WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermus thermophilus dead

  1. Crystallization of ribosomes from Thermus thermophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpova, E.A.; Serdyuk, I.N.; Tarkhovskii, Yu.S.; Orlova, E.V.; Borovyagin, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    An understanding of the molecular bases of the process of protein biosynthesis on the ribosome requires a knowledge of its structure with high three-dimensional resolution involving the method of x-ray crystallographic analysis. The authors report on the production of crystals of the 70S ribosomes from a new source - the highly thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus. Ribosomes for crystallization were obtained from Th. thermophilus strain HB8 by two washings in buffer with high ionic strength. The ribosome preparation was investigated for homogeneity by the method of high-speed sedimentation in a buffer containing 15 mM MgCl 2 , 50 mM NH 4 Cl, and 10 MM Tris-HCl, pH 7.5. Analysis showed that the preparation if homogeneous. The same preparation was investigated for intactness of ribosomal RNA by the method of gel electrophoresis in 2.75% acrylamide 0.5% agarose gel in a buffer containing 30 mM Tris, 30 mM NaH 2 PO 4 , 10 mM EDTA, 1-2% SDS, and 6 M urea. Analysis showed that the preparation possesses intact 16S and 23S RNA. The latter did not degrade, at least in a week of exposure of the ribosomes in buffer solution at 5 0 C. The ribosome preparation had no appreciable RNase activity, which was verified by incubating 4.5 micrograms of ribosomes with 3 micrograms of 14 C-labeled 16S rRna (50 0 C, 90 min) in a buffer containing 10 mM MgCl 2 , 100 mM NH 4 Cl, and 10 mM Tris-HCl, pH/sub 20 0 / 7.5. The incubated nonhydrolyzed RNA was precipitated with 5% trichloroacetic acid and applied on a GF/C filter. The radioactivity was determined in a toluene scintillator on an LS-100C counter

  2. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Tommi A.; Tanner, John J., E-mail: tannerjj@missouri.edu [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, Missouri 65211 (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Cloning, purification and crystallization of T. thermophilus proline dehydrogenase is reported. The detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside was used to reduce polydispersity, which enabled crystallization. Nature recycles l-proline by converting it to l-glutamate. This four-electron oxidation process is catalyzed by the two enzymes: proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ{sup 1}-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. This note reports the cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus PRODH, which is the prototype of a newly discovered superfamily of bacterial monofunctional PRODHs. The results presented here include production of a monodisperse protein solution through use of the detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside and the growth of native crystals that diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. The space group is P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 82.2, b = 89.6, c = 94.3 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules and 46% solvent. Molecular-replacement trials using a fragment of the PRODH domain of the multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA protein as the search model (24% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of T. thermophilus PRODH will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative.

  3. Cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus proline dehydrogenase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Tommi A.; Tanner, John J.

    2005-01-01

    Cloning, purification and crystallization of T. thermophilus proline dehydrogenase is reported. The detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside was used to reduce polydispersity, which enabled crystallization. Nature recycles l-proline by converting it to l-glutamate. This four-electron oxidation process is catalyzed by the two enzymes: proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and Δ 1 -pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase. This note reports the cloning, purification and crystallization of Thermus thermophilus PRODH, which is the prototype of a newly discovered superfamily of bacterial monofunctional PRODHs. The results presented here include production of a monodisperse protein solution through use of the detergent n-octyl β-d-glucopyranoside and the growth of native crystals that diffracted to 2.3 Å resolution at Advanced Light Source beamline 4.2.2. The space group is P2 1 2 1 2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 82.2, b = 89.6, c = 94.3 Å. The asymmetric unit is predicted to contain two protein molecules and 46% solvent. Molecular-replacement trials using a fragment of the PRODH domain of the multifunctional Escherichia coli PutA protein as the search model (24% amino-acid sequence identity) did not produce a satisfactory solution. Therefore, the structure of T. thermophilus PRODH will be determined by multiwavelength anomalous dispersion phasing using a selenomethionyl derivative

  4. Effects of Argonaute on Gene Expression in Thermus thermophilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daan C Swarts

    Full Text Available Eukaryotic Argonaute proteins mediate RNA-guided RNA interference, allowing both regulation of host gene expression and defense against invading mobile genetic elements. Recently, it has become evident that prokaryotic Argonaute homologs mediate DNA-guided DNA interference, and play a role in host defense. Argonaute of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus (TtAgo targets invading plasmid DNA during and after transformation. Using small interfering DNA guides, TtAgo can cleave single and double stranded DNAs. Although TtAgo additionally has been demonstrated to cleave RNA targets complementary to its DNA guide in vitro, RNA targeting by TtAgo has not been demonstrated in vivo.To investigate if TtAgo also has the potential to control RNA levels, we analyzed RNA-seq data derived from cultures of four T. thermophilus strain HB27 variants: wild type, TtAgo knockout (Δago, and either strain transformed with a plasmid. Additionally we determined the effect of TtAgo on expression of plasmid-encoded RNA and plasmid DNA levels.In the absence of exogenous DNA (plasmid, TtAgo presence or absence had no effect on gene expression levels. When plasmid DNA is present, TtAgo reduces plasmid DNA levels 4-fold, and a corresponding reduction of plasmid gene transcript levels was observed. We therefore conclude that TtAgo interferes with plasmid DNA, but not with plasmid-encoded RNA. Interestingly, TtAgo presence stimulates expression of specific endogenous genes, but only when exogenous plasmid DNA was present. Specifically, the presence of TtAgo directly or indirectly stimulates expression of CRISPR loci and associated genes, some of which are involved in CRISPR adaptation. This suggests that TtAgo-mediated interference with plasmid DNA stimulates CRISPR adaptation.

  5. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of a putative glucokinase/hexokinase from Thermus thermophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tsutomu; Kashima, Yasuhiro; Mine, Shouhei; Oku, Takashi; Uegaki, Koichi

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a putative glucokinase/hexokinase from T. thermophilus was purified and crystallized. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.02 Å resolution. Glucokinase/hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose to glucose 6-phosphate, which is the first step of glycolysis. The open reading frame TTHA0299 of the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus encodes a putative glucokinase/hexokinase which contains the consensus sequence for proteins from the repressors, open reading frames and sugar kinases family. In this study, the glucokinase/hexokinase from T. thermophilus was purified and crystallized using polyethylene glycol 8000 as a precipitant. Diffraction data were collected and processed to 2.02 Å resolution. The crystal belonged to space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 70.93, b = 138.14, c = 75.16 Å, β = 95.41°

  6. Comparative genomics of Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans: divergent routes of adaptation to thermophily and radiation resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daly Michael J

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermus thermophilus and Deinococcus radiodurans belong to a distinct bacterial clade but have remarkably different phenotypes. T. thermophilus is a thermophile, which is relatively sensitive to ionizing radiation and desiccation, whereas D. radiodurans is a mesophile, which is highly radiation- and desiccation-resistant. Here we present an in-depth comparison of the genomes of these two related but differently adapted bacteria. Results By reconstructing the evolution of Thermus and Deinococcus after the divergence from their common ancestor, we demonstrate a high level of post-divergence gene flux in both lineages. Various aspects of the adaptation to high temperature in Thermus can be attributed to horizontal gene transfer from archaea and thermophilic bacteria; many of the horizontally transferred genes are located on the single megaplasmid of Thermus. In addition, the Thermus lineage has lost a set of genes that are still present in Deinococcus and many other mesophilic bacteria but are not common among thermophiles. By contrast, Deinococcus seems to have acquired numerous genes related to stress response systems from various bacteria. A comparison of the distribution of orthologous genes among the four partitions of the Deinococcus genome and the two partitions of the Thermus genome reveals homology between the Thermus megaplasmid (pTT27 and Deinococcus megaplasmid (DR177. Conclusion After the radiation from their common ancestor, the Thermus and Deinococcus lineages have taken divergent paths toward their distinct lifestyles. In addition to extensive gene loss, Thermus seems to have acquired numerous genes from thermophiles, which likely was the decisive contribution to its thermophilic adaptation. By contrast, Deinococcus lost few genes but seems to have acquired many bacterial genes that apparently enhanced its ability to survive different kinds of environmental stresses. Notwithstanding the accumulation of

  7. Properties and crystal structure of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayaka Igari

    Full Text Available Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR is one of the enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism. Despite considerable genetic and clinical attention, the reaction mechanism and regulation of this enzyme are not fully understood because of difficult production and poor stability. While recombinant enzymes from thermophilic organisms are often stable and easy to prepare, properties of thermostable MTHFRs have not yet been reported.MTHFR from Thermus thermophilus HB8, a homologue of Escherichia coli MetF, has been expressed in E. coli and purified. The purified MTHFR was chiefly obtained as a heterodimer of apo- and holo-subunits, that is, one flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD prosthetic group bound per dimer. The crystal structure of the holo-subunit was quite similar to the β(8α(8 barrel of E. coli MTHFR, while that of the apo-subunit was a previously unobserved closed form. In addition, the intersubunit interface of the dimer in the crystals was different from any of the subunit interfaces of the tetramer of E. coli MTHFR. Free FAD could be incorporated into the apo-subunit of the purified Thermus enzyme after purification, forming a homodimer of holo-subunits. Comparison of the crystal structures of the heterodimer and the homodimer revealed different intersubunit interfaces, indicating a large conformational change upon FAD binding. Most of the biochemical properties of the heterodimer and the homodimer were the same, except that the homodimer showed ≈50% activity per FAD-bound subunit in folate-dependent reactions.The different intersubunit interfaces and rearrangement of subunits of Thermus MTHFR may be related to human enzyme properties, such as the allosteric regulation by S-adenosylmethionine and the enhanced instability of the Ala222Val mutant upon loss of FAD. Whereas E. coli MTHFR was the only structural model for human MTHFR to date, our findings suggest that Thermus MTHFR will be another useful model for this important enzyme.

  8. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of dnaK-operon proteins from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipiuk, J; Joachimiak, A

    1997-09-12

    We propose that the dnaK operon of Thermus thermophilus HB8 is composed of three functionally linked genes: dnaK, grpE, and dnaJ. The dnaK and dnaJ gene products are most closely related to their cyanobacterial homologs. The DnaK protein sequence places T. thermophilus in the plastid Hsp70 subfamily. In contrast, the grpE translated sequence is most similar to GrpE from Clostridium acetobutylicum, a Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium. A single promoter region, with homology to the Escherichia coli consensus promoter sequences recognized by the sigma70 and sigma32 transcription factors, precedes the postulated operon. This promoter is heat-shock inducible. The dnaK mRNA level increased more than 30 times upon 10 min of heat shock (from 70 degrees C to 85 degrees C). A strong transcription terminating sequence was found between the dnaK and grpE genes. The individual genes were cloned into pET expression vectors and the thermophilic proteins were overproduced at high levels in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. The recombinant T. thermophilus DnaK protein was shown to have a weak ATP-hydrolytic activity, with an optimum at 90 degrees C. The ATPase was stimulated by the presence of GrpE and DnaJ. Another open reading frame, coding for ClpB heat-shock protein, was found downstream of the dnaK operon.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of molybdenum-cofactor biosynthesis protein C from Thermus thermophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad; Ranjani, Chellamuthu Vasuki; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Baba, Seiki; Chen, Lirong; Liu, Zhi-Jie; Wang, Bi-Cheng; Nishida, Masami; Ebihara, Akio; Shinkai, Akeo; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2006-01-01

    The molybdenum-cofactor biosynthesis protein C from T. thermophilus has been crystallized in two different space groups, P2 1 and R32; the crystals diffracted to 1.9 and 1.75 Å resolution, respectively. The Gram-negative aerobic eubacterium Thermus thermophilus is an extremely important thermophilic microorganism that was originally isolated from a thermal vent environment in Japan. The molybdenum cofactor in this organism is considered to be an essential component required by enzymes that catalyze diverse key reactions in the global metabolism of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur. The molybdenum-cofactor biosynthesis protein C derived from T. thermophilus was crystallized in two different space groups. Crystals obtained using the first crystallization condition belong to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 64.81, b = 109.84, c = 115.19 Å, β = 104.9°; the crystal diffracted to a resolution of 1.9 Å. The other crystal form belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 106.57, c = 59.25 Å, and diffracted to 1.75 Å resolution. Preliminary calculations reveal that the asymmetric unit contains 12 monomers and one monomer for the crystals belonging to space group P2 1 and R32, respectively

  10. Three-dimensional structure of the enzyme dimanganese catalase from thermus thermophilus at 1 A resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonyuk, S.V.; Melik-Adamyan, V.R.; Popov, A.N.; Lamzin, V.S.; Hempstead, P.D.; Harrison, P.M.; Artymyuk, P.J.; Barynin, V.V.

    2000-01-01

    The crystal structures of two forms of the enzyme dimanganese catalase from Thermus Thermophilus (native and inhibited by chloride) were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis at 1.05 and 0.98 A resolution, respectively. The atomic models of the molecules were refined to the R factors 9.8 and 10%, respectively. The three-dimensional molecular structures are characterized in detail. The analysis of electron-density distributions in the active centers of the native and inhibited enzyme forms revealed that the most flexible side chains of the amino acid residues Lys162 and Glu36 exist in two interrelated conformations. This allowed us to obtain the structural data necessary for understanding the mechanism of enzymatic activity of the dimanganese catalase

  11. Synthesis of rare sugars with L-fuculose-1-phosphate aldolase (FucA) from Thermus thermophilus HB8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zijie; Cai, Li; Qi, Qingsheng; Styslinger, Thomas J; Zhao, Guohui; Wang, Peng George

    2011-09-01

    We report herein a one-pot four-enzyme approach for the synthesis of the rare sugars d-psicose, d-sorbose, l-tagatose, and l-fructose with aldolase FucA from a thermophilic source (Thermus thermophilus HB8). Importantly, the cheap starting material DL-GP (DL-glycerol 3-phosphate), was used to significantly reduce the synthetic cost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Engineering of DNA polymerase I from Thermus thermophilus using compartmentalized self-replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aye, Seaim Lwin; Fujiwara, Kei; Ueki, Asuka; Doi, Nobuhide

    2018-05-05

    Although compartmentalized self-replication (CSR) and compartmentalized partnered replication (CPR) are powerful tools for directed evolution of proteins and gene circuits, limitations remain in the emulsion PCR process with the wild-type Taq DNA polymerase used so far, including long run times, low amounts of product, and false negative results due to inhibitors. In this study, we developed a high-efficiency mutant of DNA polymerase I from Thermus thermophilus HB27 (Tth pol) suited for CSR and CPR. We modified the wild-type Tth pol by (i) deletion of the N-terminal 5' to 3' exonuclease domain, (ii) fusion with the DNA-binding protein Sso7d, (iii) introduction of four known effective point mutations from other DNA polymerase mutants, and (iv) codon optimization to reduce the GC content. Consequently, we obtained a mutant that provides higher product yields than the conventional Taq pol without decreased fidelity. Next, we performed four rounds of CSR selection with a randomly mutated library of this modified Tth pol and obtained mutants that provide higher product yields in fewer cycles of emulsion PCR than the parent Tth pol as well as the conventional Taq pol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Site-directed mutation of a laccase from Thermus thermophilus: Effect on the activity profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A site-directed mutant R453T of a laccase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 (Tth-laccase was constructed in order to investigate the effect on laccase catalytic properties. The mutated gene was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Nickel-affinity purification was achieved and followed by copper ion incorporation. The mature mutated enzyme was quantitatively equal to the wild type. A photometric assay based on the oxidation of the substrate 2,2-azino-bis-(3- ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonate (ABTS was employed in comparison with the wild-type Tth-laccase on catalytic properties. The R453T mutant exhibited improvement in substrate affinity and specific activity at room temperature, whereas those parameters were not significantly influenced when the temperature increased up to 65°C or higher. The mutant had better catalytic activity than that of the wild type at acidic pH. Investigated by circular dichroism spectroscopy, the mutant Tth-laccase displayed similar profiles at low and high temperatures.

  14. Engineering the Substrate Specificity of a Thermophilic Penicillin Acylase from Thermus thermophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia L.; Cantero, Ángel; del Valle, Mercedes; Marina, Anabel; López-Gallego, Fernando; Guisán, José M.

    2013-01-01

    A homologue of the Escherichia coli penicillin acylase is encoded in the genomes of several thermophiles, including in different Thermus thermophilus strains. Although the natural substrate of this enzyme is not known, this acylase shows a marked preference for penicillin K over penicillin G. Three-dimensional models were created in which the catalytic residues and the substrate binding pocket were identified. Through rational redesign, residues were replaced to mimic the aromatic binding site of the E. coli penicillin G acylase. A set of enzyme variants containing between one and four amino acid replacements was generated, with altered catalytic properties in the hydrolyses of penicillins K and G. The introduction of a single phenylalanine residue in position α188, α189, or β24 improved the Km for penicillin G between 9- and 12-fold, and the catalytic efficiency of these variants for penicillin G was improved up to 6.6-fold. Structural models, as well as docking analyses, can predict the positioning of penicillins G and K for catalysis and can demonstrate how binding in a productive pose is compromised when more than one bulky phenylalanine residue is introduced into the active site. PMID:23263966

  15. Thermus Thermophilus as a Model System for the Study of Ribosomal Antibiotic Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Steven T.

    2018-03-01

    Ribosomes are the intracellular ribonucleoprotein machines responsible for the translation of mRNA sequence into protein sequence. As an essential cell component, the ribosome is the target of numerous antibiotics that bind to critical functional sites to impair protein synthesis. Mutations causing resistance to antibiotics arise in antibiotic binding sites, and an understanding of the basis of resistance will be an essential component of efforts to develop new antibiotics by rational drug design. We have identified a number of antibiotic-resistance mutations in ribosomal genes of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus. This species offers two primary advantages for examining the structural basis of antibiotic-resistance, in particular, its potential for genetic manipulation and the suitability of its ribosomes for analysis by X-ray crystallography. Mutations we have identified in this organism are in many instances identical to those found in other bacterial species, including important pathogens, a result of the extreme conservation of ribosome functional sites. Here I summarize the advantages of this organism as a model system to study antibiotic-resistance mechanisms at the molecular level.

  16. Characterization of recombinant glyoxylate reductase from thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Hiroyasu; Nakayama, Hitoshi; China, Hideyasu; Kawata, Takuya; Doukyu, Noriyuki; Yasuda, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    A glyoxylate reductase gene from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 (TthGR) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant enzyme was highly purified to homogeneity and characterized. The purified TthGR showed thermostability up to 70 degrees C. In contrast, the maximum reaction condition was relatively mild (45 degrees C and pH 6.7). Although the kcat values against co-enzyme NADH and NADPH were similar, the Km value against co-enzyme NADH was approximately 18 times higher than that against NADPH. TthGR prefers NADPH rather than NADH as an electron donor. These results indicate that a phosphate group of a co-enzyme affects the binding affinity rather than the reaction efficiency, and TthGR demands appropriate amount of phosphate for a high activity. Furthermore, it was found that the half-lives of TthGR in the presence of 25% dimethyl sulfoxide and diethylene glycol were significantly longer than that in the absence of an organic solvent.

  17. Structure of TTHA1623, a novel metallo-β-lactamase superfamily protein from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Akihiro; Okada, Akitoshi; Kameda, Yasuhiro; Ohtsuka, Jun; Nakagawa, Noriko; Ebihara, Akio; Nagata, Koji; Tanokura, Masaru

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structures of TTHA1623 from T. thermophilus HB8 in an iron-bound and a zinc-bound form have been determined to 2.8 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively. TTHA1623 is a metallo-β-lactamase superfamily protein from the extremely thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8. Homologues of TTHA1623 exist in a wide range of bacteria and archaea and one eukaryote, Giardia lamblia, but their function remains unknown. To analyze the structural properties of TTHA1623, the crystal structures of its iron-bound and zinc-bound forms have been determined to 2.8 and 2.2 Å resolution, respectively. TTHA1623 possesses an αββα-fold similar to that of other metallo-β-lactamase superfamily proteins with glyoxalase II-type metal coordination. However, TTHA1623 exhibits a putative substrate-binding pocket with a unique shape

  18. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and initial crystallographic analysis of the preprotein translocation ATPase SecA from Thermus thermophilus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassylyeva, Marina N.; Mori, Hiroyuki; Tsukazaki, Tomoya; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Tahirov, Tahir H.; Ito, Koreaki; Vassylyev, Dmitry G.

    2006-01-01

    The SecA ATPase from T. thermophilus was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. Complete diffraction data sets were collected for two crystal forms at 2.8 and 3.5 Å resolution, respectively. Determination of the structure is now in progress. The Thermus thermophilus gene encoding the preprotein translocation ATPase SecA was cloned and expressed and the purified protein was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in two different space groups P3 1(2) 21 (a = b = 168.6, c = 149.8 Å) and P6 1(5) 22 (a = b = 130.9, c = 564.6 Å). The crystals, improved by macroseeding, diffracted to beyond 2.8 and 3.5 Å resolution for the trigonal and hexagonal crystal forms, respectively. Structure determination using the multiple isomorphous replacement method is in progress

  19. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study on pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase TTHA1771 from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Katsumi; Kunishima, Naoki

    2007-01-01

    The pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase TTHA1771 from T. thermophilus HB8 has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals diffract X-rays to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Pyrimidine nucleoside phosphorylase (PYNP) catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of pyrimidines in the nucleotide-synthesis salvage pathway. In order to study the structure–thermostability relationship of this enzyme, PYNP from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TTHA1771) has been cloned, overexpressed and purified. The TTHA1771 protein was crystallized at 291 K using the oil-microbatch method with PEG 4000 as a precipitant. A native data set was collected to 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 58.83, b = 76.23, c = 103.86 Å, β = 91.3°

  20. Crystal Structure of the 30S Ribosomal Subunit from Thermus Thermophilus: Purification, Crystallization and Structure Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemons, William M. Jr.; Brodersen, Ditlev E.; McCutcheonn, John P.; May, Joanna L.C.; Carter, Andrew P.; Morgan-Warren, Robert J.; Wimberly, Brian T.; Ramakrishnan, Venki

    2001-01-01

    We describe the crystallization and structure determination of the 30 S ribosomal subunit from Thermus thermophilus. Previous reports of crystals that diffracted to 10 (angstrom) resolution were used as a starting point to improve the quality of the diffraction. Eventually, ideas such as the addition of substrates or factors to eliminate conformational heterogeneity proved less important than attention to detail in yielding crystals that diffracted beyond 3 (angstrom) resolution. Despite improvements in technology and methodology in the last decade, the structure determination of the 30 S subunit presented some very challenging technical problems because of the size of the asymmetric unit, crystal variability and sensitivity to radiation damage. Some steps that were useful for determination of the atomic structure were: the use of anomalous scattering from the LIII edges of osmium and lutetium to obtain the necessary phasing signal; the use of tunable, third-generation synchrotron sources to obtain data of reasonable quality at high resolution; collection of derivative data precisely about a mirror plane to preserve small anomalous differences between Bijvoet mates despite extensive radiation damage and multi-crystal scaling; the pre-screening of crystals to ensure quality, isomorphism and the efficient use of scarce third-generation synchrotron time; pre-incubation of crystals in cobalt hexaammine to ensure isomorphism with other derivatives; and finally, the placement of proteins whose structures had been previously solved in isolation, in conjunction with biochemical data on protein-RNA interactions, to map out the architecture of the 30 S subunit prior to the construction of a detailed atomic-resolution model.

  1. Isolation and partial characterization of carotenoid underproducing and overproducing mutants from an extremely thermophilic Thermus thermophilus HB27

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, T.; Yoshino, Y.; Guevarra, E.D.; Ishida, S.; Hiruta, T.; Fujii, R.; Nakahara, T.

    1994-01-01

    Twenty-two carotenoid underproducing and thirteen overproducing mutants were obtained from Thermus thermophilus HB27. The strain HB27 was found to produce at least seven colored carotenoids, believed to be identical to those produced by Thermus aquaticus YT1. Based on the results of the genetic analyses performed on twelve carotenoid underproducing mutants, they were classified into three groups; groups 1, 2 and 3. No colored carotenoid was extracted from the cells of mutants belonging to groups 2 and 3, although the accumulation of phytoene, a colorless carotenoid, was observed in group 2 strains. Group 1 was subdivided into groups 1-a and 1-b, where 1-a stains produced neither colored carotenoids nor phytoene and 1-b strains produced two polar colored carotenoids. All of the overproducing mutants produced about twelve times as much seven colored carotenoid mixtures as the parental strain. The mutation loci among all the overproducing mutants were very close to one another, possibly in the same gene. Carotenoid overproducing mutants showed an extensive resistance to UV-irradiation and showed poorer growth at higher temperatures. Carotenoid underproducing mutants were slightly more UV-sensitive but they grew almost normally at higher temperatures. These results suggest that carotenoids are secondary metabolites which are not essential for growth of T. thermophilus

  2. Cre/lox-based multiple markerless gene disruption in the genome of the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togawa, Yoichiro; Nunoshiba, Tatsuo; Hiratsu, Keiichiro

    2018-02-01

    Markerless gene-disruption technology is particularly useful for effective genetic analyses of Thermus thermophilus (T. thermophilus), which have a limited number of selectable markers. In an attempt to develop a novel system for the markerless disruption of genes in T. thermophilus, we applied a Cre/lox system to construct a triple gene disruptant. To achieve this, we constructed two genetic tools, a loxP-htk-loxP cassette and cre-expressing plasmid, pSH-Cre, for gene disruption and removal of the selectable marker by Cre-mediated recombination. We found that the Cre/lox system was compatible with the proliferation of the T. thermophilus HB27 strain at the lowest growth temperature (50 °C), and thus succeeded in establishing a triple gene disruptant, the (∆TTC1454::loxP, ∆TTC1535KpnI::loxP, ∆TTC1576::loxP) strain, without leaving behind a selectable marker. During the process of the sequential disruption of multiple genes, we observed the undesired deletion and inversion of the chromosomal region between multiple loxP sites that were induced by Cre-mediated recombination. Therefore, we examined the effects of a lox66-htk-lox71 cassette by exploiting the mutant lox sites, lox66 and lox71, instead of native loxP sites. We successfully constructed a (∆TTC1535::lox72, ∆TTC1537::lox72) double gene disruptant without inducing the undesired deletion of the 0.7-kbp region between the two directly oriented lox72 sites created by the Cre-mediated recombination of the lox66-htk-lox71 cassette. This is the first demonstration of a Cre/lox system being applicable to extreme thermophiles in a genetic manipulation. Our results indicate that this system is a powerful tool for multiple markerless gene disruption in T. thermophilus.

  3. Insight into the transition between the open and closed conformations of Thermus thermophilus carboxypeptidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okai, Masahiko; Yamamura, Akihiro; Hayakawa, Kou; Tsutsui, Shiho; Miyazono, Ken-ichi; Lee, Woo-Cheol; Nagata, Koji; Inoue, Yumiko; Tanokura, Masaru

    2017-01-01

    Carboxypeptidase cleaves the C-terminal amino acid residue from proteins and peptides. Here, we report the functional and structural characterizations of carboxypeptidase belonging to the M32 family from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8 (TthCP). TthCP exhibits a relatively broad specificity for both hydrophilic (neutral and basic) and hydrophobic (aliphatic and aromatic) residues at the C-terminus and shows optimal activity in the temperature range of 75–80 °C and in the pH range of 6.8–7.2. Enzyme activity was significantly enhanced by cobalt or cadmium and was moderately inhibited by Tris at 25 °C. We also determined the crystal structure of TthCP at 2.6 Å resolution. Two dimer types of TthCP are present in the crystal. One type consists of two subunits in different states, open and closed, with a C α RMSD value of 2.2 Å; the other type consists of two subunits in the same open state. This structure enables us to compare the open and closed states of an M32 carboxypeptidase. The TthCP subunit can be divided into two domains, L and S, which are separated by a substrate-binding groove. The L and S domains in the open state are almost identical to those in the closed state, with C α RMSD values of 0.84 and 0.53 Å, respectively, suggesting that the transition between the open and closed states proceeds with a large hinge-bending motion. The superimposition between the closed states of TthCP and BsuCP, another M32 family member, revealed that most putative substrate-binding residues in the grooves are oriented in the same direction. - Highlights: • The enzyme activity of TthCP was inhibited moderately by Tris molecule. • We solved the crystal structure of TthCP at 2.6 Å resolution. • The crystal structure of TthCP revealed both the open and closed conformations.

  4. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic study of molybdopterin synthase from Thermus thermophilus HB8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaujia, Shankar Prasad; Ranjani, Chellamuthu Vasuki; Jeyakanthan, Jeyaraman; Ohmori, Miwa; Agari, Kazuko; Kitamura, Yoshiaki; Baba, Seiki; Ebihara, Akio; Shinkai, Akeo; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Shiro, Yoshitsugu; Sekar, Kanagaraj; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2007-01-01

    The molybdopterin synthase from T. thermophilus HB8 was cloned, expressed, purified and crystallized. The crystals belong to space group P2 1 and diffracted to a resolution of 1.64 Å. Thermus thermophilus is a Gram-negative aerobic thermophilic eubacterium which can grow at temperatures ranging from 323 to 355 K. In addition to their importance in thermostability or adaptation strategies for survival at high temperatures, the thermostable enzymes in thermophilic organisms contribute to a wide range of biotechnological applications. The molybdenum cofactor in all three kingdoms consists of a tricyclic pyranopterin termed molybdopterin that bears the cis-dithiolene group responsible for molybdenum ligation. The crystals of molybdopterin synthase from T. thermophilus HB8 belong to the primitive monoclinic space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 33.94, b = 103.32, c = 59.59 Å, β = 101.3°. Preliminary studies and molecular-replacement calculations reveal the presence of three monomers in the asymmetric unit

  5. The role of the PHP domain associated with DNA polymerase X from Thermus thermophilus HB8 in base excision repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Shuhei; Nakagawa, Noriko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Masui, Ryoji

    2012-11-01

    Base excision repair (BER) is one of the most commonly used DNA repair pathways involved in genome stability. X-family DNA polymerases (PolXs) play critical roles in BER, especially in filling single-nucleotide gaps. In addition to a polymerase core domain, bacterial PolXs have a polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain with phosphoesterase activity which is also required for BER. However, the role of the PHP domain of PolX in bacterial BER remains unresolved. We found that the PHP domain of Thermus thermophilus HB8 PolX (ttPolX) functions as two types of phosphoesterase in BER, including a 3'-phosphatase and an apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease. Experiments using T. thermophilus HB8 cell lysates revealed that the majority of the 3'-phosphatase and AP endonuclease activities are attributable to the another phosphoesterase in T. thermophilus HB8, endonuclease IV (ttEndoIV). However, ttPolX possesses significant 3'-phosphatase activity in ΔttendoIV cell lysate, indicating possible complementation. Our experiments also reveal that there are only two enzymes that display the 3'-phosphatase activity in the T. thermophilus HB8 cell, ttPolX and ttEndoIV. Furthermore, phenotypic analysis of ΔttpolX, ΔttendoIV, and ΔttpolX/ΔttendoIV using hydrogen peroxide and sodium nitrite supports the hypothesis that ttPolX functions as a backup for ttEndoIV in BER. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification and characterization of preferred DNA-binding sites for the Thermus thermophilus transcriptional regulator FadR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minwoo Lee

    Full Text Available One of the primary transcriptional regulators of fatty acid homeostasis in many prokaryotes is the protein FadR. To better understand its biological function in the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB8, we sought to first determine its preferred DNA-binding sequences in vitro using the combinatorial selection method Restriction Endonuclease Protection, Selection, and Amplification (REPSA and then use this information to bioinformatically identify potential regulated genes. REPSA determined a consensus FadR-binding sequence 5´-TTRNACYNRGTNYAA-3´, which was further characterized using quantitative electrophoretic mobility shift assays. With this information, a search of the T. thermophilus HB8 genome found multiple operons potentially regulated by FadR. Several of these were identified as encoding proteins involved in fatty acid biosynthesis and degradation; however, others were novel and not previously identified as targets of FadR. The role of FadR in regulating these genes was validated by physical and functional methods, as well as comparative genomic approaches to further characterize regulons in related organisms. Taken together, our study demonstrates that a systematic approach involving REPSA, biophysical characterization of protein-DNA binding, and bioinformatics can be used to postulate biological roles for potential transcriptional regulators.

  7. Low molecular weight thiols and thioredoxins are important players in Hg(II) resistance in Thermus thermophilus HB27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norambuena, J; Wang, Y; Hanson, T; Boyd, J M; Barkay, T

    2017-11-17

    Mercury (Hg), one of the most toxic and widely distributed heavy metals, has a high affinity for thiol groups. Thiol groups reduce and sequester Hg. Therefore, low molecular weight and protein thiols may be important cell components used in Hg resistance. To date, the role of low molecular weight thiols in Hg-detoxification remains understudied. The mercury resistance ( mer ) operon of Thermus thermophilus suggests an evolutionary link between Hg(II) resistance and low molecular weight thiol metabolism. This mer operon encodes for an enzyme involved in methionine biosynthesis, Oah. Challenge with Hg(II) resulted in increased expression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of multiple low molecular weight thiols (cysteine, homocysteine, and bacillithiol), as well as the thioredoxin system. Phenotypic analysis of gene replacement mutants indicated that Oah contributes to Hg resistance under sulfur limiting conditions, and strains lacking bacillithiol and/or thioredoxins are more sensitive to Hg(II) than the wild type. Growth in presence of either a thiol oxidizing agent or a thiol alkylating agent increased sensitivity to Hg(II). Furthermore, exposure to 3 μM Hg(II) consumed all intracellular reduced bacillithiol and cysteine. Database searches indicate that oah2 is present in all Thermus spp. mer operons. The presence of a thiol related gene was also detected in some alphaprotobacterial mer operons, in which a glutathione reductase gene was present, supporting the role of thiols in Hg(II) detoxification. These results have led to a working model in which LMW thiols act as Hg(II) buffering agents while Hg is reduced by MerA. Importance The survival of microorganisms in presence of toxic metals is central to life's sustainability. The affinity of thiol groups to toxic heavy metals drives microbe-metal interactions and modulate metal toxicity. Mercury detoxification ( mer ) genes likely originated early in microbial evolution among geothermal environments. Little is

  8. A comparison of structural and evolutionary attributes of Escherichia coli and Thermus thermophilus small ribosomal subunits: signatures of thermal adaptation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saurav Mallik

    Full Text Available Here we compare the structural and evolutionary attributes of Thermus thermophilus and Escherichia coli small ribosomal subunits (SSU. Our results indicate that with few exceptions, thermophilic 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA is densely packed compared to that of mesophilic at most of the analogous spatial regions. In addition, we have located species-specific cavity clusters (SSCCs in both species. E. coli SSCCs are numerous and larger compared to T. thermophilus SSCCs, which again indicates densely packed thermophilic 16S rRNA. Thermophilic ribosomal proteins (r-proteins have longer disordered regions than their mesophilic homologs and they experience larger disorder-to-order transitions during SSU-assembly. This is reflected in the predicted higher conformational changes of thermophilic r-proteins compared to their mesophilic homologs during SSU-assembly. This high conformational change of thermophilic r-proteins may help them to associate with the 16S ribosomal RNA with high complementary interfaces, larger interface areas, and denser molecular contacts, compared to those of mesophilic. Thus, thermophilic protein-rRNA interfaces are tightly associated with 16S rRNA than their mesophilic homologs. Densely packed 16S rRNA interior and tight protein-rRNA binding of T. thermophilus (compared to those of E. coli are likely the signatures of its thermal adaptation. We have found a linear correlation between the free energy of protein-RNA interface formation, interface size, and square of conformational changes, which is followed in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic SSU. Disorder is associated with high protein-RNA interface polarity. We have found an evolutionary tendency to maintain high polarity (thereby disorder at protein-rRNA interfaces, than that at rest of the protein structures. However, some proteins exhibit exceptions to this general trend.

  9. Identification of novel esterase-active enzymes from hot environments by use of the host bacterium Thermus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt eLeis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Functional metagenomic screening strategies, which are independent of known sequence information, can lead to the identification of truly novel genes and enzymes. Since E. coli has been used exhaustively for this purpose as a host, it is important to establish alternative expression hosts and to use them for functional metagenomic screening for new enzymes. In this study we show that Thermus thermophilus HB27 is an excellent screening host and can be used as an alternative provider of truly novel biocatalysts. In a previous study we constructed the mutant strain BL03 that was no longer able to grow on defined minimal medium supplemented with tributyrin as the sole carbon source and could be used as a host to screen for metagenomic DNA fragments that could complement growth on tributyrin. Several thousand single fosmid clones from thermophilic metagenomic libraries from heated compost and hot spring water samples were subjected to a comparative screening for esterase activity in both T. thermophilus strain BL03 and E. coli EPI300. We scored a greater number of active clones in the thermophilic bacterium than in the mesophilic E. coli. From all clones functionally screened in E. coli, only two thermostable α/β-fold hydrolase enzymes with high amino acid sequence similarity to already characterized enzymes were identifiable. In contrast, five further fosmids were found that conferred lipolytic activities in T. thermophilus. Four open reading frames (ORFs were found which did not share significant similarity to known esterase enzymes. Two of the genes were expressed in both hosts and the novel thermophilic esterases, which based on their primary structures could not be assigned to known esterase or lipase families, were purified and preliminarily characterized. Our work underscores the benefit of using additional screening hosts other than E. coli for the identification of novel biocatalysts with industrial relevance.

  10. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies on Thermus thermophilus leucyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with different amino acids and pre-transfer editing substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Rayevsky A. V.; Tukalo M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the structural bases for the amino acid selectivity of the Thermus thermophilus leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRSTT) aminoacylation site and to disclose the binding pattern of pre-transfer editing substrates. Methods. Eight amino acids proposed as semi-cognate substrates for aminoacylation and eight aminoacyl-adenylates (formed from AMP and eight amino acids) were prepared in zwitterions form. The protein structure with a co-crystallized substrate in the aminoacylation site [P...

  11. RNA and DNA Targeting by a Reconstituted Thermus thermophilus Type III-A CRISPR-Cas System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tina Y; Iavarone, Anthony T; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2017-01-01

    CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) systems are RNA-guided adaptive immunity pathways used by bacteria and archaea to defend against phages and plasmids. Type III-A systems use a multisubunit interference complex called Csm, containing Cas proteins and a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to target cognate nucleic acids. The Csm complex is intriguing in that it mediates RNA-guided targeting of both RNA and transcriptionally active DNA, but the mechanism is not well understood. Here, we overexpressed the five components of the Thermus thermophilus (T. thermophilus) Type III-A Csm complex (TthCsm) with a defined crRNA sequence, and purified intact TthCsm complexes from E. coli cells. The complexes were thermophilic, targeting complementary ssRNA more efficiently at 65°C than at 37°C. Sequence-independent, endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) by TthCsm was triggered by recognition of a complementary ssRNA, and required a lack of complementarity between the first 8 nucleotides (5' tag) of the crRNA and the 3' flanking region of the ssRNA. Mutation of the histidine-aspartate (HD) nuclease domain of the TthCsm subunit, Cas10/Csm1, abolished DNA cleavage. Activation of DNA cleavage was dependent on RNA binding but not cleavage. This leads to a model in which binding of an ssRNA target to the Csm complex would stimulate cleavage of exposed ssDNA in the cell, such as could occur when the RNA polymerase unwinds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) during transcription. Our findings establish an amenable, thermostable system for more in-depth investigation of the targeting mechanism using structural biology methods, such as cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography.

  12. RNA and DNA Targeting by a Reconstituted Thermus thermophilus Type III-A CRISPR-Cas System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Y Liu

    Full Text Available CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated systems are RNA-guided adaptive immunity pathways used by bacteria and archaea to defend against phages and plasmids. Type III-A systems use a multisubunit interference complex called Csm, containing Cas proteins and a CRISPR RNA (crRNA to target cognate nucleic acids. The Csm complex is intriguing in that it mediates RNA-guided targeting of both RNA and transcriptionally active DNA, but the mechanism is not well understood. Here, we overexpressed the five components of the Thermus thermophilus (T. thermophilus Type III-A Csm complex (TthCsm with a defined crRNA sequence, and purified intact TthCsm complexes from E. coli cells. The complexes were thermophilic, targeting complementary ssRNA more efficiently at 65°C than at 37°C. Sequence-independent, endonucleolytic cleavage of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA by TthCsm was triggered by recognition of a complementary ssRNA, and required a lack of complementarity between the first 8 nucleotides (5' tag of the crRNA and the 3' flanking region of the ssRNA. Mutation of the histidine-aspartate (HD nuclease domain of the TthCsm subunit, Cas10/Csm1, abolished DNA cleavage. Activation of DNA cleavage was dependent on RNA binding but not cleavage. This leads to a model in which binding of an ssRNA target to the Csm complex would stimulate cleavage of exposed ssDNA in the cell, such as could occur when the RNA polymerase unwinds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA during transcription. Our findings establish an amenable, thermostable system for more in-depth investigation of the targeting mechanism using structural biology methods, such as cryo-electron microscopy and x-ray crystallography.

  13. Roles of conserved arginines in ATP-binding domains of AAA+ chaperone ClpB from Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Takashi; Nakazaki, Yosuke; Yoshida, Masasuke; Watanabe, Yo-hei

    2011-07-01

    ClpB, a member of the expanded superfamily of ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities (AAA+), forms a ring-shaped hexamer and cooperates with the DnaK chaperone system to reactivate aggregated proteins in an ATP-dependent manner. The ClpB protomer consists of an N-terminal domain, an AAA+ module (AAA-1), a middle domain, and a second AAA+ module (AAA-2). Each AAA+ module contains highly conserved WalkerA and WalkerB motifs, and two arginines (AAA-1) or one arginine (AAA-2). Here, we investigated the roles of these arginines (Arg322, Arg323, and Arg747) of ClpB from Thermus thermophilus in the ATPase cycle and chaperone function by alanine substitution. These mutations did not affect nucleotide binding, but did inhibit the hydrolysis of the bound ATP and slow the threading of the denatured protein through the central pore of the T. thermophilus ClpB ring, which severely impaired the chaperone functions. Previously, it was demonstrated that ATP binding to the AAA-1 module induced motion of the middle domain and stabilized the ClpB hexamer. However, the arginine mutations of the AAA-1 module destabilized the ClpB hexamer, even though ATP-induced motion of the middle domain was not affected. These results indicated that the three arginines are crucial for ATP hydrolysis and chaperone activity, but not for ATP binding. In addition, the two arginines in AAA-1 and the ATP-induced motion of the middle domain independently contribute to the stabilization of the hexamer. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  14. Pb2+ Effects on Growth, Lipids, and Protein and DNA Profiles of the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermus Thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Nicolaus

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Extremophiles are organisms able to thrive in extreme environmental conditions and some of them show the ability to survive high doses of heavy metals thanks to defensive mechanisms provided by primary and secondary metabolic products, i.e., extremolytes, lipids, and extremozymes. This is why there is a growing scientific and industrial interest in the use of thermophilic bacteria in a host of tasks, from the environmental detoxification of heavy metal to industrial activities, such as bio-machining and bio-metallurgy. In this work Thermus thermophilus was challenged against increasing Pb2+ concentrations spanning from 0 to 300 ppm in order to ascertain the sensitiveness of this bacteria to the Pb environmental pollution and to give an insight on its heavy metal resistance mechanisms. Analysis of growth parameters, enzyme activities, protein profiles, and lipid membrane modifications were carried out. In addition, genotyping analysis of bacteria grown in the presence of Pb2+, using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR and DNA melting evaluation, were also performed. A better knowledge of the response of thermophilic bacteria to the different pollutants, as heavy metals, is necessary for optimizing their use in remediation or decontamination processes.

