. YDC films of various numbers of ALD super cycles, ranging from 2 to 35, are interlayered into bulk fuel cells with a 200 um thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte. Measurements and analysis of the linear sweep voltammetry of these fuel cells reveal that the performance of the given cells is maximized at 10 super cycles. Auger elemental mapping and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques are employed to determine the film completeness, and they verify 10 super cycles of YDC to be the critical thickness point. This optimal YDC interlayer condition (6Ce1Y × 10 super cycles) is applied to the case of micro fuel cells as well, and the average performance enhancement factor is 1.4 at operating temperatures of 400 and 450 °C. A power density of 1.04 W cm-2 at 500 °C is also achieved with the optimal YDC recipe.

  5. Quantum transition and decoherence of levitating polaron on helium film thickness under an electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, S. C.; Fotue, A. J.; Fobasso, M. F. C.; Djomou, J.-R. D.; Tiotsop, M.; Ngouana, K. S. L.; Fai, L. C.

    2017-12-01

    We have studied the transition probability and decoherence time of levitating polaron in helium film thickness. By using a variational method of Pekar type, the ground and the first excited states of polaron are calculated above the liquid-helium film placed on the polar substrate. It is shown that the polaron transits from the ground to the excited state in the presence of an external electromagnetic field in the plane. We have seen that, in the helium film, the effects of the magnetic and electric fields on the polaron are opposite. It is also shown that the energy, transition probability and decoherence time of the polaron depend sensitively on the helium film thickness. We found that decoherence time decreases as a function of increasing electron-phonon coupling strength and the helium film thickness. It is seen that the film thickness can be considered as a new confinement in our system and can be adjusted in order to reduce decoherence.

  6. Chemical Vapor Identification by Plasma Treated Thick Film Tin Oxide Gas Sensor Array and Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Srivastava

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study deals the class recognition potential of a four element plasma treated thick film tin oxide gas sensor array exposed with volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Methanol, Ethanol and Acetone are selected as target VOCs and exposed on sensor array at different concentration in range from 100-1000 ppm. Sensor array consist of four tin oxide sensors doped with 1-4 % PbO concentrations were fabricated by thick film technology and then treated with oxygen plasma for 5-10 minute durations. Sensor signal is analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA for visual classification of VOCs. Further output of PCA is used as input for classification of VOCs by four pattern classification techniques as: linear discriminant analysis (LDA, k-nearest neighbor (KNN, back propagation neural network (BPNN and support vector machine (SVM. All the four classifier results 100 % correct classification rate of VOCs by response analysis of sensor array treated with plasma for 5 minute.

  7. Positron annihilation studies in the field induced depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Leung, T. C.; Lynn, K. G.; Nielsen, B.; Forcier, M. P.; Weinberg, Z. A.; Rubloff, G. W.

    1992-06-01

    The centroid shifts of positron annihilation spectra are reported from the depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors at room temperature and at 35 K. The centroid shift measurement can be explained using the variation of the electric field strength and depletion layer thickness as a function of the applied gate bias. An estimate for the relevant MOS quantities is obtained by fitting the centroid shift versus beam energy data with a steady-state diffusion-annihilation equation and a derivative-gaussian positron implantation profile. Inadequacy of the present analysis scheme is evident from the derived quantities and alternate methods are required for better predictions.

  8. Positron annihilation studies in the field induced depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asoka-Kumar, P.; Leung, T.C.; Lynn, K.G.; Nielsen, B.; Forcier, M.P.; Weinberg, Z.A.; Rubloff, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The centroid shifts of positron annihilation spectra are reported from the depletion regions of metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors at room temperature and at 35 K. The centroid shift measurement can be explained using the variation of the electric field strength and depletion layer thickness as a function of the applied gate bias. An estimate for the relevant MOS quantities is obtained by fitting the centroid shift versus beam energy data with a steady-state diffusion-annihilation equation and a derivative-gaussian positron implantation profile. Inadequacy of the present analysis scheme is evident from the derived quantities and alternate methods are required for better predictions

  9. Formation of silicon Oxide nano thickness on Si (III) with the assistance of Cs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahari, A.; Bagheri, M.

    2006-01-01

    : The possibility of controlling the growth of a uniform ultra thin oxide on silicon via oxygen dosing at low temperatures, would be a great interest for the projected further development of nano electronics. One way to achieve this is to be able to control the conversion of chemically adsorbed oxygen and retained at room temperature into oxide during subsequent heating. Oxygen is chemisorbed at room temperature on Si(111) surface to saturation ( >100 L O 2 ), and the experimental chamber is then evacuated. This leaves adsorbed oxygen as atomically inserted on Si surface which sits on the back bonds. This surface is then used as a base for further processing which in one case consists of annealing to 600- 700 d eg C and subsequent exposures equivalent to the first step. This is repeated again. As the focus of this work, a series of experiments are done with adsorbed Cs, which assists in retaining oxygen and in transforming the adsorbed oxygen into oxide upon heating. It was found that the oxide formed on the surface at low coverage clusters. Without any external influence, the clusters may be made to coalesce upon further oxygen adsorption at room temperature, and annealing terminates as a continuous monolayer of amorphous oxide on top of a well-ordered silicon substrate. This configuration is inert to further uptake of oxygen. A higher oxide thickness could be obtained with Cs. Also in this case, the oxide growth saturates in an inert oxide Iayer

  10. Native oxide formation on pentagonal copper nanowires: A TEM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajimammadov, Rashad; Mohl, Melinda; Kordas, Krisztian

    2018-06-01

    Hydrothermally synthesized copper nanowires were allowed to oxidize in air at room temperature and 30% constant humidity for the period of 22 days. The growth of native oxide layer was followed up by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and diffraction to reveal and understand the kinetics of the oxidation process. Copper oxides appear in the form of differently oriented crystalline phases around the metallic core as a shell-like layer (Cu2O) and as nanoscopic islands (CuO) on the top of that. Time dependent oxide thickness data suggests that oxidation follows the field-assisted growth model at the beginning of the process, as practically immediately an oxide layer of ∼2.8 nm thickness develops on the surface. However, after this initial rapid growth, the local field attenuates and the classical parabolic diffusion limited growth plays the main role in the oxidation. Because of the single crystal facets on the side surface of penta-twinned Cu nanowires, the oxidation rate in the diffusion limited regime is lower than in polycrystalline films.

  11. Influence of thickness and coatings morphology in the antimicrobial performance of zinc oxide coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, P. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Sampaio, P. [CBMA, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4700 Braga (Portugal); Azevedo, S. [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Vaz, C. [CBMA, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4700 Braga (Portugal); Espinós, J.P. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC-University of Sevilla, Avda. Américo Vespucio 49, 41092 Sevilla (Spain); Teixeira, V., E-mail: vasco@fisica.uminho.pt [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal); Carneiro, J.O., E-mail: carneiro@fisica.uminho.pt [Department of Physics, University of Minho, Campus de Azurém, 4800-058 Guimaraes (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    In this research work, the production of undoped and silver (Ag) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films for food-packaging applications were developed. The main goal was to determine the influence of coatings morphology and thickness on the antimicrobial performance of the produced samples. The ZnO based thin films were deposited on PET (Polyethylene terephthalate) substrates by means of DC reactive magnetron sputtering. The thin films were characterized by optical spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The antimicrobial performance of the undoped and Ag-doped ZnO thin films was also evaluated. The results attained have shown that all the deposited zinc oxide and Ag-doped ZnO coatings present columnar morphology with V-shaped columns. The increase of ZnO coatings thickness until 200 nm increases the active surface area of the columns. The thinner samples (50 and 100 nm) present a less pronounced antibacterial activity than the thickest ones (200–600 nm). Regarding Ag-doped ZnO thin films, it was verified that increasing the silver content decreases the growth rate of Escherichia coli and decreases the amount of bacteria cells present at the end of the experiment.

  12. Preperitoneal Fat Thicknesses, Lipid Profile, and Oxidative Status in Women With Uterine Fibroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignini, Arianna; Sabbatinelli, Jacopo; Clemente, Nicolò; Delli Carpini, Giovanni; Tassetti, Marta; Zagaglia, Giulia; Ciavattini, Andrea

    2017-10-01

    There is growing evidence supporting a possible role for metabolic syndrome and its determinants, such as dyslipidemia, in uterine fibroid (UF) pathogenesis. The present study aims to investigate the association between UFs and visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), lipid profile, and oxidative and antioxidative status. In this cross-sectional study, 35 patients diagnosed with UFs and 15 women without UFs were enrolled. Clinical history and anthropometric parameters were collected for every woman. Characteristics of UFs, preperitoneal fat thickness (PFT), and SFT were assessed ultrasonically. Lipid profile, glucose, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were evaluated on plasma from participants. Women with UFs showed a significantly increased PFT (11.63 ± 3.39 vs 7.01 ± 3.10 mm; P HDL-C; 45.4 ± 8.3 vs 57.2 ± 13.4 mg/dL; P = .017), higher levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C; 92.3 ± 21.5 vs 72.0 ± 14.6 mg/dL; P = .007), and oxidized LDL (65.2 ± 20.7 vs 43.0 ± 11.3 U/L; P = .002). In patients, TBARs concentration was significantly higher (9.41 ± 6.49 vs 2.92 ± 1.65 nmol malondialdehyde/100 μg prot; P body mass index, oxidized LDL, and TBARs. At multivariate analysis, PFT and HDL-C maintained a significant correlation with the diagnosis of UFs. Chronic inflammation triggered and sustained by visceral fat could play a determinant role in cell differentiation and proliferation processes, necessary for the development of UFs. Alterations in cholesterol fractions may be explained as a consequence of the increased visceral fat deposits and can reflect an increased risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with UF.

  13. Planar Zeolite Film-Based Potentiometric Gas Sensors Manufactured by a Combined Thick-Film and Electroplating Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Isabella; Reiß, Sebastian; Hagen, Gunter; Moos, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Zeolites are promising materials in the field of gas sensors. In this technology-oriented paper, a planar setup for potentiometric hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas sensors using zeolites as ionic sodium conductors is presented, in which the Pt-loaded Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is applied using a thick-film technique between two interdigitated gold electrodes and one of them is selectively covered for the first time by an electroplated chromium oxide film. The influence of the sensor temperature, the type of hydrocarbons, the zeolite film thickness, and the chromium oxide film thickness is investigated. The influence of the zeolite on the sensor response is briefly discussed in the light of studies dealing with zeolites as selectivity-enhancing cover layers. PMID:22164042

  14. Planar Zeolite Film-Based Potentiometric Gas Sensors Manufactured by a Combined Thick-Film and Electroplating Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Hagen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are promising materials in the field of gas sensors. In this technology-oriented paper, a planar setup for potentiometric hydrocarbon and hydrogen gas sensors using zeolites as ionic sodium conductors is presented, in which the Pt-loaded Na-ZSM-5 zeolite is applied using a thick-film technique between two interdigitated gold electrodes and one of them is selectively covered for the first time by an electroplated chromium oxide film. The influence of the sensor temperature, the type of hydrocarbons, the zeolite film thickness, and the chromium oxide film thickness is investigated. The influence of the zeolite on the sensor response is briefly discussed in the light of studies dealing with zeolites as selectivity-enhancing cover layers.

  15. Ion Diffusion-Directed Assembly Approach to Ultrafast Coating of Graphene Oxide Thick Multilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Gao, Weiwei; Yao, Weiquan; Jiang, Yanqiu; Xu, Zhen; Gao, Chao

    2017-10-24

    The layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly approach has been widely used to fabricate multilayer coatings on substrates with multiple cycles, whereas it is hard to access thick films efficiently. Here, we developed an ion diffusion-directed assembly (IDDA) strategy to rapidly make multilayer thick coatings in one step on arbitrary substrates. To achieve multifunctional coatings, graphene oxide (GO) and metallic ions were selected as the typical building blocks and diffusion director in IDDA, respectively. With diffusion of metallic ions from substrate to negatively charged GO dispersion spontaneously (i.e., from high-concentration region to low-concentration region), GO was assembled onto the substrate sheet-by-sheet via sol-gel transformation. Because metallic ions with size of subnanometers can diffuse directionally and freely in the aqueous dispersion, GO was coated on the substrate efficiently, giving rise to films with desired thickness up to 10 μm per cycle. The IDDA approach shows three main merits: (1) high efficiency with a μm-scale coating rate; (2) controllability over thickness and evenness; and (3) generality for substrates of plastics, metals and ceramics with any shapes and morphologies. With these merits, IDDA strategy was utilized in the efficient fabrication of functional graphene coatings that exhibit outstanding performance as supercapacitors, electromagnetic interference shielding textiles, and anticorrosion coatings. This IDDA approach can be extended to other building blocks including polymers and colloidal nanoparticles, promising for the scalable production and application of multifunctional coatings.

  16. Anchoring Polar Magnetic Field in a Stationary Thick Accretion Disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samadi, Maryam; Abbassi, Shahram, E-mail: samadimojarad@um.ac.ir [Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 91775-1436 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    We investigate the properties of a hot accretion flow bathed in a poloidal magnetic field. We consider an axisymmetric viscous-resistive flow in the steady-state configuration. We assume that the dominant mechanism of energy dissipation is due to turbulence viscosity and magnetic diffusivity. A certain fraction of that energy can be advected toward the central compact object. We employ the self-similar method in the radial direction to find a system of ODEs with just one varible, θ in the spherical coordinates. For the existence and maintenance of a purely poloidal magnetic field in a rotating thick disk, we find that the necessary condition is a constant value of angular velocity along a magnetic field line. We obtain an analytical solution for the poloidal magnetic flux. We explore possible changes in the vertical structure of the disk under the influences of symmetric and asymmetric magnetic fields. Our results reveal that a polar magnetic field with even symmetry about the equatorial plane makes the disk vertically thin. Moreover, the accretion rate decreases when we consider a strong magnetic field. Finally, we notice that hot magnetized accretion flows can be fully advected even in a slim shape.

  17. on THICKNESS OF COPPER (|) OXIDE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-12-20

    Dec 20, 2006 ... known materials to be used as semiconductor devices. The oxide is. Observed to be an attractive starting material for the production of solar cells for low cost terrestrial conversion of solar energy to electricity. Copper (I) oxide is one Of the earliest known photovoltaic materials and the first in which the ...

  18. A novel locus in the oxidative stress-related gene ALOX12 moderates the association between PTSD and thickness of the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Wolf, Erika J; Sadeh, Naomi; Logue, Mark; Spielberg, Jeffrey M; Hayes, Jasmeet P; Sperbeck, Emily; Schichman, Steven A; Stone, Angie; Carter, Weleetka C; Humphries, Donald E; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in many common age-related diseases and is hypothesized to play a role in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related neurodegeneration (Miller and Sadeh, 2014). This study examined the influence of the oxidative stress-related genes ALOX 12 and ALOX 15 on the association between PTSD and cortical thickness. Factor analyses were used to identify and compare alternative models of the structure of cortical thickness in a sample of 218 veterans. The best-fitting model was then used for a genetic association analysis in White non-Hispanic participants (n=146) that examined relationships between 33 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the two genes, 8 cortical thickness factors, and each SNP×PTSD interaction. Results identified a novel ALOX12 locus (indicated by two SNPs in perfect linkage disequilibrium: rs1042357 and rs10852889) that moderated the association between PTSD and reduced thickness of the right prefrontal cortex. A whole-cortex vertex-wise analysis showed this effect to be localized to clusters spanning the rostral middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, and medial orbitofrontal cortex. These findings illustrate a novel factor-analytic approach to neuroimaging-genetic analyses and provide new evidence for the possible involvement of oxidative stress in PTSD-related neurodegeneration. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Monte Carlo electron-trajectory simulations in bright-field and dark-field STEM: Implications for tomography of thick biological sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, A.A.; Hohmann-Marriott, M.F.; Zhang, G. [Laboratory of Bioengineering and Physical Science, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bldg. 13, Rm. 3N17, 13 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-5766 (United States); Leapman, R.D. [Laboratory of Bioengineering and Physical Science, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, National Institutes of Health, Bldg. 13, Rm. 3N17, 13 South Drive, Bethesda, MD 20892-5766 (United States)], E-mail: leapmanr@mail.nih.gov

    2009-02-15

    A Monte Carlo electron-trajectory calculation has been implemented to assess the optimal detector configuration for scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) tomography of thick biological sections. By modeling specimens containing 2 and 3 at% osmium in a carbon matrix, it was found that for 1-{mu}m-thick samples the bright-field (BF) and annular dark-field (ADF) signals give similar contrast and signal-to-noise ratio provided the ADF inner angle and BF outer angle are chosen optimally. Spatial resolution in STEM imaging of thick sections is compromised by multiple elastic scattering which results in a spread of scattering angles and thus a spread in lateral distances of the electrons leaving the bottom surface. However, the simulations reveal that a large fraction of these multiply scattered electrons are excluded from the BF detector, which results in higher spatial resolution in BF than in high-angle ADF images for objects situated towards the bottom of the sample. The calculations imply that STEM electron tomography of thick sections should be performed using a BF rather than an ADF detector. This advantage was verified by recording simultaneous BF and high-angle ADF STEM tomographic tilt series from a stained 600-nm-thick section of C. elegans. It was found that loss of spatial resolution occurred markedly at the bottom surface of the specimen in the ADF STEM but significantly less in the BF STEM tomographic reconstruction. Our results indicate that it might be feasible to use BF STEM tomography to determine the 3D structure of whole eukaryotic microorganisms prepared by freeze-substitution, embedding, and sectioning.

  20. Determining the thickness of aliphatic alcohol monolayers covalently attached to silicon oxide surfaces using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Austin W. H.; Kim, Dongho; Gates, Byron D.

    2018-04-01

    The thickness of alcohol based monolayers on silicon oxide surfaces were investigated using angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS). Advantages of using alcohols as building blocks for the formation of monolayers include their widespread availability, ease of handling, and stability against side reactions. Recent progress in microwave assisted reactions demonstrated the ease of forming uniform monolayers with alcohol based reagents. The studies shown herein provide a detailed investigation of the thickness of monolayers prepared from a series of aliphatic alcohols of different chain lengths. Monolayers of 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octanol, 1-decanol, and 1-dodecanol were each successfully formed through microwave assisted reactions and characterized by ARXPS techniques. The thickness of these monolayers consistently increased by ∼1.0 Å for every additional methylene (CH2) within the hydrocarbon chain of the reagents. Tilt angles of the molecules covalently attached to silicon oxide surfaces were estimated to be ∼35° for each type of reagent. These results were consistent with the observations reported for thiol based or silane based monolayers on either gold or silicon oxide surfaces, respectively. The results of this study also suggest that the alcohol based monolayers are uniform at a molecular level.

  1. Nano-thick calcium oxide armed titanium: boosts bone cells against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiliang; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Yaochao; Jin, Guodong; Lu, Tao; Meng, Fanhao; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-02-22

    Since the use of systemic antibiotics for preventing acute biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) may build up bacterial resistance and result in huge medical costs and unpredictable mortality, new precaution strategies are required. Here, it demonstrated that titanium armed with a nano-thick calcium oxide layer was effective on averting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in rabbits. The calcium oxide layer was constructed by, firstly, injecting of metallic calcium into titanium via a plasma immersion ion implantation process, and then transforming the outer most surface into oxide by exposing to the atmosphere. Although the calcium oxide armed titanium had a relative low reduction rate (~74%) in growth of MRSA in vitro, it could markedly promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), restore local bone integration against the challenge of MRSA, and decrease the incidence of MRSA infection with a rate of 100% (compared to the titanium control). This study demonstrated for the first time that calcium, as one of the major elements in a human body, could be engineered to avert MRSA infections, which is promising as a safe precaution of disinfection for implantable biomedical devices.

  2. Nano-thick calcium oxide armed titanium: boosts bone cells against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiliang; Qin, Hui; Zhao, Yaochao; Jin, Guodong; Lu, Tao; Meng, Fanhao; Zhang, Xianlong; Liu, Xuanyong

    2016-02-01

    Since the use of systemic antibiotics for preventing acute biomaterial-associated infections (BAIs) may build up bacterial resistance and result in huge medical costs and unpredictable mortality, new precaution strategies are required. Here, it demonstrated that titanium armed with a nano-thick calcium oxide layer was effective on averting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections in rabbits. The calcium oxide layer was constructed by, firstly, injecting of metallic calcium into titanium via a plasma immersion ion implantation process, and then transforming the outer most surface into oxide by exposing to the atmosphere. Although the calcium oxide armed titanium had a relative low reduction rate (~74%) in growth of MRSA in vitro, it could markedly promote the osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs), restore local bone integration against the challenge of MRSA, and decrease the incidence of MRSA infection with a rate of 100% (compared to the titanium control). This study demonstrated for the first time that calcium, as one of the major elements in a human body, could be engineered to avert MRSA infections, which is promising as a safe precaution of disinfection for implantable biomedical devices.

  3. Effect of annealing and oxide layer thickness on doping profiles shape of ''through-oxide'' implanted P+ ions in textured silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Dessouki, M.S.; Galloni, R.

    1987-10-01

    Phosphorous ions at energies of 60+100 KeV, and doses (4+5)x10 15 atom/cm 2 have been implanted randomly through SiO 2 layers into textured silicon crystals. The penetration profiles of the P + ions have been determined by means of differential sheet resistivity and Hall-effect, together with the anodic oxidation stripping technique. The effect of the oxide layer thickness, annealing temperature on the junction properties has been studied. The damage produced by implantation, has also been investigated using transmission electron microscope (TEM). From the mobility measurements of the free carriers as a function of depth through the junction, two minima have been observed in through oxide implanted samples. The one nearer to the Si-SiO 2 interface (at about 200A from the interface) was related to the damage produced by the recoil oxygen atoms from the oxide layer into silicon. The deeper minimum is lying at ∼ 0.2μm from the interface and was attributed to the damage produced by the implanted P + ions, which caused clusters and defect loops after annealing. This damage was observed through TEM photographs. The optimum conditions for producing shallow junction without losing much of the implanted P + ions through the oxide layer were estimated. (author). 22 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  4. The influence of the AlN barrier thickness on the polarization Coulomb field scattering in AlN/GaN heterostructure field-effect transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Yuanjie; Feng, Zhihong; Gu, Guodong; Han, Tingting; Yin, Jiayun; Liu, Bo; Cai, Shujun; Lin, Zhaojun; Ji, Ziwu; Zhao, Jingtao

    2014-01-01

    The electron mobility scattering mechanisms in AlN/GaN heterostuctures with 3 nm and 6 nm AlN barrier thicknesses were investigated by temperature-dependent Hall measurements. The effect of interface roughness (IFR) scattering on the electron mobility was found to be enhanced by increasing AlN barrier thickness. Moreover, using the measured capacitance-voltage and current-voltage characteristics of the fabricated heterostructure field-effect transistors (HFETs) with different Schottky areas on the two heterostuctures, the variations of electron mobility with different gate biases were investigated. Due to enhanced IFR scattering, the influence of polarization Coulomb field (PCF) scattering on electron mobility was found to decrease with increasing AlN barrier layer thickness. However, the PCF scattering remained an important scattering mechanism in the AlN/GaN HFETs.

  5. Intermediate layer thickness dependence on switching field distribution in perpendicular recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sbiaa, R.; Gandhi, R.; Srinivasan, K.; Piramanayagam, S.N.; Seoh, R.M.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of intermediate layer (IL) thickness on crystallographic texture and magnetic properties of CoCrPtSiO 2 granular perpendicular recording media was investigated with switching field distribution (SFD) as the focus. Even though the c-axis orientation of the Co-based recording layer (RL) broadens with the reduction of IL thickness, the SFD becomes narrower. This result demonstrates that the intrinsic SFD is not directly dependent on c-axis orientation of the recording layer but instead dependent on the magnitude of exchange coupling. It is thus possible to have a medium with thin IL and narrow SFD. This is desirable for bit-patterned media (BPM), where highly exchange-coupled grains are required.

  6. Effects of thickness and geometric variations in the oxide gate stack on the nonvolatile memory behaviors of charge-trap memory thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Jun Yong; Kim, So-Jung; Byun, Chun-Won; Pi, Jae-Eun; Ryu, Min-Ki; Hwang, Chi Sun; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-09-01

    Device designs of charge-trap oxide memory thin-film transistors (CTM-TFTs) were investigated to enhance their nonvolatile memory performances. The first strategy was to optimize the film thicknesses of the tunneling and charge-trap (CT) layers in order to meet requirements of both higher operation speed and longer retention time. While the program speed and memory window were improved for the device with a thinner tunneling layer, a long retention time was obtained only for the device with a tunneling layer thicker than 5 nm. The carrier concentration and charge-trap densities were optimized in the 30-nm-thick CT layer. It was observed that 10-nm-thick tunneling, 30-nm-thick CT, and 50-nm-thick blocking layers were the best configuration for our proposed CTM-TFTs, where a memory on/off margin higher than 107 was obtained, and a memory margin of 6.6 × 103 was retained even after the lapse of 105 s. The second strategy was to examine the effects of the geometrical relations between the CT and active layers for the applications of memory elements embedded in circuitries. The CTM-TFTs fabricated without an overlap between the CT layer and the drain electrode showed an enhanced program speed by the reduced parasitic capacitance. The drain-bias disturbance for the memory off-state was effectively suppressed even when a higher read-out drain voltage was applied. Appropriate device design parameters, such as the film thicknesses of each component layer and the geometrical relations between them, can improve the memory performances and expand the application fields of the proposed CTM-TFTs.

  7. Investigation of the fabrication parameters of thick film metal oxide-polymer pH electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gac, Arnaud

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes a study into the development of an optimum material and fabrication process for the production of thick film pH electrodes. These devices consist of low cost, miniature and rugged pH sensors formed by screen printing a metal oxide bearing paste onto a high temperature (∼850 deg C) fired metal back contact supported on a standard alumina substrate. The pH sensitive metal oxide layer must be fabricated at relatively low temperatures (<300 deg C) in order to maintain the pH sensitivity of the layer and hence requires the use of a suitably stable low temperature curing binder. Bespoke fabricated inks are derived from a Taguchi style factorial experimental plans in which, different binder types, curing temperatures, hydration level and percentage mixtures of different metal oxides and layer thicknesses were investigated. The pH responses of 18 printed electrodes per batch were assessed in buffer solutions with respect to a commercial reference electrode forming a complete potentiometric circuit. The evaluation criteria used in the study included the device-to-device variation in sensitivity of the pH sensors and their sensitivity variation as a function of time. The results indicated the importance of the choice of binder type in particular on the performance characteristics. Reproducible device-to-device variation in sensitivity was determined for the best inks found, whatever the ink fabrication batch. A reduction in the sensitivity variation with time has been determined using the mathematical models derived from an experimental plan. The lack of reproducibility of the sensitivity magnitude, regardless of the ink manufacturing batch, seems to be a recurrent problem with prototype inks. Experimental sub-Nernstian responses are discussed in the light of possible pH mechanisms. (author)

  8. Alcohol vapor sensing by cadmium-doped zinc oxide thick films based chemical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargar, R. A.; Arora, M.; Chackrabarti, S.; Ahmad, S.; Kumar, J.; Hafiz, A. K.

    2016-04-01

    Cadmium-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles were derived by simple chemical co-precipitation route using zinc acetate dihydrate and cadmium acetate dihydrate as precursor materials. The thick films were casted from chemical co-precipitation route prepared nanoparticles by economic facile screen printing method. The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the film were characterized relevant to alcohol vapor sensing application by powder XRD, SEM, UV-VIS and DC conductivity techniques. The response and sensitivity of alcohol (ethanol) vapor sensor are obtained from the recovery curves at optimum working temperature range from 20∘C to 50∘C. The result shows that maximum sensitivity of the sensor is observed at 25∘C operating temperature. On varying alcohol vapor concentration, minor variation in resistance has been observed. The sensing mechanism of sensor has been described in terms of physical adsorption and chemical absorption of alcohol vapors on cadmium-doped zinc oxide film surface and inside film lattice network through weak hydrogen bonding, respectively.

  9. Effects of Energy Relaxation via Quantum Coupling Among Three-Dimensional Motion on the Tunneling Current of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Ling-Feng; Ning, Huansheng; Li, Xijun

    2015-12-01

    We report theoretical study of the effects of energy relaxation on the tunneling current through the oxide layer of a two-dimensional graphene field-effect transistor. In the channel, when three-dimensional electron thermal motion is considered in the Schrödinger equation, the gate leakage current at a given oxide field largely increases with the channel electric field, electron mobility, and energy relaxation time of electrons. Such an increase can be especially significant when the channel electric field is larger than 1 kV/cm. Numerical calculations show that the relative increment of the tunneling current through the gate oxide will decrease with increasing the thickness of oxide layer when the oxide is a few nanometers thick. This highlights that energy relaxation effect needs to be considered in modeling graphene transistors.

  10. Probing anodic oxidation kinetics and nanoscale heterogeneity within TiO2 films by Conductive Atomic Force Microscopy and combined techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamanti, M.V.; Souier, T.; Stefancich, M.; Chiesa, M.; Pedeferri, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanoscale anodic titanium oxides were investigated with multidisciplinary approach. • Oxide thickness was estimated via spectrophotometry and coulometry. • C-AFM identified nanometric conductivity heterogeneities, ascribed to oxide structure. • High conductivity areas exhibited local memristive behavior. - Abstract: Anodic oxidation of titanium in acid electrolytes allows to obtain a thin, compact oxide layer with thickness, structure, color, and electrical properties that vary with process parameters imposed, among which cell voltage has a key effect. Although oxidation kinetics have been investigated in several research works, a broader vision of oxide properties–including thickness and structure–still has to be achieved, especially in the case of very thin oxide films, few tens of nanometers thick. This is vital for engineered applications of nanostructured TiO 2 films, as in the field of memristive devices, where a precise control of oxide thickness, composition and structure is required to tune its electrical response. In this work, oxide films were produced on titanium with thickness ranging from few nanometers to 200 nm. Oxide thickness was estimated by coulometry and spectrophotometry. These techniques were then combined with C-AFM, which provided a deeper understanding of oxide thickness and uniformity of the metal surface and probed the presence of crystalline nano-domains within the amorphous oxide phase affecting the overall film electrical and optical properties

  11. Neutron-skin thickness of finite nuclei in relativistic mean-field models with chiral limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Weizhou; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen

    2007-01-01

    We study several structure properties of finite nuclei using relativistic mean-field Lagrangians constructed according to the Brown-Rho scaling due to the chiral symmetry restoration at high densities. The models are consistent with current experimental constraints for the equations of state of symmetric matter at both normal and supranormal densities and of asymmetric matter at subsaturation densities. It is shown that these models can successfully describe the binding energies and charge radii of finite nuclei. Compared to calculations with usual relativistic mean-field models, these models give a reduced thickness of neutron skin in 208 Pb between 0.17 fm and 0.21 fm. The reduction of the predicted neutron skin thickness is found to be due to not only the softening of the symmetry energy but also the scaling property of ρ meson required by the partial restoration of chiral symmetry

  12. Non-contact Measurement of Remaining Thickness of Corroding Superheater Tubes. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borggreen, Kjeld; Storesund, Jan

    2007-12-15

    The Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) is a contactless thickness gauge for detection of corrosion on superheater tubes; it candidates as substitute for conventional manually operated contact UT transducers. It is the aim of the project to demonstrate the usefulness of two simple EMAT systems, Panametrics and Sonatest, for fast and reliable tube thickness inspections in difficult-to-access superheater sections. The present Phase 2 of the project involves testing of the systems on real compact superheaters in remote operation with the help of a mechanical manipulator designed and built for the purpose. The results are the following: - Both EMAT systems work well when tested in the field during handheld operation on tubes with a moderate thick layer of corrosion products and ash. The practical obtainable speed of cross-panel inspection of easily accessible panels is approximately 6 tubes per minute (6 thickness readings per minute). - The Sonatest system works well when tested in the field during remote operation on heavily corroded superheater tubes with thick ash layer. The Panametrics system was not found suitable for this type of field work. - The mechanical manipulator works well for cross-panel inspection of difficult-to-access superheater sections independent of the tube dimensions and the free space between the panels. In its present design it needs few improvements. - The practical obtainable speed of cross-panel inspection is 3 tubes per minute (3 thickness readings per minute). This speed is limited by the detection rate of the EMAT system and not by the travelling speed of the probe. - Scanning of tubes along their axis was never attempted, because the EMAT instruments were not capable of collecting data coming as a continuous stream. - It cannot be judged from visual alone and hardly from the service data, if a tube or a panel can be inspected by the magnetostrictive EMAT method or not. - The main contribution to failure of the EMAT inspection

  13. A 680 V LDMOS on a thin SOI with an improved field oxide structure and dual field plate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhongjian; Cheng Xinhong; Xia Chao; Xu Dawei; Cao Duo; Song Zhaorui; Yu Yuehui; Shen Dashen

    2012-01-01

    A 680 V LDMOS on a thin SOI with an improved field oxide (FOX) and dual field plate was studied experimentally. The FOX structure was formed by an 'oxidation-etch-oxidation' process, which took much less time to form, and had a low protrusion profile. A polysilicon field plate extended to the FOX and a long metal field plate was used to improve the specific on-resistance. An optimized drift region implant for linear-gradient doping was adopted to achieve a uniform lateral electric field. Using a SimBond SOI wafer with a 1.5 μm top silicon and a 3 μm buried oxide layer, CMOS compatible SOI LDMOS processes are designed and implemented successfully. The off-state breakdown voltage reached 680 V, and the specific on-resistance was 8.2 Ω·mm 2 . (semiconductor devices)

  14. Effect of Processing Parameters on Pore Structure and Thickness of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Tubular Membranes

    OpenAIRE

    Belwalkar, A.; Grasing, E.; Van Geertruyden, W.; Huang, Z.; Misiolek, W.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) tubular membranes were fabricated from aluminum alloy tubes in sulfuric and oxalic acid electrolytes using a two-step anodization process. The membranes were investigated for characteristics such as pore size, interpore distance and thickness by varying applied voltage and electrolyte concentration. Morphology of the membranes was examined using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and characterized using ImageJ software. Results showed that me...

  15. Role of the SiO2 buffer layer thickness in the formation of Si/SiO2/nc-Ge/SiO2 structures by dry oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, A.; Ortiz, M.I.; Prieto, A.C.; Rodriguez, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Jimenez, J.; Ballesteros, C.; Soares, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Nanomemories, containing Ge-nanoparticles in a SiO 2 matrix, can be produced by dry thermal oxidation of a SiGe layer deposited onto a Si-wafer with a barrier SiO 2 layer on its top. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry has been used to characterize the kinetics of the oxidation process, the composition profile of the growing oxide, the Ge-segregation and its diffusion into the barrier oxide in samples with thin and thick barrier oxide layers. The Ge segregated during the oxidation of the SiGe layer diffuses into the barrier oxide. In the first case the diffusion through the thin oxide is enhanced by the proximity of the substrate that acts as a sink for the Ge, resulting in the formation of a low Ge concentration SiGe layer in the surface of the Si-wafer. In the second case, the Ge-diffusion progresses as slowly as in bulk SiO 2 . Since barrier oxide layers as thin as possible are favoured for device fabrication, the structures should be oxidized at lower temperatures and the initial SiGe layer thickness reduced to minimize the Ge-diffusion

  16. A thermally robust and thickness independent ferroelectric phase in laminated hafnium zirconium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Riedel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ferroelectric properties in hafnium oxide based thin films have recovered the scaling potential for ferroelectric memories due to their ultra-thin-film- and CMOS-compatibility. However, the variety of physical phenomena connected to ferroelectricity allows a wider range of applications for these materials than ferroelectric memory. Especially mixed HfxZr1-xO2 thin films exhibit a broad compositional range of ferroelectric phase stability and provide the possibility to tailor material properties for multiple applications. Here it is shown that the limited thermal stability and thick-film capability of HfxZr1-xO2 can be overcome by a laminated approach using alumina interlayers.

  17. Effect of Processing Parameters on Pore Structure and Thickness of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Tubular Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwalkar, A.; Grasing, E.; Huang, Z.; Misiolek, W.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) tubular membranes were fabricated from aluminum alloy tubes in sulfuric and oxalic acid electrolytes using a two-step anodization process. The membranes were investigated for characteristics such as pore size, interpore distance and thickness by varying applied voltage and electrolyte concentration. Morphology of the membranes was examined using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and characterized using ImageJ software. Results showed that membranes having narrow pore size and uniform pore distribution with parallel channel arrays were obtained. The pore sizes were ranging from 14 to 24 nm and the wall thicknesses as high as 76 µm. It was found that the pore size increased in direct proportion with the applied voltage and inversely with the electrolyte concentration while the interpore distance increased linearly with the applied voltage. It was also observed that increase in acid concentration increased tubular membrane wall thickness that improved mechanical handling. By using anodic alumina technology, robust ceramic tubes with uniformly distributed pore-structure and parallel nano-channels of lengths and sizes practical for industrial applications were reliably produced in quantity. PMID:19578471

  18. Effect of Processing Parameters on Pore Structure and Thickness of Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) Tubular Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belwalkar, A; Grasing, E; Van Geertruyden, W; Huang, Z; Misiolek, W Z

    2008-07-01

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) tubular membranes were fabricated from aluminum alloy tubes in sulfuric and oxalic acid electrolytes using a two-step anodization process. The membranes were investigated for characteristics such as pore size, interpore distance and thickness by varying applied voltage and electrolyte concentration. Morphology of the membranes was examined using light optical and scanning electron microscopy and characterized using ImageJ software. Results showed that membranes having narrow pore size and uniform pore distribution with parallel channel arrays were obtained. The pore sizes were ranging from 14 to 24 nm and the wall thicknesses as high as 76 microm. It was found that the pore size increased in direct proportion with the applied voltage and inversely with the electrolyte concentration while the interpore distance increased linearly with the applied voltage. It was also observed that increase in acid concentration increased tubular membrane wall thickness that improved mechanical handling. By using anodic alumina technology, robust ceramic tubes with uniformly distributed pore-structure and parallel nano-channels of lengths and sizes practical for industrial applications were reliably produced in quantity.

  19. Excimer laser sintering of indium tin oxide nanoparticles for fabricating thin films of variable thickness on flexible substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Taesoon; Kim, Dongsik

    2015-01-01

    Technology to fabricate electrically-conducting, transparent thin-film patterns on flexible substrates has possible applications in flexible electronics. In this work, a pulsed-laser sintering process applicable to indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film fabrication on a substrate without thermal damage to the substrate was developed. A nanosecond pulsed laser was used to minimize thermal penetration into the substrate and to control the thickness of the sintered layer. ITO nanoparticles (NPs) of ~ 20 nm diameter were used to lower the process temperature by exploiting their low melting point. ITO thin film patterns were fabricated by first spin coating the NPs onto a surface, then sintering them using a KrF excimer laser. The sintered films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrical resistivity and transparency of the film were measured by varying the process parameters. A single laser pulse could generate the polycrystalline structure (average grain size ~ 200 nm), reducing the electrical resistivity of the film by a factor of ~ 1000. The sintering process led to a minimum resistivity of 1.1 × 10 −4 Ω·m without losing the transparency of the film. The thickness of the sintered layer could be varied up to 150 nm by adjusting the laser fluence. Because the estimated thermal penetration depth in the ITO film was less than 200 nm, no thermal damage was observed in the substrate. This work suggests that the proposed process, combined with various particle deposition methods, can be an effective tool to form thin-film ITO patterns on flexible substrates. - Highlights: • Excimer laser sintering can fabricate ITO thin films on flexible substrates. • The laser pulse can form a polycrystalline structure without thermal damage. • The laser sintering process can reduce the electrical resistivity substantially. • The thickness of the sintered layer can be varied effectively

  20. Excimer laser sintering of indium tin oxide nanoparticles for fabricating thin films of variable thickness on flexible substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Taesoon; Kim, Dongsik, E-mail: dskim87@postech.ac.kr

    2015-03-02

    Technology to fabricate electrically-conducting, transparent thin-film patterns on flexible substrates has possible applications in flexible electronics. In this work, a pulsed-laser sintering process applicable to indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film fabrication on a substrate without thermal damage to the substrate was developed. A nanosecond pulsed laser was used to minimize thermal penetration into the substrate and to control the thickness of the sintered layer. ITO nanoparticles (NPs) of ~ 20 nm diameter were used to lower the process temperature by exploiting their low melting point. ITO thin film patterns were fabricated by first spin coating the NPs onto a surface, then sintering them using a KrF excimer laser. The sintered films were characterized using field emission scanning electron microscopy. The electrical resistivity and transparency of the film were measured by varying the process parameters. A single laser pulse could generate the polycrystalline structure (average grain size ~ 200 nm), reducing the electrical resistivity of the film by a factor of ~ 1000. The sintering process led to a minimum resistivity of 1.1 × 10{sup −4} Ω·m without losing the transparency of the film. The thickness of the sintered layer could be varied up to 150 nm by adjusting the laser fluence. Because the estimated thermal penetration depth in the ITO film was less than 200 nm, no thermal damage was observed in the substrate. This work suggests that the proposed process, combined with various particle deposition methods, can be an effective tool to form thin-film ITO patterns on flexible substrates. - Highlights: • Excimer laser sintering can fabricate ITO thin films on flexible substrates. • The laser pulse can form a polycrystalline structure without thermal damage. • The laser sintering process can reduce the electrical resistivity substantially. • The thickness of the sintered layer can be varied effectively.

  1. The diagnostic use of choroidal thickness analysis and its correlation with visual field indices in glaucoma using spectral domain optical coherence tomography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongjing Lin

    Full Text Available To evaluate the quantitative characteristics of choroidal thickness in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG, normal tension glaucoma (NTG and in normal eyes using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. To evaluate the diagnostic ability of choroidal thickness in glaucoma and to determine the correlation between choroidal thickness and visual field parameters in glaucoma.A total of 116 subjects including 40 POAG, 30 NTG and 46 healthy subjects were enrolled in this study. Choroidal thickness measurements were acquired in the macular and peripapillary regions using SD-OCT. All subjects underwent white-on-white (W/W and blue-on-yellow (B/Y visual field tests using Humphrey Field Analyzer. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve and the area under curve (AUC were generated to assess the discriminating power of choroidal thickness for glaucoma. Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the structure function correlation for glaucoma patients.No significant differences were observed for macular choroidal thickness among the different groups (all P > 0.05. Regarding the peripapillary choroidal thickness (PPCT, significant differences were observed among the three groups (all P 0.05, but showed significant correlations with B/Y MD (all P < 0.05. In the early glaucomatous eyes, PPCT showed significant correlations with W/W MD and B/Y MD (all P < 0.05.In our study, peripapillary choroidal thickness measured on OCT showed a low to moderate but statistically significant diagnostic power and a significant correlation with blue-on-yellow visual field indices in glaucoma. This may indicate a potential adjunct for peripapillary choroidal thickness in glaucoma diagnosis.

  2. Numerical modelling of the impedance plane for simultaneous determining, by eddy currents, the oxide thickness and conductivity in Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lois, Alejandro E.

    2001-01-01

    During service at high temperature or in aggressive media, metallic structures and components may suffer different types of changes or degradation. As an example, phase transformations may occur, second phases may precipitate, and in consequence the mechanical and chemical properties of the material may change. Their behavior will therefore differ from that considered for the design of the component. The knowledge of the amount of a precipitated second phase in a component should be an important tool in the hands of the maintenance engineer. And it would be very important to obtain this knowledge nondestructively and reliably. The objective of this project is to evaluate by eddy currents the amount of the hydrogen incorporated during service in structural zirconium base materials. For this purpose, a series of Zircaloy-4 specimens with oxide layers of different thickness and different concentration of hydrogen obtained by controlled autoclave treatments were used. These specimens were tested with eddy current equipment. The information produced by an eddy current test is the superposition of many variables, e.g.: thickness of oxide layers, conductance, thickness of specimen, etc. In order to sort out this information, an analytical model of the impedance plane was programmed in a PC, with which this information was processed, permitting, in this way, to evaluate the conductivity of materials, taking into account the effect of oxide layers thickness. A linear relationship between the conductivity and the hydrogen content in the range of hydrogen concentrations of technological interest was observed. Therefore, the calculated electrical conductivity may be transformed to the amount of hydrogen content, using a suitable calibration curve. This process will allow for the nondestructive assessment of the amount of hydrogen in reactor components, such as pressure and calandria tubes, a knowledge which will enable the experts to predict the degree of fragility of those

  3. Electrical properties and conduction mechanisms of Ru-based thick-film (cermet) resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, G.E.; Seager, C.H.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the electrical conduction mechanisms in thick-film (cermet) resistor. The resistors were made from one custom and three commercially formulated inks with sheet resistivities ranging from 10 2 to 10 6 Ω/D 7 Alembertian in decade increments. Their microstructure and composition have been examined using optical and scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, x-ray diffraction, and various chemical analyses. This portion of our study shows that the resistors are heterogeneous mixtures of metallic metal oxide particles (approx.4 x 10 -5 cm in diameter) and a lead silicate glass. The metal oxide particles are ruthenium containing pyrochlores, and are joined to form a continuous three-dimensional network of chain segments. The principal experimental work reported here is an extensive study of the electrical transport properties of the resistors. The temperature dependence of conductance has been measured from 1.2 to 400 K, and two features common to all resistors are found. There is a pronounced decrease in conductance at low temperatures and a shallow maximum at several hundred Kelvin. Within the same range of temperatures the reversible conductance as a function of electric field from 0 to 28 kV/cm has been studied. The resistors are non-Ohmic at all temperatures, but particularly at cryogenic temperatures for low fields. At higher fields the conductance shows a linear variation with electric field. The thick-film resistors are found to have a small dielectric constant and a (nearly) frequency-independent conductance from dc to 50 MHz. The magnetoresistance to 100 kG, the Hall mobility, and the Seebeck coefficient of most of the resistors have been measured and discovered to be quite small. Many of the electrical transport properties have also been determined for the metal oxide particles which were extracted from the fired resistors

  4. Prediction of overpotential and effective thickness of Ni/YSZ anode for solid oxide fuel cell by improved species territory adsorption model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Tsuyoshi; Hanamura, Katsunori

    2017-06-01

    The reliability of analytical model for hydrogen oxidation at Ni/YSZ anode in solid oxide fuel cell named as species territory adsorption model has been improved by introducing referenced thermodynamic and kinetic parameters predicted by density function theory calculations. The model can explicitly predict anode overpotential using unknown values of quantities of state for oxygen migration process in YSZ near a triple phase boundary (TPB), frequency factor for hydrogen oxidation, and effective anode thickness. The former two are determined through careful fitting process between the predicted and experimental results of Ni/YSZ cermet and Ni-patterned anodes. This makes it possible to estimate effective anode thickness, which tends to increase with temperature in six kinds of Ni/YSZ anodes in references. In addition, the comparison between the proposed model and a published numerical simulation indicates that the model can predict more precise dependence of anode overpotential on steam partial pressure than that by Butler-Volmer equation with empirical exchange current density. The introduction of present model into numerical simulation instead of Butler-Volmer equation can give more accurate prediction of anode polarization.

  5. Solid oxide fuel cell field trial evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, C.P.; Winstanley, R.; Nietsch, T.; Smith, C.; Knight, R.; Seymore, C.

    2000-07-01

    This report focuses on issues relating to a field trial of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Aspects examined include markets for SOFC systems, the choice of systems for demonstration in year 2002, the assessment of industrial interest, and evaluation and ranking of candidate systems. The identification and evaluation of interest in field trials, the estimation of the capital and running costs of a field trial, and identification of the benefits to the UK and barriers to implementation of SOFC systems are discussed. (UK)

  6. n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride–oxide heterostructure with various thickness of VO{sub 2} layer grown by MBE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Minhuan [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bian, Jiming, E-mail: jmbian@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China (China); Sun, Hongjun; Liu, Weifeng [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Zhang, Yuzhi [Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating Materials, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200050, China (China); Luo, Yingmin [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: The significant influences of VO{sub 2} layer thickness on the structural, electrical and contact properties of the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure were investigated systemically. - Highlights: • High quality VO{sub 2} films with precisely controlled thickness were grown on p-GaN/sapphire substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). • A distinct reversible SMT phase transition was observed for the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure. • The clear rectifying transport characteristics originated from the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN interface were demonstrated before and after SMT of the VO{sub 2} over layer. • The XPS analyses confirmed the valence state of V in VO{sub 2} films was principally composed of V{sup 4+} with trace amount of V{sup 5+}. • The design and modulation of the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based heterostructure devices will benefit significantly from these achievements. - Abstract: High quality VO{sub 2} films with precisely controlled thickness were grown on p-GaN/sapphire substrates by oxide molecular beam epitaxy (O-MBE). Results indicated that a distinct reversible semiconductor-to-metal (SMT) phase transition was observed for all the samples in the temperature dependent electrical resistance measurement, and the influence of VO{sub 2} layer thickness on the SMT properties of the as-grown n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based nitride-oxide heterostructure was investigated. Meanwhile, the clear rectifying transport characteristics originated from the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN interface were demonstrated before and after SMT of the VO{sub 2} over layer, which were attributed to the p-n junction behavior and Schottky contact character, respectively. Moreover, the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed the valence state of vanadium (V) in VO{sub 2} films was principally composed of V{sup 4+} with trace amount of V{sup 5+}. The design and modulation of the n-VO{sub 2}/p-GaN based heterostructure

  7. A High Performance Silicon-on-Insulator LDMOSTT Using Linearly Increasing Thickness Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu-Feng, Guo; Zhi-Gong, Wang; Gene, Sheu; Jian-Bing, Cheng

    2010-01-01

    We present a new technique to achieve uniform lateral electric field and maximum breakdown voltage in lateral double-diffused metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator substrates. A linearly increasing drift-region thickness from the source to the drain is employed to improve the electric field distribution in the devices. Compared to the lateral linear doping technique and the reduced surface field technique, two-dimensional numerical simulations show that the new device exhibits reduced specific on-resistance, maximum off- and on-state breakdown voltages, superior quasi-saturation characteristics and improved safe operating area. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  8. Dark-field image contrast in transmission scanning electron microscopy: Effects of substrate thickness and detector collection angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woehl, Taylor, E-mail: tjwoehl@umd.edu; Keller, Robert

    2016-12-15

    An annular dark field (ADF) detector was placed beneath a specimen in a field emission scanning electron microscope operated at 30 kV to calibrate detector response to incident beam current, and to create transmission images of gold nanoparticles on silicon nitride (SiN) substrates of various thicknesses. Based on the linear response of the ADF detector diodes to beam current, we developed a method that allowed for direct determination of the percentage of that beam current forward scattered to the ADF detector from the sample, i.e. the transmitted electron (TE) yield. Collection angles for the ADF detector region were defined using a masking aperture above the detector and were systematically varied by changing the sample to detector distance. We found the contrast of the nanoparticles, relative to the SiN substrate, decreased monotonically with decreasing inner exclusion angle and increasing substrate thickness. We also performed Monte Carlo electron scattering simulations, which showed quantitative agreement with experimental contrast associated with the nanoparticles. Together, the experiments and Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the decrease in contrast with decreasing inner exclusion angle was due to a rapid increase in the TE yield of the low atomic number substrate. Nanoparticles imaged at low inner exclusion angles (<150 mrad) and on thick substrates (>50 nm) showed low image contrast in their centers surrounded by a bright high-contrast halo on their edges. This complex image contrast was predicted by Monte Carlo simulations, which we interpreted in terms of mixing of the nominally bright field (BF) and ADF electron signals. Our systematic investigation of inner exclusion angle and substrate thickness effects on ADF t-SEM imaging provides fundamental understanding of the contrast mechanisms for image formation, which in turn suggest practical limitations and optimal imaging conditions for different substrate thicknesses. - Highlights: • Developed a

  9. Charge Yield at Low Electric Fields: Considerations for Bipolar Integrated Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, A. H.; Swimm, R. T.; Thorbourn, D. O.

    2013-01-01

    A significant reduction in total dose damage is observed when bipolar integrated circuits are irradiated at low temperature. This can be partially explained by the Onsager theory of recombination, which predicts a strong temperature dependence for charge yield under low-field conditions. Reduced damage occurs for biased as well as unbiased devices because the weak fringing field in thick bipolar oxides only affects charge yield near the Si/SiO2 interface, a relatively small fraction of the total oxide thickness. Lowering the temperature of bipolar ICs - either continuously, or for time periods when they are exposed to high radiation levels - provides an additional degree of freedom to improve total dose performance of bipolar circuits, particularly in space applications.

  10. Prediction model for oxide thickness on aluminum alloy cladding during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Hofman, G.L.; Hanan, N.A.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    2003-01-01

    An empirical model predicting the oxide film thickness on aluminum alloy cladding during irradiation has been developed as a function of irradiation time, temperature, heat flux, pH, and coolant flow rate. The existing models in the literature are neither consistent among themselves nor fit the measured data very well. They also lack versatility for various reactor situations such as a pH other than 5, high coolant flow rates, and fuel life longer than ∼1200 hrs. Particularly, they were not intended for use in irradiation situations. The newly developed model is applicable to these in-reactor situations as well as ex-reactor tests, and has a more accurate prediction capability. The new model demonstrated with consistent predictions to the measured data of UMUS and SIMONE fuel tests performed in the HFR, Petten, tests results from the ORR, and IRIS tests from the OSIRIS and to the data from the out-of-pile tests available in the literature as well. (author)

  11. Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis, Allison M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mangum, Benjamin D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Piryatinski, Andrei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Young-Shin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Htoon, Han [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-21

    Fields as diverse as biological imaging and telecommunications utilize the unique photophysical and electronic properties of nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs). The development of new NQD compositions promises material properties optimized for specific applications, while addressing material toxicity. Indium phosphide (InP) offers a 'green' alternative to the traditional cadmium-based NQDs, but suffers from extreme susceptibility to oxidation. Coating InP cores with more stable shell materials significantly improves nanocrystal resistance to oxidation and photostability. We have investigated several new InP-based core-shell compositions, correlating our results with theoretical predictions of their optical and electronic properties. Specifically, we can tailor the InP core-shell QDs to a type-I, quasi-type-II, or type-II bandgap structure with emission wavelengths ranging from 500-1300 nm depending on the shell material used (ZnS, ZnSe, CdS, or CdSe) and the thickness of the shell. Single molecule microscopy assessments of photobleaching and blinking are used to correlate NQD properties with shell thickness.