  15. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of recombinant phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase from the Thermophilic thermus thermophilus strain HB27

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramchik, Yu. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Timofeev, V. I., E-mail: tostars@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation); Muravieva, T. I.; Sinitsyna, E. V.; Esipov, R. S., E-mail: esipov@mx.ibch.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kuranova, I. P., E-mail: inna@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics” (Russian Federation)

    2017-01-15

    Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetases (PRPP synthetases) are among the key enzymes essential for vital functions of organisms and are involved in the biosynthesis of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides, coenzymes, and the amino acids histidine and tryptophan. These enzymes are used in biotechnology for the combined chemoenzymatic synthesis of natural nucleotide analogs. Recombinant phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase I from the thermophilic strain HB27 of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus (T. th HB27) has high thermal stability and shows maximum activity at 75°Ð¡, due to which this enzyme holds promise for biotechnological applications. In order to grow crystals and study them by X-ray crystallography, an enzyme sample, which was produced using a highly efficient producer strain, was purified by affinity and gel-filtration chromatography. The screening of crystallization conditions was performed by the vapor-diffusion technique. The crystals of the enzyme suitable for X-ray diffraction were grown by the counter-diffusion method through a gel layer. These crystals were used to collect the X-ray diffraction data set at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility (Japan) to 3-Å resolution. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P2{sub 1} and have the following unitcell parameters: a = 107.7 Å, b = 112.6 Å, c = 110.2 Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 116.6°. The X-ray diffraction data set is suitable for determining the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme at 3.0-Å resolution.

  16. Inactivation and unfolding of protein tyrosine phosphatase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 during urea and guanidine hydrochloride denaturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yejing Wang

    Full Text Available The effects of urea and guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl on the activity, conformation and unfolding process of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTPase, a thermostable low molecular weight protein from Thermus thermophilus HB27, have been studied. Enzymatic activity assays showed both urea and GdnHCl resulted in the inactivation of PTPase in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Inactivation kinetics analysis suggested that the inactivation of PTPase induced by urea and GdnHCl were both monophasic and reversible processes, and the effects of urea and GdnHCl on PTPase were similar to that of mixed-type reversible inhibitors. Far-ultraviolet (UV circular dichroism (CD, Tryptophan and 1-anilinonaphthalene -8-sulfonic acid (ANS fluorescence spectral analyses indicated the existence of a partially active and an inactive molten globule-like intermediate during the unfolding processes induced by urea and GdnHCl, respectively. Based on the sequence alignment and the homolog Tt1001 protein structure, we discussed the possible conformational transitions of PTPase induced by urea and GdnHCl and compared the conformations of these unfolding intermediates with the transient states in bovine PTPase and its complex structures in detail. Our results may be able to provide some valuable clues to reveal the relationship between the structure and enzymatic activity, and the unfolding pathway and mechanism of PTPase.

  17. Crystal structure studies of NADP{sup +} dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus exhibiting a novel terminal domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S.M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Pampa, K.J. [Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Manjula, M. [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India); Abdoh, M.M.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University, Nablus, West Bank, Palestine (Country Unknown); Kunishima, Naoki [Advanced Protein Crystallography Research Group, RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Harima Institute, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Lokanath, N.K., E-mail: lokanath@physics.uni-mysore.ac.in [Department of Studies in Physics, University of Mysore, Mysore 570 006 (India)

    2014-06-20

    Highlights: • We determined the structure of isocitrate dehydrogenase with citrate and cofactor. • The structure reveals a unique novel terminal domain involved in dimerization. • Clasp domain shows significant difference, and catalytic residues are conserved. • Oligomerization of the enzyme is quantized with subunit-subunit interactions. • Novel domain of this enzyme is classified as subfamily of the type IV. - Abstract: NADP{sup +} dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) is an enzyme catalyzing oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into oxalosuccinate (intermediate) and finally the product α-ketoglutarate. The crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus isocitrate dehydrogenase (TtIDH) ternary complex with citrate and cofactor NADP{sup +} was determined using X-ray diffraction method to a resolution of 1.80 Å. The overall fold of this protein was resolved into large domain, small domain and a clasp domain. The monomeric structure reveals a novel terminal domain involved in dimerization, very unique and novel domain when compared to other IDH’s. And, small domain and clasp domain showing significant differences when compared to other IDH’s of the same sub-family. The structure of TtIDH reveals the absence of helix at the clasp domain, which is mainly involved in oligomerization in other IDH’s. Also, helices/beta sheets are absent in the small domain, when compared to other IDH’s of the same sub family. The overall TtIDH structure exhibits closed conformation with catalytic triad residues, Tyr144-Asp248-Lys191 are conserved. Oligomerization of the protein is quantized using interface area and subunit–subunit interactions between protomers. Overall, the TtIDH structure with novel terminal domain may be categorized as a first structure of subfamily of type IV.

  18. Functional expression of a penicillin acylase from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB27 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Leticia L; Ferreras, Eloy R; Cantero, Angel; Hidalgo, Aurelio; Berenguer, José

    2012-08-09

    Penicillin acylases (PACs) are enzymes of industrial relevance in the manufacture of β-lactam antibiotics. Development of a PAC with a longer half-life under the reaction conditions used is essential for the improvement of the operational stability of the process. A gene encoding a homologue to Escherichia coli PAC was found in the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus (Tth) HB27. Because of the nature of this PAC and its complex maturation that is crucial to reach its functional heterodimeric final conformation, the overexpression of this enzyme in a heterologous mesophilic host was a challenge. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the PAC protein from Tth HB27 overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Fusions to a superfolder green fluorescent protein and differential membrane solubilization assays indicated that the native enzyme remains attached through its amino-terminal end to the outer side of the cytoplasmic membrane of Tth cells. In order to overexpress this PAC in E. coli cells, a variant of the protein devoid of its membrane anchoring segment was constructed. The effect of the co-expression of chaperones and calcium supplementation of the culture medium was investigated. The total production of PAC was enhanced by the presence of DnaK/J and GrpE and even more by trigger factor and GroEL/ES. In addition, 10 mM calcium markedly improved both PAC specific and volumetric activities. Recombinant PAC was affinity-purified and proper maturation of the protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis of the subunits. The recombinant protein was tested for activity towards several penicillins, cephalosporins and homoserine lactones. Hydrophobic acyl-chain penicillins were preferred over the rest of the substrates. Penicillin K (octanoyl penicillin) was the best substrate, with the highest specificity constant value (16.12 mM-1.seg-1). The optimum pH was aprox. 4 and the optimum temperature was 75 °C. The half-life of

  19. Functional expression of a penicillin acylase from the extreme thermophile Thermus thermophilus HB27 in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres Leticia L

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillin acylases (PACs are enzymes of industrial relevance in the manufacture of β-lactam antibiotics. Development of a PAC with a longer half-life under the reaction conditions used is essential for the improvement of the operational stability of the process. A gene encoding a homologue to Escherichia coli PAC was found in the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus (Tth HB27. Because of the nature of this PAC and its complex maturation that is crucial to reach its functional heterodimeric final conformation, the overexpression of this enzyme in a heterologous mesophilic host was a challenge. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the PAC protein from Tth HB27 overexpressed in Escherichia coli. Results Fusions to a superfolder green fluorescent protein and differential membrane solubilization assays indicated that the native enzyme remains attached through its amino-terminal end to the outer side of the cytoplasmic membrane of Tth cells. In order to overexpress this PAC in E. coli cells, a variant of the protein devoid of its membrane anchoring segment was constructed. The effect of the co-expression of chaperones and calcium supplementation of the culture medium was investigated. The total production of PAC was enhanced by the presence of DnaK/J and GrpE and even more by trigger factor and GroEL/ES. In addition, 10 mM calcium markedly improved both PAC specific and volumetric activities. Recombinant PAC was affinity-purified and proper maturation of the protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF analysis of the subunits. The recombinant protein was tested for activity towards several penicillins, cephalosporins and homoserine lactones. Hydrophobic acyl-chain penicillins were preferred over the rest of the substrates. Penicillin K (octanoyl penicillin was the best substrate, with the highest specificity constant value (16.12 mM-1.seg-1. The optimum pH was aprox. 4 and the optimum

  20. High resolution structure of the ba3 cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus in a lipidic environment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Tiefenbrunn

    Full Text Available The fundamental chemistry underpinning aerobic life on Earth involves reduction of dioxygen to water with concomitant proton translocation. This process is catalyzed by members of the heme-copper oxidase (HCO superfamily. Despite the availability of crystal structures for all types of HCO, the mode of action for this enzyme is not understood at the atomic level, namely how vectorial H(+ and e(- transport are coupled. Toward addressing this problem, we report wild type and A120F mutant structures of the ba(3-type cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus at 1.8 Å resolution. The enzyme has been crystallized from the lipidic cubic phase, which mimics the biological membrane environment. The structures reveal 20 ordered lipid molecules that occupy binding sites on the protein surface or mediate crystal packing interfaces. The interior of the protein encloses 53 water molecules, including 3 trapped in the designated K-path of proton transfer and 8 in a cluster seen also in A-type enzymes that likely functions in egress of product water and proton translocation. The hydrophobic O(2-uptake channel, connecting the active site to the lipid bilayer, contains a single water molecule nearest the Cu(B atom but otherwise exhibits no residual electron density. The active site contains strong electron density for a pair of bonded atoms bridging the heme Fe(a3 and Cu(B atoms that is best modeled as peroxide. The structure of ba(3-oxidase reveals new information about the positioning of the enzyme within the membrane and the nature of its interactions with lipid molecules. The atomic resolution details provide insight into the mechanisms of electron transfer, oxygen diffusion into the active site, reduction of oxygen to water, and pumping of protons across the membrane. The development of a robust system for production of ba(3-oxidase crystals diffracting to high resolution, together with an established expression system for generating mutants, opens the

  1. Models for the a subunits of the Thermus thermophilus V/A-ATPase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae V-ATPase enzymes by cryo-EM and evolutionary covariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schep, Daniel G.; Rubinstein, John L.

    2016-01-01

    Rotary ATPases couple ATP synthesis or hydrolysis to proton translocation across a membrane. However, understanding proton translocation has been hampered by a lack of structural information for the membrane-embedded a subunit. The V/A-ATPase from the eubacterium Thermus thermophilus is similar in structure to the eukaryotic V-ATPase but has a simpler subunit composition and functions in vivo to synthesize ATP rather than pump protons. We determined the T. thermophilus V/A-ATPase structure by cryo-EM at 6.4 Å resolution. Evolutionary covariance analysis allowed tracing of the a subunit sequence within the map, providing a complete model of the rotary ATPase. Comparing the membrane-embedded regions of the T. thermophilus V/A-ATPase and eukaryotic V-ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae allowed identification of the α-helices that belong to the a subunit and revealed the existence of previously unknown subunits in the eukaryotic enzyme. Subsequent evolutionary covariance analysis enabled construction of a model of the a subunit in the S. cerevisae V-ATPase that explains numerous biochemical studies of that enzyme. Comparing the two a subunit structures determined here with a structure of the distantly related a subunit from the bovine F-type ATP synthase revealed a conserved pattern of residues, suggesting a common mechanism for proton transport in all rotary ATPases. PMID:26951669

  2. Insight into the stereospecificity of short-chain thermus thermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase showing pro-S hydride transfer and prelog enantioselectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchio, Angela; Giordano, Assunta; Esposito, Luciana; Langella, Emma; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    The stereochemistry of the hydride transfer in reactions catalyzed by NAD(H)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus HB27 was determined by means of (1)H-NMR spectroscopy. The enzyme transfers the pro-S hydrogen of [4R-(2)H]NADH and exhibits Prelog specificity. Enzyme-substrate docking calculations provided structural details about the enantioselectivity of this thermophilic enzyme. These results give additional insights into the diverse active site architectures of the largely versatile short-chain dehydrogenase superfamily enzymes. A feasible protocol for the synthesis of [4R-(2)H]NADH with high yield was also set up by enzymatic oxidation of 2-propanol-d(8) catalyzed by Bacillus stearothermophilus alcohol dehydrogenase.

  3. Interaction of Thermus thermophilus ArsC enzyme and gold nanoparticles naked-eye assays speciation between As(III) and As(V)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politi, Jane; De Stefano, Luca; Spadavecchia, Jolanda; Casale, Sandra; Fiorentino, Gabriella; Antonucci, Immacolata

    2015-01-01

    The thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27 encodes chromosomal arsenate reductase (TtArsC), the enzyme responsible for resistance to the harmful effects of arsenic. We report on adsorption of TtArsC onto gold nanoparticles for naked-eye monitoring of biomolecular interaction between the enzyme and arsenic species. Synthesis of hybrid biological–metallic nanoparticles has been characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and phase modulated infrared reflection absorption (PM-IRRAS) spectroscopies. Molecular interactions have been monitored by UV–vis and Fourier transform-surface plasmon resonance (FT-SPR). Due to the nanoparticles’ aggregation on exposure to metal salts, pentavalent and trivalent arsenic solutions can be clearly distinguished by naked-eye assay, even at 85 μM concentration. Moreover, the assay shows partial selectivity against other heavy metals. (paper)

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of recombinant adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus strain HB27

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinitsyna, E. V.; Timofeev, V. I.; Tuzova, E. S.; Kostromina, M. A.; Murav'eva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S.; Kuranova, I. P.

    2017-07-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) belongs to the type I phosphoribosyltransferase family and catalyzes the formation of adenosine monophosphate via transfer of the 5-phosphoribosyl group from phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate to the nitrogen atom N9 of the adenine base. Proteins of this family are involved in a salvage pathway of nucleotide synthesis, thus providing purine base utilization and maintaining the optimal level of purine bases in the body. Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase from the extremely thermophilic Thermus thermophilus strain HB27 was produced using a highly efficient E. coli producer strain and was then purified by affinity and gel-filtration chromatography. This enzyme was successfully employed as a catalyst for the cascade biosynthesis of biologically important nucleotides. The screening of crystallization conditions for recombinant APRT from T. thermophilus HB27 was performed in order to determine the enzyme structure by X-ray diffraction. The crystallization conditions, which were found by the vapor-diffusion technique, were then optimized to apply the counter-diffusion technique. The crystals of the enzyme were grown by the capillary counter-diffusion method. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P1211 and have the following unitcell parameters: a = 69.86 Å, b = 82.16 Å, c = 91.39 Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 102.58°. The X-ray diffraction data set suitable for the determination of the APRT structure at 2.6 Å resolution was collected from the crystals at the SPring-8 synchrotron facility (Japan).

  5. A Key Enzyme of the NAD+ Salvage Pathway in Thermus thermophilus: Characterization of Nicotinamidase and the Impact of Its Gene Deletion at High Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Hironori; Sungwallek, Sathidaphorn; Chotchuang, Phatcharin; Okano, Kenji; Honda, Kohsuke

    2017-09-01

    NAD (NAD + ) is a cofactor related to many cellular processes. This cofactor is known to be unstable, especially at high temperatures, where it chemically decomposes to nicotinamide and ADP-ribose. Bacteria, yeast, and higher organisms possess the salvage pathway for reconstructing NAD + from these decomposition products; however, the importance of the salvage pathway for survival is not well elucidated, except for in pathogens lacking the NAD + de novo synthesis pathway. Herein, we report the importance of the NAD + salvage pathway in the thermophilic bacterium Thermus thermophilus HB8 at high temperatures. We identified the gene encoding nicotinamidase (TTHA0328), which catalyzes the first reaction of the NAD + salvage pathway. This recombinant enzyme has a high catalytic activity against nicotinamide ( K m of 17 μM, k cat of 50 s -1 , k cat / K m of 3.0 × 10 3 s -1 · mM -1 ). Deletion of this gene abolished nicotinamide deamination activity in crude extracts of T. thermophilus and disrupted the NAD + salvage pathway in T. thermophilus Disruption of the salvage pathway led to the severe growth retardation at a higher temperature (80°C), owing to the drastic decrease in the intracellular concentrations of NAD + and NADH. IMPORTANCE NAD + and other nicotinamide cofactors are essential for cell metabolism. These molecules are unstable and decompose, even under the physiological conditions in most organisms. Thermophiles can survive at high temperatures where NAD + decomposition is, in general, more rapid. This study emphasizes that NAD + instability and its homeostasis can be one of the important factors for thermophile survival in extreme temperatures. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. Structures of a putative RNA 5-methyluridine methyltransferase, Thermus thermophilus TTHA1280, and its complex with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioszak, Augen A.; Murayama, Kazutaka; Nakagawa, Noriko; Ebihara, Akio; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Shirouzu, Mikako; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki

    2005-01-01

    Three structures of a putative RNA 5-methyluridine methyltransferase from T. thermophilus, including its complex with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine, are presented. The structures reveal the mode of cofactor binding, architecture of the putative active site, and the presence of a deep cleft adjacent to the active site that may bind RNA. The Thermus thermophilus hypothetical protein TTHA1280 belongs to a family of predicted S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet) dependent RNA methyltransferases (MTases) present in many bacterial and archaeal species. Inspection of amino-acid sequence motifs common to class I Rossmann-fold-like MTases suggested a specific role as an RNA 5-methyluridine MTase. Selenomethionine (SeMet) labelled and native versions of the protein were expressed, purified and crystallized. Two crystal forms of the SeMet-labelled apoprotein were obtained: SeMet-ApoI and SeMet-ApoII. Cocrystallization of the native protein with S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine (AdoHcy) yielded a third crystal form, Native-AdoHcy. The SeMet-ApoI structure was solved by the multiple anomalous dispersion method and refined at 2.55 Å resolution. The SeMet-ApoII and Native-AdoHcy structures were solved by molecular replacement and refined at 1.80 and 2.60 Å, respectively. TTHA1280 formed a homodimer in the crystals and in solution. Each subunit folds into a three-domain structure composed of a small N-terminal PUA domain, a central α/β-domain and a C-terminal Rossmann-fold-like MTase domain. The three domains form an overall clamp-like shape, with the putative active site facing a deep cleft. The architecture of the active site is consistent with specific recognition of uridine and catalysis of methyl transfer to the 5-carbon position. The cleft is suitable in size and charge distribution for binding single-stranded RNA.

  7. Purification and characterization of a novel recombinant highly enantioselective short-chain NAD(H)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennacchio, Angela; Pucci, Biagio; Secundo, Francesco; La Cara, Francesco; Rossi, Mosè; Raia, Carlo A

    2008-07-01

    The gene encoding a novel alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) that belongs to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) superfamily was identified in the extremely thermophilic, halotolerant gram-negative eubacterium Thermus thermophilus HB27. The T. thermophilus ADH gene (adh(Tt)) was heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the protein (ADH(Tt)) was purified to homogeneity and characterized. ADH(Tt) is a tetrameric enzyme consisting of identical 26,961-Da subunits composed of 256 amino acids. The enzyme has remarkable thermophilicity and thermal stability, displaying activity at temperatures up to approximately 73 degrees C and a 30-min half-inactivation temperature of approximately 90 degrees C, as well as good tolerance to common organic solvents. ADH(Tt) has a strict requirement for NAD(H) as the coenzyme, a preference for reduction of aromatic ketones and alpha-keto esters, and poor activity on aromatic alcohols and aldehydes. This thermophilic enzyme catalyzes the following reactions with Prelog specificity: the reduction of acetophenone, 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone, alpha-tetralone, and alpha-methyl and alpha-ethyl benzoylformates to (S)-(-)-1-phenylethanol (>99% enantiomeric excess [ee]), (R)-alpha-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (93% ee), (S)-alpha-tetralol (>99% ee), methyl (R)-(-)-mandelate (92% ee), and ethyl (R)-(-)-mandelate (95% ee), respectively, by way of an efficient in situ NADH-recycling system involving 2-propanol and a second thermophilic ADH. This study further supports the critical role of the D37 residue in discriminating NAD(H) from NADP(H) in members of the SDR superfamily.

  8. Characterization of DNA polymerase X from Thermus thermophilus HB8 reveals the POLXc and PHP domains are both required for 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakane, Shuhei; Nakagawa, Noriko; Kuramitsu, Seiki; Masui, Ryoji

    2009-04-01

    The X-family DNA polymerases (PolXs) comprise a highly conserved DNA polymerase family found in all kingdoms. Mammalian PolXs are known to be involved in several DNA-processing pathways including repair, but the cellular functions of bacterial PolXs are less known. Many bacterial PolXs have a polymerase and histidinol phosphatase (PHP) domain at their C-termini in addition to a PolX core (POLXc) domain, and possess 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Although both domains are highly conserved in bacteria, their molecular functions, especially for a PHP domain, are unknown. We found Thermus thermophilus HB8 PolX (ttPolX) has Mg(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent DNA/RNA polymerase, Mn(2+)-dependent 3'-5' exonuclease and DNA-binding activities. We identified the domains of ttPolX by limited proteolysis and characterized their biochemical activities. The POLXc domain was responsible for the polymerase and DNA-binding activities but exonuclease activity was not detected for either domain. However, the POLXc and PHP domains interacted with each other and a mixture of the two domains had Mn(2+)-dependent 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Moreover, site-directed mutagenesis revealed catalytically important residues in the PHP domain for the 3'-5' exonuclease activity. Our findings provide a molecular insight into the functional domain organization of bacterial PolXs, especially the requirement of the PHP domain for 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

  9. Arsenate reductase from Thermus thermophilus conjugated to polyethylene glycol-stabilized gold nanospheres allow trace sensing and speciation of arsenic ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Jane; Spadavecchia, Jolanda; Fiorentino, Gabriella; Antonucci, Immacolata; De Stefano, Luca

    2016-10-01

    Water sources pollution by arsenic ions is a serious environmental problem all around the world. Arsenate reductase enzyme (TtArsC) from Thermus thermophilus extremophile bacterium, naturally binds arsenic ions, As(V) and As (III), in aqueous solutions. In this research, TtArsC enzyme adsorption onto hybrid polyethylene glycol-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was studied at different pH values as an innovative nanobiosystem for metal concentration monitoring. Characterizations were performed by UV/Vis and circular dichroism spectroscopies, TEM images and in terms of surface charge changes. The molecular interaction between arsenic ions and the TtArsC-AuNPs nanobiosystem was also monitored at all pH values considered by UV/Vis spectroscopy. Tests performed revealed high sensitivities and limits of detection equal to 10 ± 3 M -12 and 7.7 ± 0.3 M -12 for As(III) and As(V), respectively. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. A Flexible Domain-Domain Hinge Promotes an Induced-fit Dominant Mechanism for the Loading of Guide-DNA into Argonaute Protein in Thermus thermophilus

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Lizhe

    2016-02-24

    Argonaute proteins (Ago) are core components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign DNAs. Despite the essential role of Ago in gene regulation and defense against virus, the molecular mechanism of guide-strand loading into Ago remains unclear. We explore such a mechanism in the bacterium Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo), via a computational approach combining molecular dynamics, bias-exchange metadynamics, and protein-DNA docking. We show that apo TtAgo adopts multiple closed states that are unable to accommodate guide-DNA. Conformations able to accommodate the guide are beyond the reach of thermal fluctuations from the closed states. These results suggest an induced-fit dominant mechanism for guide-strand loading in TtAgo, drastically different from the two-step mechanism for human Ago 2 (hAgo2) identified in our previous study. Such a difference between TtAgo and hAgo2 is found to mainly originate from the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Further comparison among known Ago structures from various species indicates that the L1-PAZ hinge may be flexible in general for prokaryotic Agos but rigid for eukaryotic Agos. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  11. A Flexible Domain-Domain Hinge Promotes an Induced-fit Dominant Mechanism for the Loading of Guide-DNA into Argonaute Protein in Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lizhe; Jiang, Hanlun; Sheong, Fu Kit; Cui, Xuefeng; Gao, Xin; Wang, Yanli; Huang, Xuhui

    2016-03-17

    Argonaute proteins (Ago) are core components of the RNA Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) that load and utilize small guide nucleic acids to silence mRNAs or cleave foreign DNAs. Despite the essential role of Ago in gene regulation and defense against virus, the molecular mechanism of guide-strand loading into Ago remains unclear. We explore such a mechanism in the bacterium Thermus thermophilus Ago (TtAgo), via a computational approach combining molecular dynamics, bias-exchange metadynamics, and protein-DNA docking. We show that apo TtAgo adopts multiple closed states that are unable to accommodate guide-DNA. Conformations able to accommodate the guide are beyond the reach of thermal fluctuations from the closed states. These results suggest an induced-fit dominant mechanism for guide-strand loading in TtAgo, drastically different from the two-step mechanism for human Ago 2 (hAgo2) identified in our previous study. Such a difference between TtAgo and hAgo2 is found to mainly originate from the distinct rigidity of their L1-PAZ hinge. Further comparison among known Ago structures from various species indicates that the L1-PAZ hinge may be flexible in general for prokaryotic Ago's but rigid for eukaryotic Ago's.

  12. Analysis of the cooperative ATPase cycle of the AAA+ chaperone ClpB from Thermus thermophilus by using ordered heterohexamers with an alternating subunit arrangement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Takashi; Oohata, Yukiko; Nakamura, Toshiki; Watanabe, Yo-hei

    2015-04-10

    The ClpB/Hsp104 chaperone solubilizes and reactivates protein aggregates in cooperation with DnaK/Hsp70 and its cofactors. The ClpB/Hsp104 protomer has two AAA+ modules, AAA-1 and AAA-2, and forms a homohexamer. In the hexamer, these modules form a two-tiered ring in which each tier consists of homotypic AAA+ modules. By ATP binding and its hydrolysis at these AAA+ modules, ClpB/Hsp104 exerts the mechanical power required for protein disaggregation. Although ATPase cycle of this chaperone has been studied by several groups, an integrated understanding of this cycle has not been obtained because of the complexity of the mechanism and differences between species. To improve our understanding of the ATPase cycle, we prepared many ordered heterohexamers of ClpB from Thermus thermophilus, in which two subunits having different mutations were cross-linked to each other and arranged alternately and measured their nucleotide binding, ATP hydrolysis, and disaggregation abilities. The results indicated that the ATPase cycle of ClpB proceeded as follows: (i) the 12 AAA+ modules randomly bound ATP, (ii) the binding of four or more ATP to one AAA+ ring was sensed by a conserved Arg residue and converted another AAA+ ring into the ATPase-active form, and (iii) ATP hydrolysis occurred cooperatively in each ring. We also found that cooperative ATP hydrolysis in at least one ring was needed for the disaggregation activity of ClpB. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  13. Molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies on Thermus thermophilus leucyl-tRNA synthetase complexed with different amino acids and pre-transfer editing substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rayevsky A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the structural bases for the amino acid selectivity of the Thermus thermophilus leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRSTT aminoacylation site and to disclose the binding pattern of pre-transfer editing substrates. Methods. Eight amino acids proposed as semi-cognate substrates for aminoacylation and eight aminoacyl-adenylates (formed from AMP and eight amino acids were prepared in zwitterions form. The protein structure with a co-crystallized substrate in the aminoacylation site [PDBID: 1OBH] was taken from RCSB. Docking settings and evaluation of substrate efficiency were followed by twofold docking function analysis for each conformation with Gold CCDC. The molecular dynamics simulation was performed using Gromacs. The procedures of relaxation and binding study were separated in two different subsequent simulations for 50ns and 5ns. Results. The evaluation of substrate efficiency for 8 amino acids by twofold docking function analysis, based on score values,has shown that the ligands of LeuRSTT can be positioned in the following order: Leu>Nva>Hcy>Nle>Met>Cys>Ile >Val. MD simulation has revealed lower electrostatic interactions of isoleucine with the active site of the enzyme compared with those for norvaline and leucine. In the case of aminoacyl-adenylates no significant differences were found based on score values for both GoldScore and Asp functions. Molecular dynamics of leucyl-, isoleucyl- and norvalyl-adenylates showed that the most stable and conformationally favorable is leucine, then follow norvaline and isoleucine. It has been also found that the TYR43 of the active site covers carboxyl group of leucine and norvaline like a shield and deflected towards isoleucine, allowing water molecules to come closer. Conclusions. In this study we revealed some structural basis for screening unfavorable substrates by shape, size and flexibility of a radical. The results obtained for different amino acids by molecular docking and MD studies

  14. Reaction of cyanide with cytochrome ba3 from Thermus thermophilus: spectroscopic characterization of the Fe(II)a3-CN.Cu(II)B-CN complex suggests four 14N atoms are coordinated to CuB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surerus, K K; Oertling, W A; Fan, C; Gurbiel, R J; Einarsdóttir, O; Antholine, W E; Dyer, R B; Hoffman, B M; Woodruff, W H; Fee, J A

    1992-01-01

    Cytochrome ba3 from Thermus thermophilus reacts slowly with excess HCN at pH 7.4 to create a form of the enzyme in which CuA, cytochrome b, and CuB remain oxidized, while cytochrome a3 is reduced by one electron, presumably with the formation of cyanogen. We have examined this form of the enzyme by UV-visible, resonance Raman, EPR, and electron nuclear double resonance spectroscopies in conjunction with permutations of 13C- and 15N-labeled cyanide. The results support a model in which one CN- binds through the carbon atom to ferrous a3, supporting a low-spin (S = 0) configuration on the Fe; bridging by this cyanide to the CuB is weak or absent. Four 14N atoms, presumably donated by histidine residues of the protein, provide a strong equatorial ligand field about CuB; a second CN- is coordinated through the carbon atom to CuB in an axial position. PMID:1314380

  15. Mutations in conserved helix 69 of 23S rRNA of Thermus thermophilus that affect capreomycin resistance but not posttranscriptional modifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monshupanee, Tanakarn; Gregory, Steven T; Douthwaite, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    of previously reported capreomycin resistance base substitutions. Capreomycin resistance in other bacteria has been shown to result from inactivation of the TlyA methyltransferase which 2'-O methylates C1920 of 23S rRNA. Inactivation of the tlyA gene in T. thermophilus does not affect its sensitivity...... for resistance to the tuberactinomycin antibiotic capreomycin. Two base substitutions, A1913U and mU1915G, and a single base deletion, DeltamU1915, were identified in helix 69 of 23S rRNA, a structural element that forms part of an interribosomal subunit bridge with the decoding center of 16S rRNA, the site...... to capreomycin. Finally, none of the mutations in helix 69 interferes with methylation at C1920 or with pseudouridylation at positions 1911 and 1917. We conclude that the resistance phenotype is a consequence of structural changes introduced by the mutations....

  16. Overexpression of a novel thermostable and chloride-tolerant laccase from Thermus thermophilus SG0.5JP17-16 in Pichia pastoris and its application in synthetic dye decolorization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiping Liu

    Full Text Available Laccases have been used for the decolorization and detoxification of synthetic dyes due to their ability to oxidize a wide variety of dyes with water as the sole byproduct. A putative laccase gene (LacTT from Thermus thermophilus SG0.5JP17-16 was screened using the genome mining approach, and it was highly expressed in Pichia pastoris, yielding a high laccase activity of 6130 U/L in a 10-L fermentor. The LacTT open reading frame encoded a protein of 466 amino acid residues with four putative Cu-binding regions. The optimal pH of the recombinant LacTT was 4.5, 6.0, 7.5 and 8.0 with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS, syringaldazine (SGZ, guaiacol, and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol (2,6-DMP as the substrate, respectively. The optimal temperature of LacTT was 90°C with guaiacol as the substrate. LacTT was highly stable at pH 4.0-11.0 and thermostable at 40°C-90°C, confirming that it is a pH-stable and thermostable laccase. Furthermore, LacTT also exhibited high tolerance to halides such as NaCl, NaBr and NaF, and decolorized 100%, 94%, 94% and 73% of Congo Red, Reactive Black B and Reactive Black WNN, and Remazol Brilliant Blue R, respectively. Interestingly, addition of high concentration of NaCl increased the RBBR decolorization efficiency of LacTT. These results suggest that LacTT is a good candidate for industrial applications such as dyestuff processing and degradation of dyes in textile wastewaters.

  17. Time-resolved generation of membrane potential by ba3 cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus coupled to single electron injection into the O and OH states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siletsky, Sergey A; Belevich, Ilya; Belevich, Nikolai P; Soulimane, Tewfik; Wikström, Mårten

    2017-11-01

    Two electrogenic phases with characteristic times of ~14μs and ~290μs are resolved in the kinetics of membrane potential generation coupled to single-electron reduction of the oxidized "relaxed" O state of ba 3 oxidase from T. thermophilus (O→E transition). The rapid phase reflects electron redistribution between Cu A and heme b. The slow phase includes electron redistribution from both Cu A and heme b to heme a 3 , and electrogenic proton transfer coupled to reduction of heme a 3 . The distance of proton translocation corresponds to uptake of a proton from the inner water phase into the binuclear center where heme a 3 is reduced, but there is no proton pumping and no reduction of Cu B . Single-electron reduction of the oxidized "unrelaxed" state (O H →E H transition) is accompanied by electrogenic reduction of the heme b/heme a 3 pair by Cu A in a "fast" phase (~22μs) and transfer of protons in "middle" and "slow" electrogenic phases (~0.185ms and ~0.78ms) coupled to electron redistribution from the heme b/heme a 3 pair to the Cu B site. The "middle" and "slow" electrogenic phases seem to be associated with transfer of protons to the proton-loading site (PLS) of the proton pump, but when all injected electrons reach Cu B the electronic charge appears to be compensated by back-leakage of the protons from the PLS into the binuclear site. Thus proton pumping occurs only to the extent of ~0.1 H + /e - , probably due to the formed membrane potential in the experiment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Sequence of the hyperplastic genome of the naturally competent Thermus scotoductus SA-01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gounder Kamini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many strains of Thermus have been isolated from hot environments around the world. Thermus scotoductus SA-01 was isolated from fissure water collected 3.2 km below surface in a South African gold mine. The isolate is capable of dissimilatory iron reduction, growth with oxygen and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors and the ability to reduce a variety of metal ions, including gold, chromate and uranium, was demonstrated. The genomes from two different Thermus thermophilus strains have been completed. This paper represents the completed genome from a second Thermus species - T. scotoductus. Results The genome of Thermus scotoductus SA-01 consists of a chromosome of 2,346,803 bp and a small plasmid which, together are about 11% larger than the Thermus thermophilus genomes. The T. thermophilus megaplasmid genes are part of the T. scotoductus chromosome and extensive rearrangement, deletion of nonessential genes and acquisition of gene islands have occurred, leading to a loss of synteny between the chromosomes of T. scotoductus and T. thermophilus. At least nine large inserts of which seven were identified as alien, were found, the most remarkable being a denitrification cluster and two operons relating to the metabolism of phenolics which appear to have been acquired from Meiothermus ruber. The majority of acquired genes are from closely related species of the Deinococcus-Thermus group, and many of the remaining genes are from microorganisms with a thermophilic or hyperthermophilic lifestyle. The natural competence of Thermus scotoductus was confirmed experimentally as expected as most of the proteins of the natural transformation system of Thermus thermophilus are present. Analysis of the metabolic capabilities revealed an extensive energy metabolism with many aerobic and anaerobic respiratory options. An abundance of sensor histidine kinases, response regulators and transporters for a wide variety of compounds are indicative

  19. Thermus arciformis sp. nov., a thermophilic species from a geothermal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Qi; Ying, Yi; Ye, Ying; Xu, Xue-Wei; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Wu, Min

    2010-04-01

    Two aerobic, Gram-negative, non-motile, non-sporulating, yellow-pigmented bacteria, strains TH92(T) and TH91, were isolated from a hot spring located in Laibin, Guangxi, in the south-eastern geothermal area of China. The isolates grew at 40-77 degrees C (optimally at 70 degrees C) and at pH 6.0-9.5 (optimally at pH 7.5-8.0). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and levels of DNA-DNA relatedness together indicated that the new isolates represented a novel species of the genus Thermus with closest affinity to Thermus aquaticus, Thermus igniterrae and Thermus thermophilus. Compared with their closest relatives, strains TH92( T) and TH91 were able to assimilate a wider range of carbohydrates, amino acids and organic acids as sole carbon sources for growth, such as lactose and melibiose. The new isolates had lower combined levels of C(16 : 0 ) and iso-C(16 : 0) compared with their closest relatives. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic characterization, strains TH92(T) and TH91 are considered to represent a single novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus arciformis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is TH92(T) (=CGMCC 1.6992(T) =JCM 15153(T)).

  20. ORF Alignment: NC_005835 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [Thermus thermophilus HB8] pdb|1FP9|A Chain A, Structure ... Of Amylomaltase From Thermus Thermophilus Hb8 In Space... ... Amylomaltase From Thermus Thermophilus Hb8 In Space ... Group P21212 ... Length = 500 ... Query

  1. ORF Alignment: NC_006461 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [Thermus thermophilus HB8] pdb|1FP9|A Chain A, Structure ... Of Amylomaltase From Thermus Thermophilus Hb8 In Space... ... Amylomaltase From Thermus Thermophilus Hb8 In Space ... Group P21212 ... Length = 500 ... Query

  2. Rhamnolipid-producing thermophilic bacteria of species Thermus and Meiothermus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řezanka, Tomáš; Siřišťová, L.; Sigler, Karel

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 6 (2011), s. 697-709 ISSN 1431-0651 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Thermus sp * T. aquaticus * Meiothermus ruber Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.941, year: 2011

  3. Electron transfer among the CuA-, heme b- and a3-centers of Thermus thermophilus cytochrome ba3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Chen, Ying; Fee, James A

    2006-01-01

    The 1-methyl-nicotinamide radical (MNA(*)), produced by pulse radiolysis has previously been shown to reduce the Cu(A)-site of cytochromes aa(3), a process followed by intramolecular electron transfer (ET) to the heme a but not to the heme a(3) [Farver, O., Grell, E., Ludwig, B., Michel, H. and P...

  4. Pulse Radiolysis Studies of Temperature Dependent Electron Transfers among Redox Centers in ba(3)-Cytochrome c Oxidase from Thermus thermophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Wherland, Scot; Antholine, William E

    2010-01-01

    The functioning of cytochrome c oxidases involves orchestration of long-range electron transfer (ET) events among the four redox active metal centers. We report the temperature dependence of electron transfer from the Cu(A)(r) site to the low-spin heme-(a)b(o) site, i.e., Cu(A)(r) + heme-a(b)(o) ......The functioning of cytochrome c oxidases involves orchestration of long-range electron transfer (ET) events among the four redox active metal centers. We report the temperature dependence of electron transfer from the Cu(A)(r) site to the low-spin heme-(a)b(o) site, i.e., Cu(A)(r) + heme...... in cytochrome ba(3) had no effect on the rate of this reaction whereas the II-Met160Leu Cu(A)-mutation was slower by an amount corresponding to a decreased driving force of ∼0.06 eV. The structures support the presence of a common, electron-conducting "wire" between Cu(A) and heme-a(b). The transfer...

  5. New biotechnological perspectives of a NADH oxidase variant from Thermus thermophilus HB27 as NAD+-recycling enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocha-Martín Javier

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of biotransformations that use nicotinamide recycling systems is exponentially growing. For this reason one of the current challenges in biocatalysis is to develop and optimize more simple and efficient cofactor recycling systems. One promising approach to regenerate NAD+ pools is the use of NADH-oxidases that reduce oxygen to hydrogen peroxide while oxidizing NADH to NAD+. This class of enzymes may be applied to asymmetric reduction of prochiral substrates in order to obtain enantiopure compounds. Results The NADH-oxidase (NOX presented here is a flavoenzyme which needs exogenous FAD or FMN to reach its maximum velocity. Interestingly, this enzyme is 6-fold hyperactivated by incubation at high temperatures (80°C under limiting concentrations of flavin cofactor, a change that remains stable even at low temperatures (37°C. The hyperactivated form presented a high specific activity (37.5 U/mg at low temperatures despite isolation from a thermophile source. Immobilization of NOX onto agarose activated with glyoxyl groups yielded the most stable enzyme preparation (6-fold more stable than the hyperactivated soluble enzyme. The immobilized derivative was able to be reactivated under physiological conditions after inactivation by high solvent concentrations. The inactivation/reactivation cycle could be repeated at least three times, recovering full NOX activity in all cases after the reactivation step. This immobilized catalyst is presented as a recycling partner for a thermophile alcohol dehydrogenase in order to perform the kinetic resolution secondary alcohols. Conclusion We have designed, developed and characterized a heterogeneous and robust biocatalyst which has been used as recycling partner in the kinetic resolution of rac-1-phenylethanol. The high stability along with its capability to be reactivated makes this biocatalyst highly re-useable for cofactor recycling in redox biotransformations.

  6. Dead Man or Dead Hand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    and potential takeover bids. Recent Delaware case-law suggests that the most extreme, ‘dead hand’ version of such clauses might violate directors’ fiduciary duties. This short article develops some initial thoughts on the phenomenon and evaluates how the new poison pills would be handled under European takeover...

  7. Conformational Dynamics of Thermus aquaticus DNA Polymerase I during Catalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Cuiling; Maxwell, Brian A.; Suo, Zucai

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that DNA polymerases have been investigated for many years and are commonly used as tools in a number of molecular biology assays, many details of the kinetic mechanism they use to catalyze DNA synthesis remain unclear. Structural and kinetic studies have characterized a rapid, pre-catalytic open-to-close conformational change of the Finger domain during nucleotide binding for many DNA polymerases including Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I (Taq Pol), a thermostable enzyme c...

  8. Deadly progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nader, R.; Abbotts, J.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are safe, they help to get through the future bottle-neck in the field of energy, nuclear power plants provide for cheap electrical power and support economic growth - these are the sedative formulae which have been used for years to close the populations eyes towards the real problems. In this book, the American lawyer Ralph Nader and the nuclear chemist John Abbots not only oppose this myth of atomic safety, but they also defeat this theory with numerous technical, economic, and political details. Having realized the fact that the development of atomic energy can no longer be prevented by warnings of independent experts, but only by massive protests by the population - i.e. the protest by informed persons-, they give an understandable introduction to the techniques of atomic energy, construction of nuclear power plants, radioactive radiation, safety, etc. Furthermore, they inform about the social, political, and economic background of the nuclear power forcing. Nader and Abbots show the uncertainty of science, they bring secret documents about failures already occured and point out the catastrophic consequences of possible defects. The result of the thorough study: A 'technologic Vietnam' impends both USA and all other nuclear power countries, if the population won't struggle against this dead-end programme of the governments. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Properties of Thermus ruber Strains Isolated from Icelandic Hot Springs and DNA:DNA Homology of Thermus ruber and Thermus aquaticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Richard J.; Williams, Ralph A. D.

    1988-01-01

    Seventeen pink-pigmented strains of the genus Thermus were isolated from samples collected from thermal areas of Iceland. The strains were examined by using phenotypic characterization and DNA:DNA homology and were compared with recognized strains. Visually, the strains could be divided into three groups based on their pigmentation; however, spectroscopic studies of the pigments indicated little difference among them. Most strains required a vitamin supplement for growth and used fructose, maltose, mannose, or sucrose as the sole carbon source. In the presence of nitrate, two strains were able to grow under anaerobic conditions. The optimum growth temperature was 60°C; growth did not occur at 30 or 70°C. PMID:16347714

  10. Love the dead, fear the dead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seebach, Sophie Hooge

    2017-01-01

    The dead are everywhere in the landscape in Acholi, northern Uganda. In the homes, the dead are present through their gravesites, situated next to houses and huts, and as spiritual presences in their family’s daily lives. In the bush, the dead are present as a constant potentiality, in the form...

  11. Complete Genome Analysis of Thermus parvatiensis and Comparative Genomics of Thermus spp. Provide Insights into Genetic Variability and Evolution of Natural Competence as Strategic Survival Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Tripathi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic environments represent an interesting niche. Among thermophiles, the genus Thermus is among the most studied genera. In this study, we have sequenced the genome of Thermus parvatiensis strain RL, a thermophile isolated from Himalayan hot water springs (temperature >96°C using PacBio RSII SMRT technique. The small genome (2.01 Mbp comprises a chromosome (1.87 Mbp and a plasmid (143 Kbp, designated in this study as pTP143. Annotation revealed a high number of repair genes, a squeezed genome but containing highly plastic plasmid with transposases, integrases, mobile elements and hypothetical proteins (44%. We performed a comparative genomic study of the group Thermus with an aim of analysing the phylogenetic relatedness as well as niche specific attributes prevalent among the group. We compared the reference genome RL with 16 Thermus genomes to assess their phylogenetic relationships based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, average nucleotide identity (ANI, conserved marker genes (31 and 400, pan genome and tetranucleotide frequency. The core genome of the analyzed genomes contained 1,177 core genes and many singleton genes were detected in individual genomes, reflecting a conserved core but adaptive pan repertoire. We demonstrated the presence of metagenomic islands (chromosome:5, plasmid:5 by recruiting raw metagenomic data (from the same niche against the genomic replicons of T. parvatiensis. We also dissected the CRISPR loci wide all genomes and found widespread presence of this system across Thermus genomes. Additionally, we performed a comparative analysis of competence loci wide Thermus genomes and found evidence for recent horizontal acquisition of the locus and continued dispersal among members reflecting that natural competence is a beneficial survival trait among Thermus members and its acquisition depicts unending evolution in order to accomplish optimal fitness.

  12. Who's Counting Dead Wood ?

    OpenAIRE

    Woodall, C. W.; Verkerk, H.; Rondeux, Jacques; Ståhl, G.

    2009-01-01

    Dead wood in forests is a critical component of biodiversity, carbon and nutrient cycles, stand structure, and fuel loadings. Until recently, very few countries have conducted systematic inventories of dead wood resources across their forest lands. This may be changing as an increasing number of countries implement dead wood inventories. A recent survey looks at the status and attributes of forest dead wood inventories in over 60 countries. About 13 percent of countries inventory dead wood gl...

  13. Catabolite control of sugar metabolism in Streptococcus thermophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, van den P.T.C.

    2002-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is used in many industrial dairy fermentations that require processing of milk at elevated temperatures. Its primary function is the rapid conversion of lactose to lactate while it also contributes to important sensory qualities. S.

  14. Conformational Dynamics of Thermus aquaticus DNA Polymerase I during Catalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suo, Zucai

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that DNA polymerases have been investigated for many years and are commonly used as tools in a number of molecular biology assays, many details of the kinetic mechanism they use to catalyze DNA synthesis remain unclear. Structural and kinetic studies have characterized a rapid, pre-catalytic open-to-close conformational change of the Finger domain during nucleotide binding for many DNA polymerases including Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase I (Taq Pol), a thermostable enzyme commonly used for DNA amplification in PCR. However, little has been done to characterize the motions of other structural domains of Taq Pol or any other DNA polymerase during catalysis. Here, we used stopped-flow Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to investigate the conformational dynamics of all five structural domains of the full-length Taq Pol relative to the DNA substrate during nucleotide binding and incorporation. Our study provides evidence for a rapid conformational change step induced by dNTP binding and a subsequent global conformational transition involving all domains of Taq Pol during catalysis. Additionally, our study shows that the rate of the global transition was greatly increased with the truncated form of Taq Pol lacking the N-terminal domain. Finally, we utilized a mutant of Taq Pol containing a de novo disulfide bond to demonstrate that limiting protein conformational flexibility greatly reduced the polymerization activity of Taq Pol. PMID:24931550

  15. Simulating detectors dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  16. Phylogenetic analysis of several Thermus strains from Rehai of Tengchong, Yunnan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lianbing; Zhang, Jie; Wei, Yunlin; Chen, Chaoyin; Peng, Qian

    2005-10-01

    Several Thermus strains were isolated from 10 hot springs of the Rehai geothermal area in Tengchong, Yunnan province. The diversity of Thermus strains was examined by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes and comparing their sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 16S rDNA sequences from the Rehai geothermal isolates form four branches in the phylogenetic tree and had greater than 95.9% similarity in the phylogroup. Secondary structure comparison also indicated that the 16S rRNA from the Rehai geothermal isolates have unique secondary structure characteristics in helix 6, helix 9, and helix 10 (reference to Escherichia coli). This research is the first attempt to reveal the diversity of Thermus strains that are distributed in the Rehai geothermal area.

  17. First glycoside hydrolase family 2 enzymes from Thermus antranikianii and Thermus brockianus with β-glucosidase activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola eSchröder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Two genes tagh2 and tbgh2 coding for enzymes with hydrolytic activity towards esculin were identified from the extreme thermophilic, aerobic bacteria Thermus antranikianii (Ta and T. brockianus (Tb. Shortened conserved domains predicted a membership of the enzymes of glycoside hydrolase (GH family 2. At present, β-galactosidase activity is found frequently in GH family 2 but β-glucosidase activity has not been reported in this family before. The enzymes TaGH2 and TbGH2 preferred hydrolysis of nitrophenol-linked β-D-glucopyranosides with specific activities of 3,966 U/mg and 660 U/mg, respectively. Residual activities of 40 % (TaGH2 and 51 % (TbGH2 towards 4-NP-β-D-galactopyranoside were observed. Furthermore, TaGH2 hydrolyzed cellobiose. TbGH2, however, showed no activity on cellobiose or lactose. The enzymes exhibited highest activity at 95 °C (TaGH2 and 90 °C (TbGH2 at pH 6.5. Both enzymes were extremely thermostable and thermal activation up to 250 % was observed at temperatures between 50 and 60 °C. Accordingly, the first thermoactive glycoside hydrolase family 2 enzymes with β glucosidase activity have been identified and characterized. The hydrolysis of cellobiose is a unique property of TaGH2 when compared to the enzymes of GH family 2.

  18. Live and Dead Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sune Lehman; Jackson, A. D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the consequences of a distinction between `live' and `dead' network nodes; `live' nodes are able to acquire new links whereas `dead' nodes are static. We develop an analytically soluble growing network model incorporating this distinction and show that it can provide...

  19. Crystal Structure of the Thermus thermophilus 16 S rRNA Methyltransferase RsmC in Complex with Cofactor and Substrate Guanosine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirci, H.; Gregory, S; Dahlberg, A; Jogl, G

    2008-01-01

    Post-transcriptional modification is a ubiquitous feature of ribosomal RNA in all kingdoms of life. Modified nucleotides are generally clustered in functionally important regions of the ribosome, but the functional contribution to protein synthesis is not well understood. Here we describe high resolution crystal structures for the N{sup 2}-guanine methyltransferase RsmC that modifies residue G1207 in 16 S rRNA near the decoding site of the 30 S ribosomal subunit. RsmC is a class I S-adenosyl-l-methionine-dependent methyltransferase composed of two methyltransferase domains. However, only one S-adenosyl-l-methionine molecule and one substrate molecule, guanosine, bind in the ternary complex. The N-terminal domain does not bind any cofactor. Two structures with bound S-adenosyl-l-methionine and S-adenosyl-l-homocysteine confirm that the cofactor binding mode is highly similar to other class I methyltransferases. Secondary structure elements of the N-terminal domain contribute to cofactor-binding interactions and restrict access to the cofactor-binding site. The orientation of guanosine in the active site reveals that G1207 has to disengage from its Watson-Crick base pairing interaction with C1051 in the 16 S rRNA and flip out into the active site prior to its modification. Inspection of the 30 S crystal structure indicates that access to G1207 by RsmC is incompatible with the native subunit structure, consistent with previous suggestions that this enzyme recognizes a subunit assembly intermediate.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of the Pigmented Streptococcus thermophilus Strain JIM8232

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Christine; Bartholini, Claire; Luraschi, Mélanie; Pons, Nicolas; Loux, Valentin; Almeida, Mathieu; Guédon, Eric; Gibrat, Jean-François; Renault, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is a dairy species commonly used in the manufacture of cheese and yogurt. Here, we report the complete sequence of S. thermophilus strain JIM8232, isolated from milk and which produces a yellow pigment, an atypical trait for this bacterium. PMID:21914889

  1. Practicing on Newly Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jewel Abraham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A newly dead cadaver simulation is practiced on the physical remains of the dead before the onset of rigor mortis. This technique has potential benefits for providing real-life in-situ experience for novice providers in health care practices. Evolving ethical views in health care brings into question some of the ethical aspects associated with newly dead cadaver simulation in terms of justification for practice, autonomy, consent, and the need of disclosure. A clear statement of policies and procedures on newly dead cadaver simulation has yet to be implemented. Although there are benefits and disadvantages to an in-situ cadaver simulation, such practices should not be carried out in secrecy as there is no compelling evidence that suggests such training as imperative. Secrecy in these practices is a violation of honor code of nursing ethics. As health care providers, practitioners are obliged to be ethically honest and trustworthy to their patients. The author explores the ethical aspects of using newly dead cadaver simulation in training novice nursing providers to gain competency in various lifesaving skills, which otherwise cannot be practiced on a living individual. The author explores multiple views on cadaver simulation in relation to ethical theories and practices such as consent and disclosure to family.

  2. Characterization of Exopolysaccharide Produced by Streptococcus thermophilus CC30

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Lakshmi Ramya Krishna Kanamarlapudi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An exopolysaccharide (EPS producing strain CC30 was isolated from raw milk and identified as Streptococcus thermophilus with morphological and 16S sequencing analysis. The strain was shown to produce 1.95 g/L of EPS when grown in skim milk lactose medium at 30°C by increasing the viscosity of the medium. The EPS was isolated and purified, and it was shown to consist of glucose and galactose in 1 : 1 ratio, with molecular weights ranging from 58 to 180 kDa. FTIR spectroscopy indicated the EPS to have amide, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups. Under Atomic Force Microscopy, EPS showed spike-like lumps of EPS. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM studies showed that it had irregular lumps with a coarse surface. The EPS displayed pseudoplastic nature. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA reported a degradation temperature of 110.84°C. The purified EPS exhibited reducing activity, hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity, and emulsification activity. The results of the present study indicated that EPS producing Streptococcus thermophilus could serve as a promising candidate for further exploitation in food industry.

  3. Thermus caliditerrae sp. nov., a novel thermophilic species isolated from a geothermal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Li, Shuai; Nie, Guo-Xing; Yu, Tian-Tian; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Lan; Dong, Lei; Li, Wen-Jun

    2014-02-01

    Two thermophilic bacterial strains, designated YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777, were isolated from two hot springs, one in the Hydrothermal Explosion (Shuirebaozhaqu) area and Frog Mouth Spring in Tengchong county, Yunnan province, south-western China. The taxonomic positions of the two isolates were investigated by a polyphasic approach. Cells of the two strains were Gram-stain-negative, aerobic and rod-shaped. They were able to grow at 50-70 °C, pH 6.0-8.0 and with a NaCl tolerance up to 0.5% (w/v). Colonies are circular, convex, non-transparent and produce yellow pigment. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences comparison clearly demonstrated that strains YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777 represent members of the genus Thermus, and they also detected low-level similarities of 16S rRNA gene sequences (below 97%) compared with all other species in this genus. Their predominant menaquinone was MK-8. The genomic DNA G+C contents of strains YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777 were 65.6 mol% and 67.2 mol%, respectively. Based on the results of physiological and biochemical tests and phylogenetic analyses, strains YIM 77925(T) and YIM 77777 could not be classified as representing any species of the genus Thermus with a validly published name. Thus the two strains are considered to represent a novel species of the genus Thermus, for which the name Thermus caliditerrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM 77925(T) ( = DSM 25901(T) = CCTCC 2012061(T)).

  4. Dead-ice environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Johannes; Kjær, Kurt H.; Schomacker, Anders

    2010-01-01

    glacier environment. The scientific challenges are to answer the key questions. What are the conditions for dead-ice formation? From which sources does the sediment cover originate? Which melting and reworking processes act in the ice-cored moraines? What is the rate of de-icing in the ice-cored moraines...

  5. Resurrecting deadly carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weitzel, Corinna; Rønsted, Nina; Spalik, Krysztof

    2014-01-01

    Thapsia L. circumscribes a small genus of herbaceous perennials in the taxonomically difficult family Apiaceae. Thapsia occurs around the Mediterranean, extending from the Atlantic coasts of Portugal and Morocco to Crete and other Greek Islands in the East. Thapsia is commonly known as deadly...

  6. The Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    The Dead Sea is the lowest point on Earth at 418 meters below sea level, and also one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth with a salinity of about 300 parts-per-thousand (nine times greater than ocean salinity). It is located on the border between Jordan and Israel, and is fed by the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is located in the Dead Sea Rift, formed as a result of the Arabian tectonic plate moving northward away from the African Plate. The mineral content of the Dead Sea is significantly different from that of ocean water, consisting of approximately 53% magnesium chloride, 37% potassium chloride and 8% sodium chloride. In the early part of the 20th century, the Dead Sea began to attract interest from chemists who deduced that the Sea was a natural deposit of potash and bromine. From the Dead Sea brine, Israel and Jordan produce 3.8 million tons potash, 200,000 tons elemental bromine, 45,000 tons caustic soda, 25, 000 tons magnesium metal, and sodium chloride. Both countries use extensive salt evaporation pans that have essentially diked the entire southern end of the Dead Sea. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet. ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining

  7. Isolation and partial characterization of a biosurfactant produced by Streptococcus thermophilus A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues, Ligia R.; Teixeira, Jose A.; van der Mei, Henny C.; Oliveira, Rosario

    2006-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of the surface active components from the crude biosurfactant produced by Streptococcus thermophilus A was studied. A fraction rich in glycolipids was obtained by the fractionation of crude biosurfactant using hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Molecular (by

  8. Antibiotic Resistances of Yogurt Starter Cultures Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    OpenAIRE

    Sozzi, Tommaso; Smiley, Martin B.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-nine strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 15 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for resistance to 35 antimicrobial agents by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Approximately 35% of the isolates had uncharacteristic resistance patterns.

  9. Recovery of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus on Nine Commonly Used Agar Media1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Nancy J.; Hamann, A. C.; Reinbold, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    Of the nine media tested, Eugon, Elliker's lactic agar, pH 6.8, and modified tryptic soy broth agars showed superior recovery of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains. PMID:16350006

  10. Activation of silent gal genes in the lac-gal regulon of Streptococcus thermophilus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaughan, E.E.; Bogaard, van den P.T.C.; Catzeddu, P.; Kuipers, O.P.; Vos, de W.M.

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus strain CNRZ 302 is unable to ferment galactose, neither that generated intracellularly by lactose hydrolysis nor the free sugar. Nevertheless, sequence analysis and complementation studies with Escherichia coli demonstrated that strain CNRZ 302 contained structurally

  11. Streptococcus thermophilus bacteraemia in a patient with transient bowel ischaemia secondary to polycythaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Joanna; Turner, David P.J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The ability of Streptococcus thermophilus to convert lactose into lactic acid has long been utilised by the dairy industry. A seemingly low-pathogenicity organism, there have been no previously published reports linking the consumption of foodstuffs to bacteraemia with this bacterium.\\ud Case Presentation: Here we present a case of a regular consumer of Activia yoghurt who developed S. thermophilus bacteraemia probably due to transient bowel ischaemia secondary to polycythaemia....

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0397 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0397 ref|YP_005572.1| competence factor comEC [Thermus thermophilus HB...27] gb|AAG34707.1|AF319938_2 competence factor ComEC [Thermus thermophilus] gb|AAS81945.1| competence factor comEC [Thermus thermophilus HB27] YP_005572.1 0.10 31% ...

  13. Short communication: effect of oxygen on symbiosis between Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, H; Sasaki, Y

    2012-06-01

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) and Streptococcus thermophilus are traditionally used for the manufacture of yogurt. It is said that a symbiotic relationship exists between Strep. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus and this decreases fermentation time. It is well known that L. bulgaricus is stimulated by the formate produced by Strep. thermophilus, and Strep. thermophilus is stimulated by free amino acids and peptides liberated from milk proteins by L. bulgaricus in symbiotic fermentation. We found that acid production by starter culture LB81 composed of L. bulgaricus 2038 and Strep. thermophilus 1131 was greatly accelerated by decreasing dissolved oxygen (DO) to almost 0 mg/kg in the yogurt mix (reduced dissolved oxygen fermentation) and that DO interferes with the symbiotic relationship between L. bulgaricus 2038 and Strep. thermophilus 1131. We attributed the acceleration of acid production of LB81 by reduced dissolved oxygen fermentation mainly to the acceleration of formate production and the suppression of acid production of LB81 by DO mainly to the suppression of formate production. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lactobacillus plantarum and Streptococcus thermophilus as starter cultures for a donkey milk fermented beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Barbara; Pedonese, Francesca; Torracca, Beatrice; Fratini, Filippo; Mancini, Simone; Galiero, Alessia; Montalbano, Benedetta; Cerri, Domenico; Nuvoloni, Roberta

    2017-09-01

    Donkey milk is recently gaining attention due to its nutraceutical properties. Its low casein content does not allow caseification, so the production of a fermented milk would represent an alternative way to increase donkey milk shelf life. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of employing selected Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus plantarum isolates for the production of a novel donkey milk fermented beverage. Lysozyme resistance and the ability to acidify donkey milk were chosen as main selection parameters. Different fermented beverages (C1-C9) were produced, each with a specific combination of isolates, and stored at refrigerated conditions for 35days. The pH values and viability of the isolates were weekly assessed. In addition, sensory analysis was performed. Both S. thermophilus and L.plantarum showed a high degree of resistance to lysozyme with a Minimum Bactericidal Concentration>6.4mg/mL for 100% of S. thermophilus and 96% of L. plantarum. S. thermophilus and L. plantarum showed the ability to acidify donkey milk in 24h at 37°C, with an average ΔpH value of 2.91±0.16 and 1.78±0.66, respectively. Four L. plantarum and two S. thermophilus were chosen for the production of fermented milks. Those containing the association S. thermophilus/L. plantarum (C1-C4) reached a pH lower than 4.5 after 18h of fermentation and showed microbial loads higher than 7.00logcfu/mL until the end of the storage period. Moreover, comparing the microbial loads of samples containing both species and those containing S. thermophilus alone (C5), we highlighted the ability of L. plantarum to stimulate S. thermophilus replication. This boosted replication of S. thermophilus allowed to reach an appropriate pH in a time frame fitting the production schedule. This was not observed for samples containing a single species (C5-C9). Thus, L. plantarum strains seem to be good candidates in the production of a novel type of fermented milk, not only for their

  15. The Dead Walk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monsters have always enjoyed a significant presence in the human imagination, and religion was instrumental in replacing the physical horror they engendered with that of a moral threat. Zombies, however, are amoral – their motivation purely instinctive and arbitrary, yet they are, perhaps, the most loathed of all contemporary monsters. One explanation for this lies in the theory of the uncanny valley, proposed by robotics engineer Masahiro Mori. According to the theory, we reserve our greatest fears for those things which seem most human, yet are not – such as dead bodies. Such a reaction is most likely a survival mechanism to protect us from danger and disease – a mechanism even more essential when the dead rise up and walk. From their beginnings zombies have reflected western societies’ greatest fears – be they of revolutionary Haitians, women, or communists. In recent years the rise in the popularity of the zombie in films, books and television series reflects our fears for the planet, the economy, and of death itself

  16. Multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus thermophilus from naturally fermented dairy foods in China and Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Zhihong; Liu, Wenjun; Xi, Xiaoxia; Song, Yuqin; Xu, Haiyan; Lv, Qiang; Bao, Qiuhua; Menghe, Bilige; Sun, Tiansong

    2015-10-26

    Streptococcus thermophilus is a major dairy starter used for manufacturing of dairy products. In the present study, we developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for this important food bacterium. Sequences of 10 housekeeping genes (carB, clpX, dnaA, murC, murE, pepN, pepX, pyrG, recA, and rpoB) were obtained for 239 S. thermophilus strains, which were isolated from home-made fermented dairy foods in 18 different regions of Mongolia and China. All 10 genes of S. thermophilus were sequenced, aligned, and defined sequence types (STs) using the BioNumerics Software. The nucleotide diversity was calculated by START v2.0. The population structure, phylogenetic relationships and the role of recombination were inferred using ClonalFrame v1.2, SplitsTree 4.0 and Structure v2.3. The 239 S. thermophilus isolates and 18 reference strains could be assigned into 119 different STs, which could be further separated into 16 clonal complexes (CCs) and 38 singletons. Among the 10 loci, a total of 132 polymorphic sites were detected. The standardized index of association (IAS=0.0916), split-decomposition and ρ/θ (relative frequency of occurrence of recombination and mutation) and r/m value (relative impact of recombination and mutation in the diversification) confirms that recombination may have occurred, but it occurred at a low frequency in these 10 loci. Phylogenetic trees indicated that there were five lineages in the S. thermophilus isolates used in our study. MSTree and ClonalFrame tree analyses suggest that the evolution of S. thermophilus isolates have little relationship with geographic locality, but revealed no association with the types of fermented dairy product. Phylogenetic analysis of 36 whole genome strains (18 S. thermophilus, 2 S. vestibularis and 16 S. salivarius strains) indicated that our MLST scheme could clearly separate three closely related species within the salivarius group and is suitable for analyzing the population structure of the

  17. Enzymatic hydrolysis of Grass Carp fish skin hydrolysates able to promote the proliferation of Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Nan; Qin, Mei; Feng, Yu-Ying; Chen, Jian-Kang; Song, Yi-Shan

    2017-09-01

    The promotion effect on proliferation of Streptococcus thermophilus by enzymatic hydrolysates of aquatic products was firstly studied. The effect of influencing factors of the hydrolysis on the growth of S. thermophilus was investigated. Grass Carp fish skin was hydrolysed to peptides by enzymatic hydrolysis using protease ProteAX, and for the S. thermophilus growth, the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were temperature of 60 °C, initial pH of 9.0, enzyme concentration of 10 g kg -1 , hydrolysis time of 80 min, and ratio of material to liquid of 1:2. The Grass Carp fish skin hydrolysate (GCFSH) prepared under the optimum conditions was fractionated to five fragments (GCFSH 1, GCFSH 2, GCFSH 3, GCFSH 4, GCFSH 5) according to molecular weight sizes, in which the fragments GCFSH 4 and GCFSH 5, with molecular weights of less than 1000 Da, significantly promoted the growth of S. thermophilus. The hydrolysis process of Grass Carp fish skin can be simplified, and the peptides with molecular weights below 1000 Da in the hydrolysates are the best nitrogen source for proliferation of S. thermophilus. This work can provide a fundamental theoretical basis for the production of multi-component functional foods, especially in milk drinks or yogurt. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. THE BIOMASS OF Streptococcus thermophilus AND Bifidobacterium longum IN DAIRY MEDIUM WITH BEE POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Lomova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of adding different concentrations of bee pollen on the biomass of Streprococus thermophilus and B. longum in the dairy environment. Sampling, preparation and conducting of tests were performed by standard methods of analysis. The counts of Str. thermophilus and B. longum were carried out by using M17 and MRS agar media. The phases growth were determined graphically. Established, that bee pollen stimulates the accumulation of biomass Str. thermophilus on 9–15%, and B. longum – on 2,3–12,7% in an amount of up to 0.2–1.0%. Bee pollen reduces the duration of the lag phase for both types of microorganisms almost to its complete disappearance (1.0%. Pollen (1% prolong stationary phase for streptococci and bifidobacteria to 30% and 20%, respectively. And also, will provide the biomass in the amount of 6 ± 0,1·109 CFU/cm3 (Str. Thermophilus and 2,8 ± 0,1·108 CFU/cm3 (B. longum. Str. thermophilus and B. longum readily assimilate essential micronutrients pollen. Components of bee pollen can act growth stimulants (bifidogenic factor for the studied strains. The data obtained will form the basis of biotechnology dairy drink with bee products.

  19. Dressing the dead body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Nordström

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available My current research focuses on textiles and rites, especially woven textiles for funerals and moments of loss. What active role can a textile such as an infant-wrapping cloth or a funeral pall play in the mourning process? This article will describe the development and current questions that address 1 the infant-wrapping cloth – the textile that is used to dress, clothe, or cover the dead body with particular attention to the question of infant mortality and the material practices of care. 2 The funeral pall that is used at funerals, draped over the coffin or as a body cover at hospital viewing rooms. One example to be presented is Kortedalakrönika (‘The Chronicle of Kortedala’, a collaborative project, woven for a church in Gothenburg. My work is based in artistic practice but opens up several scientific and existential questions.

  20. Dead of night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balter, Leon

    2010-07-01

    Dead of Night, the first psychoanalytic horror film, was produced in England in 1945, immediately after the end of World War II--that is, after the English population had suffered systematic Nazi terror from imminent invasion, incessant aerial bombing, and rocket-bombs. This film continued the prewar format of horror films based on themes of the supernatural and the hubris and excesses of science. However, it introduced psychoanalysis as the science in question. The film is structured on two levels: a genteel English country weekend to which witty and urbane guests have been invited; and five horror stories told by the guests. Psychoanalytic insights into this film structure are used here to explain how the film induces horror in the audience.

  1. Draft genome sequences of three virulent Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophages isolated from the dairy environment in the Veneto region of Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duarte, Viní­cius da Silva; Giaretta, Sabrina; Treu, Laura

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus, a very important dairy species, is constantly threatened by phage infection. We report the genome sequences of three S. thermophilus bacteriophages isolated from a dairy environment in the Veneto region of Italy. These sequences will be used for the development of new ...

  2. Thermus tengchongensis sp. nov., isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample in Tengchong, Yunnan, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian-Tian; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Ming, Hong; Yin, Yi-Rui; Zhou, En-Min; Liu, Min-Jiao; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2013-03-01

    A Gram-stain negative aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 77924(T), was isolated from a geothermally heated soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan province, south-west China. Growth was found to occur from 55 to 75 °C (optimum 65 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were observed to be rod-shaped and the colonies convex, circular, smooth, yellow and non-transparent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YIM 77924(T) belongs to the genus Thermus. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain YIM 77924(T) and other species of the genus Thermus were all below 97 %. The polar lipids of strain YIM 77924(T) were determined to be aminophospholipid, phospholipid and glycolipid. The predominant respiratory quinone was determined to be MK-8 and the G+C content was 66.64 mol%. The major fatty acids identified were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0), iso-C(17:0) and C(16:0). On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77924(T) is proposed to represent a novel species, Thermus tengchongensis sp. nov., in the genus Thermus. The type strain is YIM 77924(T) (=KCTC 32025(T) = CCTCC AB2012063(T)).

  3. Novel Variants of Streptococcus thermophilus Bacteriophages Are Indicative of Genetic Recombination among Phages from Different Bacterial Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymczak, Paula; Janzen, Thomas; Neves, Ana Rute

    2017-01-01

    lactis P335 phages. Phage CHPC1151 was closely related to the atypical S. thermophilus phage 5093, homologous with a nondairy streptococcal prophage. By testing adsorption of the related streptococcal and lactococcal phages to the surface of S. thermophilus and L. lactis strains, we revealed....... thermophilus phages from the Chr. Hansen A/S collection, using PCR specific for the cos- or pac-type phages, as well as for the V2 antireceptor region. Three phages did not produce positive results with the assays. Analysis of phage morphologies indicated that two of these phages, CHPC577 and CHPC926, had...... the possibility of cross-interactions. Our data indicated that the use of S. thermophilus together with L. lactis, extensively applied for dairy fermentations, triggered the recombination between phages infecting different bacterial species. A notable diversity among S. thermophilus phage populations requires...

  4. Vivitron dead section pumping tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heugel, J.; Bayet, J.P.; Brandt, C.; Delhomme, C.; Krieg, C.; Kustner, F.; Meiss, R.; Riehl, R.; Roth, C.; Schlewer, B.; Six, P.; Weber, A.

    1990-10-01

    Pumping tests have been conducted on a simulated accelerator dead section. The behavior of different pump types are compared and analyzed. Vacuum conditions to be expected in the Vivitron are reached and several parameters are verified. Selection of a pump for the Vivitron dead section is confirmed

  5. AbiA, a Lactococcal Abortive Infection Mechanism Functioning in Streptococcus thermophilus

    OpenAIRE

    Tangney, Mark; Fitzgerald, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    The lactococcal abortive infection mechanisms AbiA and AbiG were introduced into Streptococcus thermophilus 4035, and a range of phages capable of infecting this host were examined for sensitivity to these mechanisms. AbiA proved effective against six phages when examined at a growth temperature of 30°C but had no effect on any of the phages when tested at 37 or 42°C. AbiG failed to affect any of the S. thermophilus phages at 30, 37, or 42°C.

  6. AbiA, a lactococcal abortive infection mechanism functioning in Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, Mark; Fitzgerald, Gerald F

    2002-12-01

    The lactococcal abortive infection mechanisms AbiA and AbiG were introduced into Streptococcus thermophilus 4035, and a range of phages capable of infecting this host were examined for sensitivity to these mechanisms. AbiA proved effective against six phages when examined at a growth temperature of 30 degrees C but had no effect on any of the phages when tested at 37 or 42 degrees C. AbiG failed to affect any of the S. thermophilus phages at 30, 37, or 42 degrees C.

  7. Youth in Dead End

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duygu TANRIKULU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary factor to ensure economic and social development and also to build a healthy society is the education system which plays a significant role in human capital formation and shapes the social structure and its outputs. In this context, there are some risks threatening the youth that is trying to position itself on the education-employment line and some critical areas in need of national policy intervention as well. Hence, by analyzing indicators on education and labor force, this study aims to reveal the amount of youth under risk and to identify these critical areas, while targeting to highlight the urgent need for policy development focusing on youth in dead end. Within the study, it is emphasized that the education system causes youth to face with the problems of access and quality, and that there is a significant amount of youth not in education and employment, while underlining the necessity of bringing especially this inactive youth in economy in addition to equipping with required qualifications for their active participation in social life. Thus, in order to hinder human capital loss additionally, there is policy need in two directions, as focusing on the education system to prevent new hopeless generations on the one hand, and on the inclusion of the disadvantaged youth on the other.

  8. Thermophilic amylase from Thermus sp. isolation and its potential application for bioethanol production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Fatoni

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Limited reserves of fossil energy stimulate researchers to explore for a new alternative energy, such as bioethanol.A thermophilic amylase producing bacterium was isolated from local hot-springs and its characteristic and potential applicationfor bioethanol production was determined. The obtained amylase was studied to determine its optimum temperature, pH,enzymatic reaction time, and substrate concentration. Tapioca waste was used as the substrate to find the potential of theamylase for degrading starch into glucose, and then the process was continued by fermentation to produce bioethanol. Theamylase producer bacterium was proposed as genus Thermus sp. The crude amylase that was obtained has the optimumtemperature of 60°C and optimum pH of 8.0, optimum substrate concentration at 10% (w/w and optimum enzymatic reactiontime of 45 minutes. These enzymes convert the starches of waste tapioca at optimum conditions, with the result of 2.9%ethanol produced from raw materials.

  9. The effect of high pressure on the intracellular trehalose synthase activity of Thermus aquaticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yongsheng; Ma, Lei; Duan, Yuanliang

    2016-01-01

    To understand the effect of high pressure on the intracellular trehalose synthase activity, Thermus aquaticus (T. aquaticus) in the logarithmic growth phase was treated with high-pressure air, and its intracellular trehalose synthase (TSase) activity was determined. Our results indicated that pressure is a factor strongly affecting the cell growth. High pressure significantly attenuated the growth rate of T. aquaticus and shortened the duration of stationary phase. However, after 2 h of culture under 1.0 MPa pressure, the activity of intracellular TSase in T. aquaticus reached its maximum value, indicating that pressure can significantly increase the activity of intracellular TSase in T. aquaticus. Thus the present study provides an important guide for the enzymatic production of trehalose.

  10. NADH Oxidase of Streptococcus thermophilus 1131 is Required for the Effective Yogurt Fermentation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Yasuko; Horiuchi, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Hiroko; Mukai, Takao; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that dissolved oxygen (DO) suppresses yogurt fermentation with an industrial starter culture composed of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131, and also found that reducing the DO in the medium prior to fermentation (deoxygenated fermentation) shortens the fermentation time. In this study, we found that deoxygenated fermentation primarily increased the cell number of S. thermophilus 1131 rather than that of L. bulgaricus 2038, resulting in earlier l-lactate and formate accumulation. Measurement of the DO concentration and hydrogen peroxide generation in the milk medium suggested that DO is mainly removed by S. thermophilus 1131. The results using an H2O-forming NADH oxidase (Nox)-defective mutant of S. thermophilus 1131 revealed that Nox is the major oxygen-consuming enzyme of the bacterium. Yogurt fermentation with the S. thermophilus Δnox mutant and L. bulgaricus 2038 was significantly slower than with S. thermophilus 1131 and L. bulgaricus 2038, and the DO concentrations of the mixed culture did not decrease to less than 2 mg/kg within 3 hr. These observations suggest that Nox of S. thermophilus 1131 contributes greatly to yogurt fermentation, presumably by removing the DO in milk.

  11. A potential food-grade cloning vector for Streptococcus thermophilus that uses cadmium resistance as the selectable marker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wing Yee; Su, Ping; Allison, Gwen E; Liu, Chun-Qiang; Dunn, Noel W

    2003-10-01

    A potential food-grade cloning vector, pND919, was constructed and transformed into S. thermophilus ST3-1, a plasmid-free strain. The vector contains DNAs from two different food-approved organisms, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis. The 5.0-kb pND919 is a derivative of the cloning vector pND918 (9.3 kb) and was constructed by deletion of the 4.3-kb region of pND918 which contained DNA from non-food-approved organisms. pND919 carries a heterologous native cadmium resistance selectable marker from L. lactis M71 and expresses the Cd(r) phenotype in S. thermophilus transformants. With the S. thermophilus replicon derived from the shuttle vector pND913, pND919 is able to replicate in the two S. thermophilus industrial strains tested, ST3-1 and ST4-1. Its relatively high retention rate in S. thermophilus further indicates its usefulness as a potential food-grade cloning vector. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a replicative potential food-grade vector for the industrially important organism S. thermophilus.

  12. And the Dead Remain Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Read

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In most cultures the dead and their living relatives are held in a dialogic relationship. The dead have made it clear, while living, what they expect from their descendants. The living, for their part, wish to honour the tombs of their ancestors; at the least, to keep the graves of the recent dead from disrepair. Despite the strictures, the living can fail their responsibilities, for example, by migration to foreign countries. The peripatetic Chinese are one of the few cultures able to overcome the dilemma of the wanderer or the exile. With the help of a priest, an Australian Chinese migrant may summon the soul of an ancestor from an Asian grave to a Melbourne temple, where the spirit, though removed from its earthly vessel, will rest and remain at peace. Amongst cultures in which such practices are not culturally appropriate, to fail to honour the family dead can be exquisitely painful. Violence is the cause of most failure.

  13. Anthrax, People and Dead Hippos

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-07

    Epidemiologist, Dr. Melissa Marx, discuses anthrax deaths in people who ate dead hippos.  Created: 11/7/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/7/2017.

  14. Streptococcus thermophilus and its biosurfactants inhibit adhesion by Candida spp. on silicone rubber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Busscher, HJ; vanHoogmoed, CG; GeertsemaDoornbusch, GI; vanderKuijlBooij, M; vanderMei, HC

    1997-01-01

    The adhesion of yeasts, two Candida albicans and two Candida tropicalis strains isolated from naturally colonized voice prostheses, to silicone rubber with and without a salivary conditioning film in the absence and presence of adhering Streptococcus thermophilus B, a biosurfactant-releasing dairy

  15. Evaluating acetaldehyde synthesis from L-14C(U)] threonine by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, D.W.; Schmidt, R.H.; Shireman, R.B.; Smith, K.L.; Jezeski, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    To evaluate the synthesis of acetaldehyde from threonine during growth of yogurt cultures, Streptococcus thermophilus MS1 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus MR1 were grown in defined medium in which 10% of the total threonine was composed of L-[carbon-14(U)]threonine. Acetaldehyde production was monitored by formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone followed by separation and analysis using high performance liquid chromatography. After growth for 8 h at 42 0 C, approximately 2.0% of the total acetaldehyde (780.4 nmol) produced was from L-[carbon-14]threonine. Threonine aldolase activity was determined in cell-free extracts from S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus grown in Elliker broth. Increasing incubation temperature from 30 to 42 0 C decreased threonine aldolase activity in cells of the streptococcus harvested after 8 h of incubation. Effect of incubation temperature was more dramatic in cells harvested after 18 h where the activity of cells grown at 48 0 C was 89% lower than that of cells grown at 30 0 C. Cell extracts from S. thermophilus MS1 possessed higher threonine aldolase activity than did those from L. bulgaricus MR1. Increased assay temperature from 30 to 42 0 C increased threonine aldolase activity in S. thermophilus MS1

  16. Genome Sequences of Four Italian Streptococcus thermophilus Strains of Dairy Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Treu, Laura; Vendramin, Veronica; Bovo, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the genome sequences of four Streptococcus thermophilus strains, namely, TH982, TH985, TH1477, and 1F8CT, isolated from different dairy environments from the Campania and the Veneto regions in Italy. These data are aimed at increasing the genomic information available on thi...

  17. Prosthetic joint infection due to Lysobacter thermophilus diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    B Dhawan; S Sebastian; R Malhotra; A Kapil; D Gautam

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of prosthetic joint infection caused by Lysobacter thermophilus which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Removal of prosthesis followed by antibiotic treatment resulted in good clinical outcome. This case illustrates the use of molecular diagnostics to detect uncommon organisms in suspected prosthetic infections.

  18. Prosthetic joint infection due to Lysobacter thermophilus diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Dhawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the first case of prosthetic joint infection caused by Lysobacter thermophilus which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Removal of prosthesis followed by antibiotic treatment resulted in good clinical outcome. This case illustrates the use of molecular diagnostics to detect uncommon organisms in suspected prosthetic infections.

  19. Genome-scale model of Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 for metabolic comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastink, M.I.; Teusink, B.; Hols, P.; Visser, S.; Vos, W.M.; Hugenholtz, J.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, we describe the amino acid metabolism and amino acid dependency of the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 and compare them with those of two other characterized lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum. Through the construction of a

  20. Therapeutic effect of Streptococcus thermophilus CRL 1190-fermented milk on chronic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Cecilia; Medici, Marta; Mozzi, Fernanda; Font de Valdez, Graciela

    2010-04-07

    To investigate the potential therapeutic effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus) CRL 1190 fermented milk on chronic gastritis in Balb/c mice. Balb/c mice were fed with the fermented milk for 7 d after inducing gastritis with acetyl-salicylic acid (ASA, 400 mg/kg body weight per day for 10 d). Omeprazole was included in this study as a positive therapeutic control. The gastric inflammatory activity was evaluated from gastric histology and inflammation score, number of interleukin-10 (IL-10), interferon-gamma (INFgamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) cytokine-producing cells in the gastric mucosa, and thickness of the mucus layer. Animals receiving treatment with the EPS-producing S. thermophilus CRL 1190 fermented milk showed a conserved gastric mucosa structure similar to that of healthy animals. Inflammation scores of the fermented milk-treated mice were lower than those of mice in the gastritis group (0.2 + or - 0.03 vs 2.0 + or - 0.6, P mucus gel layer (2.2 + or - 0.6 vs 1.0 + or - 0.3; 5.1 + or - 0.8 vs 1.5 + or - 0.4 in the corpus and antrum mucosa, respectively, P milk suspension of the purified EPS from S. thermophilus CRL1190 was also effective as therapy for gastritis. This study suggests that fermented milk with S. thermophilus CRL 1190 and/or its EPS could be used in novel functional foods as an alternative natural therapy for chronic gastritis induced by ASA.

  1. Mixed-culture transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular basis of mixed-culture growth in Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieuwerts, S.; Molenaar, D.; Hijum, van S.A.F.T.; Beerthuyzen, M.; Stevens, M.J.A.; Janssen, P.W.; Ingham, C.J.; Bok, de F.A.M.; Vos, de W.M.; Hylckama Vlieg, van J.E.T.

    2010-01-01

    Many food fermentations are performed using mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria. Interactions between strains are of key importance for the performance of these fermentations. Yogurt fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (basonym, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.

  2. NADH Oxidase of Streptococcus thermophilus 1131 is Required for the Effective Yogurt Fermentation with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038

    OpenAIRE

    SASAKI, Yasuko; HORIUCHI, Hiroshi; KAWASHIMA, Hiroko; MUKAI, Takao; YAMAMOTO, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that dissolved oxygen (DO) suppresses yogurt fermentation with an industrial starter culture composed of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus) 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131, and also found that reducing the DO in the medium prior to fermentation (deoxygenated fermentation) shortens the fermentation time. In this study, we found that deoxygenated fermentation primarily increased the cell number of S. thermophilus 1131 rather than that of ...

  3. Carbohydrate metabolism is essential for the colonization of Streptococcus thermophilus in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Thomas

    Full Text Available Streptococcus thermophilus is the archetype of lactose-adapted bacterium and so far, its sugar metabolism has been mainly investigated in vitro. The objective of this work was to study the impact of lactose and lactose permease on S. thermophilus physiology in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT of gnotobiotic rats. We used rats mono-associated with LMD-9 strain and receiving 4.5% lactose. This model allowed the analysis of colonization curves of LMD-9, its metabolic profile, its production of lactate and its interaction with the colon epithelium. Lactose induced a rapid and high level of S. thermophilus in the GIT, where its activity led to 49 mM of intra-luminal L-lactate that was related to the induction of mono-carboxylic transporter mRNAs (SLC16A1 and SLC5A8 and p27(Kip1 cell cycle arrest protein in epithelial cells. In the presence of a continuous lactose supply, S. thermophilus recruited proteins involved in glycolysis and induced the metabolism of alternative sugars as sucrose, galactose, and glycogen. Moreover, inactivation of the lactose transporter, LacS, delayed S. thermophilus colonization. Our results show i/that lactose constitutes a limiting factor for colonization of S. thermophilus, ii/that activation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism constitutes the metabolic signature of S. thermophilus in the GIT, iii/that the production of lactate settles the dialogue with colon epithelium. We propose a metabolic model of management of carbohydrate resources by S. thermophilus in the GIT. Our results are in accord with the rationale that nutritional allegation via consumption of yogurt alleviates the symptoms of lactose intolerance.

  4. Growth advantage of Streptococcus thermophilus over Lactobacillus bulgaricus in vitro and in the gastrointestinal tract of gnotobiotic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yahia, L; Mayeur, C; Rul, F; Thomas, M

    2012-09-01

    The yoghurt bacteria, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, are alleged to have beneficial effects on human health. The objective of this study was to characterise growth, biochemical activity and competitive behaviour of these two bacteria in vitro and in vivo. S. thermophilus LMD-9 and L. bulgaricus ATCC 11842 growth and lactate production were monitored in different media and in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of germ-free rats. In vitro, particularly in milk, S. thermophilus had a selective growth advantage over L. bulgaricus. The GIT of germ-free rats not supplemented with lactose was colonised by S. thermophilus but not by L. bulgaricus. Both bacteria were able to colonise the GIT of germ-free rats supplemented with 45 g/l lactose in their drinking water. However, if germ-free rats were inoculated with a mixture of the two bacteria and were supplemented with lactose, S. thermophilus rapidly and extensively colonised the GIT (1010 cfu/g faeces) at the expense of L. bulgaricus, which remained in most cases at levels bulgaricus produced only D-lactate, both in vitro and in vivo. S. thermophilus showed competitive and growth advantage over L. bulgaricus in vitro as well as in vivo in the GIT of germ-free rats and, accordingly, L-lactate was the main lactate isomer produced.