  12. Gamma-ray irradiation and post-irradiation at room and elevated temperature response of pMOS dosimeters with thick gate oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović Momčilo M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gamma-ray irradiation and post-irradiation response at room and elevated temperature have been studied for radiation sensitive pMOS transistors with gate oxide thickness of 100 and 400 nm, respectively. Their response was followed based on the changes in the threshold voltage shift which was estimated on the basis of transfer characteristics in saturation. The presence of radiation-induced fixed oxide traps and switching traps - which lead to a change in the threshold voltage - was estimated from the sub-threshold I-V curves, using the midgap technique. It was shown that fixed oxide traps have a dominant influence on the change in the threshold voltage shift during gamma-ray irradiation and annealing.

  13. Spark counting technique of alpha tracks on an aluminium oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Niwa, Takeo; Kawai, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    We have tried to use aluminium oxide film as a neutron detector film with a spark counter for neutron monitoring in the mixed field of neutron and gamma-rays near a reactor. The merits of this method are that (1) aluminium oxide is good electric insulator, (2) any desired thickness of the film can be prepared, (3) chemical etching of the thin film can be dispensed with. The relation between spark counts and numbers of alpha-particles which entered the aluminium oxide film 1 μm thick was linear in the range of 10 5 -10 7 alpha-particles. The sensitivity(ratio of the spark counts to irradiated numbers of alpha-particles) was approximately 10 -3 . (author)

  14. The effects of gate oxide thickness on radiation damage in MOS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Hui; Yan Rongliang; Wang Yu; He Jinming

    1988-01-01

    The dependences of the flatband voltage shift (ΔV FB ) and the threshold voltage shift (ΔV TH ) in MOS system on the oxide thickness (T ox ) and on total irradiated dose (D) of electron-beam and 60 Co γ-ray have been studied. It has been found that ΔV FB ∝ T ox 3 , with +10V of gate bias during irradiation for n-Si substrate MOS capacitors; ΔV TH ∝ T ox 3 D 2/3 , with 'on' gate bias during irradiation for n- and P-channel MOS transistors; ΔV TP ∝ T ox 2 D 2/3 , with 'off' gate bias during irradiation for P-channel MOS transistors. These results are explained by Viswanathan model. According to ∼T ox 3 dependence, the optimization of radiation hardening process for MOS system is also simply discussed

  15. Thickness Dependence of Magnetic Relaxation and E-J Characteristics in Superconducting (Gd-Y)-Ba-Cu-O Films with Strong Vortex Pinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polat, Ozgur [ORNL; Sinclair IV, John W [ORNL; Zuev, Yuri L [ORNL; Thompson, James R [ORNL; Christen, David K [ORNL; Cook, Sylvester W [ORNL; Kumar, Dhananjay [ORNL; Chen, Y [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York; Selvamanickam, V. [SuperPower Incorporated, Schenectady, New York

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of the critical current density Jc on temperature, magnetic field, and film thickness has been investigated in (Gd-Y)BaCu-oxide materials of 0.7, 1.4, and 2.8 m thickness. Generally, the Jc decreases with film thickness at investigated temperatures and magnetic fields. The nature and strength of the pinning centers for vortices have been identified through angular and temperature measurements, respectively. These films do not exhibit c-axis correlated vortex pinning, but do have correlated defects oriented near the ab-planes. For all film thicknesses studied, strong pinning dominates at most temperatures. The vortex dynamics were investigated through magnetic relaxation studies in the temperature range of 5 77 K in 1 T and 3 T applied magnetic fields, H || surface-normal. The creep rate S is thickness dependent at high temperatures, implying that the pinning energy is also thickness dependent. Maley analyses of the relaxation data show an inverse power law variation for the effective pinning energy Ueff ~ (J0/J) . Finally, the electric field-current density (E-J) characteristics were determined over a wide range of dissipation by combining experimental results from transport, swept field magnetometry (VSM), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometry. We develop a self-consistent model of the combined experimental results, leading to an estimation of the critical current density Jc0(T) in the absence of flux creep.

  16. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jwad, Tahseen, E-mail: taj355@bham.ac.uk; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  17. Laser induced single spot oxidation of titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jwad, Tahseen; Deng, Sunan; Butt, Haider; Dimov, S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new high resolution laser induced oxidation (colouring) method is proposed (single spot oxidation). • The method is applied to control oxide films thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates in micro-scale. • The method enable imprinting high resolution coloured image on Ti substrate. • Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots using the proposed method. • Colour coding of two colours into one field is presented. - Abstract: Titanium oxides have a wide range of applications in industry, and they can be formed on pure titanium using different methods. Laser-induced oxidation is one of the most reliable methods due to its controllability and selectivity. Colour marking is one of the main applications of the oxidation process. However, the colourizing process based on laser scanning strategies is limited by the relative large processing area in comparison to the beam size. Single spot oxidation of titanium substrates is proposed in this research in order to increase the resolution of the processed area and also to address the requirements of potential new applications. The method is applied to produce oxide films with different thicknesses and hence colours on titanium substrates. High resolution colour image is imprinted on a sheet of pure titanium by converting its pixels’ colours into laser parameter settings. Optical and morphological periodic surface structures are also produced by an array of oxide spots and then analysed. Two colours have been coded into one field and the dependencies of the reflected colours on incident and azimuthal angles of the light are discussed. The findings are of interest to a range of application areas, as they can be used to imprint optical devices such as diffusers and Fresnel lenses on metallic surfaces as well as for colour marking.

  18. Characterization of Series Resistance and Mobility Degradation Parameter and Optimizing Choice of Oxide Thickness in Thin Oxide N-Channel MOSFET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noureddine Maouhoub

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present two methods to extract the series resistance and the mobility degradation parameter in short-channel MOSFETs. The principle of the first method is based on the comparison between the exponential model and the classical model of effective mobility and for the second method is based on directly calculating the two parameters by solving a system of two equations obtained by using two different points in strong inversion at small drain bias from the characteristic (. The results obtained by these techniques have shown a better agreement with data measurements and allowed in the same time to determine the surface roughness amplitude and its influence on the maximum drain current and give the optimal oxide thickness.

  19. Field-emission properties of transparent tungsten oxide nano-urchins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do-Hyung [Kyungpook National University, Nano-applied Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The field-emission properties of transparent tungsten oxide nano-urchin (NU) films deposited on conducting glass substrates were examined. The novel crystalline tungsten oxide NUs consisted of nanowires added to a spherical shell. The WO{sub 2.72} NUs showed better field-emission properties than the WO{sub 3} NUs with a low turn-on field of approximately 5.8 V/{mu}m and a current density as high as 1.3 mA/cm{sup 2} at 7.2 V/mm. The WO{sub x} NUs films could be used in FE applications using a large-area glass substrate without the need for a catalyst and a mechanical rubbing or lift-up process. These results have implications for the enhancement of FE properties by further tuning the WO{sub x} phases. (orig.)

  20. Alternative waste residue materials for passive in situ prevention of sulfide-mine tailings oxidation: a field evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nason, Peter; Johnson, Raymond H; Neuschütz, Clara; Alakangas, Lena; Öhlander, Björn

    2014-02-28

    Novel solutions for sulfide-mine tailings remediation were evaluated in field-scale experiments on a former tailings repository in northern Sweden. Uncovered sulfide-tailings were compared to sewage-sludge biosolid amended tailings over 2 years. An application of a 0.2m single-layer sewage-sludge amendment was unsuccessful at preventing oxygen ingress to underlying tailings. It merely slowed the sulfide-oxidation rate by 20%. In addition, sludge-derived metals (Cu, Ni, Fe, and Zn) migrated and precipitated at the tailings-to-sludge interface. By using an additional 0.6m thick fly-ash sealing layer underlying the sewage sludge layer, a solution to mitigate oxygen transport to the underlying tailings and minimize sulfide-oxidation was found. The fly-ash acted as a hardened physical barrier that prevented oxygen diffusion and provided a trap for sludge-borne metals. Nevertheless, the biosolid application hampered the application, despite the advances in the effectiveness of the fly-ash layer, as sludge-borne nitrate leached through the cover system into the underlying tailings, oxidizing pyrite. This created a 0.3m deep oxidized zone in 6-years. This study highlights that using sewage sludge in unconventional cover systems is not always a practical solution for the remediation of sulfide-bearing mine tailings to mitigate against sulfide weathering and acid rock drainage formation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Thickness dependent growth of low temperature atomic layer deposited zinc oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montiel-González, Z.; Castelo-González, O.A.; Aguilar-Gama, M.T.; Ramírez-Morales, E.; Hu, H.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Polycrystalline columnar ZnO thin films deposited by ALD at low temperatures. • Higher deposition temperature leads to a greater surface roughness in the ALD ZnO films. • Higher temperature originates larger refractive index values of the ALD ZnO films. • ZnO thin films were denser as the numbers of ALD deposition cycles were larger. • XPS analysis revels mayor extent of the DEZ reaction during the ALD process. - Abstract: Zinc oxide films are promising to improve the performance of electronic devices, including those based on organic materials. However, the dependence of the ZnO properties on the preparation conditions represents a challenge to obtain homogeneous thin films that satisfy specific applications. Here, we prepared ZnO films of a wide range of thicknesses by atomic layer deposition (ALD) at relatively low temperatures, 150 and 175 °C. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry it is concluded that the polycrystalline structure of the wurtzite is the main phase of the ALD samples, with OH groups on their surface. Ellipsometry revealed that the temperature and the deposition cycles have a strong effect on the films roughness. Scanning electron micrographs evidenced such effect, through the large pyramids developed at the surface of the films. It is concluded that crystalline ZnO thin films within a broad range of thickness and roughness can be obtained for optic or optoelectronic applications.

  2. Phase-field modeling of corrosion kinetics under dual-oxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, You-Hai; Chen, Long-Qing; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2012-04-01

    A phase-field model is proposed to simulate corrosion kinetics under a dual-oxidant atmosphere. It will be demonstrated that the model can be applied to simulate corrosion kinetics under oxidation, sulfidation and simultaneous oxidation/sulfidation processes. Phase-dependent diffusivities are incorporated in a natural manner and allow more realistic modeling as the diffusivities usually differ by many orders of magnitude in different phases. Simple free energy models are then used for testing the model while calibrated free energy models can be implemented for quantitative modeling.

  3. Correlation between central corneal thickness and visual field defects, cup to disc ratio and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness in primary open angle glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarfraz, Muhammad Haroon; Mehboob, Mohammad Asim; Haq, Rana Intisar Ul

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the correlation between Central Corneal Thickness (CCT) and Visual Field (VF) defect parameters like Mean Deviation (MD) and Pattern Standard Deviation (PSD), Cup-to-Disc Ratio (CDR) and Retinal Nerve Fibre Layer Thickness (RNFL-T) in Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma (POAG) patients. This cross sectional study was conducted at Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology (AFIO), Rawalpindi from September 2015 to September 2016. Sixty eyes of 30 patients with diagnosed POAG were analysed. Correlation of CCT with other variables was studied. Mean age of study population was 43.13±7.54 years. Out of 30 patients, 19 (63.33%) were males and 11 (36.67%) were females. Mean CCT, MD, PSD, CDR and RNFL-T of study population was 528.57±25.47µm, -9.11±3.07, 6.93±2.73, 0.63±0.13 and 77.79±10.44µm respectively. There was significant correlation of CCT with MD, PSD and CDR (r=-0.52, pfield parameters like mean deviation and pattern standard deviation, as well as with cup-to-disc ratio. However, central corneal thickness had no significant relationship with retinal nerve fibre layer thickness.

  4. Non-equilibrium oxidation states of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Wen; Yildiz, Bilge; Herbert, F. William; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical state of Zr during the initial, self-limiting stage of oxidation on single crystal zirconium (0001), with oxide thickness on the order of 1 nm, was probed by synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the Zr 3d spectrum by the spectrum reconstruction method demonstrated the formation of Zr 1+ , Zr 2+ , and Zr 3+ as non-equilibrium oxidation states, in addition to Zr 4+ in the stoichiometric ZrO 2 . This finding resolves the long-debated question of whether it is possible to form any valence states between Zr 0 and Zr 4+ at the metal-oxide interface. The presence of local strong electric fields and the minimization of interfacial energy are assessed and demonstrated as mechanisms that can drive the formation of these non-equilibrium valence states of Zr

  5. Band-to-band tunneling in Γ valley for Ge source lateral tunnel field effect transistor: Thickness scaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Prateek; Rastogi, Priyank; Yadav, Chandan; Agarwal, Amit; Chauhan, Yogesh Singh

    2017-07-01

    The direct and indirect valleys in Germanium (Ge) are separated by a very small offset, which opens up the prospect of direct tunneling in the Γ valley of an extended Ge source tunnel field effect transistor (TFET). We explore the impact of thickness scaling of extended Ge source lateral TFET on the band to band tunneling (BTBT) current. The Ge source is extended inside the gate by 2 nm to confine the tunneling in Ge only. We observe that as the thickness is scaled, the band alignment at the Si/Ge heterojunction changes significantly, which results in an increase in Ge to Si BTBT current. Based on density functional calculations, we first obtain the band structure parameters (bandgap, effective masses, etc.) for the Ge and Si slabs of varying thickness, and these are then used to obtain the thickness dependent Kane's BTBT tunneling parameters. We find that electrostatics improves as the thickness is reduced in the ultra-thin Ge film ( ≤ 10 nm). The ON current degrades as we scale down in thickness; however, the subthreshold slope ( S S AVG ) improves remarkably with thickness scaling due to subsurface BTBT. We predict that 8 nm thin devices offer the best option for optimized ON current and S S AVG .

  6. Evolution of the thickness of the aluminum oxide film due to the pH of the cooling water and surface temperature of the fuel elements clad of a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiche, Ivan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanism of growth of a film of aluminum oxide on an alloy of the same material, which serves as a protective surface being the constituent material of the RP-10 nuclear reactor fuel elements clads. The most influential parameters on the growth of this film are: the pH of the cooling water and the clad surface temperature of the fuel element. For this study, a mathematical model relating the evolution of the aluminum oxide layer thickness over the time, according to the same oxide film using a power law is used. It is concluded that the time of irradiation, the heat flux at the surface of the aluminum material, the speed of the coolant, the thermal conductivity of the oxide, the initial thickness of the oxide layer and the solubility of the protective oxide are parameters affecting in the rate and film formation. (author).

  7. Relation between film thickness and surface doping of MoS2 based field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart de la Rosa, César J.; Arutchelvan, Goutham; Leonhardt, Alessandra; Huyghebaert, Cedric; Radu, Iuliana; Heyns, Marc; De Gendt, Stefan

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-thin MoS2 film doping through surface functionalization with physically adsorbed species is of great interest due to its ability to dope the film without reduction in the carrier mobility. However, there is a need for understanding how the thickness of the MoS2 film is related to the induced surface doping for improved electrical performance. In this work, we report on the relation of MoS2 film thickness with the doping effect induced by the n-dopant adsorbate poly(vinyl-alcohol). Field effect transistors built using MoS2 films of different thicknesses were electrically characterized, and it was observed that the ION/OFF ratio after doping in thin films is more than four orders of magnitudes greater when compared with thick films. Additionally, a semi-classical model tuned with the experimental devices was used to understand the spatial distribution of charge in the channel and explain the observed behavior. From the simulation results, it was revealed that the two-dimensional carrier density induced by the adsorbate is distributed rather uniformly along the complete channel for thin films (<5.2 nm) contrary to what happens for thicker films.

  8. Simulation of 3D mesoscale structure formation in concentrated aqueous solution of the triblock polymer surfactants (ethylene oxide)(13)(propylene oxide)(30)(ethylene oxide)(13) and (propylene oxide)(19)(ethylene oxide)(33)(propylene oxide)(19). Application of dynamic mean-field density functional theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlimmeren, BAC; Maurits, NM; Zvelindovsky, AV; Sevink, GJA; Fraaije, JGEM

    1999-01-01

    We simulate the microphase separation dynamics of aqueous solutions of the triblock polymer surfactants (ethylene oxide)(13)(propylene oxide)(30)(ethylene oxide)(13) and (propylene oxide)(19)(ethylene oxide)(33)(propylene oxide)(19) by a dynamic variant of mean-field density functional theory for

  9. Effect of sputtered lanthanum hexaboride film thickness on field emission from metallic knife edge cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirley, M. P.; Novakovic, B.; Sule, N.; Weber, M. J.; Knezevic, I.; Booske, J. H.

    2012-03-01

    We report experiments and analysis of field emission from metallic knife-edge cathodes, which are sputter-coated with thin films of lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6), a low-work function material. The emission current is found to depend sensitively on the thickness of the LaB6 layer. We find that films thinner than 10 nm greatly enhance the emitted current. However, cathodes coated with a thicker layer of LaB6 are observed to emit less current than the uncoated metallic cathode. This result is unexpected due to the higher work function of the bare metal cathode. We show, based on numerical calculation of the electrostatic potential throughout the structure, that the external (LaB6/vacuum) barrier is reduced with respect to uncoated samples for both thin and thick coatings. However, this behavior is not exhibited at the internal (metal/LaB6) barrier. In thinly coated samples, electrons tunnel efficiently through both the internal and external barrier, resulting in current enhancement with respect to the uncoated case. In contrast, the thick internal barrier in thickly coated samples suppresses current below the value for uncoated samples in spite of the lowered external barrier. We argue that this coating thickness variation stems from a relatively low (no higher than 1018 cm-3) free carrier density in the sputtered polycrystalline LaB6.

  10. Charge state of oxide layer of SIMOX-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Askinazi, A Y; Dmitriev, V A; Miloglyadova, L V

    2001-01-01

    The charge state of the oxide layer of the SIMOX-structures, obtained in the course of forming the oxide layers, bricked up in the silicon volume, through the oxygen ions implantation into the Si, is studied. The charge state of the given structures is studied through the method of the layer-by-layer profiling, which makes it possible to obtain the dependence of the plane zones potential on the oxide layer thickness. It is established, that during the process of the SIMOX-structures formation in the oxide layer near the boundary with the Si there appear defects, responsible for the charge. The radiation from the near-the-ultraviolet (NUV) area without the applied electric field neutralizes the given charge. The simultaneous impact of the NUV-radiation and electric field leads to the formation of significantly positive charge

  11. Model for thickness dependence of radiation charging in MOS structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, C. R.; Maserjian, J.

    1976-01-01

    The model considers charge buildup in MOS structures due to hole trapping in the oxide and the creation of sheet charge at the silicon interface. The contribution of hole trapping causes the flatband voltage to increase with thickness in a manner in which square and cube dependences are limiting cases. Experimental measurements on samples covering a 200 - 1000 A range of oxide thickness are consistent with the model, using independently obtained values of hole-trapping parameters. An important finding of our experimental results is that a negative interface charge contribution due to surface states created during irradiation compensates most of the positive charge in the oxide at flatband. The tendency of the surface states to 'track' the positive charge buildup in the oxide, for all thicknesses, applies both in creation during irradiation and in annihilation during annealing. An explanation is proposed based on the common defect origin of hole traps and potential surface states.

  12. Comparison of different methods for measuring the passive film thickness on metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoit, Marie; Bataillon, Christian; Gwinner, Benoit; Miserque, Frédéric; Orazem, Mark E.; Sánchez-Sánchez, Carlos M.; Tribollet, Bernard; Vivier, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • In situ EIS and ex situ XPS were used for the characterization of zirconium oxide films. • The film thicknesses can be obtained from the analysis of a single EIS diagram. • A convenient graphical method to extract film properties is proposed. - Abstract: In situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and ex situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements on electrogenerated zirconium oxide films on zirconium (Zr/ZrO_2) were used to quantify the oxide film thickness and resistivity profiles through the oxide. The EIS analysis presented here takes advantage of the high-frequency domain at which the constant-phase element (CPE) behavior of the oxide film reverts to a capacitive response and the Cole-Cole representations of the complex capacitance to extract the high-frequency capacitance of the oxide film without reference to the nature of the time-constant distribution within the oxide film. The film thickness of the ZrO_2 samples measured from the high-frequency capacitance of EIS were in good agreement with the thickness obtained from XPS. Moreover, the EIS analysis presented is based on the use of the integral solution of the power law model, which allows to obtain in one single EIS experiment, both the film thickness and the resistivity profile in the ZrO_2 film. This work suggests a convenient graphical method to extract film properties and serves to validate a key assumption of the power-law model for interpretation of CPE parameters in terms of physical properties.

  13. Single Event Effects (SEE) for Power Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistors (MOSFETs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauenstein, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Single-event gate rupture (SEGR) continues to be a key failure mode in power MOSFETs. (1) SEGR is complex, making rate prediction difficult SEGR mechanism has two main components: (1) Oxide damage-- Reduces field required for rupture (2) Epilayer response -- Creates transient high field across the oxide.

  14. A study on the impediment of thickness diminution of Carbon steel tube by using a applied magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Oh; Kim, Jong Hui; Cho, Wan Sik; Hong, Sung Min; Park, Yun Won

    2001-03-01

    Magnetic properties of the carbon steel tube which is used as the pipe laying of cooling water in nuclear power plant were measured to research the impediment of thickness diminution of carbon steel tube. Magnetic field distribution of carbon steel tube in the applied magnetic field was simulated by computer program. On the basis of the simulation results, Alnico 5DG and Alnico 5 were selected as the permanent magnets applicable to the carbon steel tube. Sm2Co17 magnet was used to compare the performance of permanent magnets. The experimental apparatus similar to the draining environment of cooling water in nuclear power plant was also manufactured in order to research the impediment of thickness diminution of carbon steel carbon tube

  15. Correlation between local glaucomatous visual field defects and loss of nerve fiber layer thickness measured with polarimetry and spectral domain OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Folkert K; Mardin, Christian Y; Laemmer, Robert; Baleanu, Delia; Juenemann, Anselm M; Kruse, Friedrich E; Tornow, Ralf P

    2009-05-01

    To study the correlation between local perimetric field defects and glaucoma-induced thickness reduction of the nerve layer measured in the peripapillary area with scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) and spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SOCT) and to compare the results with those of a theoretical model. The thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer was determined in 32 sectors (11.25 degrees each) by using SLP with variable cornea compensation (GDxVCC; Laser Diagnostics, San Diego, CA) and the newly introduced high-resolution SOCT (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). Eighty-eight healthy subjects served as control subjects, to determine the thickness deviation in patients with glaucoma. The relationship between glaucomatous nerve fiber reduction and visual field losses was calculated in six nerve fiber bundle-related areas. Sixty-four patients at different stages of open-angle glaucoma and 26 patients with ocular hypertension underwent perimetry (Octopus G1; Haag-Streit, Köniz, Switzerland) and measurements with the two morphometric techniques. Sector-shaped analyses between local perimetric losses and reduction of the retinal nerve fiber layer thickness showed a significant association for corresponding areas except for the central visual field in SLP. Correlation coefficients were highest in the area of the nasal inferior visual field (SOCT, -0.81; SLP, -0.57). A linear model describes the association between structural and functional damage. Localized perimetric defects can be explained by reduced nerve fiber layer thickness. The data indicate that the present SOCT is useful for determining the functional-structural relationship in peripapillary areas and that association between perimetric defects and corresponding nerve fiber losses is stronger for SOCT than for the present SLP. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00494923.).

  16. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index in the men exposed to 1.5 T static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirmatel, O; Sert, C; Sirmatel, F; Selek, S; Yokus, B

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-strength magnetic field produced by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) apparatus on oxidative stress. The effects of a 1.5 T static magnetic field on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status (TOS) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in male subjects were investigated. In this study, 33 male volunteers were exposed to a 1.5 T static magnetic field for a short time and the TAC, TOS and OSI of each subject were determined. Magnetic field exposure was provided using a magnetic resonance apparatus; radiofrequency was not applied. Blood samples were taken from subjects and TAC, TOS and OSI values were measured using the methods of Erel. TAC showed a significant increase in post-exposures compared to pre-exposures to the magnetic field (p < 0.05). OSI and TOS showed a significant decrease in post-exposures compared to pre-exposures to a 1.5 T magnetic field (for each of two, p < 0.01). The 1.5 T static magnetic field used in the MRI apparatus did not yield a negative effect; on the contrary, it produced the positive effect of decreasing oxidative stress in men following short-term exposure.

  17. The nanostructure of microbially-reduced graphene oxide fosters thick and highly-performing electrochemically-active biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virdis, Bernardino; Dennis, Paul G.

    2017-07-01

    Biofilms of electrochemically-active organisms are used in microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) to catalyze bioreactions otherwise not possible at bare electrodes. At present, however, achievable current outputs are still below levels considered sufficient for economic viability of large-scale METs implementations. Here, we report three-dimensional, self-aggregating biofilm composites comprising of microbial cells embedded with microbially-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanoparticles to form a thick macro-porous network with superior electrochemical properties. In the presence of metabolic substrate, these hybrid biofilms are capable of producing up to five times more catalytic current than the control biofilms. Cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, show that in spite of the increased thickness, the biofilms amended with GO display lower polarization/charge transfer resistance compared to the controls, which we ascribe to the incorporation of rGO into the biofilms, which (1) promotes fast electron transfer, yet conserving a macroporous structure that allows free diffusion of reactants and products, and (2) enhances the interfacial dynamics by allowing a higher load of microbial cells per electrode surface area. These results suggest an easy-to-apply and cost-effective method to produce high-performing electrochemically-active biofilms in situ.

  18. Thin zirconium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oviedo, Cristina

    2000-01-01

    Polycrystalline Zr and two pure Zr single-crystal samples, one oriented with the normal to the surface parallel to the c-axis of the hcp structure (Z1) and the other with the normal perpendicular to c (Z2), were oxidised at 10 -8 , 10 -7 and 10 -6 Torr and room temperature. Oxidation kinetics, composition and thicknesses of the oxide films formed in each case were analyzed using XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) as the main technique. The oxidation kinetics followed logarithmic laws in all cases. The deconvolution of XPS Zr3d peaks indicated the formation of two Zr-O compounds before the formation of ZrO 2 . Varying the photoelectrons take-off angle, the compound distribution inside the oxide films could be established. Thus, it was confirmed that the most external oxide, in contact with the gas, was ZrO 2 . The thickness of the films grown at the different pressures was determined. In the polycrystalline samples, thicknesses between 15 and 19 ± 2Angstroem were obtained for pressures between 10 -8 and 10 -6 Torr, in close coincidence with the determined ones for Z2. The thicknesses measured in Z1 were smaller, reaching 13 ± 2Angstroem for the oxidations performed at 10 -6 Torr. (author)

  19. Microstructure and thermoelectric properties of screen-printed thick-films of misfit-layered cobalt oxides with Ag addition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Nong, Ngo; Samson, Alfred Junio; Pryds, Nini

    2012-01-01

    Thermoelectric properties of thick (~60 μm) films prepared by a screen-printing technique using p-type misfit-layered cobalt oxide Ca3Co4O9+δ with Ag addition have been studied. The screen-printed films were sintered in air at various temperatures ranging from 973 K to 1223 K. After each sintering...... process, crystal and microstructure analyses were carried out to determine the optimal sintering condition. The results show that the thermoelectric properties of pure Ca3Co4O9+δ thick film are comparable to those of cold isostatic pressing (CIP) samples. We found that the maximum power factor...... was improved by about 67% (to 0.3 mW/m K2) for film with proper silver (Ag) metallic inclusions as compared with 0.18 mW/m K2 for pure Ca3Co4O9+δ film under the same sintering condition of 1223 K for 2 h in air....

  20. Rhodamine B triggers ovarian toxicity through oxidative stress, decreases in the number of follicles, 17B-estradiol level, and thickness of endometrium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syiska Atik Maryanti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of exposure to rhodamine B on ovarian oxidative stress, ovarian follicles, hormone 17beta-estradiol and thickness of endometrium. Methods: A total of 28 female rats were divided into four groups consisting of control; groups treated with rhodamine B at doses of 4.5; 9, and 18 milligram/200 gram body weight. Rhodamine B was administered orally for 36 days with the probe. Analysis of MDA level was done spectrophotometrically. Analysis of the number of ovarian follicles and thickness of endometrium was done histopathologically by hematoxylin eosin staining. Analysis of 17-estradiol level was done by ELISA. Results: Rhodamine B administered in different doses in female rats can increase ovarian MDA levels significantly than the control (P 0.05. Administration of rhodamine B of the second and third doses in female rats can reduce the number of primary, secondary, and De Graaf follicles significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. Administration of rhodamine B of the second and third doses in female rats can reduce 17-estradiol level significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. The administration of rhodamine B could reduce thickness of endometrium significantly compared to the control (P 0.05. Conclusion: It was concluded that administration of rhodamine B triggered ovarian toxicity through oxidative stress, a decrease in the number of follicles, and decreased level of 17-estradiol which ultimately lowered the thickness of endometrium. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 451-457

  1. Effect of Al2O3 insulator thickness on the structural integrity of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide based thin film transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hak-Jun; Hwang, In-Ju; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2014-12-01

    The current transparent oxide semiconductors (TOSs) technology provides flexibility and high performance. In this study, multi-stack nano-layers of TOSs were designed for three-dimensional analysis of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) based thin film transistors (TFTs). In particular, the effects of torsional and compressive stresses on the nano-sized active layers such as the a-IGZO layer were investigated. Numerical simulations were carried out to investigate the structural integrity of a-IGZO based TFTs with three different thicknesses of the aluminum oxide (Al2O3) insulator (δ = 10, 20, and 30 nm), respectively, using a commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. The results are graphically depicted for operating conditions.

  2. Determination of concrete cover thickness in a reinforced concrete pillar by observation of the scattered electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Gregorio, Pietro Paolo; Frezza, Fabrizio; Mangini, Fabio; Pajewski, Lara

    2017-04-01

    The electromagnetic scattered field by a reinforced concrete structure is calculated by means of frequency-domain numerical simulations and by making use of the scattered-field formulation. The concrete pillar, used as supporting architectural element, is modelled as a parallelepiped shell made of concrete material inside which are present steel bars. In order to make the model simpler, the steel bars are supposed running parallel to the air-pillar interface. To excite the model, a linearly-polarized plane wave impinging normally with respect to the pillars surface, is adopted. We consider two different polarizations in order to determine the most useful in terms of scattered-field sensitivity. Moreover, a preliminary frequency sweep allows us to choose the most suitable operating frequency depending on the dimensions of the pillar cross-section, the steel bars cross-section and the concrete cover. All the three components of the scattered field are monitored along a line just above the interface air-pillar. The electromagnetic properties of the materials employed in this study are present in the literature and, since a frequency-domain technique is adopted, no further approximation is needed. The results obtained for different values of the concrete cover are compared, with the goal of determining the scattered field dependence on the concrete cover thickness. Considering different concrete cover thicknesses, we want to provide an electromagnetic method to obtain this useful parameter by observation of the scattered electromagnetic field. One of the practical applications of this study in the field of Civil Engineering may be the use of ground penetrating radar (GPR) techniques to monitor the thickness of the concrete that separates the metal bars embedded in the pillar from the outer surface. A correct distance is useful because the concrete cover serves as a protection against external agents avoiding corrosion of the bars that might prejudice the reinforced

  3. Study of thickness and uniformity of oxide passivation with DI-O3 on silicon substrate for electronic and photonic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mamta; Hazra, Purnima; Singh, Satyendra Kumar

    2018-05-01

    Since the beginning of semiconductor fabrication technology evolution, clean and passivated substrate surface is one of the prime requirements for fabrication of Electronic and optoelectronic device fabrication. However, as the scale of silicon circuits and device architectures are continuously decreased from micrometer to nanometer (from VLSI to ULSI technology), the cleaning methods to achieve better wafer surface qualities has raised research interests. The development of controlled and uniform silicon dioxide is the most effective and reliable way to achieve better wafer surface quality for fabrication of electronic devices. On the other hand, in order to meet the requirement of high environment safety/regulatory standards, the innovation of cleaning technology is also in demand. The controlled silicon dioxide layer formed by oxidant de-ionized ozonated water has better uniformity. As the uniformity of the controlled silicon dioxide layer is improved on the substrate, it enhances the performance of the devices. We can increase the thickness of oxide layer, by increasing the ozone time treatment. We reported first time to measurement of thickness of controlled silicon dioxide layer and obtained the uniform layer for same ozone time.

  4. Densification of ∼5 nm-thick SiO_2 layers by nitric acid oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jaeyoung; Joo, Soyeong; Park, Tae Joo; Kim, Woo-Byoung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Leakage current density of the commercial PECVD grown ∼5 nm SiO_2 layer has been decreased about three orders of magnitude by densification. • The densification of SiO_2 layer is achieved by high oxidation ability of O·. • Densities of suboxide, fixed charge (N_f) and defect state (N_d) in SiO_2/Si interface are decreased by NAOS and PMA. • Tunneling barrier height (Φ_t) is increased because of the increase of atomic density in SiO_2 layer. - Abstract: Low-temperature nitric acid (HNO_3) oxidation of Si (NAOS) has been used to improve the interface and electrical properties of ∼5 nm-thick SiO_2/Si layers produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Investigations of the physical properties and electrical characteristics of these thin films revealed that although their thickness is not changed by NAOS, the leakage current density at a gate bias voltage of −1 V decreases by about two orders of magnitude from 1.868 × 10"−"5 A/cm"2. This leakage current density was further reduced by post-metallization annealing (PMA) at 250 °C for 10 min in a 5 vol.% hydrogen atmosphere, eventually reaching a level (5.2 × 10"−"8 A/cm"2) approximately three orders of magnitude less than the as-grown SiO_2 layer. This improvement is attributed to a decrease in the concentration of suboxide species (Si"1"+, Si"2"+ and Si"3"+) in the SiO_2/Si interface, as well as a decrease in the equilibrium density of defect sites (N_d) and fixed charge density (N_f). The barrier height (Φ_t) generated by a Poole-Frenkel mechanism also increased from 0.205 to 0.371 eV after NAOS and PMA. The decrease in leakage current density is therefore attributed to a densification of the SiO_2 layer in combination with the removal of OH species and increase in interfacial properties at the SiO_2/Si interface.

  5. Field-induced resistance switching at metal/perovskite manganese oxide interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, I.; Tsubouchi, K.; Harada, T.; Kumigashira, H.; Itaka, K.; Matsumoto, Y.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Koinuma, H.; Oshima, M.

    2008-01-01

    Planar type metal/insulator/metal structures composed of an epitaxial perovskite manganese oxide layer and various metal electrodes were prepared for electric-field-induced resistance switching. Only the electrode pairs including Al show good resistance switching and the switching ratio reaches its maximum of 1000. This resistance switching occurs around the interface between Al electrodes and epitaxial perovskite manganese oxide thin films

  6. Effect of magnetic field on the zero valent iron induced oxidation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-hyo; Kim, Jungwon; Choi, Wonyong

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigate the zero valent iron induced oxidation in the presence of magnetic field. → The oxidative degradation of 4-chlorophenol is enhanced by the magnetic field. → ESR measurement confirms that more OH radicals are generated in the presence of magnetic field. → The magnetic field affects the mass transfer of O 2 and the recombination of radicals. - Abstract: The magnetic field (MF) effect on the zero valent iron (ZVI) induced oxidative reaction was investigated for the first time. The degradation of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) in the ZVI system was employed as the test oxidative reaction. MF markedly enhanced the degradation of 4-CP with the concurrent production of chlorides. The consumption of dissolved O 2 by ZVI reaction was also enhanced in the presence of MF whereas the competing reaction of H 2 production from proton reduction was retarded. Since the ZVI-induced oxidation is mainly driven by the in situ generated hydroxyl radicals, the production of OH radicals was monitored by the spin trap method using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. It was confirmed that the concentration of trapped OH radicals was enhanced in the presence of MF. Since both O 2 and Fe 0 are paramagnetic, the diffusion of O 2 onto the iron surface might be accelerated under MF. The magnetized iron can attract oxygen on itself, which makes the mass transfer process faster. As a result, the surface electrochemical reaction between Fe 0 and O 2 can be accelerated with the enhanced production of OH radicals. MF might retard the recombination of OH radicals as well.

  7. Monitoring the oxidation of nuclear fuel cladding using Raman spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mi, Hongyi; Mikael, Solomon; Allen, Todd; Sridharan, Kumar; Butt, Darryl; Blanchard, James P.; Ma, Zhenqiang

    2014-01-01

    In order to observe Zircaloy-4 (Zr-4) cladding oxidation within a spent fuel canister, cladding oxidized in air at 500 °C was investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy to measure the oxide layer thickness. Systematic Raman scans were performed to study the relationship between typical Raman spectra and various oxide layer thicknesses. The thicknesses of the oxide layers developed for various exposure times were measured by cross-sectional Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The results of this work reveal that each oxide layer thickness has a corresponding typical Raman spectrum. Detailed analysis suggests that the Raman scattering peaks around wave numbers of 180 cm −1 and 630 cm −1 are the best choices for accurately determining the oxide layer thickness. After Gaussian–Lorentzian deconvolution, these two peaks can be quantitatively represented by four peaks. The intensities of the deconvoluted peaks increase consistently as the oxide layer becomes thicker and sufficiently strong signals are produced, allowing one to distinguish the bare and oxidized cladding samples, as well as samples with different oxide layer thicknesses. Hence, a process that converts sample oxide layer thickness to optical signals can be achieved

  8. Near-field effects and energy transfer in hybrid metal-oxide nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Ulrich; Kuerbanjiang, Balati; Benel, Cahit; Papageorgiou, Giorgos; Goncalves, Manuel; Boneberg, Johannes; Leiderer, Paul; Ziemann, Paul; Marek, Peter; Hahn, Horst

    2013-01-01

    One of the big challenges of the 21st century is the utilization of nanotechnology for energy technology. Nanoscale structures may provide novel functionality, which has been demonstrated most convincingly by successful applications such as dye-sensitized solar cells introduced by M. Grätzel. Applications in energy technology are based on the transfer and conversion of energy. Following the example of photosynthesis, this requires a combination of light harvesting, transfer of energy to a reaction center, and conversion to other forms of energy by charge separation and transfer. This may be achieved by utilizing hybrid nanostructures, which combine metallic and nonmetallic components. Metallic nanostructures can interact strongly with light. Plasmonic excitations of such structures can cause local enhancement of the electrical field, which has been utilized in spectroscopy for many years. On the other hand, the excited states in metallic structures decay over very short lifetimes. Longer lifetimes of excited states occur in nonmetallic nanostructures, which makes them attractive for further energy transfer before recombination or relaxation sets in. Therefore, the combination of metallic nanostructures with nonmetallic materials is of great interest. We report investigations of hybrid nanostructured model systems that consist of a combination of metallic nanoantennas (fabricated by nanosphere lithography, NSL) and oxide nanoparticles. The oxide particles were doped with rare-earth (RE) ions, which show a large shift between absorption and emission wavelengths, allowing us to investigate the energy-transfer processes in detail. The main focus is on TiO2 nanoparticles doped with Eu(3+), since the material is interesting for applications such as the generation of hydrogen by photocatalytic splitting of water molecules. We use high-resolution techniques such as confocal fluorescence microscopy for the investigation of energy-transfer processes. The experiments are

  9. Neutron induced degradation in nitrided pyrogenic field oxide MOS capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, S. J.; Sharma, D. K.; Shaikh, A. M.; Chandorkar, A. N.

    2002-09-01

    Neutron induced oxide charge trapping and generation of interface states in MOS capacitors with pyrogenic and nitrided pyrogenic field oxides have been studied. In order to assess the damage due to neutrons alone, it is necessary to account for the damage produced by the accompanying gamma rays from neutron radiation. This is done by measuring the intensity of gamma radiation accompanying neutrons at different neutron fluences at the irradiation position. MOS capacitor structures were subjected to neutron radiation in a swimming pool type of reactor. Other samples from the same batch were then subjected to an equivalent dose of gamma radiation from a Co 60 source. The difference in the damage observed was used to characterize the damage caused by neutrons. It is observed that neutrons, though uncharged, are capable of causing ionization damage. This damage is found to be significant when the radiation is performed under biased conditions. Nitridation in different ambients is found to improve the radiation performance of pyrogenic field oxides with respect to positive charge build up as well as interface state generation. Pyrogenic oxide nitrided in N 2O is found to be the best oxynitride as damage due to neutrons is the least.

  10. Electrical transport through single-wall carbon nanotube-anodic aluminum oxide-aluminum heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukkola, Jarmo; Rautio, Aatto; Sala, Giovanni; Pino, Flavio; Toth, Geza; Leino, Anne-Riikka; Maeklin, Jani; Jantunen, Heli; Uusimaeki, Antti; Kordas, Krisztian; Gracia, Eduardo; Terrones, Mauricio; Shchukarev, Andrey; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum foils were anodized in sulfuric acid solution to form thick porous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films of thickness ∼6 μm. Electrodes of carboxyl-functionalized single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films were inkjet printed on the anodic oxide layer and the electrical characteristics of the as-obtained SWCNT-AAO-Al structures were studied. Nonlinear current-voltage transport and strong temperature dependence of conduction through the structure was measured. The microstructure and chemical composition of the anodic oxide layer was analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy as well as x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Schottky emission at the SWCNT-AAO and AAO-Al interfaces allowed by impurity states in the anodic aluminum oxide film together with ionic surface conduction on the pore walls of AAO gives a reasonable explanation for the measured electrical conduction. Calcined AAO is proposed as a dielectric material for SWCNT-field effect transistors.

  11. Lg = 100 nm In0.7Ga0.3As quantum well metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with atomic layer deposited beryllium oxide as interfacial layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, D.; Kwon, H. M.; Kim, T.-W.; Veksler, D.; Gilmer, D.; Kirsch, P. D.; Kim, D.-H.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Bielawski, Christopher W.; Maszara, W.; Banerjee, S. K.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have fabricated nanometer-scale channel length quantum-well (QW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) incorporating beryllium oxide (BeO) as an interfacial layer. BeO has high thermal stability, excellent electrical insulating characteristics, and a large band-gap, which make it an attractive candidate for use as a gate dielectric in making MOSFETs. BeO can also act as a good diffusion barrier to oxygen owing to its small atomic bonding length. In this work, we have fabricated In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As MOS capacitors with BeO and Al 2 O 3 and compared their electrical characteristics. As interface passivation layer, BeO/HfO 2 bilayer gate stack presented effective oxide thickness less 1 nm. Furthermore, we have demonstrated In 0.7 Ga 0.3 As QW MOSFETs with a BeO/HfO 2 dielectric, showing a sub-threshold slope of 100 mV/dec, and a transconductance (g m,max ) of 1.1 mS/μm, while displaying low values of gate leakage current. These results highlight the potential of atomic layer deposited BeO for use as a gate dielectric or interface passivation layer for III–V MOSFETs at the 7 nm technology node and/or beyond

  12. In situ study of electric field controlled ion transport in the Fe/BaTiO3 interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, D. G.; Bessas, D.; Bazsó, G.; Jafari, A.; Rüffer, R.; Chumakov, A. I.; Khanh, N. Q.; Sajti, Sz; Celse, J.-P.; Nagy, D. L.

    2018-01-01

    Electric field controlled ion transport and interface formation of iron thin films on a BaTiO3 substrate have been investigated by in situ nuclear resonance scattering and x-ray reflectometry techniques. At early stage of deposition, an iron-II oxide interface layer was observed. The hyperfine parameters of the interface layer were found insensitive to the evaporated layer thickness. When an electric field was applied during growth, a 10 Å increase of the nonmagnetic/magnetic thickness threshold and an extended magnetic transition region was measured compared to the case where no field was applied. The interface layer was found stable under this threshold when further evaporation occurred, contrary to the magnetic layer where the magnitude and orientation of the hyperfine magnetic field vary continuously. The obtained results of the growth mechanism and of the electric field effect of the Fe/BTO system will allow the design of novel applications by creating custom oxide/metallic nanopatterns using laterally inhomogeneous electric fields during sample preparation.

  13. Microwave assisted synthesis and characterisation of a zinc oxide/tobacco mosaic virus hybrid material. An active hybrid semiconductor in a field-effect transistor device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn Sanctis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV has been employed as a robust functional template for the fabrication of a TMV/zinc oxide field effect transistor (FET. A microwave based approach, under mild conditions was employed to synthesize stable zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles, employing a molecular precursor. Insightful studies of the decomposition of the precursor were done using NMR spectroscopy and material characterization of the hybrid material derived from the decomposition was achieved using dynamic light scattering (DLS, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, grazing incidence X-ray diffractometry (GI-XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM. TEM and DLS data confirm the formation of crystalline ZnO nanoparticles tethered on top of the virus template. GI-XRD investigations exhibit an orientated nature of the deposited ZnO film along the c-axis. FET devices fabricated using the zinc oxide mineralized virus template material demonstrates an operational transistor performance which was achieved without any high-temperature post-processing steps. Moreover, a further improvement in FET performance was observed by adjusting an optimal layer thickness of the deposited ZnO on top of the TMV. Such a bio-inorganic nanocomposite semiconductor material accessible using a mild and straightforward microwave processing technique could open up new future avenues within the field of bio-electronics.

  14. Thickness characteristics of YBaCuO system thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Hideo; Jinno, Makoto; Takashima, Osamu; Uchida, Yoshiyuki; Maeda, Akinori; Kojima, Kenzo; Ochiai, Shizuyasu; Ohashi, Asao

    1994-01-01

    The practical use of oxide high temperature superconductors for electronics field has been advanced. The oxide high temperature superconductor thin films is very sensitive to the production conditions, and their making with good reproducibility is difficult. In this study, the method of producing the thin films having good quality with good reproducibility by RF magnetron sputtering, and the relation of the film thickness with the superconductivity characteristics of YBaCuO system thin films in the different methods of substrate washing were examined. The sputtering conditions are shown. For the purpose of preventing the worsening of the film quality due to the reverse sputtering of oxygen negative ions to the thin film surface, sputtering gas pressure was set up high at 30 Pa. The film thickness and the temperature-resistance characteristics were measured. The experimental method and the experimental results are reported. By keeping the temperature on substrate surfaces constant, the reproducibility in the production of the thin films was improved remarkably. The effect of substrate washing was large. (K.I.)

  15. Bladder wall thickness mapping for magnetic resonance cystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yang; Liang Zhengrong; Zhu Hongbin; Han Hao; Yan Zengmin; Duan Chaijie; Lu Hongbing; Gu Xianfeng

    2013-01-01

    Clinical studies have shown evidence that the bladder wall thickness is an effective biomarker for bladder abnormalities. Clinical optical cystoscopy, the current gold standard, cannot show the wall thickness. The use of ultrasound by experts may generate some local thickness information, but the information is limited in field-of-view and is user dependent. Recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technologies lead MR-based virtual cystoscopy or MR cystography toward a potential alternative to map the wall thickness for the entire bladder. From a high-resolution structural MR volumetric image of the abdomen, a reasonable segmentation of the inner and outer borders of the bladder wall can be achievable. Starting from here, this paper reviews the limitation of a previous distance field-based approach of measuring the thickness between the two borders and then provides a solution to overcome the limitation by an electric field-based strategy. In addition, this paper further investigates a surface-fitting strategy to minimize the discretization errors on the voxel-like borders and facilitate the thickness mapping on the three-dimensional patient-specific bladder model. The presented thickness calculation and mapping were tested on both phantom and human subject datasets. The results are preliminary but very promising with a noticeable improvement over the previous distance field-based approach. (paper)

  16. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics (3), relationship of oxide film thickness, hematite/magnetite ratio, ECP and wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Systematic approaches for evaluating flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) are desired before discussing application of countermeasures for FAC. Firstly, future FAC occurrence should be evaluated to identify locations where a higher possibility of FAC occurrence exists, and then, wall thinning rate at the identified FAC occurrence zone is evaluated to obtain the preparation time for applying countermeasures. Wall thinning rates were calculated with the coupled models of static electrochemical analysis and dynamic double oxide layer analysis. Anodic current density and electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) were calculated with the static electrochemistry model based on an Evans diagram and ferrous ion release rate determined by the anodic current density was applied as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Some of the dissolved ferrous ion was removed to the bulk water and others precipitated on the surface as magnetite particles. The thickness of oxide layer was calculated with the dynamic double oxide layer model and then was applied as input for the electrochemistry model. It was confirmed that the calculated results based on the coupled models resulted good agreement with the measured ones. Higher ECP was essential for preventing FAC rate. Moderated conditions due to lower mass transfer coefficients resulted in thicker oxide layer thickness and then higher ECP, while moderated corrosion conditions due to higher oxidant concentrations resulted in larger hematite/magnetite rate and then higher ECP. (author)

  17. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of oxidized porous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mula, Guido, E-mail: guido.mula@unica.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, S.P. 8 km 0.700, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Tiddia, Maria V. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, S.P. 8 km 0.700, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Ruffilli, Roberta [Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Falqui, Andrea [Nanochemistry, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova (Italy); Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, S.P. 8 km 0.700, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Palmas, Simonetta; Mascia, Michele [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica Chimica e dei Materiali, Università degli Studi di Cagliari, Piazza d' Armi, 09126 Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-04-01

    We present a study of the electrochemical oxidation process of porous silicon. We analyze the effect of the layer thickness (1.25–22 μm) and of the applied current density (1.1–11.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, values calculated with reference to the external samples surface) on the oxidation process by comparing the galvanostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements and the optical specular reflectivity of the samples. The results of EIS were interpreted using an equivalent circuit to separate the contribution of different sample parts. A different behavior of the electrochemical oxidation process has been found for thin and thick samples: whereas for thin samples the oxidation process is univocally related to current density and thickness, for thicker samples this is no more true. Measurements by Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy using a Scanning Electron Microscopy confirmed that the inhomogeneity of the electrochemical oxidation process is increased by higher thicknesses and higher currents. A possible explanation is proposed to justify the different behavior of thin and thick samples during the electrochemical process. - Highlights: • A multidisciplinary approach on porous Si electrochemical oxidation is proposed. • Electrochemical, optical, and structural characterizations are used. • Layer thickness and oxidation current effects are shown. • An explanation of the observed behavior is proposed.

  18. Structure and corrosion behavior of sputter deposited cerium oxide based coatings with various thickness on Al 2024-T3 alloy substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yuanyuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); Huang, Jiamu, E-mail: huangjiamu@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Claypool, James B.; Castano, Carlos E. [Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States); O’Keefe, Matthew J., E-mail: mjokeefe@mst.edu [Materials Research Center, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO 65409 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Crystalline CeO{sub 2} coatings are deposited on Al 2024-T3 alloys by magnetron sputtering. • The crystal size and internal stress both increased with the thickness of CeO{sub 2} coating. • The ∼210 nm thick coating has the highest adhesion strength to the Al alloy substrate. • The ∼900 nm thick coating increased the corrosion resistance two orders of magnitude. • CeO{sub 2} coatings provide good cathodic inhibition for Al alloys by acting as physical barriers. - Abstract: Cerium oxide based coatings from ∼100 to ∼1400 nm in thickness were deposited onto Al 2024-T3 alloy substrates by magnetron sputtering of a 99.99% pure CeO{sub 2} target. The crystallite size of CeO{sub 2} coatings increased from 15 nm to 46 nm as the coating thickness increased from ∼100 nm to ∼1400 nm. The inhomogeneous lattice strain increased from 0.36% to 0.91% for the ∼100 nm to ∼900 nm thick coatings and slightly decreased to 0.89% for the ∼1400 nm thick coating. The highest adhesion strength to Al alloy substrates was for the ∼210 nm thick coating, due to a continuous film coverage and low internal stress. Electrochemical measurements indicated that sputter deposited crystalline CeO{sub 2} coatings acted as physical barriers that provide good cathodic inhibition for Al alloys in saline solution. The ∼900 nm thick CeO{sub 2} coated sample had the best corrosion performance that increased the corrosion resistance by two orders magnitude and lowered the cathodic current density 30 times compared to bare Al 2024-T3 substrates. The reduced defects and exposed surface, along with suppressed charge mobility, likely accounts for the improved corrosion performance as coating thickness increased from ∼100 nm to ∼900 nm. The corrosion performance decreased for ∼1400 nm thick coatings due in part to an increase in coating defects and porosity along with a decrease in adhesion strength.

  19. Evaluation of flow accelerated corrosion by coupled analysis of corrosion and flow dynamics. Relationship of oxide film thickness, hematite/magnetite ratio, ECP and wall thinning rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Uehara, Yasushi; Koshizuka, Seiichi

    2011-01-01

    Systematic approaches to evaluate flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) are desired before discussing application of countermeasures for FAC. First, future FAC occurrence should be evaluated to identify locations where a higher possibility of FAC occurrence exists, and then, wall thinning rate at the identified FAC occurrence zone is evaluated to obtain the preparation time for applying countermeasures. Wall thinning rates were calculated with two coupled models: 1.static electrochemical analysis and 2.dynamic oxide layer growth analysis. The anodic current density and the electrochemical corrosion potential (ECP) were calculated with the static electrochemistry model based on an Evans diagram. The ferrous ion release rate, determined by the anodic current density, was applied as input for the dynamic double oxide layer model. Some of the dissolved ferrous ion was removed to the bulk water and others precipitated on the surface as magnetite particles. The thickness of oxide layer was calculated with the dynamic oxide layer growth model and then its value was used as input in the electrochemistry model. It was confirmed that the calculated results (corrosion rate and ECP) based on the coupled models were in good agreement with the measured ones. Higher ECP was essential for preventing FAC rate. Moderated conditions due to lower mass transfer coefficients resulted in thicker oxide layer thickness and then higher ECP, while moderated corrosion conditions due to higher oxidant concentrations resulted in larger hematite/magnetite rate and then higher ECP.

  20. Thickness-self-controlled synthesis of porous transparent polyaniline-reduced graphene oxide composites towards advanced bifacial dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Sheng; Li, Shin-Ming; Hsiao, Sheng-Tsung; Liao, Wei-Hao; Yang, Shin-Yi; Tien, Hsi-Wen; Ma, Chen-Chi M.; Hu, Chi-Chang

    2014-08-01

    A powerful synthesis strategy is proposed for fabricating porous polyaniline-reduced graphene oxide (PANI-RGO) composites with transparency up to 80% and thickness from 300 to 1000 nm for the counter electrode (CE) of bifacial dye-sensitizing solar cells (DSSCs). The first step is to combine the in-situ positive charge transformation of graphene oxide (GO) through aniline (ANI) prepolymerization and the electrostatic adsorption of ANI oligomer-GO to effectively control the thickness of ultrathin PANI-GO films by adjusting pH of the polymerization media. In the second step, PANI-GO films are reduced with hydroiodic acid to simultaneously enhance the apparent redox activity for the I3-/I- couple and their electronic conductivity. Incorporating the RGO increases the transparency of PANI and facilitates the light-harvesting from the rear side. A DSSC assembled with such a transparent PANI-RGO CE exhibits an excellent efficiency of 7.84%, comparable to 8.19% for a semi-transparent Pt-based DSSC. The high light-harvesting ability of PANI-RGO enhances the efficiency retention between rear- and front-illumination modes to 76.7%, compared with 69.1% for a PANI-based DSSC. The higher retention reduces the power-to-weight ratio and the total cost of bifacial DSSCs, which is also promising in other applications, such as windows, power generators, and panel screens.

  1. Control of Alq3 wetting layer thickness via substrate surface functionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoi, Shufen; Szeto, Bryan; Fleischauer, Michael D; Veinot, Jonathan G C; Brett, Michael J

    2007-06-05

    The effects of substrate surface energy and vapor deposition rate on the initial growth of porous columnar tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum (Alq3) nanostructures were investigated. Alq3 nanostructures thermally evaporated onto as-supplied Si substrates bearing an oxide were observed to form a solid wetting layer, likely caused by an interfacial energy mismatch between the substrate and Alq3. Wetting layer thickness control is important for potential optoelectronic applications. A dramatic decrease in wetting layer thickness was achieved by depositing Alq3 onto alkyltrichlorosilane-derivatized Si/oxide substrates. Similar effects were noted with increasing deposition rates. These two effects enable tailoring of the wetting layer thickness.

  2. Thickness independent reduced forming voltage in oxygen engineered HfO{sub 2} based resistive switching memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharath, S. U., E-mail: sharath@oxide.tu-darmstadt.de; Kurian, J.; Komissinskiy, P.; Hildebrandt, E.; Alff, L. [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universität Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bertaud, T.; Walczyk, C.; Calka, P. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt Oder (Germany); Brandenburgische Technische Universität, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)

    2014-08-18

    The conducting filament forming voltage of stoichiometric hafnium oxide based resistive switching layers increases linearly with layer thickness. Using strongly reduced oxygen deficient hafnium oxide thin films grown on polycrystalline TiN/Si(001) substrates, the thickness dependence of the forming voltage is strongly suppressed. Instead, an almost constant forming voltage of about 3 V is observed up to 200 nm layer thickness. This effect suggests that filament formation and switching occurs for all samples in an oxidized HfO{sub 2} surface layer of a few nanometer thickness while the highly oxygen deficient thin film itself merely serves as a oxygen vacancy reservoir.

  3. Development of a novel gas sensor based on oxide thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arshak, K.; Gaidan, I.

    2005-01-01

    Zinc and iron oxide thick film gas sensors were fabricated using screen-printing technology on glass substrates that had silver interdigitated electrodes. The sensor was used to detect methanol, ethanol and propanol with a concentration range of 0-8000 ppm. Using the formula to calculate a change in resistance, ΔR = R gas - R air, resistance was seen to increase linearly alongside increasing concentrations of the gas vapours. The sensor showed the highest sensitivity to propanol followed by ethanol and methanol when the operating temperature was 25 deg. C. The sensitivities (slope of graphs) of methanol, ethanol and propanol changed from 0.07, 0.5, and 3.54 to 0.075, 0.115, and 0.5 Ω/ppm when the operating temperature was increased from 25 to 50 deg. C. The response/recovery times of the sensor for 4000 ppm at room temperature were, 10/10, 15/20 and 40/70 s for methanol, ethanol and propanol, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to examine the final composition of the film, while scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the final composition of grain size. The final composition has two phases: ZnO and ZnFe 2 O 4

  4. Evaluation of the nanomechanical properties of vanadium and native oxide vanadium thin films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, M.A.; Zhang, K.; Baumgart, H.; Elmustafa, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • V films of 50, 75, 100 nm thickness were deposited on Si by RF magnetron sputtering. • We studied structural/mechanical properties by XRD, FE-SEM, AFM, and nanoindentation. • The hardness increased from 9.0 to 14.0 GPa for 100 to 50 nm. • The modulus showed no correlation with thickness or native oxide formation. • Native oxide formation resulted in grain enlargement and roughness reduction. - Abstract: Polycrystalline vanadium thin films of 50, 75, and 100 nm thickness were deposited by magnetron sputtering of a vanadium metal target of 2 inch diameter with 99.9% purity on native oxide covered Si substrates. One set of the fabricated samples were kept in moisture free environment and the other set was exposed to ambient air at room temperature for a long period of time that resulted in formation of native oxide prior to testing. The crystal structure and phase purity of the vanadium and the oxidized vanadium thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD results yield a preferential (1 1 0), and (2 0 0) orientation of the polycrystalline V films and (0 0 4) vanadium oxide (V 3 O 7 ). The vanadium films thickness were verified using field emission scanning electron microscopy and the films surface morphologies were inspected using atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images reveal surface roughness was observed to increase with increasing film thickness and also subsequent to oxidation at room temperature. The nanomechanical properties were measured by nanoindentation to evaluate the modulus and hardness of the vanadium and the oxidized vanadium thin films. The elastic modulus of the vanadium and the oxidized vanadium films was estimated as 150 GPa at 30% film thickness and the elastic modulus of the bulk vanadium target is estimated as 135 GPa. The measured hardness of the vanadium films at 30% film thickness varies between 9 and 14 GPa for the 100 and 50 nm films, respectively, exhibiting size effects

  5. Effect of thickness on optoelectrical properties of Nb-doped indium tin oxide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-na; Ma, Rui-xin; Ma, Chun-hong; Li, Dong-ran; Xiao, Yu-qin; He, Liang-wei; Zhu, Hong-min

    2013-05-01

    Niobium-doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Nb) thin films are prepared on glass substrates with various film thicknesses by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from one piece of ceramic target material. The effects of thickness (60-360 nm) on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ITO: Nb films are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. XRD patterns show the highly oriented (400) direction. The lowest resistivity of the films without any heat treatment is 3.1×10-4Ω·cm-1, and the resistivity decreases with the increase of substrate temperature. The highest Hall mobility and carrier concentration are 17.6 N·S and 1.36×1021 cm-3, respectively. Band gap energy of the films depends on substrate temperature, which varies from 3.48 eV to 3.62 eV.

  6. Sea-ice thickness from field measurements in the northwestern Barents Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jennifer; Spreen, Gunnar; Gerland, Sebastian; Haas, Christian; Hendricks, Stefan; Kaleschke, Lars; Wang, Caixin

    2017-02-01

    The Barents Sea is one of the fastest changing regions of the Arctic, and has experienced the strongest decline in winter-time sea-ice area in the Arctic, at -23±4% decade-1. Sea-ice thickness in the Barents Sea is not well studied. We present two previously unpublished helicopter-borne electromagnetic (HEM) ice thickness measurements from the northwestern Barents Sea acquired in March 2003 and 2014. The HEM data are compared to ice thickness calculated from ice draft measured by ULS deployed between 1994 and 1996. These data show that ice thickness varies greatly from year to year; influenced by the thermodynamic and dynamic processes that govern local formation vs long-range advection. In a year with a large inflow of sea-ice from the Arctic Basin, the Barents Sea ice cover is dominated by thick multiyear ice; as was the case in 2003 and 1995. In a year with an ice cover that was mainly grown in situ, the ice will be thin and mechanically unstable; as was the case in 2014. The HEM data allow us to explore the spatial and temporal variability in ice thickness. In 2003 the dominant ice class was more than 2 years old; and modal sea-ice thickness varied regionally from 0.6 to 1.4 m, with the thinner ice being either first-year ice, or multiyear ice which had come into contact with warm Atlantic water. In 2014 the ice cover was predominantly locally grown ice less than 1 month old (regional modes of 0.5-0.8 m). These two situations represent two extremes of a range of possible ice thickness distributions that can present very different conditions for shipping traffic; or have a different impact on heat transport from ocean to atmosphere.

  7. The effect of oxide shell thickness on the structural, electronic, and optical properties of Si-SiO{sub 2} core-shell nano-crystals: A (time dependent)density functional theory study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazemi, Sanaz, E-mail: s.nazemi@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: pourfath@ut.ac.ir; Soleimani, Ebrahim Asl [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 14395-515 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Pourfath, Mahdi, E-mail: s.nazemi@ut.ac.ir, E-mail: pourfath@ut.ac.ir [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran 14395-515 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Microelectronics, Technische Universität Wien, Wien A-1040 (Austria); Kosina, Hans [Institute for Microelectronics, Technische Universität Wien, Wien A-1040 (Austria)

    2016-04-14

    Due to their tunable properties, silicon nano-crystals (NC) are currently being investigated. Quantum confinement can generally be employed for size-dependent band-gap tuning at dimensions smaller than the Bohr radius (∼5 nm for silicon). At the nano-meter scale, however, increased surface-to-volume ratio makes the surface effects dominant. Specifically, in Si-SiO{sub 2} core-shell semiconductor NCs the interfacial transition layer causes peculiar electronic and optical properties, because of the co-existence of intermediate oxidation states of silicon (Si{sup n+}, n = 0–4). Due to the presence of the many factors involved, a comprehensive understanding of the optical properties of these NCs has not yet been achieved. In this work, Si-SiO{sub 2} NCs with a diameter of 1.1 nm and covered by amorphous oxide shells with thicknesses between 2.5 and 4.75 Å are comprehensively studied, employing density functional theory calculations. It is shown that with increased oxide shell thickness, the low-energy part of the optical transition spectrum of the NC is red shifted and attenuated. Moreover, the absorption coefficient is increased in the high-energy part of the spectrum which corresponds to SiO{sub 2} transitions. Structural examinations indicate a larger compressive stress on the central silicon cluster with a thicker oxide shell. Examination of the local density of states reveals the migration of frontier molecular orbitals from the oxide shell into the silicon core with the increase of silica shell thickness. The optical and electrical properties are explained through the analysis of the density of states and the spatial distribution of silicon sub-oxide species.

  8. Controlling the Performance of P-type Cu2O/SnO Bilayer Thin-Film Transistors by Adjusting the Thickness of the Copper Oxide Layer

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Jawhari, Hala A.; Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso; Hedhili, Mohamed N.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of copper oxide layer thickness on the performance of Cu2O/SnO bilayer thin-film transistors was investigated. By using sputtered Cu2O films produced at an oxygen partial pressure, Opp, of 10% as the upper layer and 3% Opp SnO films

  9. Thick brane solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzhunushaliev, Vladimir; Minamitsuji, Masato; Folomeev, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a comprehensive review on thick brane solutions and related topics. Such models have attracted much attention from many aspects since the birth of the brane world scenario. In many works, it has been usually assumed that a brane is an infinitely thin object; however, in more general situations, one can no longer assume this. It is also widely considered that more fundamental theories such as string theory would have a minimal length scale. Many multidimensional field theories coupled to gravitation have exact solutions of gravitating topological defects, which can represent our brane world. The inclusion of brane thickness can realize a variety of possible brane world models. Given our understanding, the known solutions can be classified into topologically non-trivial solutions and trivial ones. The former class contains solutions of a single scalar (domain walls), multi-scalar, gauge-Higgs (vortices), Weyl gravity and so on. As an example of the latter class, we consider solutions of two interacting scalar fields. Approaches to obtain cosmological equations in the thick brane world are reviewed. Solutions with spatially extended branes (S-branes) and those with an extra time-like direction are also discussed.

  10. Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Corresponds to Drusen Location and Extent of Visual Field Defects in Superficial and Buried Optic Disc Drusen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Wegener, Marianne; Sander, Birgit A; Hamann, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Optic disc drusen (ODD) are hyaline deposits located within the optic nerve head. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning is associated with the high prevalence of visual field defects seen in ODD patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the characteristics of patients with ODD and to compare the peripapillary RNFL thickness to the extent of visual field defects and anatomic location (superficial or buried) of ODD. Retrospective, cross sectional study. A total of 149 eyes of 84 ODD patients were evaluated. Sixty-five percent were female and 76% had bilateral ODD. Of 149 eyes, 109 had superficial ODD and 40 had buried ODD. Peripapillary RNFL thinning was seen in 83.6% of eyes, where optical coherence tomography was performed (n = 61). Eyes with superficial ODD had greater mean peripapillary RNFL thinning (P ≤ 0.0001) and visual field defects (P = 0.002) than eyes with buried ODD. There was a correlation between mean peripapillary RNFL thinning and visual field defects as measured by perimetric mean deviation (R-0.66; P = 0.0001). The most frequent visual field abnormalities were arcuate and partial arcuate defects. Peripapillary RNFL thickness correlates with anatomic location (superficial or buried) of ODD. Frequency and extent of visual field defects corresponded with anatomic location of ODD and peripapillary RNFL thickness, suggesting increased axonal damage in patients with superficial ODD.

  11. THE THICKNESS DEPENDENCE OF OXYGEN PERMEABILITY IN SOL-GEL DERIVED CGO-COFE2O4 THIN FILMS ON POROUS CERAMIC SUBSTRATES: A SPUTTERED BLOCKING LAYER FOR THICKNESS CONTROL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K

    2009-01-08

    Mixed conductive oxides are a topic of interest for applications in oxygen separation membranes as well as use in producing hydrogen fuel through the partial oxidation of methane. The oxygen flux through the membrane is governed both by the oxygen ionic conductivity as well as the material's electronic conductivity; composite membranes like Ce{sub 0.8}Gd{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-{delta}} (CGO)-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (CFO) use gadolinium doped ceria oxides as the ionic conducting material combined with cobalt iron spinel which serves as the electronic conductor. In this study we employ {approx} 50 nm sputtered CeO{sub 2} layers on the surface of porous CGO ceramic substrates which serve as solution 'blocking' layers during the thin film fabrication process facilitating the control of film thickness. Films with thickness of {approx} 2 and 4 microns were prepared by depositing 40 and 95 separate sol-gel layers respectively. Oxygen flux measurements indicated that the permeation increased with decreasing membrane thickness; thin film membrane with thickness on the micron level showed flux values an order of magnitude greater (0.03 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2} s) at 800 C as compared to 1mm thick bulk ceramic membranes (0.003 {micro}mol/cm{sup 2}).

  12. The oxidized porous silicon field emission array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Demroff, H.P.; Elliott, T.S.; Kasprowicz, T.B.; Lee, B.; Mazumdar, T.K.; McIntyre, P.M.; Pang, Y.; Trost, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of developing a highly efficient microwave power source has led the authors to investigate new methods of electron field emission. One method presently under consideration involves the use of oxidized porous silicon thin films. The authors have used this technology to fabricate the first working field emission arrays from this substance. This approach reduces the diameter of an individual emitter to the nanometer scale. Tests of the first samples are encouraging, with extracted electron currents to nearly 1 mA resulting from less than 20 V of pulsed DC gate voltage. Modulated emission at 5 MHz was also observed. Developments of a full-scale emission array capable of delivering an electron beam at 18 GHz of minimum density 100 A/cm 2 is in progress

  13. STRUCTURAL, PHOTO-FUNCTIONAL AND SEMICONDUCTOR PROPERTIES OF COPPER OXIDE THIN FILMS PREPARED BY DC REACTIVE METHOD UNDER VARIOUS THICKNESSES Anmar H. Shukur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anmar H. Shukur

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuprous oxide (Cu2O has been formed on glass substrates by dc reactive magnetron sputtering method, whereas pure target of the solid copper was sputtered with a mixture of plasma for argon gas and oxygen gas was used to form these films. Under vacuum chamber pressure of 1.2×10-5 Pa, thin film thickness was changed from 100 nm to 300 nm while other deposition parameters were fixed. The influence of changing the thickness of thin films on the electrical and the optical properties was investigated in this study. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, X-ray Diffractions system XRD, Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM, hall effect measurement system, UV–VIS spectrophotometer were employed to determine the characteristic of the deposited thin films. Thin film of 200 nm has observed low resistivity of 60.63 Ω cm and direct band gap of 2.5eV. This study has demonstrated that the thickness has direct influence on electrical and optical properties.

  14. Thickness optimization of the ZnO based TCO layer in a CZTSSe solar cell. Evolution of its performance with thickness when external temperature changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadel, Meriem; Moustafa Bouzaki, Mohammed; Chadel, Asma; Aillerie, Michel; Benyoucef, Boumediene

    2017-07-01

    The influence of the thickness of a Zinc Oxide (ZnO) transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer on the performance of the CZTSSe solar cell is shown in detail. In a photovoltaic cell, the thickness of each layer largely influence the performance of the solar cell and optimization of each layer constitutes a complete work. Here, using the Solar Cell Capacitance Simulation (SCAPS) software, we present simulation results obtained in the analyze of the influence of the TCO layer thickness on the performance of a CZTSSe solar cell, starting from performance of a CZTSSe solar cell commercialized in 2014 with an initial efficiency equal to 12.6%. In simulation, the temperature was considered as a functioning parameter and the evolution of tthe performance of the cell for various thickness of the TCO layer when the external temperature changes is simulated and discussed. The best efficiency of the solar cell based in CZTSSe is obtained with a ZnO thickness equal to 50 nm and low temperature. Based on the considered marketed cell, we show a technological possible increase of the global efficiency achieving 13% by optimization of ZnO based TCO layer.

  15. Indium-Nitrogen Codoped Zinc Oxide Thin Film Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis on n-(111 Si Substrate: The Effect of Film Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chang Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indium-nitrogen codoped zinc oxide (INZO thin films were fabricated by spray pyrolysis deposition technique on n-(111 Si substrate with different film thicknesses at 450°C using a precursor containing zinc acetate, ammonium acetate, and indium nitrate with 1 : 3 : 0.05 at.% concentration. The morphology and structure studies were carried out by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The grain size of the films increased when increasing the film thickness. From XRD spectra, polycrystalline ZnO structure can be observed and the preferred orientation behavior varied from (002 to (101 as the film thickness increased. The concentration and mobility were investigated by Hall effect measurement. the p-type films with a hole mobility around 3 cm2V−1s−1 and hole concentration around 3×1019 cm−3 can be achieved with film thickness less than 385 nm. The n-type conduction with concentration 1×1020 cm−3 is observed for film with thickness 1089 nm. The defect states were characterized by photoluminescence. With temperature-dependent conductivity analysis, acceptor state with activation energy 0.139 eV dominate the p type conduction for thin INZO film. And the Zn-related shallow donors with activation energy 0.029 eV dominate the n-type conduction for the thick INZO film.

  16. RESEARCH OF THE THICKNESS NOISE OF MAIN ROTOR IN FAR FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Golovkin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of acoustic characteristics of the main rotor, in particular the thickness noise are presented. The influences of geometric and kinematic parameters on the thickness noise are investigated.

  17. Determination of the thickness of Al2O3 barriers in magnetic tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchanan, J.D.R.; Hase, T.P.A.; Tanner, B.K.; Hughes, N.D.; Hicken, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    The barrier thickness in magnetic spin-dependent tunnel junctions with Al 2 O 3 barriers has been measured using grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity and by fitting the tunneling current to the Simmons model. We have studied the effect of glow discharge oxidation time on the barrier structure, revealing a substantial increase in Al 2 O 3 thickness with oxidation. The greater thickness of barrier measured using grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity compared with that obtained by fitting current density-voltage to the Simmons electron tunneling model suggests that electron tunneling is localized to specific regions across the barrier, where the thickness is reduced by fluctuations due to nonconformal roughness

  18. Limits to the adherence of oxide scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.; Manning, M.I.

    1989-10-01

    Fracture mechanics is used to identify criteria under which uniform oxide scales may be expected to fail due to rapidly applied strains. The most common failure mode occurs when the strain, ε, builds up in the scale until the strain energy density per unit area exceeds the fracture surface energy, γ, of the oxide. This produces spalling when ε > (2γ/hE) 1/2 , where h is the scale thickness and E is the oxide Youngs modulus. In thin scales, as the external strain is applied to the oxide via the metal substrate, it is clear that no further strain can be applied to the oxide if the substrate has itself been strained beyond yield. This gives rise to extended oxide adherence in which the oxide cracks and forms a series of islands but remains attached to the deformed metal. When the oxide thickness is less than its comminution limit, the flaw size necessary for brittle fracture exceeds the oxide thickness and the oxide yields in a ductile manner without cracking. The results are presented as maps of failure strain versus oxide thickness for various oxide systems such as Fe 3 O 4 , Cr 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 , SiO 2 and NiO. The observed cases of spalling are found to lie within the predicted regions. (author)

  19. Full-field optical thickness profilometry of semitransparent thin films with transmission densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Jay; Harris, Tequila

    2010-01-01

    A novel bidirectional thickness profilometer based on transmission densitometry was designed to measure the localized thickness of semitransparent films on a dynamic manufacturing line. The densitometer model shows that, for materials with extinction coefficients between 0.3 and 2.9 D/mm, 100-500 μm measurements can be recorded with less than ±5% error at more than 10,000 locations in real time. As a demonstration application, the thickness profiles of 75 mmx100 mm regions of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) were determined by converting the optical density of the sample to thickness with the Beer-Lambert law. The PEM extinction coefficient was determined to be 1.4 D/mm, with an average thickness error of 4.7%.

  20. Effect of shell thickness on the exchange bias blocking temperature and coercivity in Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S.; Reethu, K.; Thanveer, T.; Myint, M. T. Z.; Al-Harthi, S. H.

    2017-08-01

    The exchange bias blocking temperature distribution of naturally oxidized Co-CoO core-shell nanoparticles exhibits two distinct signatures. These are associated with the existence of two magnetic entities which are responsible for the temperature dependence of an exchange bias field. One is from the CoO grains which undergo thermally activated magnetization reversal. The other is from the disordered spins at the Co-CoO interface which exhibits spin-glass-like behavior. We investigated the oxide shell thickness dependence of the exchange bias effect. For particles with a 3 nm thick CoO shell, the predominant contribution to the temperature dependence of exchange bias is the interfacial spin-glass layer. On increasing the shell thickness to 4 nm, the contribution from the spin-glass layer decreases, while upholding the antiferromagnetic grain contribution. For samples with a 4 nm CoO shell, the exchange bias training was minimal. On the other hand, 3 nm samples exhibited both the training effect and a peak in coercivity at an intermediate set temperature Ta. This is explained using a magnetic core-shell model including disordered spins at the interface.

  1. Aluminum cladding oxidation of prefilmed in-pile fueled experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcum, W.R., E-mail: marcumw@engr.orst.edu [Oregon State University, School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, 116 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Wachs, D.M.; Robinson, A.B.; Lillo, M.A. [Idaho National Laboratory, Nuclear Fuels & Materials Department, 2525 Fremont Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2016-04-01

    A series of fueled irradiation experiments were recently completed within the Advanced Test Reactor Full size plate In center flux trap Position (AFIP) and Gas Test Loop (GTL) campaigns. The conduct of the AFIP experiments supports ongoing efforts within the global threat reduction initiative (GTRI) to qualify a new ultra-high loading density low enriched uranium-molybdenum fuel. This study details the characterization of oxide growth on the fueled AFIP experiments and cross-correlates the empirically measured oxide thickness values to existing oxide growth correlations and convective heat transfer correlations that have traditionally been utilized for such an application. This study adds new and valuable empirical data to the scientific community with respect to oxide growth measurements of highly irradiated experiments, of which there is presently very limited data. Additionally, the predicted oxide thickness values are reconstructed to produce an oxide thickness distribution across the length of each fueled experiment (a new application and presentation of information that has not previously been obtainable in open literature); the predicted distributions are compared against experimental data and in general agree well with the exception of select outliers. - Highlights: • New experimental data is presented on oxide layer thickness of irradiated aluminum fuel. • Five oxide growth correlations and four convective heat transfer correlations are used to compute the oxide layer thickness. • The oxide layer thickness distribution is predicted via correlation for each respective experiment. • The measured experiment and predicted distributions correlate well, with few outliers.

  2. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Herz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO2 evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI oxide (WO3 which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO3 is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO3 nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  3. Solid-state dewetting of single- and bilayer Au-W thin films: Unraveling the role of individual layer thickness, stacking sequence and oxidation on morphology evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herz, A., E-mail: andreas.herz@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Franz, A.; Theska, F.; Hentschel, M.; Kups, Th.; Wang, D., E-mail: andreas.herz@tu-ilmenau.de, E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Schaaf, P. [Department of Materials for Electronics and Electrical Engineering, Institute of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, TU Ilmenau, D-98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Self-assembly of ultrathin Au, W, and Au-W bilayer thin films is investigated using a rapid thermal annealing technique in an inert ambient. The solid-state dewetting of Au films is briefly revisited in order to emphasize the role of initial film thickness. W films deposited onto SiO{sub 2} evolve into needle-like nanocrystals rather than forming particle-like agglomerates upon annealing at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that such nanocrystals actually consist of tungsten (VI) oxide (WO{sub 3}) which is related to an anisotropic oxide crystal growth out of the thin film. The evolution of W films is highly sensitive to the presence of any residual oxygen. Combination of both the dewetting of Au and the oxide crystal growth of WO{sub 3} is realized by using various bilayer film configurations of the immiscible Au and W. At low temperature, Au dewetting is initiated while oxide crystal growth is still suppressed. Depending on the stacking sequence of the Au-W bilayer thin film, W acts either as a substrate or as a passivation layer for the dewetting of Au. Being the ground layer, W changes the wettability of Au which clearly modifies its initial state for the dewetting. Being the top layer, W prevents Au from dewetting regardless of Au film thickness. Moreover, regular pattern formation of Au-WO{sub 3} nanoparticles is observed at high temperature demonstrating how bilayer thin film dewetting can create unique nanostructure arrangements.

  4. Low field leakage current on ultra-thin gate oxides after ion or electron beam irradiations; Courant de fuite aux champs faibles d'oxydes ultra-minces apres irradiations avec des faisceaux d'ions et d'electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceschia, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Sandrin, S. [Universita di Padova, Dipt. di Elettronica e Informatica, Padova (Italy); Paccagnella, A. [Istituto Nazionale per la Fisica della Materia, INFM, Unita di Padova (Italy); Ghidini, G. [ST-Microelectronics, Agrate Brianza (Italy); Wyss, J. [Universita di Padova, Dipt. di Fisica, Padova (Italy)

    1999-07-01

    In contemporary CMOS 0.25-{mu}m technologies, the MOS gate oxide (thickness {approx_equal} 5 nm) shows a low-field leakage current after radiation stresses, i.e. the radiation induced leakage current (RILC). RILC is generally attributed to a trap assisted tunneling (TAT) of electrons through neutral oxide traps generated by radiation stress. RILC has been investigated on ultra-thin oxides irradiated with 158 MeV {sup 28}Si ions or 8 MeV electrons. 3 main results are worth being quoted: 1) ion or electron beam irradiation can produce RILC with similar characteristics. Even the dose dependence of RILC is similar in the 2 cases, despite the large LET difference (about a factor of 10{sup +4}), 2) RILC is not a constant as a function of time, it tends to decrease when an oxide field (few MV/cm) is applied for (tens of) thousands seconds. On the other hand, RILC stays constant in devices kept at low bias, and 3) if a pulsed gate voltage is applied during irradiation, RILC is reduced with respect to the zero-field case. (A.C.)

  5. Thickness dependent ferromagnetism in thermally decomposed NiO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravikumar, Patta; Kisan, Bhagaban; Perumal, Alagarsamy, E-mail: perumal@iitg.ernet.in

    2016-11-15

    We report the effects of film thickness, annealing temperature and annealing environments on thermal decomposition behavior and resulting magnetic properties of NiO (t=50–300 nm) thin films. All the NiO films were prepared directly on thermally oxidized Si at ambient temperature using magnetron sputtering technique and post annealed at different temperatures (T{sub A}) under vacuum and oxygen atmospheres. As-deposited films exhibit face centered cubic structure with large lattice constant due to strain induced during sputtering process. With increasing T{sub A}, the lattice constant decreases due to the release of strain and thickness dependent thermal decomposition reaction of NiO into Ni has been observed for the NiO films annealed at 500 °C under vacuum condition. As a result, the antiferromagnetic nature of the as-deposited NiO films transforms into ferromagnetic one with dominant thickness dependent ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. In addition, the existence of both Ni and NiO phases in the annealed NiO films shows noticeable exchange bias under field cooling condition. The behavior of thermal decomposition was not observed for the NiO films annealed under oxygen condition which results in no detectable change in the magnetic properties. The observed results are discussed on the basis of thickness dependent thermal decomposition in NiO films with increasing T{sub A} and changing annealing conditions. - Highlights: • Preparation of highly strained single layer NiO films with different thicknesses. • Study the effects of annealing under different environments on crystal structure. • Understanding the origin of thickness dependent thermal decomposition reaction. • Investigate the role of thermal decomposition reaction on the magnetic properties. • Study the interaction between NiO and Ni phases on the exchange bias mechanism.

  6. Study of field induced hot-electron emission using the composite microemitters with varying dielectric layer thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousa, M.S.

    1987-07-01

    The analysis of the measurements obtained from the of field emission of electrons from composite metal-insulator (M-I) micropoint cathodes, using the combination of a high resolution electron spectrometer and a field emission microscope, has been presented. Results obtained describe the reversible current-voltage characteristic, emission images and electron energy distribution measurements of both thin and the optimum thick coatings. The observed effects, e.g. the threshold switch-on phenomena and the field-dependence of the F.W.H.M. and energy shift of the electron spectra have been identified in terms of a field-induced hot-electron emission (FIHEE) mechanism resulting from field penetration in the insulating film where conducting channels are formed. The theoretical implications accounts for the channels field intensification mechanism and the conduction properties with applied field, and the F.W.H.M. dependence on electron temperature. The control of the emission process at low fields by the M-I contact junction and at high fields by the bulk properties of the insulator have also been accounted for. These experimental and theoretical findings have been shown to be consistent with recently published data on M-I microstructures on broad-area (BA) high-voltage electrodes. (author). 18 refs, 6 figs

  7. Formation of thick stratiform Fe-Ti oxide layers in layered intrusion and frequent replenishment of fractionated mafic magma: Evidence from the Panzhihua intrusion, SW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xie-Yan; Qi, Hua-Wen; Hu, Rui-Zhong; Chen, Lie-Meng; Yu, Song-Yue; Zhang, Jia-Fei

    2013-03-01

    Panzhihua intrusion is one of the largest layered intrusions that hosts huge stratiform Fe-Ti oxide layers in the central part of the Emeishan large igneous province, SW China. Up to 60 m thick stratiform massive Fe-Ti oxide layers containing 85 modal% of magnetite and ilmenite and overlying magnetite gabbro compose cyclic units of the Lower Zone of the intrusion. The cyclic units of the Middle Zone consist of magnetite gabbro and overlying gabbro. In these cyclic units, contents of Fe2O3(t), TiO2 and Cr and Fe3+/Ti4+ ratio of the rocks decrease upward, Cr content of magnetite and forsterite percentage of olivine decrease as well. The Upper Zone consists of apatite gabbro characterized by enrichment of incompatible elements (e.g., 12-18 ppm La, 20-28 ppm Y) and increasing of Fe3+/Ti4+ ratio (from 1.3 to 2.3) upward. These features indicate that the Panzhihua intrusion was repeatedly recharged by more primitive magma and evolved magmas had been extracted. Calculations using MELTS indicate that extensive fractionation of olivine and clinopyroxene in deep level resulted in increasing Fe and Ti contents in the magma. When these Fe-Ti-enriched magmas were emplaced along the base of the Panzhihua intrusion, Fe-Ti oxides became an early crystallization phase, leading to a residual magma of lower density. We propose that the unusually thick stratiform Fe-Ti oxide layers resulted from coupling of gravity settling and sorting of the crystallized Fe-Ti oxides from Fe-Ti-enriched magmas and frequent magma replenishment along the floor of the magma chamber.

  8. Comparative studies of RNFL thickness measured by OCT with global index of visual fields in patients with ocular hypertension and early open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergios Taliantzis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sergios Taliantzis, Dimitris Papaconstantinou, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea, Michalis Moschos, Michalis Apostolopoulos, Gerasimos GeorgopoulosAthens University Medical School, Department of Ophthalmology, Athens, GreecePurpose: To compare the functional changes in visual fields with optical coherence tomography (OCT findings in patients with ocular hypertension, open angle glaucoma, and suspected glaucoma. In addition, our purpose is to evaluate the correlation of global indices with the structural glaucomatous defect, to assess their statistical importance in all the groups of our study, and to estimate their validity to the clinical practice.Methods: One hundred sixty nine eyes (140 patients were enrolled. The patients were classified in three groups. Group 1 consisted of 54 eyes with ocular hypertension, group 2 of 42 eyes with preperimetric glaucoma, and group 3 of 73 eyes with chronic open angle glaucoma. All of them underwent ophthalmic examination according to a prefixed protocol, OCT exam (Stratus 3000 for retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness measurement with fast RNFL thickness protocol and visual fields (VF examination with Octopus perimeter (G2 program, central 30–2 threshold strategy. Pearson correlation was calculated between RNFL thickness and global index of VF.Results: A moderate correlation between RNFL thickness and indices mean sensitivity (MS, mean defect (MD and loss variance (LV of VF (0.547, -0.582, -0.527, respectively; P < 0.001 was observed for all patients. Correlations of the ocular hypertension and preperimetric groups are weak. Correlation of RNFL thickness with global indices becomes stronger as the structural alterations become deeper in OCT exam. Correlation of RNFL thickness with the global index of VF, in respective segments around optic disk was also calculated and was found significant in the nasal, inferior, superior, and temporal segments.Conclusion: RNFL average thickness is not a reliable index for early

  9. cw argon laser annealing of anodic oxide on GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarti, S.N.; Das, P.; Webster, R.T.; Bhat, K.N.

    1981-01-01

    Anodic oxide films (850 +- 50 A thick) grown on n + (100) bulk GaAs were subjected to selective area annealing using a cw argon laser operating at an output power of 1.2 W. Capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements performed on Al-anodic oxide-GaAs MOS capacitor structures show that laser-annealed capacitor dots have greatly reduced field-induced hysteresis effects in their capacitance-voltage characteristics compared to the unannealed ones. The oxide leakage current also shows a significant improvement: the leakage current magnitude of MOS capacitors in laser-annealed oxide island is over four orders of magnitude less than the oxide region which was not exposed to the laser radiation. Dielectric breakdown measurement indicates that laser-annealed capacitors have considerably higher breakdown voltages, about a factor of 2 higher than the unannealed capacitors

  10. Fabrication and characterization on reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (RGOFET) based biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, A. Diyana [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh, Perlis (Malaysia); Ruslinda, A. Rahim, E-mail: ruslinda@unimap.edu.my; Fatin, M. F. [Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hashim, U.; Arshad, M. K. [School of Microelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Pauh, Perlis (Malaysia); Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    The fabrication and characterization on reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor (RGO-FET) were demonstrated using a spray deposition method for biological sensing device purpose. A spray method is a fast, low-cost and simple technique to deposit graphene and the most promising technology due to ideal coating on variety of substrates and high production speed. The fabrication method was demonstrated for developing a label free aptamer reduced graphene oxide field effect transistor biosensor. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) was obtained by heating on hot plate fixed at various temperatures of 100, 200 and 300°C, respectively. The surface morphology of RGO were examined via atomic force microscopy to observed the temperature effect of produced RGO. The electrical measurement verify the performance of electrical conducting RGO-FET at temperature 300°C is better as compared to other temperature due to the removal of oxygen groups in GO. Thus, reduced graphene oxide was a promising material for biosensor application.

  11. A de Sitter tachyon thick braneworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Malagón-Morejón, Dagoberto [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 48-3, 62251, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel [Instituto de Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Rocha, Roldão da, E-mail: gabriel@fis.unam.mx, E-mail: aha@fis.unam.mx, E-mail: malagon@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: rigel@ifm.umich.mx, E-mail: roldao.rocha@ufabc.edu.br [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, Rua Santa Adélia, 166 09210-170, Santo André, SP (Brazil)

    2013-02-01

    Among the multiple 5D thick braneworld models that have been proposed in the last years, in order to address several open problems in modern physics, there is a specific one involving a tachyonic bulk scalar field. Delving into this framework, a thick braneworld with a cosmological background induced on the brane is here investigated. The respective field equations — derived from the model with a warped 5D geometry — are highly non-linear equations, admitting a non-trivial solution for the warp factor and the tachyon scalar field as well, in a de Sitter 4D cosmological background. Moreover, the non-linear tachyonic scalar field, that generates the brane in complicity with warped gravity, has the form of a kink-like configuration. Notwithstanding, the non-linear field equations restricting character does not allow one to easily find thick brane solutions with a decaying warp factor which leads to the localization of 4D gravity and other matter fields. We derive such a thick brane configuration altogether in this tachyon-gravity setup. When analyzing the spectrum of gravity fluctuations in the transverse traceless sector, the 4D gravity is shown to be localized due to the presence of a single zero mode bound state, separated by a continuum of massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes by a mass gap. It contrasts with previous results, where there is a KK massive bound excitation providing no clear physical interpretation. The mass gap is determined by the scale of the metric parameter H. Finally, the corrections to Newton's law in this model are computed and shown to decay exponentially. It is in full compliance to corrections reported in previous results (up to a constant factor) within similar braneworlds with induced 4D de Sitter metric, despite the fact that the warp factor and the massive modes have a different form.

  12. Densification of ∼5 nm-thick SiO{sub 2} layers by nitric acid oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jaeyoung [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 311-16 (Korea, Republic of); Joo, Soyeong [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Youngin 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Tae Joo [Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 15588 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo-Byoung, E-mail: woo7838@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 311-16 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Highlights: • Leakage current density of the commercial PECVD grown ∼5 nm SiO{sub 2} layer has been decreased about three orders of magnitude by densification. • The densification of SiO{sub 2} layer is achieved by high oxidation ability of O·. • Densities of suboxide, fixed charge (N{sub f}) and defect state (N{sub d}) in SiO{sub 2}/Si interface are decreased by NAOS and PMA. • Tunneling barrier height (Φ{sub t}) is increased because of the increase of atomic density in SiO{sub 2} layer. - Abstract: Low-temperature nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) oxidation of Si (NAOS) has been used to improve the interface and electrical properties of ∼5 nm-thick SiO{sub 2}/Si layers produced by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Investigations of the physical properties and electrical characteristics of these thin films revealed that although their thickness is not changed by NAOS, the leakage current density at a gate bias voltage of −1 V decreases by about two orders of magnitude from 1.868 × 10{sup −5} A/cm{sup 2}. This leakage current density was further reduced by post-metallization annealing (PMA) at 250 °C for 10 min in a 5 vol.% hydrogen atmosphere, eventually reaching a level (5.2 × 10{sup −8} A/cm{sup 2}) approximately three orders of magnitude less than the as-grown SiO{sub 2} layer. This improvement is attributed to a decrease in the concentration of suboxide species (Si{sup 1+}, Si{sup 2+} and Si{sup 3+}) in the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface, as well as a decrease in the equilibrium density of defect sites (N{sub d}) and fixed charge density (N{sub f}). The barrier height (Φ{sub t}) generated by a Poole-Frenkel mechanism also increased from 0.205 to 0.371 eV after NAOS and PMA. The decrease in leakage current density is therefore attributed to a densification of the SiO{sub 2} layer in combination with the removal of OH species and increase in interfacial properties at the SiO{sub 2}/Si interface.

  13. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emissions from paddy fields in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Shang-Shyng; Lai, Chao-Ming; Chang, Hsiu-Lan; Chang, Ed-Huan; Wei, Chia-Bei

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the greenhouse gases emissions from paddy fields, methane and nitrous oxide emissions were estimated with the local measurement and the IPCC method during 1990-2006 in Taiwan. Annual methane emission ranged from 9001 to 14,980 ton in the first crop season for 135,314-242,298 ha of paddy fields, and it was between 16,412 and 35,208 ton for 101,710-211,968 ha in the second crop season with the local measurement for intermittent irrigation. The value ranged from 31,122 to 55,729 ton of methane emission in the first crop season, and it was between 29,493 and 61,471 ton in the second crop season with the IPCC guideline for continuous flooding. Annual nitrous oxide emission from paddy fields was between 371 and 728 ton in the first crop season, and the value ranged from 163 to 365 ton in the second crop season with the local measurement. Methane emission from paddy fields in Taiwan for intermittent irrigation was only 26.72-28.92%, 55.65-57.32% and 41.19-43.10% with the IPCC guidelines for continuous flooding and mean temperature of transplanting stage in the first crop, the second crop and total paddy fields, respectively. The values were 53.44-57.84%, 111.29-114.55% and 82.38-86.20% with the IPCC guidelines for single aeration and mean temperature of transplanting stage, respectively; and the values were 133.60-144.61%, 282.56-286.62% and 205.96-215.49% with the IPCC guidelines for multiple aeration and mean temperature of transplanting stage, respectively. Intermittent irrigation in paddy fields reduces methane emission significantly; appropriate application of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation in paddy fields also decreases nitrous oxide emission. (author)

  14. Oxidation and crystal field effects in uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobin, J. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Booth, C. H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Shuh, D. K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); van der Laan, G. [Diamond Light Source, Didcot (United Kingdom); Sokaras, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States); Weng, T. -C. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States); Yu, S. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Bagus, P. S. [Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States); Tyliszczak, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Nordlund, D. [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-07-06

    An extensive investigation of oxidation in uranium has been pursued. This includes the utilization of soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy, hard x-ray absorption near-edge structure, resonant (hard) x-ray emission spectroscopy, cluster calculations, and a branching ratio analysis founded on atomic theory. The samples utilized were uranium dioxide (UO2), uranium trioxide (UO3), and uranium tetrafluoride (UF4). As a result, a discussion of the role of non-spherical perturbations, i.e., crystal or ligand field effects, will be presented.

  15. Thermal Oxidation of Structured Silicon Dioxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas Lehrmann; Hansen, Ole; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2014-01-01

    The topography of thermally oxidized, structured silicon dioxide is investigated through simulations, atomic force microscopy, and a proposed analytical model. A 357 nm thick oxide is structured by removing regions of the oxide in a masked etch with either reactive ion etching or hydrofluoric acid....... Subsequent thermal oxidation is performed in both dry and wet ambients in the temperature range 950◦C to 1100◦C growing a 205 ± 12 nm thick oxide in the etched mask windows. Lifting of the original oxide near the edge of the mask in the range 6 nm to 37 nm is seen with increased lifting for increasing...

  16. Measurement of the high-field Q-drop in a high-purity large-grain niobium cavity for different oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter; gurevich, alex

    2007-06-01

    The most challenging issue for understanding the performance of superconducting radio-frequency (rf) cavities made of high-purity (residual resistivity ratio > 200) niobium is due to a sharp degradation (“Q-drop”) of the cavity quality factor Q0(Bp) as the peak surface magnetic field (Bp) exceeds about 90 mT, in the absence of field emission. In addition, a low-temperature (100 – 140 C) “in-situ” baking of the cavity was found to be beneficial in reducing the Q-drop. In this contribution, we present the results from a series of rf tests at 1.7 K and 2.0 K on a single-cell cavity made of high-purity large (with area of the order of few cm2) grain niobium which underwent various oxidation processes, after initial buffered chemical polishing, such as anodization, baking in pure oxygen atmosphere and baking in air up to 180 °C, with the objective of clearly identifying the role of oxygen and the oxide layer on the Q-drop. During each rf test a temperature mapping system allows measuring the local temperature rise of the cavity outer surface due to rf losses, which gives information about the losses location, their field dependence and space distribution. The results confirmed that the depth affected by baking is about 20 – 30 nm from the surface and showed that the Q-drop did not re-appear in a previously baked cavity by further baking at 120 °C in pure oxygen atmosphere or in air up to 180 °C. These treatments increased the oxide thickness and oxygen concentration, measured on niobium samples which were processed with the cavity and were analyzed with Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Nevertheless, the performance of the cavity after air baking at 180 °C degraded significantly and the temperature maps showed high losses, uniformly distributed on the surface, which could be completely recovered only by a post-purification treatment at 1250 °C. A statistic of the position of the “hot-spots” on the

  17. Measurement of the high-field Q drop in a high-purity large-grain niobium cavity for different oxidation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ciovati

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The most challenging issue for understanding the performance of superconducting radio-frequency (rf cavities made of high-purity (residual resistivity ratio >200 niobium is due to a sharp degradation (“Q-drop” of the cavity quality factor Q_{0}(B_{p} as the peak surface magnetic field (B_{p} exceeds about 90 mT, in the absence of field emission. In addition, a low-temperature (100–140°C in situ baking of the cavity was found to be beneficial in reducing the Q-drop. In this contribution, we present the results from a series of rf tests at 1.7 and 2.0 K on a single-cell cavity made of high-purity large (with area of the order of few cm^{2} grain niobium which underwent various oxidation processes, after initial buffered chemical polishing, such as anodization, baking in pure oxygen atmosphere, and baking in air up to 180°C, with the objective of clearly identifying the role of oxygen and the oxide layer on the Q-drop. During each rf test a temperature mapping system allows measuring the local temperature rise of the cavity outer surface due to rf losses, which gives information about the losses location, their field dependence, and space distribution. The results confirmed that the depth affected by baking is about 20–30 nm from the surface and showed that the Q-drop did not reappear in a previously baked cavity by further baking at 120°C in pure oxygen atmosphere or in air up to 180°C. These treatments increased the oxide thickness and oxygen concentration, measured on niobium samples which were processed with the cavity and were analyzed with transmission electron microscope and secondary ion mass spectroscopy. Nevertheless, the performance of the cavity after air baking at 180°C degraded significantly and the temperature maps showed high losses, uniformly distributed on the surface, which could be completely recovered only by a postpurification treatment at 1250°C. A statistic of the position of the “hot spots” on the

  18. Valence force fields and the lattice dynamics of beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, R.; Mani, K.K.; Singh, R.P.

    1976-01-01

    The lattice dynamics of beryllium oxide have been studied using a rigid-ion model, with short-range forces represented by a valence force field. Various existing calculations on group-IV elements using such a field have been examined as a prelude to transference of force constants from diamond to beryllium oxide. The effects of ionicity on the force constants have been included in the form of scale factors. It is shown that no satisfactory fit to the long-wavelength data on BeO can be found with transferred force constants. However, adequate least-squares fits can be found both with four- and six-parameter valence force fields, the discrepancy with experiment being large only for one optical mode at the Brillouin-zone center. Dispersion curves along Δ and Σ are presented and are in fair agreement with experiment, deviations arising essentially from the quality of the fit to the long-wavelength data. The bond-bending interactions are found to play a significant role and arguments have been presented to show that the inclusion of further angle-angle interactions would yield a very satisfactory picture of the dynamics

  19. Coulomb’s law corrections and fermion field localization in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, Roberto; Escalante, Alberto; Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel

    2016-01-01

    Following recent studies which show that it is possible to localize gravity as well as scalar and gauge vector fields in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld, we investigate the solution of the gauge hierarchy problem, the localization of fermion fields in this model, the recovering of the Coulomb law on the non-relativistic limit of the Yukawa interaction between bulk fermions and gauge bosons localized in the brane, and confront the predicted 5D corrections to the photon mass with its upper experimental/observational bounds, finding the model physically viable since it passes these tests. In order to achieve the latter aims we first consider the Yukawa interaction term between the fermionic and the tachyonic scalar fields MF(T)ΨΨ-bar in the action and analyze four distinct tachyonic functions F(T) that lead to four different structures of the respective fermionic mass spectra with different physics. In particular, localization of the massless left-chiral fermion zero mode is possible for three of these cases. We further analyze the phenomenology of these Yukawa interactions among fermion fields and gauge bosons localized on the brane and obtain the crucial and necessary information to compute the corrections to Coulomb’s law coming from massive KK vector modes in the non-relativistic limit. These corrections are exponentially suppressed due to the presence of the mass gap in the mass spectrum of the bulk gauge vector field. From our results we conclude that corrections to Coulomb’s law in the thin brane limit have the same form (up to a numerical factor) as far as the left-chiral massless fermion field is localized on the brane. Finally we compute the corrections to the Coulomb’s law for an arbitrarily thick brane scenario which can be interpreted as 5D corrections to the photon mass. By performing consistent estimations with brane phenomenology, we found that the predicted corrections to the photon mass, which are well bounded by the experimentally

  20. Coulomb’s law corrections and fermion field localization in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartas-Fuentevilla, Roberto; Escalante, Alberto [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla,Apdo. postal J-48, 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Germán, Gabriel [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apdo. Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, 1 Keble Road,Oxford, OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla,Apdo. postal J-48, 72570 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Institutode Física y Matemáticas, Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo,Edificio C-3, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 58040, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Mora-Luna, Refugio Rigel [Instituto de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,Apdo. Postal 48-3, 62251 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2016-05-11

    Following recent studies which show that it is possible to localize gravity as well as scalar and gauge vector fields in a tachyonic de Sitter thick braneworld, we investigate the solution of the gauge hierarchy problem, the localization of fermion fields in this model, the recovering of the Coulomb law on the non-relativistic limit of the Yukawa interaction between bulk fermions and gauge bosons localized in the brane, and confront the predicted 5D corrections to the photon mass with its upper experimental/observational bounds, finding the model physically viable since it passes these tests. In order to achieve the latter aims we first consider the Yukawa interaction term between the fermionic and the tachyonic scalar fields MF(T)ΨΨ-bar in the action and analyze four distinct tachyonic functions F(T) that lead to four different structures of the respective fermionic mass spectra with different physics. In particular, localization of the massless left-chiral fermion zero mode is possible for three of these cases. We further analyze the phenomenology of these Yukawa interactions among fermion fields and gauge bosons localized on the brane and obtain the crucial and necessary information to compute the corrections to Coulomb’s law coming from massive KK vector modes in the non-relativistic limit. These corrections are exponentially suppressed due to the presence of the mass gap in the mass spectrum of the bulk gauge vector field. From our results we conclude that corrections to Coulomb’s law in the thin brane limit have the same form (up to a numerical factor) as far as the left-chiral massless fermion field is localized on the brane. Finally we compute the corrections to the Coulomb’s law for an arbitrarily thick brane scenario which can be interpreted as 5D corrections to the photon mass. By performing consistent estimations with brane phenomenology, we found that the predicted corrections to the photon mass, which are well bounded by the experimentally

  1. Effect of interfacial oxide thickness on the photocatalytic activity of magnetron-sputtered TiO2coatings on aluminum substrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daviðsdóttir, Svava; Petit, Jean-Pierre; Shabadi, Rajashekhara

    2015-01-01

    The influence of the coating/substrate interface on the photocatalytic behavior of Al-TiO2 coatings was investigated. The TiO2 coatings were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The nanoscale structure of the coating was analyzed using X-ray diffraction; atomic force microscopy; scanning electron...... transport between the coating and the metallic substrate. The highest photocurrents were indeed obtained when the thickness of interfacial aluminum oxide could be reduced by sputtering a thin Ti layer prior to TiO2 coating. Photocurrent plotted for different photon energy for a TiO2 coating on a Ti...

  2. Improvement in the Sensitivity of PbO Doped Tin Oxide Thick Film Gas Sensor by RF and Microwave Oxygen Plasma Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. SRIVASTAVA

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present work efforts have been made to analyze the effect of oxygen plasma and PbO doping on the sensitivity of SnO2-based thick film gas sensor for methanol, propanol and acetone. The effect of substrate temperature on the response of dual frequency (RF and microwave plasma treated thick film sensor array has also been studied. To achieve this, three sensor arrays (each with four tin oxide sensors doped with different (1 %, 2 %, 3 % and 4 % PbO concentrations were fabricated by thick film technology and then treated with oxygen plasma for various durations (5 min, 10 min. and 15 min.. The plasma treated sensors were found to possess appreciably high sensitivity at room temperature in comparison to untreated sensor. The sensitivity showed the increasing trend with plasma exposure time and 15 minutes exposure time was found to be most suitable as the sensitivity of the plasma treated sensors for this duration were high towards all the chosen vapors with maximum (97 % value for propanol. The sensitivity of the sensors were found to be increasing gradually as PbO concentration was varied from 1- 4%.

  3. A radiation-electric-field combination principle for SO2-oxidation in Ar-mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonhardt, J.; Krueger, H.; Popp, P.; Boes, J.