  5. The ltp gene of temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34 confers superinfection exclusion to Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Xingmin; Goehler, Andre; Heller, Knut J.; Neve, Horst

    2006-01-01

    The ltp gene, located within the lysogeny module of temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34, has been shown to be expressed in lysogenic strain S. thermophilus J34. It codes for a lipoprotein, as demonstrated by inhibition of cleavage of the signal sequence by globomycin. Exposure of Ltp on the surface of Lactococcus lactis protoplasts bearing a plasmid-encoded copy of ltp has been demonstrated by immunogold labeling and electron microscopy. Expression of ltp in prophage- and plasmid-cured S. thermophilus J34-6f interfered with TP-J34 infection. While plating efficiency was reduced by a factor of about 40 and lysis of strain J34-6f in liquid medium was delayed considerably, phage adsorption was not affected at all. Intracellular accumulation of phage DNA was shown to be inhibited by Ltp. This indicates interference of Ltp with infection at the stage of triggering DNA release and injection into the cell, indicating a role of Ltp in superinfection exclusion. Expression of ltp in L. lactis Bu2-60 showed that the same superinfection exclusion mechanism was strongly effective against phage P008, a member of the lactococcal 936 phage species: no plaque-formation was detectable with even 10 9 phage per ml applied, and lysis in liquid medium did not occur. In Lactococcus also, Ltp apparently inhibited phage DNA release and/or injection. Ltp appears to be a member of a family of small, secreted proteins with a 42 amino acids repeat structure encoded by genes of Gram-positive bacteria. Some of these homologous genes are part of the genomes of prophages

  6. Complete Genome Sequence of the Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid-Producing Strain Streptococcus thermophilus APC151.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; Arboleya, Silvia; Ross, R Paul; Stanton, Catherine

    2017-04-27

    Here is presented the whole-genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus APC151, isolated from a marine fish. This bacterium produces gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in high yields and is biotechnologically suitable to produce naturally GABA-enriched biofunctional yogurt. Its complete genome comprises 2,097 genes and 1,839,134 nucleotides, with an average G+C content of 39.1%. Copyright © 2017 Linares et al.

  7. Streptococcus thermophilus urease activity boosts Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus homolactic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arioli, Stefania; Della Scala, Giulia; Remagni, Maria Chiara; Stuknyte, Milda; Colombo, Stefano; Guglielmetti, Simone; De Noni, Ivano; Ragg, Enzio; Mora, Diego

    2017-04-17

    The proto-cooperation between Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in the yogurt consortium enhances the growth rate and size of each population. In contrast, the independent growth of the two species in milk leads to a slower growth rate and a smaller population size. In this study, we report the first evidence that the urease activity of S. thermophilus increases the intracellular pH of L. delbrueckii in the absence of carbon source. However, in milk, in the presence of lactose the alkalizing effect of urea-derived ammonia was not detectable. Nevertheless, based on glucose consumption and lactic acid production at different pH in , L. delbrueckii showed an optimum of glycolysis and homolactic fermentation at alkaline pH values. In milk, we observed that ammonia provided by urea hydrolysis boosted lactic acid production in S. thermophilus and in L. delbrueckii when the species were grown alone or in combination. Therefore, we propose that urease activity acts as an altruistic cooperative trait, which is costly for urease-positive individuals but provides a local benefit because other individuals can take advantage of urease-dependent ammonia release. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dead zone characteristics of a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nohtomi, Akihiro; Sakae, Takeji; Matoba, Masaru; Koori, Norihiko.

    1990-01-01

    The dead zone was recently defined as the product of dead length and dead time in order to describe the characteristics of the self-quenching streamer (SQS) mode of a gas counter. Investigation of the dead zone characteristics has been extended for the proportional and GM modes, and the measured dead zone has been compared with that of the SQS mode. Accurate values for the dead zone could be determined by means of a newly developed method with a pulse interval time to amplitude converter. Each operation mode indicates distinct dead zone characteristics. Properties of gas counters for high counting rates may be improved on the basis of measurements of the dead zone. (author)

  9. Preparation of low galactose yogurt using cultures of Gal(+) Streptococcus thermophilus in combination with Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbukkarasi, Kaliyaperumal; UmaMaheswari, Thiyagamoorthy; Hemalatha, Thiagarajan; Nanda, Dhiraj Kumar; Singh, Prashant; Singh, Rameshwar

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is an important lactic starter used in the production of yogurt. Most strains of S. thermophilus are galactose negative (Gal(-)) and are able to metabolize only glucose portion of lactose and expel galactose into the medium. This metabolic defect leads to the accumulation of free galactose in yogurt, resulting in galactosemia among consumers. Hence there is an absolute need to develop low galactose yogurt. Therefore, in this study, three galactose positive (Gal(+)) S. thermophilus strains from National Collection of Dairy Cultures (NCDC) viz. NCDC 659 (AJM), NCDC 660 (JM1), NCDC 661 (KM3) and a reference galactose negative (Gal(-)) S. thermophilus NCDC 218 were used for preparation of low galactose yogurt. In milk fermented using S. thermophilus isolates alone, NCDC 659 released less galactose (0.27 %) followed by NCDC 661 (0.3 %) and NCDC 660 (0.45 %) after 10 h at 42 °C. Milk was fermented in combination with Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDC 04, in which NCDC 659 released least galactose upto 0.49 % followed by NCDC 661 (0.51 %) and NCDC 660 (0.60 %) than reference Gal(-) NCDC 218(0.79 %). Low galactose yogurt was prepared following standard procedure using Gal(+) S. thermophilus isolates and Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus NCDC 04 in 1:1 ratio. Among which low galactose yogurt by NCDC 659 combination contained less galactose 0.37 % followed by NCDC 661 (0.51 %), NCDC 660 (0.65 %) and reference Gal(-) NCDC 218 (0.98 %) after 4 h of fermentation. This study clearly reveals that Gal(+) S. thermophilus isolates can be paired with Gal(-) L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus for developing low galactose yogurt.

  10. 7 CFR 322.29 - Dead bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead bees. 322.29 Section 322.29 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT Importation and Transit of Restricted Articles § 322.29 Dead bees. (a) Dead bees imported into or transiting the United States must be...

  11. Electronic fingerprinting of the dead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutty, G N; Stringer, K; Turk, E E

    2008-01-01

    To date, a number of methods exist for the capture of fingerprints from cadavers that can then be used in isolation as a primary method for the identification of the dead. We report the use of a handheld, mobile wireless unit used in conjunction with a personal digital assistant (PDA) device for the capture of fingerprints from the dead. We also consider a handheld single-digit fingerprint scanner that utilises a USB laptop connection for the electronic capture of cadaveric fingerprints. Both are single-operator units that, if ridge detail is preserved, can collect a 10-set of finger pad prints in approximately 45 and 90 s, respectively. We present our observations on the restrictions as to when such devices can be used with cadavers. We do, however, illustrate that the images are of sufficient quality to allow positive identification from finger pad prints of the dead. With the development of mobile, handheld, biometric, PDA-based units for the police, we hypothesize that, under certain circumstances, devices such as these could be used for the accelerated acquisition of fingerprint identification data with the potential for rapid near-patient identification in the future.

  12. High-level expression, secretion, and purification of the thermostable aqualysin I from Thermus aquaticus YT-1 in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oledzka, G.; Dabrowski, Slawomir; Kur, J.

    2003-01-01

    Aqualysin I is a heat-stable subtilisin-type serine protease which is secreted into the culture medium by Thermus aquaticus YT-1, an extreme thermophile. We report the high-level expression of an aqualysin I protein using its native signal sequence for secretion in the methylotrophic yeast, Pichia...... to that of the native enzyme. We also explored the possibility of secreting the GAP expressed aqualysin I in P. pastoris by in-frame fusion of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae alpha-factor secretion signal. However, the levels of secreted pro-aqualysin I particles were approximately 10 times lower, possibly...

  13. The rgg0182 gene encodes a transcriptional regulator required for the full Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 thermal adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Romain; Bruneau, Emmanuelle; Gardan, Rozenn; Bertin, Stéphane; Fleuchot, Betty; Decaris, Bernard; Leblond-Bourget, Nathalie

    2011-10-07

    Streptococcus thermophilus is an important starter strain for the production of yogurt and cheeses. The analysis of sequenced genomes of four strains of S. thermophilus indicates that they contain several genes of the rgg familly potentially encoding transcriptional regulators. Some of the Rgg proteins are known to be involved in bacterial stress adaptation. In this study, we demonstrated that Streptococcus thermophilus thermal stress adaptation required the rgg0182 gene which transcription depends on the culture medium and the growth temperature. This gene encoded a protein showing similarity with members of the Rgg family transcriptional regulator. Our data confirmed that Rgg0182 is a transcriptional regulator controlling the expression of its neighboring genes as well as chaperones and proteases encoding genes. Therefore, analysis of a Δrgg0182 mutant revealed that this protein played a role in the heat shock adaptation of Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311. These data showed the importance of the Rgg0182 transcriptional regulator on the survival of S. thermophilus during dairy processes and more specifically during changes in temperature.

  14. The rgg0182 gene encodes a transcriptional regulator required for the full Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311 thermal adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertin Stéphane

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus thermophilus is an important starter strain for the production of yogurt and cheeses. The analysis of sequenced genomes of four strains of S. thermophilus indicates that they contain several genes of the rgg familly potentially encoding transcriptional regulators. Some of the Rgg proteins are known to be involved in bacterial stress adaptation. Results In this study, we demonstrated that Streptococcus thermophilus thermal stress adaptation required the rgg0182 gene which transcription depends on the culture medium and the growth temperature. This gene encoded a protein showing similarity with members of the Rgg family transcriptional regulator. Our data confirmed that Rgg0182 is a transcriptional regulator controlling the expression of its neighboring genes as well as chaperones and proteases encoding genes. Therefore, analysis of a Δrgg0182 mutant revealed that this protein played a role in the heat shock adaptation of Streptococcus thermophilus LMG18311. Conclusions These data showed the importance of the Rgg0182 transcriptional regulator on the survival of S. thermophilus during dairy processes and more specifically during changes in temperature.

  15. Profiles of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Milk Fermented with Different Proportional Combinations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Tong; Wang, Dan; Wu, Shimei; Jin, Rulin; Ren, Weiyi; Sun, Tiansong

    2017-09-29

    Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are key factors in the fermentation process and the final quality of dairy products worldwide. This study was performed to investigate the effects of the proportions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus isolated from traditionally fermented dairy products in China and Mongolia on the profile of volatile compounds produced in samples. Six proportional combinations (1:1, 1:10, 1:50, 1:100, 1:1000, and 1:10,000) of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMAU20401 to S. thermophilus ND03 were considered, and the volatiles were identified and quantified by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS) against an internal standard. In total, 89 volatile flavor compounds, consisting of aldehydes, ketones, acids, alcohols, esters, and aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified. Among these, some key flavor volatile compounds were identified, including acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, acetoin, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, butanoic acid, and 3-methyl-1-butanol. The of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMAU20401 to S. thermophilus ND03 influenced the type and concentration of volatiles produced. In particular, aldehydes and ketones were present at higher concentrations in the 1:1000 treatment combination than in the other combinations. Our findings emphasize the importance of selecting the appropriate proportions of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus for the starter culture in determining the final profile of volatiles and the overall flavor of dairy products.

  16. Profiles of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Milk Fermented with Different Proportional Combinations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Dan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are key factors in the fermentation process and the final quality of dairy products worldwide. This study was performed to investigate the effects of the proportions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus isolated from traditionally fermented dairy products in China and Mongolia on the profile of volatile compounds produced in samples. Six proportional combinations (1:1, 1:10, 1:50, 1:100, 1:1000, and 1:10,000 of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMAU20401 to S. thermophilus ND03 were considered, and the volatiles were identified and quantified by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS against an internal standard. In total, 89 volatile flavor compounds, consisting of aldehydes, ketones, acids, alcohols, esters, and aromatic hydrocarbons, were identified. Among these, some key flavor volatile compounds were identified, including acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanal, acetoin, 2-heptanone, acetic acid, butanoic acid, and 3-methyl-1-butanol. The of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus IMAU20401 to S. thermophilus ND03 influenced the type and concentration of volatiles produced. In particular, aldehydes and ketones were present at higher concentrations in the 1:1000 treatment combination than in the other combinations. Our findings emphasize the importance of selecting the appropriate proportions of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus for the starter culture in determining the final profile of volatiles and the overall flavor of dairy products.

  17. Study of Streptococcus thermophilus population on a world-wide and historical collection by a new MLST scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delorme, Christine; Legravet, Nicolas; Jamet, Emmanuel; Hoarau, Caroline; Alexandre, Bolotin; El-Sharoud, Walid M; Darwish, Mohamed S; Renault, Pierre

    2017-02-02

    We analyzed 178 Streptococcus thermophilus strains isolated from diverse products, from around the world, over a 60-year period with a new multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme. This collection included isolates from two traditional cheese-making sites with different starter-use practices, in sampling campaigns carried out over a three years period. The nucleotide diversity of the S. thermophilus population was limited, but 116 sequence types (ST) were identified. Phylogenetic analysis of the concatenated sequences of the six housekeeping genes revealed the existence of groups confirmed by eBURST analysis. Deeper analyses performed on 25 strains by CRISPR and whole-genome analysis showed that phylogenies obtained by MLST and whole-genome analysis were in agreement but differed from that inferred by CRISPR analysis. Strains isolated from traditional products could cluster in specific groups indicating their origin, but also be mixed in groups containing industrial starter strains. In the traditional cheese-making sites, we found that S. thermophilus persisted on dairy equipment, but that occasionally added starter strains may become dominant. It underlined the impact of starter use that may reshape S. thermophilus populations including in traditional products. This new MLST scheme thus provides a framework for analyses of S. thermophilus populations and the management of its biodiversity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Crystal structure of a thermostable Old Yellow Enzyme from Thermus scotoductus SA-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opperman, Diederik J.; Sewell, Bryan T.; Litthauer, Derek; Isupov, Mikhail N.; Littlechild, Jennifer A.; Heerden, Esta van

    2010-01-01

    Recent characterization of the chromate reductase (CrS) from the thermophile Thermus scotoductus SA-01 revealed this enzyme to be related to the Old Yellow Enzyme (OYE) family. Here, we report the structure of a thermostable OYE homolog in its holoform at 2.2 A as well as its complex with p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (pHBA). The enzyme crystallized as octamers with the monomers showing a classical TIM barrel fold which upon dimerization yields the biologically active form of the protein. A sulfate ion is bound above the si-side of the non-covalently bound FMN cofactor in the oxidized solved structure but is displaced upon pHBA binding. The active-site architecture is highly conserved as with other members of this enzyme family. The pHBA in the CrS complex is positioned by hydrogen bonding to the two conserved catalytic-site histidines. The most prominent structural difference between CrS and other OYE homologs is the size of the 'capping domain'. Thermostabilization of the enzyme is achieved in part through increased proline content within loops and turns as well as increased intersubunit interactions through hydrogen bonding and complex salt bridge networks. CrS is able to reduce the C=C bonds of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with a preference towards cyclic substrates however no activity was observed towards β-substituted substrates. Mutational studies have confirmed the role of Tyr177 as the proposed proton donor although reduction could still occur at a reduced rate when this residue was mutated to phenylalanine.

  19. Role of disulphide bonds in a thermophilic serine protease aqualysin I from Thermus aquaticus YT-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Masayoshi; Takezawa, Makoto; Nakazawa, Rie; Nozawa, Kazutaka; Kusakawa, Taro; Nagasawa, Takeshi; Sugahara, Yasusato; Kawakita, Masao

    2008-05-01

    A thermophilic serine protease, Aqualysin I, from Thermus aquaticus YT-1 has two disulphide bonds, which are also found in a psychrophilic serine protease from Vibrio sp. PA-44 and a proteinase K-like enzyme from Serratia sp. at corresponding positions. To understand the significance of these disulphide bonds in aqualysin I, we prepared mutants C99S, C194S and C99S/C194S (WSS), in which Cys69-Cys99, Cys163-Cys194 and both of these disulphide bonds, respectively, were disrupted by replacing Cys residues with Ser residues. All mutants were expressed stably in Escherichia coli. The C99S mutant was 68% as active as the wild-type enzyme at 40 degrees C in terms of k(cat) value, while C194S and WSS were only 6 and 3%, respectively, as active, indicating that disulphide bond Cys163-Cys194 is critically important for maintaining proper catalytic site conformation. Mutants C194S and WSS were less thermostable than wild-type enzyme, with a half-life at 90 degrees C of 10 min as compared to 45 min of the latter and with transition temperatures on differential scanning calorimetry of 86.7 degrees C and 86.9 degrees C, respectively. Mutant C99S was almost as stable as the wild-type aqualysin I. These results indicate that the disulphide bond Cys163-Cys194 is more important for catalytic activity and conformational stability of aqualysin I than Cys67-Cys99.

  20. Influence of different proteolytic strains of Streptococcus thermophilus in co-culture with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on the metabolite profile of set-yoghurt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Settachaimongkon, S.; Nout, M.J.R.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Hettinga, K.A.; Vervoort, J.J.M.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Zwietering, M.H.; Smid, E.J.; Valenberg, van H.J.F.

    2014-01-01

    Proto-cooperation between Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the key factors that determine the fermentation process and final quality of yoghurt. In this study, the interaction between different proteolytic strains of S. thermophilus and L.

  1. Are Brain Dead Individuals Dead? Grounds for Reasonable Doubt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugger, E Christian

    2016-06-01

    According to the biological definition of death, a human body that has not lost the capacity to holistically organize itself is the body of a living human individual. Reasonable doubt against the conclusion that it has lost the capacity exists when the body appears to express it and no evidence to the contrary is sufficient to rule out reasonable doubt against the conclusion that the apparent expression is a true expression (i.e., when the conclusion that what appears to be holistic organization is in fact holistic organization remains a reasonable explanatory hypothesis in light of the best evidence to the contrary). This essay argues that the evidence and arguments against the conclusion that the signs of complex bodily integration exhibited in ventilated brain dead bodies are true expressions of somatic integration are unpersuasive; that is, they are not adequate to exclude reasonable doubt against the conclusion that BD bodies are dead. Since we should not treat as corpses what for all we know might be living human beings, it follows that we have an obligation to treat BD individuals as if they were living human beings. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. SOS response activation and competence development are antagonistic mechanisms in Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutry, Céline; Delplace, Brigitte; Clippe, André; Fontaine, Laetitia; Hols, Pascal

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus includes species that either contain or lack the LexA-like repressor (HdiR) of the classical SOS response. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, a species which belongs to the latter group, SOS response inducers (e.g., mitomycin C [Mc] and fluoroquinolones) were shown to induce natural transformation, leading to the hypothesis that DNA damage-induced competence could contribute to genomic plasticity and stress resistance. Using reporter strains and microarray experiments, we investigated the impact of the SOS response inducers mitomycin C and norfloxacin and the role of HdiR on competence development in Streptococcus thermophilus. We show that both the addition of SOS response inducers and HdiR inactivation have a dual effect, i.e., induction of the expression of SOS genes and reduction of transformability. Reduction of transformability results from two different mechanisms, since HdiR inactivation has no major effect on the expression of competence (com) genes, while mitomycin C downregulates the expression of early and late com genes in a dose-dependent manner. The downregulation of com genes by mitomycin C was shown to take place at the level of the activation of the ComRS signaling system by an unknown mechanism. Conversely, we show that a ComX-deficient strain is more resistant to mitomycin C and norfloxacin in a viability plate assay, which indicates that competence development negatively affects the resistance of S. thermophilus to DNA-damaging agents. Altogether, our results strongly suggest that SOS response activation and competence development are antagonistic processes in S. thermophilus.

  3. A novel consortium of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Streptococcus thermophilus for increased access to functional fermented foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kort, Remco; Westerik, Nieke; Mariela Serrano, L; Douillard, François P; Gottstein, Willi; Mukisa, Ivan M; Tuijn, Coosje J; Basten, Lisa; Hafkamp, Bert; Meijer, Wilco C; Teusink, Bas; de Vos, Willem M; Reid, Gregor; Sybesma, Wilbert

    2015-12-08

    The lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is the most studied probiotic bacterium with proven health benefits upon oral intake, including the alleviation of diarrhea. The mission of the Yoba for Life foundation is to provide impoverished communities in Africa increased access to Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG under the name Lactobacillus rhamnosus yoba 2012, world's first generic probiotic strain. We have been able to overcome the strain's limitations to grow in food matrices like milk, by formulating a dried starter consortium with Streptococcus thermophilus that enables the propagation of both strains in milk and other food matrices. The affordable seed culture is used by people in resource-poor communities. We used S. thermophilus C106 as an adjuvant culture for the propagation of L. rhamnosus yoba 2012 in a variety of fermented foods up to concentrations, because of its endogenous proteolytic activity, ability to degrade lactose and other synergistic effects. Subsequently, L. rhamnosus could reach final titers of 1E+09 CFU ml(-1), which is sufficient to comply with the recommended daily dose for probiotics. The specific metabolic interactions between the two strains were derived from the full genome sequences of L. rhamnosus GG and S. thermophilus C106. The piliation of the L. rhamnosus yoba 2012, required for epithelial adhesion and inflammatory signaling in the human host, was stable during growth in milk for two rounds of fermentation. Sachets prepared with the two strains, yoba 2012 and C106, retained viability for at least 2 years. A stable dried seed culture has been developed which facilitates local and low-cost production of a wide range of fermented foods that subsequently act as delivery vehicles for beneficial bacteria to communities in east Africa.

  4. Dead time of dual detector tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A theory of the dead time for the dual detector nuclear tool with the analogue signal transmission is given in the paper. At least two different times exist in such tools: the dead time of detectors (for final computation they assumed identical to each other) and the dead time of the signal transmission set-up. A method of two radioactive sources is proposed to measure these two different dead times. When the times used for measuring every countrate needed in the dead time determination algorithm are taken into account, the statistical accuracy of the dead time determination can be obtained. These estimations are performed by the computer simulation method. Two codes have been designed: DEADT2D (DEAD Time for 2 Detectors) and DEADT2DS (DEAD Time for 2 Detectors with Statistics). The first code calculates the dead time based on the recorded countrates only, the second is doing a 'simulation job' and provides information on the statistical distribution of the observed dead times. The theory and the numerical solutions were checked both by the simulation calculations and by the experiments performed with the ODSN-102 tool (the experiments were performed by T. Zorski). (Author)

  5. A Potential Food-Grade Cloning Vector for Streptococcus thermophilus That Uses Cadmium Resistance as the Selectable Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Wing Yee; Su, Ping; Allison, Gwen E.; Liu, Chun-Qiang; Dunn, Noel W.

    2003-01-01

    A potential food-grade cloning vector, pND919, was constructed and transformed into S. thermophilus ST3-1, a plasmid-free strain. The vector contains DNAs from two different food-approved organisms, Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactococcus lactis. The 5.0-kb pND919 is a derivative of the cloning vector pND918 (9.3 kb) and was constructed by deletion of the 4.3-kb region of pND918 which contained DNA from non-food-approved organisms. pND919 carries a heterologous native cadmium resistance se...

  6. Bioremediation potential of a newly isolate solvent tolerant strain Bacillus thermophilus PS11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAYEL SARKAR

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased generation of solvent waste has been stated as one of the most critical environmental problems. Though microbial bioremediation has been widely used for waste treatment but their application in solvent waste treatment is limited since the solvents have toxic effects on the microbial cells. A solvent tolerant strain of Bacillus thermophilus PS11 was isolated from soil by cyclohexane enrichment. Transmission electron micrograph of PS11 showed convoluted cell membrane and accumulation of solvents in the cytoplasm, indicating the adaptation of the bacterial strain to the solvent after 48h of incubation. The strain was also capable of growing in presence of wide range of other hydrophobic solvents with log P-values below 3.5. The isolate could uptake 50 ng/ml of uranium in its initial 12h of growth, exhibiting both solvent tolerance and metal resistance property. This combination of solvent tolerance and metal resistance will make the isolated Bacillus thermophilus PS11 a potential tool for metal bioremediation in solvent rich wastewaters.

  7. Production of lactic acid from whey using Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Rojas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to determine the proper growth conditions of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus for the production of lactic acid using serum as substract. This serum was obtain from the department of Cesar, Colombia. Lactic acid is the result of the extraction and purification of fermentation broths in which bacteria Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus are used, which are usually used for the production of yogurt. The substrate was supplemented with yeast extract, ammonium phosphate as a nitrogen source, and calcium carbonate as a neutralizer, in order to optimize the consumption, by the bacteria, of the main carbohydrate present in serum (lactose. During the fermentation (up to 72 h the inoculums concentration, and temperature were controlled. Purification consisted in esterification, filtration of solids formed during the reaction, and removing of water by evaporation and nitrogen influx. Finally, lactic acid was obtained with 78,0% purity (36.7 g/L, which was characterized by infrared spectroscopy

  8. Complete genome sequence of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus type strain (TK-6T)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeytun, Ahmet [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Sikorski, Johannes [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Nolan, Matt [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Lapidus, Alla L. [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Lucas, Susan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Han, James [Joint Genome Institute; Tice, Hope [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Cheng, Jan-Fang [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Tapia, Roxanne [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Goodwin, Lynne A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Pitluck, Sam [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Liolios, Konstantinos [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Ivanova, N [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mavromatis, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Mikhailova, Natalia [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Ovchinnikova, Galina [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Pati, Amrita [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Chen, Amy [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Palaniappan, Krishna [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Ngatchou, Olivier Duplex [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Chang, Yun-Juan [ORNL; Jeffries, Cynthia [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Han, Cliff [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Detter, J. Chris [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Ubler, Susanne [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Rohde, Manfred [HZI - Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Braunschweig, Germany; Tindall, Brian [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Wirth, Reinhard [Universitat Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany; Woyke, Tanja [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Bristow, James [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Eisen, Jonathan [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Markowitz, Victor [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California; Hugenholtz, Philip [U.S. Department of Energy, Joint Genome Institute; Klenk, Hans-Peter [DSMZ - German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH, Braunschweig, Germany; Kyrpides, Nikos C [Joint Genome Institute, Walnut Creek, California

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogenobacter thermophilus Kawasumi et al. 1984 is the type species of the genus Hydrogenobacter. H. thermophilus was the first obligate autotrophic organism reported among aerobic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria. Strain TK-6T is of interest because of the unusually efficient hydrogen-oxidizing ability of this strain, which results in a faster generation time compared to other autotrophs. It is also able to grow anaerobically using nitrate as an electron acceptor when molecular hydrogen is used as the energy source, and able to aerobically fix CO2 via the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle. This is the fifth completed genome sequence in the family Aquificaceae, and the second genome sequence determined from a strain derived from the original isolate. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 1,742,932 bp long genome with its 1,899 protein-coding and 49 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  9. Lactose uptake driven by galactose efflux in Streptococcus thermophilus: Evidence for a galactose-lactose antiporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutkins, R.W.; Ponne, C.

    1991-01-01

    Galactose-nonfermenting (Gal - ) Streptococcus thermophilus TS2 releases galactose into the extracellular medium when grown in medium containing excess lactose. Starved and de-energized Gal - cells, however, could be loaded with galactose to levels approximately equal to the extracellular concentration (0 to 50 mM). When loaded cells were separated from the medium and resuspended in fresh broth containing 5 mM lactose, galactose efflux occurred. De-energized, galactose-loaded cells, resuspended in buffer or medium, accumulated [ 14 C]lactose at a greater rate and to significantly higher intracellular concentrations than unloaded cells. Uptake of lactose by loaded cells was inhibited more than that by unloaded cells in the presence of extracellular galactose, indicating that a galactose gradient was involved in the exchange system. When de-energized, galactose-loaded cells were resuspended in carbohydrate-free medium at pH 6.7, a proton motive force (Δp) of 86 to 90 mV was formed, whereas de-energized, nonloaded cells maintained a Δp of about 56 mV. However, uptake of lactose by loaded cells occurred when the proton motive force was abolished by the addition of an uncoupler or in the presence of a proton-translocating ATPase inhibitor. These results support the hypothesis that galactose efflux in Gal - S. thermophilus is electrogenic and that the exchange reaction (lactose uptake and galactose efflux) probably occurs via an antiporter system

  10. Coincidence-counting corrections for accidental coincidences, set dead time and intrinsic dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1998-01-01

    An equation is derived for calculating the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting, taking into account dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The corrections allow for the extension of the set dead time in the p channel by the intrinsic dead time. Experimental verification shows improvement over a previous equation. (author)

  11. Development of the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology in Streptococcus thermophilus and validation using the lactose operon promoter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junjua, M.; Galia, W.; Gaci, N.; Uriot, O.; Genay, M.; Bachmann, H.; Kleerebezem, M.; Dary, A.; Roussel, Y.

    2014-01-01


    Aims

    To construct and validate the recombinase-based in vivo expression technology (R-IVET) tool in Streptococcus thermophilus (ST).

    Methods and Results

    The R-IVET system we constructed in the LMD-9 strain includes the plasmid pULNcreB allowing transcriptional fusion

  12. Quaternary structure of the lactose transport protein of Streptococcus thermophilus in the detergent-solubilized and membrane-reconstituted state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, R.H.E.; Poolman, B.; Knol, J.

    2000-01-01

    The quaternary structure of LacS, the lactose transporter of Streptococcus thermophilus, has been determined for the detergent-solubilized and the membrane-reconstituted state of the protein. The quaternary structure of the n-dodecyl-β-D-maltoside-solubilized state was studied using a combination of

  13. Survival of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the Terminal Ileum of Fistulated Göttingen Minipigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lick, Sonja; Drescher, Karsten; Heller, Knut J.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus administered in yogurt to survive the passage through the upper gastrointestinal tract was investigated with Göttingen minipigs that were fitted with ileum T-cannulas. After ingestion of yogurt containing viable microorganisms, ileostomy samples were collected nearly every hour beginning 3 h after food uptake. Living L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus were detected in the magnitude of 106 to 107 per gram of intestinal contents (wet weight) in all animals under investigation. A calculation of the minimum amount of surviving bacteria that had been administered is presented. Total DNA extracted from ileostomy samples was subjected to PCR, which was species specific for L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus and subspecies specific for L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. All three bacterial groups could be detected by PCR after yogurt uptake but not after uptake of a semisynthetic diet. One pig apparently had developed an endogenous L. delbrueckii flora. When heat-treated yogurt was administered, L. delbrueckii was detected in all animals. S. thermophilus or L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was not detected, indicating that heat-inactivated cells and their DNAs had already been digested and their own L. delbrueckii flora had been stimulated for growth. PMID:11526016

  14. In Silico Prediction of Horizontal Gene Transfer Events in Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus Reveals Protocooperation in Yogurt Manufacturing▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengjin; Siezen, Roland J.; Nauta, Arjen

    2009-01-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, used in yogurt starter cultures, are well known for their stability and protocooperation during their coexistence in milk. In this study, we show that a close interaction between the two species also takes place at the genetic level. We performed an in silico analysis, combining gene composition and gene transfer mechanism-associated features, and predicted horizontally transferred genes in both L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. Putative horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events that have occurred between the two bacterial species include the transfer of exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis genes, transferred from S. thermophilus to L. bulgaricus, and the gene cluster cbs-cblB(cglB)-cysE for the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, transferred from L. bulgaricus or Lactobacillus helveticus to S. thermophilus. The HGT event for the cbs-cblB(cglB)-cysE gene cluster was analyzed in detail, with respect to both evolutionary and functional aspects. It can be concluded that during the coexistence of both yogurt starter species in a milk environment, agonistic coevolution at the genetic level has probably been involved in the optimization of their combined growth and interactions. PMID:19395564

  15. In silico prediction of horizontal gene transfer events in Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus reveals protocooperation in yogurt manufacturing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, M.; Siezen, R.J.; Nauta, A.

    2009-01-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, used in yogurt starter cultures, are well known for their stability and protocooperation during their coexistence in milk. In this study, we show that a close interaction between the two species also takes place at the genetic level. We

  16. In silico prediction of horizontal gene transfer events in Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus reveals protocooperation in yogurt manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mengjin; Siezen, Roland J; Nauta, Arjen

    2009-06-01

    Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus, used in yogurt starter cultures, are well known for their stability and protocooperation during their coexistence in milk. In this study, we show that a close interaction between the two species also takes place at the genetic level. We performed an in silico analysis, combining gene composition and gene transfer mechanism-associated features, and predicted horizontally transferred genes in both L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. Putative horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events that have occurred between the two bacterial species include the transfer of exopolysaccharide (EPS) biosynthesis genes, transferred from S. thermophilus to L. bulgaricus, and the gene cluster cbs-cblB(cglB)-cysE for the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids, transferred from L. bulgaricus or Lactobacillus helveticus to S. thermophilus. The HGT event for the cbs-cblB(cglB)-cysE gene cluster was analyzed in detail, with respect to both evolutionary and functional aspects. It can be concluded that during the coexistence of both yogurt starter species in a milk environment, agonistic coevolution at the genetic level has probably been involved in the optimization of their combined growth and interactions.

  17. Evaluating acetaldehyde synthesis from L-/sup 14/C(U)) threonine by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, D.W.; Schmidt, R.H.; Shireman, R.B.; Smith, K.L.; Jezeski, J.J.

    1986-05-01

    To evaluate the synthesis of acetaldehyde from threonine during growth of yogurt cultures, Streptococcus thermophilus MS1 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus MR1 were grown in defined medium in which 10% of the total threonine was composed of L-(carbon-14(U))threonine. Acetaldehyde production was monitored by formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone followed by separation and analysis using high performance liquid chromatography. After growth for 8 h at 42/sup 0/C, approximately 2.0% of the total acetaldehyde (780.4 nmol) produced was from L-(carbon-14)threonine. Threonine aldolase activity was determined in cell-free extracts from S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus grown in Elliker broth. Increasing incubation temperature from 30 to 42/sup 0/C decreased threonine aldolase activity in cells of the streptococcus harvested after 8 h of incubation. Effect of incubation temperature was more dramatic in cells harvested after 18 h where the activity of cells grown at 48/sup 0/C was 89% lower than that of cells grown at 30/sup 0/C. Cell extracts from S. thermophilus MS1 possessed higher threonine aldolase activity than did those from L. bulgaricus MR1. Increased assay temperature from 30 to 42/sup 0/C increased threonine aldolase activity in S. thermophilus MS1.

  18. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of recombinant ribokinase from Thermus Species 2.9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abramchik, Yu. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Timofeev, V. I., E-mail: tostars@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics,” (Russian Federation); Muravieva, T. I.; Esipov, R. S., E-mail: espiov@mx.ibch.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shemyakin–Ovchinnikov Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry (Russian Federation); Kuranova, I. P., E-mail: inna@ns.crys.ras.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography of Federal Scientific Research Centre “Crystallography and Photonics,” (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    Ribokinase from a thermophilic strain of Thermus species 2.9 belonging to the carbohydrate ribokinase family (EC 2.7.1.15) was isolated, purified, and crystallized. The crystallization conditions were found by the vapor-diffusion technique and were then optimized to apply the capillary counter-diffusion technique. The X-ray diffraction data set was collected from the crystals, which were grown by the counter-diffusion technique, at the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility to 2.87 Å resolution. The crystals belong to sp. gr. P12{sub 1}1 and have the following unit-cell parameters: a = 81.613 Å, b = 156.132 Å, c = 87.714 Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 103.819°. The X-ray diffraction data set is suitable for determining the three-dimensional structure of the protein by the molecular-replacement method.

  19. The Deinococcus-Thermus phylum and the effect of rRNA composition on phylogenetic tree construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisburg, W. G.; Giovannoni, S. J.; Woese, C. R.

    1989-01-01

    Through comparative analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequences, it can be shown that two seemingly dissimilar types of eubacteria Deinococcus and the ubiquitous hot spring organism Thermus are distantly but specifically related to one another. This confirms an earlier report based upon 16S rRNA oligonucleotide cataloging studies (Hensel et al., 1986). Their two lineages form a distinctive grouping within the eubacteria that deserved the taxonomic status of a phylum. The (partial) sequence of T. aquaticus rRNA appears relatively close to those of other thermophilic eubacteria. e.g. Thermotoga maritima and Thermomicrobium roseum. However, this closeness does not reflect a true evolutionary closeness; rather it is due to a "thermophilic convergence", the result of unusually high G+C composition in the rRNAs of thermophilic bacteria. Unless such compositional biases are taken into account, the branching order and root of phylogenetic trees can be incorrectly inferred.

  20. Raising the Dead without a Red Sea-Dead Sea project? Hydro-economics and governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Rosenberg

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seven decades of extractions have dramatically reduced Jordan River flows, lowered the Dead Sea level, opened sink holes, and caused other environmental problems. The fix Jordan, Israel, and the Palestinians propose would build an expensive multipurpose conveyance project from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea that would also generate hydropower and desalinate water. This paper compares the Red-Dead project to alternatives that may also raise the Dead Sea level. Hydro-economic model results for the Jordan-Israel-Palestinian inter-tied water systems show two restoration alternatives are more economically viable than the proposed Red-Dead project. Many decentralized new supply, wastewater reuse, conveyance, conservation, and leak reduction projects and programs in each country can together increase economic benefits and reliably deliver up to 900 MCM yr−1 to the Dead Sea. Similarly, a smaller Red-Dead project that only generates hydropower can deliver large flows to the Dead Sea when the sale price of generated electricity is sufficiently high. However, for all restoration options, net benefits fall and water scarcity rises as flows to the Dead Sea increase. This finding suggests (i each country has no individual incentive to return water to the Dead Sea, and (ii outside institutions that seek to raise the Dead must also offer countries direct incentives to deliver water to the Sea besides building the countries new infrastructure.

  1. Assembling the Streptococcus thermophilus clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) array for multiplex DNA targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijun; Xu, Kun; Liu, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Cunfang; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Zhiying

    2015-06-01

    In addition to the advantages of scalable, affordable, and easy to engineer, the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) technology is superior for multiplex targeting, which is laborious and inconvenient when achieved by cloning multiple gRNA expressing cassettes. Here, we report a simple CRISPR array assembling method which will facilitate multiplex targeting usage. First, the Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR3/Cas locus was cloned. Second, different CRISPR arrays were assembled with different crRNA spacers. Transformation assays using different Escherichia coli strains demonstrated efficient plasmid DNA targeting, and we achieved targeting efficiency up to 95% with an assembled CRISPR array with three crRNA spacers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel enzymatic system against oxidative stress in the thermophilic hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium Hydrogenobacter thermophilus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuya Sato

    Full Text Available Rubrerythrin (Rbr is a non-heme iron protein composed of two distinctive domains and functions as a peroxidase in anaerobic organisms. A novel Rbr-like protein, ferriperoxin (Fpx, was identified in Hydrogenobacter thermophilus and was found not to possess the rubredoxin-like domain that is present in typical Rbrs. Although this protein is widely distributed among aerobic organisms, its function remains unknown. In this study, Fpx exhibited ferredoxin:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR-dependent peroxidase activity and reduced both hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 and organic hydroperoxide in the presence of NADPH and FNR as electron donors. The calculated K(m and V(max values of Fpx for organic hydroperoxides were comparable to that for H(2O(2, demonstrating a multiple reactivity of Fpx towards hydroperoxides. An fpx gene disruptant was unable to grow under aerobic conditions, whereas its growth profiles were comparable to those of the wild-type strain under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, clearly indicating the indispensability of Fpx as an antioxidant of H. thermophilus in aerobic environments. Structural analysis suggested that domain-swapping occurs in Fpx, and this domain-swapped structure is well conserved among thermophiles, implying the importance of structural stability of domain-swapped conformation for thermal environments. In addition, Fpx was located on a deep branch of the phylogenetic tree of Rbr and Rbr-like proteins. This finding, taken together with the wide distribution of Fpx among Bacteria and Archaea, suggests that Fpx is an ancestral type of Rbr homolog that functions as an essential antioxidant and may be part of an ancestral peroxide-detoxification system.

  3. Temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phages expressing superinfection exclusion proteins of the Ltp type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya eAli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein Ltp encoded by temperate Streptococcus thermophilus phage TP-J34 is the prototype of the wide-spread family of host cell surface-exposed lipoproteins involved in superinfection exclusion. When screening for other S. thermophilus phages expressing this type of lipoprotein, three temperate phages - TP-EW, TP-DSM20617 and TP-778 - were isolated. In this communication we present the total nucleotide sequences of TP-J34 and TP-778L. For TP-EW, a phage almost identical to TP-J34, besides the ltp gene only the two regions of deviation from TP-J34 DNA were analyzed: the gene encoding the tail protein causing an assembly defect in TP-J34 and the gene encoding the lysin, which in TP-EW contains an intron. For TP-DSM20617 only the sequence of the lysogeny module containing the ltp gene was determined. The region showed high homology to the same region of TP-778. For TP-778 we could show that absence of the attR region resulted in aberrant excision of phage DNA. The amino acid sequence of mature LtpTP-EW was shown to be identical to that of mature LtpTP-J34, whereas the amino acid sequence of mature LtpTP-778 was shown to differ from mature LtpTP-J34 in eight amino acid positions. LtpTP-DSM20617 was shown to differ from LtpTP-778 in just one amino acid position. In contrast to LtpTP-J34, LtpTP-778 did not affect infection of lactococcal phage P008 instead increased activity against phage P001 was noticed.

  4. Determination of detection equipment dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacha, J.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described of determining dead time by short-lived source measurement. It is based on measuring the sample count rates in different time intervals when only dead time correction is changed with the changing count of recorded pulses. The dead time may be determined from the measured values by a numerical-graphical method. The method is described. The advantage of the method is the minimization of errors and inaccuracies; the disadvantage is that the half-life of the source used should very accurately be known. (J.P.)

  5. Biofilm Formation on Stainless Steel by Streptococcus thermophilus UC8547 in Milk Environments Is Mediated by the Proteinase PrtS

    OpenAIRE

    Bassi, D.; Cappa, F.; Gazzola, S.; Orrù, L.; Cocconcelli, P. S.

    2017-01-01

    In Streptococcus thermophilus, gene transfer events and loss of ancestral traits over the years contribute to its high level of adaptation to milk environments. Biofilm formation capacity, a phenotype that is lost in the majority of strains, plays a role in persistence in dairy environments, such as milk pasteurization and cheese manufacturing plants. To investigate this property, we have studied S. thermophilus UC8547, a fast-acidifying dairy starter culture selected for its high capacity to...

  6. Measurement of the Dead-Time in a Multichannel Analyser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, L.; Olsen, J.

    1973-01-01

    By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses.......By means of two simple measurements three different dead-times are determined: the normal dead-time, a dead-time coming from the pile-up, and a dead-time due to the finite width of the timing pulses....

  7. Mixed-culture transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular basis of mixed-culture growth in Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieuwerts, Sander; Molenaar, Douwe; van Hijum, Sacha A F T; Beerthuyzen, Marke; Stevens, Marc J A; Janssen, Patrick W M; Ingham, Colin J; de Bok, Frank A M; de Vos, Willem M; van Hylckama Vlieg, Johan E T

    2010-12-01

    Many food fermentations are performed using mixed cultures of lactic acid bacteria. Interactions between strains are of key importance for the performance of these fermentations. Yogurt fermentation by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus (basonym, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) is one of the best-described mixed-culture fermentations. These species are believed to stimulate each other's growth by the exchange of metabolites such as folic acid and carbon dioxide. Recently, postgenomic studies revealed that an upregulation of biosynthesis pathways for nucleotides and sulfur-containing amino acids is part of the global physiological response to mixed-culture growth in S. thermophilus, but an in-depth molecular analysis of mixed-culture growth of both strains remains to be established. We report here the application of mixed-culture transcriptome profiling and a systematic analysis of the effect of interaction-related compounds on growth, which allowed us to unravel the molecular responses associated with batch mixed-culture growth in milk of S. thermophilus CNRZ1066 and L. bulgaricus ATCC BAA-365. The results indicate that interactions between these bacteria are primarily related to purine, amino acid, and long-chain fatty acid metabolism. The results support a model in which formic acid, folic acid, and fatty acids are provided by S. thermophilus. Proteolysis by L. bulgaricus supplies both strains with amino acids but is insufficient to meet the biosynthetic demands for sulfur and branched-chain amino acids, as becomes clear from the upregulation of genes associated with these amino acids in mixed culture. Moreover, genes involved in iron uptake in S. thermophilus are affected by mixed-culture growth, and genes coding for exopolysaccharide production were upregulated in both organisms in mixed culture compared to monocultures. The confirmation of previously identified responses in S. thermophilus using a different strain combination

  8. Reduction of the off-flavor volatile generated by the yogurt starter culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus in soymilk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Daisuke; Igarashi, Toshinori; Aoyama, Kenji

    2014-02-19

    Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus establish a symbiotic relationship in milk; however, S. thermophilus predominantly grows in soymilk. This study determined that excess diacetyl was notably generated mainly by S. thermophilus in soymilk, and this flavor compound created an unpleasant odor in fermented soymilk. The addition of l-valine to soymilk reduced the amount of diacetyl and increased the levels of acetoin during fermentation by S. thermophilus . In addition, it was found that the expression of the ilvC gene was repressed and that of the als and aldB genes was stimulated in S. thermophilus by l-valine. Sensory evaluations with the triangle difference test and a preference test showed that the soymilk fermented with l-valine was significantly preferred compared with that without l-valine. In this study, we successfully controlled the metabolic flux of S. thermophilus in soymilk and produced more favorable fermented soymilk without the use of genetically modified lactic acid bacteria strains.

  9. Cesium accumulation by bacterium Thermus sp.TibetanG7: hints for biomineralization of cesiumbearing geyserite in hot springs in Tibet, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG7, isolated from hot springs in Tibet, China, was examined for the ability to accumulate cesium from solutions. Environmental conditions were simulated and the effects of pH, K+, Na+ and K+-regimes were then studied to determine the possible role of the bacterium in the formation of cesium-bearing geyserite around these hot springs. In despite of the inhibition of K+ and Na+, the bacterium Thermus sp. TibetanG7 revealed noticeable accumulation of cesium from solutions, with maximum accumulations of 53.49 and 40.41 μmol Cesium/g cell dry weight in Na+ and K+ inhibition experiments, respectively. The accumulation of cesium by this microorganism is rapid, with 40%―50% accumulated within the first 5 min. K+-deficient cells showed a much higher capacity of cesium accumulation compared with K+-sufficient cells. It is evident that the bacteria within the genus thermus play a significant role in the cesium assembly. The formation of cesium-bearing geyserite is also considered.

  10. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  11. Another method of dead time correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method of the correction of counting losses caused by a non-extended dead time of pulse detection systems is presented. The approach is based on the distribution of time intervals between pulses at the output of the system. The method was verified both experimentally and by using the Monte Carlo simulations. The results show that the suggested technique is more reliable and accurate than other methods based on a separate measurement of the dead time. (author) 5 refs

  12. Sequencing and transcriptional analysis of the Streptococcus thermophilus histamine biosynthesis gene cluster: factors that affect differential hdcA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calles-Enríquez, Marina; Hjort, Benjamin Benn; Andersen, Pia Skov

    2010-01-01

    to produce histamine. The hdc clusters of S. thermophilus CHCC1524 and CHCC6483 were sequenced, and the factors that affect histamine biosynthesis and histidine-decarboxylating gene (hdcA) expression were studied. The hdc cluster began with the hdcA gene, was followed by a transporter (hdcP), and ended...... with the hdcB gene, which is of unknown function. The three genes were orientated in the same direction. The genetic organization of the hdc cluster showed a unique organization among the lactic acid bacterial group and resembled those of Staphylococcus and Clostridium species, thus indicating possible...... acquisition through a horizontal transfer mechanism. Transcriptional analysis of the hdc cluster revealed the existence of a polycistronic mRNA covering the three genes. The histidine-decarboxylating gene (hdcA) of S. thermophilus demonstrated maximum expression during the stationary growth phase, with high...

  13. Structural characterization of the exopolysaccharide produced by Streptococcus thermophilus 05-34 and its in situ application in yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Q Q; Xia, B S; Xiong, Y; Zhang, S X; Luo, Y B; Hao, Y L

    2011-01-01

    An exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing strain was isolated from Tibetan kefir grains in China, which was identified by 16S rDNA tests and designated as Streptococcus thermophilus 05-34. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that it was composed of galactose and glucose in a molar ratio of 1.0:0.8 with a molecular mass of 2.5 × 10(4) Da. EPS was further revealed to have α-d-glucose, α-d-galactose, β-d-glucose, and β-d-galactose by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with 1D (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The length of EPS ranged from 10 to 100 nm and the maximal height of lumps was 2.5 nm through atomic force micrograph analysis. Furthermore, yogurt fermented with EPS-producing S. thermophilus 05-34 exhibited lower susceptibility to whey separation, higher viscosity, and sensory scores than those made with non-EPS-producing strain in yogurt production. These results suggested that EPS-producing Streptococcus thermophilus 05-34 provided a potential application in the fermented dairy industry. © 2011 China Agricultural University © 2011 Journal of Food Science © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Persistence of wild Streptococcus thermophilus strains on wooden vat and during the manufacture of a traditional Caciocavallo type cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settanni, L; Di Grigoli, A; Tornambé, G; Bellina, V; Francesca, N; Moschetti, G; Bonanno, A

    2012-04-02

    The present work was undertaken to evaluate the influence of the wooden dairy plant equipment on the microbiological characteristics of curd to be transformed into Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese. Traditional raw milk productions were performed concomitantly with standard cheese making trials carried out in stainless steel vat inoculated with a commercial starter. Milk from two different farms (A and B) was separately processed. The wooden vat was found to be a reservoir of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), while unwanted (spoilage and/or pathogenic) microorganisms were not hosted or were present at very low levels. All microbial groups were numerically different in bulk milks, showing higher levels for the farm B. LAB, especially thermophilic cocci, dominated the whole cheese making process of all productions. Undesired microorganisms decreased in number or disappeared during transformation, particularly after curd stretching. LAB were isolated from the wooden vat surface and from all dairy samples, subjected to phenotypic and genetic characterization and identification. Streptococcus thermophilus was the species found at the highest concentration in all samples analyzed and it also dominated the microbial community of the wooden vat. Fourteen other LAB species belonging to six genera (Enterococcus, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, Streptococcus and Weissella) were also detected. All S. thermophilus isolates were genetically differentiated and a consortium of four strains persisted during the whole traditional production process. As confirmed by pH and the total acidity after the acidification step, indigenous S. thermophilus strains acted as a mixed starter culture. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. 9 CFR 314.8 - Dead animal carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dead animal carcasses. 314.8 Section... Dead animal carcasses. (a) With the exception of dead livestock which have died en route and are received with livestock for slaughter at an official establishment, no dead animal or part of the carcass...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TBEL-01-0397 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TBEL-01-0397 ref|YP_145234.1| competence protein ComEC [Thermus thermophilus HB8] dbj|BAD71791.1| compe...tence protein ComEC [Thermus thermophilus HB8] YP_145234.1 0.020 31% ...

  17. Specialized adaptation of a lactic acid bacterium to the milk environment: the comparative genomics of Streptococcus thermophilus LMD-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altermann Eric

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Streptococcus thermophilus represents the only species among the streptococci that has “Generally Regarded As Safe” status and that plays an economically important role in the fermentation of yogurt and cheeses. We conducted comparative genome analysis of S. thermophilus LMD-9 to identify unique gene features as well as features that contribute to its adaptation to the dairy environment. In addition, we investigated the transcriptome response of LMD-9 during growth in milk in the presence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a companion culture in yogurt fermentation, and during lytic bacteriophage infection. Results The S. thermophilus LMD-9 genome is comprised of a 1.8 Mbp circular chromosome (39.1% GC; 1,834 predicted open reading frames and two small cryptic plasmids. Genome comparison with the previously sequenced LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066 strains revealed 114 kb of LMD-9 specific chromosomal region, including genes that encode for histidine biosynthetic pathway, a cell surface proteinase, various host defense mechanisms and a phage remnant. Interestingly, also unique to LMD-9 are genes encoding for a putative mucus-binding protein, a peptide transporter, and exopolysaccharide biosynthetic proteins that have close orthologs in human intestinal microorganisms. LMD-9 harbors a large number of pseudogenes (13% of ORFeome, indicating that like LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066, LMD-9 has also undergone major reductive evolution, with the loss of carbohydrate metabolic genes and virulence genes found in their streptococcal counterparts. Functional genome distribution analysis of ORFeomes among streptococci showed that all three S. thermophilus strains formed a distinct functional cluster, further establishing their specialized adaptation to the nutrient-rich milk niche. An upregulation of CRISPR1 expression in LMD-9 during lytic bacteriophage DT1 infection suggests its protective role against phage invasion. When co

  18. Specialized adaptation of a lactic acid bacterium to the milk environment: the comparative genomics of Streptococcus thermophilus LMD-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Yong Jun; Goin, Caitlin; O'Flaherty, Sarah; Altermann, Eric; Hutkins, Robert

    2011-08-30

    Streptococcus thermophilus represents the only species among the streptococci that has "Generally Regarded As Safe" status and that plays an economically important role in the fermentation of yogurt and cheeses. We conducted comparative genome analysis of S. thermophilus LMD-9 to identify unique gene features as well as features that contribute to its adaptation to the dairy environment. In addition, we investigated the transcriptome response of LMD-9 during growth in milk in the presence of Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, a companion culture in yogurt fermentation, and during lytic bacteriophage infection. The S. thermophilus LMD-9 genome is comprised of a 1.8 Mbp circular chromosome (39.1% GC; 1,834 predicted open reading frames) and two small cryptic plasmids. Genome comparison with the previously sequenced LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066 strains revealed 114 kb of LMD-9 specific chromosomal region, including genes that encode for histidine biosynthetic pathway, a cell surface proteinase, various host defense mechanisms and a phage remnant. Interestingly, also unique to LMD-9 are genes encoding for a putative mucus-binding protein, a peptide transporter, and exopolysaccharide biosynthetic proteins that have close orthologs in human intestinal microorganisms. LMD-9 harbors a large number of pseudogenes (13% of ORFeome), indicating that like LMG 18311 and CNRZ1066, LMD-9 has also undergone major reductive evolution, with the loss of carbohydrate metabolic genes and virulence genes found in their streptococcal counterparts. Functional genome distribution analysis of ORFeomes among streptococci showed that all three S. thermophilus strains formed a distinct functional cluster, further establishing their specialized adaptation to the nutrient-rich milk niche. An upregulation of CRISPR1 expression in LMD-9 during lytic bacteriophage DT1 infection suggests its protective role against phage invasion. When co-cultured with L. bulgaricus, LMD-9 overexpressed genes

  19. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Thermus aquaticus succinyl-CoA synthetase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joyce, Michael A.; Brownie, Edward R.; Hayakawa, Koto; Fraser, Marie E.

    2007-01-01

    Attempts to crystallize succinyl-CoA synthetase from the thermophile T. aquaticus were thwarted by proteolysis of the β-subunit and preferential crystallization of a truncated form. Crystals of the full-length enzyme were grown after the purification protocol was modified to include frequent additions of protease inhibitors. Succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS) is an enzyme of the citric acid cycle and is thus found in most species. To date, there are no structures available of SCS from a thermophilic organism. To investigate how the enzyme adapts to higher temperatures, SCS from Thermus aquaticus was cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized. Attempts to crystallize the enzyme were thwarted by proteolysis of the β-subunit and preferential crystallization of the truncated form. Crystals of full-length SCS were grown after the purification protocol was modified to include frequent additions of protease inhibitors. The resulting crystals, which diffract to 2.35 Å resolution, are of the protein in complex with Mn 2+ -GDP

  20. Virtually Dead: Digital Public Mortuary Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Over recent decades, the ethics, politics and public engagements of mortuary archaeology have received sustained scrutiny, including how we handle, write about and display the archaeological dead. Yet the burgeoning use of digital media to engage different audiences in the archaeology of death and burial have so far escaped attention. This article explores categories and strategies by which digital media create virtual communities engaging with mortuary archaeology. Considering digital public mortuary archaeology (DPMA as a distinctive theme linking archaeology, mortality and material culture, we discuss blogs, vlogs and Twitter as case studies to illustrate the variety of strategies by which digital media can promote, educate and engage public audiences with archaeological projects and research relating to death and the dead in the human past. The article then explores a selection of key critical concerns regarding how the digital dead are currently portrayed, identifying the need for further investigation and critical reflection on DPMA’s aims, objectives and aspired outcomes.

  1. Dead sea transform fault system reviews

    CERN Document Server

    Garfunkel, Zvi; Kagan, Elisa

    2014-01-01

    The Dead Sea transform is an active plate boundary connecting the Red Sea seafloor spreading system to the Arabian-Eurasian continental collision zone. Its geology and geophysics provide a natural laboratory for investigation of the surficial, crustal and mantle processes occurring along transtensional and transpressional transform fault domains on a lithospheric scale and related to continental breakup. There have been many detailed and disciplinary studies of the Dead Sea transform fault zone during the last?20 years and this book brings them together.This book is an updated comprehensive coverage of the knowledge, based on recent studies of the tectonics, structure, geophysics, volcanism, active tectonics, sedimentology and paleo and modern climate of the Dead Sea transform fault zone. It puts together all this new information and knowledge in a coherent fashion.

  2. Pembuatan Dan Aktivitas Antibakteri Yogurt Hasil Fermentasi Tiga Bakteri (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacilus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian S. Kamara

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of synthetic antibiotics compounds not only have positive effect for human, but also have side effect that can be unfavorable, therefore many researches are being conducted to find natural antibiotics compounds that are safer. Lactic acid bacteria has the abilitytoproduce antibacterial compound when used in fermentation process.For example, Lactobacillus acidophilus produces acidophilin and acidolin. The main purpose of the present study is to investigate antibacterial activity of yogurt fermented with mixed bacterial culture of L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus and L. acidophilus against Escherichia coli (representing Gram negative bacteria and Bacillus subtilis (representing Gram  positive bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the yogurt at three different time points (5, 7 and 9 hours were examined. We also investigate the fermentation parameters of the yogurt production. The results of the present study indicate that the crude yogurt extract has antibacterial activity, where the highest activity was observed  at 7 hour of incubation, resulting 0.35 and 0.30 cm of clear zone against E. coli and B. subtilis, respectively. It is most likely that the compound is non protein compound.

  3. Lactose hydrolysis by free and fibre-entrapped β-galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhennai Yang

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available To study lactose hydrolysis by β-galactosidase, this enzyme was produced from Streptococcus thermophilus strain 11F and partially purified by acetone and ammonium sulphate fractionation, and ion exchange chromatography on a Q Sepharose FF column. Lactose hydrolysis by the enzyme was affected by lactose concentrations, sugars and milk proteins. The maximum extent of lactose hydrolysis in buffer was obtained with a 15% lactose concentration. Addition of 2% of lactose, glucose, galactose or sucrose in milk inhibited the enzymatic hydrolysis. The enzyme was activated by bovine serum albumin and a combination of αs-casein and β-casein. Of the casein fractions, the principal fraction, αs-casein, was less effective than β-casein and κ-casein. The fibre entrapped enzyme had a temperature optimum of 57°C, and a pH optimum from 7.5 to at least 9.0 with O-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside as substrate. By recycling with whey and skim milk through a jacketed glass column (1.6 cm x 30 cm loaded with fibre-entrapped enzyme at 55°C, a lactose hydrolysis of 49.5% and 47.9% was achieved in 11 h and 7 h respectively.

  4. Microcalorimetric study of the growth of Streptococcus thermophilus in renneted milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina eStulova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The growth of Streptococcus thermophilus ST12 (ST12 in liquid milk, reconstituted from low-heat skim milk powder (RSM and in RSM with rennet addition (r-RSM at 40°C was monitored by microcalorimetry. It was shown that the growth rate of bacteria decreased in renneted samples in comparison with liquid RSM starting from certain sizes of the colonies (deviation moments, which depended on the inoculation rates. The hydrolysis of lactose was delayed for about 1 h in the r-RSM in comparison with RSM but otherwise the metabolism of carbohydrates in the renneted and non-renneted milks was similar. The total free amino acids content by the end of fermentations was higher in r-RSM than in RSM presumably due to the enzymatic hydrolytic activity of rennet. The quantitatively dominating amino acids were remarkably different in the r-RSM and RSM indicating that the hydrolysis cascade of caseins and/or metabolism of amino acids by the bacteria functioned differently in the two cases. The data obtained showed potential of microcalorimetry to characterize quantitative differences of growth and metabolism of the bacteria in renneted and liquid samples of milk.

  5. Lysobacter thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from a geothermal soil sample in Tengchong, south-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Da-Qiao; Yu, Tian-Tian; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Zhou, En-Min; Song, Zhao-Qi; Yin, Yi-Rui; Ming, Hong; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-11-01

    A Gram-negative and aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 77875(T), was isolated from a geothermal soil sample collected at Rehai National Park, Tengchong, Yunnan Province, south-west China. Bacterial growth occurred from 37 to 65 °C (optimum 50 °C), pH 6.0-8.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and 0-1 % NaCl (w/v). Cells were rod-shaped and colonies were convex, circular, smooth, yellow and non-transparent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain YIM 77875(T) belongs to the genus Lysobacter. The 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity values between strain YIM 77875(T) and other species of the genus Lysobacter were all below 94.7 %. The polar lipids of strain YIM 77875(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine and five unknown phospholipids. The predominant respiratory quinone was Q-8 and the G+C content was 68.8 mol%. Major fatty acids were iso-C(16:0), iso-C(15:0) and iso-C(11:0). On the basis of the morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics, as well as genotypic data, strain YIM 77875(T) represents a novel species, Lysobacter thermophilus sp. nov., in the genus Lysobacter. The type strain is YIM 77875(T) (CCTCC AB 2012064(T) = KCTC 32020(T)).

  6. Effects of polysaccharide isolated from Streptococcus thermophilus CRL1190 on human gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcial, Guillermo; Messing, Jutta; Menchicchi, Bianca; Goycoolea, Francisco M; Faller, Gerhard; Graciela, Font de Valdez; Hensel, Andreas

    2013-11-01

    EPS1190 was isolated from skim milk fermented with Stretococcus thermophilus CRL1190. The polysaccharide consisted of 33% glucose and 66% galactose with 1,4- and 1,4,6-galactose residues as main building blocks beside a high amount of 1,4-linked glucose. The polymer was characterized additionally concerning viscosity and zeta potential. EPS1190 stimulated cellular vitality and proliferation of human stomach AGS cells and human buccal KB cells significantly. EPS1190 stimulated phagocytosis rate of murine macrophages RAW264.7 significantly. NO-release or anti-inflammatory effects by inhibition of LPS-induced NO release were not observed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that EPS1190 is partially internalized into AGS cells via endosomes. The bioadhesive absorption of FITC-labeled EPS1190 into the mucus layer on the apical side of the epithelium using histological tissue sections from human stomach was observed. Specific interaction of EPS1190 with mucin can be excluded as shown by microviscosimetry studies. EPS1190 increased the adhesion of H. pylori to AGS cells, which resulted in increased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines TNFa, IL-6 and IL-8. Summarizing, EPS1190 seems to stimulate epithelial cell regeneration and immunological innate defense mechanisms, which again can rationalized the use of this polysaccharide as cytoprotective compound in probiotioc preparations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 in a rat model of doxorubicin-induced mucositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanru; Brook, Caitlin L; Whittaker, Alexandra L; Lawrence, Andrew; Yazbeck, Roger; Howarth, Gordon S

    2013-08-01

    Mucositis is a debilitating intestinal side effect of chemotherapeutic regimens. Probiotics have been considered a possible preventative treatment for mucositis. Streptococcus thermophilus TH-4 (TH-4), a newly identified probiotic, has been shown to partially alleviate mucositis induced by administration of the antimetabolite chemotherapy drug, methotrexate in rats; likely mediated through a mechanism of folate production. However, its effects against other classes of chemotherapy drug have yet to be determined. The authors investigated the effects of TH-4 in a rat model of mucositis induced by the anthracycline chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin. Gastrointestinal damage was induced in female Dark Agouti rats (148.3 ± 1.5 g) by intraperitoneal injection of doxorubicin (20 mg/kg). Animals recieved a daily oral gavage of TH-4 at 10(9) cfu/ml or skim milk (vehicle) from days 0 to 8. At day 6, rats were injected with either saline or doxorubicin. At kill, small intestinal tissues were collected for determination of sucrase and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities and histological assessment. Body weight was significantly decreased by doxorubicin compared with normal controls (p TH-4 partially prevented the loss of body weight induced by doxorubicin (2.3% compared with 4%), but provided no further therapeutic benefit. The minimal amelioration of doxorubicin-induced mucositis by TH-4 further supports folate production as a likely mechanism of TH-4 action against methotrexate-induced mucositis. Further studies into TH-4 are required to confirm its applicability to other conventional chemotherapy regimens.

  8. Influence of casein hydrolysates on exopolysaccharide synthesis by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingli; Yang, Bao; Brashears, Mindy M; Yu, Zhimin; Zhao, Mouming; Liu, Ning; Li, Yinjuan

    2014-05-01

    A lot of interesting research has been undertaken to enhance the yield of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of casein hydrolysates (CH) with molecular weight less than 3 kDa on cell viability, EPS synthesis and the enzyme activity involved in EPS synthesis during the co-culturing of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus in MRS broth for 72 h at 37 ± 0.1 °C. The highest EPS yield (150.1 mg L⁻¹) was obtained on CH prepared with papain (CHP) at 48 h. At 24 h, EPS were composed of galactose, glucose and rhamnose in a molar ratio of 1.0:2.4:1.5. The monosaccharide composition changed with extension of the fermentation time. The activities of α-phosphoglucomutase, uridine 5'-diphosphate (UDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase and UDP-galactose 4-epimerase were associated with EPS synthesis. Moreover, the activities of β-phosphoglucomutase and deoxythymadine 5'-diphosphate (dTDP)-glucose pyrophosphorylase involved in rhamnose synthesis were very low at the exponential growth phase and could not be detected during other given periods. The influence of different CH (<3 kDa) on LAB viability, EPS production, EPS monomeric composition and activity levels of key metabolic enzymes was distinct. Besides, their influence was related to the distribution of amino acids. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Structural analysis of the exopolysaccharide produced by Streptococcus thermophilus ST1 solely by NMR spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saewen, Elin; Huttunen, Eine; Zhang Xue; Yang Zhennai; Widmalm, Goeran

    2010-01-01

    The use of lactic acid bacteria in fermentation of milk results in favorable physical and rheological properties due to in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. The EPS from S. thermophilus ST1 produces highly viscous aqueous solutions and its structure has been investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Notably, all aspects of the elucidation of its primary structure including component analysis and absolute configuration of the constituent monosaccharides were carried out by NMR spectroscopy. An array of techniques was utilized including, inter alia, PANSY and NOESY-HSQC TILT experiments. The EPS is composed of hexasaccharide repeating units with the following structure: → 3)[α-d-Glcp-(1 → 4)]-β-d-Galp-(1 → 4)-β-d-Glcp-(1 → 4)[β-d-Galf-(1 → 6)]-β-d-Glcp-(1 → 6)-β-d-Glcp-(1 → , in which the residues in square brackets are terminal groups substituting backbone sugar residues that consequently are branch-points in the repeating unit of the polymer. Thus, the EPS consists of a backbone of four sugar residues with two terminal sugar residues making up two side-chains of the repeating unit. The molecular mass of the polymer was determined using translational diffusion experiments which resulted in M w = 62 kDa, corresponding to 64 repeating units in the EPS.

  10. Structural analysis of the exopolysaccharide produced by Streptococcus thermophilus ST1 solely by NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saewen, Elin [Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, Department of Organic Chemistry (Sweden); Huttunen, Eine; Zhang Xue [University of Helsinki, Department of Food Technology (Finland); Yang Zhennai [Northeast Agricultural Research Center of China, Center of Agro-food Technology (China); Widmalm, Goeran, E-mail: gw@organ.su.s [Arrhenius Laboratory, Stockholm University, Department of Organic Chemistry (Sweden)

    2010-06-15

    The use of lactic acid bacteria in fermentation of milk results in favorable physical and rheological properties due to in situ exopolysaccharide (EPS) production. The EPS from S. thermophilus ST1 produces highly viscous aqueous solutions and its structure has been investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Notably, all aspects of the elucidation of its primary structure including component analysis and absolute configuration of the constituent monosaccharides were carried out by NMR spectroscopy. An array of techniques was utilized including, inter alia, PANSY and NOESY-HSQC TILT experiments. The EPS is composed of hexasaccharide repeating units with the following structure: {yields} 3)[{alpha}-d-Glcp-(1 {yields} 4)]-{beta}-d-Galp-(1 {yields} 4)-{beta}-d-Glcp-(1 {yields} 4)[{beta}-d-Galf-(1 {yields} 6)]-{beta}-d-Glcp-(1 {yields} 6)-{beta}-d-Glcp-(1 {sup {yields}}, in which the residues in square brackets are terminal groups substituting backbone sugar residues that consequently are branch-points in the repeating unit of the polymer. Thus, the EPS consists of a backbone of four sugar residues with two terminal sugar residues making up two side-chains of the repeating unit. The molecular mass of the polymer was determined using translational diffusion experiments which resulted in M{sub w} = 62 kDa, corresponding to 64 repeating units in the EPS.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus KLDS 3.1003, A Strain with High Antimicrobial Potential against Foodborne and Vaginal Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith E. Evivie

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria play increasingly important roles in the food industry. Streptococcus thermophilus KLDS 3.1003 strain was isolated from traditional yogurt in Inner Mongolia, China. It has shown high antimicrobial activity against selected foodborne and vaginal pathogens. In this study, we investigated and analyzed its complete genome sequence. The S. thermophilus KLDS 3.1003 genome comprise of a 1,899,956 bp chromosome with a G+C content of 38.92%, 1,995 genes, and 6 rRNAs. With the exception of S. thermophilus M17TZA496, S. thermophilus KLDS 3.1003 has more tRNAs (amino acid coding genes compared to some S. thermophilus strains available on the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database. MG-RAST annotation showed that this strain has 317 subsystems with most genes associated with amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism. This strain also has a unique EPS gene cluster containing 23 genes, and may be a mixed dairy starter culture. This information provides more insight into the molecular basis of its potentials for further applications in the dairy and allied industries.

  12. 32 CFR 632.4 - Deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., is substantially important to national security. (See paragraph (b) of this section.) (iii) Escape of... security or an essential national defense mission. (2) Substantially important to national security based... INVESTIGATIONS USE OF FORCE BY PERSONNEL ENGAGED IN LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SECURITY DUTIES § 632.4 Deadly force. (a...

  13. Bibliography on dead-time effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A BIPM (Bureau International des Poids et Mesures) Working Party has assembled a bibliography of the publications dealing with the measurement of dead times, the evaluation of the corresponding corrections and of other closely related subjects. It contains some 350 references, each of which is given with its full title; an author index is added. The search has been stopped in August 1975

  14. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Dinosaurs of India: Dead but Alive · Fossils · Evolution and O2 PAL · The Science in Dinosaurs · Origin/ Extinction of Dinosaurs · PowerPoint Presentation · India –94my + 50my · Icehouse /Greenhouse through time · Global Mean Annual Temperature Distributions at 100 my · Global Mean Annual ...

  15. Tunnel Diode Discriminator with Fixed Dead Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, J. M.

    1965-01-01

    A solid state discriminator for the range 0.4 to 10 V is described. Tunnel diodes are used for the discriminator element and in a special fixed dead time circuit. An analysis of temperature stability is presented. The regulated power supplies are described, including a special negative resistance...

  16. Unethical and Deadly Symbiosis in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crumbley, D. Larry; Flinn, Ronald; Reichelt, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As administrators are pressured to increase retention rates in accounting departments, and higher education in general, a deadly symbiosis is occurring. Most students and parents only wish for high grades, so year after year many educators engage in unethical grade inflation and course work deflation. Since administrators use the students to audit…

  17. Enhanced extraction of heavy metals in the two-step process with the mixed culture of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Young-Cheol; Choi, DuBok; Kikuchi, Shintaro

    2012-01-01

    For biological extraction of heavy metals from chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood, different bacteria were investigated. The extraction rates of heavy metals using Lactobacillusbulgaricus and Streptococcusthermophilus were highest. The chemical extraction rates were depended on the amounts of pyruvic acid and lactic acid. Especially, the extraction rates using mixed pyruvic acid and lactic acid were increased compared to those of sole one. They were also enhanced in the mixed culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. To improve the extraction of CCA, a two-step processing procedure with the mixed culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus was conducted. A maximum of 93% of copper, 86.5% of chromium, and 97.8% of arsenic were extracted after 4 days. These results suggest that a two-step process with the mixed culture of L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus is most effective to extract heavy metals from CCA treated wood. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Enhancing the Sweetness of Yoghurt through Metabolic Remodeling of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Kim I; Curic-Bawden, Mirjana; Junge, Mette P; Janzen, Thomas; Johansen, Eric

    2016-06-15

    Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus are used in the fermentation of milk to produce yoghurt. These species normally metabolize only the glucose moiety of lactose, secreting galactose and producing lactic acid as the main metabolic end product. We used multiple serial selection steps to isolate spontaneous mutants of industrial strains of S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus that secreted glucose rather than galactose when utilizing lactose as a carbon source. Sequencing revealed that the S. thermophilus strains had mutations in the galKTEM promoter, the glucokinase gene, and genes encoding elements of the glucose/mannose phosphotransferase system (PTS). These strains metabolize galactose but are unable to phosphorylate glucose internally or via the PTS. The L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus mutants had mutations in genes of the glucose/mannose PTS and in the pyruvate kinase gene. These strains cannot grow on exogenous glucose but are proficient at metabolizing internal glucose released from lactose by β-galactosidase. The resulting strains can be combined to ferment milk, producing yoghurt with no detectable lactose, moderate levels of galactose, and high levels of glucose. Since glucose tastes considerably sweeter than either lactose or galactose, the sweetness of the yoghurt is perceptibly enhanced. These strains were produced without the use of recombinant DNA technology and can be used for the industrial production of yoghurt with enhanced intrinsic sweetness and low residual levels of lactose. Based on a good understanding of the physiology of the lactic acid bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, we were able, by selecting spontaneously occurring mutants, to change dramatically the metabolic products secreted into the growth medium. These mutants consume substantially more of the lactose, metabolize some of the galactose, and secrete the remaining galactose

  19. Effect of counting system dead time on thyroid uptake measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpkin, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Equations are derived and the results of numerical calculations shown that illustrate the effect of counting system dead time on measured thyroid uptake of radioiodine. It is predicted that the observed uptake is higher than the true uptake due to system dead time. This is shown for both paralyzing and nonparalyzing dead time. The effect of increasing the administered activity is shown to increase the measured uptake, in a manner predicted by the paralyzable and nonparalyzable dead time models

  20. Dead Time in the LAr Calorimeter Front-End Readout

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, D M

    2002-01-01

    We present readout time, latency, buffering, and dead-time calculations for the switched capacitor array controllers of the LAr calorimeter. The dead time is compared with algorithms for the dead-time generation in the level-1 central trigger processor.

  1. The zero inflation of standing dead tree carbon stocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; David W. MacFarlane

    2012-01-01

    Given the importance of standing dead trees in numerous forest ecosystem attributes/processes such as carbon (C) stocks, the USDA Forest Service’s Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program began consistent nationwide sampling of standing dead trees in 1999. Modeled estimates of standing dead tree C stocks are currently used as the official C stock estimates for the...

  2. 14 CFR 1203b.106 - Use of deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1203b.106 Section... AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY NASA SECURITY FORCE PERSONNEL § 1203b.106 Use of deadly force. Deadly force shall be used only in those circumstances where the security force officer reasonably believes that...

  3. 10 CFR 1047.7 - Use of deadly force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of deadly force. 1047.7 Section 1047.7 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) LIMITED ARREST AUTHORITY AND USE OF FORCE BY PROTECTIVE FORCE OFFICERS General Provisions § 1047.7 Use of deadly force. (a) Deadly force means that force which a...

  4. Perturbative search for dead-end CFTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-01-01

    To explore the possibility of self-organized criticality, we look for CFTs without any relevant scalar deformations (a.k.a. dead-end CFTs) within power-counting renormalizable quantum field theories with a weakly coupled Lagrangian description. In three dimensions, the only candidates are pure (Abelian) gauge theories, which may be further deformed by Chern-Simons terms. In four dimensions, we show that there are infinitely many non-trivial candidates based on chiral gauge theories. Using the three-loop beta functions, we compute the gap of scaling dimensions above the marginal value, and it can be as small as O(10"−"5) and robust against the perturbative corrections. These classes of candidates are very weakly coupled and our perturbative conclusion seems difficult to refute. Thus, the hypothesis that non-trivial dead-end CFTs do not exist is likely to be false in four dimensions.

  5. Potential Evaporite Biomarkers from the Dead Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Penny A.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie; Allen, Carlton C.; McKay, David S.

    2001-01-01

    The Dead Sea is located on the northern branch of the African-Levant Rift systems. The rift system, according to one model, was formed by a series of strike slip faults, initially forming approximately two million years ago. The Dead Sea is an evaporite basin that receives freshwater from springs and from the Jordan River. The Dead Sea is different from other evaporite basins, such as the Great Salt Lake, in that it possesses high concentrations of magnesium and has an average pH of 6.1. The dominant cation in the Great Salt Lake is sodium, and the pH is 7.7. Calcium concentrations are also higher in the Dead Sea than in the Great Salt Lake. Both basins are similar in that the dominant anion is chlorine and the salinity levels are approximately 20 %. Other common cations that have been identified from the waters of the Dead Sea and the Great Salt Lake include sodium and potassium. A variety of Archea, Bacteria, and a single genus of a green algal, Dunaliella, has been described from the Dead Sea. Earlier studies concentrated on microbial identification and analysis of their unique physiology that allows them to survive in this type of extreme environment. Potential microbial fossilization processes, microbial fossils, and the metallic ions associated with fossilization have not been studied thoroughly. The present study is restricted to identifying probable microbial morphologies and associated metallic ions. XRD (X Ray Diffraction) analysis indicates the presence of halite, quartz, and orthoclase feldspar. In addition to these minerals, other workers have reported potassium chloride, magnesium bromide, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, and calcium sulfate. Halite, calcium sulfate, and orthoclase were examined in this report for the presence of microbes, microbially induced deposits or microbial alteration. Neither the gypsum nor the orthoclase surfaces possesses any obvious indications of microbial life or fossilization. The sand-sized orthoclase particles are

  6. Biology of the temperate Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage TP-J34 and physical characterization of the phage genome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neve, Horst; Freudenberg, Wiebke; Diestel-Feddersen, Frederike; Ehlert, Regina; Heller, Knut J.

    2003-01-01

    The temperate Streptococcus thermophilus bacteriophage TP-J34 was identified in the lysogenic host strain J34. The majority of phage particles produced upon induction was defective and noninfectious, consisting of DNA-filled heads lacking tails. A physical map (45.6 kb) was established. Analysis of minor restriction bands of the DNA isolated from phage particles as well as the analysis of the protein pattern indicated that phage TP-J34 is a pac-type phage. This was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy using antisera raised against virulent cos- and pac-type S. thermophilus phages. The lysogenic host J34 but not its noninducible derivate J34-12 contained phage DNA in the nonintegrated state and exhibited autolysis at elevated temperatures. Prophage-carrying strains grew homogeneously while 16 of 20 prophage-cured derivatives aggregated and sedimented rapidly. When phage TP-J34 was propagated lytically on a prophage-cured host strain, a 2.7-kb site-specific deletion occurred in the phage genome. This deletion was also identified in the prophage DNAs of relysogenized strains

  7. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2012-12-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota; Al-Kassab, Talaat; Kirchheim, Reiner; Pundt, Astrid A.

    2012-01-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Activity of the Lactose Transporter from Streptococcus thermophilus Is Increased by Phosphorylated IIA and the Action of β-Galactosidase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertsma, Eric R.; Duurkens, Ria H.; Poolman, Bert

    2005-01-01

    The metabolism of lactose by Streptococcus thermophilus is highly regulated, allowing the bacterium to prefer lactose over glucose as main source of carbon and energy. In vitro analysis of the enzymes involved in transport and hydrolysis of lactose showed that the transport reaction benefits from

  10. Characteristics of Milk Fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus MGA45-4 and the Profiles of Associated Volatile Compounds during Fermentation and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Dan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus is a major starter culture for the production of dairy products. In this study, the physiochemical characteristics of milk fermented by the MGA45-4 isolate of S. thermophilus were analyzed. Our data indicate that milk fermented using S. thermophilus MGA45-4 maintained a high viable cell count (8.86 log10 colony-forming units/mL, and a relatively high pH (4.4, viscosity (834.33 mPa·s, and water holding capacity (40.85% during 14 days of storage. By analyzing the volatile compound profile using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified 73 volatile compounds in the fermented milk product, including five carboxylic acids, 21 aldehydes, 13 ketones, 16 alcohols, five esters, and 13 aromatic carbohydrates. According to the odor activity values, 11 of these volatile compounds were found to play a key role in producing the characteristic flavor of fermented milk, particularly octanal, nonanal, hexanal, 2,3-butanedione, and 1-octen-3-ol, which had the highest odor activity values among all compounds analyzed. These findings thus provide more insights in the chemical/molecular characteristics of milk fermented using S. thermophilus, which may provide a basis for improving dairy product flavor/odor during the process of fermentation and storage.

  11. Characteristics of Milk Fermented by Streptococcus thermophilus MGA45-4 and the Profiles of Associated Volatile Compounds during Fermentation and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Tong; Jin, Rulin; Ren, Weiyi; Li, Ting; Chen, Haiyan; Sun, Tiansong

    2018-04-11

    The lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus is a major starter culture for the production of dairy products. In this study, the physiochemical characteristics of milk fermented by the MGA45-4 isolate of S. thermophilus were analyzed. Our data indicate that milk fermented using S. thermophilus MGA45-4 maintained a high viable cell count (8.86 log10 colony-forming units/mL), and a relatively high pH (4.4), viscosity (834.33 mPa·s), and water holding capacity (40.85%) during 14 days of storage. By analyzing the volatile compound profile using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified 73 volatile compounds in the fermented milk product, including five carboxylic acids, 21 aldehydes, 13 ketones, 16 alcohols, five esters, and 13 aromatic carbohydrates. According to the odor activity values, 11 of these volatile compounds were found to play a key role in producing the characteristic flavor of fermented milk, particularly octanal, nonanal, hexanal, 2,3-butanedione, and 1-octen-3-ol, which had the highest odor activity values among all compounds analyzed. These findings thus provide more insights in the chemical/molecular characteristics of milk fermented using S. thermophilus , which may provide a basis for improving dairy product flavor/odor during the process of fermentation and storage.

  12. Differential regulation of two closely related integrative and conjugative elements from Streptococcus thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carraro Nicolas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two closely related ICEs, ICESt1 and ICESt3, have been identified in the lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus. While their conjugation and recombination modules are almost identical (95% nucleotide identity and their regulation modules related, previous work has demonstrated that transconjugants carrying ICESt3 were generated at rate exceeding by a 1000 factor that of ICESt1. Results The functional regulation of ICESt1 and ICESt3 transcription, excision and replication were investigated under different conditions (exponential growth or stationary phase, DNA damage by exposition to mitomycin C. Analysis revealed an identical transcriptional organization of their recombination and conjugation modules (long unique transcript whereas the transcriptional organization of their regulation modules were found to be different (two operons in ICESt1 but only one in ICESt3 and to depend on the conditions (promoter specific of stationary phase in ICESt3. For both elements, stationary phase and DNA damage lead to the rise of transcript levels of the conjugation-recombination and regulation modules. Whatever the growth culture conditions, excision of ICESt1 was found to be lower than that of ICESt3, which is consistent with weaker transfer frequencies. Furthermore, for both elements, excision increases in stationary phase (8.9-fold for ICESt1 and 1.31-fold for ICESt3 and is strongly enhanced by DNA damage (38-fold for ICESt1 and 18-fold for ICESt3. Although ICEs are generally not described as replicative elements, the copy number of ICESt3 exhibited a sharp increase (9.6-fold after mitomycin C exposure of its harboring strain CNRZ385. This result was not observed when ICESt3 was introduced in a strain deriving ICESt1 host strain CNRZ368, deleted for this element. This finding suggests an impact of the host cell on ICE behavior. Conclusions All together, these results suggest a novel mechanism of regulation shared by ICESt1

  13. Biofilm Formation on Stainless Steel by Streptococcus thermophilus UC8547 in Milk Environments Is Mediated by the Proteinase PrtS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassi, D; Cappa, F; Gazzola, S; Orrù, L; Cocconcelli, P S

    2017-04-15

    In Streptococcus thermophilus , gene transfer events and loss of ancestral traits over the years contribute to its high level of adaptation to milk environments. Biofilm formation capacity, a phenotype that is lost in the majority of strains, plays a role in persistence in dairy environments, such as milk pasteurization and cheese manufacturing plants. To investigate this property, we have studied S. thermophilus UC8547, a fast-acidifying dairy starter culture selected for its high capacity to form biofilm on stainless steel under environmental conditions resembling the dairy environment. Using a dynamic flow cell apparatus, it was shown that S. thermophilus UC8547 biofilm formation on stainless steel depends on the presence of milk proteins. From this strain, which harbors the prtS gene for the cell wall protease and shows an aggregative phenotype, spontaneous mutants with impaired biofilm capacity can be isolated at high frequency. These mutants lack the PrtS expendable island, as confirmed by comparison of the genome sequence of UC8547Δ3 with that of the parent strain. The prtS island excision occurs between two 26-bp direct repeats located in the two copies of the IS Sth1 flanking this genomic island. The central role of PrtS was confirmed by analyzing the derivative strain UC8547Δ16, whose prtS gene was interrupted by an insertional mutation, thereby making it incapable of biofilm formation. PrtS, acting as a binding substance between the milk proteins adhered to stainless steel and S. thermophilus cell envelopes, mediates biofilm formation in dairy environments. This feature provides S. thermophilus with an ecological benefit for its survival and persistence in this environment. IMPORTANCE The increased persistence of S. thermophilus biofilm has consequences in the dairy environment: if, on the one hand, the release of this microorganism from biofilm can promote the fermentation of artisanal cheeses, under industrial conditions it may lead to undesirable

  14. A Raman-spectroscopy-based approach for detection and discrimination of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus phages at low titer in raw milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayyarcan, Emine Kübra; Acar Soykut, Esra; Boyaci, Ismail Hakki

    2018-04-11

    In this study, a method combining Raman spectroscopy with chemometric analysis was developed for detection of phage presence in raw milk and discrimination of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus phages which are among the main phages causing problems in dairy industry. For this purpose, S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus phages were added into raw milk separately, and then some pretreatments such as fat separation, removal of casein, and filtration were applied to the raw milk samples. Raman spectra of the samples were collected and then analyzed using principal component analysis in order to discriminate these phages in raw milk. In the next step, dilutions of S. thermophilus phages in pretreated raw milk were prepared, and Raman spectra were collected. These spectra were analyzed by using partial least squares method to quantify phages in low titer. Consequently, it has been demonstrated that S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus phages, which have titers sufficient to fail the fermentation (~ 10 7  pfu/mL) and have lower titers (10 2 -10 3  pfu/mL), could be discriminated from antibiotic and each other. Additionally, low concentrations of S. thermophilus phages (10 2  pfu/mL) could be detected through Raman spectroscopy with a short analysis time (60 min) and high coefficient of determination (R 2 ) values for both calibration (0.985) and validation (0.906) with a root mean square error of calibration of 70.54 and root mean square error of prediction of 165.47. However, a lower success was achieved with L. bulgaricus phages and the obtained coefficient of determination values were not sufficiently high (0.649).