    1981-01-01

    A simple model for a radiation-induced SO 2 -oxidation in Ar using SO 2 /O 2 /Ar-mixtures has been described by Leonhardt a.o. It is possible to improve the efficiency of the radiation-induced SO 2 -oxidation in such mixtures if the electrons produced by the ionizing radiation are accelerated by means of an electric field. The energy of the field-accelerated electrons must be high enough to form reactive SO 2 radicals but not high enough to ionize the gas mixture. Such an arrangement is described. The connection between the rate of SO 3 -formation and the electric field and the connection between SO 3 -formation and decreasing of the O 2 -concentration in the reaction chaimber were experimentally determined. Further the G-values attained by means of the radiation-electric-field combination are discussed. (author)

  4. The Thickness Dependence of Optical Constants of Ultrathin Iron Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Shang; Lian Jie; Wang Xiao; Li Ping; Sun Xiao-Fen; Li Qing-Hao

    2013-01-01

    Ultrathin iron films with different thicknesses from 7.1 to 51.7 nm are deposited by magnetron sputtering and covered by tantalum layers protecting them from being oxidized. These ultrathin iron films are studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry and transmittance measurement. An extra tantalum film is deposited under the same sputtering conditions and its optical constants and film thickness are obtained by a combination of ellipsometry and transmission measurement. After introducing these obtained optical constants and film thickness into the tantalum-iron film, the optical constants and film thicknesses of ultrathin iron films with different thicknesses are obtained. The results show that combining ellipsometry and transmission measurement improves the uniqueness of the obtained film thickness. The optical constants of ultrathin iron films depend strongly on film thicknesses. There is a broad absorption peak at about 370 nm and it shifts to 410 nm with film thickness decreasing

  5. Insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport from laboratory and field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, J. S.; Dellinger, M.; Eglinton, T. I.; Fuchs, M. C.; Golombek, N.; Hilton, R. G.; Hovius, N.; Lupker, M.; Repasch, M. N.; Sachse, D.; Turowski, J. M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, A.; Wittmann, H.

    2017-12-01

    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, hydropshere, biosphere and geosphere can be a major control on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. The carbon fluxes from the oxidation of rock-derived OC (a CO2 source) and erosion, transport, and burial of biospheric OC (a potential CO2 sink) during fluvial transit are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering. Despite field data showing increasing oxidation of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated river, or during periods of temporary storage in river floodplains which may be anoxic. The unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to mechanistically link geochemical and geomorphic processes which are required to develop models capable of predicting OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this knowledge gap, we investigated OC oxidation in controlled laboratory experiments and a simplified field setting. We performed experiments in annular flumes that simulate fluvial transport without floodplain storage, allowing mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment to be transported for distances of 1000 km. Preliminary experiments exploring both rock-derived and biospheric OC sources show minimal OC oxidation during active river transport, consistent with the idea that the majority of OC loss occurs during transient floodplain storage. These results are also consistent with new field data collected in the Rio Bermejo, Argentina, a lowland river traversing 800 km with no tributary inputs, where aged floodplain deposits have 3 to 10 times lower OC concentrations compared to modern river sediments. Together our field data and experiments support the hypothesis that oxidation of OC occurs primarily during

  6. A thick-walled sphere rotating in a uniform magnetic field: The next step to de-spin a space object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark A.; Youngquist, Robert C.; Caracciolo, Ryan A.; Peck, Mason; Leve, Frederick A.

    2017-08-01

    Modeling the interaction between a moving conductor and a static magnetic field is critical to understanding the operation of induction motors, eddy current braking, and the dynamics of satellites moving through Earth's magnetic field. Here, we develop the case of a thick-walled sphere rotating in a uniform magnetic field, which is the simplest, non-trivial, magneto-statics problem that leads to complete closed-form expressions for the resulting potentials, fields, and currents. This solution requires knowledge of all of Maxwell's time independent equations, scalar and vector potential equations, and the Lorentz force law. The paper presents four cases and their associated experimental results, making this topic appropriate for an advanced student lab project.

  7. Field studies of HT oxidation and dispersion in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.; Ogram, G.L.; Spencer, F.S.; Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON

    1988-10-01

    A tracer quantity of 3.54 TBq tritiated hydrogen (HT) was released into the atmosphere at a Chalk River, Ontario field site to determine the behaviour of HT in the environment. The primary objective was to establish the oxidation rate of HT to tritiated water (HTO) in air, soil and vegetation compartments. HTO/HT atmospheric concentration ratios observed during the release ranged from 0.14 x 10 -4 at 5 m to 7.0 x 10 -4 at 400 m distance from the release point indicating an effective oxidation rate of about 1.5% h -1 . Gas phase oxidation in the atmosphere would be less than this effective rate. Results confirm that surface soils play the dominant role in converting HT to HTO. Soil HT deposition velocities were between 2.7 x 10 -4 and 11 x 10 -4 m s -1 for an open field of varied composition, and between 3.3 x 10 -4 and 12 x 10 -4 m s -1 for a conifer forest. Soil HTO loss rates were initially 1 to 3 % h -1 averaged over the first 24 h after release. Vegetation tissue-free water tritium (TFWT) resulted from uptake of soil HTO and exchange with atmospheric HTO vapour. Upper limit HT deposition velocities to vegetation measured as TFWT in 5 species were 0.23 x 10 -7 to 6 x 10 -7 m s -1 expressed on a leaf area basis. TFWT loss rates were 5.2 to 8.1 % h -1 from about 12 to 48 h after release with low activity rain and 0.42 to 0.56 % h -1 from about 48 to 335 h. Vegetation organically-bound tritium/TFWT specific activity ratios (Bq g -1 H) were about 0.1 initially, increasing to 16 after 113 days as TFWT specific activity declined more rapidly than that of OBT. The effective HT oxidation rate, deposition velocities and HTO loss rates were in good agreement with a 1986 HT field release and previous laboratory experiments

  8. Properties study of LiNbO3 lateral field excited device working on thickness extension mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Tian, Zhang; Ting-Feng, Ma; Chao, Zhang; Wen-Yan, Wang; Yan, Liu; Guan-Ping, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the properties of thickness extension mode excited by lateral electric field on LiNbO 3 by using the extended Christoffel–Bechmann method. It finds that the lateral field excitation coupling factor for a-mode (quasi-extensional mode) reaches its maximum value of 28% on X-cut LiNbO 3 . The characteristics of a lateral field excitation device made of X-cut LiNbO 3 have been investigated and the lateral field excitation device is used for the design of a high frequency ultrasonic transducer. The time and frequency domain pulse/echo response of the LiNbO 3 lateral field excitation ultrasonic transducer is analysed with the modified Krimholtz–Leedom–Matthae model and tested using traditional pulse/echo method. A LiNbO 3 lateral field excitation ultrasonic transducer with the centre frequency of 33.44 MHz and the −6 dB bandwidth of 33.8% is acquired, which is in good agreement with the results of the Krimholtz–Leedom–Matthae model. Further analysis suggests that the LiNbO 3 lateral field excitation device has great potential in the design of broadband high frequency ultrasonic transducers. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  9. Electric field cycling behavior of ferroelectric hafnium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe; Pešić, Milan; Popovici, Mihaela; Pershin, Yuriy V; Mikolajick, Thomas

    2014-11-26

    HfO2 based ferroelectrics are lead-free, simple binary oxides with nonperovskite structure and low permittivity. They just recently started attracting attention of theoretical groups in the fields of ferroelectric memories and electrostatic supercapacitors. A modified approach of harmonic analysis is introduced for temperature-dependent studies of the field cycling behavior and the underlying defect mechanisms. Activation energies for wake-up and fatigue are extracted. Notably, all values are about 100 meV, which is 1 order of magnitude lower than for conventional ferroelectrics like lead zirconate titanate (PZT). This difference is mainly atttributed to the one to two orders of magnitude higher electric fields used for cycling and to the different surface to volume ratios between the 10 nm thin films in this study and the bulk samples of former measurements or simulations. Moreover, a new, analog-like split-up effect of switching peaks by field cycling is discovered and is explained by a network model based on memcapacitive behavior as a result of defect redistribution.

  10. Field Emission of ITO-Coated Vertically Aligned Nanowire Array.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changhwa

    2010-04-29

    An indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated, and the field emission characteristics of the nanowire array are investigated. An array of vertically aligned nanowires is considered an ideal structure for a field emitter because of its parallel orientation to the applied electric field. In this letter, a vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated by modified conventional UV lithography and coated with 0.1-μm-thick ITO. The turn-on electric field intensity is about 2.0 V/μm, and the field enhancement factor, β, is approximately 3,078 when the gap for field emission is 0.6 μm, as measured with a nanomanipulator in a scanning electron microscope.

  11. Field Emission of ITO-Coated Vertically Aligned Nanowire Array.

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Changhwa; Lee, Seokwoo; Lee, Seung S

    2010-01-01

    An indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated, and the field emission characteristics of the nanowire array are investigated. An array of vertically aligned nanowires is considered an ideal structure for a field emitter because of its parallel orientation to the applied electric field. In this letter, a vertically aligned nanowire array is fabricated by modified conventional UV lithography and coated with 0.1-μm-thick ITO. The turn-on electric field intensity is about 2.0 V/μm, and the field enhancement factor, β, is approximately 3,078 when the gap for field emission is 0.6 μm, as measured with a nanomanipulator in a scanning electron microscope.

  12. Effects of X irradiation and high field electron injection of the electrical properties of rapid thermal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, W.K.; Seager, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    Rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) is a promising tool for fabricating the thin gate oxides (5 to 15 nm) that will be needed in future submicron integrated circuits, because of its inherently superior time-temperature control when compared to conventional oxidation methods. It is important to demonstrate that RTO can be used without adversely affecting the radiation hardness or high field properties of the oxide. Beyond this demonstration, rapid thermal processing makes it possible to determine more precisely how the kinetics of oxidation and post oxidation annealing affect the device properties. Information of this type should prove useful in modeling relevant defect formation mechanisms. The present paper is part of a systematic study of the effect of rapid thermal processing on the radiation and high field response of thin oxides

  13. Nitrous oxide and nitrate concentration in under-drainage from arable fields subject to diffuse pollution mitigation measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hama-Aziz, Zanist; Hiscock, Kevin; Adams, Christopher; Reid, Brian

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric nitrous oxide concentrations are increasing by 0.3% annually and a major source of this greenhouse gas is agriculture. Indirect emissions of nitrous oxide (e.g. from groundwater and surface water) account for about quarter of total nitrous oxide emissions. However, these indirect emissions are subject to uncertainty, mainly due to the range in reported emission factors. It's hypothesised in this study that cover cropping and implementing reduced (direct drill) cultivation in intensive arable systems will reduce dissolved nitrate concentration and subsequently indirect nitrous oxide emissions. To test the hypothesis, seven fields with a total area of 102 ha in the Wensum catchment in eastern England have been chosen for experimentation together with two fields (41 ha) under conventional cultivation (deep inversion ploughing) for comparison. Water samples from field under-drainage have been collected for nitrate and nitrous oxide measurement on a weekly basis from April 2013 for two years from both cultivation areas. A purge and trap preparation line connected to a Shimadzu GC-8A gas chromatograph fitted with an electron capture detector was used for dissolved nitrous oxide analysis. Results revealed that with an oilseed radish cover crop present, the mean concentration of nitrate, which is the predominant form of N, was significantly depleted from 13.9 mg N L-1 to 2.5 mg N L-1. However, slightly higher mean nitrous oxide concentrations under the cover crop of 2.61 μg N L-1 compared to bare fields of 2.23 μg N L-1 were observed. Different inversion intensity of soil tended to have no effect on nitrous oxide and nitrate concentrations. The predominant production mechanism for nitrous oxide was nitrification process and the significant reduction of nitrate was due to plant uptake rather than denitrification. It is concluded that although cover cropping might cause a slight increase of indirect nitrous oxide emission, it can be a highly effective

  14. Utilization of ultrasonic tomography for the mapping of residual stress fields in thick metal sections. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, B.P.; Hufferd, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    It is well known that the velocity of sound propagation through a solid is altered when a stress is applied. The velocity change is small, and dependent upon the type of wave being propagated as well as the magnitude of the stress. Sensitivity is greatest to shear wave sound with the polarization vector parallel to the direction of stress. In this case, velocity changes as great as 0.6 percent were measured. Preliminary work is described aimed at evaluating computerized reconstruction of velocity fields from velocity profiles to map residual stress concentrations in thick metal sections. Experimental results with liquid and solid models are described. One could image velocity anomalies of 0.2 percent and estimate that 0.05 percent is technically feasible. It is concluded that this technique has great potential for finding and mapping residual stress in thick metal sections

  15. Magnetron sputtered zinc oxide nanorods as thickness-insensitive cathode interlayer for perovskite planar-heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lusheng; Huang, Zhifeng; Cai, Longhua; Chen, Weizhong; Wang, Baozeng; Chen, Kaiwu; Bai, Hua; Tian, Qingyong; Fan, Bin

    2014-12-10

    Suitable electrode interfacial layers are essential to the high performance of perovskite planar heterojunction solar cells. In this letter, we report magnetron sputtered zinc oxide (ZnO) film as the cathode interlayer for methylammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) perovskite solar cell. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrate that the sputtered ZnO films consist of c-axis aligned nanorods. The solar cells based on this ZnO cathode interlayer showed high short circuit current and power conversion efficiency. Besides, the performance of the device is insensitive to the thickness of ZnO cathode interlayer. Considering the high reliability and maturity of sputtering technique both in lab and industry, we believe that the sputtered ZnO films are promising cathode interlayers for perovskite solar cells, especially in large-scale production.

  16. Thickness-dependent resistance switching in Cr-doped SrTiO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, TaeKwang; Du, Hyewon; Kim, Minchang; Seo, Sunae; Hwang, Inrok; Kim, Yeonsoo; Jeon, Jihoon; Lee, Sangik; Park, Baeho

    2012-09-01

    The thickness-dependent bipolar resistance-switching behavior was investigated for epitaxiallygrown Cr-doped SrTiO3 (Cr-STO). All the pristine devices of different thickness showed polarity-independent symmetric current-voltage characteristic and the same space-charge-limited conduction mechanism. However, after a forming process, the resultant conduction and switching phenomena were significantly different depending on the thickness of Cr-STO. The forming process itself was highly influenced by resistance value of each pristine device. Based on our results, we suggest that the resistance-switching mechanism in Cr-STO depends not only on the insulating material's composition or the contact metal as previously reported but also on the initial resistance level determined by the geometry and the quality of the insulating material. The bipolar resistance-switching behaviors in oxide materials of different thicknesses exhibit mixed bulk and interface switching. This indicates that efforts in resistance-based memory research should be focused on scalability or process method to control a given oxide material in addition to material type and device structure.

  17. Influence of Thickness on Ethanol Sensing Characteristics of Doctor-bladed Thick Film from Flame-made ZnO Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukon Phanichphant

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanoparticles were produced by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP using zincnaphthenate as a precursor dissolved in toluene/acetonitrile (80/20 vol%. The particleproperties were analyzed by XRD, BET, and HR-TEM. The sensing films were produced bymixing the particles into an organic paste composed of terpineol and ethyl cellulose as avehicle binder and were fabricated by doctor-blade technique with various thicknesses (5,10, 15 μm. The morphology of the sensing films was analyzed by SEM and EDS analyses.The gas sensing characteristics to ethanol (25-250 ppm were evaluated as a function of filmthickness at 400°C in dry air. The relationship between thickness and ethanol sensingcharacteristics of ZnO thick film on Al2O3 substrate interdigitated with Au electrodes wereinvestigated. The effects of film thickness, as well as the cracking phenomenon, though,many cracks were observed for thicker sensing films. Crack widths increased withincreasing film thickness. The film thickness, cracking and ethanol concentration havesignificant effect on the sensing characteristics. The sensing characteristics with variousthicknesses were compared, showing the tendency of the sensitivity to ethanol decreasedwith increasing film thickness and response time. The relationship between gas sensingproperties and film thickness was discussed on the basis of diffusively and reactivity of thegases inside the oxide films. The thinnest sensing film (5 μm showed the highest sensitivityand the fastest response time (within seconds.

  18. Combined 60° Wide-Field Choroidal Thickness Maps and High-Definition En Face Vasculature Visualization Using Swept-Source Megahertz OCT at 1050 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohler, Kathrin J; Draxinger, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Kolb, Jan Philip; Wieser, Wolfgang; Haritoglou, Christos; Kampik, Anselm; Fujimoto, James G; Neubauer, Aljoscha S; Huber, Robert; Wolf, Armin

    2015-10-01

    To demonstrate ultrahigh-speed swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) at 1.68 million A-scans/s for choroidal imaging in normal and diseased eyes over a ∼60° field of view. To investigate and correlate wide-field three-dimensional (3D) choroidal thickness (ChT) and vascular patterns using ChT maps and coregistered high-definition en face images extracted from a single densely sampled Megahertz-OCT (MHz-OCT) dataset. High-definition, ∼60° wide-field 3D datasets consisting of 2088 × 1024 A-scans were acquired using a 1.68 MHz prototype SS-OCT system at 1050 nm based on a Fourier-domain mode-locked laser. Nine subjects (nine eyes) with various chorioretinal diseases or without ocular pathology are presented. Coregistered ChT maps, choroidal summation maps, and depth-resolved en face images referenced to either the retinal pigment epithelium or the choroidal-scleral interface were generated using manual segmentation. Wide-field ChT maps showed a large inter- and intraindividual variance in peripheral and central ChT. In only four of the nine eyes, the location with the largest ChT was coincident with the fovea. The anatomy of the large lumen vessels of the outer choroid seems to play a major role in determining the global ChT pattern. Focal ChT changes with large thickness gradients were observed in some eyes. Different ChT and vascular patterns could be visualized over ∼60° in patients for the first time using OCT. Due to focal ChT changes, a high density of thickness measurements may be favorable. High-definition depth-resolved en face images are complementary to cross sections and thickness maps and enhance the interpretation of different ChT patterns.

  19. An analytical model for the vertical electric field distribution and optimization of high voltage REBULF LDMOS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xia-Rong; Lü Rui

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an analytical model for the vertical electric field distribution and optimization of a high voltage-reduced bulk field (REBULF) lateral double-diffused metal—oxide-semiconductor (LDMOS) transistor is presented. The dependences of the breakdown voltage on the buried n-layer depth, thickness, and doping concentration are discussed in detail. The REBULF criterion and the optimal vertical electric field distribution condition are derived on the basis of the optimization of the electric field distribution. The breakdown voltage of the REBULF LDMOS transistor is always higher than that of a single reduced surface field (RESURF) LDMOS transistor, and both analytical and numerical results show that it is better to make a thick n-layer buried deep into the p-substrate. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  20. Thickness-modulated tungsten-carbon superconducting nanostructures grown by focused ion beam induced deposition for vortex pinning up to high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Ismael García; Sesé, Javier; Guillamón, Isabel; Suderow, Hermann; Vieira, Sebastián; Ibarra, Manuel Ricardo; De Teresa, José María

    2016-01-01

    We report efficient vortex pinning in thickness-modulated tungsten-carbon-based (W-C) nanostructures grown by focused ion beam induced deposition (FIBID). By using FIBID, W-C superconducting films have been created with thickness modulation properties exhibiting periodicity from 60 to 140 nm, leading to a strong pinning potential for the vortex lattice. This produces local minima in the resistivity up to high magnetic fields (2.2 T) in a broad temperature range due to commensurability effects between the pinning potential and the vortex lattice. The results show that the combination of single-step FIBID fabrication of superconducting nanostructures with built-in artificial pinning landscapes and the small intrinsic random pinning potential of this material produces strong periodic pinning potentials, maximizing the opportunities for the investigation of fundamental aspects in vortex science under changing external stimuli (e.g., temperature, magnetic field, electrical current).

  1. The initial oxidation of magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurth, M.

    2004-07-01

    Pure Magnesium samples have been oxidised in an UHV chamber under controlled conditions. Pressure range was 10{sup -10} Torr to 10{sup -7} Torr, temperature range was 273 K to 435 K. The samples have then been investigated with XPS, Ellipsometry and HERDA. Additionally, furnace oxidations at 750 Torr and 673 K have been carried out and investigated with XPS. From the XPS measurements data concerning layer thickness, composition, oxidation state and binding state have been gained. The ellipsometrie measurements yielded additional data concerning layer thickness as well as the size of the band gap of the developing oxide. With the HERDA measurements, the oxygen content within the oxide layer has been determined yielding additional information about composition and layer thickness. The layer thickness as a function of time have then been modelled with a kinetic growth model of Fromhold and Cook. For the refinement of the XPS data concerning layer thickness and composition, the pronounced plasmon excitations that occur in magnesium have been determined with two different procedures which have been developed in the methodical part of this work. The layer thickness and composition values have thus been corrected. Results: Two oxidation stages could be identified: a strong increase for the first few Langmuirs (1L = 1s x 10{sup -6} Torr), followed by a saturation'' region which was about 1.2 nm to 1.5 nm in magnitude. XPS and ellipsometry results have thereby been in very good agreement. The composition of the developing oxide showed a clear deviation from stoichiometric MgO, mainly caused by an oxygen deficiency; this deficiency has also been confirmed with the HERDA measurements. The Mg/O ratio as a function of layer thickness showed a continous decay starting from very high values for the thinnest layers (>{proportional_to}2.5) down to a saturation value of about 1.4, even for larger layer thicknesses gained with the furnace oxidations. The determination of

  2. Mechanical and tribological properties of polymer-derived Si/C/N sub-millimetre thick miniaturized components fabricated by direct casting

    OpenAIRE

    Bakumov Vadym; Blugan Gurdial; Roos Sigfried; Graule Thomas J.; Fakhfouri Vahid; Grossenbacher Jonas; Gullo Maurizio Rosario; Kiefer Thomas C.; Brugger Juergen; Parlinska Magdalena; Kuebler Jakob

    2012-01-01

    The utilization of silicon based polymers as a source of amorphous non oxide ceramics obtained upon pyrolytic treatment of them is increasingly gaining attention in research and is currently expanding into the field of commercial products. This work is focused on the near net shaped fabrication mechanical and tribological properties of a polymer derived Si/C/N system. Small sub millimetre thick ceramic test discs and bars were fabricated by casting of polysilazane and/or polycarbosilane precu...

  3. Soliton models for thick branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Riazi, Nematollah; Lobo, Francisco S.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ 4 and φ 6 scalar fields, which have broken Z 2 symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w 2 term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ 4 brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ 6 branes. (orig.)

  4. Investigating the Role of Shell Thickness and Field Cooling on Saturation Magnetization and Its Temperature Dependence in Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 Core/Shell Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihab M. Obaidat

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding saturation magnetization and its behavior with particle size and temperature are essential for medical applications such magnetic hyperthermia. We report the effect of shell thickness and field cooling on the saturation magnetization and its behavior with temperature in Fe3O4/γ-Fe2O3 core/shell nanoparticles of fixed core diameter (8 nm and several shell thicknesses. X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM were used to investigate the phase and the morphology of the samples. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED confirmed the core/shell structure and phases. Using a SQUID (San Diego, CA, USA, magnetic measurements were conducted in the temperature range of 2 to 300 K both under zero field-cooling (ZFC and field-cooling (FC protocols at several field-cooling values. In the ZFC state, considerable enhancement of saturation magnetization was obtained with the increase of shell thickness. After field cooling, we observed a drastic enhancement of the saturation magnetization in one sample up to 120 emu/g (50% larger than the bulk value. In both the FC and ZFC states, considerable deviations from the original Bloch’s law were observed. These results are discussed and attributed to the existence of interface spin-glass clusters which are modified by the changes in the shell thickness and the field-cooling.

  5. Effect of the thickness and hydrogen treatment on the properties of Ga-doped ZnO transparent conductive films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Jung; Lim, Jinhyong; Bang, Jungsik; Lee, Woong; Myoung, Jae-Min

    2008-01-01

    Combined effects of the thickness and hydrogen post-annealing treatment on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of Ga-doped ZnO (GZO) films were investigated as a potential substitute for indium tin oxide transparent conductive oxide. In the as-deposited films, microstructural evolution initially improved the crystallinity up to the thickness of 160 nm accompanying enhanced electrical and optical properties, but further thickness increase resulted in the deterioration of these properties attributable to the development of ZnGa 2 O 4 and Ga 2 O 3 phases originating from the excessive amount of the Ga dopant. Post-annealing treatment of the GZO films in a hydrogen atmosphere improved the electrical and optical properties substantially through possible reduction of the oxide phases and passivation of the surfaces and grain boundaries. In this case, electrical and optical properties remained almost similar for the thickness above 160 nm indicating that there exists a certain optimal film thickness.

  6. Enhanced energy storage and suppressed dielectric loss in oxide core-shell-polyolefin nanocomposites by moderating internal surface area and increasing shell thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredin, Lisa A.; Li, Zhong; Ratner, Mark A.; Marks, Tobin J. [Department of Chemistry Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Lanagan, Michael T. [Center for Dielectric Studies, Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802-4800 (United States)

    2012-11-20

    Dielectric loss in metal oxide core/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell polypropylene nanocomposites scales with the particle surface area. By moderating the interfacial surface area between the phases and using increasing shell thicknesses, dielectric loss is significantly reduced, and thus the energy stored within, and recoverable from, capacitors fabricated from these materials is significantly increased, to as high as 2.05 J/cm{sup 3}. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. The passive oxide films growth on 316L stainless steel in borate buffer solution measured by real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Haisong; Wang, Lu; Sun, Dongbai [National Center for Materials Service Safety (NCMS), University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Hongying, E-mail: hyyu@ustb.edu.cn [Institute of Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • The optical properties of passive oxide films on 316L stainless steel were studied. • The thickness of the oxide films (1.5–2.6 nm) increased linearly with the potentials. • The growth of passive film followed high electric field ion conduction model. • Selective solubility of oxide induced compositional change of passive film. - Abstract: Passive film growth on 316L stainless steel was investigated in borate buffer electrolyte (pH = 9.1) by real-time spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and the composition was estimated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Anodic passivation of 316L SS was carried out in the potential range from 0 V{sub SCE} to 0.9 V{sub SCE}, after potentiostatic polarization for 1800s, the current density decayed from 10{sup −2} A cm{sup −2} to 10{sup −6} A cm{sup −2}. The passive film thickness was simulated from Frenel and Drude reflection equations, the average complex refractive index was assumed to be N = 2.3 − j0.445. The estimated thickness increased linearly with potential from 1.5 nm at 0 V to 2.6 nm at 0.8 V. The growth of passive film followed high electric field ion conduction model. The passive film mainly contained the oxide/hydroxide of iron and chromium. The selective solubility of oxide in passive film explained the change of iron and chromium content at different potentials. Few nickel and molybdenum also contributed to the passive film with a constant content.

  8. Total-ionizing-dose effects on isolation oxides in modern CMOS technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, Hugh J.; Mclain, Michael; Esqueda, Ivan Sanchez

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data on the total dose response of deep sub-micron bulk CMOS devices and integrated circuits. Ionizing radiation experiments on shallow trench isolation (STI) field oxide MOS capacitors (FOXCAP) indicate a characteristic build-up of radiation-induced defects in the dielectric. In this paper, capacitors fabricated with STI, thermal, SIMOX and bipolar base oxides of similar thickness are compared and show the STI oxide to be most susceptible to radiation effects. Experimental data on irradiated shift registers and n-channel MOSFETs are also presented. These data indicate that radiation damage to the STI can increase the off-state current of n-channel devices and the standby current of CMOS integrated circuits

  9. Production of Sn/SnO2/MWCNT composites by plasma oxidation after thermal evaporation from pure Sn targets onto buckypapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaf, M; Gultekin, D; Akbulut, H

    2012-12-01

    In this study, tin/tinoxide/multi oxide/multi walled carbon nano tube (Sn/SnO2/MWCNT) composites were produced by thermal evaporation and then subsequent plasma oxidation. Buckypapers having controlled porosity were prepared by vacuum filtration from functionalized MWCNTs. Pure metallic tin was thermally evaporated on the buckypapers in argon atmosphere with different thicknesses. It was determined that the evaporated pure tin nano crystals were mechanically penetrated into pores of buckypaper to form a nanocomposite. The tin/MWCNT composites were subjected to plasma oxidation process at oxygen/argon gas mixture. Three different plasma oxidation times (30, 45 and 60 minutes) were used to investigate oxidation and physical and microstructural properties. The effect of coating thickness and oxidation time was investigated to understand the effect of process parameters on the Sn and SnO2 phases after plasma oxidation. Quantitative phase analysis was performed in order to determine the relative phase amounts. The structural properties were studied by field-emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

  10. Electromagnetic-field dependence of the internal excited state of the polaron and the qubit in quantum dot with thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xu-Fang; Xin, Wei; Yin, Hong-Wu; Eerdunchaolu

    2017-06-01

    The electromagnetic-field dependence of the ground and the first excited-state (GFES) energy eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the strong-coupling polaron in a quantum dot (QD) was studied for various QD thicknesses by using the variational method of the Pekar type (VMPT). On this basis, we construct a qubit in the quantum dot (QQD) by taking a two-level structure of the polaron as the carrier. The results of numerical calculations indicate that the oscillation period of the qubit, {itT}{in0}, increases with increasing the thickness of the quantum dot (TQD) {itL}, but decreases with increasing the cyclotron frequency of the magnetic field (CFMF) ω{in{itc}}, electric-field strength {itF}, and electron-phonon coupling strength (EPCS) α. The probability density of the qubit |Ψ({itρ}, {itz}, {itt})|{su2} presents a normal distribution of the electronic transverse coordinate ρ, significantly influenced by the TQD and effective radius of the quantum dot (ERQD) {itR}{in0}, and shows a periodic oscillation with variations in the electronic longitudinal coordinate {itz}, polar angle φ and time {itt}. The decoherence time τ and the quality factor {itQ} of the free rotation increase with increasing the CFMF ω{in{itc}}, dispersion coefficient η, and EPCS α, but decrease with increasing the electric-field strength {itF}, TQD {itL}, and ERQD {itR}{in0}. The TQD is an important parameter of the qubit. Theoretically, the target, which is to regulate the oscillation period, decoherence time and quality factor of the free rotation of the qubit, can be achieved by designing different TQDs and regulating the strength of the electromagnetic field.

  11. Exchange bias coupling in NiO/Ni bilayer tubular nanostructures synthetized by electrodeposition and thermal oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, T., E-mail: work_tian@scu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Zhang, Z.W.; Xu, Y.H. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Liu, Y. [Analytical & Testing Center, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Li, W.J. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Nie, Y.; Zhang, X. [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Xiang, G., E-mail: gxiang@scu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we reported the synthesis of NiO/Ni bilayer nanotubes by electrodeposition and thermal oxidation using anodic aluminum oxide templates. The morphology, structure, chemical composition and magnetic properties, especially magnetic exchange bias induced by subsequent magnetic field cooling, in this one-dimensional antiferromagnetic/ferromagnetic hybrid system were investigated. It was found that the effect of the annealing temperature, which mainly dominated the thickness of the NiO layer, and the annealing time, which mainly dominated the grain size of the NiO, on the exchange bias field showed competitive relationship. The optimized exchange bias field was achieved by the combination of the shorter annealing time and higher annealing temperature. - Highlights: • NiO-Ni bilayer tubular nanotubes were fabricated by electrodeposition and thermal oxidation. • The exchange bias effect in NiO-Ni nanotubes was induced by magnetic field cooling. • The competitive effect of annealing temperature and annealing time on the exchange bias coupling was analyzed.

  12. Observing the semiconducting band-gap alignment of MoS2 layers of different atomic thicknesses using a MoS2/SiO2/Si heterojunction tunnel diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishiguchi, K.; Castellanos-Gomez, A.; Yamaguchi, H.; Fujiwara, A.; Van der Zant, H.S.J.; Steele, G.A.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a tunnel diode composed of a vertical MoS2/SiO2/Si heterostructure. A MoS2 flake consisting four areas of different thicknesses functions as a gate terminal of a silicon field-effect transistor. A thin gate oxide allows tunneling current to flow between the n-type MoS2 layers and

  13. Influence of Nitinol wire surface treatment on oxide thickness and composition and its subsequent effect on corrosion resistance and nickel ion release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, B; Carroll, W; Rochev, Y; Hynes, M; Bradley, D; Plumley, D

    2006-10-01

    Medical implants and devices are now used successfully in surgical procedures on a daily basis. Alloys of nickel and titanium, and in particular Nitinol are of special interest in the medical device industry, because of their shape memory and superelastic properties. The corrosion behavior of nitinol in the body is also of critical importance because of the known toxicological effects of nickel. The stability of a NiTi alloy in the physiological environment is dependant primarily on the properties of the mostly TiO(2) oxide layer that is present on the surface. For the present study, a range of nitinol wires have been prepared using different drawing processes and a range of surface preparation procedures. It is clear from the results obtained that the wire samples with very thick oxides also contain a high nickel content in the oxide layer. The untreated samples with the thicker oxides show the lowest pitting potential values and greater nickel release in both long and short-term experiments. It was also found that after long-term immersion tests breakdown potentials increased for samples that exhibited lower values initially. From these results it would appear that surface treatment is essential for the optimum bioperformance of nitinol. (c) 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc

  14. Phosphorus oxide gate dielectric for black phosphorus field effect transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, W.; Tayari, V.; Fakih, I.; Korinek, A.; Caporali, M.; Serrano-Ruiz, M.; Peruzzini, M.; Heun, S.; Botton, G. A.; Szkopek, T.

    2018-04-01

    The environmental stability of the layered semiconductor black phosphorus (bP) remains a challenge. Passivation of the bP surface with phosphorus oxide, POx, grown by a reactive ion etch with oxygen plasma is known to improve photoluminescence efficiency of exfoliated bP flakes. We apply phosphorus oxide passivation in the fabrication of bP field effect transistors using a gate stack consisting of a POx layer grown by reactive ion etching followed by atomic layer deposition of Al2O3. We observe room temperature top-gate mobilities of 115 cm2 V-1 s-1 in ambient conditions, which we attribute to the low defect density of the bP/POx interface.

  15. Highly stable field emission from ZnO nanowire field emitters controlled by an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin film transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojie; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zhipeng; Ou, Hai; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-04-01

    Lowering the driving voltage and improving the stability of nanowire field emitters are essential for them to be applied in devices. In this study the characteristics of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire field emitter arrays (FEAs) controlled by an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin film transistor (a-IGZO TFT) were studied. A low driving voltage along with stabilization of the field emission current were achieved. Modulation of field emission currents up to three orders of magnitude was achieved at a gate voltage of 0–32 V for a constant anode voltage. Additionally, a-IGZO TFT control can dramatically reduce the emission current fluctuation (i.e., from 46.11 to 1.79% at an emission current of ∼3.7 µA). Both the a-IGZO TFT and ZnO nanowire FEAs were prepared on glass substrates in our research, demonstrating the feasibility of realizing large area a-IGZO TFT-controlled ZnO nanowire FEAs.

  16. [Features associated with retinal thickness extension in diabetic macular oedema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razo Blanco-Hernández, Dulce Milagros; Lima-Gómez, Virgilio; García-Rubio, Yatzul Zuhaila

    2015-01-01

    Clinically significant macular edema has features that are associated with a major risk of visual loss, with thickening that involves the centre of the macula, field 7 or visual deficiency, although it is unknown if these features are related to retinal thickness extension. An observational, analytical, prospective, cross-sectional and open study was conducted. The sample was divided into initial visual acuity ≥0.5, central field thickness, center point thickness, field 7 and macular volume more than the reported 2 standard deviation mean value in eyes without retinopathy. The extension was determined by the number of the central field area equivalent thickening and these features were compared with by Student's t test for independent samples. A total of 199 eyes were included. In eyes with visual acuity of ≥0.5, the mean extension was 2.88±1.68 and 3.2±1.63 in area equivalent in eyes with visual acuity 0.5 (p=0.12). The mean extension in eyes with less than 2 standard deviation of central field thickness, center point thickness, field 7 and macular volume was significantly lower than in eyes with more than 2 standard deviations (1.9±0.93 vs. 4.07±1.49, 2.44±1.47 vs. 3.94±1.52, 1.79±1.07 vs. 3.61±1.57 and 1.6±0.9 vs. 3.9±1.4, respectively, p<0.001). The extension of retinal thickness is related with the anatomical features reported with a greater risk of visual loss, but is not related to initial visual deficiency. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultra-low power thin film transistors with gate oxide formed by nitric acid oxidation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, H.; Kim, W. B.; Matsumoto, T.

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a low temperature fabrication method of SiO 2 /Si structure by use of nitric acid, i.e., nitric acid oxidation of Si (NAOS) method, and applied it to thin film transistors (TFT). A silicon dioxide (SiO 2 ) layer formed by the NAOS method at room temperature possesses 1.8 nm thickness, and its leakage current density is as low as that of thermally grown SiO 2 layer with the same thickness formed at ∼900 deg C. The fabricated TFTs possess an ultra-thin NAOS SiO 2 /CVD SiO 2 stack gate dielectric structure. The ultrathin NAOS SiO 2 layer effectively blocks a gate leakage current, and thus, the thickness of the gate oxide layer can be decreased from 80 to 20 nm. The thin gate oxide layer enables to decrease the operation voltage to 2 V (cf. the conventional operation voltage of TFTs with 80 nm gate oxide: 12 V) because of the low threshold voltages, i.e., -0.5 V for P-ch TFTs and 0.5 V for N-ch TFTs, and thus the consumed power decreases to 1/36 of that of the conventional TFTs. The drain current increases rapidly with the gate voltage, and the sub-threshold voltage is ∼80 mV/dec. The low sub-threshold swing is attributable to the thin gate oxide thickness and low interface state density of the NAOS SiO 2 layer. (authors)

  18. Effects of hydrogen-like impurity and electromagnetic field on quantum transition of an electron in a Gaussian potential with QD thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Wei; Zhao, Yu-Wei; Sudu; Eerdunchaolu

    2018-05-01

    Considering Hydrogen-like impurity and the thickness effect, the eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the electronic ground and first exited states in a quantum dot (QD) are derived by using the Lee-Low-Pins-Pekar variational method with the harmonic and Gaussian potentials as the transverse and longitudinal confinement potentials, respectively. A two-level system is constructed on the basis of those two states, and the electronic quantum transition affected by an electromagnetic field is discussed in terms of the two-level system theory. The results indicate the Gaussian potential reflects the real confinement potential more accurately than the parabolic one; the influence of the thickness of the QD on the electronic transition probability is interesting and significant, and cannot be ignored; the electronic transition probability Γ is influenced significantly by some physical quantities, such as the strength of the electron-phonon coupling α, the electric-field strength F, the magnetic-field cyclotron frequency ωc , the barrier height V0 and confinement range L of the asymmetric Gaussian potential, suggesting the transport and optical properties of the QD can be manipulated further though those physical quantities.

  19. Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs): overview of recent field and modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis; Palm, Brett B.; Peng, Zhe; Hu, Weiwei; Ortega, Amber M.; Li, Rui; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Day, Douglas A.; Stark, Harald; Brune, William H.; de Gouw, Joost; Schroder, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Oxidation flow reactors (OFRs) are popular tools for studying SOA formation and aging in both laboratory and field experiments. In an OFR, the concentration of an oxidant (OH, O3, or NO3) can be increased, leading to hours-months of equivalent atmospheric oxidation during the several-minute OFR residence time. Using gas- and particle-phase measurements from several recent field campaigns, we demonstrate SOA formation after oxidation of ambient air in an OFR. Typically, more SOA formation is observed from nighttime air than daytime air. This indicates that the concentration of SOA-forming gases in ambient air is relatively higher at night. Measured ambient VOCs are not able to explain the magnitude of SOA formation in the OFR, suggesting that typically unmeasured S/IVOCs (possibly VOC oxidation products or direct emissions) play a substantial intermediary role in ambient SOA formation. We also present highlights from recent OFR oxidant chemistry modeling studies. HOx, Ox, and photolysis chemistry was modeled for two common OH production methods (utilizing 185+254 nm UV light, or 254 nm only). OH exposure (OHexp) can be estimated within a factor of ~2 using model-derived equations, and can be verified in situ using VOC decay measurements. OHexp is strongly dependent on external OH reactivity, which may cause significant OH suppression in some circumstances (e.g., lab/source studies with high precursor concentrations). UV light photolysis and reaction with oxygen atoms are typically not major reaction pathways. Modeling the fate of condensable low-volatility organic gases (LVOCs) formed in an OFR suggests that LVOC fate is dependent on particle condensational sink. E.g., for the range of particle condensational sink at a remote pine forest, anywhere from 20-80% of produced LVOCs were predicted to condense onto aerosols for an OHexp of ~1 day, with the remainder lost to OFR or sampling line walls. Similar to large chamber wall loss corrections, a correction is needed

  20. Thick domain wall spacetimes with and without reflection symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melfo, Alejandra; Pantoja, Nelson; Skirzewski, Aureliano

    2003-01-01

    We show that different thick domain wall spacetimes, for which the scalar field configuration and the potential are the same, can be found as solutions to the coupled Einstein-scalar field equations, depending on whether or not reflection symmetry on the wall is imposed. Spacetimes with reflection symmetry may be dynamic or static, while the asymmetric ones are static. Asymmetric walls are asymptotically flat on one side and reduce to the Taub spacetime on the other. Examples of asymmetric thick walls in D-dimensional spacetimes are given, and previous analysis on the distributional thin-wall limit of the dynamic symmetric thick walls are extended to the asymmetric case. A new family of reflection symmetric, static thick domain wall spacetimes, including previously known Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield walls, is presented

  1. Soliton models for thick branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyravi, Marzieh [Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Department of Physics, School of Sciences, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Riazi, Nematollah [Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, we present new soliton solutions for thick branes in 4+1 dimensions. In particular, we consider brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), φ{sup 4} and φ{sup 6} scalar fields, which have broken Z{sub 2} symmetry in some cases and are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. The origin of the symmetry breaking in these models resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacua. These vacua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. We also study the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane. Furthermore, we examine the stability of the thick branes, by determining the sign of the w{sup 2} term in the expansion of the potential for the resulting Schroedinger-like equation, where w is the five-dimensional coordinate. It turns out that the φ{sup 4} brane is stable, while there are unstable modes for certain ranges of the model parameters in the SG and φ{sup 6} branes. (orig.)

  2. Channel layer thickness dependence of In-Ti-Zn-O thin-film transistors fabricated using pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Q.; Shan, F. K.; Liu, G. X.; Liu, A.; Lee, W. J.; Shin, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous indium-titanium-zinc-oxide (ITZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with various channel thicknesses were fabricated at room temperature by using pulsed laser deposition. The channel layer thickness (CLT) dependence of the TFTs was investigated. All the ITZO thin films were amorphous, and the surface roughnesses decreased slightly first and then increased with increasing CLT. With increasing CLT from 35 to 140 nm, the on/off current ratio and the field-effect mobility increased, and the subthreshold swing decreased. The TFT with a CLT of 210 nm exhibited the worst performance, while the ITZO TFT with a CLT of 140 nm exhibited the best performance with a subthreshold voltage of 2.86 V, a mobility of 53.9 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , a subthreshold swing of 0.29 V/decade and an on/off current ratio of 10 9 .

  3. Safety implications of high-field MRI: actuation of endogenous magnetic iron oxides in the human body.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Dobson

    Full Text Available Magnetic Resonance Imaging scanners have become ubiquitous in hospitals and high-field systems (greater than 3 Tesla are becoming increasingly common. In light of recent European Union moves to limit high-field exposure for those working with MRI scanners, we have evaluated the potential for detrimental cellular effects via nanomagnetic actuation of endogenous iron oxides in the body.Theoretical models and experimental data on the composition and magnetic properties of endogenous iron oxides in human tissue were used to analyze the forces on iron oxide particles.Results show that, even at 9.4 Tesla, forces on these particles are unlikely to disrupt normal cellular function via nanomagnetic actuation.

  4. Transparent Oxide Semiconductors for Emerging Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2013-11-01

    Transparent oxide electronics have emerged as promising materials to shape the future of electronics. While several n-type oxides have been already studied and demonstrated feasibility to be used as active materials in thin film transistors, high performance p-type oxides have remained elusive. This dissertation is devoted to the study of transparent p-type oxide semiconductor tin monoxide and its use in the fabrication of field effect devices. A complete study on the deposition of tin monoxide thin films by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering is performed. Carrier density, carrier mobility and conductivity are studied over a set of deposition conditions where p-type conduction is observed. Density functional theory simulations are performed in order to elucidate the effect of native defects on carrier mobility. The findings on the electrical properties of SnO thin films are then translated to the fabrication of thin films transistors. The low processing temperature of tin monoxide thin films below 200 oC is shown advantageous for the fabrication of fully transparent and flexible thin film transistors. After careful device engineering, including post deposition annealing temperature, gate dielectric material, semiconductor thickness and source and drain electrodes material, thin film transistors with record device performance are demonstrated, achieving a field effect mobility >6.7 cm2V-1s-1. Device performance is further improved to reach a field effect mobility of 10.8 cm2V-1s-1 in SnO nanowire field effect transistors fabricated from the sputtered SnO thin films and patterned by electron beam lithography. Downscaling device dimension to nano scale is shown beneficial for SnO field effect devices not only by achieving a higher hole mobility but enhancing the overall device performance including better threshold voltage, subthreshold swing and lower number of interfacial defects. Use of p-type semiconductors in nonvolatile memory applications is then

  5. Thickness-dependence of optical constants for Ta2O5 ultrathin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dong-Xu; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Wei; Wu, Kang-Ning; Mao, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zhao, Hai-bin; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2012-01-01

    An effective method for determining the optical constants of Ta 2 O 5 thin films deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer-substrate) was presented. Ta 2 O 5 thin films with thickness range of 1-400 nm have been prepared by the electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. We find that the refractive indices of Ta 2 O 5 ultrathin films less than 40 nm drop with the decreasing thickness, while the other ones are close to those of bulk Ta 2 O 5 . This phenomenon was due to the existence of an interfacial oxide region and the surface roughness of the film, which was confirmed by the measurement of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical properties of ultrathin film varying with the thickness are useful for the design and manufacture of nano-scaled thin-film devices. (orig.)

  6. Thickness-dependence of optical constants for Ta2O5 ultrathin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xu; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Cai, Qing-Yuan; Lin, Wei; Wu, Kang-Ning; Mao, Peng-Hui; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Zhao, Hai-bin; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2012-09-01

    An effective method for determining the optical constants of Ta2O5 thin films deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurement with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer-substrate) was presented. Ta2O5 thin films with thickness range of 1-400 nm have been prepared by the electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. We find that the refractive indices of Ta2O5 ultrathin films less than 40 nm drop with the decreasing thickness, while the other ones are close to those of bulk Ta2O5. This phenomenon was due to the existence of an interfacial oxide region and the surface roughness of the film, which was confirmed by the measurement of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Optical properties of ultrathin film varying with the thickness are useful for the design and manufacture of nano-scaled thin-film devices.

  7. 24 h stability of thick multilayer silicene in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Padova, Paola; Ottaviani, Carlo; Quaresima, Claudio; Generosi, Amanda; Paci, Barbara; Le Lay, Guy; Olivieri, Bruno; Imperatori, Patrizia; Salomon, Eric; Angot, Thierry; Quagliano, Lucia; Romano, Claudia; Vona, Alessandro; Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Thick epitaxial multilayer silicene films with a √3 × √3R(30°) surface structure show only mild surface oxidation after 24 h in air, as measured by Auger electron spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements performed in air without any protective capping, as well as, for comparison, with a thin Al 2 O 3 cap, showed the (002) reflection and the G, D and 2D Raman structures, which are unique fingerprints of thick multilayer silicene. (letter)

  8. Moessbauer Study of Electrodeposited Fe/Fe-Oxide Multilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmann, E.; Homonnay, Z.; Klencsar, Z.; Vertes, A.; Lakatos-Varsanyi, M.; Miko, A.; Varga, L.K.; Kalman, E.; Nagy, F.

    2005-01-01

    Iron has been deposited electrochemically by short current pulses in Na-saccharin containing FeII-chloride and sulphate solution electrolytes. Combined electrochemical techniques with initial pulse plating of iron nanolayer and its subsequent anodic oxidation under potential control have been used for production of Fe/Fe-oxide multilayers. 57Fe CEM spectra of pulse plated iron revealed the presence of a minor doublet attributed mainly to γ-FeOOH in addition to the dominant sextet of α-iron. In the case of anodically oxidized pulse plated iron and of samples after repeated deposition of anodically oxidized pulse plated iron an additional minor doublet, assigned to ferrous chloride, also appears in the Moessbauer spectra. A significant change in the magnetic anisotropy of α-iron was observed with the anodic oxidation. The thickness of the layers were estimated from the CEM spectrum data by a modified computer program of the Liljequist method. The coercive field and the power loss versus frequency data showed that the pulse plated iron cores are good inductive elements up to several kHz frequencies

  9. In situ study of electric field controlled ion transport in the Fe/BaTiO3 interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merkel, D. G.; Bessas, D.; Bazso, G.

    2018-01-01

    Electric field controlled ion transport and interface formation of iron thin films on a BaTiO3 substrate have been investigated by in situ nuclear resonance scattering and x-ray reflectometry techniques. At early stage of deposition, an iron-II oxide interface layer was observed. The hyperfine...... parameters of the interface layer were found insensitive to the evaporated layer thickness. When an electric field was applied during growth, a 10 angstrom increase of the nonmagnetic/magnetic thickness threshold and an extended magnetic transition region was measured compared to the case where no field...... was applied. The interface layer was found stable under this threshold when further evaporation occurred, contrary to the magnetic layer where the magnitude and orientation of the hyperfine magnetic field vary continuously. The obtained results of the growth mechanism and of the electric field effect...

  10. Optimum thickness evaluation of ZrO2 coating on type 304L stainless steel for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Nidhi; Bera, Santanu; Velmurugan, S.; Tripathi, V.S.; Karki, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Nano-crystalline ZrO 2 coatings of different thickness have been grown on pre-oxidized stainless steel (SS) surface by hydrothermal method in an autoclave. Thickness of the coating has been enhanced by repeating the deposition process several times using same precursor concentration. Several cycles of the deposition process lead to the increase of the coating thickness from 200 nm to ∼1 μm after the fourth round of deposition. The samples after different rounds of the coating have been extensively characterized by SEM-EDS technique to find the surface topography, coating thickness and composition. Corrosion resistance properties of the plain SS, pre-oxidized SS and all the ZrO 2 coated samples were studied by potentiodynamic polarization technique and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Corrosion current densities (I corr /cm 2 ) of the coated samples are found to reduce significantly with the increase in thickness. After a certain critical thickness, the corrosion resistance properties found to deteriorate due to the formation of coating defects caused by lattice strain. The coating was found to be continuous but porous after the first cycle but porosity of zirconia coating have been reduced drastically after the second cycle itself. EIS analysis confirms that the zirconia coated samples show insulating, barrier like characteristics in terms of high charge transfer resistance after the second cycle of zirconia deposition. The role of pre-oxidized surface composition and the interface between the pre-oxidized surface and the coating has been discussed in details by showing the depth distribution of Zr in the coating. (author)

  11. Assessing high altitude glacier thickness, volume and area changes using field, GIS and remote sensing techniques: the case of Nevado Coropuna (Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Peduzzi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Higher temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns have induced an acute decrease in Andean glaciers, thus leading to additional stress on water supply. To adapt to climate changes, local governments need information on the rate of glacier area and volume losses and on current ice thickness. Remote sensing analyses of Coropuna glacier (Peru delineate an acute glaciated area decline between 1955 and 2008. We tested how volume changes can be estimated with remote sensing and GIS techniques using digital elevation models derived from both topographic maps and satellite images. Ice thickness was measured in 2004 using a Ground Penetrating Radar coupled with a Ground Positioning System during a field expedition. It provided profiles of ice thickness on different slopes, orientations and altitudes. These were used to model the current glacier volume using Geographical Information System and statistical multiple regression techniques. The results revealed a significant glacier volume loss; however the uncertainty is higher than the measured volume loss. We also provided an estimate of the remaining volume. The field study provided the scientific evidence needed by COPASA, a local Peruvian NGO, and GTZ, the German international cooperation agency, in order to alert local governments and communities and guide them in adopting new climate change adaptation policies.

  12. Trap state passivation improved hot-carrier instability by zirconium-doping in hafnium oxide in a nanoscale n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistors with high-k/metal gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Hsi-Wen; Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Lin, Chien-Yu; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Ye, Yi-Han

    2016-01-01

    This work investigates the effect on hot carrier degradation (HCD) of doping zirconium into the hafnium oxide high-k layer in the nanoscale high-k/metal gate n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors. Previous n-metal-oxide semiconductor-field effect transistor studies demonstrated that zirconium-doped hafnium oxide reduces charge trapping and improves positive bias temperature instability. In this work, a clear reduction in HCD is observed with zirconium-doped hafnium oxide because channel hot electron (CHE) trapping in pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. However, this reduced HCD became ineffective at ultra-low temperature, since CHE traps in the deeper bulk defects at ultra-low temperature, while zirconium-doping only passivates shallow bulk defects.

  13. Effects of a magnetic field on growth of porous alumina films on aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ispas, Adriana; Bund, Andreas [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, 01062 Dresden (Germany); Vrublevsky, Igor, E-mail: vrublevsky@bsuir.edu.b [Belarusian State University of Informatics and Radioelectronics Minsk, Department of Micro and Nanoelectronics, 220013 Minsk (Belarus)

    2010-05-01

    The effects induced by a magnetic field on the oxide film growth on aluminum in sulfuric, oxalic, phosphoric and sulfamic acid, and on current transients during re-anodizing of porous alumina films in the barrier-type electrolyte, were studied. Aluminum films of 100 nm thickness were prepared by thermal evaporation on Si wafer substrates. We could show that the duration of the anodizing process increased by 33% during anodizing in sulfuric acid when a magnetic field was applied (0.7 T), compared to the process without a magnetic field. Interestingly, such a magnetic field effect was not found during anodizing in oxalic and sulfamic acid. The pore intervals were decreased by ca. 17% in oxalic acid. These findings were attributed to variations in electronic properties of the anodic oxide films formed in various electrolytes and interpreted on the basis of the influence of trapped electrons on the mobility of ions migrating during the film growth. The spin dependent tunneling of electrons into the surface layer of the oxide under the magnetic field could be responsible for the shifts of the current transients to lower potentials during re-anodizing of heat-treated oxalic and phosphoric acid alumina films.