  15. Whey protein isolate improves acid and bile tolerances of Streptococcus thermophilus ST-M5 and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus LB-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Luis A; Olson, Douglas W; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2015-04-01

    Acid tolerance and bile tolerance are important probiotic characteristics. Whey proteins contain branched-chain amino acids, which play a role in muscle building and are popular among athletes. Increasing emphasis is being placed on diets containing less carbohydrate, less fat, and more protein. The effect of incremental additions of whey protein isolate (WPI) on probiotic characteristics of pure cultures is not known. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of added WPI on acid tolerance and bile tolerance of pure cultures of Streptococcus thermophilus ST-M5 and Lactobacillus bulgaricus LB-12. The WPI was used at 0 (control), 1, 2 and 3% (wt/vol). Assessment of acid tolerance was conducted on pure cultures at 30-min intervals for 2h of acid exposure and bile tolerance at 1-h intervals for 5h of bile exposure. Use of 1, 2, and 3% WPI improved acid tolerance of Strep. thermophilus ST-M5 and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12. The highest counts for acid tolerance of Strep. thermophilus ST-M5 and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 were obtained when 3% WPI was used. Use of 2 and 3% WPI improved bile tolerance of Strep. thermophilus ST-M5 and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12 over 5h of bile exposure. The use of WPI is recommended to improve acid and bile tolerance of the yogurt culture bacteria Strep. thermophilus ST-M5 and Lb. bulgaricus LB-12. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nonlinear dead water resistance at subcritical speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, John

    2015-08-01

    The dead water resistance F 1 = /1 2 C d w ρ S U 2 (ρ fluid density, U ship speed, S wetted body surface, Cdw resistance coefficient) on a ship moving at subcritical speed along the upper layer of a two-layer fluid is calculated by a strongly nonlinear method assuming potential flow in each layer. The ship dimensions correspond to those of the Polar ship Fram. The ship draught, b0, is varied in the range 0.25h0-0.9h0 (h0 the upper layer depth). The calculations show that Cdw/(b0/h0)2 depends on the Froude number only, in the range close to critical speed, Fr = U/c0 ˜ 0.875-1.125 (c0 the linear internal long wave speed), irrespective of the ship draught. The function Cdw/(b0/h0)2 attains a maximum at subcritical Froude number depending on the draught. Maximum Cdw/(b0/h0)2 becomes 0.15 for Fr = 0.76, b0/h0 = 0.9, and 0.16 for Fr = 0.74, b0/h0 = 1, where the latter extrapolated value of the dead water resistance coefficient is about 60 times higher than the frictional drag coefficient and relevant for the historical dead water observations. The nonlinear Cdw significantly exceeds linear theory (Fr < 0.85). The ship generated waves have a wave height comparable to the upper layer depth. Calculations of three-dimensional wave patterns at critical speed compare well to available laboratory experiments. Upstream solitary waves are generated in a wave tank of finite width, when the layer depths differ, causing an oscillation of the force. In a wide ocean, a very wide wave system develops at critical speed. The force approaches a constant value for increasing time.

  17. Cloning and analysis of a bifunctional methyltransferase/restriction endonuclease TspGWI, the prototype of a Thermus sp. enzyme family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zylicz-Stachula Agnieszka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Restriction-modification systems are a diverse class of enzymes. They are classified into four major types: I, II, III and IV. We have previously proposed the existence of a Thermus sp. enzyme family, which belongs to type II restriction endonucleases (REases, however, it features also some characteristics of types I and III. Members include related thermophilic endonucleases: TspGWI, TaqII, TspDTI, and Tth111II. Results Here we describe cloning, mutagenesis and analysis of the prototype TspGWI enzyme that recognises the 5'-ACGGA-3' site and cleaves 11/9 nt downstream. We cloned, expressed, and mutagenised the tspgwi gene and investigated the properties of its product, the bifunctional TspGWI restriction/modification enzyme. Since TspGWI does not cleave DNA completely, a cloning method was devised, based on amino acid sequencing of internal proteolytic fragments. The deduced amino acid sequence of the enzyme shares significant sequence similarity with another representative of the Thermus sp. family – TaqII. Interestingly, these enzymes recognise similar, yet different sequences in the DNA. Both enzymes cleave DNA at the same distance, but differ in their ability to cleave single sites and in the requirement of S-adenosylmethionine as an allosteric activator for cleavage. Both the restriction endonuclease (REase and methyltransferase (MTase activities of wild type (wt TspGWI (either recombinant or isolated from Thermus sp. are dependent on the presence of divalent cations. Conclusion TspGWI is a bifunctional protein comprising a tandem arrangement of Type I-like domains; particularly noticeable is the central HsdM-like module comprising a helical domain and a highly conserved S-adenosylmethionine-binding/catalytic MTase domain, containing DPAVGTG and NPPY motifs. TspGWI also possesses an N-terminal PD-(D/EXK nuclease domain related to the corresponding domains in HsdR subunits, but lacks the ATP-dependent translocase module

  18. Impact of engineered Streptococcus thermophilus trains overexpressing glyA gene on folic acid and acetaldehyde production in fermented milk Impacto de linhagens de Streptococcus thermophilus com aumento da expressão do gene glyA na produção de ácido folico e acetaldeído em leite fermentado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Sampaio Dória Chaves

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The typical yogurt flavor is caused by acetaldehyde produced through many different pathways by the yogurt starter bacteria L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus. The attention was focused on one specific reaction for acetaldehyde and folic acid formation catalyzed by serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT, encoded by the glyA gene. In S. thermophilus, this enzyme SHMT also plays the typical role of the enzyme threonine aldolase (TA that is the interconvertion of threonine into glycine and acetaldehyde. The behavior of engineered S. thermophilus strains in milk fermentation is described, folic acid and acetaldehyde production were measured and pH and counts were followed. The engineered S. thermophilus strains StA2305 and StB2305, have the glyA gene (encoding the enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferase overexpressed. These engineered strains showed normal growth in milk when it was supplemented with Casitione. When they were used in milk fermentation it was observed an increase in folic acid and in acetaldehyde production by StA2305 and for StB2305 it was noticed a significative increase in folic acid formation.O acetaldeído, responsável pelo sabor e aroma característicos de iogurte, é produzido por diferentes vias metabólicas pelas bactérias lácticas: Streptococcus thermophilus (S. thermophilus e Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (L. bulgaricus. Neste trabalho, a atenção foi focada especificamente na reação para a formação de acetaldeído e de ácido fólico, catalisada pela enzima serina hidroximetil transferase (SHMT, codificada pelo gene glyA. A enzima SHMT catalisa diversas reações e, no caso da bactéria S. thermophilus, ela exerce também a atividade característica da enzima treonina aldolase (TA, definida como a interconversão do aminoácido treonina em glicina e acetaldeído. Foram construídas linhagens de S. thermophilus (StA2305 e StB2305 com super expressão do gene glyA. Estas linhagens modificadas apresentaram

  19. Asteroid 'Bites the Dust' Around Dead Star

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope set its infrared eyes upon the dusty remains of shredded asteroids around several dead stars. This artist's concept illustrates one such dead star, or 'white dwarf,' surrounded by the bits and pieces of a disintegrating asteroid. These observations help astronomers better understand what rocky planets are made of around other stars. Asteroids are leftover scraps of planetary material. They form early on in a star's history when planets are forming out of collisions between rocky bodies. When a star like our sun dies, shrinking down to a skeleton of its former self called a white dwarf, its asteroids get jostled about. If one of these asteroids gets too close to the white dwarf, the white dwarf's gravity will chew the asteroid up, leaving a cloud of dust. Spitzer's infrared detectors can see these dusty clouds and their various constituents. So far, the telescope has identified silicate minerals in the clouds polluting eight white dwarfs. Because silicates are common in our Earth's crust, the results suggest that planets similar to ours might be common around other stars.

  20. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  1. Breathing Life Into Dead-Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gressel Oliver

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial planet formation regions of protoplanetary disks are generally sufficiently cold to be con- sidered non-magnetized and, consequently, dynamically inactive. However, recent investigations of these so-called “Dead-Zones” indicate the possibility that disks with strong mean radial temperature gradients can support instabilities associated with disk-normal gradients of the basic Keplerian shear profile. This process, known as the Goldreich-Schubert-Fricke (GSF instability, is the instability of short radial wavelength inertial modes and depends wholly on the presence of vertical gradients of the mean Keplerian (zonal flow. We report here high resolution fully nonlinear axisymmetric numerical studies of this instability and find a number of features including how, in the nonlinear saturated state, unstable discs become globally distorted, with strong vertical oscillations occurring at all radii due to local instability. We find that nonaxisymmetric numerical experiments are accompanied by significant amounts angular momentum transport (α ~ 0001. This instability should be operating in the Dead-Zones of protoplanetary disks at radii greater than 10-15 AU in minimum mass solar nebula models.

  2. A new G-M counter dead time model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.H.; Gardner, R.P.

    2000-01-01

    A hybrid G-M counter dead time model was derived by combining the idealized paralyzable and non-paralyzable models. The new model involves two parameters, which are the paralyzable and non-paralyzable dead times. The dead times used in the model are very closely related to the physical dead time of the G-M tube and its resolving time. To check the validity of the model, the decaying source method with 56 Mn was used. The corrected counting rates by the new G-M dead time model were compared with the observed counting rates obtained from the measurement and gave very good agreement within 5% up to 7x10 4 counts/s for a G-M tube with a dead time of about 300 μs

  3. Untargeted GC-MS Metabolomics Reveals Changes in the Metabolite Dynamics of Industrial Scale Batch Fermentations of Streptoccoccus thermophilus Broth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Christiansen, Lene D.; Heins, Anna-Lena

    2017-01-01

    An industrial scale biomass production using batch or fed-batch fermentations usually optimized by selection of bacterial strains, tuning fermentation media, feeding strategy, and temperature. However, in-depth investigation of the biomass metabolome during the production may reveal new knowledge...... shows that in-depth metabolic analysis of fermentation broth provides a new tool for advanced optimization of high-volume-low-cost biomass production by lowering the cost, increase the yield, and augment the product quality....... for better optimization. In this study, for the first time, the authors investigated seven fermentation batches performed on five Streptoccoccus thermophilus strains during the biomass production at Chr. Hansen (Denmark) in a real life large scale fermentation process. The study is designed to investigate...

  4. Streptococcus thermophilus APC151 Strain Is Suitable for the Manufacture of Naturally GABA-Enriched Bioactive Yogurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M; O'Callaghan, Tom F; O'Connor, Paula M; Ross, R P; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Consumer interest in health-promoting food products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of functional (probiotic) dairy foods. Yogurt is considered the ideal medium for delivery of beneficial functional ingredients. Gamma-amino-butyric acid has potential as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods due to its health-promoting properties as an anti-stress, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic agent. Here, we report the use of a novel Streptococcus thermophilus strain, isolated from the digestive tract of fish, for production of yogurt naturally enriched with 2 mg/ml of gamma-amino-butyric acid (200 mg in a standard yogurt volume of 100 ml), a dose in the same range as that provided by some commercially available gamma-amino-butyric acid supplements. The biotechnological suitability of this strain for industrial production of yogurt was demonstrated by comparison with the reference yogurt inoculated with the commercial CH1 starter (Chr. Hansen) widely used in the dairy industry. Both yogurts showed comparable pH curves [ΔpH/Δ t = 0.31-0.33 h -1 ], viscosity [0.49 Pa-s], water holding capacity [72-73%], and chemical composition [moisture (87-88%), protein (5.05-5.65%), fat (0.12-0.15%), sugar (4.8-5.8%), and ash (0.74-1.2%)]. Gamma-amino-butyric acid was not detected in the control yogurt. In conclusion, the S. thermophilus APC151 strain reported here provides a natural means for fortification of yogurt with gamma-amino-butyric acid.

  5. Streptococcus thermophilus APC151 Strain Is Suitable for the Manufacture of Naturally GABA-Enriched Bioactive Yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Daniel M.; O’Callaghan, Tom F.; O’Connor, Paula M.; Ross, R. P.; Stanton, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Consumer interest in health-promoting food products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of functional (probiotic) dairy foods. Yogurt is considered the ideal medium for delivery of beneficial functional ingredients. Gamma-amino-butyric acid has potential as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods due to its health-promoting properties as an anti-stress, anti-hypertensive, and anti-diabetic agent. Here, we report the use of a novel Streptococcus thermophilus strain, isolated from the digestive tract of fish, for production of yogurt naturally enriched with 2 mg/ml of gamma-amino-butyric acid (200 mg in a standard yogurt volume of 100 ml), a dose in the same range as that provided by some commercially available gamma-amino-butyric acid supplements. The biotechnological suitability of this strain for industrial production of yogurt was demonstrated by comparison with the reference yogurt inoculated with the commercial CH1 starter (Chr. Hansen) widely used in the dairy industry. Both yogurts showed comparable pH curves [ΔpH/Δt = 0.31-0.33 h-1], viscosity [0.49 Pa-s], water holding capacity [72–73%], and chemical composition [moisture (87–88%), protein (5.05–5.65%), fat (0.12–0.15%), sugar (4.8–5.8%), and ash (0.74–1.2%)]. Gamma-amino-butyric acid was not detected in the control yogurt. In conclusion, the S. thermophilus APC151 strain reported here provides a natural means for fortification of yogurt with gamma-amino-butyric acid. PMID:27920772

  6. Streptococcus thermophilus APC151 strain is suitable for the manufacture of naturally GABA-enriched bioactive yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Linares

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Consumer interest in health-promoting food products is a major driving force for the increasing global demand of functional (probiotic dairy foods. Yoghurt is considered the ideal medium for delivery of beneficial functional ingredients. Gamma-amino-butyric acid has potential as a bioactive ingredient in functional foods due to its health-promoting properties as an anti-stress, anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic agent. Here we report the use of a novel Streptococcus thermophilus strain, isolated from the digestive tract of fish, for production of yoghurt naturally enriched with 2 mg/ml of gamma-amino-butyric acid (250 mg in a standard yoghurt volume of 125 ml, a dose in the same range as that provided by some commercially available gamma-amino-butyric acid supplements. The biotechnological suitability of this strain for industrial production of yoghurt was demonstrated by comparison with the reference yoghurt inoculated with the commercial CH1 starter (Chr. Hansen widely used in the dairy industry. Both yoghurts showed comparable pH curves ΔpH/Δt = 0.31-0.33 h−1, viscosity 0.49 Pa.s, water holding capacity 72-73%, and chemical composition moisture (87-88 %, protein (5.05-5.65 %, fat (0.12-0.15 %, lactose (4.8-5.8 % and ash (0.74-1.2 %. Gamma-amino-butyric acid was not detected in the control yoghurt. In conclusion, the S. thermophilus APC151 strain reported here provides a natural means for fortification of yoghurt with gamma-amino-butyric acid.

  7. Dead time effects in laser Doppler anemometry measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Buchhave, Preben; George, William K.

    2014-01-01

    frequency range, starting around the cutoff frequency due to the finite size of the MV. Using computer-generated data mimicking the LDA data, these effects have previously been shown to appear due to the effect of dead time, i.e., the finite time during which the system is not able to acquire new...... measurements. These dead times can be traced back to the fact that the burst-mode LDA cannot measure more than one signal burst at a time. Since the dead time is approximately equal to the residence time for a particle traversing a measurement volume, we are dealing with widely varying dead times, which...

  8. The ecosystem service value of living versus dead biogenic reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, E. V.; Bridger, D.; Attrill, M. J.

    2015-03-01

    Mixed maerl beds (corralline red algae) comprise dead thalli with varying amounts of live maerl fragments, but previously it was not known whether the presence of the live maerl increases the ecosystem service 'habitat provision' of the dead maerl for the associated epibenthos. A 'flying array' towed sled with high definition video was used to film transects of the epibenthos in dead maerl and mixed maerl beds in two locations to the north and south of the English Channel (Falmouth and Jersey). Mixed maerl beds supported greater number of taxa and abundance than dead beds in Falmouth, while in Jersey, mixed and dead beds supported similar number of taxa and dead beds had a greater abundance of epifauna. Scallops tended to be more abundant on mixed beds than dead beds. Tube worms were more abundant on mixed beds in Falmouth and dead beds in Jersey. An increasing percentage occurrence of live maerl thalli correlated with increasing number of taxa in Falmouth but not Jersey. It was concluded that while live thalli can increase the functional role of dead maerl beds for the epibenthos, this is dependent on location and response variable. As a result of this work, maerl habitat in SE Jersey has been protected from towed demersal fishing gear.

  9. The prevalence and challenges of abandoned dead neonates in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    parents/caregivers' attitudes toward dead neonates. Hospital-based postbereavement programs should be organized to ... Dead neonates at the Neonatal Intensive Care Units,. Pediatric Emergency Department, Pediatric Surgical .... interventions and newborn survival. Niger J Med 2006; 15:108–114. 3 Kalkofen RW. After a ...

  10. Dead wood inventory and assessment in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jong-Su Yim; Rae Hyun Kim; Sun-Jeong Lee; Yeongmo. Son

    2015-01-01

    Dead wood (DW) plays a critical role not only in maintaining biodiversity but also in stocking carbon under UNFCCC. From the 5th national forest inventory (NFI5; 2006-2010) in South Korea, field data relevant to the DW including standing and downed dead trees by four decay class, etc. were collected. Based on the NFI5 data,...

  11. Quantifying carbon stores and decomposition in dead wood: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew B. Russell; Shawn Fraver; Tuomas Aakala; Jeffrey H. Gove; Christopher W. Woodall; Anthony W. D’Amato; Mark J. Ducey

    2015-01-01

    The amount and dynamics of forest dead wood (both standing and downed) has been quantified by a variety of approaches throughout the forest science and ecology literature. Differences in the sampling and quantification of dead wood can lead to differences in our understanding of forests and their role in the sequestration and emissions of CO2, as...

  12. Dead time corrections using the backward extrapolation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilad, E., E-mail: gilade@bgu.ac.il [The Unit of Nuclear Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Dubi, C. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Geslot, B.; Blaise, P. [DEN/CAD/DER/SPEx/LPE, CEA Cadarache, Saint-Paul-les-Durance 13108 (France); Kolin, A. [Department of Physics, Nuclear Research Center NEGEV (NRCN), Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel)

    2017-05-11

    Dead time losses in neutron detection, caused by both the detector and the electronics dead time, is a highly nonlinear effect, known to create high biasing in physical experiments as the power grows over a certain threshold, up to total saturation of the detector system. Analytic modeling of the dead time losses is a highly complicated task due to the different nature of the dead time in the different components of the monitoring system (e.g., paralyzing vs. non paralyzing), and the stochastic nature of the fission chains. In the present study, a new technique is introduced for dead time corrections on the sampled Count Per Second (CPS), based on backward extrapolation of the losses, created by increasingly growing artificially imposed dead time on the data, back to zero. The method has been implemented on actual neutron noise measurements carried out in the MINERVE zero power reactor, demonstrating high accuracy (of 1–2%) in restoring the corrected count rate. - Highlights: • A new method for dead time corrections is introduced and experimentally validated. • The method does not depend on any prior calibration nor assumes any specific model. • Different dead times are imposed on the signal and the losses are extrapolated to zero. • The method is implemented and validated using neutron measurements from the MINERVE. • Result show very good correspondence to empirical results.

  13. Simulation of Simple Controlled Processes with Dead-Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Keith R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    The determination of closed-loop response of processes containing dead-time is typically not covered in undergraduate process control, possibly because the solution by Laplace transforms requires the use of Pade approximation for dead-time, which makes the procedure lengthy and tedious. A computer-aided method is described which simplifies the…

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TECHNILOGIES OF CHITOSAN PRODUCTION FROM DEAD BEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Abramova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this work is to study the characteristics of technology of chitosan obtaining from unconventional sources, namely from dead bees. Methods: The article considers three methods of chitosan obtaining from dead bees, namely the technology with the usage of dead bees with low degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying; the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages. Results: It is proved that the technology with the usage of dead bees with high degree of drying but without separation of deproteination and deacetylation stages does not require high temperatures and long time. Yield of chitosan with the use of this technology is 21-24%. Discussion: The expediency of dead bees usage as raw material for the production of chitosan in Ukraine is shown. The technologies of chitosan obtaining from dead bees are compared, the most efficient one is chosen, which provide the highest yield of the finished product, so it is the most promising for the application in practice.

  15. The extent of co-metabolism of glucose and galactose by L. lactis changes with the expression of the lacSZ operon from Streptococcus thermophilus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solem, Christian; Købmann, Brian Jensen; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2008-01-01

    The lactose transporter and β-galactosidase from Streptococcus thermophilus, encoded by the lacSZ operon, were introduced into the lactose-negative strain Lactococcus lactis MG1363 and the expression of the lacSZ operon was modulated by substitution of the native promoter with randomized synthetic...... promoters. A series of strains with various expression levels of lacSZ were examined for their fermentation of lactose. Strains with a high expression level were found to metabolize lactose in a similar manner to S. thermophilus, i.e. the galactose moiety of lactose was excreted to the growth medium...... and only glucose was metabolized in glycolysis. Interestingly, strains with low expression of the operon showed a mixed acid metabolism and co-metabolism of galactose and glucose. The lactose flux increased gradually with increasing expression of the lacSZ operon until an optimum was observed...

  16. Cascades of pile-up and dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomme, S.

    2008-01-01

    Count loss through a cascade of pile-up and dead time is studied. Time interval density-distribution functions and throughput factors are presented for counters with a series arrangement of pile-up and extending or non-extending dead time. A counter is considered, where an artificial dead time is imposed on every counted event, in order to control the length and type of dead time. For such a system, it is relatively easy to determine an average count-loss correction factor via a live-time clock gated by the imposed dead-time signal ('live-time mode'), or otherwise to apply a correction factor based on the inversion of the throughput function ('real-time mode'). However, these techniques do not account for additional loss through pulse pile-up. In this work, counting errors associated with neglecting cascade effects are calculated for measurements in live-time and real-time mode

  17. Selective and differential enumerations of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium spp. in yoghurt--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Rabia; Shah, Nagendra P

    2011-10-03

    Yoghurt is increasingly being used as a carrier of probiotic bacteria for their potential health benefits. To meet with a recommended level of ≥10(6) viable cells/g of a product, assessment of viability of probiotic bacteria in market preparations is crucial. This requires a working method for selective enumeration of these probiotic bacteria and lactic acid bacteria in yoghurt such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. casei and Bifidobacterium. This chapter presents an overview of media that could be used for differential and selective enumerations of yoghurt bacteria. De Man Rogosa Sharpe agar containing fructose (MRSF), MRS agar pH 5.2 (MRS 5.2), reinforced clostridial prussian blue agar at pH 5.0 (RCPB 5.0) or reinforced clostridial agar at pH 5.3 (RCA 5.3) are suitable for enumeration of Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus when the incubation is carried out at 45°C for 72h. S. thermophilus (ST) agar and M17 are recommended for selective enumeration of S. thermophilus. Selective enumeration of Lb. acidophilus in mixed culture could be made in Rogosa agar added with 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-d-glucopyranoside (X-Glu) or MRS containing maltose (MRSM) and incubation in a 20% CO2 atmosphere. Lb. casei could be selectively enumerated on specially formulated Lb. casei (LC) agar from products containing yoghurt starter bacteria (S. thermophilus and Lb. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), Lb. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium spp. and Lb. casei. Bifidobacterium could be enumerated on MRS agar supplemented with nalidixic acid, paromomycin, neomycin sulphate and lithium chloride (MRS-NPNL) under anaerobic incubation at 37°C for 72h. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. A combination of direct viable count and fluorescence in situ hybridization for specific enumeration of viable Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, J; Moreno, Y; Amorocho, C M; Hernández, M

    2012-03-01

    We have developed a direct viable count (DVC)-FISH procedure for quickly and easily discriminating between viable and nonviable cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus strains, the traditional yogurt bacteria. direct viable count method has been modified and adapted for Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus analysis by testing different times of incubation and concentrations of DNA-gyrase inhibitors. DVC procedure has been combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the specific detection of viable cells of both bacteria with specific rRNA oligonucleotide probes (DVC-FISH). Of the four antibiotics tested (novobiocin, nalidixic acid, pipemidic acid and ciprofloxacin), novobiocin was the most effective for DVC method and the optimum incubation time was 7 h for both bacteria. The number of viable cells was obtained by the enumeration of specific hybridized cells that were elongated at least twice their original length for Lactobacillus and twice their original size for Streptococcus. This technique was successfully applied to detect viable cells in inoculated faeces. Results showed that this DVC-FISH procedure is a quick and culture-independent useful method to specifically detect viable Lact. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus in different samples, being applied for the first time to lactic acid bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Dairy Streptococcus thermophilus improves cell viability of Lactobacillus brevis NPS-QW-145 and its γ-aminobutyric acid biosynthesis ability in milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Law, Yee-Song; Shah, Nagendra P.

    2015-01-01

    Most high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producers are Lactobacillus brevis of plant origin, which may be not able to ferment milk well due to its poor proteolytic nature as evidenced by the absence of genes encoding extracellular proteinases in its genome. In the present study, two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, gadA and gadB, were found in high GABA-producing L. brevis NPS-QW-145. Co-culturing of this organism with conventional dairy starters was carried out to manufacture GABA-rich fermented milk. It was observed that all the selected strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, but not Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, improved the viability of L. brevis NPS-QW-145 in milk. Only certain strains of S. thermophilus improved the gadA mRNA level in L. brevis NPS-QW-145, thus enhanced GABA biosynthesis by the latter. These results suggest that certain S. thermophilus strains are highly recommended to co-culture with high GABA producer for manufacturing GABA-rich fermented milk. PMID:26245488

  20. In vivo study of the survival of Lactobacillus delbruecki subsp. bulgaricus CECT 4005T and Streptococcus thermophilus CECT 801 by DVC-FISH after consumption of fermented milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, J; Moreno, Y; Chuan, C; Hernández, M

    2012-10-01

    Direct Viable Count (DVC) method has been recently combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the specific detection of viable cells of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CECT 4005T and Streptococcus thermophilus CECT 801. This method has been used to determine their in vitro viability to gastrointestinal juices, being the resistance of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus 26.2% and 9.2%, respectively. On the other hand, an in vivo study has been carried out with the application of this technique for their detection in human feces, after consuming fermented milk. Cells of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus CECT 4005T were not detected, whereas viable cells of S. thermophilus CECT 801 were detected in a number higher than 10(3) cells per gram in a 30% of the samples after 4 wk of consumption. DVC-FISH is a quick and culture-independent useful method, which has been applied for the 1st time in an in vivo survival study of LAB. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Dairy Streptococcus thermophilus improves cell viability of Lactobacillus brevis NPS-QW-145 and its γ-aminobutyric acid biosynthesis ability in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qinglong; Law, Yee-Song; Shah, Nagendra P

    2015-08-06

    Most high γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) producers are Lactobacillus brevis of plant origin, which may be not able to ferment milk well due to its poor proteolytic nature as evidenced by the absence of genes encoding extracellular proteinases in its genome. In the present study, two glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) genes, gadA and gadB, were found in high GABA-producing L. brevis NPS-QW-145. Co-culturing of this organism with conventional dairy starters was carried out to manufacture GABA-rich fermented milk. It was observed that all the selected strains of Streptococcus thermophilus, but not Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, improved the viability of L. brevis NPS-QW-145 in milk. Only certain strains of S. thermophilus improved the gadA mRNA level in L. brevis NPS-QW-145, thus enhanced GABA biosynthesis by the latter. These results suggest that certain S. thermophilus strains are highly recommended to co-culture with high GABA producer for manufacturing GABA-rich fermented milk.

  2. Influence of different proteolytic strains of Streptococcus thermophilus in co-culture with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus on the metabolite profile of set-yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Settachaimongkon, Sarn; Nout, M J Robert; Antunes Fernandes, Elsa C; Hettinga, Kasper A; Vervoort, Jacques M; van Hooijdonk, Toon C M; Zwietering, Marcel H; Smid, Eddy J; van Valenberg, Hein J F

    2014-05-02

    Proto-cooperation between Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus is one of the key factors that determine the fermentation process and final quality of yoghurt. In this study, the interaction between different proteolytic strains of S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus was investigated in terms of microbial growth, acidification and changes in the biochemical composition of milk during set-yoghurt fermentation. A complementary metabolomics approach was applied for global characterization of volatile and non-volatile polar metabolite profiles of yoghurt associated with proteolytic activity of the individual strains in the starter cultures. The results demonstrated that only non-proteolytic S. thermophilus (Prt-) strain performed proto-cooperation with L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus. The proto-cooperation resulted in significant higher populations of the two species, faster milk acidification, significant abundance of aroma volatiles and non-volatile metabolites desirable for a good organoleptic quality of yoghurt. Headspace SPME-GC/MS and (1)H NMR resulted in the identification of 35 volatiles and 43 non-volatile polar metabolites, respectively. Furthermore, multivariate statistical analysis allows discriminating set-yoghurts fermented by different types of starter cultures according to their metabolite profiles. Our finding underlines that selection of suitable strain combinations in yoghurt starters is important for achieving the best technological performance regarding the quality of product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification of Coccoidal Bacteria in Traditional Fermented Milk Products from Mongolia, and the Fermentation Properties of the Predominant Species, Streptococcus thermophilus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the coccoidal bacteria present in 188 samples of fermented yaks’, mares’ and cows’ milk products collected from 12 different regions in Mongolia. Furthermore, we evaluated the fermentation properties of ten selected isolates of the predominant species, Streptococcus (S.) thermophiles, during the process of milk fermentation and subsequent storage of the resulting yoghurt at 4℃. Overall, 159 isolates were obtained from 188 samples using M17 agar. These isolates were presumed to be lactic acid bacteria based on their gram-positive and catalase-negative properties, and were identified to species level using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. These coccoid isolates were distributed in four genera and six species: Enterococcus (E.) durans, Enterococcus (E.) faecalis, Lactococcus (Lac.) subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc (Leuc.) lactis, Leuconostoc (Leuc.) mesenteroides. subsp. mesenteroides and S. thermophilus. Among these S. thermophilus was the most common species in most samples. From evaluation of the fermentation characteristics (viable counts, pH, titratable acidity [TA]) of ten selected S. thermophilus isolates we could identify four isolates (IMAU 20246, IMAU20764, IMAU20729 and IMAU20738) that were fast acid producers. IMAU20246 produced the highest concentrations of lactic acid and formic acid. These isolates have potential as starter cultures for yoghurt production. PMID:26761898

  4. 9 CFR 82.6 - Interstate movement of dead birds and dead poultry from a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... provided in paragraph (b) of this section for dressed carcasses, dead birds and dead poultry, including any... poultry at the destination listed on the permit required by paragraph (a)(1) of this section. (b) Dressed... quarantined area only if: (1) The dressed carcasses are from birds or poultry that were slaughtered in a...

  5. Personal Identity and Resurrection from the Dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasparov Igor

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines arguments of the “Christian materialist” Trenton Merricks that he provided in support of the claim that the Christian doctrine of resurrection from the dead is compatible with the materialist understanding of the nature of human beings. In his paper The Resurrection of the Body, Merricks discussed two aspects of the materialist interpretation of the traditional religious doctrine of the bodily resurrection. On the one hand, he analyses and tries to overcome objections against the possibility of the general resurrection in case the materialist understanding of the nature of human personality should be true (mainly the problem of the temporal gap. On the other hand, he provides some reasons why the materialist understanding of human nature is more relevant than its dualist counterpart to the doctrine of the bodily resurrection. The present paper evaluates his arguments and discusses the suggestion that the doctrine of resurrection is not only compatible with materialism, but is also tenable if human beings are identical with their physical bodies. The conclusion of the paper is that Merricks’ apologetic arguments achieve their aims in defending the doctrine of resurrection only partially; the resurrection doctrine appears more tenable if we accept the dualistic conception of human nature.

  6. Autopsies of the real: Resurrecting the dead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valis, Noël

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The sense of the real, or the material—the dead body—as an inextricable part of the sacred does not disappear in the secular environment of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. This article analyzes specific humanitarian narratives centered on the practice of autopsy and mummification, in which the traces of Catholicism act as a kind of spectral discourse of the imagination, where the real is configured in forms of the uncanny, the monstrous or the sacred.

    El sentido de lo real, de lo material —el cuerpo sin vida— como una inextricable parte de lo sagrado, no desaparece del ambiente secular de los siglos XIX y XX. En los relatos analizados en este artículo se estudia cómo en determinadas narrativas humanitarias centradas en la práctica de la autopsia y la momificación, las huellas del catolicismo actúan como una suerte de discurso espectral de la imaginación, en que lo real se configura en formas de lo siniestro, lo monstruoso o lo sagrado.

  7. Transcriptomic and metabolic responses of Staphylococcus aureus in mixed culture with Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus durans in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdenkova, Kamila; Alibayov, Babek; Karamonova, Ludmila; Purkrtova, Sabina; Karpiskova, Renata; Demnerova, Katerina

    2016-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major food-borne pathogen due to the production of enterotoxin and is particularly prevalent in contaminated milk and dairy products. The lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as biocontrol agents in fermented foods which can inhibit pathogenic flora. In our work, we investigated the influence of three strains of LAB (Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus durans) on the relative expression of three enterotoxin genes (sea, sec, sell) and eight virulence and/or regulatory genes (sarA, saeS, codY, srrA, rot, hld/RNAIII, agrA/RNAII, sigB) in two S. aureus strains (MW2 and Sa1612) in TSB and reduced-fat milk (1.5 %) at 30 °C over a 24-h period. The tested LAB and S. aureus strains proved to be mutually non-competitive or only slightly competitive during co-cultivation. In addition, under the above-mentioned conditions, differential gene expression between the S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 strains was well documented. S. aureus growth was changed in mixed culture with LAB; however, its effect on the repression of sea and sec expression correlated with production of these virulence factors. In comparison, the presence of LAB strains generally inhibited the expression of sec, sell, sarA, seaS, agrA/RNAII and hld/RNAIII genes. The effect of LAB strains presence on the expression of sea, codY, srrA, rot and sigB genes was medium, time, LAB and S. aureus strain specific. SEA and SEC production was significantly reduced in milk compared to TSB in pure culture. After the 24-h cultivation, S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 SEC production was 187 and 331 times lower in milk compared to TSB, respectively (0.07 and 0.39 ng/mL in milk, versus 13.1 and 129.2 ng/mL in TSB, respectively). At the same time S. aureus MW2 and Sa1612 SEA production was 77 and 68 times lower in milk compared to TSB, respectively (0.99 and 0.17 ng/mL in milk, versus 76.4 and 11.5 ng/mL in TSB, respectively). This study has revealed new insights into the

  8. Streptococcus Thermophilus ve Lactobacillus Delbrueckii Subsp. Bulgaricus Virülent Fajlarının Morfolojik Karakterizasyonu (İngilizce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Acar Soykut

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada 25 adet S. thermophilus ve 25 adet L. bulgaricus fajının elektron mikroskobik incelemesi yapılarak morfolojik karakterizasyonu gerçekleştirilmiştir. S. thermophilus fajlarında izometrik, hegzagonal baş çapının 53-74 nm, kontraktil olmayan kuyruk uzunluğunun 182-290 nm ve kuyruk genişliğinin de 7-14 nm arasında değiştiği görülmüştür. Bu fajlarda yaka, kuyruk plağı ve fibril benzeri yapıya rastlanmamıştır. İncelenen tüm fajlar, elde edilen verilere dayanılarak diğer S. thermophilus fajları gibi Ackermann sınıflaması Siphoviridae familyasına ve/veya Bradley sınıflaması B grubuna dâhil edilmiştir. S. thermophilus fajlarında olduğu gibi Lb. bulgaricus fajlarında da izometrik, hegzagonal kapsit ve kontraktil olmayan kuyruk yapısı belirlenmiştir. Kapsit çapları 47-73 nm arasında değişirken, kontraktil olmayan kuyruk uzunlukları 117-162 nm ve kuyruk enleri 7-13 nm arasında bulunmuştur. Ackermann sınıflaması Siphoviridae familyasına ve/veya Bradley sınıflaması B grubuna dâhil edilen bu fajlarda yaka, kuyruk tablası ve fibril yapısının varlığı dikkat çekmiştir. S. thermophilus ve L. bulgaricus faj örneklerinin hazırlanmasındaki farklılıkların ve kullanılan elektron mikroskop tiplerinin kuyruk yapılarının görünebilirliğini etkilediği düşünülmüştür.

  9. Are We the Walking Dead? Burnout as Zombie Apocalypse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Benjamin R

    2016-11-01

    The Walking Dead , one of the most popular television shows in recent history, uses the plot of a zombie apocalypse as a lens into exploring the human condition. Amidst a particularly dangerous moment, the show's hero references the human struggle to survive by remarking, " We are the walking dead." This offhand comment sheds light upon physicians' struggles in medicine, in particular the high prevalence of burnout and the challenge to cultivate compassion and meaning. This is an important question for our age and for our profession. Are we the walking dead? © 2016 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  10. Dead-Time Generation in Six-Phase Frequency Inverter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelijus Pitrėnas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper control of multi-phase induction drives is discussed. Structure of six-phase frequency inverter is examined. The article deals with dead-time generation circuits in six-phase frequency inverter for transistor control signals. Computer models of dead-time circuits is created using LTspice software package. Simulation results are compared with experimental results of the tested dead-time circuits. Parameters obtained in simulation results are close to the parameters obtained in experimental results.

  11. ORF Alignment: NC_005835 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ine pdb|1FJG|S Chain S, Structure ... Of The Thermus Thermophilus 30s Ribosomal Subunit In ... Complex With The Antibioti...cs Streptomycin, ... Spectinomycin, And Paromomycin ... Length = 84 ... Q

  12. ORF Alignment: NC_006461 [GENIUS II[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ine pdb|1FJG|S Chain S, Structure ... Of The Thermus Thermophilus 30s Ribosomal Subunit In ... Complex With The Antibioti...cs Streptomycin, ... Spectinomycin, And Paromomycin ... Length = 84 ... Q

  13. Temperature Dependence of the Stability of Ion Pair Interactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The occurrence of bridging water molecules between the ions ensures that the ions are not ... The structural features that render this thermostability ..... dehydrogenase single site mutant T198I from Thermus thermophilus with PDB ID 1BDM.

  14. Yoğurt Bakterilerinin (Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus) Sucuğun Fermantasyonu Üzerine Etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Karakaya, Mustafa; Kılıç, Aydın

    1994-01-01

    Bu araştırmada, L. bulgaricus, S. thermophilus yoğurt kültürleri ve değişik karbonhidrat kaynakları (sakkaroz, laktoz) kullanılarak, sucuğun fermantasyonu üzerine olan etkileri araştırılmıştır. Olgunlaşma sürelerinin belirlenmesinde sucukların belirli su miktarına (%35) ulaşmaları kriter olarak alınmış ve bu süre içerisinde periyodik olarak laktik asit üretimi ve pH değişimi kontrol edilmiştir. Kullanılan yoğurt kültürleri olgunlaşmanın 4. ve 7. günlerinde pH değişimi üzerine etkili olurken,...

  15. Deferribacter thermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel thermophilic manganese- and iron-reducing bacterium isolated from a petroleum reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, A C; Patel, B K; Sheehy, A J

    1997-04-01

    A thermophilic anaerobic bacterium, designated strain BMAT (T = type strain), was isolated from the production water of Beatrice oil field in the North Sea (United Kingdom). The cells were straight to bent rods (1 to 5 by 0.3 to 0.5 microns) which stained gram negative. Strain BMAT obtained energy from the reduction of manganese (IV), iron(III), and nitrate in the presence of yeast extract, peptone, Casamino Acids, tryptone, hydrogen, malate, acetate, citrate, pyruvate, lactate, succinate, and valerate. The isolate grew optimally at 60 degrees C (temperature range for growth, 50 to 65 degrees C) and in the presence of 2% (wt/vol) NaCl (NaCl range for growth, 0 to 5% [wt/vol]). The DNA base composition was 34 mol% G + C. Phylogenetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene indicated that strain BMAT is a member of the domain Bacteria. The closest known bacterium is the moderate thermophile Flexistipes sinusarabici (similarity value, 88%). Strain BMAT possesses phenotypic and phylogenetic traits that do not allow its classification as a member of any previously described genus; therefore, we propose that this isolate should be described as a member of a novel species of a new genus, Deferribacter thermophilus gen. nov., sp. nov.

  16. Dead zone area at the downstream flow of barrages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Sauida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flow separation is a natural phenomenon encountered at some cases downstream of barrages. The main flow is divided into current and dead zone flows. The percentage area of dead zone flow must be taken into consideration downstream of barrages, due to its negative effect on flow characteristics. Experimental studies were conducted in the Hydraulic Research Institute (HRI, on a physical regulator model with five vents. Theoretically the separation zone is described as a part of an ellipse which is practically verified by plotting velocity vectors. The results show that the percentage area of dead zone to the area through length of separation depends mainly on the expansion ratio [channel width to width of opened vents], with maximum value of 81% for operated side gates. A statistical analysis was derived, to predict the percentage area of dead zone flow to the area through length of separation.

  17. Optimal linear filtering of Poisson process with dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glukhova, E.V.

    1993-01-01

    The paper presents a derivation of an integral equation defining the impulsed transient of optimum linear filtering for evaluation of the intensity of the fluctuating Poisson process with allowance for dead time of transducers

  18. Acarviosine-simmondsin, a novel compound obtained from acarviosine-glucose and simmondsin by Thermus maltogenic amylase and its in vivo effect on food intake and hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Jin-Sook; Kim, Hye-Young; Abbott, Thomas P; Moon, Tae-Wha; Lee, Soo-Bok; Park, Cheon-Seok; Park, Kwan-Hwa

    2003-03-01

    Simmondsin was modified with acarviosine-glucose using the transglycosylation activity of Thermus maltogenic amylase to synthesize a novel compound with both antiobesity and hypoglycemic activity. The LC/MS and 13C NMR analyses confirmed that the structure of the major transglycosylation product was acarviosine-simmondsin (Acv-simmondsin), in which acarviosine was attached to the glucose moiety of simmondsin by an alpha-(1,6)-glycosidic linkage. It was found that Acv-simmondsin was a potent competitive inhibitor of alpha-glucosidase with the Ki value of 0.69 microM and a mixed type inhibitor of alpha-amylase with the Ki and KI of 20.78 microM and 26.31 microM, respectively. The administration of Acv-simmondsin (0.1 g/100 g diet/day) to mice for 5 days significantly reduced food intake by 35%, compared to 25% with simmondsin in control obese mice. Acv-simmondsin (50 mg/kg BW) suppressed the postprandial blood glucose response to sucrose (1 g/kg BW) by 74%, compared to 71% with acarbose, in normal rats.

  19. Properties of a novel thermostable glucose isomerase mined from Thermus oshimai and its application to preparation of high fructose corn syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dong-Xu; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-04-01

    Glucose isomerase (GI) is used in vitro to convert d-glucose to d-fructose, which is capable of commercial producing high fructose corn syrup (HFCS). To manufacture HFCS at elevated temperature and reduce the cost of enriching syrups, novel refractory GIs from Thermoanaerobacterium xylanolyticum (TxGI), Thermus oshimai (ToGI), Geobacillus thermocatenulatus (GtGI) and Thermoanaerobacter siderophilus (TsGI) were screened via genome mining approach. The enzymatic characteristics research showed that ToGI had higher catalytic efficiency and superior thermostability toward d-glucose among the screened GIs. Its optimum temperature reached 95°C and could retain more than 80% of initial activity in the presence of 20mM Mn 2+ at 85°C for 48h. The K m and k cat /K m values for ToGI were 81.46mM and 21.77min -1 mM -1 , respectively. Furthermore, the maximum conversion yield of 400g/L d-glucose to d-fructose at 85°C was 52.16%. Considering its excellent high thermostability and ameliorable application performance, ToGI might be promising for realization of future industrial production of HFCS at elevated temperature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Experimental dead-time distortions of Poisson processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraci, G.; Pennisi, A.R.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Catania

    1983-01-01

    In order to check the distortions, introduced by a non-extended dead time on the Poisson statistics, accurate experiments have been made in single channel counting. At a given measuring time, the dependence on the choice of the time origin and on the width of the dead time has been verified. An excellent agreement has been found between the theoretical expressions and the experimental curves. (orig.)