  14. Spin-wave wavelength down-conversion at thickness steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigloher, Johannes; Taniguchi, Takuya; Madami, Marco; Decker, Martin; Körner, Helmut S.; Moriyama, Takahiro; Gubbiotti, Gianluca; Ono, Teruo; Back, Christian H.

    2018-05-01

    We report a systematic experimental study on the refraction and reflection of magnetostatic spin-waves at a thickness step between two Permalloy films of different thickness. The transmitted spin-waves for the transition from a thick film to a thin film have a higher wave vector compared to the incoming waves. Consequently, such systems may find use as passive wavelength transformers in magnonic networks. We investigate the spin-wave transmission behavior by studying the influence of the external magnetic field, incident angle, and thickness ratio of the films using time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy and micro-focused Brillouin light scattering.

  15. Thickness dependence of the switching voltage in all-oxide ferroelectric thin-film capacitors prepared by pulsed laser deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cillessen, J.F.M.; Prins, M.W.J.; Wolf, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Thin-film ferroelectric capacitors consisting of PbZr0.53Ti0.47O3 sandwiched between La0.5Sr0.5CoO3 electrodes have been deposited using pulsed laser deposition. The combination of oxidic perovskite-type materials results in capacitors with a coercive field (Ec) which is comparable with values for

  16. Ferroelectricity in undoped hafnium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polakowski, Patrick; Müller, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    We report the observation of ferroelectric characteristics in undoped hafnium oxide thin films in a thickness range of 4–20 nm. The undoped films were fabricated using atomic layer deposition (ALD) and embedded into titanium nitride based metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors for electrical evaluation. Structural as well as electrical evidence for the appearance of a ferroelectric phase in pure hafnium oxide was collected with respect to film thickness and thermal budget applied during titanium nitride electrode formation. Using grazing incidence X-Ray diffraction (GIXRD) analysis, we observed an enhanced suppression of the monoclinic phase fraction in favor of an orthorhombic, potentially, ferroelectric phase with decreasing thickness/grain size and for a titanium nitride electrode formation below crystallization temperature. The electrical presence of ferroelectricity was confirmed using polarization measurements. A remanent polarization P r of up to 10 μC cm −2 as well as a read/write endurance of 1.6 × 10 5 cycles was measured for the pure oxide. The experimental results reported here strongly support the intrinsic nature of the ferroelectric phase in hafnium oxide and expand its applicability beyond the doped systems

  17. XPS studies of the oxide formed on pure Ti

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremery, P.; David, D.; Beranger, G.; Oviedo, C.; Garcia, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The XPS technique was used to study titanium samples oxidized at 200 ton of pure oxigen at different times and temperatures with the aim of producing variable oxide thicknesses. The thicknesses of different oxigen layers were determined by the nuclear reaction O 16 (d,p) O 17 *. (author) [pt

  18. Phase-Field Simulations of Topological Structures and Topological Phase Transitions in Ferroelectric Oxide Heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijian Hong

    Ferroelectrics are materials that exhibit spontaneous electric polarization which can be switched between energy-degenerated states by external stimuli (e.g., mechanical force and electric field) that exceeds a critical value. They have wide potential applications in memories, capacitors, piezoelectric and pyroelectric sensors, and nanomechanical systems. Topological structures and topological phase transitions have been introduced to the condensed matter physics in the past few decades and have attracted broad attentions in various disciplines due to the rich physical insights and broad potential applications. Ferromagnetic topological structures such as vortex and skyrmion are known to be stabilized by the antisymmetric chiral interaction (e.g., Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction). Without such interaction, ferroelectric topological structures (i.e., vortex, flux-closure, skyrmions, and merons) have been studied only recently with other designing strategies, such as reducing the dimension of the ferroelectrics. The overarching goal of this dissertation is to investigate the topological structures in ferroelectric oxide perovskites as well as the topological phase transitions under external applied forces. Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) with morphotropic phase boundary is widely explored for high piezoelectric and dielectric properties. The domain structure of PZT tetragonal/rhombohedral (T/R) bilayer is investigated. Strong interfacial coupling is shown, with large polarization rotation to a lower symmetry phase near the T/R interface. Interlayer domain growth can also be captured, with T-domains in the R layer and R-domains in the T layer. For thin PZT bilayer with 5nm of T-layer and 20 nm of R-layer, the a1/a 2 twin domain structure is formed in the top T layer, which could be fully switched to R domains under applied bias. While a unique flux-closure pattern is observed both theoretically and experimentally in the thick bilayer film with 50 nm of thickness for both T and R

  19. Material problems related to large scale firing of biomass. Steam oxidation of TP 347H FG and X20

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard Hansson, A.

    2009-07-01

    after field-testing. The Cr-content adjacent to the oxide layer was lower the lower the temperature, whereas the size of the affected areas was larger the higher the temperature. Since selective oxidation of Cr was limited to a narrow area close to the former alloy grain-boundary during the laboratory exposures, depletion of Cr in the underlying alloy was seldom observed. The thickness of the inner oxide layer appeared independent of oxidation time and temperature for exposes less than 30000 h during field-testing. Yet the thickness had increased significantly at the lowest temperatures after 57554 h. The thickness of the inner layer increased with increasing temperature during the laboratory exposures. The impact of Cr diffusion on the oxidation behaviour of TP 347H FG was confirmed by diffusion modelling. A numerical model for calculation of the evolution of the concentration profiles of Cr, Ni, and Fe in the substrate below a growing Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer was formulated based on a 2 dimensional finite difference solution of Fick's 2nd law for multicomponent diffusion. Cr used for oxide growth was supplied from the alloy closest to the oxide/alloy interface and a narrow region surrounding the grain boundary at 550 and 650 deg., whereas the bulk material contributes significantly to the Cr supply at 750 deg. C. The Cr content of TP 347H FG exposed in the laboratory furnace was approx. 1.5-2 wt% lower than that used for field-testing. This difference has an impact on the oxidation behaviour of the alloy. Furthermore, elastic deformation of the tube by using a wedge (resembling the high steam pressure) further reduces the oxidation rate. Double-layered oxides developed during oxidation of X20 at all conditions. The morphology of the oxide layers is strongly influenced by temperature, whereas the influence of the oxidising environment appears less pronounced, as long as it contains water vapour. The inner layer consisted of converted M{sub 23}C{sub 6} embedded in

  20. Evolution of optical constants of silicon dioxide on silicon from ultrathin films to thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai Qingyuan; Zheng Yuxiang; Mao Penghui; Zhang Rongjun; Zhang Dongxu; Liu Minghui; Chen Liangyao, E-mail: yxzheng@fudan.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Micro and Nano Photonic Structures, Ministry of Education, Department of Optical Science and Engineering, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2010-11-10

    A series of SiO{sub 2} films with thickness range 1-600 nm have been deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) substrates by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) in combination with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer substrate) was used to determine the optical constants and thicknesses of the investigated films. The refractive indices of SiO{sub 2} films thicker than 60 nm are close to those of bulk SiO{sub 2}. For the thin films deposited at the rate of {approx}1.0 nm s{sup -1}, the refractive indices increase with decreasing thickness from {approx}60 to {approx}10 nm and then drop sharply with decreasing thickness below {approx}10 nm. However, for thin films deposited at the rates of {approx}0.4 and {approx}0.2 nm s{sup -1}, the refractive indices monotonically increase with decreasing thickness below 60 nm. The optical constants of the ultrathin film depend on the morphology of the film, the stress exerted on the film, as well as the stoichiometry of the oxide film.

  1. Evolution of optical constants of silicon dioxide on silicon from ultrathin films to thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Qingyuan; Zheng Yuxiang; Mao Penghui; Zhang Rongjun; Zhang Dongxu; Liu Minghui; Chen Liangyao

    2010-01-01

    A series of SiO 2 films with thickness range 1-600 nm have been deposited on crystal silicon (c-Si) substrates by electron beam evaporation (EBE) method. Variable-angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE) in combination with a two-film model (ambient-oxide-interlayer substrate) was used to determine the optical constants and thicknesses of the investigated films. The refractive indices of SiO 2 films thicker than 60 nm are close to those of bulk SiO 2 . For the thin films deposited at the rate of ∼1.0 nm s -1 , the refractive indices increase with decreasing thickness from ∼60 to ∼10 nm and then drop sharply with decreasing thickness below ∼10 nm. However, for thin films deposited at the rates of ∼0.4 and ∼0.2 nm s -1 , the refractive indices monotonically increase with decreasing thickness below 60 nm. The optical constants of the ultrathin film depend on the morphology of the film, the stress exerted on the film, as well as the stoichiometry of the oxide film.

  2. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of Titanium Aluminides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, R; Sieber, M; Lampke, T; Grund, T; Wielage, B

    2016-01-01

    Due to their outstanding specific mechanical and high-temperature properties, titanium aluminides exhibit a high potential for lightweight components exposed to high temperatures. However, their application is limited through their low wear resistance and the increasing high-temperature oxidation starting from about 750 °C. By the use of oxide ceramic coatings, these constraints can be set aside and the possible applications of titanium aluminides can be extended. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) represents a process for the generation of oxide ceramic conversion coatings with high thickness. The current work aims at the clarification of different electrolyte components’ influences on the oxide layer evolution on alloy TNM-B1 (Ti43.5Al4Nb1Mo0.1B) and the creation of compact and wear resistant coatings. Model experiments were applied using a ramp-wise increase of the anodic potential in order to show the influence of electrolyte components on the discharge initiation and the early stage of the oxide layer growth. The production of PEO layers with technically relevant thicknesses close to 100 μm was conducted in alkaline electrolytes with varying amounts of Na 2 SiO 3 ·5H 2 O and K 4 P 2 O 7 under symmetrically pulsed current conditions. Coating properties were evaluated with regard to morphology, chemical composition, hardness and wear resistance. The addition of phosphates and silicates leads to an increasing substrate passivation and the growth of compact oxide layers with higher thicknesses. Optimal electrolyte compositions for maximum coating hardness and thickness were identified by statistical analysis. Under these conditions, a homogeneous inner layer with low porosity can be achieved. The frictional wear behavior of the compact coating layer is superior to a hard anodized layer on aluminum. (paper)

  3. Estimation of Oxidation Kinetics and Oxide Scale Void Position of Ferritic-Martensitic Steels in Supercritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Sun

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exfoliation of oxide scales from high-temperature heating surfaces of power boilers threatened the safety of supercritical power generating units. According to available space model, the oxidation kinetics of two ferritic-martensitic steels are developed to predict in supercritical water at 400°C, 500°C, and 600°C. The iron diffusion coefficients in magnetite and Fe-Cr spinel are extrapolated from studies of Backhaus and Töpfer. According to Fe-Cr-O ternary phase diagram, oxygen partial pressure at the steel/Fe-Cr spinel oxide interface is determined. The oxygen partial pressure at the magnetite/supercritical water interface meets the equivalent oxygen partial pressure when system equilibrium has been attained. The relative error between calculated values and experimental values is analyzed and the reasons of error are suggested. The research results show that the results of simulation at 600°C are approximately close to experimental results. The iron diffusion coefficient is discontinuous in the duplex scale of two ferritic-martensitic steels. The simulation results of thicknesses of the oxide scale on tubes (T91 of final superheater of a 600 MW supercritical boiler are compared with field measurement data and calculation results by Adrian’s method. The calculated void positions of oxide scales are in good agreement with a cross-sectional SEM image of the oxide layers.

  4. Correlation between active layer thickness and ambient gas stability in IGZO thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Xu; Mao, Bao-Hua; Wang, Sui-Dong; Lin, Meng-Fang; Shimizu, Maki; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Ou-Yang, Wei; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Nabatame, Toshihide; Liu, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Decreasing the active layer thickness has been recently reported as an alternative way to achieve fully depleted oxide thin-film transistors for the realization of low-voltage operations. However, the correlation between the active layer thickness and device resistivity to environmental changes is still unclear, which is important for the optimized design of oxide thin-film transistors. In this work, the ambient gas stability of IGZO thin-film transistors is found to be strongly correlated to the IGZO thickness. The TFT with the thinnest IGZO layer shows the highest intrinsic electron mobility in a vacuum, which is greatly reduced after exposure to O 2 /air. The device with a thick IGZO layer shows similar electron mobility in O 2 /air, whereas the mobility variation measured in the vacuum is absent. The thickness dependent ambient gas stability is attributed to a high-mobility region in the IGZO surface vicinity with less sputtering-induced damage, which will become electron depleted in O 2 /air due to the electron transfer to adsorbed gas molecules. The O 2 adsorption and deduced IGZO surface band bending is demonstrated by the ambient-pressure x-ray photoemission spectroscopy results. (paper)

  5. Synthesis and characterization of noble metal–titania core–shell nanostructures with tunable shell thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Bartosewicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Core–shell nanostructures have found applications in many fields, including surface enhanced spectroscopy, catalysis and solar cells. Titania-coated noble metal nanoparticles, which combine the surface plasmon resonance properties of the core and the photoactivity of the shell, have great potential for these applications. However, the controllable synthesis of such nanostructures remains a challenge due to the high reactivity of titania precursors. Hence, a simple titania coating method that would allow better control over the shell formation is desired. A sol–gel based titania coating method, which allows control over the shell thickness, was developed and applied to the synthesis of Ag@TiO2 and Au@TiO2 with various shell thicknesses. The morphology of the synthesized structures was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Their sizes and shell thicknesses were determined using tunable resistive pulse sensing (TRPS technique. The optical properties of the synthesized structures were characterized using UV–vis spectroscopy. Ag@TiO2 and Au@TiO2 structures with shell thickness in the range of ≈40–70 nm and 90 nm, for the Ag and Au nanostructures respectively, were prepared using a method we developed and adapted, consisting of a change in the titania precursor concentration. The synthesized nanostructures exhibited significant absorption in the UV–vis range. The TRPS technique was shown to be a very useful tool for the characterization of metal–metal oxide core–shell nanostructures.

  6. Formation of ZnO at zinc oxidation by near- and supercritical water under the constant electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, A. V.; Sokol, M. Ya.; Shatrova, A. V.; Fedyaeva, O. N.; Vostrikov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The work has detected an influence of a constant electric field (up to E = 300 kV/m) on the structure of a nanocrystalline layer of zinc oxide, formed on the surface of a planar zinc anode in water under supercritical (673 K and 23 MPa) and near-critical (673 K and 17. 5 MPa) conditions. The effect of an increase of zinc oxidation rate with an increase in E is observed under supercritical conditions and is absent at near-critical ones. Increase in the field strength leads to the formation of a looser structure in the inner part of the zinc oxide layer.

  7. The role of electric field during spray deposition on fluorine doped tin oxide film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Anuj, E-mail: anujkumarom@gmail.com; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh

    2014-03-05

    Highlights: • Fluorine doped tin oxide deposition by spray technique. • The growth reaction of tin oxide, controlled by the electric field on the substrate surface. • Deposit on large scale substrate 10 cm × 10 cm by single nozzle. • Obtained good quality of thin film. -- Abstract: The fluorine doped tin oxide film has been deposited on 10 cm × 10 cm glass substrate by using spray technique with a voltage applied between the nozzle and an annular electrode placed 2 mm below the nozzle. The effect of the electric field thus created during the spray deposition on structural, optical and electrical properties of SnO{sub 2}:F (FTO) film was studied. X-ray diffraction pattern revealed the presence of cassiterite structure with (2 0 0) orientation for all the FTO film. SEM study revealed the formation of smooth and uniform surface FTO film under the electric field over the entire substrate area. The electrical measurements show that the film prepared under the electric field (for an applied voltage of 2000 V) had a resistivity ∼1.2 × 10{sup −3} Ω cm, carrier concentration ∼4.21 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3} and mobility ∼14.48 cm{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}. The sprayed FTO film have the average transmission in the visible region of more than about 80%.

  8. A bend thickness sensitivity study of Candu feeder piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, M.; Aggarwal, M.L.; Meysner, A.; Micelotta, C.

    2005-01-01

    In CANDU reactors, feeder bends close to the connection at the fuel channel may be subjected to the highest Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) and stresses. Feeder pipe stress analysis is crucial in the life extension of aging CANDU plants. Typical feeder pipes are interconnected by upper link plates and spacers. It is well known that the stresses at the bends are sensitive to the local bend thicknesses. It is also known from the authors' study (Li and et al, 2005) that feeder inter linkage effect is significant and cannot be ignored. The field measurement of feeder bend thickness is difficult and may be subjected to uncertainty in accuracy. Hence, it is desirable to know how the stress on a subject feeder could be affected by the bend thickness variation of the neighboring feeders. This effect cannot be evaluated by the traditional 'single' feeder model approach. In this paper, the 'row' and 'combined' models developed in the previous study (Li and et al, 2005), which include the feeder interactions, are used to investigate the sensitivity of bend thickness. A series of random thickness bounded by maximum and minimum measured values were applied to feeders in the model. The results show that an individual feeder is not sensitive to the bend thickness variation of the remaining feeders in the model, but depends primarily on its own bend thickness. The highest stress at a feeder always occurs when the feeder has the smallest possible bend thickness. A minimum acceptable bend thickness for individual feeders can be computed by an iterative computing process. The dependency of field thickness measurement and the amount of required analysis work can be greatly reduced. (authors)

  9. Ultrathin Oxide Passivation Layer by Rapid Thermal Oxidation for the Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngseok Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to deposit extremely thin a-Si:H layer in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT solar cell due to thermal damage and tough process control. This study aims to understand oxide passivation mechanism of silicon surface using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO process by examining surface effective lifetime and surface recombination velocity. The presence of thin insulating a-Si:H layer is the key to get high Voc by lowering the leakage current (I0 which improves the efficiency of HIT solar cell. The ultrathin thermal passivation silicon oxide (SiO2 layer was deposited by RTO system in the temperature range 500–950°C for 2 to 6 minutes. The thickness of the silicon oxide layer was affected by RTO annealing temperature and treatment time. The best value of surface recombination velocity was recorded for the sample treated at a temperature of 850°C for 6 minutes at O2 flow rate of 3 Lpm. A surface recombination velocity below 25 cm/s was obtained for the silicon oxide layer of 4 nm thickness. This ultrathin SiO2 layer was employed for the fabrication of HIT solar cell structure instead of a-Si:H, (i layer and the passivation and tunneling effects of the silicon oxide layer were exploited. The photocurrent was decreased with the increase of illumination intensity and SiO2 thickness.

  10. Chip-scale fluorescence microscope based on a silo-filter complementary metal-oxide semiconductor image sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ah Lee, Seung; Ou, Xiaoze; Lee, J Eugene; Yang, Changhuei

    2013-06-01

    We demonstrate a silo-filter (SF) complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) image sensor for a chip-scale fluorescence microscope. The extruded pixel design with metal walls between neighboring pixels guides fluorescence emission through the thick absorptive filter to the photodiode of a pixel. Our prototype device achieves 13 μm resolution over a wide field of view (4.8 mm × 4.4 mm). We demonstrate bright-field and fluorescence longitudinal imaging of living cells in a compact, low-cost configuration.

  11. Estimation of methane and nitrous oxide emission from paddy fields and uplands during 1990-2000 in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangshyng Yang; Chungming Liu; Yenlan Liu; Chaoming Lai

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the greenhouse gases emissions from paddy fields and uplands, methane and nitrous oxide emissions were estimated from local measurement and the IPCC guidelines during 1990-2000 in Taiwan. Annual methane emission from 182 807 to 242 298 ha of paddy field in the first crop season ranged from 8062 to 12 066 ton, and it was between 16 261 and 25 007 ton for 144 178-211 968 ha in the second crop season with local measurement. The value ranged from 12 132 to 17 465 ton, and from 16 046 to 24 762 ton of methane in the first and second crop season with the IPCC guidelines for multiple aeration treatments, respectively. Annual nitrous oxide emission was between 472 and 670 ton and between 236 and 359 ton in the first and second crop season, respectively. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions from uplands depend on crop, growth season, fertilizer application and environmental conditions. Annual methane emission from upland crops, vegetable, fruit, ornamental plants, forage crops and green manure crops was 138-252, 412-460, 97-100, 3-5, 4-5 and 3-51 ton, respectively. Annual nitrous oxide emission was 1080-1976, 1784-1994, 2540-2622, 31-54, 43-53 and 38-582 ton, respectively. Annual nitrous oxide emission ranged from 91 to 132 ton for 77 593-112 095 ton of nitrogen-fixing crops, from 991 to 1859 ton for 325 9731-6 183 441 ton of non-nitrogen-fixing crops, and from 1.77 to 2.22 Gg for 921 169-1 172 594 ton of chemical fertilizer application. In addition, rice hull burning emitted 19.3-24.2 ton of methane and 17.2-21.5 ton of nitrous oxide, and corn stalk burning emitted 2.1-4.2 ton of methane and 1.9-3.8 ton of nitrous oxide. Methane emission from the agriculture sector was 26 421-37 914 ton, and nitrous oxide emission was 9810-11 649 ton during 1990-2000 in Taiwan. Intermittent irrigation in paddy fields reduces significantly methane emission; appropriate application of nitrogen fertilization and irrigation in uplands and paddy fields also decreases nitrous oxide

  12. Influence of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuterio, Giselle Lou D.; Pajarito, Bryan B.; Domingo, Carla Marie C.; Lim, Anna Patricia G.

    2016-05-01

    Functional, lightweight, strong and cheap plastic bags incorporated with pro-oxidants undergo accelerated degradation under exposure to heat and oxygen. This work investigated the effect of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of commercial oxo-biodegradable plastic bag films at 70 °C. Degradation is monitored through changes in infrared absorption, weight, and tensile properties of thermally aged films. The presence of carbonyl band in infrared spectrum after 672 h of thermal aging supports the degradation behavior of exposed films. Results show that incorporation of colorant and increasing thickness exhibit low maximum weight uptake. Titanium dioxide as white colorant in films lowers the susceptibility of films to oxygen uptake but enhances physical degradation. Higher amount of pro-oxidant loading also contributes to faster degradation. Opaque films are characterized by low tensile strength and high elastic modulus. Decreasing the thickness contributes to lower tensile strength of films. Thermally aged films with colorant and low thickness promote enhanced degradation.

  13. Modelling of oxidation and hydriding behaviour of Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes in PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, D.N.; Sunil Kumar; Khan, K.B.

    2002-01-01

    A computer model named DOCTOR (Deuteriding of Coolant Tubes during Operation of Reactor) has been developed for predicting the axial profile of oxide thickness and hydrogen (Deuterium) concentration in PHWR pressure tubes. This model is applicable to single channel or full core analysis. The main source of hydrogen is considered to be oxidation of pressure tube on the i.d. surface by high temperature coolant water. Three stages of oxidation is considered namely, pre- transition, post transition and accelerated. Oxidation rate is considered to be dependent on channel power, axial power/flux distribution, coolant temperature and pre-existing oxide thickness at the location. The kinetics parameters for oxidation model are derived from the actual measurement of oxide thickness on a number of pressure tubes examined in PIE Division. The input data required for the model are: channel power, channel power factor, axial flux distribution, coolant inlet temperature, critical oxide thickness, hydrogen pick up fraction, initial hydrogen in the material and time of operation (efpy). The model calculates the oxide layer thickness on the inside surface of the pressure tube along the length. The amount of hydrogen picked up by the pressure tube is calculated from the oxide thickness using hydrogen pick up fraction determined from the PIE data. The pressure tube length is divided into a number of axial segments for calculation. The temperature and fast neutron flux assumed to be constant in a given segment. The axial temperature profile calculated from the axial power profile in the channel is used for calculating the oxidation rate at various locations in the pressure tube. The model has been validated with PIE data of hydrogen equivalent measurement on a number of irradiated Zircaloy-2 pressure tubes of various PHWRs. The performance of the model in predicting the axial profile of hydrogen in the pressure tubes has been found to be good. (author)

  14. Non-contact Measurement of Remaining Thickness of Corroding Superheater Tubes. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borggreen, Kjeld; Storesund, Jan

    2006-10-15

    Corrosion of superheaters has become a severe problem in many biomass boilers and incineration plants. This new situation calls for frequent tube wall thickness testing of the superheaters during very short shut-downs. To meet this demand Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) candidates as substitute for conventional manually operated contact UT-transducers. The EMAT can contactlessly generate an ultrasonic wave in the interphase between the external oxide and the metal. This means that measurements can be undertaken much quicker and with a much higher coverage simultaneously, without preceding blast operations. It is the aim of the project to demonstrate the usefulness of two simple EMAT systems, Panametrics and Sonatest, for fast and reliable tube thickness inspections in difficult-to-access superheater sections. The present Phase 1 of the project involves testing of the performance of the two systems in laboratory with the following results: 1. Both instruments work well on plate, tube, and pipe samples assuming the presence of an external oxide layer formed at a temperature above approximately 400 deg C. 2. Both instruments work well on all types of ferritic and martensitic steels but not on austenitic steels. 3. Both instruments work well independent of the thickness of the active oxide layer. 4. Both instruments work well independent of tube diameter, wall thickness, and sample width. 5. Both instruments work well over a very large range of wall thicknesses. Minimum tube wall thickness is less than 1.8 mm. 6. The tolerable lift-off (free distance between transducer and tube surface) is 2.4 - 3.0 mm for Panametrics system and 3.6 - 4.8 mm for Sonatest's system. The tolerable lift-off is a measure of the thickness of ash deposits, which can be tolerated on the tube surface as well as the misplacement, which can be tolerated in case of remote tube testing. 7. The tolerable off-set between tube axis and probe axis is very large for both instruments (10

  15. Differential reflectometry of thin film metal oxides on copper, tungsten, molybdenum and chromium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, F.K. III; Hummel, R.E.; Verink, E.D. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    A differential reflectometry study was undertaken to investigate the characteristics of thin oxide films on metal substrates. The oxides were produced by heating pure metals of copper, tungsten, molybdenum and chromium in dry oxygen. A new 'halfpolishing' technique was applied to obtain specimens with a step in oxide thickness in order to make them suitable for differential reflectometry. It was found that oxides formed this way yielded the same differential reflectograms as by electrochemical oxidation. A mathematical model involving the interaction of light with a thin corrosion product on metal substrates was applied to generate computer calculated differential reflectograms utilizing various optical constants and thicknesses of the assumed film. Three different thickness ranges have been identified. (a) For large film thicknesses, the differential reflectograms are distinguished by a sequence of interference peaks. (b) If the product of thickness and refraction index of the films is smaller than about 40 nm, no interference peaks are present. Any experimentally observed peaks in differential reflectograms of these films are caused entirely by electron interband transitions. (c) In an intermediate thickness range, superposition of interference and interband peaks are observed. (author)

  16. Growth and characterization of thick cBN coatings on silicon and tool substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bewilogua, K.; Keunecke, M.; Weigel, K.; Wiemann, E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently some research groups have achieved progress in the deposition of cubic boron nitride (cBN) coatings with a thickness of 2 μm and more, which is necessary for cutting tool applications. In our laboratory, thick cBN coatings were sputter deposited on silicon substrates using a boron carbide target. Following a boron carbide interlayer (few 100 nm thick), a gradient layer with continuously increasing nitrogen content was prepared. After the cBN nucleation, the process parameters were modified for the cBN film growth to a thickness of more than 2 μm. However, the transfer of this technology to technically relevant substrates, like cemented carbide cutting inserts, required some further process modifications. At first, a titanium interlayer had to be deposited followed by a more than 1-μm-thick boron carbide layer. The next steps were identical to those on silicon substrates. The total coating thickness was in the range of 3 μm with a 0.5- to nearly 1-μm-thick cBN top layer. In spite of the enormous intrinsic stress, both the coatings on silicon and on cemented carbide exhibited a good adhesion and a prolonged stability in humid air. Oxidation experiments revealed a stability of the coating system on cemented carbide up to 700 deg. C and higher. Coated cutting inserts were tested in turning operations with different metallic workpiece materials. The test results will be compared to those of well-established cutting materials, like polycrystalline cubic boron nitride (PCBN) and oxide ceramics, considering the wear of coated tools

  17. High-performance carbon-nanotube-based complementary field-effect-transistors and integrated circuits with yttrium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Shibo; Zhang, Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@pku.edu.cn; Si, Jia; Zhong, Donglai; Peng, Lian-Mao, E-mail: lmpeng@pku.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices, Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2014-08-11

    High-performance p-type carbon nanotube (CNT) transistors utilizing yttrium oxide as gate dielectric are presented by optimizing oxidization and annealing processes. Complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) field-effect-transistors (FETs) are then fabricated on CNTs, and the p- and n-type devices exhibit symmetrical high performances, especially with low threshold voltage near to zero. The corresponding CMOS CNT inverter is demonstrated to operate at an ultra-low supply voltage down to 0.2 V, while displaying sufficient voltage gain, high noise margin, and low power consumption. Yttrium oxide is proven to be a competitive gate dielectric for constructing high-performance CNT CMOS FETs and integrated circuits.

  18. Contact Selectivity Engineering in a 2 μm Thick Ultrathin c-Si Solar Cell Using Transition-Metal Oxides Achieving an Efficiency of 10.8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Muyu; Islam, Raisul; Meng, Andrew C; Lyu, Zheng; Lu, Ching-Ying; Tae, Christian; Braun, Michael R; Zang, Kai; McIntyre, Paul C; Kamins, Theodore I; Saraswat, Krishna C; Harris, James S

    2017-12-06

    In this paper, the integration of metal oxides as carrier-selective contacts for ultrathin crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells is demonstrated which results in an ∼13% relative improvement in efficiency. The improvement in efficiency originates from the suppression of the contact recombination current due to the band offset asymmetry of these oxides with Si. First, an ultrathin c-Si solar cell having a total thickness of 2 μm is shown to have >10% efficiency without any light-trapping scheme. This is achieved by the integration of nickel oxide (NiO x ) as a hole-selective contact interlayer material, which has a low valence band offset and high conduction band offset with Si. Second, we show a champion cell efficiency of 10.8% with the additional integration of titanium oxide (TiO x ), a well-known material for an electron-selective contact interlayer. Key parameters including V oc and J sc also show different degrees of enhancement if single (NiO x only) or double (both NiO x and TiO x ) carrier-selective contacts are integrated. The fabrication process for TiO x and NiO x layer integration is scalable and shows good compatibility with the device.

  19. Cation incorporation into zirconium oxide in LiOH, NaOH, and KOH solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y.H.; Kim, K.H.; Baek, J.H.

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the cation incorporation into zirconium oxide, SIMS analysis was performed on the specimens prepared to have an equal oxide thickness in LiOH, NaOH, and KOH solutions. Even though they have an equal oxide thickness in LiOH, NaOH, and KOH solutions, the penetration depth of cation into the oxide decreased with an increase in the ionic radius of cation. The cation is considered to control the corrosion in alkali hydroxide solutions and its effect is dependent on the concentration of alkali and the oxide thickness. The slight enhancement of the corrosion rate at a low concentration is thought to be caused by cation incorporation into oxide, while the significant acceleration at a high concentration is due to the transformation of oxide microstructures that would be also induced by cation incorporation into oxide. (orig.)

  20. Online Coupling of Flow-Field Flow Fractionation and Single Particle Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry: Characterization of Nanoparticle Surface Coating Thickness and Aggregation State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface coating thickness and aggregation state have strong influence on the environmental fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanomaterials. In this study, flow-field flow fractionation coupled on-line with single particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry i...

  1. The effect of crystal textures on the anodic oxidization of zirconium in a boiling nitric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Chiaki; Ishijima, Yasuhiro; Ueno, Fumiyoshi; Yamamoto, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The effects of crystal textures and the potentials in the anodic oxidation of zirconium in a boiling nitric acid solution were investigated to study the stress corrosion cracking of zirconium in nitric acid solutions. The test specimen was machined such that the specimen surface was parallel to the rolling surface, arranged with a (0002) crystal texture. The potentials applied for the anodic oxidation of zirconium were set at 1.2, 1.4, and 1.5 V against a saturated KCl–Ag/AgCl electrode (SSE) in boiling 6 M HNO_3. The growth of the zirconium oxide film dramatically changed depending on the applied potential at a closed depassivation potential (1.47 V vs. SSE in this study). At 1.5 V, the zirconium oxide film rapidly grows, and its growth exhibits cyclic oxidation kinetics in accordance with a nearly cubic rate law. The zirconium oxide film grows according to the quantity of electric charge and the growth rate does not depend on the crystal texture in the pretransition region before the cyclic oxidation kinetics. However, the growth and cracking under the thick oxide film depend on the crystal texture in the transition region. On the normal direction side, the oxide film thickness decreases on average since some areas of the thick oxide film are separated from the specimen surface owing to the cracks in the thick oxide. On the rolling direction (RD) side, no cracks in the thick oxide film are observed, but cracks are found under the thick oxide film, which deeply propagate in metal matrix along the RD without an external stress. The cracks under the thick oxide film propagate to the center of the oxide layer. The crystal orientation relationship between the oxide layer and the zirconium matrix is (0002)_Z_r//(111)_Z_r_O_2, and the cracks in the oxide layer propagate in the (0002)_Z_r plane in the zirconium matrix. The oxide layer consists of string-like zirconium oxide and zirconium hydride. The string-like zirconium oxide contains orthorhombic ZrO_2 in addition

  2. Oxidative damage markers are significantly associated with the carotid artery intima-media thickness after controlling for conventional risk factors of atherosclerosis in men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ha Yoon

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the association between oxidative damage markers and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT after controlling for conventional risk factors of atherosclerosis in multiple logistic regression models.Fifty-one case male participants (CIMT ≥ 0.9 mm were enrolled during their visits to Korean Genomic Rural Cohort Study of Wonju centers between May 1 and August 31, 2011, along with 51 control participants (CIMT < 0.9 mm selected using frequency matching by age group. The levels of oxidative damage markers, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyquuanosine (8-OHdG, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (Isoprostane, were measured. Conditional logistic regression models were used to evaluate relative relationships between the oxidative damage markers and the risk of high CIMT.The markers of oxidative lipid (Isoprostane and MDA and DNA (8-OHdG damage were associated with CIMT after controlling for the conventional risk factors, including age, low density lipoprotein, body mass index, smoking history, alcohol consumption, and metabolic syndrome (ORs [95% CI] for Isoprostane: 3rd tertile, 8.47 [2.59-27.67]; for MDA: 3rd tertile, 8.47 [2.59-27.67]; for 8-OHdG: 3rd tertile, 5.58 [1.79-17.33]. When all the oxidative damage markers were incorporated in the same logistic regression model, only Isoprostane was significantly related to CIMT (OR [95% CI]: 4.22 [1.31-13.53] in 2nd tertile and 14.21 [3.34-60.56] in 3rd tertile.In this nested case-control study, the oxidative damage markers of lipid and DNA were associated with CIMT even after controlling for the conventional risk factors of cardiovascular diseases.

  3. Soft Sensor for Oxide Scales on the Steam Side of Superheater Tubes under Uneven Circumferential Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wei Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A soft sensor for oxide scales on the steam side of superheater tubes of utility boiler under uneven circumferential loading is proposed for the first time. First finite volume method is employed to simulate oxide scales growth temperature on the steam side of superheater tube. Then appropriate time and spatial intervals are selected to calculate oxide scales thickness along the circumferential direction. On the basis of the oxide scale thickness, the stress of oxide scales is calculated by the finite element method. At last, the oxide scale thickness and stress sensors are established on support vector machine (SMV optimized by particle swarm optimization (PSO with time and circumferential angles as inputs and oxide scale thickness and stress as outputs. Temperature and stress calculation methods are validated by the operation data and experimental data, respectively. The soft sensor is applied to the superheater tubes of some power plant. Results show that the soft sensor can give enough accurate results for oxide scale thickness and stress in reasonable time. The forecasting model provides a convenient way for the research of the oxide scale failure.

  4. Effect of diffusion on percolation threshold in thick-film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurakhmanov, G.

    2009-01-01

    Resistivity ρ(C) of thick-film resistors doped by metal oxides is simulated as a function of volume content C of the ligature, firing temperature T f and firing time τ. It is proved that the doping of a glass during firing of the thick film resistor is rather uniform. It is shown also, that conductance takes place in the whole volume of the sample, but not through the sole infinite cluster only, even the content of a conductive phase is below than the theoretical percolation threshold value.

  5. Effect of thickness on silicon solar cell efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, C.-T.; Yamakawa, K. A.; Lutwack, R.

    1982-01-01

    A computer-aided-design study on the dependence of the efficiency peak of a back-surface field solar cell on the concentrations of the recombination and dopant impurities is presented. The illuminated current-voltage characteristics of more than 100 cell designs are obtained using the transmission line circuit model to numerically solve the Shockley equations. Using an AM 1 efficiency of 17% as a target value, it is shown that the efficiency versus thickness dependence has a broad maximum which varies by less than 1% over more than a three-to-one range of cell thicknesses from 30 to 100 microns. An optically reflecting back surface will give only a slight improvement of AM 1 efficiency, about 0.7%, in this thickness range. Attention is given to the dependence of the efficiency on patchiness across the back-surface field low-high junction in thin cells.

  6. Field studies of HT oxidation and dispersion in the environment. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    The environmental dispersion and oxidation of a controlled atmospheric release of tritiated hydrogen (HT) was studied in a pilot-scale field experiment. This study was designed to test procedures and obtain preliminary results for planning a more intensive experiment to determine the environmental behaviour of HT with emphasis on the processes leading to the appearance of HTO in the atmosphere, ie., conversion, deposition and resuspension. Field observations led to the following conclusions: 1) no evidence was found for the rapid conversion of HT to HTO in the atmosphere, 2) observations support the hypothesis that the dominant process giving rise to the observed HTO in air was HT oxidation in the soil by microbial action followed by resuspension of HTO, 3) HT deposition velocities to soil ranged between 0.041 cm/s and 0.13 cm/s, consistent with previous chamber measurements, 4) the rate of HTO loss from soil, averaged over 21 days, was less than 1% per hour, and 5) vegetation HTO concentrations initially increased with time then by 48 hours decreased exponentially at a rate similar to soils. These results will be validated and extended by the intensive experiment scheduled for June, 1987

  7. Investigation on steam oxidation behaviour of TP347H FG Part I Exposure at 256 bar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jianmin, J; Montgomery, Melanie; Larsen, OH

    2005-01-01

    with the aforementioned steel in coal-fired boilers and this paper focuses on the steam oxidation behaviour for specimens tested at various metal temperatures for exposure times of 7700, 23000 and 30000 hours as investigated by light optical and scanning electron microscopy. The oxide present on the specimens is a duplex......The stainless steel TP347H FG is a candidate material for the final stage tubing of superheater and reheater sections of ultra supercritical boilers operated at steam temperatures up to 620C in the mild corrosion environments of coal-firing. A series of field tests has been conducted...... oxide, where the outer layer consists of two sub-layers, an iron oxide layer and an iron-nickel oxide layer; the inner layer is chromium rich chromium-iron-nickel oxide. Microstructure examination showed that for all these samples the varying grain size of subsurface metal affected the oxide thickness...

  8. Method Evaluation And Field Sample Measurements For The Rate Of Movement Of The Oxidation Front In Saltstone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, P. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Kaplan, D. I. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Langton, C. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Stefanko, D. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Spencer, W. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Hatfield, A. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States); Arai, Y. [Clemson University, Clemson, SC (United States)

    2012-08-23

    The objective of this work was to develop and evaluate a series of methods and validate their capability to measure differences in oxidized versus reduced saltstone. Validated methods were then applied to samples cured under field conditions to simulate Performance Assessment (PA) needs for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Four analytical approaches were evaluated using laboratory-cured saltstone samples. These methods were X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), chemical redox indicators, and thin-section leaching methods. XAS and thin-section leaching methods were validated as viable methods for studying oxidation movement in saltstone. Each method used samples that were spiked with chromium (Cr) as a tracer for oxidation of the saltstone. The two methods were subsequently applied to field-cured samples containing chromium to characterize the oxidation state of chromium as a function of distance from the exposed air/cementitious material surface.

  9. Earthworms can increase nitrous oxide emissions from managed grassland: a field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbers, I.M.; López González, E.; Hummelink, E.W.J.; Groenigen, van J.W.

    2013-01-01

    Earthworms are important in determining the greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of soils. In laboratory studies they have been shown to increase emissions of the potent GHG nitrous oxide (N2O). Here we test whether these earthworm-induced N2O emissions also occur in the field. We quantified N2O emissions

  10. Highly conductive grain boundaries in copper oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deuermeier, Jonas, E-mail: j.deuermeier@campus.fct.unl.pt [Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, i3N/CENIMAT, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Department of Materials and Earth Sciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Wardenga, Hans F.; Morasch, Jan; Siol, Sebastian; Klein, Andreas, E-mail: aklein@surface.tu-darmstadt.de [Department of Materials and Earth Sciences, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Jovanka-Bontschits-Straße 2, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Nandy, Suman; Calmeiro, Tomás; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira [Department of Materials Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, i3N/CENIMAT, Universidade NOVA de Lisboa and CEMOP/UNINOVA, Campus de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-06-21

    High conductivity in the off-state and low field-effect mobility compared to bulk properties is widely observed in the p-type thin-film transistors of Cu{sub 2}O, especially when processed at moderate temperature. This work presents results from in situ conductance measurements at thicknesses from sub-nm to around 250 nm with parallel X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. An enhanced conductivity at low thickness is explained by the occurrence of Cu(II), which is segregated in the grain boundary and locally causes a conductivity similar to CuO, although the surface of the thick film has Cu{sub 2}O stoichiometry. Since grains grow with an increasing film thickness, the effect of an apparent oxygen excess is most pronounced in vicinity to the substrate interface. Electrical properties of Cu{sub 2}O grains are at least partially short-circuited by this effect. The study focuses on properties inherent to copper oxide, although interface effects cannot be ruled out. This non-destructive, bottom-up analysis reveals phenomena which are commonly not observable after device fabrication, but clearly dominate electrical properties of polycrystalline thin films.

  11. An Overview of High-k Oxides on Hydrogenated-Diamond for Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitors and Field-Effect Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangwei Liu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to its excellent intrinsic properties, diamond is promising for applications of high-power electronic devices, ultraviolet detectors, biosensors, high-temperature tolerant gas sensors, etc. Here, an overview of high-k oxides on hydrogenated-diamond (H-diamond for metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS capacitors and MOS field-effect transistors (MOSFETs is demonstrated. Fabrication routines for the H-diamond MOS capacitors and MOSFETs, band configurations of oxide/H-diamond heterointerfaces, and electrical properties of the MOS and MOSFETs are summarized and discussed. High-k oxide insulators are deposited using atomic layer deposition (ALD and sputtering deposition (SD techniques. Electrical properties of the H-diamond MOS capacitors with high-k oxides of ALD-Al2O3, ALD-HfO2, ALD-HfO2/ALD-Al2O3 multilayer, SD-HfO2/ALD-HfO2 bilayer, SD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3 bilayer, and ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3 bilayer are discussed. Analyses for capacitance-voltage characteristics of them show that there are low fixed and trapped charge densities for the ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond and SD-HfO2/ALD-HfO2/H-diamond MOS capacitors. The k value of 27.2 for the ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3 bilayer is larger than those of the other oxide insulators. Drain-source current versus voltage curves show distinct pitch-off and p-type channel characteristics for the ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond, SD-HfO2/ALD-HfO2/H-diamond, and ALD-TiO2/ALD-Al2O3/H-diamond MOSFETs. Understanding of fabrication routines and electrical properties for the high-k oxide/H-diamond MOS electronic devices is meaningful for the fabrication of high-performance H-diamond MOS capacitor and MOSFET gas sensors.

  12. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garwin, Edward L.; Nyaiesh, Ali R.

    1988-01-01

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  13. Homo-junction ferroelectric field-effect-transistor memory device using solution-processed lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.; Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Bhansali, Unnat. S.; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2012-01-01

    High performance homo-junction field-effect transistor memory devices were prepared using solution processed transparent lithium-doped zinc oxide thin films for both the ferroelectric and semiconducting active layers. A highest field-effect mobility

  14. Gold nanoparticle plasmon resonance in near-field coupled Au NPs layer/Al film nanostructure: Dependence on metal film thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshchenko, Oleg A.; Kozachenko, Viktor V.; Naumenko, Antonina P.; Berezovska, Nataliya I.; Kutsevol, Nataliya V.; Chumachenko, Vasyl A.; Haftel, Michael; Pinchuk, Anatoliy O.

    2018-05-01

    We study the effects of coupling between plasmonic metal nanoparticles and a thin metal film by using light extinction spectroscopy. A planar monolayer of gold nanoparticles located near an aluminum thin film (thicknesses within the range of 0-62 nm) was used to analyze the coupling between the monolayer and the thin metal film. SPR peak area increase for polymer coated Au NPs, non-monotonical behavior of the peak area for bare Au NPs, as well as red shift and broadening of SPR at the increase of the Al film thickness have been observed. These effects are rationalized as a result of coupling of the layer of Au NPs with Al film through the field of localized surface plasmons in Au NPs that causes the excitation of collective plasmonic gap mode in the nanostructure. An additional mechanism for bare Au NPs is the non-radiative damping of SPR that is caused by the electrical contact between metal NPs and film.

  15. Niobium oxide nanocolumns formed via anodic alumina with modulated pore diameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pligovka, A.; Zakhlebayeva, A.; Lazavenka, A.

    2018-03-01

    Niobium oxide nanocolumns with modulated diameters were formed for the first time. An Al/Nb bilayer specimen was prepared by successive sputter-deposition of 300 nm niobium layer and 1200 nm aluminum layer onto silicon wafer. Regular anodic alumina matrix with modulated pore diameters was formed by sequential anodization of initial specimen in tartaric acid at 180 V, and in oxalic acid at 37 V. Further potentiodynamic reanodization of the specimen up to 400 V causes the simultaneous growth of 440 nm continuous niobium oxide layer beneath the alumina film and two types of an array of oxide nanocolumns (thick – with 100 nm width and 630 nm high and thin – with 25 nm width and 170 nm high), which are the filling of the alumina pores. The morphology of the formed anodic niobium oxide nanocolumns with modulated diameters was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy. The formed nanostructures can be used for perspective devices of nano- and optoelectronics such as photonic crystals.

  16. Magnetic property zonation in a thick lava flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audunsson, Haraldur; Levi, Shaul; Hodges, Floyd

    1992-04-01

    Intraflow structures and magmatic evolution in an extensive and thick (30-60 m) basaltic lava flow are examined on the basis of grain size and composition-dependent magnetic properties of titanomagnetite materials. Microprobe data indicate that the intraflow oxidation state Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) of the initially precipitated primary titanomagnetites increases with falling equilibrium temperature from the flow margins to a maximum near the center, the position of lowest equilibrium temperature. In contrast, Curie temperature measurements indicate that titanomagnetite oxidation increases with height in the flow. Modification of the initially symmetric equilibrium titanomagnetite compositions was caused by subsolidus high-temperature oxidation possibly due to hydrogen loss produced by dissociation of magmatic water, as well as unknown contributions of circulating air and percolating water from above. The titanomagnetites of the basal layer of the flow remain essentially unaltered.

  17. Improvement of thick a-Si radiation detectors by field profile tailoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drewery, J.S.; Cho, G.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Mireshghi, A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Wildermuth, D.

    1992-04-01

    Application of thick (∼50 μm) a-Si p-i-n diodes as a direct radiation detector for minimum ionizing particles is hampered by the need to apply large bias voltages in order fully to deplete the detecting intrinsic layer, which typically contains 5 - 10 x 10 14 ionizable dangling bonds per CM 3 . By insertion of thin p-type layers at intervals within the intrinsic layer, the required depletion voltage can be reduced by a factor of at least 1/(n+l) where n is the number of layers inserted. This principle is demonstrated for devices approximately 12μm in thickness. It is shown that electron losses within the p type layer can be kept to minimum by choice of a low doping concentration for the introduced players

  18. Multimillion atom simulations of dynamics of oxidation of an aluminum nanoparticle and nanoindentation on ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vashishta, Priya; Kalia, Rajiv K; Nakano, Aiichiro

    2006-03-02

    We have developed a first-principles-based hierarchical simulation framework, which seamlessly integrates (1) a quantum mechanical description based on the density functional theory (DFT), (2) multilevel molecular dynamics (MD) simulations based on a reactive force field (ReaxFF) that describes chemical reactions and polarization, a nonreactive force field that employs dynamic atomic charges, and an effective force field (EFF), and (3) an atomistically informed continuum model to reach macroscopic length scales. For scalable hierarchical simulations, we have developed parallel linear-scaling algorithms for (1) DFT calculation based on a divide-and-conquer algorithm on adaptive multigrids, (2) chemically reactive MD based on a fast ReaxFF (F-ReaxFF) algorithm, and (3) EFF-MD based on a space-time multiresolution MD (MRMD) algorithm. On 1920 Intel Itanium2 processors, we have demonstrated 1.4 million atom (0.12 trillion grid points) DFT, 0.56 billion atom F-ReaxFF, and 18.9 billion atom MRMD calculations, with parallel efficiency as high as 0.953. Through the use of these algorithms, multimillion atom MD simulations have been performed to study the oxidation of an aluminum nanoparticle. Structural and dynamic correlations in the oxide region are calculated as well as the evolution of charges, surface oxide thickness, diffusivities of atoms, and local stresses. In the microcanonical ensemble, the oxidizing reaction becomes explosive in both molecular and atomic oxygen environments, due to the enormous energy release associated with Al-O bonding. In the canonical ensemble, an amorphous oxide layer of a thickness of approximately 40 angstroms is formed after 466 ps, in good agreement with experiments. Simulations have been performed to study nanoindentation on crystalline, amorphous, and nanocrystalline silicon nitride and silicon carbide. Simulation on nanocrystalline silicon carbide reveals unusual deformation mechanisms in brittle nanophase materials, due to

  19. Electromagnetic fields created by a beam in an axisymmetric infinitely thick single-layer resistive pipe: general formulas and low frequency approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Mounet, Nicolas Frank; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2015-01-01

    This note provides general and approximate formulas for the electromagnetic fields created by a passing beam in an axisymmetric infinitely thick resistive pipe made of a single homogeneous layer. The full derivations and their resulting approximate expressions at low and intermediate frequencies are given here, as well as the conditions under which those approximations are valid. Beam-coupling impedances are also computed, and examples are shown.

  20. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and magnetization dynamics in oxidized CoFeAl films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Di; Zhang, Zhe; Li, Le; Zhang, Zongzhi; Zhao, H. B.; Wang, J.; Ma, B.; Jin, Q. Y.

    2015-07-01

    Half-metallic Co-based full-Heusler alloys with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA), such as Co2FeAl in contact with MgO, are receiving increased attention recently due to its full spin polarization for high density memory applications. However, the PMA induced by MgO interface can only be realized for very thin magnetic layers (usually below 1.3 nm), which would have strong adverse effects on the material properties of spin polarization, Gilbert damping parameter, and magnetic stability. In order to solve this issue, we fabricated oxidized Co50Fe25Al25 (CFAO) films with proper thicknesses without employing the MgO layer. The samples show controllable PMA by tuning the oxygen pressure (PO2) and CFAO thickness (tCFAO), large perpendicular anisotropy field of ~8.0 kOe can be achieved at PO2 = 12% for the sample of tCFAO = 2.1 nm or at PO2 = 7% for tCFAO = 2.8 nm. The loss of PMA at thick tCFAO or high PO2 results mainly from the formation of large amount of CoFe oxides, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature but become hard magnetic at low temperatures. The magnetic CFAO films, with strong PMA in a relatively wide thickness range and small intrinsic damping parameter below 0.028, would find great applications in developing advanced spintronic devices.

  1. Thermal behavior variations in coating thickness using pulse phase thermography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjit, Shrestha; Chung, Yoonjae; Kim, Won Tae [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents a study on the use of pulsed phase thermography in the measurement of thermal barrier coating thickness with a numerical simulation. A multilayer heat transfer model was used to analyze the surface temperature response acquired from one-sided pulsed thermal imaging. The test sample comprised four layers: the metal substrate, bond coat, thermally grown oxide and the top coat. The finite element software, ANSYS, was used to model and predict the temperature distribution in the test sample under an imposed heat flux on the exterior of the TBC. The phase image was computed with the use of the software MATLAB and Thermofit Pro using a Fourier transform. The relationship between the coating thickness and the corresponding phase angle was then established with the coating thickness being expressed as a function of the phase angle. The method is successfully applied to measure the coating thickness that varied from 0.25 mm to 1.5 mm.

  2. Inductive crystal field control in layered metal oxides with correlated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, P. V.; Cammarata, A.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the NiO 6 crystal field energies can be tailored indirectly via heterovalent A cation ordering in layered (La,A)NiO 4 Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) oxides, where A = Sr, Ca, or Ba, using density functional calculations. We leverage as a driving force the electrostatic interactions between charged [LaO] 1+ and neutral [AO] 0 planes to inductively tune the Ni–O bond distortions, without intentional doping or epitaxial strain, altering the correlated d-orbital energies. We use this strategy to design cation ordered LaCaNiO 4 and LaBaNiO 4 with distortions favoring enhanced Ni e g orbital polarization, and find local electronic structure signatures analogous to those in RP La-cuprates, i.e., parent phases of the high-temperature superconducting oxides

  3. Micro-length anodic porous niobium oxide for lithium-ion thin film battery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jeong Eun; Park, Jiyoung; Cha, Gihoon; Choi, Jinsub

    2013-01-01

    The anodization of niobium in an aqueous mixture of H 3 PO 4 and HF in the potential range from 2.5 to 30 V for 2 h at 5 °C was performed, demonstrating that anodic porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of up to 2000 nm, including a surface dissolution layer, can be obtained by controlling the applied potential and composition of the electrolytes. Specifically, surface dissolution-free porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of 800 nm can be prepared in a low electrolyte concentration. The surface dissolution is observed when the concentration ratio of HF (wt.%):H 3 PO 4 (M) was more than 2:1. The discontinuous layers in the niobium oxide film were observed when the thickness was higher than 500 nm, which was ascribed to the large volume expansion of the niobium oxide grown from the niobium metal. The anodic porous niobium oxide film was used as the cathode for lithium-ion batteries in the potential range from 1.2 to 3.0 V at a current density of 7.28 × 10 − 6 A cm −2 . The first discharge capacity of ca. 53 μA h cm − 2 was obtained in 800 nm thick niobium oxide without a surface dissolution layer. - Highlights: ► Anodic porous niobium oxide film with a thickness of 2000 nm was obtained. ► Surface dissolution-free porous niobium oxide film was prepared. ► The niobium oxide film was used as the cathode for lithium-ion batteries

  4. CrN/AlN superlattice coatings synthesized by pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering with different CrN layer thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Jianliang; Moore, John J.; Mishra, Brajendra; Pinkas, Malki; Zhang Xuhai; Sproul, William D.

    2009-01-01

    CrN/AlN superlattice coatings with different CrN layer thicknesses were prepared using a pulsed closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering system. A decrease in the bilayer period from 12.4 to 3.0 nm and simultaneously an increase in the Al/(Cr + Al) ratio from 19.1 to 68.7 at.% were obtained in the CrN/AlN coatings when the Cr target power was decreased from 1200 to 200 W. The bilayer period and the structure of the coatings were characterized by means of low angle and high angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical and tribological properties of the coatings were studied using the nanoindentation and ball-on-disc wear tests. It was found that CrN/AlN superlattice coatings synthesized in the current study exhibited a single phase face-centered cubic structure with well defined interfaces between CrN and AlN nanolayers. Decreases in the residual stress and the lattice parameter were identified with a decrease in the CrN layer thickness. The hardness of the coatings increased with a decrease in the bilayer period and the CrN layer thickness, and reached the highest value of 42 GPa at a bilayer period of 4.1 nm (CrN layer thickness of 1.5 nm, AlN layer thickness of 2.5 nm) and an Al/(Cr + Al) ratio of 59.3 at.% in the coatings. A low coefficient of friction of 0.35 and correspondingly low wear rate of 7 x 10 -7 mm 3 N -1 m -1 were also identified in this optimized CrN/AlN coating when sliding against a WC-6%Co ball.

  5. Rapid Measurement of Nanoparticle Thickness Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz-Boon, Hadas; Rossouw, Chris J.; Dwyer, Christian; Etheridge, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    A method to measure the thickness of a single-crystal nanoparticle in the direction parallel to the incident beam from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscope (ADF-STEM) images is reported, providing a map of thickness versus position across the nanoparticle—a ‘thickness profile’ image. The method is rapid and hence suitable for surveying large numbers of nanoparticles. The method measures the intensity scattered to a characterised ADF detector and compares this to the incident beam intensity, to obtain a normalized ADF image. The normalised intensity is then converted to thickness via dynamical ADF image simulations. The method is accurate within 10% and the precision is dominated primarily by ‘shot noise’. Merits and limitations of this method are discussed. A method to calibrate the response function of the ADF detector without external equipment is also described, which is applicable to the entire range of gain and background settings. -- Highlights: ► A method is developed to convert ADF-STEM images to ‘thickness profile’ images. ► It is applicable in particles survey, facets determination and discrete tomography. ► A method to calibrate the response of the ADF detector is described. ► The response in analysed across a range of conditions. ► Dynamical ADF image simulations are presented, demonstrating intensity vs. thickness dependence.

  6. Aluminum oxide films deposited in low pressure conditions by reactive pulsed dc magnetron sputtering

    CERN Document Server

    Seino, T

    2002-01-01

    The reactive pulsed dc sputtering technique is widely used for the deposition of oxide films. The operating pressure for sputtering is commonly above 0.13 Pa. In this study, however, aluminum oxide (alumina) films were deposited at operating pressures from 0.06 to 0.4 Pa using a sputtering system equipped with a scanning magnetron cathode and a pulsed dc power supply. The pulsed dc power was found to be useful not only to reduce arcing, but also to sustain the discharge at low pressure. The electrical breakdown field, intrinsic stress, O/Al ratio, refractive index, and surface roughness were investigated. Both a low intrinsic stress and an O/Al ratio around the stoichiometry were required to get the film having a high breakdown field. A low operating pressure of 0.1 Pa was found to provide the necessary stress and O/Al ratio targets. A 50-nm-thick alumina film having a maximum breakdown field of 7.4 MV/cm was obtained.

  7. Growth of anodic oxide films on oxygen-containing niobium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habazaki, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)]. E-mail: habazaki@eng.hokudai.ac.jp; Ogasawara, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Konno, H. [Graduate School of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Shimizu, K. [University Chemical Laboratory, Keio University, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Asami, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Saito, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nagata, S. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Skeldon, P. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Thompson, G.E. [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-20

    The present study is directed at understanding of the influence of oxygen in the metal on anodic film growth on niobium, using sputter-deposited niobium containing from about 0-52 at.% oxygen, with anodizing carried out at high efficiency in phosphoric acid electrolyte. The findings reveal amorphous anodic niobia films, with no significant effect of oxygen on the field strength, transport numbers, mobility of impurity species and capacitance. However, since niobium is partially oxidized due to presence of oxygen in the substrate, less charge is required to form the films, hence reducing the time to reach a particular film thickness and anodizing voltage. Further, the relative thickness of film material formed at the metal/film interface is increased by the incorporation of oxygen species into the films from the substrate, with an associated altered depth of incorporation of phosphorus species into the films.

  8. Structural evolution of tunneling oxide passivating contact upon thermal annealing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungjin; Min, Kwan Hong; Jeong, Myeong Sang; Lee, Jeong In; Kang, Min Gu; Song, Hee-Eun; Kang, Yoonmook; Lee, Hae-Seok; Kim, Donghwan; Kim, Ka-Hyun

    2017-10-16

    We report on the structural evolution of tunneling oxide passivating contact (TOPCon) for high efficient solar cells upon thermal annealing. The evolution of doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) into polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) by thermal annealing was accompanied with significant structural changes. Annealing at 600 °C for one minute introduced an increase in the implied open circuit voltage (V oc ) due to the hydrogen motion, but the implied V oc decreased again at 600 °C for five minutes. At annealing temperature above 800 °C, a-Si:H crystallized and formed poly-Si and thickness of tunneling oxide slightly decreased. The thickness of the interface tunneling oxide gradually decreased and the pinholes are formed through the tunneling oxide at a higher annealing temperature up to 1000 °C, which introduced the deteriorated carrier selectivity of the TOPCon structure. Our results indicate a correlation between the structural evolution of the TOPCon passivating contact and its passivation property at different stages of structural transition from the a-Si:H to the poly-Si as well as changes in the thickness profile of the tunneling oxide upon thermal annealing. Our result suggests that there is an optimum thickness of the tunneling oxide for passivating electron contact, in a range between 1.2 to 1.5 nm.

  9. Capacitor Property and Leakage Current Mechanism of ZrO2 Thin Dielectric Films Prepared by Anodic Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamijyo, Masahiro; Onozuka, Tomotake; Shinkai, Satoko; Sasaki, Katsutaka; Yamane, Misao; Abe, Yoshio

    2003-07-01

    Polycrystalline ZrO2 thin film capacitors were prepared by anodizing sputter-deposited Zr films. Electrical measurements are performed for the parallel-plate anodized capacitors with an Al-ZrO2-Zr (metal-insulator-metal) structure, and a high capacitance density (0.6 μF/cm2) and a low dielectric loss of nearly 1% are obtained for a very thin-oxide capacitor anodized at 10 V. In addition, the leakage current density of this capacitor is about 1.8 × 10-8 A/cm2 at an applied voltage of 5 V. However, the leakage current is somewhat larger than that of a low-loss HfO2 capacitor. The leakage current density (J) of ZrO2 capacitors as a function of applied electric field (E) was investigated for several capacitors with different oxide thicknesses, by plotting \\ln(J) vs E1/2 curves. As a result, it is revealed that the conduction mechanism is due to the Poole-Frenkel effect, irrespective of the oxide thickness.

  10. Effect of ultrathin GeOx interfacial layer formed by thermal oxidation on Al2O3 capped Ge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Le; Zhang Xiong; Wang Sheng-Kai; Xue Bai-Qing; Liu Hong-Gang; Wu Wang-Ran; Zhao Yi

    2014-01-01

    We propose a modified thermal oxidation method in which an Al 2 O 3 capping layer is used as an oxygen blocking layer (OBL) to form an ultrathin GeO x interfacial layer, and obtain a superior Al 2 O 3 /GeO x /Ge gate stack. The GeO x interfacial layer is formed in oxidation reaction by oxygen passing through the Al 2 O 3 OBL, in which the Al 2 O 3 layer could restrain the oxygen diffusion and suppress the GeO desorption during thermal treatment. The thickness of the GeO x interfacial layer would dramatically decrease as the thickness of Al 2 O 3 OBL increases, which is beneficial to achieving an ultrathin GeO x interfacial layer to satisfy the demand for small equivalent oxide thickness (EOT). In addition, the thickness of the GeO x interfacial layer has little influence on the passivation effect of the Al 2 O 3 /Ge interface. Ge (100) p-channel metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors (pMOSFETs) using the Al 2 O 3 /GeO x /Ge gate stacks exhibit excellent electrical characteristics; that is, a drain current on-off (I on /I off ) ratio of above 1×10 4 , a subthreshold slope of ∼ 120 mV/dec, and a peak hole mobility of 265 cm 2 /V·s are achieved. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  11. Neutron induced degradation in nitrided pyrogenic field oxide MOS capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Vaidya, S J; Shaikh, A M; Chandorkar, A N

    2002-01-01

    Neutron induced oxide charge trapping and generation of interface states in MOS capacitors with pyrogenic and nitrided pyrogenic field oxides have been studied. In order to assess the damage due to neutrons alone, it is necessary to account for the damage produced by the accompanying gamma rays from neutron radiation. This is done by measuring the intensity of gamma radiation accompanying neutrons at different neutron fluences at the irradiation position. MOS capacitor structures were subjected to neutron radiation in a swimming pool type of reactor. Other samples from the same batch were then subjected to an equivalent dose of gamma radiation from a Co sup 6 sup 0 source. The difference in the damage observed was used to characterize the damage caused by neutrons. It is observed that neutrons, though uncharged, are capable of causing ionization damage. This damage is found to be significant when the radiation is performed under biased conditions. Nitridation in different ambients is found to improve the radi...

  12. Structural, electrical, and electrochemical characterization of Ni--Pr oxide thick films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mari, C; Scolari, V; Fiori, G; Pizzini, S

    1977-03-01

    Oxides with metallic conductivity could and have been used instead of noble metals as insert electrodes in aqueous solutions as well as electrodes for high temperature fuel cells and electrolyzers and as catalysts for the conversion of exhaust gases from internal combustion engines. The aim of this paper is to report the results of a physico-chemical characterization (structure, morphology, electrochemical behavior) of Ni--Pr oxides which have been proposed as electrode materials for high temperature fuel cells. The electrochemical characterization was carried out in aqueous solutions at room temperature and with solid electrolytes at high temperature. Evidence has been found in the former case for an oxide electrode type of behavior. In the high temperature case, very low overvoltage values have been observed during cathodic oxygen reduction, while the electrode undergoes a reaction with oxygen during anodic oxygen evolution.

  13. Influence of implantation energy on the electrical properties of ultrathin gate oxides grown on nitrogen implanted Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, E.; Skarlatos, D.; Tsamis, C.; Normand, P.; Tsoukalas, D.

    2003-01-01

    Metal-oxide-semiconductor tunnel diodes with gate oxides, in the range of 2.5-3.5 nm, grown either on 25 or 3 keV nitrogen-implanted Si substrates at (0.3 or 1) x10 15 cm -2 dose, respectively, are investigated. The dependence of N 2 + ion implant energy on the electrical quality of the growing oxide layers is studied through capacitance, equivalent parallel conductance, and gate current measurements. Superior electrical characteristics in terms of interface state trap density, leakage current, and breakdown fields are found for oxides obtained through 3 keV nitrogen implants. These findings together with the full absence of any extended defect in the silicon substrate make the low-energy nitrogen implantation technique an attractive option for reproducible low-cost growth of nanometer-thick gate oxides

  14. Quantum confinement effect in Bi anti-dot thin films with tailored pore wall widths and thicknesses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T.; Nakao, S.; Xu, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated quantum confinement effects in Bi anti-dot thin films grown on anodized aluminium oxide templates. The pore wall widths (w Bi ) and thickness (t) of the films were tailored to have values longer or shorter than Fermi wavelength of Bi (λ F  = ∼40 nm). Magnetoresistance measurements revealed a well-defined weak antilocalization effect below 10 K. Coherence lengths (L ϕ ) as functions of temperature were derived from the magnetoresistance vs field curves by assuming the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. The anti-dot thin film with w Bi and t smaller than λ F showed low dimensional electronic behavior at low temperatures where L ϕ (T) exceed w Bi or t

  15. Using the MDCT thick slab MinIP method for the follow-up of pulmonary emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Hai; Nishitani, Hiromu; Nishihara, Sadamitsu; Ueno, Junji; Takao, Shoichiro; Iwamoto, Seiji; Kawanaka, Takashi; Mahmut, Mawlan; Qingge, Si

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of thick slab minimum intensity projection (MinIP) as a follow-up method in patients with pulmonary emphysema. This method was used to determine the presence or absence of changes over time in the lung field based on multi-detector-row CT (MDCT) data. Among patients diagnosed with pulmonary emphysema who underwent 16-MDCT (slice thickness, 1 mm) twice at an interval of 6 months or more, 12 patients without changes in the lung field and 14 with clear changes in the lung field were selected as subjects. An image interpretation experiment was performed by five image interpreters. Pulmonary emphysema was followed up using two types of thick slab MinIP (thick slab MinIP 1 and 2) and multi-planar reformation (MPR), and the results of image interpretation were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In addition, the time required for image interpretation was compared among the three follow-up methods. The area under the ROC curve (Az) was 0.794 for thick slab MinIP 1, 0.778 for the thick slab MinIP 2, and 0.759 for MPR, showing no significant differences among the three methods. Individual differences in each item were significantly more marked for MPR than for thick slab MinIP. The time required for image interpretation was around 18 seconds for thick slab MinIP 1, 11 seconds for thick slab MinIP 2, and approximately 127 seconds for MPR, showing significant differences among the three methods. There were no significant differences in the results of image interpretation regarding the presence or absence of changes in the lung fields between thick slab MinIP and MPR. However, thick slab MinIP showed a shorter image interpretation time and smaller individual differences in the results among image interpreters than MPR, suggesting the usefulness of this method for determining the presence or absence of changes with time in the lung fields of patients with pulmonary emphysema.

  16. Magnetic Fields of the Earth and Mars a Comparison and Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    In several aspects the magnetic fields of the Earth and Mars are similar but also different. In the past both bodies had planetary magnetic fields but while they Earth's field remains today the Martian ceased to operate, at some unknown time in the past, leaving this planet without a main or core field. This fact resulted in the interaction between the solar and interplanetary magnetic fields with the surfaces of these planets being very different. In addition, Mars has large crustal magnetic anomalies, nearly ten times larger than those on the Earth. Since crustal magnetic anomalies are the product of the thickness of the layer of magnetization, both the magnetizing material and the thickness of the layer of this material must be very different on Mars than Earth. Furthermore, the martian anomalies can only be produced by remanent or fossil magnetization, in contrast with the Earth where both induced and remanent magnetization are producing these anomalies. Crustal magnetic anomalies on the Earth are mainly produced by single-domain, irontitanium oxides, in the form of magnetite being the most common on Mars the main magnetic mineral(s) are unknown. The thickness of the martian magnetized layer in comparison with the Earth remains a major area for research. Determining the paleopole position for the Earth has been done by some of the earliest paleomagnetic researchers. Since we do not have oriented martian rock samples determining the paleopoles for Mars has been done by fitting a magnetization vector to individual magnetic anomalies. Several groups have worked on this problem with somewhat differing results.

  17. Impact of active layer thickness of nitrogen-doped In–Sn–Zn–O films on materials and thin film transistor performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi-Yue; Yang, Hao-Zhi; Chen, Sheng-Chi; Lu, Ying-Bo; Xin, Yan-Qing; Yang, Tian-Lin; Sun, Hui

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen-doped indium tin zinc oxide (ITZO:N) thin film transistors (TFTs) were deposited on SiO2 (200 nm)/p-Si〈1 0 0〉 substrates by RF magnetron sputtering at room temperature. The structural, chemical compositions, surface morphology, optical and electrical properties as a function of the active layer thickness were investigated. As the active layer thickness increases, Zn content decreases and In content increases gradually. Meanwhile, Sn content is almost unchanged. When the thickness of the active layer is more than 45 nm, the ITZO:N films become crystallized and present a crystal orientation along InN(0 0 2) plan. No matter what the thickness is, ITZO:N films always display a high transmittance above 80% in the visible region. Their optical band gaps fluctuate between 3.4 eV and 3.62 eV. Due to the dominance of low interface trap density and high carrier concentration, ITZO:N TFT shows enhanced electrical properties as the active layer thickness is 35 nm. Its field-effect mobility, on/off radio and sub-threshold swing are 17.53 cm2 V‑1 · s‑1, 106 and 0.36 V/dec, respectively. These results indicate that the suitable thickness of the active layer can enhance the quality of ITZO:N films and decrease the defects density of ITZO:N TFT. Thus, the properties of ITZO:N TFT can be optimized by adjusting the thickness of the active layer.

  18. Properties of zinc oxide at low and moderate temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkarev, G.V.; Karpina, V.A.; Lazorenko, V.I.; Evtushenko, A.I.; Shteplyuk, I.I.; Khranovskij, V.D.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of zinc oxide as an analogue of gallium nitride are considered in a wide temperature range and the field of its potential applications. The economic and ecologic benefits as well as radiation resistivity of ZnO in comparison with Group III nitrides are indicated. Methods of growth of films and nanostructures of high crystal perfection are proposed. In particular, a magnetron method for layer growth of films is implemented which permits to realize their high structural perfection and considerable thickness inappropriate to some other methods. It is shown that monochromatic UV light may be obtained on excitation of films by short-wave radiation and electrons. This makes it possible to use them in the sources of short-wave radiation. The effectiveness of field emission for ZnO nanostructures and films is demonstrated which opens the prospect for their use in vacuum microelectronics devices. In particular, a phototransistor based on ZnO films doped with nitrogen was fabricated the photosensitivity of which was two orders of magnitude higher than that of conventional detectors. The physical basis of creating blue, green LEDs based on zinc oxide film and its solid solutions with CdO are outlined. The importance of active research in physics, and production procedures of zinc oxide-based devices is underlined.

  19. Field emission properties of low-density carbon nanotubes prepared on anodic aluminum-oxide template

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Soo-Hwan [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Hong [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-08-15

    Anodic aluminum-oxide (AAO) templates were fabricated by two-step anodizing an Al film. After the Co catalyst had been electrochemically deposited onto the bottom of the AAO template, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were grown by using catalytic pyrolysis of C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and H{sub 2} at 650 .deg. C. Overgrowth of CNTs with low density on the AAO templates was observed. The field-emission measurements on the samples showed a turn-on field of 2.17 V/mum and a field enhancement factor of 5700. The emission pattern on a phosphor screen was quite homogeneous over the area at a relatively low electric field.

  20. Review Of Plutonium Oxidation Literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korinko, P.

    2009-01-01

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles ( 250 (micro)m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for metal temperatures in the 500-600 C range.

  1. Microstructural Study on Oxidation Resistance of Nonmodified and Platinum Modified Aluminide Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagula-Yavorska, Maryana; Sieniawski, Jan

    2014-03-01

    Platinum electroplating layers (3 and 7 μm thick) were deposited on the surface of the Inconel 713 LC, CMSX 4, and Inconel 625 Ni-base superalloys. Diffusion treatment at 1050°C for 2 h under argon atmosphere was performed after electroplating. Diffusion treated samples were aluminized according to the low activity CVD process at 1050°C for 8 h. The nonmodified aluminide coatings consist of NiAl phase. Platinum modification let to obtain the (Ni,Pt)Al phase in coatings. The coated samples were subjected to cyclic oxidation testing at 1100°C. It was discovered that increase of the platinum electroplating thickness from 3 to 7 μm provides the improvement of oxidation resistance of aluminide coatings. Increase of the platinum thickness causes decreases in weight change and decreases in parabolic constant during oxidation. The platinum provides the pure Al2O3 oxide formation, slow growth oxide layer, and delay the oxide spalling during heating-cooling thermal cycles.

  2. Diffusion of hydrogen in iron oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzoni, P.

    1993-01-01

    The diffusion of hydrogen in transitions metals oxides has been recently studied at room temperature through the permeability electrochemical technique. This work studies thin oxide layers grown in air or in presence of oxidizing atmospheres at temperatures up to 200 deg C. The substrate was pure iron with different superficial treatments. It was observed that these oxides reduce up to three magnitudes orders, the hydrogen stationary flux through membranes of usual thickness in comparison with iron membranes free of oxide. (Author)

  3. Inductive crystal field control in layered metal oxides with correlated electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, P. V.; Cammarata, A.; Rondinelli, J. M., E-mail: jrondinelli@nortwestern.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B. [School of Engineering, University of St. Thomas, St. Paul, Minnesota 55105 (United States); Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bhattacharya, A. [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    We show that the NiO{sub 6} crystal field energies can be tailored indirectly via heterovalent A cation ordering in layered (La,A)NiO{sub 4} Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) oxides, where A = Sr, Ca, or Ba, using density functional calculations. We leverage as a driving force the electrostatic interactions between charged [LaO]{sup 1+} and neutral [AO]{sup 0} planes to inductively tune the Ni–O bond distortions, without intentional doping or epitaxial strain, altering the correlated d-orbital energies. We use this strategy to design cation ordered LaCaNiO{sub 4} and LaBaNiO{sub 4} with distortions favoring enhanced Ni e{sub g} orbital polarization, and find local electronic structure signatures analogous to those in RP La-cuprates, i.e., parent phases of the high-temperature superconducting oxides.

  4. Full reflector thickness and isolation thickness on neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Tomohiro; Naito, Yoshitaka; Komuro, Yuichi.

    1988-08-01

    A method to determine ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'', which is utilized for criticality safety evaluation on nuclear fuel facilities, was proposed in this paper. Firstly, a calculation was tryed to obtain the two kinds of thicknesses from the result of criticality calculations for a specific case. Then, two simple equations which calculates the two kinds of thicknesses were made from the relation between reflector (or isolator) thickness and k eff , and one-group diffusion theory. Finally, we proposed a new method to determine the thicknesses. From the method we proposed, ''full reflector thickness'' and ''isolation thickness'' can be obtain using the equations and migration length of the reflector (or isolator) and infinite and effective multiplication factor of the fuel. (author)

  5. The effect of the gas factor on selecting the thickness of a layer during two-layer getting of thick seams. [USSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varekha, Zh P; Kurkin, A S; Vechera, V N

    1979-01-01

    For technico-economic verification of the selection of the efficient removed thickness of upper and lower layers under conditions of high gas abundance of seams, the KNIUI has developed an economic model of converted costs within a getting field, allowing for natural and technical factors. The calculation considers specific costs for stoping work when getting the upper and lower layers, digging and maintenance of development workings, coal transport, assembly-disassembly work, ventilation, labor costs, degassing, etc. The calculation dependences and nomogram obtained enable comparatively easy definition of efficient thicknesses of removed layers when designing stoping work at thick, gently sloping seams, as well as calculation converted costs using as the initial data the total thickness of the seam, its natural gas content, and the expected degree of preliminary degassing.

  6. The effect of capped layer thickness on switching behavior in perpendicular CoCrPt based coupled granular/continuous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.M.; Lim, W.K.; Shi, J.Z.; Ding, J.

    2013-01-01

    A systematic investigation of magnetic switching behavior of CoCrPt based capped media (perpendicularly coupled granular/continuous (CGC) media consisting of granular CoCrPt:SiO 2 TiO 2 Ta 2 O 5 /capped CoCrPt(B)) is performed by varying the thickness of the capped layer from 0 to 9 nm. The microscopic structures of CGC media with different thickness of capped layer are examined by transmission electron microscope. We find out that CoCrPt magnetic grains are separated by nonmagnetic oxide grain boundaries. Grain size and grain boundary are about 8.9 nm and 2 nm, respectively. The nonmagnetic oxide grain boundaries in the granular layer do not disappear immediately at the interface between the granular and capped layers. The amorphous grain boundary phase in the granular layer propagates to the top surface of the capped layer. After capping with the CoCrPt(B) layer, the grain size at the surface of CGC structure increases and the grain boundary decreases. Both coercivity and intergranular exchange coupling of the CGC media are investigated by Polar magneto-optic Kerr effect magnetometer and alternating gradient force magnetometer. Although H c apparently decreases at thicker capped layer, no obvious variation of macroscopic switching field distribution (SFD/H c ) is observed. We separate intrinsic switching field distribution from intergranular interactions. The investigation of reduced intrinsic SFD/H c and increased hysteresis loop slope at coercivity, suggests that improvement of absolute switching field distribution (SFD) is caused by both strong intergranular exchange coupling and uniform grain size. Micromagnetic simulation results further verify our conclusion that the capped layer in CGC media is not uniformly continuous but has some granular nature. However, grains in the CoCrPt(B) capped layer is not absolutely isolated, strong exchange coupling exists between grains. - Highlights: • In CGC media, CoCrPt magnetic grains are separated by nonmagnetic oxide

  7. Thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide across the metal insulator transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menges, F.; Spieser, M.; Riel, H.; Gotsmann, B., E-mail: bgo@zurich.ibm.com [IBM Research-Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Dittberner, M. [IBM Research-Zurich, Säumerstrasse 4, CH-8803 Rüschlikon (Switzerland); Photonics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Novotny, L. [Photonics Laboratory, ETH Zurich, 8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Passarello, D.; Parkin, S. S. P. [IBM Almaden Research Center, 650 Harry Road, San Jose, California 95120 (United States)

    2016-04-25

    The thermal radiative near field transport between vanadium dioxide and silicon oxide at submicron distances is expected to exhibit a strong dependence on the state of vanadium dioxide which undergoes a metal-insulator transition near room temperature. We report the measurement of near field thermal transport between a heated silicon oxide micro-sphere and a vanadium dioxide thin film on a titanium oxide (rutile) substrate. The temperatures of the 15 nm vanadium dioxide thin film varied to be below and above the metal-insulator-transition, and the sphere temperatures were varied in a range between 100 and 200 °C. The measurements were performed using a vacuum-based scanning thermal microscope with a cantilevered resistive thermal sensor. We observe a thermal conductivity per unit area between the sphere and the film with a distance dependence following a power law trend and a conductance contrast larger than 2 for the two different phase states of the film.

  8. Characterization of anisotropic UF-membranes: top layer thickness and pore structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, F.P.; Cuperus, F.P.; Bargeman, D.; Bargeman, D.; Smolders, C.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Anisotropic poly(2,6-dimethyl-, 1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) ultrafiltration membranes are characterized by means of two techniques. A new method for the determination of skin thicknesses, the gold sol method, is introduced and applied to these membranes. The membranes appeared to have a well-defined

  9. Orientation and thickness dependence of magnetic levitation force and trapped magnetic field of single grain YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-y} bulk superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y.; Go, S. J.; Joo, H. T. [Korea Science Academy of Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y. J.; Park, S. D.; Jun, B. H.; KIm, C. J. [Neutron Utilization Technology Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The effects of the crystallographic orientation and sample thickness on the magnetic levitation forces (F) and trapped magnetic field (B) of single grain YBCO bulk superconductors were examined. Single grain YBCO samples with a (001), (110) or (100) surface were used as the test samples. The samples used for the force-distance (F-d) measurement were cooled at 77 K without a magnetic field (zero field cooling, ZFC), whereas the samples used for the B measurement were cooled under the external magnetic field of a Nd-B-Fe permanent magnet (field cooling, FC). It was found that F and B of the (001) surface were higher than those of the (110) or (100) surface, which is attributed to the higher critical current density (J{sub c}) of the (001) surface. For the (001) samples with t=5–18 mm, the maximum magnetic levitation forces (F{sub max}s) of the ZFC samples were larger than 40 N. About 80% of the applied magnetic field was trapped in the FC samples. However, the F and B decreased rapidly as t decreased below 5 mm. There exists a critical sample thickness (t=5 mm for the experimental condition of this study) for maintaining the large levitation/trapping properties, which is dependent on the material properties and magnitude of the external magnetic fields.

  10. Steam assisted oxide growth on aluminium alloys using oxidative chemistries: Part I Microstructural investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Din, Rameez Ud; Piotrowska, Kamila; Gudla, Visweswara Chakravarthy

    2015-01-01

    The surface treatment of aluminium alloys under steam containing KMnO4 and HNO3resulted in the formation of an oxide layer having a thickness of up to 825 nm. The use of KMnO4 and HNO3 in the steam resulted in incorporation of the respective chemical species into the oxide layer. Steam treatment ...

  11. Effects of rework on adhesion of Pb-In soldered gold thick films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehman, R.W.; Becka, G.A.; Losure, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    The feasibility of repeatedly reworking Pb-In soldered joints on gold thick films was evaluated. Nailhead adhesion tests on soldered thick films typically resulted in failure within the bulk solder (50 In-50 Pb). Average strengths increased with each rework, and the failure mode changed. An increase in metalization lift-off occurred with successive reworks. An investigation was initiated to determine why these changes occurred. Based on this work, the thick film adhesion to the substrate appeared to be lowered by indium reduction of cadmium oxide and by formation of a weak, brittle intermetallic compound, Au 9 In 4 . It was concluded that two solder reworks could be conducted without significant amounts of metallization lift-off during nailhead testing

  12. Study of niobium oxidation by photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, C.

    1985-01-01

    The chemical composition of thin oxide layers, grown on clean niobium, in low oxygen pressure, was studied by a surface analysis method: X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The purpose of this study was to find the best conditions for the building of Nb/Nb oxide/Pb Josephson junctions, and particularly to minimise the interface thickness during the formation of the insulator film (Nb 2 O 5 ) on the metal (Nb). This interface is essentially formed by the monoxide (NbO) and dioxide (NbO 2 ). Nb 3d XPS core level peak positions and area ratios (obtained by the signal decomposition) of the components of the total peak, were used to determine the presence of the different oxidation states II, IV and V, their relative abundance, oxide thicknesses and their depth distribution. All this information was extracted by a special numerical procedure [fr

  13. Self-Poling of BiFeO3 Thick Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomyakova, Evgeniya; Sadl, Matej; Ursic, Hana; Daniels, John; Malic, Barbara; Bencan, Andreja; Damjanovic, Dragan; Rojac, Tadej

    2016-08-03

    Bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) is difficult to pole because of the combination of its high coercive field and high electrical conductivity. This problem is particularly pronounced in thick films. The poling, however, must be performed to achieve a large macroscopic piezoelectric response. This study presents evidence of a prominent and reproducible self-poling effect in few-tens-of-micrometer-thick BiFeO3 films. Direct and converse piezoelectric measurements confirmed that the as-sintered BiFeO3 thick films yield d33 values of up to ∼20 pC/N. It was observed that a significant self-poling effect only appears in cases when the films are heated and cooled through the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition (Curie temperature TC ∼ 820 °C). These self-poled films exhibit a microstructure with randomly oriented columnar grains. The presence of a compressive strain gradient across the film thickness cooled from above the TC was experimentally confirmed and is suggested to be responsible for the self-poling effect. Finally, the macroscopic d33 response of the self-poled BiFeO3 film was characterized as a function of the driving-field frequency and amplitude.

  14. Josephson junction in superconducting oxides thick films. Jonction Josephson en couche epaisse d'oxydes supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunther, C; Monfort, Y; Lam Chok Sing, M; Bloyet, D; Brousse, T; Provost, J; Raveau, B [Institut des Sciences de la Matiere du Rayonnement, 14 - Caen (FR)

    1992-02-01

    Constrictions engraved in YBaCuO thick films fabricated by screen printing on YSZ substrate (J{sub c} > 3 000 A/cm{sup 2} at 77 K) have been studied. Microwave irradiation of the devices at LN{sub 2} showed distinct Shapiro steps demonstrating the presence intrinsic Josephson junctions. The latter have an I{sub c}(T) dependence fitting (1 - T/T{sub c}){sup 2} characteristic of SNS junctions. Furthermore, dc SQUID effects have also been observed with a peak-to-peak response {approx equal} 0.2 {mu}V and with a magnetic field periodicity extending through several hundred of {phi}{sub o}. An energy resolution close to 3 x 10{sup -29} J/Hz is estimated for our constriction operating in the white noise frequency range (f > 50 Hz) at 77 K. This sensitivity is adequate to use this flux sensor in many applications: geomagnetism, magnetocardiology,... 19 refs; 7 figs.

  15. Development and field-scale optimization of a honeycomb zeolite rotor concentrator/recuperative oxidizer for the abatement of volatile organic carbons from semiconductor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji; Chen, Yufeng; Cao, Limei; Guo, Yuling; Jia, Jinping

    2012-01-03

    The combined concentrator/oxidizer system has been proposed as an effective physical-chemical option and proven to be a viable solution that enables Volatile Organic Carbons (VOCs) emitters to comply with the regulations. In this work, a field scale honeycomb zeolite rotor concentrator combined with a recuperative oxidizer was developed and applied for the treatment of the VOC waste gas. The research shows the following: (1) for the adsorption rotor, zeolite is a more appropriate material than Granular Activated Carbon (GAC). The designing and operation parameters of the concentrator were discussed in detail including the size and the optimal rotation speed of rotor. Also the developed rotor performance's was evaluated in the field; (2) Direct Fired Thermal Oxidizer (DFTO), Recuperative Oxidizer (RO), Regenerative Thermal Oxidizer (RTO) and Regenerative Catalytic oxidizer (RCO) are the available incinerators and the RO was selected as the oxidizer in this work; (3) The overall performance of the developed rotor/oxidizer was explored in a field scale under varying conditions; (4) The energy saving strategy was fulfilled by reducing heat loss from the oxidizer and recovering heat from the exhaust gas. Data shows that the developed rotor/oxidizer could remove over 95% VOCs with reasonable cost and this could be helpful for similar plants when considering VOC abatement.

  16. Bismuth iron oxide thin films using atomic layer deposition of alternating bismuth oxide and iron oxide layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttaswamy, Manjunath; Vehkamäki, Marko [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Kukli, Kaupo, E-mail: kaupo.kukli@helsinki.fi [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); University of Tartu, Institute of Physics, W. Ostwald 1, EE-50411 Tartu (Estonia); Dimri, Mukesh Chandra [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Kemell, Marianna; Hatanpää, Timo; Heikkilä, Mikko J. [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Mizohata, Kenichiro [University of Helsinki, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Stern, Raivo [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics, Akadeemia tee 23, EE-12618 Tallinn (Estonia); Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku [University of Helsinki, Department of Chemistry, P.O. Box 55, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland)

    2016-07-29

    Bismuth iron oxide films with varying contributions from Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} were prepared using atomic layer deposition. Bismuth (III) 2,3-dimethyl-2-butoxide, was used as the bismuth source, iron(III) tert-butoxide as the iron source and water vapor as the oxygen source. The films were deposited as stacks of alternate Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} layers. Films grown at 140 °C to the thickness of 200–220 nm were amorphous, but crystallized upon post-deposition annealing at 500 °C in nitrogen. Annealing of films with intermittent bismuth and iron oxide layers grown to different thicknesses influenced their surface morphology, crystal structure, composition, electrical and magnetic properties. Implications of multiferroic performance were recognized in the films with the remanent charge polarization varying from 1 to 5 μC/cm{sup 2} and magnetic coercivity varying from a few up to 8000 A/m. - Highlights: • Bismuth iron oxide thin films were grown by atomic layer deposition at 140 °C. • The major phase formed in the films upon annealing at 500 °C was BiFeO{sub 3}. • BiFeO{sub 3} films and films containing excess Bi favored electrical charge polarization. • Slight excess of iron oxide enhanced saturative magnetization behavior.

  17. Oxidation Behavior of Titanium Carbonitride Coating Deposited by Atmospheric Plasma Spray Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lin; He, Jining; Yan, Dianran; Liao, Hanlin; Zhang, Nannan

    2017-10-01

    As a high-hardness and anti-frictional material, titanium carbonitride (TiCN) thick coatings or thin films are increasingly being used in many industrial fields. In the present study, TiCN coatings were obtained by atmospheric plasma spray synthesis or reactive plasma spray. In order to promote the reaction between the Ti particles and reactive gases, a home-made gas tunnel was mounted on a conventional plasma gun to perform the spray process. The oxidation behavior of the TiCN coatings under different temperatures in static air was carefully investigated. As a result, when the temperature was over 700 °C, the coatings suffered from serious oxidation, and finally they were entirely oxidized to the TiO2 phase at 1100 °C. The principal oxidation mechanism was clarified, indicating that the oxygen can permeate into the defects and react with TiCN at high temperatures. In addition, concerning the use of a TiCN coating in high-temperature conditions, the microhardness of the oxidized coatings at different treatment temperatures was also evaluated.

  18. Potato cultivar type affects the structure of ammonia oxidizer communities in field soil under potato beyond the rhizosphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavalcante Franco Dias, A.; Hoogwout, E.F.; de Cassia Pereira e Silva, M.; Falcão Salles, J.; van Overbeek, L.S.; van Elsas, J.D.

    The effects of plants on the microbiota involved in the oxidation of ammonia in soils have been controversial. Here, we investigated the dynamics in the abundances and community structures of the bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers (AOB and AOA, respectively) in two fields that were cropped

  19. Thick branes with inner structure in mimetic gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Yi; Zhang, Yu-Peng; Liu, Yu-Xiao [Lanzhou University, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University, Research Center of Gravitation, Lanzhou (China); Zhong, Yuan [Xi' an Jiaotong University, School of Science, Xi' an (China)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, thick branes generated by mimetic scalar field are investigated. Three typical thick brane models are constructed and the linear tensor and scalar perturbations are analyzed. These branes have different inner structures, some of which are absent in general relativity. For each brane model, the solution is stable under both tensor and scalar perturbations. The tensor zero modes are localized on the branes, while the scalar perturbations do not propagate and they are not localized on the brane. As the branes split into multi sub-branes for specific parameters, the potentials of the tensor perturbations also split into multi-wells, and this may lead to new phenomenon in the resonance of the tensor perturbation and the localization of matter fields. (orig.)

  20. Oxidation of Ni(Pt)Si by molecular vs. atomic oxygen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manandhar, Sudha; Copp, Brian; Kelber, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to characterize the oxidation of a clean Ni(Pt)Si surface under two distinct conditions: exposure to a mixed flux of atomic and molecular oxygen (O + O 2 ; P O+O 2 = 5 x 10 -6 Torr) and pure molecular oxygen (O 2 ; P O 2 = 10 -5 Torr) at ambient temperatures. Formation of the clean, stoichiometric (nickel monosilicide) phase under vacuum conditions results in the formation of a surface layer enriched in PtSi. Oxidation of this surface in the presence of atomic oxygen initially results in formation of a silicon oxide overlayer. At higher exposures, kinetically limited oxidation of Pt results in Pt silicate formation. No passivation of oxygen uptake of the sample is observed for total O + O 2 exposure 4 L, at which point the average oxide/silicate overlayer thickness is 23 (3) A (uncertainty in the last digit in parentheses). In contrast, exposure of the clean Ni(Pt)Si surface to molecular oxygen only (maximum exposure: 5 x 10 5 L) results in slow growth of a silicon oxide overlayer, without silicate formation, and eventual passivation at a total average oxide thickness of 8(1) A, compared to a oxide average thickness of 17(2) A (no silicate formation) for the as-received sample (i.e., exposed to ambient.) The aggressive silicon oxidation by atomic oxygen, results in Ni-rich silicide formation in the substrate and the kinetically limited oxidation of the Pt

  1. Corrosion mechanisms of zirconium alloys - study of the initial oxidation kinetics and of the mechanical behaviour of the metal/oxide system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parise, M.

    1996-12-01

    Nuclear fuel claddings are made of zirconium alloys. The conditions of use lead the cladding oxidize outside. The so-formed layers behaves like a thermal barrier and prevents from using oxidized claddings with an oxide thickness larger than 100 μm. The oxidation kinetic is approximately cubic for oxide thicknesses smaller than about 2μm, linear beyond. A kinetic model has been proposed which estimates the post-transition growth rate from the kinetic parameters of the pre-transition state and morphological features of post-transition layers. This work aims at providing the necessary elements to validate this model and studying the layers around the kinetic transition, in order to determine whether the oxidation mechanisms before and after the transition are similar. Thicknesses of the 50 - 500 nm range of the oxide layers are measured by an optical method; pre-transition kinetics are thus precisely determined. The effect of the composition, the thermal treatment and the presence of oxygen in solid solution is studied. The morphological and crystallographic study of the layers show that they exhibit a lot of similarities before and after the kinetic transition. The results concerning the kinetic aspects and the morphology of the post-transition layers point out that the proposed model leads to realistic post-transition growth rates. Furthermore, the kinetic transition corresponds to the appearance of cracks in the oxide layer. The mechanical behaviour of the metal/oxide system has been modelled at different scales. When the specific behaviours of the metal and the oxide are taken into account together with the interface geometry, radial stresses appear, which are high enough to locally open cracks. The appearance and localization of cracks depend on both the interface geometry and the stress distribution in the metal/oxide system. (author)

  2. Sputter fabricated Nb-oxide-Nb josephson junctions incorporating post-oxidation noble metal layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bain, R.J.P.; Donaldson, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    We present an extension, involving other metals, of the work of Hawkins and Clarke, who found that a thin layer of copper prevented the formation of the superconductive shorts which are an inevitable consequence of sputtering niobium counter-electrodes directly on top of niobium oxide. We find gold to be the most satisfactory, and that 0.3 nm is sufficient to guarantee short-free junctions of excellent electrical and mechanical stability, though high excess conductance means they are best suited to shunted-junction applications, as in SQUIDs. We present results for critical current dependence on oxide thickness and on gold thickness. Our data shows that thermal oxide growth is described by the Cabrera-Mott mechanism. We show that the protective effect of the gold layer can be understood in terms of the electro-chemistry of the Nb-oxide-Au structure, and that the reduced quasi-particle resistance of the junctions relative to goldfree junctions with evaporated counterelectrodes can be explained in terms of barrier shape modification, and not by proximity effect mechanisms. The performance of a DC SQUID based on these junctions is described

  3. Rydberg excitation of neutral nitric oxide molecules in strong UV and near-IR laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Hang; Zhang Jun-Feng; Zuo Wan-Long; Xu Hai-Feng; Jin Ming-Xing; Ding Da-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Rydberg state excitations of neutral nitric oxide molecules are studied in strong ultraviolet (UV) and near-infra-red (IR) laser fields using a linear time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometer with the pulsed electronic field ionization method. The yield of Rydberg molecules is measured as a function of laser intensity and ellipticity, and the results in UV laser fields are compared with those in near-IR laser fields. The present study provides the first experimental evidence of neutral Rydberg molecules surviving in a strong laser field. The results indicate that a rescattering-after-tunneling process is the main contribution to the formation of Rydberg molecules in strong near-IR laser fields, while multi-photon excitation may play an important role in the strong UV laser fields. (paper)

  4. Enhancement in sensitivity of graphene-based zinc oxide assisted bimetallic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Kushwaha, Angad S.; Srivastava, Monika; Mishra, H.; Srivastava, S. K.

    2018-03-01

    In the present communication, a highly sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor with Kretschmann configuration having alternate layers, prism/zinc oxide/silver/gold/graphene/biomolecules (ss-DNA) is presented. The optimization of the proposed configuration has been accomplished by keeping the constant thickness of zinc oxide (32 nm), silver (32 nm), graphene (0.34 nm) layer and biomolecules (100 nm) for different values of gold layer thickness (1, 3 and 5 nm). The sensitivity of the proposed SPR biosensor has been demonstrated for a number of design parameters such as gold layer thickness, number of graphene layer, refractive index of biomolecules and the thickness of biomolecules layer. SPR biosensor with optimized geometry has greater sensitivity (66 deg/RIU) than the conventional (52 deg/RIU) as well as other graphene-based (53.2 deg/RIU) SPR biosensor. The effect of zinc oxide layer thickness on the sensitivity of SPR biosensor has also been analysed. From the analysis, it is found that the sensitivity increases significantly by increasing the thickness of zinc oxide layer. It means zinc oxide intermediate layer plays an important role to improve the sensitivity of the biosensor. The sensitivity of SPR biosensor also increases by increasing the number of graphene layer (upto nine layer).

  5. Brief communication: Enamel thickness and durophagy in mangabeys revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, W Scott; Pampush, James D; Daegling, David J

    2012-02-01

    The documentation of enamel thickness variation across primates is important because enamel thickness has both taxonomic and functional relevance. The Old World monkeys commonly referred to as mangabeys have figured prominently in investigations of feeding ecology and enamel thickness. In this article, we report enamel thickness values for four mangabey taxa (Cercocebus atys, Cercocebus torquatus, Lophocebus aterrimus, and Lophocebus albigena), offer revised interpretation of the significance of thick enamel in papionin evolution, and place our new data in a broader comparative framework. Our data indicate that all mangabeys have thick enamel and that the values obtained for Cercocebus and Lophocebus equal or exceed those published for most extant non-human primates. In addition, new field data combined with a current reading of the dietary literature indicate that hard foods make up a portion of the diet of every mangabey species sampled to date. Clarification on the relationship between diet and enamel thickness among mangabeys is important not only because of recognition that mangabeys are not a natural group but also because of recent arguments that explain thick enamel as an evolved response to the seasonal consumption of hard foods. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Mitch A., E-mail: mitch@berkeley.ed [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ashby, Paul D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gates, Jacklyn M. [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Stavsetra, Liv [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino [Department of Chemistry, Room 446 Latimer Hall, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720-1460 (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-11

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  7. Metal oxide targets produced by the polymer-assisted deposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Mitch A.; Ali, Mazhar N.; Chang, Noel N.; Parsons-Moss, T.; Ashby, Paul D.; Gates, Jacklyn M.; Stavsetra, Liv; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Nitsche, Heino

    2010-01-01

    The polymer-assisted deposition (PAD) method was used to create crack-free homogenous metal oxide films for use as targets in nuclear science applications. Metal oxide films of europium, thulium, and hafnium were prepared as models for actinide oxides. Films produced by a single application of PAD were homogenous and uniform and ranged in thickness from 30 to 320 nm. Reapplication of the PAD method (six times) with a 10% by weight hafnium(IV) solution resulted in an equally homogeneous and uniform film with a total thickness of 600 nm.

  8. High-performance micro-solid oxide fuel cells fabricated on nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide templates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Chang-Woo; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Kim, Ki-Bum [WCUHybrid Materials Program, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Son, Ji-Won; Lee, Jong-Ho; Lee, Hae-Weon [High Temperature Energy Materials Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, 39-1, Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-22

    Micro-solid oxide fuel cells ({mu}-SOFCs) are fabricated on nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates with a cell structure composed of a 600-nm-thick AAO free-standing membrane embedded on a Si substrate, sputter-deposited Pt electrodes (cathode and anode) and an yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Initially, the open circuit voltages (OCVs) of the AAO-supported {mu}-SOFCs are in the range of 0.05 V to 0.78 V, which is much lower than the ideal value, depending on the average pore size of the AAO template and the thickness of the YSZ electrolyte. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis reveals the formation of pinholes in the electrolyte layer that originate from the porous nature of the underlying AAO membrane. In order to clog these pinholes, a 20-nm thick Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer is deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of the 300-nm thick YSZ layer and another 600-nm thick YSZ layer is deposited after removing the top intermittent Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer. Fuel cell devices fabricated in this way manifest OCVs of 1.02 V, and a maximum power density of 350 mW cm{sup -2} at 500 C. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Reagent-Free Electrophoretic Synthesis of Few-Atom-Thick Metal Oxide Nanosheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Chengyi; Zhang, Minwei; Zhang, Lili

    2017-01-01

    Engineering traditional materials into the new form of atomic and free-standing two-dimensional structures is of both fundamental interest and practical significance, but it is in general facing challenges especially for metal oxide semiconductors. We herein report an ultragreen method for the cost......-effective and fast preparation of atomic metal oxide nanosheets that can be further transformed into nanofilms. The method combines top-down building block synthesis and bottom-up electrophoretic assembly in water under ambient conditions, using only bulk metal and Milli-Q water without involving any additional...

  10. Optimization of phantom backscatter thickness and lateral scatter volume for radiographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, R.P.; De Wagter, C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the optimal backscatter thickness and lateral phantom dimension beyond the irradiated volume for the dosimetric verification with radiographic film when applying large field sizes. Polystyrene and Virtual Water™ phantoms were used to study the influence of the phantom backscatter thickness. EDR2 and XV films were used in 6 and 18 MV photon beams. The results show 11.4% and 6.4% over-response of the XV2 film when compared to the ion chamber for 6 MV 30×30 and 10×10 cm 2 field sizes, respectively, when the phantom backscatter thickness is 5 cm. For the same setup, measurements with EDR2 films indicate 8.5% and 1.7% over-response. The XV2 film response in the polystyrene phantom is about 2.0% higher than in the Virtual Water™ phantom for the 6 MV beam and 20 cm backscatter thickness. Similar results were obtained for EDR2 film. In the lateral scatter study, film response was nearly constant within 5 cm of lateral thickness and it increases when lateral thickness increases due to more multiple scatter of low energy photons. The backscatter thickness of the phantom should be kept below 7 cm for the accuracy of the film dosimetry. The lateral extension of the phantom should not be more than 5 cm from the field boundary in case of large irradiated volumes.

  11. Short Communication on “Coarsening of Y-rich oxide particles in 9%Cr-ODS Eurofer steel annealed at 1350 °C”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandim, M.J.R.; Souza Filho, I.R.; Bredda, E.H. [Lorena School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, 12602-810, Lorena (Brazil); Kostka, A.; Raabe, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Eisenforschung, D-40237, Düsseldorf (Germany); Sandim, H.R.Z., E-mail: hsandim@demar.eel.usp.br [Lorena School of Engineering, University of Sao Paulo, 12602-810, Lorena (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    Oxide-dispersion strengthened (ODS) Eurofer steel is targeted for structural applications in future fusion nuclear reactors. Samples were cold rolled down to 80% reduction in thickness and annealed at 1350 °C up to 8 h. The microstructural characterization was performed using Vickers microhardness testing, electron backscatter diffraction, scanning and scanning transmission electron microscopies. Experimental results provide evidence of coarsening of the Y-rich oxide particles in ODS-Eurofer steel annealed at 1350 °C within delta ferrite phase field.

  12. A new procedure for investigating three-dimensional stress fields in a thin plate with a through-the-thickness crack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Dake; Wang, TzuChiang

    2018-06-01

    In the paper, a new procedure is proposed to investigate three-dimensional fracture problems of a thin elastic plate with a long through-the-thickness crack under remote uniform tensile loading. The new procedure includes a new analytical method and high accurate finite element simulations. In the part of theoretical analysis, three-dimensional Maxwell stress functions are employed in order to derive three-dimensional crack tip fields. Based on the theoretical analysis, an equation which can describe the relationship among the three-dimensional J-integral J( z), the stress intensity factor K( z) and the tri-axial stress constraint level T z ( z) is derived first. In the part of finite element simulations, a fine mesh including 153360 elements is constructed to compute the stress field near the crack front, J( z) and T z ( z). Numerical results show that in the plane very close to the free surface, the K field solution is still valid for in-plane stresses. Comparison with the numerical results shows that the analytical results are valid.

  13. Electric field and temperature scaling of polarization reversal in silicon doped hafnium oxide ferroelectric thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Dayu; Guan, Yan; Vopson, Melvin M.; Xu, Jin; Liang, Hailong; Cao, Fei; Dong, Xianlin; Mueller, Johannes; Schenk, Tony; Schroeder, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    HfO 2 -based binary lead-free ferroelectrics show promising properties for non-volatile memory applications, providing that their polarization reversal behavior is fully understood. In this work, temperature-dependent polarization hysteresis measured over a wide applied field range has been investigated for Si-doped HfO 2 ferroelectric thin films. Our study indicates that in the low and medium electric field regimes (E < twofold coercive field, 2E c ), the reversal process is dominated by the thermal activation on domain wall motion and domain nucleation; while in the high-field regime (E > 2E c ), a non-equilibrium nucleation-limited-switching mechanism dominates the reversal process. The optimum field for ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) applications was determined to be around 2.0 MV/cm, which translates into a 2.0 V potential applied across the 10 nm thick films

  14. Modern aspects of nonlinear convection and magnetic field in flow of thixotropic nanofluid over a nonlinear stretching sheet with variable thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Tasawar; Qayyum, Sajid; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Ahmad, Bashir

    2018-05-01

    Main objective of present analysis is to study the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) nonlinear convective flow of thixotropic nanofluid. Flow is due to nonlinear stretching surface with variable thickness. Nonlinear thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption are utilized in the energy expression. Convective conditions and zero mass flux at sheet are considered. Intention in present analysis is to develop a model for nanomaterial comprising Brownian motion and thermophoresis phenomena. Appropriate transformations are implemented for the conversion of partial differential systems into a sets of ordinary differential equations. The transformed expressions have been scrutinized through homotopic algorithm. Behavior of various sundry variables on velocity, temperature, nanoparticle concentration, skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number are displayed through graphs. It is concluded that qualitative behaviors of temperature and thermal layer thickness are similar for radiation and temperature ratio variables. Moreover an enhancement in heat generation/absorption show rise to thermal field.