  1. The dead donor rule, voluntary active euthanasia, and capital punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Christian; Levin, Noah

    2011-06-01

    We argue that the dead donor rule, which states that multiple vital organs should only be taken from dead patients, is justified neither in principle nor in practice. We use a thought experiment and a guiding assumption in the literature about the justification of moral principles to undermine the theoretical justification for the rule. We then offer two real world analogues to this thought experiment, voluntary active euthanasia and capital punishment, and argue that the moral permissibility of terminating any patient through the removal of vital organs cannot turn on whether or not the practice violates the dead donor rule. Next, we consider practical justifications for the dead donor rule. Specifically, we consider whether there are compelling reasons to promulgate the rule even though its corresponding moral principle is not theoretically justified. We argue that there are no such reasons. In fact, we argue that promulgating the rule may actually decrease public trust in organ procurement procedures and medical institutions generally - even in states that do not permit capital punishment or voluntary active euthanasia. Finally, we examine our case against the dead donor rule in the light of common arguments for it. We find that these arguments are often misplaced - they do not support the dead donor rule. Instead, they support the quite different rule that patients should not be killed for their vital organs.

  2. Dead wood for biodiversity - foresters torn between mistrust and commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deuffic, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Dead wood is a key element in forest biodiversity, which is used as one of the indicators for sustainable development of forests. A survey was conducted among foresters and users in the Landes de Gascogne and ile-de-France areas so as to assess practises and social representations associated with dead wood. From the results of the survey, it appears that there is a diversity of practices and divergences about the implications connected with dead wood. The 64 respondents can be divided into roughly six groups (G1: 'industrial foresters', G2: the 'silvicultural foresters', G3: the 'remote foresters', G4: the 'environmentalist foresters', G5: the 'naturalists' and G6: the 'users'). Among other things, they can be differentiated by their management practises, their degree of knowledge about and concern with ecology, their social networks, their aesthetic judgment, their perception of risks and their economic requirements. While underscoring the scarce popularity on average of the biodiversity-related issues, this sociological survey also highlights: the need for a minimal regulatory framework to achieve integrated retention of dead wood, the serious concern of forest managers in the Landes with plant health risks associated with dead wood, and the need for a functional justification for keeping dead wood in the ecosystem. (authors)

  3. Modeling decay rates of dead wood in a neotropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hérault, Bruno; Beauchêne, Jacques; Muller, Félix; Wagner, Fabien; Baraloto, Christopher; Blanc, Lilian; Martin, Jean-Michel

    2010-09-01

    Variation of dead wood decay rates among tropical trees remains one source of uncertainty in global models of the carbon cycle. Taking advantage of a broad forest plot network surveyed for tree mortality over a 23-year period, we measured the remaining fraction of boles from 367 dead trees from 26 neotropical species widely varying in wood density (0.23-1.24 g cm(-3)) and tree circumference at death time (31.5-272.0 cm). We modeled decay rates within a Bayesian framework assuming a first order differential equation to model the decomposition process and tested for the effects of forest management (selective logging vs. unexploited), of mode of death (standing vs. downed) and of topographical levels (bottomlands vs. hillsides vs. hilltops) on wood decay rates. The general decay model predicts the observed remaining fraction of dead wood (R2 = 60%) with only two biological predictors: tree circumference at death time and wood specific density. Neither selective logging nor local topography had a differential effect on wood decay rates. Including the mode of death into the model revealed that standing dead trees decomposed faster than downed dead trees, but the gain of model accuracy remains rather marginal. Overall, these results suggest that the release of carbon from tropical dead trees to the atmosphere can be simply estimated using tree circumference at death time and wood density.

  4. Exercising is like flogging a dead horse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molhoek, W.

    2003-01-01

    - FR (NPP Gravelines) was conducted (22-23th of May 2001). The main objectives of the INEX series of exercises were focused on: decision making based on limited information and uncertain plant conditions; the use of real time communications with actual equipment and procedures; public information and interaction with media; the use of real weather for real time forecasts. For real further improvement of (nuclear) emergency management and response, not only national and international exercises such as INEX, CONVEX, JINEX etc. are needed, but the efforts to improve personal performance of key-persons involved is crucial. Structural plans to train and exercise individuals and teams should therefore be developed as well. To move the dead horse and create a racehorse need a lot of personal skills and attention. It is also recognized that often the carrot is better than the whip. (author)

  5. Options for reducing HIV transmission related to the dead space in needles and syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zule, William A; Pande, Poonam G; Otiashvili, David; Bobashev, Georgiy V; Friedman, Samuel R; Gyarmathy, V Anna; Des Jarlais, Don C

    2018-01-15

    When shared by people who inject drugs, needles and syringes with different dead space may affect the probability of HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission differently. We measured dead space in 56 needle and syringe combinations obtained from needle and syringe programs across 17 countries in Europe and Asia. We also calculated the amounts of blood and HIV that would remain in different combinations following injection and rinsing. Syringe barrel capacities ranged from 0.5 to 20 mL. Needles ranged in length from 8 to 38 mm. The average dead space was 3 μL in low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles, 13 μL in high dead space syringes with low dead space needles, 45 μL in low dead space syringes with high dead space needles, and 99 μL in high dead space syringes with high dead space needles. Among low dead space designs, calculated volumes of blood and HIV viral burden were lowest for low dead space syringes with permanently attached needles and highest for low dead space syringes with high dead space needles. The dead space in different low dead space needle and syringe combinations varied substantially. To reduce HIV transmission related to syringe sharing, needle and syringe programs need to combine this knowledge with the needs of their clients.

  6. A method for the measurement of the intrinsic dead time of a counting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1989-01-01

    Equations are derived for (a) the determination of the intrinsic dead time of a counting system in the components preceding the paralysis unit which imposes the set dead time, and (b) a more accurate correction of count rates in a single-channel system, taking into account the extension of the set dead time by the intrinsic dead time. (author)

  7. Population ecology of the tonguefish Symphurus thermophilus (Pisces; Pleuronectiformes; Cynoglossidae) at sulphur-rich hydrothermal vents on volcanoes of the northern Mariana Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Verena; Tyler, Jennifer; Dower, John F.

    2013-08-01

    Flatfish are a major component of the hydrothermal vent community on three seamounts of the northern Mariana Volcanic Arc in the northwest Pacific. Nikko, Kasuga-2 and Daikoku seamounts host vent fields between 375 and 480 m depth where high temperature vents release molten sulphur. The small cynoglossid tonguefish, Symphurus thermophilus Munroe and Hashimoto, is ubiquitous in all vent habitats observed on these seamounts: among extensive fields of tubeworms and mussels and on solid sulphur surfaces on Nikko; on sulphur-rich sediments and barnacle-covered boulders on Kasuga-2; and on recent sulphur flows and on broad areas of loose and semi-consolidated sediments on Daikoku. We recorded repeated forays by individuals onto flows of molten sulphur as these surfaces cooled. Based on observations using ROVs, the mean density is 90 fish/m2 with maximum counts over 200 fish/m2 on Daikoku sediments. Compared to collected tonguefish from Daikoku and Kasuga-2, those from Nikko have significantly greater lengths and, on average, six times the mass. Otolith data indicate upper ages of 13 years with Nikko tonguefish growing significantly faster. Diets of tonguefish on the three seamounts reflect the different habitats and prey availability; in Daikoku specimens, small crustaceans and polychaetes are most common while on Nikko, gut contents are predominantly larger shrimp. We made the unusual observation of stunned midwater fish falling to the seafloor near the vents where S. thermophilus immediately attacked them. This tonguefish has a wide diet range and foraging behaviour that likely influence the differing growth rates and sizes of fish inhabiting the different vent sites. Limited genetic data suggest that larval exchange probably occurs among sites where the common habitat factor is high levels of elemental sulphur forming hard and partly unconsolidated substrata. Here, in the northern range of the Mariana Trench Marine National Monument, S. thermophilus, despite having an

  8. Biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin G1 in peanut meal by anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Chi, Chen; Shan, Shihua; Guan, Bin

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to biotransform aflatoxins in peanut meal. The pH of the peanut meal was adjusted above 10, and then heated for 10 min at 100 °C, 115 °C and 121 °C. The S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were precultured together in MRS broth for 48 h at 37 °C. The heated peanut meal was mixed with precultured MRS broth containing 7.0×10(8) CFU/mL of S. thermophilus and 3.0×10(3) CFU/mL of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with the ratio of 1 to 1 (weight to volume) and incubated in anaerobic jars at 37 °C for 3 days. The aflatoxin content in the peanut meal samples was determined by HPLC. The results showed that the peanut meal contained mainly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (10.5±0.64 μg/kg) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) (18.7±0.55 μg/kg). When heat treatment was combined with anaerobic solid fermentation, the biotransformation rate of aflatoxins in peanut meal could attain 100%. The cytotoxicity of fermented peanut meal to L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblast cells was determined by MTT assay and no significant toxicity was observed in the fermented peanut meal. Furthermore, heat treatment and anaerobic solid fermentation did not change the amino acid concentrations and profile in peanut meal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Molecular identification of differentially regulated genes in the hydrothermal-vent species Bathymodiolus thermophilus and Paralvinella pandorae in response to temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shillito Bruce

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrothermal vents and cold seeps represent oases of life in the deep-sea environment, but are also characterized by challenging physical and chemical conditions. The effect of temperature fluctuations on vent organisms in their habitat has not been well explored, in particular at a molecular level, most gene expression studies being conducted on coastal marine species. In order to better understand the response of hydrothermal organisms to different temperature regimes, differentially expressed genes (obtained by a subtractive suppression hybridization approach were identified in the mussel Bathymodiolus thermophilus and the annelid Paralvinella pandorae irlandei to characterize the physiological processes involved when animals are subjected to long term exposure (2 days at two contrasting temperatures (10° versus 20°C, while maintained at in situ pressures. To avoid a potential effect of pressure, the experimental animals were initially thermally acclimated for 24 hours in a pressurized vessel. Results For each species, we produced two subtractive cDNA libraries (forward and reverse from sets of deep-sea mussels and annelids exposed together to a thermal challenge under pressure. RNA extracted from the gills, adductor muscle, mantle and foot tissue were used for B. thermophilus. For the annelid model, whole animals (small individuals were used. For each of the four libraries, we sequenced 200 clones, resulting in 78 and 83 unique sequences in mussels and annelids (about 20% of the sequencing effort, respectively, with only half of them corresponding to known genes. Real-time PCR was used to validate differentially expressed genes identified in the corresponding libraries. Strong expression variations have been observed for some specific genes such as the intracellular hemoglobin, the nidogen protein, and Rab7 in P. pandorae, and the SPARC protein, cyclophilin, foot protein and adhesive plaque protein in B. thermophilus

  10. Quantitative analysis of the lactic acid and acetaldehyde produced by Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus strains isolated from traditional Turkish yogurts using HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezginc, Y; Topcal, F; Comertpay, S; Akyol, I

    2015-03-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the lactic acid- and acetaldehyde-producing abilities of lactic acid bacterial species isolated from traditionally manufactured Turkish yogurts using HPLC. The lactic acid bacterial species purified from the yogurts were the 2 most widely used species in industrial yogurt production: Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus. These bacteria have the ability to ferment hexose sugars homofermentatively to generate lactic acid and some carbonyl compounds, such as acetaldehyde through pyruvate metabolism. The levels of the compounds produced during fermentation influence the texture and the flavor of the yogurt and are themselves influenced by the chemical composition of the milk, processing conditions, and the metabolic activity of the starter culture. In the study, morphological, biochemical, and molecular characteristics were employed to identify the bacteria obtained from homemade yogurts produced in different regions of Turkey. A collection of 91 Strep. thermophilus and 35 L. bulgaricus strains were investigated for their lactic acid- and acetaldehyde-formation capabilities in various media such as cow milk, LM17 agar, and aerobic-anaerobic SM17 agar or de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar. The amounts of the metabolites generated by each strain in all conditions were quantified by HPLC. The levels were found to vary depending on the species, the strain, and the growth conditions used. Whereas lactic acid production ranged between 0 and 77.9 mg/kg for Strep. thermophilus strains, it ranged from 0 to 103.5 mg/kg for L. bulgaricus. Correspondingly, the ability to generate acetaldehyde ranged from 0 to 105.9 mg/kg in Strep. thermophilus and from 0 to 126.9 mg/kg in L. bulgaricus. Our study constitutes the first attempt to determine characteristics of the wild strains isolated from traditional Turkish yogurts, and the approach presented here, which reveals the differences in metabolite production abilities of the

  11. Influence of different carbon sources on exopolysaccharide production by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (B3, G12 and Streptococcus thermophilus (W22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Nur Yuksekdag

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPSs production was studied by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus (B3, G12 and Streptococcus thermophilus (W22 in the medium containing various carbon sources (glucose, fructose, sucrose or lactose. For all the strains, glucose was the most efficient carbon source and B3, G12 and W22 strains produced 211, 175 and 120 EPS mg/L respectively. Also, the influence of different concentrations of glucose (5,10,15,20,25,30 g/L on EPS production and growth was studied. The results indicated that EPS production and growth were stimulated by the high glucose concentration (30 g/L.

  12. Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov., isolated from an algal bloom in an intertidal zone, and emended description of the genus Maribacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jing; Yang, Qi-Qi; Ren, Yi; Zhang, Wen-Wu; Zheng, Gang; Sun, Cong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xu-Fen; Zhang, Xin-Qi; Wu, Min

    2015-01-01

    A novel facultatively anaerobic, Gram-stain-negative bacterium, designated strain HT7-2(T), was isolated from Ulva prolifera collected from the intertidal zone of Qingdao sea area, China, during its bloom. Cells were rod-shaped (1.9-3.5×0.4-0.6 µm), non-sporulating and motile by gliding. Strain HT7-2(T) was able to grow at 4-50 °C (optimum 40-42 °C), pH 5.5-8.5 (optimum pH 7.0), 0-8 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum 2-3 %) and 0.5-10 % (w/v) sea salts (optimum 2.5 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 38.8 mol%. The phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain HT7-2(T) belonged to the genus Maribacter with sequence similarity values of 94.5-96.6 %, and was most closely related to Maribacter aestuarii GY20(T) (96.6%). Chemotaxonomic analysis showed that the main isoprenoid quinone was MK-6 and the major fatty acids were iso-C15:0 and unknown equivalent chain-length 13.565. The polar lipids of strain HT7-2(T) consisted of one phosphatidylethanolamine, four unidentified lipids and one unidentified aminolipid. On the basis of the phenotypic, phylogenetic and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain HT7-2(T) ( =CGMCC 1.12207(T) =JCM 18466(T)) is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Maribacter, for which the name Maribacter thermophilus sp. nov. is proposed. An emended description of the genus Maribacter is also proposed. © 2015 IUMS.

  13. Sulfur Metabolism of Hydrogenovibrio thermophilus Strain S5 and Its Adaptations to Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijing Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenovibrio bacteria are ubiquitous in global deep-sea hydrothermal vents. However, their adaptations enabling survival in these harsh environments are not well understood. In this study, we characterized the physiology and metabolic mechanisms of Hydrogenovibrio thermophilus strain S5, which was first isolated from an active hydrothermal vent chimney on the Southwest Indian Ridge. Physiological characterizations showed that it is a microaerobic chemolithomixotroph that can utilize sulfide, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, tetrathionate, thiocyanate or hydrogen as energy sources and molecular oxygen as the sole electron acceptor. During thiosulfate oxidation, the strain produced extracellular sulfur globules 0.7–6.0 μm in diameter that were mainly composed of elemental sulfur and carbon. Some organic substrates including amino acids, tryptone, yeast extract, casamino acids, casein, acetate, formate, citrate, propionate, tartrate, succinate, glucose and fructose can also serve as carbon sources, but growth is weaker than under CO2 conditions, indicating that strain S5 prefers to be chemolithoautotrophic. None of the tested organic carbons could function as energy sources. Growth tests under various conditions confirmed its adaption to a mesophilic mixing zone of hydrothermal vents in which vent fluid was mixed with cold seawater, preferring moderate temperatures (optimal 37°C, alkaline pH (optimal pH 8.0, microaerobic conditions (optimal 4% O2, and reduced sulfur compounds (e.g., sulfide, optimal 100 μM. Comparative genomics showed that strain S5 possesses more complex sulfur metabolism systems than other members of genus Hydrogenovibrio. The genes encoding the intracellular sulfur oxidation protein (DsrEF and assimilatory sulfate reduction were first reported in the genus Hydrogenovibrio. In summary, the versatility in energy and carbon sources, and unique physiological properties of this bacterium have facilitated its adaptation to deep

  14. Assessment and management of dead-wood habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagar, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is in the process of revising its resource management plans for six districts in western and southern Oregon as the result of the settlement of a lawsuit brought by the American Forest Resource Council. A range of management alternatives is being considered and evaluated including at least one that will minimize reserves on O&C lands. In order to develop the bases for evaluating management alternatives, the agency needs to derive a reasonable range of objectives for key issues and resources. Dead-wood habitat for wildlife has been identified as a key resource for which decision-making tools and techniques need to be refined and clarified. Under the Northwest Forest Plan, reserves were to play an important role in providing habitat for species associated with dead wood (U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service and U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management, 1994). Thus, the BLM needs to: 1) address the question of how dead wood will be provided if reserves are not included as a management strategy in the revised Resource Management Plan, and 2) be able to evaluate the effects of alternative land management approaches. Dead wood has become an increasingly important conservation issue in managed forests, as awareness of its function in providing wildlife habitat and in basic ecological processes has dramatically increased over the last several decades (Laudenslayer et al., 2002). A major concern of forest managers is providing dead wood habitat for terrestrial wildlife. Wildlife in Pacific Northwest forests have evolved with disturbances that create large amounts of dead wood; so, it is not surprising that many species are closely associated with standing (snags) or down, dead wood. In general, the occurrence or abundance of one-quarter to one-third of forest-dwelling vertebrate wildlife species, is strongly associated with availability of suitable dead-wood habitat (Bunnell et al., 1999; Rose et al., 2001). In

  15. Accuracy in gamma spectrometry: Pileup, dead time, and fast electornics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstrom, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    An important source of inaccuracy in neutron activation analysis is the nonlinear throughput of the counting system, especially at high counting rates. Losses, due to the finite time needed for events to happen, occur in all parts of the spectrometer system: the germanium detector crystal, preamplifier, amplifier, analog-digital converter (ADC), and MCA or computer. The slowest unbuffered units are the ADC and the amplifier, followed by the crystal. Even with modern fast electronics, losses can be important, although compensating circuits can greatly improve accuracy if they are used correctly. The ADC dead time is less of a problem than it was a decade ago. For example, a modern successive-approximation ADC in the author's laboratory takes 6 μs to digitize a gamma ray in the middle of an 8192-channel spectrum, compared with 60 μs for the Wilkinson device that it replaced. Dead-time circuits in MCAs for many years have compensated very well for this dead time. Pulse pileup is as important as ADC dead time. Random coincidence, the accidental arrival of the signal from two nonrelated gamma rays at the amplifier in a time short compared to the shaping time, results in a composite pulse that distorts the spectrum. For accurate spectrometry, each such random-sum pulse should be excluded from the spectrum (pileup rejection), and the system dead time must be adjusted to compensate for the time the system is busy analyzing this rejected event (pileup live-time correction)

  16. The Dead Sea, The Lake and Its Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Uri ten

    I cannot think of a subject more befitting the description of interdisciplinary research with societal relevance than the study of the Dead Sea, a terminal lake of the Jordan River in Israel and Jordan. The scientific study of the Dead Sea is intimately connected with politics, religion, archeology, economic development, tourism, and environmental change.The Dead Sea is a relatively closed geologic and limnologic system with drastic physical changes often occurring on human timescales and with a long human history to observe these changes. Research in this unique area covers diverse aspects such as active subsidence and deformation along strike-slip faults; vertical stratification and stability of the water column; physical properties of extremely saline and dense (1234 kg/m3) water; spontaneous precipitation of minerals in an oversaturated environment; origin of the unusual chemical composition of the brine; existence of life in extreme environments; use of lake level fluctuations as a paleoclimatic indicator; and effects on the environment of human intervention versus natural climatic variability. Although the Dead Sea covers a small area on a global scale, it is nevertheless one of the largest natural laboratories for these types of research on Earth. These reasons make the Dead Sea a fascinating topic for the curious mind.

  17. Once upon a time... Dead wood in french forests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoli, Michel; Geny, Bernard

    2005-01-01

    For many centuries in France, dead wood was an essential source of energy for households. Harvesting dead wood was both authorised - in particular, through allocation of rights of use - and highly regulated. Restrictions on its employment were established by texts ranging from the 1515 royal decree to an implementation decree of 1853 that is still applicable today - its owner must have formally released the wood. It must be dry and lying on the ground. It can be broken only by hand and no means other than human labour can be used to transport it. Furthermore, it cannot be the outcome of an act that caused a stem to dry while standing. In the 19. century, the huge number of trials, some of which went as far as the supreme court, shows just how important dead wood was socially, and much coveted by the paupers who were confronted with increasingly repressive forest police. These trials provide an excellent reflection of a society that harvested all the proceeds of felling. From the end of the 18. century to the middle of the 20., forestry treatises always dealt with removal of dead trees as a priority. Dead wood was for a long time and up to very recently abhorred but latterly has begun to be considered as an important compartment of biodiversity. History shows that it is no surprise that for the time being there is little of it to be found in our forests. (authors)

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including regenerator dead volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puech, Pascal; Tishkova, Victoria [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)

    2011-02-15

    This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine with linear and sinusoidal variations of the volume. The regenerator in a Stirling engine is an internal heat exchanger allowing to reach high efficiency. We used an isothermal model to analyse the net work and the heat stored in the regenerator during a complete cycle. We show that the engine efficiency with perfect regeneration doesn't depend on the regenerator dead volume but this dead volume strongly amplifies the imperfect regeneration effect. An analytical expression to estimate the improvement due to the regenerator has been proposed including the combined effects of dead volume and imperfect regeneration. This could be used at the very preliminary stage of the engine design process. (author)

  19. Resonant power converter comprising adaptive dead-time control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The invention relates in a first aspect to a resonant power converter comprising: a first power supply rail for receipt of a positive DC supply voltage and a second power supply rail for receipt of a negative DC supply voltage. The resonant power converter comprises a resonant network with an input...... terminal for receipt of a resonant input voltage from a driver circuit. The driver circuit is configured for alternatingly pulling the resonant input voltage towards the positive and negative DC supply voltages via first and second semiconductor switches, respectively, separated by intervening dead......-time periods in accordance with one or more driver control signals. A dead-time controller is configured to adaptively adjusting the dead-time periods based on the resonant input voltage....

  20. Love letters to the dead: resurrecting an epistolary art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Dorothy A; Graham-Pole, John R

    This article explores the art of letter-writing, specifically to our beloved dead, as a form of autoethnographic research, pedagogy, and care work. As university teachers and qualitative researchers in palliative and end-of-life care, we review the literature and history of epistolary communications with the deceased, as a prelude to writing our own letters. John writes to his long-dead mother and Dorothy to her recently deceased spouse Patrick, each letter followed by a reflective dialogue between us. Through this dialogue, we highlight the potential application of this art, or handcraft, to formal and informal palliative care, and the implications for practice, pedagogy, policy, and research. We propose that such direct, non-mediated, communications can offer a valuable form of healing for bereaved people. The therapeutic potential of letter writing and the abundance of literary and popular culture exemplars of responses from the dead are also largely unexplored in death education and research.

  1. Deadly Choices empowering Indigenous Australians through social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhail-Bell, Karen; Appo, Nathan; Haymes, Alana; Bond, Chelsea; Brough, Mark; Fredericks, Bronwyn

    2017-04-05

    The potential for health promotion through social networking sites (SNSs) is widely recognized. However, while health promotion prides itself in focusing on the social determinants of health, its partiality for persuading individuals to comply with health behaviours dominates the way health promotion utilizes SNSs. This paper contributes to an understanding of collaborative ways SNSs can work for health promotion agendas of self-determination and empowerment in an Indigenous Australia context. An ethnographic study was undertaken with Deadly Choices, an Indigenous-led health promotion initiative. The study involved participant observation of interactions on Deadly Choices SNSs between Deadly Choices and its online community members. Deadly Choices provides an example of SNSs providing a powerful tool to create a safe, inclusive and positive space for Indigenous people and communities to profile their healthy choices, according to Indigenous notions of health and identity. The study found five principles that underpin Deadly Choices' use of SNSs for health promotion. These are: create a dialogue; build community online and offline; incentivise healthy online engagement; celebrate Indigenous identity and culture; and prioritize partnerships. Deadly Choices SNSs empowers Indigenous people and communities to be health promoters themselves, which represents a power shift from health promotion practitioner to Indigenous people and communities and more broadly, an enactment of Indigenous self-determination on SNSs. Mainstream health promotion can learn from Indigenous health promotion practice regarding the use of SNSs for health promotion agendas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Monitoring the Dead Sea Region by Multi-Parameter Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohsen, A.; Weber, M. H.; Kottmeier, C.; Asch, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Dead Sea Region is an exceptional ecosystem whose seismic activity has influenced all facets of the development, from ground water availability to human evolution. Israelis, Palestinians and Jordanians living in the Dead Sea region are exposed to severe earthquake hazard. Repeatedly large earthquakes (e.g. 1927, magnitude 6.0; (Ambraseys, 2009)) shook the whole Dead Sea region proving that earthquake hazard knows no borders and damaging seismic events can strike anytime. Combined with the high vulnerability of cities in the region and with the enormous concentration of historical values this natural hazard results in an extreme earthquake risk. Thus, an integration of earthquake parameters at all scales (size and time) and their combination with data of infrastructure are needed with the specific aim of providing a state-of-the-art seismic hazard assessment for the Dead Sea region as well as a first quantitative estimate of vulnerability and risk. A strong motivation for our research is the lack of reliable multi-parameter ground-based geophysical information on earthquakes in the Dead Sea region. The proposed set up of a number of observatories with on-line data access will enable to derive the present-day seismicity and deformation pattern in the Dead Sea region. The first multi-parameter stations were installed in Jordan, Israel and Palestine for long-time monitoring. All partners will jointly use these locations. All stations will have an open data policy, with the Deutsches GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ, Potsdam, Germany) providing the hard and software for real-time data transmission via satellite to Germany, where all partners can access the data via standard data protocols.

  3. Microbe Profile: Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Humanity's deadly microbial foe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Stephen V; Parish, Tanya

    2018-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an expert and deadly pathogen, causing the disease tuberculosis (TB) in humans. It has several notable features: the ability to enter non-replicating states for long periods and cause latent infection; metabolic remodelling during chronic infection; a thick, waxy cell wall; slow growth rate in culture; and intrinsic drug resistance and antibiotic tolerance. As a pathogen, M. tuberculosis has a complex relationship with its host, is able to replicate inside macrophages, and expresses diverse immunomodulatory molecules. M. tuberculosis currently causes over 1.8 million deaths a year, making it the world's most deadly human pathogen.

  4. Homer and the cult of the dead in Helladic times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odysseus Tsagarakis

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the Homeric bothros (Odyssey X 517 ff. as a possible source of information for the ritual and function of various bothroi (grave pits which are considered to be an important archaeological source. It seems that the bothroi were, by their nature, best suited to a cult of the dead and served as altars. The paper also discusses the possible reasons for the existence of the cult and argues against the view that fear of the dead motivated the cult in Helladic times.

  5. Tourism development challenges on the Dead Sea shore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendt Jan A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dead Sea along with Jerusalem belongs to one of the most well-known spots visited by tourists in Israel. Because of many factors, such as the water level of the Dead Sea at a depth of 430 m b.s.l. (in 2015, average salinity of 26%, hot springs and many healing salts located there, it is a unique tourist attraction on a global level. Its attractiveness is heightened by its proximity to other sites of interest, such as the Jewish fortress at Masada, Jericho, Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, as well as Petra, Madaba and Al-Karak on the Jordanian side of the Dead Sea. High salinity and a microclimate create perfect conditions for the development of health resorts and medical tourism. Extracting healing salts from its waters for the needs of the chemical industry is important for both the economy and medical tourism. However, as a consequence of the agricultural and urban use of the waters of the River Jordan, which flows into the Dead Sea, a persistent decrease in the lake water level has been observed over the last century. This has created a number of economic and political issues. The problems which still have to be resolved are associated with the Red Sea-Dead Sea Conduit (Canal, the division of Jordan’s water resources, conservation of the unique reservoir of the Dead Sea and the threat of hindering the development of tourism within the region. The presentation of these issues is the main aim of this research paper. The study is based on the analysis of changes in tourism flows, results of research studies and the prognosis of changes in the water level of the Dead Sea. It presents an assessment of the effects of this phenomenon on the tourist economy. At the current level of tourism flows within the region, the tourist capacity of local beaches will be exceeded in areas where the most popular tourist resorts are located. Increased expenditure on development of tourism infrastructure in the coastal zone can also be observed

  6. Preparation of 'dead water' for low background liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Niwa, Takeo; Kawai, Hiroshi

    1987-01-01

    'Dead water', low level tritiated water is indispensable to measure tritium concentration in environmental waters using a low background liquid scintillation counter. Water produced by combustion of natural gas, or deep sea water etc. are usually used for the above purpose. A new method of reducing tritium concentration in natural water has been introduced for preparation of 'dead water'. This method is to combine hydrogen-oxygen mixture produced by water electrolysis with hopcalite catalyzer at 700 deg C. Deep well water was electrolized up to 2/3 volume, and tritium concentration of recombined water was reduced to be about one third of that of the original one. (author)

  7. Inhibition effect of Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecalis and their related products on human colonic smooth muscle in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Gong

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of four strains, generally used in clinic, including Bifidobacterium longum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecalis, and their related products on human colonic smooth muscle in vitro.Human colonic circular muscle strips obtained from disease-free margins of resected segments from 25 patients with colorectal cancer were isometrically examined in a constant-temperature organ bath and exposed to different concentrations of living bacteria, sonicated cell fractions and cell-free supernatant (CFS. The area under the curve (AUC representing the contractility of smooth muscle strips was calculated.(1 The four living probiotics inhibited the contractility of human colonic muscle strips only at high concentration (1010 CFUs/mL, all P0.05.Four common probiotics related products, including the sonicated cell fractions and the CFS, obviously inhibited human colonic smooth muscles strips contraction in a dose-dependent manner. Only high concentration living probiotics (1010 CFUs/mL can inhibit the colonic smooth muscles strips contraction. The NO pathway may be partly involved in the inhibitory effect of CFS from Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecalis.

  8. Identification of Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus Strains Present in Artisanal Raw Cow Milk Cheese Using Real-time PCR and Classic Plate Count Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachelska, Milena A

    2017-12-04

    The aim of this paper was to detect Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus using real-time quantitative PCR assay in 7-day ripening cheese produced from unpasteurised milk. Real-time quantitative PCR assays were designed to identify and enumerate the chosen species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in ripened cheese. The results of molecular quantification and classic bacterial enumeration showed a high level of similarity proving that DNA extraction was carried out in a proper way and that genomic DNA solutions were free of PCR inhibitors. These methods revealed the presence of L. delbrueckii and S. thermophilus. The real-time PCR enabled quantification with a detection of 101-103 CFU/g of product. qPCR-standard curves were linear over seven log units down to 101 copies per reaction; efficiencies ranged from 77.9% to 93.6%. Cheese samples were analysed with plate count method and qPCR in parallel. Compared with the classic plate count method, the newly developed qPCR method provided faster and species specific identification of two dairy LAB and yielded comparable quantitative results.

  9. Control of Lactose Transport, β-Galactosidase Activity, and Glycolysis by CcpA in Streptococcus thermophilus : Evidence for Carbon Catabolite Repression by a Non-Phosphoenolpyruvate-Dependent Phosphotransferase System Sugar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, Patrick T.C. van den; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P.; Vos, Willem M. de

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus, unlike many other gram-positive bacteria, prefers lactose over glucose as the primary carbon and energy source. Moreover, lactose is not taken up by a phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system (PTS) but by the dedicated transporter LacS. In this paper we

  10. Coincidence counting corrections for dead time losses and accidental coincidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1987-04-01

    An equation is derived for the calculation of the radioactivity of a source from the results of coincidence counting taking into account the dead-time losses and accidental coincidences. The derivation is an extension of the method of J. Bryant [Int. J. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 14:143, 1963]. The improvement on Bryant's formula has been verified by experiment

  11. Dead Zones in LX-17 and PBX 9502

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souers, P C; Andreski, H G; Batteux, J; Bratton, B; Cabacungan, C; Cook, III, C F; Fletcher, S; Garza, R; Grimsley, D; Handly, J; Hernandez, A; McMaster, P; Molitoris, J D; Palmer, R; Prindiville, J; Rodriguez, J; Schneberk, D; Wong, B; Vitello, P

    2005-09-06

    Pin and X-ray corner-turning data have been taken on ambient LX-17 and PBX 9052, and the results are listed in tables as an aid to future modeling. The results have been modeled at 4 zones/mm with a reactive flow approach that varies the burn rate as a function of pressure. A single rate format is used to simulate failure and detonation in different pressure regimes. A pressure cut-off must also be reached to initiate the burn. Corner-turning and failure are modeled using an intermediate pressure rate region, and detonation occurs at high pressure. The TATB booster is also modeled using reactive flow, and X-ray tomography is used to partition the ram-pressed hemisphere into five different density regions. The model reasonably fits the bare corner-turning experiment but predicts a smaller dead zone with steel confinement, in contradiction with experiment. The same model also calculates the confined and unconfined cylinder detonation velocities and predicts the failure of the unconfined cylinder at 3.75 mm radius. The PBX 9502 shows a smaller dead zone than LX-17. An old experiment that showed a large apparent dead zone in Comp B was repeated with X-ray transmission and no dead zone was seen. This confirms the idea that a variable burn rate is the key to modeling. The model also produces initiation delays, which are shorter than those found in time-to-detonation.

  12. Comparative structural analysis of human DEAD-box RNA helicases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Schütz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available DEAD-box RNA helicases play various, often critical, roles in all processes where RNAs are involved. Members of this family of proteins are linked to human disease, including cancer and viral infections. DEAD-box proteins contain two conserved domains that both contribute to RNA and ATP binding. Despite recent advances the molecular details of how these enzymes convert chemical energy into RNA remodeling is unknown. We present crystal structures of the isolated DEAD-domains of human DDX2A/eIF4A1, DDX2B/eIF4A2, DDX5, DDX10/DBP4, DDX18/myc-regulated DEAD-box protein, DDX20, DDX47, DDX52/ROK1, and DDX53/CAGE, and of the helicase domains of DDX25 and DDX41. Together with prior knowledge this enables a family-wide comparative structural analysis. We propose a general mechanism for opening of the RNA binding site. This analysis also provides insights into the diversity of DExD/H- proteins, with implications for understanding the functions of individual family members.

  13. Assessment of biofuel potential of dead neem leaves ( Azadirachta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unfortunately, the lack of information on the biomass and energy potentials of these wastes empedes any initiative for its industrial biomethanization. This study was investigated with the aim of evaluating the biofuel potentials of dead neem leaves in Maroua town. The number of neem trees, as well as biomass produced by ...

  14. Remembering Important People On The Day Of The Dead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curriculum Review, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a project that can help students learn more about historic figures-or remember lost loved ones--with this Day of the Dead project from Frida Kahlo and Diego Rivera. The purpose is to remember the wonderful things the person did, and to celebrate his or her life. Directions for construction, as well as a suggested list of…

  15. Necrotizing fasciitis: A deadly disease | Cree | East and Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Knowledge of the diagnosis, cause, course and required treatment of this deadly disease among physicians and surgeons around the world is limited. Methods: A study was undertaken at University Teaching Hospital (UTH), Lusaka Zambia to review the incidence, associated pathology, management given, ...

  16. Dynamic optimization of dead-end membrane filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.; Marquardt, Wolfgang; Pantelides, Costas

    2006-01-01

    An operating strategy aimed at minimizing the energy consumption during the filtration phase of dead-end membrane filtration has been formulated. A method allowing fast calculation of trajectories is used to allow incorporation in a hierarchical optimization scheme. The optimal trajectory can be

  17. Comparison of burning characteristics of live and dead chaparral fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Sun; X. Zhou; S. Mahalingam; D.R. Weise

    2006-01-01

    Wildfire spread in living vegetation, such as chaparral in southern California, often causes significant damage to infrastructure and ecosystems. The effects of physical characteristics of fuels and fuel beds on live fuel burning and whether live fuels differ fundamentally from dead woody fuels in their burning characteristics are not well understood. Toward this end,...

  18. Comparative structural analysis of human DEAD-box RNA helicases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Patrick; Karlberg, Tobias; van den Berg, Susanne; Collins, Ruairi; Lehtiö, Lari; Högbom, Martin; Holmberg-Schiavone, Lovisa; Tempel, Wolfram; Park, Hee-Won; Hammarström, Martin; Moche, Martin; Thorsell, Ann-Gerd; Schüler, Herwig

    2010-09-30

    DEAD-box RNA helicases play various, often critical, roles in all processes where RNAs are involved. Members of this family of proteins are linked to human disease, including cancer and viral infections. DEAD-box proteins contain two conserved domains that both contribute to RNA and ATP binding. Despite recent advances the molecular details of how these enzymes convert chemical energy into RNA remodeling is unknown. We present crystal structures of the isolated DEAD-domains of human DDX2A/eIF4A1, DDX2B/eIF4A2, DDX5, DDX10/DBP4, DDX18/myc-regulated DEAD-box protein, DDX20, DDX47, DDX52/ROK1, and DDX53/CAGE, and of the helicase domains of DDX25 and DDX41. Together with prior knowledge this enables a family-wide comparative structural analysis. We propose a general mechanism for opening of the RNA binding site. This analysis also provides insights into the diversity of DExD/H- proteins, with implications for understanding the functions of individual family members.

  19. Dead Metaphor in Selected Advertisements in Nigerian Dailies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dead metaphors and images are often enlivened and empowered by advertisers to help their commUlzication and to achieve bewitching effects. It is interesting to see words and phrases that may be presumed to have been drained of their linguistic strength being brought back to currency and made to act fast in aiding ...

  20. Theory of precipitation effects on dead cylindrical fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Fosberg

    1972-01-01

    Numerical and analytical solutions of the Fickian diffusion equation were used to determine the effects of precipitation on dead cylindrical forest fuels. The analytical solution provided a physical framework. The numerical solutions were then used to refine the analytical solution through a similarity argument. The theoretical solutions predicted realistic rates of...

  1. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration in AMPKa2 kinase dead mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Kristensen, Jonas Møller; Stride, Nis

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To study if the phenotypical characteristics (exercise intolerance; reduced spontaneous activity) of the AMPKa2 kinase-dead (KD) mice can be explained by a reduced mitochondrial respiratory flux rates (JO(2) ) in skeletal muscle. Secondly, the effect of the maturation process on JO(2...

  2. Dead space variability of face masks for valved holding chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirav, Israel; Newhouse, Michael T

    2008-03-01

    Valved holding chambers with masks are commonly used to deliver inhaled medications to young children with asthma. Optimal mask properties such as their dead space volume have received little attention. The smaller the mask the more likely it is that a greater proportion of the dose in the VHC will be inhaled with each breath, thus speeding VHC emptying and improving overall aerosol delivery efficiency and dose. Masks may have different DSV and thus different performance. To compare both physical dead space and functional dead space of different face masks under various applied pressures. The DSV of three commonly used face masks of VHCs was measured by water displacement both under various pressures (to simulate real-life application, dynamic DSV) and under no pressure (static DSV). There was a great variability of both static and dynamic dead space among various face mask for VHCs, which is probably related to their flexibility. Different masks have different DSV characteristics. This variability should be taken into account when comparing the clinical efficacy of various VHCs.

  3. Eating the dead in Madagascar | Campbell | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They may be supported in societies under stress or in times of famine, to reflect aggression and antisocial behaviour (in cases where the bodies of enemies killed in battle or people who have harmed the family are eaten), or to honour a dead kinsman. It was, for example, noted in Madagascar during the imperial campaigns ...

  4. Syntactic Reconstruction and Reanalysis, Semantic Dead Ends, and Prefrontal Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2010-01-01

    have been to Paris than […] to Oslo), using pseudo-elliptical structures (‘dead ends’) as control (More people have been to Paris than I have). (ii) Reanalysis in the face of structural ambiguity in syntactic ‘garden paths’, where the parser initially assigns an incorrect structure and is forced...

  5. Dead wood in European beech (Fagus sylvatica) forest reserves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, M.; Hahn, K.; Mountford, E.P.; Ódor, P.; Standovár, T.; Rozenbergar, D.; Diaci, J.; Wijdeven, S.M.J.; Meyer, P.; Winter, S.; Vrska, T.

    2005-01-01

    Data were analysed on the volume of dead wood in 86 beech forest reserves, covering most of the range of European beech forests. The mean volume was 130 m3/ha and the variation among reserves was high, ranging from almost nil to 550 m3/ha. The volume depended significantly on forest type, age since

  6. Stylistic Variation In Three English Translations Of The Dead Sea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Since the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls in 1947 different English translations were published. In this article the stylistic variation of three of these translations are analysed. It is suggested that the issue of stylistic variation boils down to linguistically inscribed preference in the choice and construction of discourses in the ...

  7. Down dead wood statistics for Maine timberlands, 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linda S. Heath; David C. Chojnacky; David C. Chojnacky

    2001-01-01

    Down dead wood (DDW) is important for its role in carbon and nutrient cycling, carbon sequestration, wildfire behavior, plant reproduction, and wildlife habitat. DDW was measured for the first time during a forest inventory of Maine by the USDA Forest Service in 1994-1996. Pieces greater than 3 feet long and greater than 3 inches in diameter at point of intersection...

  8. Literary Genres in Poetic Texts from the Dead Sea Scrolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickut, William Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Among the texts of the Dead Sea Scrolls, there are four literary compositions that bear the superscriptional designations shir and mizmor. These designations correspond directly to superscriptional designations provided many times in both the now-canonical Psalter and the various witnesses to those texts unearthed at Qumran. On its face, this fact…

  9. Book Review Lifeblood: How to Change the World, One Dead ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review Lifeblood: How to Change the World, One Dead Mosquito at a Time By Alex Perry (2011). Melissa Raemaekers. Abstract. Pp xiv + 219. R210. Picador Africa, Pan Macmillan, South Africa. 2011. ISBN 978-1-77010-146-3. February 2012, Vol. 102, No. 2 SAMJ. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE ...

  10. Cowboys and zombies: destabilizing patriarchal discourse in The Walking Dead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, D.

    2012-01-01

    The serialized comic book The Walking Dead, written by Robert Kirkman and drawn by Charlie Adlard, has been published by Image Comics from October 2003, and is still being released in monthly instalments as of this writing. It has won numerous awards, including the prestigious Eisner Award for Best

  11. Gastric necrosis four years after fundoplication causing a dead foetus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thinggaard, Ebbe; Skovsen, Anders Peter; Kildsig, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    A 31-year-old pregnant woman was admitted and treated for diabetic ketoacidosis. As the patient deteriorated and the viability of the foetus was uncertain a CT scan was done which showed free fluid and air intraabdominally. Surgery was performed. A dead foetus was delivered and a 2 × 5 cm necrotic...