  15. Process-structure-property relationships of micron thick gadolinium oxide films deposited by reactive electron beam-physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, Daniel A.

    Gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) is an attractive material for solid state neutron detection due to gadolinium's high thermal neutron capture cross section. Development of neutron detectors based on Gd2 O3 requires sufficiently thick films to ensure neutron absorption. In this dissertation work, the process-structure-property relationships of micron thick Gd2O3 films deposited by reactive electron-beam physical vapor deposition (EB-PVD) were studied. Through a systematic design of experiments, fundamental studies were conducted to determine the effects of processing conditions such as deposition temperature, oxygen flow rate, deposition rate, and substrate material on Gd2O3 film crystallographic phase, texture, morphology, grain size, density, and surface roughness. Films deposited at high rates (> 5 A/s) were examined via x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. Quantitative phase volume calculations were performed via a Rietveld refinement technique. All films deposited at high rates were found to be fully monoclinic or mixed cubic/monoclinic phase. Generally, increased deposition temperature and increased oxygen flow resulted in increased cubic phase volume. As film thickness increased, monoclinic phase volume increased. Grazing incidence x-ray diffraction (GIXRD) depth profiling analysis showed that cubic phase was only present under large incidence angle (large penetration depth) measurements, and after a certain point, only monoclinic phase was grown. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis with selected area diffraction (SAD). Based on this information, a large compressive stress was hypothesized to cause the formation of the monoclinic phase and this hypothesis was confirmed by demonstrating the existence of a stress induced phase transition. An experiment was designed to introduce compressive stress into the Gd2O 3 films via ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD). This allowed for systematic increase in compressive stress while

  16. Methane oxidation in an intensively cropped tropical rice field soil under long-term application of organic and mineral fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, D R; Babu, Y Jagadeesh; Datta, A; Adhya, T K

    2007-01-01

    Methane (CH4) oxidation is the only known biological sink process for mitigating atmospheric and terrestrial emissions of CH4, a major greenhouse gas. Methane oxidation in an alluvial soil planted to rice (Oryza sativa L.) under long-term application of organic (compost with a C/N ratio of 21.71), and mineral fertilizers was measured in a field-cum-laboratory incubation study. Oxidation rates were quantified in terms of decrease in the concentration of CH4 in the headspace of incubation vessels and expressed as half-life (t(1)2) values. Methane oxidation rates significantly differed among the treatments and growth stages of the rice crop. Methane oxidation rates were high at the maximum tillering and maturity stages, whereas they were low at grain-filling stage. Methane oxidation was low (t(1)2) = 15.76 d) when provided with low concentration of CH4. On the contrary, high concentration of CH4 resulted in faster oxidation (t(1)2) = 6.67 d), suggesting the predominance of "low affinity oxidation" in rice fields. Methane oxidation was stimulated following the application of mineral fertilizers or compost implicating nutrient limitation as one of the factors affecting the process. Combined application of compost and mineral fertilizer, however, inhibited CH4 oxidation probably due to N immobilization by the added compost. The positive effect of mineral fertilizer on CH4 oxidation rate was evident only at high CH4 concentration (t(1)2 = 4.80 d), while at low CH4 concentration their was considerable suppression (t(1) = 17.60 d). Further research may reveal that long-term application of fertilizers, organic or inorganic, may not inhibit CH4 oxidation.

  17. Oxidation of nano-reinforced polyolefins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Castro, G.G.

    2010-11-01

    Nano-composite materials attract search due to their improvements on barrier properties by incorporating low level of nano-filler of 5%w. Nowadays, organically modified montmorillonite (MMT-O) is the most used filler due to its high aspect ratio which permits stronger clay/polymer interactions. If nano-reinforced materials are highly performing, the ways in which clay presence affects polyolefin durability have not being subject of a rigorous study, thus they are not yet clear. Our goal was to examine unstabilized clay polypropylene and unstabilized clay polyethylene nano composites to get a better comprehension of the clay effects on their thermo-oxidation process under low temperatures. The effects induced by a dual physic-chemical nature of the clay were explored. The problem was tackled from both experimental and theoretical point of views for degradation process not controlled and controlled by oxygen diffusion (homogenous and heterogeneous respectively). It seems that MMT-O speeds up oxidation. This phenomenon was modeled by adding a catalytic reaction between metallic particles initially present in the MMT-O and hydroperoxide groups (main responsible of oxidation). Regarding the oxygen permeability two situations were confronted: for the clay polypropylene system a decrease of 45% of oxygen permeability was measured. On the other hand, no variation was found for the polyethylene case. This effect was attributed to the fact that polyethylene nano-composite reached a blend morphology less developed than those of the polypropylene nano-composite. Kinetics and oxidation products profiles across the sample thickness were simulated for both systems by coupling oxidation reactions with oxygen diffusion equations. For the polyethylene case, the effects induced by oxidation on molar mass and crystalline morphology were also simulated. Finally, based on a structure-property relationship, simulations of mechanic modulus profiles were performed for the heterogeneous

  18. Oxidation kinetics of zircaloy-4 in the temperature range correspondent to alpha phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medeiros, L.F.

    1975-12-01

    Oxidation kinetics of Zry-4 in the alpha phase is isothermally studied in the temperature range from 600 0 C to 800 0 C, by continuous and discontinuous gravimetric methods. The total mass gain during the oxidation takes place by two distinct ways: oxide formation and solid solution formation. The first one has been studied by microscopy: the latter by microhardness. The oxygen diffusion coefficients in the zirconium are experimentally determined by microhardness measurements and are compared with those obtained by the oxide layer thickness and by oxygen mass in the oxide. The oxygen diffusion coefficients in the oxide are obtained too by oxide layer thickness and by oxygen diffusivities in the alpha phase and compared with literature. (author)

  19. Designing advanced materials by environmental friendly plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toader, I.; Valeca, M.; Rusu, O.; Coaca, E.; Marin, A.

    2016-01-01

    In the CANDU-PHWR nuclear reactors, Zr-2.5Nb coated with a black adherent oxide film of 1 to 2 μm in thickness is currently used for the manufacture of pressure tubes. The black oxide thin film has corrosion protective properties. However, it can be damaged during the regular refueling process, thus causing hydrogen/oxygen ingression. Therefore, an enhanced wear and corrosion resistance coating is needed. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is an anodic electrochemical treatment, both cost-effective and environmentally friendly, widely used in the formation of a protective oxide film on the metal surface to enhance wear and corrosion resistance as well as prolonging component lifetime. The state of the art reveals that PEO method is suitable for improving the wear resistance of Zr-2.5Nb alloy. Few studies are performed in this field and thus, it is necessary to conduct a more detailed insight study on the processing parameters for PEO treatment. By understanding the influence of process parameters, such as electrolyte temperature and electrolyte composition, we can find the way to obtain a coating with improved mechanical and corrosion properties on zirconium alloys. (authors)

  20. Quantum confinement effect in Bi anti-dot thin films with tailored pore wall widths and thicknesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Y., E-mail: youngok@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hirose, Y.; Fukumura, T.; Hasegawa, T. [Department of Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, JST, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakao, S. [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, JST, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Xu, J. [School of Engineering, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02912 (United States)

    2014-01-13

    We investigated quantum confinement effects in Bi anti-dot thin films grown on anodized aluminium oxide templates. The pore wall widths (w{sub Bi}) and thickness (t) of the films were tailored to have values longer or shorter than Fermi wavelength of Bi (λ{sub F} = ∼40 nm). Magnetoresistance measurements revealed a well-defined weak antilocalization effect below 10 K. Coherence lengths (L{sub ϕ}) as functions of temperature were derived from the magnetoresistance vs field curves by assuming the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka model. The anti-dot thin film with w{sub Bi} and t smaller than λ{sub F} showed low dimensional electronic behavior at low temperatures where L{sub ϕ}(T) exceed w{sub Bi} or t.

  1. Wrinkle-free graphene electrodes in zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors for large area applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Hee; Kim, Jae-Hee; Park, Byeong-Ju; Park, Jozeph; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Yoon, Soon-Gil

    2017-02-01

    Wrinkle-free graphene was used to form the source-drain electrodes in thin film transistors based on a zinc tin oxide (ZTO) semiconductor. A 10 nm thick titanium adhesion layer was applied prior to transferring a conductive graphene film on top of it by chemical detachment. The formation of an interlayer oxide between titanium and graphene allows the achievement of uniform surface roughness over the entire substrate area. The resulting devices were thermally treated in ambient air, and a substantial decrease in field effect mobility is observed with increasing annealing temperature. The increase in electrical resistivity of the graphene film at higher annealing temperatures may have some influence, however the growth of the oxide interlayer at the ZTO/Ti boundary is suggested to be most influential, thereby inducing relatively high contact resistance.

  2. High performance printed oxide field-effect transistors processed using photonic curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlapati, Suresh Kumar; Cadilha Marques, Gabriel; Gebauer, Julia Susanne; Dehm, Simone; Bruns, Michael; Winterer, Markus; Baradaran Tahoori, Mehdi; Aghassi-Hagmann, Jasmin; Hahn, Horst; Dasgupta, Subho

    2018-06-01

    Oxide semiconductors are highly promising candidates for the most awaited, next-generation electronics, namely, printed electronics. As a fabrication route for the solution-processed/printed oxide semiconductors, photonic curing is becoming increasingly popular, as compared to the conventional thermal curing method; the former offers numerous advantages over the latter, such as low process temperatures and short exposure time and thereby, high throughput compatibility. Here, using dissimilar photonic curing concepts (UV–visible light and UV-laser), we demonstrate facile fabrication of high performance In2O3 field-effect transistors (FETs). Beside the processing related issues (temperature, time etc.), the other known limitation of oxide electronics is the lack of high performance p-type semiconductors, which can be bypassed using unipolar logics from high mobility n-type semiconductors alone. Interestingly, here we have found that our chosen distinct photonic curing methods can offer a large variation in threshold voltage, when they are fabricated from the same precursor ink. Consequently, both depletion and enhancement-mode devices have been achieved which can be used as the pull-up and pull-down transistors in unipolar inverters. The present device fabrication recipe demonstrates fast processing of low operation voltage, high performance FETs with large threshold voltage tunability.

  3. Mechanical System Analysis of C-Frame for Steel Plate Thickness Gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sri Sudadiyo

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear base instrument is not only applied in the area of research such as medical and agriculture sciences, but also in the field of industry especially for thickness gauge. To the present at the steel industry, the gauge that is applied to cut plate thickness using infra-red ray method, it cannot result in accurately data. To solve that case, it is developed a thickness gauge of steel plate by using gamma ray method that it is named C-Frame. This thickness gauge is hoped that it could control in cutting the steel plate by on-line, accurate, and safe, therefore, it could socialize the advanced technology in the nuclear field to support the production process in domestic industries (national industries). The present study yields the calculations of mechanical system of that C-Frame including structure, detector support, source container of radioisotope, and transmission system, be also computed by running Professional Microsoft Fortran Version 5.10, NISA-II program, and AutoCAD program. From the obtained results could be known that the design meets the requirement, so that could be employed properly to measure the thickness of plate in the steel industries. (author)

  4. Titanium Oxide/Platinum Catalysis: Charge Transfer from a Titanium Oxide Support Controls Activity and Selectivity in Methanol Oxidation on Platinum

    KAUST Repository

    Hervier, Antoine

    2011-11-24

    Platinum films of 1 nm thickness were deposited by electron beam evaporation onto 100 nm thick titanium oxide films (TiOx) with variable oxygen vacancy concentrations and fluorine (F) doping. Methanol oxidation on the platinum films produced formaldehyde, methyl formate, and carbon dioxide. F-doped samples demonstrated significantly higher activity for methanol oxidation when the TiOx was stoichiometric (TiO 2), but lower activity when it was nonstoichiometric (TiO 1.7 and TiO1.9). These results correlate with the chemical behavior of the same types of catalysts in CO oxidation. Fluorine doping of stoichiometric TiO2 also increased selectivity toward partial oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde and methyl formate, but had an opposite effect in the case of nonstoichiometric TiOx. Introduction of oxygen vacancies and fluorine doping both increased the conductivity of the TiO x film. For oxygen vacancies, this occurred by the formation of a conduction channel in the band gap, whereas in the case of fluorine doping, F acted as an n-type donor, forming a conduction channel at the bottom of the conduction band, about 0.5-1.0 eV higher in energy. The higher energy electrons in F-doped stoichiometric TiOx led to higher turnover rates and increased selectivity toward partial oxidation of methanol. This correlation between electronic structure and turnover rate and selectivity indicates that the ability of the support to transfer charges to surface species controls in part the activity and selectivity of the reaction. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency line shapes for large probe fields and optically thick media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the line shape and linewidths for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in optically thick, Doppler broadened media (buffer gasses are also considered). In generalizing the definition of the EIT linewidth to optically thick media, we find two different linewidth definitions apply depending on whether the experiment is pulsed or continuous wave (cw). Using the cw definition for the EIT line shape we derive analytic expressions describing the linewidth as a function of optical depth. We also review the EIT line shapes in optically thin media and provide physical arguments for how the line shapes change as a function of various parameters

  6. Optimization of plastic scintillator thicknesses for online beta/gamma detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pourtangestani K.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available For efficient beta detection in a mixed beta gamma field, Monte Carlo simulation models have been built to optimize the thickness of a plastic scintillator, used in a whole body monitor. The simulation has been performed using the MCNP/X code for different thicknesses of plastic scintillator from 150 μm to 600 μm. The relationship between the thickness of the scintillator and the efficiency of the detector has been analyzed. For 150 μm thickness, an experimental investigation has been conducted with different beta sources at different positions on the scintillator and the counting efficiency of the unit has been measured. Evaluated data along with experimental ones have been discussed. A thickness of 300 μm to 500 μm has been found to be the optimum thickness for high efficiency beta detection in the presence of low energy gamma-rays.

  7. Determination of surface oxide compositions on Alloy 600 using Rutherford backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Kraner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    The surface composition of oxides formed on Alloy 600 under conditions similar to those in the primary side of PWR heat exchangers has been studied as a function of potential using Rutherford backscattering and proton inelastic scattering. Electropolished samples of Alloy 600 were exposed at several potentials to a solution of 0.18M H 3 BO 3 (2000ppm B) with 0.21mM LiOH (1.5ppm Li) at 300 0 C for 450 hours. The potentials relative to an internal hydrogen electrode ranged from -.09 to 750 mV. RBS analysis showed little or no oxide formation on samples exposed at 0 mV. Above 0 mV oxide layers formed whose thicknesses increased with potential. In addition the RBS showed a significantly enhanced concentration of aluminum and silicon in oxide. Both the oxygen and the sum of the aluminum and silicon content appeared to maintain a fixed surface concentration independent of the oxide thickness. Boron and lithium concentrations were analyzed with proton inelastic scattering. No lithium was detected in any sample. The boron concentration was found to follow the thickness of the oxide

  8. Determination of surface oxide compositions on Alloy 600 using Rutherford backscattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, A.L.; Isaacs, H.S.; Kraner, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    The surface composition of oxides formed on Alloy 600 under conditions similar to those in the primary side of PWR heat exchangers has been studied as a function of potential using Rutherford backscattering and proton inelastic scattering. Electropolished samples of Alloy 600 were exposed at several potentials to a solution of 0.18M H 3 BO 3 (2000 ppM B) with 0.28M LiOH (1.4 ppM Li) at 300 0 C for 450 hours. The potentials relative to an internal hydrogen electrode ranged from -.09 to 750 mV. RBS analysis showed little or no oxide formation on samples exposed at 0 mV. Above 0 mV oxide layers formed whose thicknesses increased with potential. In addition the RBS showed a significantly enhanced concentration of aluminum and silicon in oxide. Both the oxygen and the sum of the aluminum and silicon content appeared to maintain a fixed surface concentration independent of the oxide thickness. Boron and lithium concentration were analyzed with proton inelastic scattering. No lithium was found in any sample. The boron concentration was found to follow the thickness of the oxide

  9. Structural and interfacial characteristics of thin (2 films grown by electron cyclotron resonance plasma oxidation on [100] Si substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Carl, D.A.; Hess, D.W.; Lieberman, M.A.; Gronsky, R.

    1991-04-01

    The feasibility of fabricating ultra-thin SiO 2 films on the order of a few nanometer thickness has been demonstrated. SiO 2 thin films of approximately 7 nm thickness have been produced by ion flux-controlled Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma oxidation at low temperature on [100] Si substrates, in reproducible fashion. Electrical measurements of these films indicate that they have characteristics comparable to those of thermally grown oxides. The thickness of the films was determined by ellipsometry, and further confirmed by cross-sectional High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy. Comparison between the ECR and the thermal oxide films shows that the ECR films are uniform and continuous over at least a few microns in lateral direction, similar to the thermal oxide films grown at comparable thickness. In addition, HRTEM images reveal a thin (1--1.5 nm) crystalline interfacial layer between the ECR film and the [100] substrate. Thinner oxide films of approximately 5 nm thickness have also been attempted, but so far have resulted in nonuniform coverage. Reproducibility at this thickness is difficult to achieve

  10. High-performance field emission device utilizing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes-based pillar architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bipin Kumar; Kedawat, Garima; Gangwar, Amit Kumar; Nagpal, Kanika; Kashyap, Pradeep Kumar; Srivastava, Shubhda; Singh, Satbir; Kumar, Pawan; Suryawanshi, Sachin R.; Seo, Deok Min; Tripathi, Prashant; More, Mahendra A.; Srivastava, O. N.; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Late, Dattatray J.

    2018-01-01

    The vertical aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs)-based pillar architectures were created on laminated silicon oxide/silicon (SiO2/Si) wafer substrate at 775 °C by using water-assisted chemical vapor deposition under low pressure process condition. The lamination was carried out by aluminum (Al, 10.0 nm thickness) as a barrier layer and iron (Fe, 1.5 nm thickness) as a catalyst precursor layer sequentially on a silicon wafer substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images show that synthesized CNTs are vertically aligned and uniformly distributed with a high density. The CNTs have approximately 2-30 walls with an inner diameter of 3-8 nm. Raman spectrum analysis shows G-band at 1580 cm-1 and D-band at 1340 cm-1. The G-band is higher than D-band, which indicates that CNTs are highly graphitized. The field emission analysis of the CNTs revealed high field emission current density (4mA/cm2 at 1.2V/μm), low turn-on field (0.6 V/μm) and field enhancement factor (6917) with better stability and longer lifetime. Emitter morphology resulting in improved promising field emission performances, which is a crucial factor for the fabrication of pillared shaped vertical aligned CNTs bundles as practical electron sources.

  11. High-performance field emission device utilizing vertically aligned carbon nanotubes-based pillar architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipin Kumar Gupta

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The vertical aligned carbon nanotubes (CNTs-based pillar architectures were created on laminated silicon oxide/silicon (SiO2/Si wafer substrate at 775 °C by using water-assisted chemical vapor deposition under low pressure process condition. The lamination was carried out by aluminum (Al, 10.0 nm thickness as a barrier layer and iron (Fe, 1.5 nm thickness as a catalyst precursor layer sequentially on a silicon wafer substrate. Scanning electron microscope (SEM images show that synthesized CNTs are vertically aligned and uniformly distributed with a high density. The CNTs have approximately 2–30 walls with an inner diameter of 3–8 nm. Raman spectrum analysis shows G-band at 1580 cm−1 and D-band at 1340 cm−1. The G-band is higher than D-band, which indicates that CNTs are highly graphitized. The field emission analysis of the CNTs revealed high field emission current density (4mA/cm2 at 1.2V/μm, low turn-on field (0.6 V/μm and field enhancement factor (6917 with better stability and longer lifetime. Emitter morphology resulting in improved promising field emission performances, which is a crucial factor for the fabrication of pillared shaped vertical aligned CNTs bundles as practical electron sources.

  12. Oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces studied by grazing incidence X-ray scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gilles

    Experimental determinations of the atomic structure of insulating oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces are scarce, because surface science techniques are often limited by the insulating character of the substrate. Grazing incidence X-ray scattering (GIXS), which is not subject to charge effects, can provide very precise information on the atomic structure of oxide surfaces: roughness, relaxation and reconstruction. It is also well adapted to analyze the atomic structure, the registry, the misfit relaxation, elastic or plastic, the growth mode and the morphology of metal/oxide interfaces during their growth, performed in situ. GIXS also allows the analysis of thin films and buried interfaces, in a non-destructive way, yielding the epitaxial relationships, and, by variation of the grazing incidence angle, the lattice parameter relaxation along the growth direction. On semi-coherent interfaces, the existence of an ordered network of interfacial misfit dislocations can be demonstrated, its Burger's vector determined, its ordering during in situ annealing cycles followed, and sometimes even its atomic structure can be addressed. Careful analysis during growth allows the modeling of the dislocation nucleation process. This review emphasizes the new information that GIXS can bring to oxide surfaces and metal/oxide interfaces by comparison with other surface science techniques. The principles of X-ray diffraction by surfaces and interfaces are recalled, together with the advantages and properties of grazing angles. The specific experimental requirements are discussed. Recent results are presented on the determination of the atomic structure of relaxed or reconstructed oxide surfaces. A description of results obtained during the in situ growth of metal on oxide surfaces is also given, as well as investigations of thick metal films on oxide surfaces, with lattice parameter misfit relaxed by an array of dislocations. Recent work performed on oxide thin films having

  13. Functionalization of 2D macroporous silicon under the high-pressure oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karachevtseva, L.; Kartel, M.; Kladko, V.; Gudymenko, O.; Bo, Wang; Bratus, V.; Lytvynenko, O.; Onyshchenko, V.; Stronska, O.

    2018-03-01

    Addition functionalization after high-pressure oxidation of 2D macroporous silicon structures is evaluated. X-ray diffractometry indicates formation of orthorhombic SiO2 phase on macroporous silicon at oxide thickness of 800-1200 nm due to cylindrical symmetry of macropores and high thermal expansion coefficient of SiO2. Pb center concentration grows with the splitting energy of LO- and TO-phonons and SiO2 thickness in oxidized macroporous silicon structures. This increase EPR signal amplitude and GHz radiation absorption and is promising for development of high-frequency devices and electronically controlled elements.

  14. Vacuum-arc chromium coatings for Zr-1%Nb alloy protection against high-temperature oxidation in air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuprin, A.S.; Belous, V.A.; Bryk, V.V.; Vasilenko, R.L.; Voevodin, V.N.; Ovcharenko, V.D.; Tolmacheva, G.N.; Kolodij, I.V.; Lunev, V.M.; Klimenko, I.O.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of vacuum-arc Cr coatings on the alloy E110 resistance to the oxidation in air at temperatures 1020 and 1100 deg C for 3600 s has been investigated. The methods of scanning electron microscope, X-ray analysis and nanoindentation were used to determine the thickness, phase, mechanical properties of coatings and oxide layers. The results show that the chromium coating can effectively protect fuel tubes against high-temperature oxidation in air for one hour. In the coating during oxidation at T = 1100 deg C a Cr 2 O 3 oxide layer of 5 μm thickness is formed preventing further oxygen penetration into the coating, and thus the tube shape is conserved. Under similar test conditions the oxidation of uncoated tubes with formation of a porous monocline oxide of ZrO 2 of a thickness more than ≥ 250 μm is observed, then the deformation and cracking of samples occur and the oxide layer breaks away

  15. Transparent field-effect transistors based on AlN-gate dielectric and IGZO-channel semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besleaga, C.; Stan, G.E.; Pintilie, I.; Barquinha, P.; Fortunato, E.; Martins, R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • TFTs based on IGZO channel semiconductor and AlN gate dielectric were fabricated. • AlN films – a viable and cheap gate dielectric alternative for transparent TFTs. • Influence of gate dielectric layer thickness on TFTs electrical characteristics. • No degradation of AlN gate dielectric was observed during devices stress testing. - Abstract: The degradation of thin-film transistors (TFTs) caused by the self-heating effect constitutes a problem to be solved for the next generation of displays. Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a viable alternative for gate dielectric of TFTs due to its good thermal conductivity, matching coefficient of thermal expansion to indium–gallium–zinc-oxide, and excellent stability at high temperatures. Here, AlN thin films of different thicknesses were fabricated by a low temperature reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering process, using a low cost, metallic Al target. Their electrical properties have been thoroughly assessed. Furthermore, the 200 nm and 500 nm thick AlN layers have been integrated as gate-dielectric in transparent TFTs with indium–gallium–zinc-oxide as channel semiconductor. Our study emphasizes the potential of AlN thin films for transparent electronics, whilst the functionality of the fabricated field-effect transistors is explored and discussed.

  16. Transparent field-effect transistors based on AlN-gate dielectric and IGZO-channel semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besleaga, C.; Stan, G.E.; Pintilie, I. [National Institute of Materials Physics, 405A Atomistilor, 077125 Magurele-Ilfov (Romania); Barquinha, P.; Fortunato, E. [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, and CEMOP-UNINOVA, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Martins, R., E-mail: rm@uninova.pt [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, and CEMOP-UNINOVA, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2016-08-30

    Highlights: • TFTs based on IGZO channel semiconductor and AlN gate dielectric were fabricated. • AlN films – a viable and cheap gate dielectric alternative for transparent TFTs. • Influence of gate dielectric layer thickness on TFTs electrical characteristics. • No degradation of AlN gate dielectric was observed during devices stress testing. - Abstract: The degradation of thin-film transistors (TFTs) caused by the self-heating effect constitutes a problem to be solved for the next generation of displays. Aluminum nitride (AlN) is a viable alternative for gate dielectric of TFTs due to its good thermal conductivity, matching coefficient of thermal expansion to indium–gallium–zinc-oxide, and excellent stability at high temperatures. Here, AlN thin films of different thicknesses were fabricated by a low temperature reactive radio-frequency magnetron sputtering process, using a low cost, metallic Al target. Their electrical properties have been thoroughly assessed. Furthermore, the 200 nm and 500 nm thick AlN layers have been integrated as gate-dielectric in transparent TFTs with indium–gallium–zinc-oxide as channel semiconductor. Our study emphasizes the potential of AlN thin films for transparent electronics, whilst the functionality of the fabricated field-effect transistors is explored and discussed.

  17. All-oxide-based synthetic antiferromagnets exhibiting layer-resolved magnetization reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Binbin; Xu, Haoran; Ma, Chao; Mattauch, Stefan; Lan, Da; Jin, Feng; Guo, Zhuang; Wan, Siyuan; Chen, Pingfan; Gao, Guanyin; Chen, Feng; Su, Yixi; Wu, Wenbin

    2017-07-01

    Synthesizing antiferromagnets with correlated oxides has been challenging, owing partly to the markedly degraded ferromagnetism of the magnetic layer at nanoscale thicknesses. Here we report on the engineering of an antiferromagnetic interlayer exchange coupling (AF-IEC) between ultrathin but ferromagnetic La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 layers across an insulating CaRu1/2Ti1/2O3 spacer. The layer-resolved magnetic switching leads to sharp steplike hysteresis loops with magnetization plateaus depending on the repetition number of the stacking bilayers. The magnetization configurations can be switched at moderate fields of hundreds of oersted. Moreover, the AF-IEC can also be realized with an alternative magnetic layer of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 that possesses a Curie temperature near room temperature. The findings will add functionalities to devices with correlated-oxide interfaces.

  18. Numerical predictions of dry oxidation of iron and low-carbon steel at moderately elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshall, G.A.

    1996-11-01

    Wrought and cast low-carbon steel are candidate materials for the thick (e.g. 10 cm) outer barrier of nuclear waste packages being considered for use in the potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain. Dry oxidation is possible at the moderately elevated temperatures expected at the container surface (323-533 K or 50-260 C). Numerical predictions of dry oxidation damage were made based on experimental data for iron and low-carbon steel and parabolic oxidation theory. The Forward Euler method was implemented to integrate the parabolic rate law for arbitrary, complex temperature histories. Assuming growth of a defect-free, adherent oxide, the surface penetration of a low-carbon steel barrier following 5000 years of exposure to a severe, but repository-relevant, temperature history is predicted to be only about 0.127 mm, less than 0.13% of the expected container thickness of 10 cm. Allowing the oxide to spall upon reaching a critical thickness increases the predicted metal penetration values, but degradation is still computed to be negligible. Thus, dry oxidation is not expected to significantly degrade the performance of thick, corrosion allowance barriers constructed of low-carbon steel

  19. Oxidation of nano-sized aluminum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsov, A.B.; Lerner, M.; Rodkevich, N.; Nie, H.; Abraham, A.; Schoenitz, M.; Dreizin, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Weight gain measured in TG oxidation experiments was split between particles of different sizes. • Reaction kinetics obtained by isoconversion explicitly accounting for the effect of size distribution. • Activation energy is obtained as a function of oxide thickness for growth of amorphous alumina. • Oxidation mechanism for nanopowders remains the same as for coarser aluminum powders. - Abstract: Oxidation of aluminum nanopowders obtained by electro-exploded wires is studied. Particle size distributions are obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Thermo-gravimetric (TG) experiments are complemented by TEM and XRD studies of partially oxidized particles. Qualitatively, oxidation follows the mechanism developed for coarser aluminum powder and resulting in formation of hollow oxide shells. Sintering of particles is also observed. The TG results are processed to account explicitly for the particle size distribution and spherical shapes, so that oxidation of particles of different sizes is characterized. The apparent activation energy is obtained as a function of the reaction progress using model-free isoconversion processing of experimental data. A complete phenomenological oxidation model is then proposed assuming a spherically symmetric geometry. The oxidation kinetics of aluminum powder is shown to be unaffected by particle sizes reduced down to tens of nm. The apparent activation energy describing growth of amorphous alumina is increasing at the very early stages of oxidation. The higher activation energy is likely associated with an increasing homogeneity in the growing amorphous oxide layer, initially containing multiple defects and imperfections. The trends describing changes in both activation energy and pre-exponent of the growing amorphous oxide are useful for predicting ignition delays of aluminum particles. The kinetic trends describing activation energies and pre-exponents in a broader range of the oxide

  20. Field-controllable second harmonic generation at a graphene oxide heterointerface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Gustavo E.; Kim, Jin Ho; Osgood, Richard, III; Xu, Jimmy

    2018-03-01

    We report on the voltage-dependent SHG signal obtained in a reduced-graphene oxide (rGO)/p-type Si heterointerface. A simple qualitative model considering the interaction between the heterointerface depletion region potential and the naturally occurring surface dipole layer on the rGO is introduced to account for the characteristics of the SHG signal, specifically, a minimum point at ≈ -3 V bias on the rGO side of the interface. This feature-rich system has the potential to provide field-controllable surface-dipole moments and second-order nonlinearities, which may find applications in tunable nonlinear photonic devices for realizing second-harmonic generation and optical-rectification.

  1. Study of buffer layer thickness on bulk heterojunction solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seunguk; Suman, C K; Lee, Donggu; Kim, Seohee; Lee, Changhee

    2010-10-01

    We studied the effect of the buffer layer (molybdenum-oxide (MoO3)) thickness on the performance of organic solar cell based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61 butyric acid methyl ester fullerene derivative (PCBM). The thickness of MoO3 was varied from 1 nm to 30 nm for optimization of device performance. The photocurrent-voltage and impedance spectroscopy were measured under dark and AM1.5G solar simulated illumination of 100 mW/cm2 for exploring the role of the buffer layer thickness on carrier collection at an anode. The MoO3 thickness of the optimized device (efficiency approximately 3.7%) was found to be in the range of 5 approximately 10 nm. The short-circuit current and the shunt resistance decrease gradually for thicker MoO3 layer over 5 nm. The device can be modeled as the combination of three RC parallel circuits (each one for the active layer, buffer layer and interface between the buffer layer and the active layer) in series with contact resistance (Rs approximately 60 ohm).

  2. Design of Thermal Barrier Coatings Thickness for Gas Turbine Blade Based on Finite Element Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Biao; Fan, Xueling; Li, Dingjun; Jiang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) are deposited on the turbine blade to reduce the temperature of underlying substrate, as well as providing protection against the oxidation and hot corrosion from high temperature gas. Optimal ceramic top-coat thickness distribution on the blade can improve the performance and efficiency of the coatings. Design of the coatings thickness is a multiobjective optimization problem due to the conflicts among objectives of high thermal insulation performance, long op...

  3. Assessment of TS-1, a thick cane mutant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shama Rao, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    A true breeding thick cane mutant TS-1, induced by radiations, was obtained in variety Co-419. TS-1 was found to be superior to Co-419 with respect to cane size, weight, yield and juice quality. The thick canes of TS-1 were found to be solid even at 14 months age and so also their ratoons. The tillering habit of TS-1 has a definite advantage over other varieties with respect to easy intercultural field operations. TS-1 is now being tested under various agroclimatic zones in Karnataka, Maharashtra and U.P. (auth.)

  4. A COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS AT z ∼ 5 IN THE 4 Ms CHANDRA DEEP FIELD SOUTH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilli, R.; Comastri, A.; Su, J.; Norman, C.; Vignali, C.; Tozzi, P.; Rosati, P.; Mainieri, V.; Stiavelli, M.; Brandt, W. N.; Xue, Y. Q.; Luo, B.; Castellano, M.; Fontana, A.; Fiore, F.; Ptak, A.

    2011-01-01

    We report the discovery of a Compton-thick active galactic nucleus (AGN) at z = 4.76 in the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field South. This object was selected as a V-band dropout in HST/ACS images and previously recognized as an AGN from optical spectroscopy. The 4 Ms Chandra observations show a significant (∼4.2σ) X-ray detection at the V-band dropout position. The X-ray source displays a hardness ratio of HR = 0.23 ± 0.24, which, for a source at z ∼ 5, is highly suggestive of Compton-thick absorption. The source X-ray spectrum is seen above the background level in the energy range of ∼0.9-4 keV, i.e., in the rest-frame energy range of ∼5-23 keV. When fixing the photon index to Γ = 1.8, the measured column density is N H = 1.4 +0.9 -0.5 x 10 24 cm -2 , which is Compton thick. To our knowledge, this is the most distant heavily obscured AGN, confirmed by X-ray spectral analysis, discovered so far. The intrinsic (de-absorbed), rest-frame luminosity in the 2-10 keV band is ∼2.5 x 10 44 erg s -1 , which places this object among type-2 quasars. The spectral energy distribution shows that massive star formation is associated with obscured black hole (BH) accretion. This system may have then been caught during a major coeval episode of BH and stellar mass assembly at early times. The measure of the number density of heavily obscured AGN at high redshifts will be crucial to reconstructing the BH/galaxy evolution history from the beginning.

  5. Adaptation of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms to environment shift of paddy field soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Xiubin; Lu, Yahai

    2012-04-01

    Adaptation of microorganisms to the environment is a central theme in microbial ecology. The objective of this study was to investigate the response of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) to a soil medium shift. We employed two rice field soils collected from Beijing and Hangzhou, China. These soils contained distinct AOB communities dominated by Nitrosomonas in Beijing rice soil and Nitrosospira in Hangzhou rice soil. Three mixtures were generated by mixing equal quantities of Beijing soil and Hangzhou soil (BH), Beijing soil with sterilized Hangzhou soil (BSH), and Hangzhou soil with sterilized Beijing soil (HSB). Pure and mixed soils were permanently flooded, and the surface-layer soil where ammonia oxidation occurred was collected to determine the response of AOB and AOA to the soil medium shift. AOB populations increased during the incubation, and the rates were initially faster in Beijing soil than in Hangzhou soil. Nitrosospira (cluster 3a) and Nitrosomonas (communis cluster) increased with time in correspondence with ammonia oxidation in the Hangzhou and Beijing soils, respectively. The 'BH' mixture exhibited a shift from Nitrosomonas at day 0 to Nitrosospira at days 21 and 60 when ammonia oxidation became most active. In 'HSB' and 'BSH' mixtures, Nitrosospira showed greater stimulation than Nitrosomonas, both with and without N amendment. These results suggest that Nitrosospira spp. were better adapted to soil environment shifts than Nitrosomonas. Analysis of the AOA community revealed that the composition of AOA community was not responsive to the soil environment shifts or to nitrogen amendment. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A study on tissue compensator thickness ratio and an application for 4MV X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Bum; Kwon, Young Ho; Jung, Hee Young; Kim, You Hyun

    1996-01-01

    A radiation beam incident on irregular or sloping surface produces an inhomogeneity of absorbed dose. The use of a tissue compensator can partially correct this dose inhomogeneity. The tissue compensator should be made based on experimentally measured thickness ratio. The thickness ratio depends on beam energy, distance from the tissue compensator to the surface of patient, field size, treatment depth, tissue deficit and other factors. In this study, the thickness ratio was measured for various field size of 5cm x 5cm, 10cm x 10cm, 15cm x 15cm, 20 x 20cm for 4MV X-ray beams. The distance to the compensator from the X-ray target was fixed, 49cm, and measurement depth was 3, 5, 7, 9 cm. For each measurement depth, the tissue deficit was changed from 0 to(measurement depth-1)cm by 1cm increment. As a result, thickness ratio was decreased according to field size and tissue deficit was increased. Use of a representative thickness ratio for tissue compensator, there was 10% difference of absorbed dose but use of a experimentally measured thickness ratio for tissue compensator, there was 2% difference of absorbed dose. Therefore, it can be concluded that the tissue compensator made by experimentally measured thickness ratio can produce good distribution with acceptable inhomogeneity and such tissue compensator can be effectively applied to clinical radiotherapy.

  7. Wire winding increases lifetime of oxide coated cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerslake, W.; Vargo, D.

    1965-01-01

    Refractory-metal heater base wound with a thin refractory metal wire increases the longevity of oxide-coated cathodes. The wire-wound unit is impregnated with the required thickness of metal oxide. This cathode is useful in magnetohydrodynamic systems and in electron tubes.

  8. Characterization of low-temperature microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide formed by plasma oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Chunqing, E-mail: cdeng@uwaterloo.ca; Otto, M.; Lupascu, A., E-mail: alupascu@uwaterloo.ca [Institute for Quantum Computing, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Waterloo Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-01-27

    We report on the characterization of microwave loss of thin aluminum oxide films at low temperatures using superconducting lumped resonators. The oxide films are fabricated using plasma oxidation of aluminum and have a thickness of 5 nm. We measure the dielectric loss versus microwave power for resonators with frequencies in the GHz range at temperatures from 54 to 303 mK. The power and temperature dependence of the loss are consistent with the tunneling two-level system theory. These results are relevant to understanding decoherence in superconducting quantum devices. The obtained oxide films are thin and robust, making them suitable for capacitors in compact microwave resonators.

  9. Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Corresponds to Drusen Location and Extent of Visual Field Defects in Superficial and Buried Optic Disc Drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Wegener, Marianne; Sander, Birgit A

    2016-01-01

    (P = 0.002) than eyes with buried ODD. There was a correlation between mean peripapillary RNFL thinning and visual field defects as measured by perimetric mean deviation (R-0.66; P = 0.0001). The most frequent visual field abnormalities were arcuate and partial arcuate defects. CONCLUSIONS...... of patients with ODD and to compare the peripapillary RNFL thickness to the extent of visual field defects and anatomic location (superficial or buried) of ODD. METHODS: Retrospective, cross sectional study. RESULTS: A total of 149 eyes of 84 ODD patients were evaluated. Sixty-five percent were female and 76......% had bilateral ODD. Of 149 eyes, 109 had superficial ODD and 40 had buried ODD. Peripapillary RNFL thinning was seen in 83.6% of eyes, where optical coherence tomography was performed (n = 61). Eyes with superficial ODD had greater mean peripapillary RNFL thinning (P ≤ 0.0001) and visual field defects...

  10. Insights into organic carbon oxidation potential during fluvial transport from controlled laboratory and natural field experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheingross, Joel S.; Dellinger, Mathieu; Golombek, Nina; Hilton, Robert G.; Hovius, Niels; Sachse, Dirk; Turowski, Jens M.; Vieth-Hillebrand, Andrea; Wittmann, Hella

    2017-04-01

    Over geologic timescales, the exchange of organic carbon (OC) between the atmosphere, biosphere and geosphere is thought to be a major control on atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations, and hence global climate. The carbon fluxes from the oxidation of rock-derived OC (a CO2 source) and erosion and transport of biospheric OC (a potential CO2 sink) during fluvial transit are approximately the same order of magnitude or larger than those from silicate weathering (France-Lanord and Derry, 1997; Bouchez et al., 2010). Despite field data showing oxidation of OC moving downstream in lowland rivers, it is unclear if losses occur primarily during active fluvial transport within the river, where OC is in continual motion within an aerated environment, or during longer periods when OC is temporarily stored in river floodplains which may be anoxic. This represents a major knowledge gap, as the unknown location of OC oxidation (i.e., river vs. floodplain) limits our ability to develop process-based models that can be employed to predict OC losses, constrain carbon budgets, and unravel links between climate, tectonics, and erosion. To fill this gap, we investigated the potential for OC oxidation in both controlled laboratory experiments and a simplified field setting. We consider both rock-derived and biospheric OC. Our experiments simulated fluvial transport without floodplain storage, allowing mixtures of OC-rich and siliciclastic sediment to be transported for distances of 1000 km in annular flumes while making time-series measurements of OC concentration in both the solid (POC) and dissolved (DOC) loads, as well as measurements of rhenium concentration, which serves as a proxy for the oxidation of rock-derived OC. These transport experiments were compared to static, control experiments where water and sediment in the same proportion were placed in still water. Initial results for transport of OC-rich soil show similar behavior between the transport and static

  11. Electroluminescence of Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn through SiC whisker electric field enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagstaff, Brandon, E-mail: wagstabj@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Department of Engineering Physics, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); Kitai, Adrian, E-mail: kitaia@mcmaster.ca [McMaster University, Department of Engineering Physics, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada); McMaster University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L8 (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    Alternating current (AC) electroluminescence of thin film oxide phosphors is well known. However in this work electroluminescence of bulk oxide powder phosphors is achieved. A new type of AC Electroluminescent (ACEL) device has been created and developed by integrating SiC whiskers into a phosphor matrix composed of manganese-activated zinc germanate (Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}:Mn{sup 2+}). The conductive SiC whiskers enhance the average electric field in specific regions of the phosphor such that localized breakdown of the phosphor occurs, thus emitting green light. This field enhancement allows light emission to occur in thick film oxide powder phosphors and is notably the first time that bright and reasonably efficient electroluminescence of zinc germanate has been observed without using expensive thin film deposition techniques. Light emission has been achieved in thick pressed pellets using surface-deposited electrodes and the brightness-voltage characteristics of light emission are shown to be consistent with field emission of carriers from the embedded whiskers. - Highlights: • A new electroluminescent phosphor, Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}Mn{sup 2+}+SiC whiskers, is proposed. • A procedure is described to fabricate a solid sample of this composite material. • Under an AC voltage, green light is emitted only in samples containing the SiC whiskers. • A brightness of 25 Cd/m{sup 2} and efficiency of 0.25 Lm/W is observed 9.6×10{sup 6} V/m. • This is notably the first time that ACEL has been observed in bulk Zn{sub 2}GeO{sub 4}Mn{sup 2+}.

  12. Corium Oxidation at Temperatures Above 2000 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagrman, Donald L.; Rempe, Joy L.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanistic model, based on a quasi-equilibrium analysis of oxidation reactions, is proposed for predicting high-temperature corium oxidation. The analysis suggests that oxide forming on the surface of corium containing uranium, zirconium, and iron is similar to the oxides formed on zirconium and uranium as long as there is a small percentage of unoxidized zirconium or uranium in the metallic phase. This is because of the higher affinity of zirconium and uranium for oxygen. Hence, oxidation rates and heat production rates are similar to (U,Zr) compounds until nearly all the uranium and zirconium in the corium oxidizes. Oxidation rates after this point are predicted to be similar to those implied by the oxide thickness present when the forming oxide ceases to be protective, and heat generation rates should be similar to those implied by iron oxidation, i.e., ∼4% of the zirconium oxidation heating rate.The maximum atomic ratio of unoxidized iron to unoxidized liquid zirconium plus uranium for the formation of a solid protective oxide below 2800 K is estimated for a temperature, T (in Kelvin), as follows:(unoxidized iron)/(unoxidized zirconium + turanium) = (1/28){5.7/exp[-(147 061 + 12.08T log(T) - 61.03T - 0.000555T 2 /1.986T)]} 1/2 .As long as this limit is not exceeded, either zirconium or uranium metal oxidation rates and heating describe the corium oxidation rate. If this limit is exceeded, diffusion of steam to the corium surface will limit the oxidation rate, and linear time-dependent growth of a nonprotective, mostly FeO, layer will occur below the protective (Zr,U) O 2 scale. When this happens, the oxidation should be at the constant rate given by the thickness of the protective layer. Heat generation should be similar to that of iron oxidation

  13. Corium Oxidation at Temperatures Above 2000 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagrman, Donald Lee; Rempe, Joy Lynn

    2001-02-01

    A mechanistic model, based on a quasi-equilibrium analysis of oxidation reactions, is proposed for predicting high-temperature corium oxidation. The analysis suggests that oxide forming on the surface of corium containing uranium, zirconium, and iron is similar to the oxides formed on zirconium and uranium as long as there is a small percentage of unoxidized zirconium or uranium in the metallic phase. This is because of the higher affinity of zirconium and uranium for oxygen. Hence, oxidation rates and heat production rates are similar to (U,Zr) compounds until nearly all the uranium and zirconium in the corium oxidizes. Oxidation rates after this point are predicted to be similar to those implied by the oxide thickness present when the forming oxide ceases to be protective, and heat generation rates should be similar to those implied by iron oxidation, i.e., ~4% of the zirconium oxidation heating rate. The maximum atomic ratio of unoxidized iron to unoxidized liquid zirconium plus uranium for the formation of a solid protective oxide below 2800 K is estimated for a temperature, T (in Kelvin), as follows: (unoxidized iron)/(unoxidized zirconium + turanium) = (1/28){5.7/exp[-(147 061 + 12.08T log(T) - 61.03T - 0.000555T2/1.986T)]}1/2. As long as this limit is not exceeded, either zirconium or uranium metal oxidation rates and heating describe the corium oxidation rate. If this limit is exceeded, diffusion of steam to the corium surface will limit the oxidation rate, and linear time-dependent growth of a nonprotective, mostly FeO, layer will occur below the protective (Zr,U) O2 scale. When this happens, the oxidation should be at the constant rate given by the thickness of the protective layer. Heat generation should be similar to that of iron oxidation.

  14. Comparison of Different Approaches for Measuring Tibial Cartilage Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maier Jennifer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis is a degenerative disease affecting bones and cartilage especially in the human knee. In this context, cartilage thickness is an indicator for knee cartilage health. Thickness measurements are performed on medical images acquired in-vivo. Currently, there is no standard method agreed upon that defines a distance measure in articular cartilage. In this work, we present a comparison of different methods commonly used in literature. These methods are based on nearest neighbors, surface normal vectors, local thickness and potential field lines. All approaches were applied to manual segmentations of tibia and lateral and medial tibial cartilage performed by experienced raters. The underlying data were contrast agent-enhanced cone-beam C-arm CT reconstructions of one healthy subject’s knee. The subject was scanned three times, once in supine position and two times in a standing weight-bearing position. A comparison of the resulting thickness maps shows similar distributions and high correlation coefficients between the approaches above 0.90. The nearest neighbor method results on average in the lowest cartilage thickness values, while the local thickness approach assigns the highest values. We showed that the different methods agree in their thickness distribution. The results will be used for a future evaluation of cartilage change under weight-bearing conditions.

  15. Compton-thick AGN at high and low redshift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akylas, A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Corral, A.; Ranalli, P.; Lanzuisi, G.

    2017-10-01

    The most obscured sources detected in X-ray surveys, the Compton-thick AGN present great interest both because they represent the hidden side of accretion but also because they may signal the AGN birth. We analyse the NUSTAR observations from the serendipitous observations in order to study the Compton-thick AGN at the deepest possible ultra-hard band (>10 keV). We compare our results with our SWIFT/BAT findings in the local Universe, as well as with our results in the CDFS and COSMOS fields. We discuss the comparison with X-ray background synthesis models finding that a low fraction of Compton-thick sources (about 15 per cent of the obscured population) is compatible with both the 2-10keV band results and those at harder energies.

  16. Effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, F.A., E-mail: felipe.garces@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Budini, N. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Arce, R.D.; Schmidt, J.A. [Instituto de Física del Litoral (CONICET-UNL), Güemes 3450, Santa Fe S3000GLN (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería Química, Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santiago del Estero 2829, Santa Fe S3000AOM (Argentina)

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films. Transparent conducting oxide films were grown by the spray pyrolysis technique from precursors prepared via the sol–gel method. We determined the structural properties of the films by performing X-ray diffraction and mosaicity measurements, which evidenced an increase of disorder and inhomogeneity between crystalline domains as the films thickened. This behavior was contrasted with results obtained from electrical measurements and was attributed to plastic deformation of the films as their thickness increased. As a result, the carrier mobility, the optical gap and the activation energy are affected due to emerging grain boundaries and a higher degree of disorder. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin films on glass with different thicknesses • Film thickness affects the morphological and electrical properties. • Increasing time deposition allows modification of resistivity and Hall mobility. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increases with film thickness.

  17. Effect of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcés, F.A.; Budini, N.; Arce, R.D.; Schmidt, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have investigated the influence of thickness on structural and electrical properties of Al-doped ZnO films. Transparent conducting oxide films were grown by the spray pyrolysis technique from precursors prepared via the sol–gel method. We determined the structural properties of the films by performing X-ray diffraction and mosaicity measurements, which evidenced an increase of disorder and inhomogeneity between crystalline domains as the films thickened. This behavior was contrasted with results obtained from electrical measurements and was attributed to plastic deformation of the films as their thickness increased. As a result, the carrier mobility, the optical gap and the activation energy are affected due to emerging grain boundaries and a higher degree of disorder. - Highlights: • Al-doped ZnO thin films on glass with different thicknesses • Film thickness affects the morphological and electrical properties. • Increasing time deposition allows modification of resistivity and Hall mobility. • Mosaicity between crystalline domains increases with film thickness

  18. Tuning dipolar magnetic interactions by controlling individual silica coating of iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas Rojas, P. C.; Tancredi, P.; Moscoso Londoño, O.; Knobel, M.; Socolovsky, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    Single and fixed size core, core-shell nanoparticles of iron oxides coated with a silica layer of tunable thickness were prepared by chemical routes, aiming to generate a frame of study of magnetic nanoparticles with controlled dipolar interactions. The batch of iron oxides nanoparticles of 4.5 nm radii, were employed as cores for all the coated samples. The latter was obtained via thermal decomposition of organic precursors, resulting on nanoparticles covered with an organic layer that was subsequently used to promote the ligand exchange in the inverse microemulsion process, employed to coat each nanoparticle with silica. The amount of precursor and times of reaction was varied to obtain different silica shell thicknesses, ranging from 0.5 nm to 19 nm. The formation of the desired structures was corroborated by TEM and SAXS measurements, the core single-phase spinel structure was confirmed by XRD, and superparamagnetic features with gradual change related to dipolar interaction effects were obtained by the study of the applied field and temperature dependence of the magnetization. To illustrate that dipolar interactions are consistently controlled, the main magnetic properties are presented and analyzed as a function of center to center minimum distance between the magnetic cores.

  19. Surface patterned dielectrics by direct writing of anodic oxides using scanning droplet cell microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siket, Christian M.; Mardare, Andrei Ionut; Kaltenbrunner, Martin; Bauer, Siegfried; Hassel, Achim Walter

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Scanning droplet cell microscopy was applied for local gate oxide writing. • Sharp lines are obtained at the highest writing speed of 1 mm min −1 . • 13.4 kC cm −3 was found as charge per volume for aluminium oxide. • High field constant of 24 nm V −1 and dielectric constant of 12 were determined for Al 2 O 3 by CV and EIS. -- Abstract: Scanning droplet cell microscopy was used for patterning of anodic oxide lines on the surface of Al thin films by direct writing. The structural modifications of the written oxide lines as a function of the writing speed were studied by analyzing the relative error of the line widths. Sharper lines were obtained for writing speeds faster than 1 mm min −1 . An increase in sharpness was observed for higher writing speeds. A theoretical model based on the Faraday law is proposed to explain the constant anodisation current measured during the writing process and yielded a charge per volume of 13.4 kC cm −3 for Al 2 O 3 . From calculated oxide film thicknesses the high field constant was found to be 24 nm V −1 . Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed an increase of the electrical permittivity up to ε = 12 with the decrease of the writing speed of the oxide line. Writing of anodic oxide lines was proven to be an important step in preparing capacitors and gate dielectrics in plastic electronics

  20. Effect of layer thickness on the properties of nickel thermal sprayed steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurisna, Zuhri, E-mail: zuhri-nurisna@yahoo.co.id; Triyono,, E-mail: triyonomesin@uns.ac.id; Muhayat, Nurul, E-mail: nurulmuhayat@staff.uns.ac.id; Wijayanta, Agung Tri, E-mail: agungtw@uns.ac.id [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Jr. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Thermal arc spray nickel coating is widely used for decorative and functional applications, by improving corrosion resistance, wear resistance, heat resistence or by modifying other properties of the coated materials. There are several properties have been studied. Layer thickness of nickel thermal sprayed steel may be make harder the substrate surface. In this study, the effect of layer thickness of nickel thermal sprayed steel has been investigated. The rectangular substrate specimens were coated by Ni–5 wt.% Al using wire arc spray method. The thickness of coating layers were in range from 0.4 to 1.0 mm. Different thickness of coating layers were conducted to investigate their effect on hardness and morphology. The coating layer was examined by using microvickers and scanning electron microscope with EDX attachment. Generally, the hardness at the interface increased with increasing thickness of coating layers for all specimens due to higher heat input during spraying process. Morphology analysis result that during spraying process aluminum would react with surrounding oxygen and form aluminum oxide at outer surface of splat. Moreover, porosity was formed in coating layers. However, presence porosity is not related to thickness of coating material. The thicker coating layer resulted highesr of hardness and bond strength.

  1. The Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor: XIII. Physical Realizations of the Transistor and Circuits (One-Two-MOS-Gates on Thin-Thick Pure-Impure Base)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sah, C.-T.; Jie Binbin

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the physical realization of the Bipolar Field-Effect Transistor (BiFET) and its one-transistor basic building block circuits. Examples are given for the one and two MOS gates on thin and thick, pure and impure base, with electron and hole contacts, and the corresponding theoretical current-voltage characteristics previously computed by us, without generation-recombination-trapping-tunneling of electrons and holes. These examples include the one-MOS-gate on semi-infinite thick impure base transistor (the bulk transistor) and the impurethin-base Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) transistor and the two-MOS-gates on thin base transistors (the FinFET and the Thin Film Transistor TFT). Figures are given with the cross-section views containing the electron and hole concentration and current density distributions and trajectories and the corresponding DC current-voltage characteristics.

  2. Performance of organic field effect transistors with high-k gate oxide after application of consecutive bias stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sunwoo; Choi, Changhwan; Lee, Kilbock [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Joong Hwee [Department of Embedded Systems Engineering,University of Incheon, Incheon 406-722 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Ki-Young [Korea Institute of Patent Information, Seoul, 146-8 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jinho, E-mail: jhahn@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-30

    We report the effect of consecutive electrical stress on the performance of organic field effect transistors (OFETs). Sputtered aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub 2}) were used as gate oxide layers. After the electrical stress, the threshold voltage, which strongly depends on bulk defects, was remarkably shifted to the negative direction, while the other performance characteristics of OFETs such as on-current, transconductance and mobility, which are sensitive to interface defects, were slightly decreased. This result implies that the defects in the bulk layer are significantly affected compared to the defects in the interface layer. Thus, it is important to control the defects in the pentacene bulk layer in order to maintain the good reliabilities of pentacene devices. Those defects in HfO{sub 2} gate oxide devices were larger compared to those in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} gate oxide devices.

  3. Observing the semiconducting band-gap alignment of MoS{sub 2} layers of different atomic thicknesses using a MoS{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si heterojunction tunnel diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiguchi, Katsuhiko, E-mail: nishiguchi.katsuhiko@lab.ntt.co.jp; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Akira [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, 3-1 Morinosato Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan); Castellanos-Gomez, Andres; Zant, Herre S. J. van der; Steele, Gary A. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-08-03

    We demonstrate a tunnel diode composed of a vertical MoS{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si heterostructure. A MoS{sub 2} flake consisting four areas of different thicknesses functions as a gate terminal of a silicon field-effect transistor. A thin gate oxide allows tunneling current to flow between the n-type MoS{sub 2} layers and p-type Si channel. The tunneling-current characteristics show multiple negative differential resistance features, which we interpret as an indication of different conduction-band alignments of the MoS{sub 2} layers of different thicknesses. The presented tunnel device can be also used as a hybrid-heterostructure device combining the advantages of two-dimensional materials with those of silicon transistors.

  4. High-temperature oxidation kinetics of sponge-based E110 cladding alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Garrison, Benton E.; Howell, Mike; Bell, Gary L.

    2018-02-01

    Two-sided oxidation experiments were recently conducted at 900°C-1200 °C in flowing steam with samples of sponge-based Zr-1Nb alloy E110. Although the old electrolytic E110 tubing exhibited a high degree of susceptibility to nodular corrosion and experienced breakaway oxidation rates in a relatively short time, the new sponge-based E110 demonstrated steam oxidation behavior comparable to Zircaloy-4. Sample weight gain and oxide layer thickness measurements were performed on oxidized E110 specimens and compared to oxygen pickup and oxide layer thickness calculations using the Cathcart-Pawel correlation. Our study shows that the sponge-based E110 follows the parabolic law at temperatures above 1015 °C. At or below 1015 °C, the oxidation rate was very low when compared to Zircaloy-4 and can be represented by a cubic expression. No breakaway oxidation was observed at 1000 °C for oxidation times up to 10,000 s. Arrhenius expressions are given to describe the parabolic rate constants at temperatures above 1015 °C and cubic rate constants are provided for temperatures below 1015 °C. The weight gains calculated by our equations are in excellent agreement with the measured sample weight gains at all test temperatures. In addition to the as-fabricated E110 cladding sample, prehydrided E110 cladding with hydrogen concentrations in the 100-150 wppm range was also investigated. The effect of hydrogen content on sponge-based E110 oxidation kinetics was minimal. No significant difference was found between as-fabricated and hydrided samples with regard to oxygen pickup and oxide layer thickness for hydrogen contents below 150 wppm.

  5. Electrochemical behavior for a reduction of uranium oxide in a LiCl-Li2O molten salt with an integrated cathode assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Bin; Park, Byung Heung; Seo, Chung Seok; Jung, Ki Jung; Park, Seong Won

    2005-01-01

    Electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide to uranium metal was studied in a LiCl-Li 2 O molten salt system. The reduction mechanism of the uranium oxide to a uranium metal has been studied by means of a cyclic voltammetry. Effects of the layer thickness of the uranium oxide and the thickness of the MgO on the overpotential of the cathode and the anode were investigated by means of a chronopotentiometry. From the cyclic voltamograms, the decomposition potentials of the metal oxides are the determining factors for the mechanism of the reduction of the uranium oxide in a Li Cl-3 wt% Li 2 O molten salt and the two mechanisms of the electrolytic reduction were considered with regards to the applied cathode potential. In the chronopotentiograms, the exchange current and the transfer coefficient based on the Tafel behavior were obtained with regard to the layer thickness of the uranium oxide which is loaded into the porous MgO membrane and the thickness of the porous MgO membrane. The maximum allowable currents for the changes of the layer thickness of the uranium oxide and the thickness of the MgO membrane were also obtained from the limiting potential which is the decomposition potential of LiCl

  6. Rheology and microstructure of dilute graphene oxide suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesfai, Waka; Singh, Pawan; Shatilla, Youssef; Iqbal, Muhammad Z.; Abdala, Ahmed A.

    2013-01-01

    Graphene and graphene oxide are potential candidates as nanofluids for thermal management applications. Here, we investigate the rheological properties and intrinsic viscosity of aqueous suspension of graphene and use the measured intrinsic viscosity to determine the aspect ratio of graphene oxide. Dilute suspension of graphene oxide (0.05 to 0.5 mg/mL) exhibits a shear thinning behavior at low shear rates followed by a shear-independent region that starts at shear rate between 5 and 100/s depending on the concentration. This shear thinning behavior becomes more pronounced with the increase of particle loading. Moreover, AFM imaging of the dried graphene oxide indicates the evolution of irregular and thin low fractal aggregates of 0.3–1.8 nm thickness at lower concentrations to oblate compact structures of 1–18 nm thickness of nanosheets at higher concentration. These observations elucidate the microstructure growth mechanisms of graphene oxide in multiphase systems, which are important for nanofluids applications and for dispersing graphene and graphene oxide in composite materials. The suspension has a very high intrinsic viscosity of 1661 due to the high graphene oxide aspect ratio. Based on this intrinsic viscosity, we predict graphene oxide aspect ratio of 2445. While the classical Einstein and Batchelor models underestimate the relative viscosity of graphene oxide suspension, Krieger–Dougherty prediction is in a good agreement with the experimental measurement

  7. Oxidation kinetics of Si and SiGe by dry rapid thermal oxidation, in-situ steam generation oxidation and dry furnace oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozé, Fabien; Gourhant, Olivier; Blanquet, Elisabeth; Bertin, François; Juhel, Marc; Abbate, Francesco; Pribat, Clément; Duru, Romain

    2017-06-01

    The fabrication of ultrathin compressively strained SiGe-On-Insulator layers by the condensation technique is likely a key milestone towards low-power and high performances FD-SOI logic devices. However, the SiGe condensation technique still requires challenges to be solved for an optimized use in an industrial environment. SiGe oxidation kinetics, upon which the condensation technique is founded, has still not reached a consensus in spite of various studies which gave insights into the matter. This paper aims to bridge the gaps between these studies by covering various oxidation processes relevant to today's technological needs with a new and quantitative analysis methodology. We thus address oxidation kinetics of SiGe with three Ge concentrations (0%, 10%, and 30%) by means of dry rapid thermal oxidation, in-situ steam generation oxidation, and dry furnace oxidation. Oxide thicknesses in the 50 Å to 150 Å range grown with oxidation temperatures between 850 and 1100 °C were targeted. The present work shows first that for all investigated processes, oxidation follows a parabolic regime even for thin oxides, which indicates a diffusion-limited oxidation regime. We also observe that, for all investigated processes, the SiGe oxidation rate is systematically higher than that of Si. The amplitude of the variation of oxidation kinetics of SiGe with respect to Si is found to be strongly dependent on the process type. Second, a new quantitative analysis methodology of oxidation kinetics is introduced. This methodology allows us to highlight the dependence of oxidation kinetics on the Ge concentration at the oxidation interface, which is modulated by the pile-up mechanism. Our results show that the oxidation rate increases with the Ge concentration at the oxidation interface.

  8. Measurement of compressed breast thickness by optical stereoscopic photogrammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Albert H; Mawdsley, Gordon E; Yaffe, Martin J

    2009-02-01

    The determination of volumetric breast density (VBD) from mammograms requires accurate knowledge of the thickness of the compressed breast. In attempting to accurately determine VBD from images obtained on conventional mammography systems, the authors found that the thickness reported by a number of mammography systems in the field varied by as much as 15 mm when compressing the same breast or phantom. In order to evaluate the behavior of mammographic compression systems and to be able to predict the thickness at different locations in the breast on patients, they have developed a method for measuring the local thickness of the breast at all points of contact with the compression paddle using optical stereoscopic photogrammetry. On both flat (solid) and compressible phantoms, the measurements were accurate to better than 1 mm with a precision of 0.2 mm. In a pilot study, this method was used to measure thickness on 108 volunteers who were undergoing mammography examination. This measurement tool will allow us to characterize paddle surface deformations, deflections and calibration offsets for mammographic units.

  9. Thin Solid Oxide Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material, at least one metal and a catalyst...... material, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same. The present invention also relates to a thin and in principle unsupported solid oxide cell, comprising at least a porous anode layer, an electrolyte layer and a porous...... cathode layer, wherein the anode layer and the cathode layer comprise an electrolyte material and a catalyst material, wherein the electrolyte material is doper zirconia, and wherein the overall thickness of the thin reversible cell is about 150 [mu]m or less, and to a method for producing same...

  10. Changes in Nitric Oxide Level and Thickness Index of Synovial Fluid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    patients after intra-articular injection of sodium hyaluronate, while the effect is insignificant in severe patients. Thus, sodium hyaluronate can effectively improve nitric oxide levels in synovial fluid, reduce ..... Modern Med Health, 2014; 1:.

  11. Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic-Resolution Electron Microscopy and Field Evaporation Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert; Vurpillot, François; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2014-04-17

    Oxide-supported metal nanoparticles are widely used in heterogeneous catalysis. The increasingly detailed design of such catalysts necessitates three-dimensional characterization with high spatial resolution and elemental selectivity. Laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT) is uniquely suited to the task but faces challenges with the evaporation of metal/insulator systems. Correlation of APT with aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), for Au nanoparticles embedded in MgO, reveals preferential evaporation of the MgO and an inaccurate assessment of nanoparticle composition. Finite element field evaporation modeling is used to illustrate the evolution of the evaporation front. Nanoparticle composition is most accurately predicted when the MgO is treated as having a locally variable evaporation field, indicating the importance of considering laser-oxide interactions and the evaporation of various molecular oxide ions. These results demonstrate the viability of APT for analysis of oxide-supported metal nanoparticles, highlighting the need for developing a theoretical framework for the evaporation of heterogeneous materials.

  12. Estimation of sand dune thickness using a vertical velocity profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shuhail, Abdullatif A.

    2004-01-01

    Previous field and mathematical studies have shown that sand dunes may have vertical velocity profiles (i.e. continuous increase of velocity with depth). Therefore, computing the dunes thickness using conventional seismic refraction methods that assume a vertically homogeneous layer will likely produce some errors. The purpose of this study is to quantify the effect of the vertical velocity profile in a sand dune on the process of thickness estimation using seismic refraction data. First, the time distance (T-X) data of the direct wave in the dune is calculated using a vertical velocity profile, V (z), derived from Hertz-Mindlin contact theory. Then the thickness is estimated from the calculated T-X data, intercept time and velocity of the refractor at the dune's base assuming a constant velocity in the dune. The error in the estimated thickness due to the constant-velocity assumption increases with increasing thickness and decreasing porosity of the dune. For sand dunes with porosities greater than 0.2 and thickness less than 200 meter, the error is less than 15%. (author)

  13. Realistic reflectance spectrum of thin films covering a transparent optically thick substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesaria, M., E-mail: maura.cesaria@le.infn.it; Caricato, A. P.; Martino, M. [Department of Mathematics and Physics “Ennio De Giorgi,” University of Salento, Via Arnesano, I-73100 Lecce (Italy)

    2014-07-21

    A spectrophotometric strategy is presented and discussed for calculating realistically the reflectance spectrum of an absorbing film deposited over a thick transparent or semi-transparent substrate. The developed route exploits simple mathematics, has wide range of applicability (high-to-weak absorption regions and thick-to-ultrathin films), rules out numerical and curve-fitting procedures as well as model-functions, inherently accounts for the non-measurable contribution of the film-substrate interface as well as substrate backside, and describes the film reflectance spectrum as determined by the experimental situation (deposition approach and parameters). The reliability of the method is tested on films of a well-known material (indium tin oxide) by deliberately changing film thickness and structural quality through doping. Results are found consistent with usual information yielded by reflectance, its inherent relationship with scattering processes and contributions to the measured total reflectance.

  14. Effects of iron-oxide nanoparticles and magnetic fields on oral biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alas, Gema; Pagano, Ronald E.; Nguyen, Jane Q.; Bandara, H. M. H. Nihal; Ivanov, Sergei A.; Smolyakov, Gennady A.; Huber, Dale L.; Smyth, Hugh D. C.; Osiński, Marek

    2017-02-01

    Human mouth is a host of a large gamut of bacteria species, with over 700 of different bacteria strains identified. Most of these bacterial species are harmless, some are beneficial (such as probiotics assisting in food digestion), but some are responsible for various diseases, primarily tooth decay and gum diseases such as gingivitis and periodontitis. For example, Streptococus mutans produces enamel-eroding acids, while Porphyromonas gingivalis is strongly linked to periodontitis. In this paper, we report on the effects of exposure of oral biofilms to iron oxide nanoparticles and static magnetic fields as possible bactericidal agent.

  15. Dependence on film thickness of grain boundary low-field magnetoresistance in thin films of La0.7Ca0.3MnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd, N. K.; Mathur, N. D.; Blamire, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetoresistance of grain boundaries in the perovskite manganites is being studied, both in polycrystalline materials, and thin films grown on bicrystal substrates, because of interest in low-field applications. In this article we show that epitaxial films grown on SrTiO 3 bicrystal substrates of 45 degree misorientation show magnetoresistance behavior which is strongly dependent on the thickness of the film. Thin films, e.g., 40 nm, can show a large low-field magnetoresistance at low temperatures, with very sharp switching between distinct high and low resistance states for fields applied in plane and parallel to the boundary. Thicker films show a more complex behavior of resistance as a function of field, and the dependence on the angle between the applied field and the grain boundary is altered. These changes in magnetoresistance behavior are linked to the variation in morphology of the films. Thin films are coherently strained, due to the mismatch with the substrate, and very smooth. Thicker films relax, with the formation of defects, and hence different micromagnetic behavior. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  16. Influence of contact height on the performance of vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jingqi; Cheng, Yingchun; Guo, Zaibing; Wang, Zhihong; Zhu, Zhiyong; Zhang, Qing; Chan-Park, Chanpark; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Zhang, Xixiang

    2013-01-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) have been experimentally demonstrated (J. Li et al., Carbon, 2012, 50, 4628-4632). The source and drain contact heights in vertical CNTFETs could be much higher than in flat CNTFETs if the fabrication process is not optimized. To understand the impact of contact height on transistor performance, we use a semi-classical method to calculate the characteristics of CNTFETs with different contact heights. The results show that the drain current decreases with increasing contact height and saturates at a value governed by the thickness of the oxide. The current reduction caused by the increased contact height becomes more significant when the gate oxide is thicker. The higher the drain voltage, the larger the current reduction. It becomes even worse when the band gap of the carbon nanotube is larger. The current can differ by a factor of more than five between the CNTEFTs with low and high contact heights when the oxide thickness is 50 nm. In addition, the influence of the contact height is limited by the channel length. The contact height plays a minor role when the channel length is less than 100 nm. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  17. Oxide films at the nanoscale: new structures, new functions, and new materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Livia; Pacchioni, Gianfranco

    2011-11-15

    We all make use of oxide ultrathin films, even if we are unaware of doing so. They are essential components of many common devices, such as mobile phones and laptops. The films in these ubiquitous electronics are composed of silicon dioxide, an unsurpassed material in the design of transistors. But oxide films at the nanoscale (typically just 10 nm or less in thickness) are integral to many other applications. In some cases, they form under normal reactive conditions and confer new properties to a material: one example is the corrosion protection of stainless steel, which is the result of a passive film. A new generation of devices for energy production and communications technology, such as ferroelectric ultrathin film capacitors, tunneling magnetoresistance sensors, solar energy materials, solid oxide fuel cells, and many others, are being specifically designed to exploit the unusual properties afforded by reduced oxide thickness. Oxide ultrathin films also have tremendous potential in chemistry, representing a rich new source of catalytic materials. About 20 years ago, researchers began to prepare model systems of truly heterogeneous catalysts based on thin oxide layers grown on single crystals of metal. Only recently, however, was it realized that these systems may behave quite differently from their corresponding bulk oxides. One of the phenomena uncovered is the occurrence of a spontaneous charge transfer from the metal support to an adsorbed species through the thin insulating layer (or vice versa). The importance of this property is clear: conceptually, the activation and bond breaking of adsorbed molecules begin with precisely the same process, electron transfer into an antibonding orbital. But electron transfer can also be harnessed to make a supported metal particle more chemically active, increase its adhesion energy, or change its shape. Most importantly, the basic principles underlying electron transfer and other phenomena (such as structural

  18. Hybrid Spintronic Structures With Magnetic Oxides and Heusler Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Y. B.; Hassan, S. S. A.; Wong, P. K. J.

    2008-01-01

    Hybrid spintronic structures, integrating half-metallic magnetic oxides and Heusler alloys with their predicted high spin polarization, are important for the development of second-generation spintronics with high-efficient spin injection. We have synthesized epitaxial magnetic oxide Fe3O4 on Ga......As(100) and the unit cell of the Fe3O4 was found to be rotated by 45 degrees to match the gallium arsenide GaAs. The films were found to have a bulk-like moment down to 3-4 nm and a low coercivity indicating a high-quality magnetic interface. The magnetization hysteresis loops of the ultrathin films...... are controlled by uniaxial magnetic anisotropy. The dynamic response of the sample shows a heavily damped precessional response to the applied field pulses. In the Heusler alloy system of Co-2 MnGa on GaAs, we found that the magnetic moment was reduced for thicknesses down to 10 nm, which may account...

  19. Retrieval of sea ice thickness during Arctic summer using melt pond color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, L.; Nicolaus, M.; Heygster, G.

    2016-12-01

    The thickness of sea ice is an important climatic variable. Together with the ice concentration, it defines the total sea ice volume, is linked within the climatic feedback mechanisms and affects the Arctic energy balance greatly. During Arctic summer, the sea ice cover changes rapidly, which includes the presence of melt ponds, as well as reduction of ice albedo and ice thickness. Currently available remote sensing retrievals of sea ice thickness utilize data from altimeter, microwave, thermal infrared sensors and their combinations. All of these methods are compromised in summer in the presence of melt. This only leaves in situ and airborne sea ice thickness data available in summer. At the same time, data of greater coverage is needed for assimilation in global circulation models and correct estimation of ice mass balance.This study presents a new approach to estimate sea ice thickness in summer in the presence of melt ponds. Analysis of field data obtained during the RV "Polarstern" cruise ARK27/3 (August - October 2012) has shown a clear connection of ice thickness under melt ponds to their measured spectral albedo and to melt pond color in the hue-saturation-luminance color space from field photographs. An empirical function is derived from the HSL values and applied to aerial imagery obtained during various airborne campaigns. Comparison to in situ ice thickness shows a good correspondence to the ice thickness value retrieved in the melt ponds. A similar retrieval is developed for satellite spectral bands using the connection of the measured pond spectral albedo to the ice thickness within the melt ponds. Correction of the retrieved ice thickness in ponds to derive total thickness of sea ice is discussed. Case studies and application to very high resolution optical data are presented, as well as a concept to transfer the method to satellite data of lower spatial resolution where melt ponds become subpixel features.

  20. Obtaining Thickness-Limited Electrospray Deposition for 3D Coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Lin; Kovacevich, Dylan A; Nitzsche, Michael P; Ryu, Jihyun; Al-Marzoki, Kutaiba; Rodriguez, Gabriela; Klein, Lisa C; Jitianu, Andrei; Singer, Jonathan P

    2018-04-04

    Electrospray processing utilizes the balance of electrostatic forces and surface tension within a charged spray to produce charged microdroplets with a narrow dispersion in size. In electrospray deposition, each droplet carries a small quantity of suspended material to a target substrate. Past electrospray deposition results fall into two major categories: (1) continuous spray of films onto conducting substrates and (2) spray of isolated droplets onto insulating substrates. A crossover regime, or a self-limited spray, has only been limitedly observed in the spray of insulating materials onto conductive substrates. In such sprays, a limiting thickness emerges, where the accumulation of charge repels further spray. In this study, we examined the parametric spray of several glassy polymers to both categorize past electrospray deposition results and uncover the critical parameters for thickness-limited sprays. The key parameters for determining the limiting thickness were (1) field strength and (2) spray temperature, related to (i) the necessary repulsive field and (ii) the ability for the deposited materials to swell in the carrier solvent vapor and redistribute charge. These control mechanisms can be applied to the uniform or controllably-varied microscale coating of complex three-dimensional objects.

  1. Evaluation of the room shielding thickness of Hi-Art tomotherapy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haikuan; Wu Jinhai; Gu Naigu; Gao Yiming; Wang Li; Huang Weiqin; Wang Fengxian

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we calculate and evaluate the room shielding thickness of a Hi-Art tomotherapy system, which is a new type of radiotherapy facility. Due to the self-shielding of the accelerator,only scattered beam and beam leakage were considered in calculating the room shielding thickness. The radiation field of the tomotherapy system was used as the basic data to calculate the shielding thickness of every 15 degree solid angle. The maximum shielding thickness required of each shielding wall was at the position with the angle of 15 degree, and the calculated shielding thickness were 1023, 975, 917, 1460, 1147 and 1189 mm for the east wall,south wall,west wall, north wall, the roof and the floor,respectively. According to the calculation results, all shielding walls, ceiling and floor could meet the requirement of the radiation protection, but the north wall thickness of 1200 mm was a little thinner. (authors)

  2. Characterization of the inside and outside oxide surfaces of irradiated pressure tubes of Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordoni, Roberto A.; Olmedo, Ana M.

    2004-01-01

    The inside and outside surfaces of two pressure tubes (PT) removed from Embalse nuclear power plant (CNE) after 10 of effective full power years (EFPY) were characterized. The oxide thickness of both faces, in different zones, was also measured. The inside surfaces of both PTs, B-102 (A-14) and B-298 (L-12), were covered with a black oxide that replicates the original PT surface. A network of microcracks perpendicular to the inside surface in contact with the coolant was found. In some cases, near the outlet of the PT, some spalling of the oxide was also found. These small microcracks and spalling do not affect the protective character of the oxide since a thickness about 5 or 6 μm of an undamaged oxide is found at the metal/oxide interface side. The oxide thickness changes between approximately 6 to 12 μm for B-102 tube and around 7 to 15 μm for B-298 tube. The average corrosion rate is 1.16 μm/10 4 HH for B-102 tube and 1.35 μm/10 4 HH for B-298 tube at 5.8 m position for both PTs. These corrosion rates show good corrosion behaviour of CNE PTs. The average corrosion rate of the inside surface of the PTs depends on the coolant temperature but not on fast neutron flux. The outside oxide film is black, shiny, compact and protective, replicating also the original surface. The oxide thickness changes between 2 to 6.5 μm in B-102 tube and between 1.8 to 3.7 μm B-298 tube. These oxide thicknesses are within the values reported for PTs in CANDU Stations. (author) [es

  3. Correlation between peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and fundus autofluorescence in primary open-angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reznicek L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lukas Reznicek,* Florian Seidensticker,* Thomas Mann, Irene Hübert, Alexandra Buerger, Christos Haritoglou, Aljoscha S Neubauer, Anselm Kampik, Christoph Hirneiss, Marcus Kernt Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: To investigate the relationship between retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL thickness and retinal pigment epithelium alterations in patients with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. Methods: A consecutive, prospective series of 82 study eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma and advanced glaucomatous visual field defects were included in this study. All study participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination followed by visual field testing with standard automated perimetry as well as spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT for peripapillary RNFL thickness and Optos wide-field fundus autofluorescence (FAF images. A pattern grid with corresponding locations between functional visual field sectors and structural peripapillary RNFL thickness was aligned to the FAF images at corresponding location. Mean FAF intensity (range: 0 = black and 255 = white of each evaluated sector (superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal was correlated with the corresponding peripapillary RNFL thickness obtained with SD-OCT. Results: Correlation analyses between sectoral RNFL thickness and standardized FAF intensity in the corresponding topographic retina segments revealed partly significant correlations with correlation coefficients ranging between 0.004 and 0.376 and were statistically significant in the temporal inferior central field (r = 0.324, P = 0.036 and the nasal field (r = 0.376, P = 0.014. Conclusion: Retinal pigment epithelium abnormalities correlate with corresponding peripapillary RNFL damage, especially in the temporal inferior sector of patients with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. A

  4. High interannual variability of sea ice thickness in the Arctic region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxon, Seymour; Peacock, Neil; Smith, Doug

    2003-10-30

    Possible future changes in Arctic sea ice cover and thickness, and consequent changes in the ice-albedo feedback, represent one of the largest uncertainties in the prediction of future temperature rise. Knowledge of the natural variability of sea ice thickness is therefore critical for its representation in global climate models. Numerical simulations suggest that Arctic ice thickness varies primarily on decadal timescales owing to changes in wind and ocean stresses on the ice, but observations have been unable to provide a synoptic view of sea ice thickness, which is required to validate the model results. Here we use an eight-year time-series of Arctic ice thickness, derived from satellite altimeter measurements of ice freeboard, to determine the mean thickness field and its variability from 65 degrees N to 81.5 degrees N. Our data reveal a high-frequency interannual variability in mean Arctic ice thickness that is dominated by changes in the amount of summer melt, rather than by changes in circulation. Our results suggest that a continued increase in melt season length would lead to further thinning of Arctic sea ice.

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of the oxidation of cerium in air at ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • XRD and transverse sections suggest Ce_2O_3 forms on Ce before being overlaid by CeO_2. • XRD and oxide thickness measurements both indicate linear oxidation. • Extensive cracking on oxide surface which sustains continuing oxidation. • Electron microscopy has shown features indicative of nodular oxidation. • Oxide growth rate determined to be 0.1 μm day"−"1 under the conditions in this study. - Abstract: This paper describes a study of the oxidation of cerium in air at ambient temperature. Specimens were exposed for up to 60 days, during which they were analysed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) at regular intervals. Both XRD and oxide thickness measurements indicate linear oxidation over the duration of this study. Under the conditions employed in this study, the rate of oxide growth has been determined to be 0.1 μm day"−"1. The oxidation process appears to be assisted by extensive cracking in the oxide layer which acts as a non-protective film for the underlying metal.

  6. Low-power bacteriorhodopsin-silicon n-channel metal-oxide field-effect transistor photoreceiver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jonghyun; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Yuan, Hao-Chih; Ma, Zhenqiang; Váró, György

    2007-03-01

    A bacteriorhodopsin (bR)-silicon n-channel metal-oxide field-effect transistor (NMOSFET) monolithically integrated photoreceiver is demonstrated. The bR film is selectively formed on an external gate electrode of the transistor by electrophoretic deposition. A modified biasing circuit is incorporated, which helps to match the resistance of the bR film to the input impedance of the NMOSFET and to shift the operating point of the transistor to coincide with the maximum gain. The photoreceiver exhibits a responsivity of 4.7 mA/W.

  7. Statistical analysis of nitrous oxide emission factors from pastoral agriculture field trials conducted in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelliher, F.M.; Cox, N.; Weerden, T.J. van der; Klein, C.A.M. de; Luo, J.; Cameron, K.C.; Di, H.J.; Giltrap, D.; Rys, G.

    2014-01-01

    Between 11 May 2000 and 31 January 2013, 185 field trials were conducted across New Zealand to measure the direct nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emission factors (EF) from nitrogen (N) sources applied to pastoral soils. The log(EF) data were analysed statistically using a restricted maximum likelihood (REML) method. To estimate mean EF values for each N source, best linear unbiased predictors (BLUPs) were calculated. For lowland soils, mean EFs for dairy cattle urine and dung, sheep urine and dung and urea fertiliser were 1.16 ± 0.19% and 0.23 ± 0.05%, 0.55 ± 0.19% and 0.08 ± 0.02% and 0.48 ± 0.13%, respectively, each significantly different from one another (p 12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. Thus, urine and dung EFs should be disaggregated for sheep and cattle as well as accounting for terrain. -- Highlights: • Nitrous oxide emission factors (EFs) for pastoral soils measured in 185 field trials. • For lowland, the mean (±standard error) urea nitrogen fertiliser EF was 0.5 ± 0.1%. • For lowland, mean dairy cattle urine and dung EFs were 1.2 and 0.2%, respectively. • For lowland, mean sheep urine and dung EFs were 0.6 and 0.1%, respectively. • For pastoral soils in terrain with slopes >12°, mean EFs were significantly lower. -- From 185 field trials, mean nitrous oxide emission factors for pastoral soils were 0.1% for sheep dung up to 1.2% for dairy cattle urine, while that for urea fertiliser was 0.5%

  8. Optical contrast for identifying the thickness of two-dimensional materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Dan; Wang, Yingying; Bai, Jing; Du, Ruxia; Wu, Guoqing; Liu, Liyan

    2018-01-01

    One of the most intriguing properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials is their thickness dependent properties. A quick and precise technique to identify the layer number of 2D materials is therefore highly desirable. In this review, we will introduce the basic principle of using optical contrast to determine the thickness of 2D material and also its advantage as compared to other modern techniques. Different 2D materials, including graphene, graphene oxide, transitional metal dichalcogenides, black phosphorus, boron nitride, have been used as examples to demonstrate the capability of optical contrast methods. A simple and more efficient optical contrast image technique is also emphasized, which is suitable for quick and large-scale thickness identification. We have also discussed the factors that could affect the experimental results of optical contrast, including incident light angle, anisotropic nature of materials, and also the twisted angle between 2D layers. Finally, we give perspectives on future development of optical contrast methods for the study and application of 2D materials.

  9. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  10. Features of the theories of the formation of oxide films on aluminum alloys piston diesel engines with micro-arc oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skryabin M.L.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers one of the promising methods of surface hardening of piston aluminum alloy – microarc oxidation. Described fundamental differences from the micro-arc oxidation anodizing and similar electrochemical processes. The schemes of formation of the barrier and outer layers surface treatment in aqueous electrolytes. Shows the mechanism of formation of the interface. Considers the formation of layers with high porosity and method of exposure. Also describes the exponential dependence of the current density from the electric field in the surface film of the base metal. The role of discharges in the formation of oxide layers on the treated surface. Proposed and described features of the three main theories of formation of oxide films on the surface of the piston: physical and geometrical model of Keller; models of formation of oxide films as a colloid formations and plasma theory (theory of oxidation with the formation of plasma in the zone of oxidation. The features of formation of films in each of the models. For the model of Keller porous oxide film is a close-Packed oxide cell, having the shape of a prism. They are based on a hexagonal prism. These cells have normal orientation to the surface of the metal. In the center of the unit cell there is one season that is a channel, whose size is determined by the composition of the electrolyte, the chemical composition of the base metal and the electrical parameters of the process of oxidation. In the micro-arc oxidation process according to this model, the beginning of the formation of cells occurs with the formation of the barrier layer, passing in the porous layer and, over time, the elonga-tion of the pores, due to the constant etching electrolyte. In the theory of formation of the oxide films as kolloidnyh formations revealed that formation of pores in the film is a result of their growth. The anodic oxide is represented by a directed electric field, the alumina gel colloidal and

  11. Thick brane in f(R) gravity with Palatini dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Menezes, R.; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.

    2015-01-01

    This work deals with modified gravity in five-dimensional space-time. We study a thick Palatini f(R) brane, that is, a braneworld scenario described by an anti-de Sitter warped geometry with a single extra dimension of infinite extent, sourced by a real scalar field under the Palatini approach, where the metric and the connection are regarded as independent degrees of freedom. We consider a first-order framework which we use to provide exact solutions for the scalar field and warp factor. We also investigate a perturbative scenario such that the Palatini approach is implemented through a Lagrangian f(R)=R+ϵR n , where the small parameter ϵ controls the deviation from the standard thick brane case. In both cases it is found that the warp factor tends to localize the extra dimension due to the nonlinear corrections

  12. Thick brane in f(R) gravity with Palatini dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Olmo, Gonzalo J. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Universidad de Valencia, Departamento de Fisica Teorica, IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Rubiera-Garcia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciencias, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal); Fudan University, Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Shanghai (China)

    2015-12-15

    This work deals with modified gravity in five-dimensional space-time. We study a thick Palatini f(R) brane, that is, a braneworld scenario described by an anti-de Sitter warped geometry with a single extra dimension of infinite extent, sourced by a real scalar field under the Palatini approach, where the metric and the connection are regarded as independent degrees of freedom. We consider a first-order framework which we use to provide exact solutions for the scalar field and warp factor. We also investigate a perturbative scenario such that the Palatini approach is implemented through a Lagrangian f(R) = R + εR{sup n}, where the small parameter ε controls the deviation from the standard thick brane case. In both cases it is found that the warp factor tends to localize the extra dimension due to the nonlinear corrections. (orig.)

  13. Thick brane in f(R) gravity with Palatini dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br; Losano, L., E-mail: losano@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R., E-mail: rmenezes@dce.ufpb.br [Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58297-000, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Olmo, Gonzalo J., E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Física Teórica, IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Universidad de Valencia, 46100, Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Rubiera-Garcia, D., E-mail: drgarcia@fc.ul.pt [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Faculdade de Ciências, Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016, Lisbon (Portugal); Department of Physics, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, 200433, Shanghai (China)

    2015-11-30

    This work deals with modified gravity in five-dimensional space-time. We study a thick Palatini f(R) brane, that is, a braneworld scenario described by an anti-de Sitter warped geometry with a single extra dimension of infinite extent, sourced by a real scalar field under the Palatini approach, where the metric and the connection are regarded as independent degrees of freedom. We consider a first-order framework which we use to provide exact solutions for the scalar field and warp factor. We also investigate a perturbative scenario such that the Palatini approach is implemented through a Lagrangian f(R)=R+ϵR{sup n}, where the small parameter ϵ controls the deviation from the standard thick brane case. In both cases it is found that the warp factor tends to localize the extra dimension due to the nonlinear corrections.

  14. Benefits of the Multiple Echo Technique for Ultrasonic Thickness Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.; Vandekamp, R.

    2011-02-10

    Much effort has been put into determining methods to make accurate thickness measurements, especially at elevated temperatures. An accuracy of +/- 0.001 inches is typically noted for commercial ultrasonic thickness gauges and ultrasonic thickness techniques. Codes and standards put limitations on many inspection factors including equipment, calibration tolerance and temperature variations. These factors are important and should be controlled, but unfortunately do not guarantee accurate and repeatable measurements in the field. Most technicians long for a single technique that is best for every situation, unfortunately, there are no 'silver bullets' when it comes to nondestructive testing. This paper will describe and discuss some of the major contributors to measurement error as well as some advantages and limitations of multiple echo techniques and why multiple echo techniques should be more widely utilized for ultrasonic thickness measurements.

  15. Terahertz thickness determination with interferometric vibration correction for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Tobias; Weber, Stefan; Klier, Jens; Bachtler, Sebastian; Molter, Daniel; Jonuscheit, Joachim; Von Freymann, Georg

    2018-05-14

    In many industrial fields, like automotive and painting industry, the thickness of thin layers is a crucial parameter for quality control. Hence, the demand for thickness measurement techniques continuously grows. In particular, non-destructive and contact-free terahertz techniques access a wide range of thickness determination applications. However, terahertz time-domain spectroscopy based systems perform the measurement in a sampling manner, requiring fixed distances between measurement head and sample. In harsh industrial environments vibrations of sample and measurement head distort the time-base and decrease measurement accuracy. We present an interferometer-based vibration correction for terahertz time-domain measurements, able to reduce thickness distortion by one order of magnitude for vibrations with frequencies up to 100 Hz and amplitudes up to 100 µm. We further verify the experimental results by numerical calculations and find very good agreement.

  16. Optical characterisation of thin film cadmium oxide prepared by a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optical transmission spectra of transparent conducting cadmium oxide (CdO) thin films deposited by a modified reactive evaporation process onto glass substrates have been measured. The interference fringes were used to calculate the refractive index, thickness variation, average thickness and absorption coefficient ...

  17. Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kevin [Export, PA; Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA

    2012-05-08

    An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

  18. Design of Thermal Barrier Coatings Thickness for Gas Turbine Blade Based on Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs are deposited on the turbine blade to reduce the temperature of underlying substrate, as well as providing protection against the oxidation and hot corrosion from high temperature gas. Optimal ceramic top-coat thickness distribution on the blade can improve the performance and efficiency of the coatings. Design of the coatings thickness is a multiobjective optimization problem due to the conflicts among objectives of high thermal insulation performance, long operation durability, and low fabrication cost. This work developed a procedure for designing the TBCs thickness distribution for the gas turbine blade. Three-dimensional finite element models were built and analyzed, and weighted-sum approach was employed to solve the multiobjective optimization problem herein. Suitable multiregion top-coat thickness distribution scheme was designed with the considerations of manufacturing accuracy, productivity, and fabrication cost.

  19. Enhanced performance of thermal-assisted electron field emission based on barium oxide nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Yunkang [Department of Mathematics and Physics, Nanjing Institute of technology, Nanjing, 211167 (China); Chen, Jing, E-mail: chenjingmoon@gmail.com [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China); Zhang, Yuning; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei; Di, Yunsong [School of Electronic Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, 210096 (China); Zhang, Zichen, E-mail: zz241@ime.ac.cn [Integrated system for Laser applications Group, Institute of Microelectronics of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100029, Beijing (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A possible mechanism for thermal-assisted electric field was demonstrated. • A new path for the architecture of the novel nanomaterial and methodology for its potential application in the field emission device area was provided. • The turn-on field, the threshold field and the field emission current density were largely related to the temperature of the cathode. • The relationship between the work function of emitter material and the temperature of emitter was found. - Abstract: In this paper, thermal-assisted field emission properties of barium oxide (BaO) nanowire synthesized by a chemical bath deposition method were investigated. The morphology and composition of BaO nanowire were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) respectively. The turn-on field, threshold field and the emission current density could be affected relatively due to the thermal-assisted effect when the electric field was applied, in the meanwhile, the turn-on field for BaO nanowire was measured to be decreased from 1.12 V/μm to 0.66 V/μm when the temperature was raised from 293 K to 593 K, whereas for the threshold field was found to decrease from 3.64 V/μm to 2.12 V/μm. The improved performance was demonstrated due to the reduced work function of the BaO nanowire as the agitation temperature increasing, leading to the higher probability of electrons tunneling through the energy barrier and enhancement of the field emission properties of BaO emitters.

  20. Enhanced performance of thermal-assisted electron field emission based on barium oxide nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Yunkang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Yuning; Zhang, Xiaobing; Lei, Wei; Di, Yunsong; Zhang, Zichen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A possible mechanism for thermal-assisted electric field was demonstrated. • A new path for the architecture of the novel nanomaterial and methodology for its potential application in the field emission device area was provided. • The turn-on field, the threshold field and the field emission current density were largely related to the temperature of the cathode. • The relationship between the work function of emitter material and the temperature of emitter was found. - Abstract: In this paper, thermal-assisted field emission properties of barium oxide (BaO) nanowire synthesized by a chemical bath deposition method were investigated. The morphology and composition of BaO nanowire were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), selected area electron diffraction (SED), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) respectively. The turn-on field, threshold field and the emission current density could be affected relatively due to the thermal-assisted effect when the electric field was applied, in the meanwhile, the turn-on field for BaO nanowire was measured to be decreased from 1.12 V/μm to 0.66 V/μm when the temperature was raised from 293 K to 593 K, whereas for the threshold field was found to decrease from 3.64 V/μm to 2.12 V/μm. The improved performance was demonstrated due to the reduced work function of the BaO nanowire as the agitation temperature increasing, leading to the higher probability of electrons tunneling through the energy barrier and enhancement of the field emission properties of BaO emitters.

  1. Enhanced selectivity of boron doped diamond electrodes for the detection of dopamine and ascorbic acid by increasing the film thickness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Yao; Long, Hangyu [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ma, Li, E-mail: marycsupm@csu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wei, Quiping, E-mail: qiupwei@csu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Li, Site [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yu, Zhiming [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Hu, Jingyuan [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Peizhi [Key laboratory of interface science and engineering in advanced materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024,PR China (China); Wang, Yijia [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Meng, Lingcong [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry, West Midlands CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • BDD electrodes with different thickness have been fabricated. • BDD electrodes are used for simultaneous detection of DA and AA. • Anodic pretreatment enhance the separation of DA and AA oxidation peak potential. • Thicker BDD electrode show better performance for DA detection coexisting with AA. - Abstract: In this paper, boron doped diamond (BDD) with different thickness were prepared by hot filament chemical vapor deposition. The performance of BDD electrodes for detecting dopamine (DA) and ascorbic acid (AA) were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectra reveal the grain size increases and the film quality improves with the increase of film thickness. Electrochemical test show that the transfer coefficient in [Fe{sub 3} (CN) {sub 6}]{sup 3−/4−} redox system increases with the increase of the film thickness. The results of selectivity and sensitivity for DA mixed with AA detection show that 8h-BDD and 12h-BDD electrodes possess well selective separated oxidation peaks of DA and AA, and the 12h-BDD electrode exhibits optimal sensitivity until the DA concentration drops to 1 μ M.

  2. Effect of the thickness reduction on the structural, surface and magnetic properties of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aragón, Fermin F.H., E-mail: fherrera@fis.unb.br [Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Ardisson, José D. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Aquino, Juan C.R. [Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Gonzalez, Ismael; Macedo, Waldemar A.A. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, CDTN, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Coaquira, José A.H.; Mantilla, John; Silva, Sebastião W. da; Morais, Paulo C. [Núcleo de Física Aplicada, Instituto de Física, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF 70910-900 (Brazil)

    2016-05-31

    Hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) polycrystalline thin films of different thicknesses were produced by thermal oxidation in air atmosphere from Fe metallic thin-films deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns confirm the formation of hematite phase in all samples and indicate that the mean grain size decreases as the film thickness becomes thinner. Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy (CEMS) spectra at room temperature show magnetic splitting (six line patterns). It is determined that the resonance peaks become broader and asymmetric as the film thickness decreases. This finding was associated with the structural disorder introduced by the thickness reduction. Magnetization as a function of the magnetic field curve obtained at 300 K shows the presence of a weak-ferromagnetic contribution, which was assigned to the large density of decompensated spins at the films surface. From the magnetization vs. temperature curves it has been determined that the Morin transition temperature (T{sub M}) is shifted from ~ 240 K to ~ 196 K, meanwhile it becomes more broadened as the film thickness decreases. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements show the presence of Fe{sup 2+} ions coexisting with Fe{sup 3+} ions whose population increases as the film becomes thinner. The density of chemisorbed oxygen increases as the film thickness is reduced in agreement with the results obtained from the other measurements in this work. - Highlights: • Hematite thin films with different thickness were deposited by RF sputtering technique. • X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of hematite phase in all samples. • Hysteresis curve at 300 K shows the presence of a weak-ferromagnetic phase. • XPS show the presence of Fe{sup 2+} ions coexisting with Fe{sup 3+} ions.

  3. Modes of oxidation in SiC-reinforced mullite/ZrO2 composites: Oxidation vs depth behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.C.; Ruh, R.

    1999-01-01

    Two basic oxidation modes of composites with oxidizing particles in a non-oxidizing matrix have been observed. Mode I is defined as the complete oxidation of all the particles within an outer layer of the composite, while mode II exhibits partial oxidation of the particles, deep into the composite. Using microscopic observations to plot the silica layer thickness on particles (whiskers) vs the depth of the particles (whiskers) below the composite surface is proposed as a powerful means of categorizing and quantifying actual oxidation modes. Thus, mullite/SiC-whisker composites were found to have mode I oxidation behavior, while certain (mullite + ZrO 2 )/SiC-whisker composites were found to exhibit mode II behavior, followed by a mixed mode after severe exposures. It is proposed that mode II behavior appears when oxygen diffusivity in the matrix is much higher than that in the product oxide layer

  4. Electronic properties of thermally formed thin iron oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wielant, J.; Goossens, V.; Hausbrand, R.; Terryn, H.

    2007-01-01

    The oxide layer, present between an organic coating and the substrate, guarantees adhesion of the coating and plays a determinating role in the delamination rate of the organic coating. The purpose of this study is to compare the resistive and semiconducting properties of thermal oxides formed on steel in two different atmospheres at 250 deg. C: an oxygen rich atmosphere, air, and an oxygen deficient atmosphere, N 2 . In N 2 , a magnetite layer grows while in air a duplex oxide film forms composed by an inner magnetite layer and a thin outer hematite scale. The heat treatment for different amounts of time at high temperature was used as method to sample the thickness variation and change in electronic and semiconducting properties of the thermal oxide layers. Firstly, linear voltammetric measurements were performed to have a first insight in the electrochemical behavior of the thermal oxides in a borate buffer solution. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the same buffer combined with the Mott-Schottky analysis were used to determine the semiconducting properties of the thermal oxides. By spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively, the thickness and roughness of the oxide layers were determined supporting the physical interpretation of the voltammetric and EIS data. These measurements clearly showed that oxide layers with different constitution, oxide resistance, flatband potential and doping concentration can be grown by changing the atmosphere

  5. Synthesis of graphene oxide through different oxidation degrees for solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Huan; Huang, Tianjiao; Wen, Lingling; Zhou, Liya

    2018-03-01

    Graphene is known as an electro-chemical material and widely used in electro-chemical devices, especially in solar cell. Decreasing the thickness of the layer is a critical way to improve the electrochemical property of solar cells as far as possible. Among the various oxidation approaches, presented herein is a facile approach, which is easier, less cost and more effective, environmental benign with the greener processing and without any requirement for post purification, towards the synthesis of graphene oxide (GO) with different oxidation degrees by potassium ferrate (K2FeO4). A modified method using less amount of oxidizing agent is reported herein. It is the pretreatment of the synthesis of graphite, which maintains the thermal cycle of the system. This novel reports to compound GO with controlled oxidation degrees can not only increase the quantity of oxygen-containing functional groups on GO surface, increase space between graphene oxide layer and facilitate the dispersion of graphene in aqueous solution. Thus, the modified method shows prospect for large-scale production of graphene oxide and its novel application, in addition to its derivative and market potential for solar cells.

  6. Secondary electron emission influenced by oxidation on the aluminum surface: the roles of the chemisorbed oxygen and the oxide layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiangtao; Hoekstra, Bart; Wang, Zhen-Bin; Qiu, Jie; Pu, Yi-Kang

    2018-04-01

    A relationship between the apparent secondary electron yield ({γ }{{se}}) and the oxygen coverage/oxide layer thickness on an aluminum cathode is obtained in an experiment under a controlled environment. The apparent secondary electron yield ({γ }{{se}}) is deduced from the breakdown voltage between two parallel plate electrodes in a 360 mTorr argon environment using a simple Townsend breakdown model with the assumption that the variation of the apparent secondary electron yield is dominated by the variation of the argon ion induced processes. The oxygen coverage/oxide layer thickness on the aluminum cathode is measured by a semi in situ x-ray photoemission spectroscopy equipment which is directly attached to the discharge chamber. It is found that three phases exist: (1) in the monomonolayer regime, as the oxygen coverage increases from 0 to 0.3, {γ }{{se}} decreases by nearly 40 % , (2) as the oxygen coverage increases from 0.3 to 1, {γ }{{se}} keeps nearly constant, (3) as the oxide layer thickness increases from about 0.3 nm to about 1.1 nm, {γ }{{se}} increases by 150 % . We propose that, in the submonolayer regime, the chemisorbed oxygen on the aluminum surface causes the decrease of {γ }{{se}} by creating a local potential barrier, which reduces the Auger neutralization rate and the energy gained by the Auger electrons. In the multilayer regime, as the oxide layer grows in thickness, there are three proposed mechanisms which cause the increase of {γ }{{se}}: (1) the work function decreases; (2) resonance neutralization and Auger de-excitation may exist. This is served as another channel for secondary electron production; (3) the kinetic energy of Auger electrons is increased on average, leading to a higher probability for electrons to overcome the surface potential barrier.

  7. The use of pulsed magnetic fields to increase the uptake of iron oxide nanoparticles by living cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uzhytchak, M.; Lynnyk, A.; Zablotskyy, V.; Dempsey, N.M.; Dias, A.L.; Bonfim, M.; Lunova, M.; Jirsa, M.; Kubinová, Šárka; Lunov, O.; Dejneka, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 111, č. 24 (2017), s. 243703 ISSN 0003-6951 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : pulsed magnetic fields * increase the uptake * iron oxide * living cells Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 3.411, year: 2016

  8. Passivation mechanism in silicon heterojunction solar cells with intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Dimitrios; van Vliet, Jeroen; Vasudevan, Ravi; van Swaaij, René A. C. M. M.; Zeman, Miro

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we use intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide layers (a-SiOx:H) with varying oxygen content (cO) but similar hydrogen content to passivate the crystalline silicon wafers. Using our deposition conditions, we obtain an effective lifetime (τeff) above 5 ms for cO ≤ 6 at. % for passivation layers with a thickness of 36 ± 2 nm. We subsequently reduce the thickness of the layers using an accurate wet etching method to ˜7 nm and deposit p- and n-type doped layers fabricating a device structure. After the deposition of the doped layers, τeff appears to be predominantly determined by the doped layers themselves and is less dependent on the cO of the a-SiOx:H layers. The results suggest that τeff is determined by the field-effect rather than by chemical passivation.

  9. SIMS and TEM study on oxide characteristics of Zircaloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y. H.; Baek, J. H.; Kim, S. J.; Kim, K. H.; Choi, B. K.; Jung, Y. H.

    1998-01-01

    Long-term corrosion test, SIMS analysis, and TEM study were carried out to investigate the corrosion characteristics and corrosion mechanism of Zircaloy-4 in LiOH solution. The corrosion tests were performed in alkali solutions at 350 deg C for 500days. SIMS analysis was performed for the specimens prepared to have an equal oxide thickness to measure the cation content. TEM studies on the samples formed in various alkali solutions were also conducted. Based on the corrosion test, SIMS analysis, and TEM study, the cation is considered to control the corrosion in LiOH solution and its effect is dependent on the concentration of alkali and the oxide thickness. The slight acceleration of corrosion rate at a low concentration is thought to be caused by the cation incorporation into oxide while the significant acceleration at a high concentration is due to the transformation of oxide microstructure that would be induced by the cation incorporation

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of PZT Thick Films for Sensing and Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Ching Kuo

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Lead Zirconate Titanate oxide (PZT thick films with thicknesses of up to 10 μmwere developed using a modified sol-gel technique. Usually, the film thickness is less than1 μm by conventional sol-gel processing, while the electrical charge accumulation whichreveals the direct effect of piezoelectricity is proportional to the film thickness and thereforerestricted. Two approaches were adopted to conventional sol-gel processing – precursorconcentration modulation and rapid thermal annealing. A 10 μm thick film was successfullyfabricated by coating 16 times via this technique. The thickness of each coating layer wasabout 0.6 μm and the morphology of the film was dense with a crack-free area as large as 16mm2. In addition, the structure, surface morphology and physical properties werecharacterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomicforce microscopy (AFM and electrical performance. The dielectric constant and hysteresisloops were measured as electric characteristics. This study investigates the actuation andsensing performance of the vibrating structures with the piezoelectric thick film. Theactuation tests demonstrated that a 4 mm x 4 mm x 6.5 μm PZT film drove a 40 mm x 7 mmx 0.5 mm silicon beam as an actuator. Additionally, it generated an electrical signal of 60mVpp as a sensor, while vibration was input by a shaker. The fr