  12. The active structure of the Dead Sea depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, G.

    2003-04-01

    The ~220km long gravitational and structural Dead Sea Depression (DSD), situated along the southern section of the Dead Sea Transform (DST), is centered by the Dead Sea basin sensu strictu (DSB), which has been described since the 1960?s as a pull-apart basin over a presumed left-hand fault step. However, several observations, or their lack thereof, question this scheme, e.g. (i) It is not supported by recent seismological and geomorphic data; (ii) It does not explain the fault pattern and mixed sinistral and dextral offset along the DSB western boundary; (iii) It does not simply explain the presence of intense deformation outside the presumed fault step zone; (iv) It is inconsistent with the orientation of seismically active faults within the Dead Sea and Jericho Valley; (v); It is apparently inconsistent with the symmetrical structure of the DSD; (vi) The length of the DSB exceeds the total offset along the Dead Sea Transform, while its subsidence is about the age of the DST. Integration of newly acquired and analyzed data (high resolution and petroleum seismic reflection data, earthquake relocation and fault plane solutions) with previously published data (structural mapping, fracture orientation distribution, Bouguer anomaly maps, sinkhole distribution, geomorphic lineaments) now shows that the active upper crustal manifestation of the DSD is a broad shear zone dominated by internal fault systems oriented NNE and NNW. These fault systems are identified by earthquake activity, seismic reflection observations, alignment of recent sinkholes, and distribution of Bouguer anomaly gradients. Motion on the NNE system is normal-dextral, suggesting that counterclockwise rotation may have taken place within the shear zone. The overall sinistral motion between the Arabian and Israel-Sinai plates along the DSD is thus accommodated by distributed shear across the N-S extending DSD. The three-dimensionality of this motion at the DSD may be related to the rate of convergence

  13. Adesão de linhagem selvagem de Streptococcus thermophilus em superfície de aço inoxidável e efeitos da higienização na sua remoção Adhesion of a wild strain of Streptococcus thermophilus onto stainless steel surfaces and the effects of cleaning and sanification on its removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lourdes Neves GÂNDARA

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Linhagem selvagem de Streptococcus thermophilus isolada de leite pasteurizado foi avaliada em modelo experimental quanto a adesão em superfície de aço inoxidável e comportamento frente à limpeza e sanificação. Em leite, a adesão do microrganismo em aço inoxidável foi estudada em 6h de contato a 45°C sob agitação e uma higienização com detergentes alcalino e ácido seguida de sanificação foi utilizada para avaliação do comportamento das células aderidas frente à higienização. Esse microrganismo aderiu a essa superfície produzindo uma carga de 10(4UFC/cm². Após a limpeza alcalina não foram detectadas células aderidas; em seguida a limpeza ácida 6 UFC/cm² ainda foram detectadas. A sanificação com hipoclorito de sódio, após a limpeza, foi suficiente para reduzir a carga de S. thermophilus selvagem aderida ao aço inoxidável. O modelo experimental mostrou-se adequado para o estudo, indicando que a cultura selvagem de Streptococcus thermophilus é produtora de biofilme em superfície de aço inoxidável. A limpeza da superfície de aço inoxidável por detergência alcalina remove mais que 99,9% das células aderidas. Pequenos números de células remanescentes são removidos na detergência ácida o que demonstra a necessidade das diferentes etapas e tipos de detergentes para a eficiência da limpeza. Melhores resultados na remoção desse biofilme são alcançadas com detergência alcalina seguida de detergência ácida e mais eficientemente quando se utiliza uma sanificação complementar com hipoclorito de sódio.A wild strain of Streptococcus thermophilus isolated from pasteurized milk was evaluated using an experimental model with respect to its adhesion onto stainless steel surfaces and its behaviour when submitted to cleansing and sanification. In milk, the adhesion of the microorganism on to stainless steel surfaces was studied after 6 hours of contact at 45°C with agitation, and after a cleansing process

  14. Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community Disparities in Lung Health Series "Smoking Out a Deadly Threat: Tobacco Use in the LGBT Community" is part of the American Lung Association's ...

  15. Occurrence of organohalogens at the Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbesing, Christoph; Kotte, Karsten; Keppler, Frank; Krause, Torsten; Bahlmann, Enno; Schöler, Heinfried

    2013-04-01

    Most arid and semi-arid regions are characterized by evaporites, which are assured sources for volatile organohalogens (VOX) [1]. These compounds play an important role in tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. The Dead Sea between Israel and Jordan is the world's most famous and biggest all-season water covered salt lake. In both countries chemical plants like the Dead Sea Works and the Arab Potash Company are located at the southern part of the Dead Sea and mine various elements such as bromine and magnesium. Conveying sea water through constructed evaporation pans multifarious salts are enriched and precipitated. In contrast, the Northern basin and main part of the Dead Sea has remained almost untouched by industrial salt production. Its fresh water supply from the Jordan River is constantly decreasing, leading to further increased salinity. During a HALOPROC campaign (Natural Halogenation Processes in the Environment) we collected various samples including air, soils, sediments, halophytic plants, ground- and seawater from the Northern and Southern basin of the Israeli side of the Dead Sea. These samples were investigated for the occurrence of halocarbons using different analytical techniques. Most samples were analyzed for volatile organohalogens such as haloalkanes using gas chromatography- mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Interestingly, there is a strong enrichment of trihalomethanes (THM), especially all chlorinated and brominated ones and also the iodinated compound dichloroiodomethane were found in the Southern basin. In addition, volatile organic carbons (VOC) such as ethene and some other alkenes were analyzed by a gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector (GC-FID) to obtain further information about potential precursors of halogenated compounds. Halophytic plants were investigated for their potential to release chloromethane and bromomethane but also for their stable carbon and hydrogen isotope composition. For this purpose, a plant chamber was

  16. Microclimate and habitat heterogeneity as the major drivers of beetle diversity in dead wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Seibold; Claus Bassler; Roland Brandl; Boris Buche; Alexander Szallies; Simon Thorn; Michael D. Ulyshen; Jorg Muller; Christopher Baraloto

    2016-01-01

    1. Resource availability and habitat heterogeneity are principle drivers of biodiversity, but their individual roles often remain unclear since both factors are usually correlated. The biodiversity of species dependent on dead wood could be driven by either resource availability represented by dead-wood amount or habitat heterogeneity characterized by dead-wood...

  17. Proportional Derivative Control with Inverse Dead-Zone for Pendulum Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Rubio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A proportional derivative controller with inverse dead-zone is proposed for the control of pendulum systems. The proposed method has the characteristic that the inverse dead-zone is cancelled with the pendulum dead-zone. Asymptotic stability of the proposed technique is guaranteed by the Lyapunov analysis. Simulations of two pendulum systems show the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  18. Predation by northern squawfish on live and dead juvenile chinook salmon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomski, D.M.; Hall-Griswold, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Northern squawfish Ptychocheilus oregonensis is a major predator of juvenile salmonids Oncorhynchus spp. migrating downstream through the Columbia River. High predation rates occur just below dams. If northern squawfish selectively consume salmonids killed or injured during dam passage, previous estimates of predation mortality may be too high. We conducted laboratory experiments that indicate northern squawfish prefer dead juvenile chinook salmon O. tshawytscha over live individuals. When equal numbers of dead and live chinook salmon were offered to northern squawfish maintained on a natural photoperiod (15 h light: 9 h darkness), significantly more (P < 0.05) dead than live fish were consumed, both in 1,400-L circular tanks and in an 11,300-L raceway (62% and 79% of prey consumed were dead, respectively). When dead and live juvenile chinook salmon were provided in proportions more similar to those below dams (20% dead, 80% live), northern squawfish still selected for dead prey (36% of fish consumed were dead). In additional experiments, northern squawfish were offered a proportion of 20% dead juvenile chinook salmon during 4-h periods of either light or darkness. The predators were much more selective for dead chinook salmon during bright light (88% of fish consumed were dead) than during darkness (31% were dead)

  19. Dead space and slope indices from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension-volume curve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Kars (Alice); J.M. Bogaard (Jan); Th. Stijnen (Theo); J. de Vries; A.F.M. Verbraak (Anton); C. Hilvering

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe slope of phase 3 and three noninvasively determined dead space estimates derived from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) versus volume curve, including the Bohr dead space (VD,Bohr), the Fowler dead space (VD,Fowler) and pre-interface expirate

  20. The role of electrostatic interactions in the Streptococcus thermophilus adhesion on human erythrocytes in media with different 1:1 electrolyte concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. І. Гордієнко

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of bacterial adhesion is usually discussed in terms of the two-stage sorption model. According to the model, at the first stage the bacteria fastly attaches to the surface by weak physical interactions, while at the second stage irreversible molecular and cellular adhesion process takes place. An important factor, influencing the adhesion processes, is physical-chemical characteristics of the medium, in particular, the presence of monovalent cations therein. The aim of this work is to assess the role of electrostatic component of the intercellular interactions at the first reversible stage of adhesion. Comparison of experimental data of adhesion of lactobacilli S. thermophilus on human erythrocytes and theoretical definition of the Debye radius and the erythrocytes surface potential in the experimental solutions showed that with decreasing ionic strength of the solution the change in the adhesion index in our experiments is fully in line with the theory DLVO predictions.

  1. Growth and viability of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in traditional yoghurt enriched by honey and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glušac, J; Stijepić, M; Đurđević-Milošević, D; Milanović, S; Kanurić, K; Vukić, V

    2015-01-01

    The ability of whey protein concentrate (WPC) (1% w/v) and/or honey (2% and 4% w⁄v) to improve lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) growth and viability in yoghurt during a 21 day period of storage was investigated. Another focus of this study was to examine fermentation kinetics and post-acidification rates through pH and lactic acid content measurements over the 21 day period. The addition of WPC and acacia honey accelerated fermentation and improved lactic acid bacteria (LAB) growth over the 21 days, but honey proportion did not significantly affect the viability of LAB. Moreover, adding honey and WPC did not support the overproduction of lactic acid, which positively influenced yoghurt stability during the 21 day storage period.

  2. Awakening the "Walking Dead": Zombie Pedagogy for Millennials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Dawn Wadsworth

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article lays out the pedagogical benefits of using popular zombie productions, particularly AMC's The Walking Dead, to teach a critical introduction to modern political theory. Based on my undergraduate course: "Political Theory, Climate Change, and the Zombie Apocalypse," the article outlines how The Walking Dead can be used to critique the mythic assumptions built into modern social contract theory; to introduce other political ideologies, including conservatism, anarchism, fascism, and communism; and to consider the political challenges raised by a global problem such as climate change in an increasingly neoliberal environment. Zombie productions are offered as a particularly salient pedagogical tool that can help awaken critical political analysis for the Millennial Generation.

  3. Not to declare dead someone still alive: Case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelić Slađana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Diagnosing death represents an activity that carries a great deal of public responsibility for medical professionals and is continually exposed to the control of citizens and media. Although this is a taboo subject in medical circles, unfortunately in medical practice there are situations when the physician issues a death diagnosis form without even examining the person or for an already buried person. Such physician’s action is impermissible and it leads to the possibility of professional and criminal law punishment. Case Outline. By giving examples from practice, we wish to point out the need for exceptional caution when confirming and diagnosing death in order to diagnose the true, i.e. rule out apparent death and consequently avoid the mistake of declaring dead someone still alive. Conclusion. When confirming and declaring death, exceptional caution of the physician is necessary so as not to declare dead someone still alive!

  4. The Dead Mother, the Uncanny, and the Holy Ghost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gal Ventura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recurrent portrayals of dead mothers frequently appeared in French art from 1800 to 1850. This essay focuses on one of the latest manifestations of this image, namely, the French Realist Jules Breton's (1827-1906 painting The Hunger of 1850, in order to examine the psycho-historical elements associated with the mother's death. Through an analysis of the "Uncanny" as formulated by both Ernst Jentsch and Sigmund Freud, we will address the undissolvable link between the structuralization of "homeliness" in the late eighteenth century and the dread it evoked in the early nineteenth century, as two sides of the same coin. We will simultaneously consider the inherent conflictuality embodied by the dead mother according to the French psychoanalyst André Green, who dealt with the experience of "nothingness" that characterizes children of mothers-who-refuse-to-die.

  5. Solution of the Markov chain for the dead time problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degweker, S.B.

    1997-01-01

    A method for solving the equation for the Markov chain, describing the effect of a non-extendible dead time on the statistics of time correlated pulses, is discussed. The equation, which was derived in an earlier paper, describes a non-linear process and is not amenable to exact solution. The present method consists of representing the probability generating function as a factorial cumulant expansion and neglecting factorial cumulants beyond the second. This results in a closed set of non-linear equations for the factorial moments. Stationary solutions of these equations, which are of interest for calculating the count rate, are obtained iteratively. The method is applied to the variable dead time counter technique for estimation of system parameters in passive neutron assay of Pu and reactor noise analysis. Comparisons of results by this method with Monte Carlo calculations are presented. (author)

  6. Is it practical to use the gamma camera dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, P.P.; Morin, J.F.; Caroff, J.; Lahellec, M.; Savina, A.

    1975-01-01

    The linearity of gamma camera counting is an essential feature for users engaged in quantitative dynamic studies. Instead of defining this quality by the usual dead time, the disadvantages of which are reported, it is proposed to use the experimental count rate giving 10% loss. It is shown that by proceeding in this way all ambiguity would be abolished, where both the counting linearity itself and its relation to sensitivity are concerned [fr

  7. Thermodynamics of the dead zone inner edge in protoplanetary disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, Julien

    2014-01-01

    The dead zone, a quiescent region enclosed in the turbulent flow of a protoplanetary disk, seems to be a promising site for planet formation. Indeed, the development of a density maximum at the dead zone inner edge, that has the property to trap the infalling dust, is a natural outcome of the accretion mismatch at this interface. Moreover, the flow here may be unstable and organize itself into vortical structures that efficiently collect dust grains. The inner edge location is however loosely constrained. In particular, it depends on the thermodynamical prescriptions of the disk model that is considered. It has been recently proposed that the inner edge is not static and that the variations of young stars accretion luminosity are the signature of this interface displacements. This thesis address the question of the impact of the gas thermodynamics onto its dynamics around the dead zone inner edge. MHD simulations including the complex interplay between thermodynamical processes and the dynamics confirmed the dynamical behaviour of the inner edge. A first measure of the interface velocity has been realised. This result has been compared to the predictions of a mean field model. It revealed the crucial role of the energy transport by density waves excited at the interface. These simulations also exhibit a new intriguing phenomenon: vortices forming at the interface follow a cycle of formation-migration-destruction. This vortex cycle may compromise the formation of planetesimals at the inner edge. This thesis claims that thermodynamical processes are at the heart of how the region around the dead zone inner edge in protoplanetary disks works. (author) [fr

  8. Strong tracking adaptive Kalman filters for underwater vehicle dead reckoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Kun; FANG Shao-ji; PANG Yong-jie

    2007-01-01

    To improve underwater vehicle dead reckoning, a developed strong tracking adaptive kalman filter is proposed. The filter is improved with an additional adaptive factor and an estimator of measurement noise covariance. Since the magnitude of fading factor is changed adaptively, the tracking ability of the filter is still enhanced in low velocity condition of underwater vehicles. The results of simulation tests prove the presented filter effective.

  9. Probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 Supplementation Attenuates Performance and Range-of-Motion Decrements Following Muscle Damaging Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Jäger

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic Streptococcus (S. thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium (B. breve BR03 at 5 bn live cells (AFU concentration each, or a placebo, daily for 3 weeks prior to muscle-damaging exercise (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02520583. Isometric strength, muscle soreness, range of motion and girth, and blood interleukin-6 (IL-6 and creatine kinase (CK concentrations were measured from pre- to 72 h post-exercise. Statistical analysis was via mixed models and magnitude-based inference to the standardized difference. Probiotic supplementation resulted in an overall decrease in circulating IL-6, which was sustained to 48 h post-exercise. In addition, probiotic supplementation likely enhanced isometric average peak torque production at 24 to 72 h into the recovery period following exercise (probiotic–placebo point effect ±90% CI: 24 h, 11% ± 7%; 48 h, 12% ± 18%; 72 h, 8% ± 8%. Probiotics also likely moderately increased resting arm angle at 24 h (2.4% ± 2.0% and 48 h (1.9% ± 1.9% following exercise, but effects on soreness and flexed arm angle and CK were unclear. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotic strains S. thermophilus FP4 and B. breve BR03 attenuates performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following muscle-damaging exercise.

  10. Probiotic Streptococcus thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 Supplementation Attenuates Performance and Range-of-Motion Decrements Following Muscle Damaging Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Ralf; Purpura, Martin; Stone, Jason D; Turner, Stephanie M; Anzalone, Anthony J; Eimerbrink, Micah J; Pane, Marco; Amoruso, Angela; Rowlands, David S; Oliver, Jonathan M

    2016-10-14

    Probiotics have immunomodulatory effects. However, little is known about the potential benefit of probiotics on the inflammation subsequent to strenuous exercise. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossover design separated by a 21-day washout, 15 healthy resistance-trained men ingested an encapsulated probiotic Streptococcus ( S. ) thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium ( B. ) breve BR03 at 5 bn live cells (AFU) concentration each, or a placebo, daily for 3 weeks prior to muscle-damaging exercise (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02520583). Isometric strength, muscle soreness, range of motion and girth, and blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were measured from pre- to 72 h post-exercise. Statistical analysis was via mixed models and magnitude-based inference to the standardized difference. Probiotic supplementation resulted in an overall decrease in circulating IL-6, which was sustained to 48 h post-exercise. In addition, probiotic supplementation likely enhanced isometric average peak torque production at 24 to 72 h into the recovery period following exercise (probiotic-placebo point effect ±90% CI: 24 h, 11% ± 7%; 48 h, 12% ± 18%; 72 h, 8% ± 8%). Probiotics also likely moderately increased resting arm angle at 24 h (2.4% ± 2.0%) and 48 h (1.9% ± 1.9%) following exercise, but effects on soreness and flexed arm angle and CK were unclear. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with probiotic strains S. thermophilus FP4 and B. breve BR03 attenuates performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following muscle-damaging exercise.

  11. Correction for intrinsic and set dead-time losses in radioactivity counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyllie, H.A.

    1992-12-01

    Equations are derived for the determination of the intrinsic dead time of the components which precede the paralysis unit in a counting system for measuring radioactivity. The determination depends on the extension of the set dead time by the intrinsic dead time. Improved formulae are given for the dead-time correction of the count rate of a radioactive source in a single-channel system. A variable in the formulae is the intrinsic dead time which is determined concurrently with the counting of the source. The only extra equipment required in a conventional system is a scaler. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 21 figs

  12. The Active Structure of the Greater Dead Sea Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, G.

    2002-12-01

    The Greater Dead Sea Basin (GDSB) is a 220km long depression situated along the southern section of the Dead Sea Transform (DST), between two structurally and gravitationally elevated points, Wadi Malih in the north and Paran fault zone in the south. In its center is the Dead Sea basin 'sensu strictu' (DSB), which has been described since the 1970s as a pull-apart basin at a left step-over along the DST. However, several observations, or their lack thereof, contradict this scheme, e.g. (i) It is not supported by recent seismological and geomorphic data; (ii) It does not explain the fault pattern and mixed sinistral and dextral offset along the DSB western boundary; (iii) It does not simply explain the presence of intense deformation outside the presumed fault step zone; (iv) It is inconsistent with the orientation of seismically active faults within the Dead Sea and Jericho Valley; (v) The length of the DSB exceeds the total offset along the Dead Sea Transform, while its subsidence is about the age of the DST. In this study, newly acquired and analyzed data (high resolution seismic reflection and earthquake relocation and fault plane solutions) has been integrated with previously published data (structural mapping, fracture orientation distribution, Bouguer anomaly maps, sinkhole distribution, geomorphic lineaments). The results show that the GDSB is dominated by two active fault systems, one trending NNE and showing normal-dextral motion, the other trending NW. These systems are identified by earthquake activity, seismic reflection observations, alignment of recent sinkholes, and distribution of Bouguer anomaly gradients. As a result, the intra-basin structure is of a series of rectangular blocks. The dextral slip component along NNE trending faults, the mixed sense of lateral offset along the western boundary of the DSB and temporal change in fracture orientation in the Jericho Valley suggest that the intra-basin blocks have rotated counterclockwise since the

  13. Comparative growth and development of spiders reared on live and dead prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Gui, Shaolan; Qiao, Huping; Hose, Grant C

    2013-01-01

    Scavenging (feeding on dead prey) has been demonstrated across a number of spider families, yet the implications of feeding on dead prey for the growth and development of individuals and population is unknown. In this study we compare the growth, development, and predatory activity of two species of spiders that were fed on live and dead prey. Pardosa astrigera (Lycosidae) and Hylyphantes graminicola (Lyniphiidae) were fed live or dead fruit flies, Drosophila melanogaster. The survival of P. astrigera and H. graminicola was not affected by prey type. The duration of late instars of P. astrigera fed dead prey were longer and mature spiders had less protein content than those fed live prey, whereas there were no differences in the rate of H. graminicola development, but the mass of mature spiders fed dead prey was greater than those fed live prey. Predation rates by P. astrigera did not differ between the two prey types, but H. graminicola had a higher rate of predation on dead than alive prey, presumably because the dead flies were easier to catch and handle. Overall, the growth, development and reproduction of H. graminicola reared with dead flies was better than those reared on live flies, yet for the larger P. astrigera, dead prey may suit smaller instars but mature spiders may be best maintained with live prey. We have clearly demonstrated that dead prey may be suitable for rearing spiders, although the success of the spiders fed such prey appears size- and species specific.

  14. Variable dead time counters: 2. A computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooton, B.W.; Lees, E.W.

    1980-09-01

    A computer model has been developed to give a pulse train which simulates that generated by a variable dead time counter (VDC) used in safeguards determination of Pu mass. The model is applied to two algorithms generally used for VDC analysis. It is used to determine their limitations at high counting rates and to investigate the effects of random neutrons from (α,n) reactions. Both algorithms are found to be deficient for use with masses of 240 Pu greater than 100g and one commonly used algorithm is shown, by use of the model and also by theory, to yield a result which is dependent on the random neutron intensity. (author)

  15. Is the Doha Round Dead? What is the Way Forward?

    OpenAIRE

    Faizel Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The WTO Doha Round of negotiations has been at an impasse since December 2008. Several academics and opinion makers have argued recently that the Doha Round is ‘dead’. This paper discusses the US narrative on the reasons for the impasse in the Doha Round and the way forward. It contrasts this narrative with that of the major developing country alliances in the WTO and considers some underlying causes for the current impasse in the Doha Round. The paper concludes that the US narrative that...

  16. Evaluation of the yield, molar mass of exopolysaccharides, and rheological properties of gels formed during fermentation of milk by Streptococcus thermophilus strains St-143 and ST-10255y.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Som N; Lucey, John A

    2017-09-01

    The yield and chemical structures of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by many strains of Streptococcus thermophilus have been characterized. However, the kinetics (or production profile) for EPS during milk fermentation is not clear. In this study, we investigated whether any differences existed in the yield and molar mass of EPS when milk was fermented at the same acidification rate by 2 strains of S. thermophilus (St-143 and ST-10255y). The type of EPS produced by these 2 strains is different. Milk samples were analyzed for EPS concentration every 30 min during a fermentation period of 270 min (final pH 4.5) by using a modified quantification method, which was faster and validated for its recovery of added EPS. Rheological properties of milks during fermentation were also analyzed using small-strain dynamic oscillatory rheology. For the determination of molar mass, EPS extracts were isolated by ultrafiltration of whey obtained during fermentation of milk to pH values 5.2, 4.9, 4.7, and 4.5, and molar mass was analyzed using size-exclusion chromatography-multi-angle laser light scattering. During fermentation, both strains appeared to start producing significant amounts of EPS after about ∼150 min, which corresponded to pH ∼5.3, which was close to the point of gelation. During the remainder of the fermentation process (150-270 min), the EPS concentration from strains St-143 and ST-10255y significantly increased from 30 to 72 mg/L and from 26 to 56 mg/L, respectively. The quantity of EPS recovered by our modified method was estimated to represent ∼60% of the total EPS added to milk. The molar mass of EPS produced by both strains appeared to slightly decrease during fermentation. At pH 5.2, EPS from St-143 and ST-10255y had molar masses of 2.9 × 10 6 and 1.4 × 10 6 g/mol, respectively, which decreased to 1.6 × 10 6 and 0.8 × 10 6 g/mol, respectively, when the pH of milk was 4.5. Distinct differences were apparent in the rheological properties of gels

  17. Living with the Dead or Communicating with the dead: media practices of continuing bonds among bereaved parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    & Sandvik 2014a: 1). However, we would like to broaden the scope of Durham Peter’s reflections, suggesting that the ways in which parents communicate to/with the dead child are not just a matter of one-way speaking into the air but also a matter of two-way communication implying that the child has...... when getting a memory tattoo. Based on observation studies and qualitative contents analysis performed since 2008 on children’s graves and on online memorial sites (Christensen & Sandvik 2013, 2014a, 2014b, 2015a) and furthermore including interviews with bereaved parents (Christensen & Sandvik...

  18. Daily Living Movement Recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Martinelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, activity recognition is a central topic in numerous applications such as patient and sport activity monitoring, surveillance, and navigation. By focusing on the latter, in particular Pedestrian Dead Reckoning navigation systems, activity recognition is generally exploited to get landmarks on the map of the buildings in order to permit the calibration of the navigation routines. The present work aims to provide a contribution to the definition of a more effective movement recognition for Pedestrian Dead Reckoning applications. The signal acquired by a belt-mounted triaxial accelerometer is considered as the input to the movement segmentation procedure which exploits Continuous Wavelet Transform to detect and segment cyclic movements such as walking. Furthermore, the segmented movements are provided to a supervised learning classifier in order to distinguish between activities such as walking and walking downstairs and upstairs. In particular, four supervised learning classification families are tested: decision tree, Support Vector Machine, k-nearest neighbour, and Ensemble Learner. Finally, the accuracy of the considered classification models is evaluated and the relative confusion matrices are presented.

  19. Heavy metals distribution in the Dead Sea black mud, Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momani, K.; El-Hasan, T.; Auaydeh, S.

    2009-01-01

    The concentrations of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb) were investigated in the Dead Sea black mud and river sediments in the northern basin of the Dead Sea region, Jordan. The pH of the mud was slightly above 8 while it was around 6 for the seawater. All analyzed heavy metal content in the black mud, except Pb, was less than their contents in other types of mud. Tlis might be due to the effect of the mildly acideic pH of seawater, which would enhance the metal solubility or incorporation within salt mineral structure, rather than precipitation. The sequential extraction results showed that Ni and Co transferred into the carbonate fraction, Mn is found mostly as manganese-iron oxide, and the residual phase contained Cr, Cu, Fe,and Pb. This study illustrated that the black mud had low heavy metal contents, thus indicating low toxicity. additionally, it shows insignificance effect of the mixing of freshwater with seawater on the heavy metal contents in the black mud. (authors).

  20. Open ocean dead zones in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, J.; Fiedler, B.; Schütte, F.; Brandt, P.; Körtzinger, A.; Fischer, G.; Zantopp, R.; Hahn, J.; Visbeck, M.; Wallace, D.

    2015-04-01

    Here we present first observations, from instrumentation installed on moorings and a float, of unexpectedly low (rates for the eddies are found to be 3 to 5 times higher when compared with surrounding waters. Oxygen is lowest in the centre of the eddies, in a depth range where the swirl velocity, defining the transition between eddy and surroundings, has its maximum. It is assumed that the strong velocity at the outer rim of the eddies hampers the transport of properties across the eddies boundary and as such isolates their cores. This is supported by a remarkably stable hydrographic structure of the eddies core over periods of several months. The eddies propagate westward, at about 4 to 5 km day-1, from their generation region off the West African coast into the open ocean. High productivity and accompanying respiration, paired with sluggish exchange across the eddy boundary, create the "dead zone" inside the eddies, so far only reported for coastal areas or lakes. We observe a direct impact of the open ocean dead zones on the marine ecosystem as such that the diurnal vertical migration of zooplankton is suppressed inside the eddies.

  1. Dead zones in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: evidence and implications

    KAUST Repository

    Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.

    2010-09-01

    In order to fabricate photovoltaic (PV) cells incorporating light-trapping electrodes, flexible foil substrates, or more than one junction, illumination through the top-contact (i.e.: non-substrate) side of a photovoltaic device is desirable. We investigate the relative collection efficiency for illumination through the top vs. bottom of PbS colloidal quantum dot (CQD) PV devices. The external quantum efficiency spectra of FTO/TiO2/PbS CQD/ITO PV devices with various PbS layer thicknesses were measured for illumination through either the top (ITO) or bottom (FTO) contacts. By comparing the relative shapes and intensities of these spectra with those calculated from an estimation of the carrier generation profile and the internal quantum efficiency as a function of distance from the TiO2 interface in the devices, a substantial dead zone, where carrier extraction is dramatically reduced, is identified near the ITO top contact. The implications for device design, and possible means of avoiding the formation of such a dead zone, are discussed.

  2. Dead space and slope indices from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension-volume curve

    OpenAIRE

    Kars, Alice; Bogaard, Jan; Stijnen, Theo; Vries, J.; Verbraak, Anton; Hilvering, C.

    1997-01-01

    textabstractThe slope of phase 3 and three noninvasively determined dead space estimates derived from the expiratory carbon dioxide tension (PCO2) versus volume curve, including the Bohr dead space (VD,Bohr), the Fowler dead space (VD,Fowler) and pre-interface expirate (PIE), were investigated in 28 healthy control subjects, 12 asthma and 29 emphysema patients (20 severely obstructed and nine moderately obstructed) with the aim to establish diagnostic value. Because breath volume and frequenc...

  3. Do saproxylic beetles respond numerically to rapid changes in dead wood availability following moth outbreaks?

    OpenAIRE

    Schultze, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Outbreaks of defoliating insects periodically cause mass mortality of trees, thereby generating pulses of dead wood resources for saproxylic (i.e. dead-wood dependent) organisms. This study investigated the responses of saproxylic beetles to a dead wood resource pulse caused by recent (2001-2009) outbreaks of geometrid moths in the subarctic mountain birch forest of the Varanger region in northern Norway. A large scale (20 km) transect design, implementing window (flight interception) traps a...

  4. Occurrence patterns of dead wood and wood-dependent lichens in managed boreal forest landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Måns

    2013-01-01

    Dead wood is a key resource for biodiversity, on which thousands of forest organisms are dependent. Because of current forest management, there has been a large-scale change in dead wood amounts and qualities, and consequently, many wood-dependent species are threatened. The general aim of this thesis is to increase our understanding of habitat requirements and occurrence patterns of wood-dependent lichens in managed, boreal forest landscapes. We surveyed dead wood and wood-dependent lichens ...

  5. Comparison between morphological and staining characteristics of live and dead eggs of Schistosoma mansoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AK Sarvel

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Schistosoma mansoni eggs are classified, according to morphological characteristics, as follows: viable mature and immature eggs; dead mature and immature eggs, shells and granulomas. The scope of this study was to compare the staining characteristics of different morphological types of eggs in the presence of fluorescent labels and vital dyes, aiming at differentiating live and dead eggs. The eggs were obtained from the intestines of infected mice, and put into saline 0.85%. The fluorescent labels were Hoechst 33258 and Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide and vital dyes (Trypan Blue 0.4% and Neutral Red 1%. When labelled with the probe Hoechst 33258, some immature eggs, morphologically considered viable, presented fluorescence (a staining characteristic detected only in dead eggs; mature eggs did not present fluorescence, and the other types of dead eggs, morphologically defined, showed fluorescence. As far as Acridine Orange + Ethidium Bromide are concerned, either the eggs considered to be live, or the dead ones, presented staining with green color, and only the hatched and motionless miracidium was stained with an orange color. Trypan Blue was not able to stain the eggs, considered to be dead but only dead miracidia which had emerged out of the shell. Neutral Red stained both live and dead eggs. Only the fluorescent Hoechst 33258 can be considered a useful tool for differentiation between dead and live eggs.

  6. The Role of Dead Wood in Maintaining Arthropod Diversity on the Forest Floor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanula, James L. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Horn, Scott [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station; Wade, Dale D. [Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southern Research Station

    2006-08-01

    Dead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. Finally, the results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  7. "Dead in bed": a tragic complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, M

    2010-12-01

    "Dead in bed" is a tragic description of a particular type of sudden death in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Patients are typically found dead in the early morning, lying in an undisturbed bed, having been well the previous evening. The incidence of "dead in bed" syndrome is not known but studies suggest figures of between 4.7 and 27.3% of all unexplained deaths in type 1 DM. The pathogenesis is unclear but patients typically have a preceding history of recurrent severe hypoglycaemia. We describe two cases of "dead in bed" syndrome which occurred at our institution within a 12-month period.

  8. Pengaruh Variasi Konsentrasi Inulin pada Proses Fermentasi oleh L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus dan S. thermophillus - (The Inulin Variation Concentration Effect in Fermentation Using L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus and S. thermophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Haryo Bimo Setiarto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prebiotics are food components that can not enzymatically digested, thus it fermented by probiotic bacteria. Inulin is a prebiotic source that widely used in processed food products such as fermented milk. This study aimed to know the variation concentrations effect of prebiotic inulin on the growth of lactic acid bacteria starter yogurt (Lactobacillus acidophillus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophillus. The growth of those lactic acid bacteries was determined based on OD (Optical Density, Total Plate Count (TPC, total lactic acid content and pH. Inulin concentration of 0.5% (w/v increased the growth of those three bacteries. Reductioned of pH value during inulin fermentation indicated the growth of bacteria that produced lactic acid. L.bulgaricus and S.thermophilus growth rate were more sensitive than L.acidophilus in addition of prebiotic inulin concentration. The growth of those bacteries in MRSB medium supplemented inulin decreased pH around 7.00 into below 5.00 due to organic acids formation.Keywords: Fermentation, Inulin, L.acidophilus, L.bulgaricus, S.thermophilusABSTRAKPrebiotik adalah komponen bahan pangan yang tidak dapat dicerna oleh saluran pencernaan secara enzimatis sehingga akan difermentasi oleh bakteri probiotik di usus besar. Inulin merupakan salah satu sumber prebiotik yang banyak dimanfaatkan dalam produk pangan olahan seperti susu fermentasi. Pemberian inulin pada kadar tertentu perlu diketahui untuk mengetahui jumlah optimal yang diperlukan untuk menjaga kesehatan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh variasi konsentrasi prebiotik inulin terhadap pertumbuhan bakteri asam laktat starter yogurt (Lactobacillus acidophillus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus dan Streptococcus thermophillus. Pengamatan pertumbuhan L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus dan S. thermophillus dilakukan dengan beberapa cara antara lain perhitungan total sel dengan menggunakan prinsip turbidimetrik OD (Optical Density,  jumlah total

  9. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated Alfa fibers (Stipa tenacissima) using β-d-glucosidase and xylanase of Talaromyces thermophilus from solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallek-Fakhfakh, Hanen; Fakhfakh, Jawhar; Walha, Kamel; Hassairi, Hajer; Gargouri, Ali; Belghith, Hafedh

    2017-10-01

    This work aims at realizing an optimal hydrolysis of pretreated Alfa fibers (Stipa tenacissima) through the use of enzymes produced from Talaromyces thermophilus AX4, namely β-d-glucosidase and xylanase, by a solid state fermentation process of an agro-industrial waste (wheat bran supplemented with lactose). The carbon source was firstly selected and the optimal values of three other parameters were determined: substrate loading (10g), moisture content (85%) and production time (10days); which led to an optimized enzymatic juice. The outcome was then supplemented with cellulases of T. reesei and used to optimize the enzymatic saccharification of alkali-pretreated Alfa fibers (PAF). The maximum saccharification yield of 83.23% was achieved under optimized conditions (substrate concentration 3.7% (w/v), time 144h and enzyme loading of 0.8 FPU, 15U CMCase, 60U β-d-glucosidase and 125U xylanase).The structural modification of PAF due to enzymatic saccharification was supported by the changes of morphologic and chemical composition observed through macroscopic representation, FTIR and X-Ray analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) of Streptococcus thermophilus St-I and its Bacteriophage-Insensitive Mutants (BIM) Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan; Bian, Xin; Evivie, Smith Etareri; Huo, Gui-Cheng

    2016-09-01

    The CRISPR-Cas (CRISPR together with CRISPR-associated proteins) modules are the adaptive immune system, acting as an adaptive and heritable immune system in bacteria and archaea. CRISPR-based immunity acts by integrating short virus sequences in the cell's CRISPR locus, allowing the cell to remember, recognize, and clear infections. In this study, the homology of CRISPRs sequence in BIMs (bacteriophage-insensitive mutants) of Streptococcus thermophilus St-I were analyzed. Secondary structures of the repeats and the PAMs (protospacer-associated motif) of each CRISPR locus were also predicted. Results showed that CRISPR1 has 27 repeat-spacer units, 5 of them had duplicates; CRISPR2 has one repeat-spacer unit; CRISPR3 has 28 repeat-spacer units. Only BIM1 had a new spacer acquisition in CRISPR3, while BIM2 and BIM3 had no new spacers' insertion, thus indicating that while most CRISPR1 were more active than CRISPR3, new spacer acquisition occurred just in CRSPR3 in some situations. These findings will help establish the foundation for the study of CRSPR-Cas systems in lactic acid bacteria.

  11. Improved growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as well as Increased antioxidant activity by biotransforming litchi pericarp polysaccharide with Aspergillus awamori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sen; Wen, Lingrong; Yang, Bao; Jiang, Guoxiang; Shi, John; Chen, Feng; Jiang, Yueming

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to increase the bioactivity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides (LPPs) biotransformed by Aspergillus awamori. Compared to the non-A. awamori-fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori-fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. Increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and DNA protection activity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides were also achieved after A. awamori fermentation. Moreover, the relative content of glucose and arabinose in LPP after fermentation decreased from 58.82% to 22.60% and from 18.82% to 10.09%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the relative contents of galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose. Furthermore, lower molecular weight polysaccharides were obtained after A. awamori fermentation. It can be concluded that A. awamori was effective in biotransforming LPP into a bioactive mixture with lower molecular weight polysaccharides and higher antioxidant activity and relative galactose content.

  12. Improved Growth of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus as well as Increased Antioxidant Activity by Biotransforming Litchi Pericarp Polysaccharide with Aspergillus awamori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sen Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to increase the bioactivity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides (LPPs biotransformed by Aspergillus awamori. Compared to the non-A. awamori-fermented LPP, the growth effects of A. awamori-fermented LPP on Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus were four and two times higher after 3 days of fermentation, respectively. Increased 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and DNA protection activity of litchi pericarp polysaccharides were also achieved after A. awamori fermentation. Moreover, the relative content of glucose and arabinose in LPP after fermentation decreased from 58.82% to 22.60% and from 18.82% to 10.09%, respectively, with a concomitant increase in the relative contents of galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and mannose. Furthermore, lower molecular weight polysaccharides were obtained after A. awamori fermentation. It can be concluded that A. awamori was effective in biotransforming LPP into a bioactive mixture with lower molecular weight polysaccharides and higher antioxidant activity and relative galactose content.

  13. Effects of long-term intake of a yogurt fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131 on mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Yuki; Kimura, Yasumasa; Satoh, Takeshi; Takemura, Naoki; Ouchi, Yasuo; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Kyosuke; Suzuki, Hiromi; Koyama, Satomi; Hagiwara, Satoko; Tanaka, Hirotoshi; Imoto, Seiya; Eberl, Gérard; Asami, Yukio; Fujimoto, Kosuke; Uematsu, Satoshi

    2018-05-15

    The gut is an extremely complicated ecosystem where microorganisms, nutrients and host cells interact vigorously. Although the function of the intestine and its barrier system weakens with age, some probiotics can potentially prevent age-related intestinal dysfunction. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus 2038 and Streptococcus thermophilus 1131, which are the constituents of LB81 yogurt, are representative probiotics. However, it is unclear whether their long-term intake has a beneficial influence on systemic function. Here, we examined the gut microbiome, fecal metabolites and gene expression profiles of various organs in mice. Although age-related alterations were apparent in them, long-term LB81 yogurt intake led to an increased Bacteroidetes to Firmicutes ratio and elevated abundance of the bacterial family S24-7 (Bacteroidetes), which is known to be associated with butyrate and propanoate production. According to our fecal metabolite analysis to detect enrichment, long-term LB81 yogurt intake altered the intestinal metabolic pathways associated with propanoate and butanoate in the mice. Gene ontology analysis also revealed that long-term LB81 yogurt intake influenced many physiological functions related to the defense response. The profiles of various genes associated with antimicrobial peptides-, tight junctions-, adherens junctions- and mucus-associated intestinal barrier functions were also drastically altered in the LB81 yogurt-fed mice. Thus, long-term intake of LB81 yogurt has the potential to maintain systemic homeostasis, such as the gut barrier function, by controlling the intestinal microbiome and its metabolites.

  14. Improved Helicobacter pylori Eradication Rate of Tailored Triple Therapy by Adding Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus in Northeast Region of Thailand: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taweesak Tongtawee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim. To evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus to Helicobacter pylori eradication in different periods of therapeutic protocol. Methods. Infected patients were randomized to one-week tailored triple therapy (esomeprazole 20 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid/metronidazole 400 mg tid if clarithromycin resistant, and amoxicillin 1000 mg bid with placebo (group 1, n=100; one week of pretreatment with probiotics (group 2, n=100; and one week of pretreatment with probiotic followed by one week of the same probiotics after treatment (group 3, n=100. Result. PP analysis involved 292 patients, 98 in group 1, 97 in group 2, and 97 in group 3. Successful eradication was observed in 229 patients; by PP analysis, the eradication rates were significantly higher (P<0.01, 95% CI; 0.71–0.97 in group 2 and group 3 than group 1. ITT analysis eradication rates were significantly higher in group 2 and group 3 than group 1 (P<0.01 95% CI; 0.72–0.87, and there is no significant difference between the three groups (P=0.32 in terms of adverse events. Conclusion. Adding probiotics before or before and after tailored treatment can improve Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. This trial is registered with Thai Clinical Trials Registry number: TCTR20141209001.

  15. Improved Helicobacter pylori Eradication Rate of Tailored Triple Therapy by Adding Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus in Northeast Region of Thailand: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim. To evaluate the effect of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus to Helicobacter pylori eradication in different periods of therapeutic protocol. Methods. Infected patients were randomized to one-week tailored triple therapy (esomeprazole 20 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid/metronidazole 400 mg tid if clarithromycin resistant, and amoxicillin 1000 mg bid) with placebo (group 1, n=100); one week of pretreatment with probiotics (group 2, n=100); and one week of pretreatment with probiotic followed by one week of the same probiotics after treatment (group 3, n=100). Result. PP analysis involved 292 patients, 98 in group 1, 97 in group 2, and 97 in group 3. Successful eradication was observed in 229 patients; by PP analysis, the eradication rates were significantly higher (P<0.01, 95% CI; 0.71-0.97) in group 2 and group 3 than group 1. ITT analysis eradication rates were significantly higher in group 2 and group 3 than group 1 (P<0.01 95% CI; 0.72-0.87), and there is no significant difference between the three groups (P=0.32) in terms of adverse events. Conclusion. Adding probiotics before or before and after tailored treatment can improve Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. This trial is registered with Thai Clinical Trials Registry number: TCTR20141209001.

  16. Cell growth and proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus in milk as affected by supplementation with peptide fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Akanksha; Shah, Nagendra P

    2014-12-01

    The present investigation examined the effects of supplementation of milk peptide fractions produced by enzymatic hydrolysis on the fermentation of reconstituted skim milk (RSM). Changes in pH, cell growth, proteolytic activity, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity were monitored during fermentation of RSM by pure cultures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilus. The study showed that supplementation with peptide fractions of different molecular weights did not significantly affect the bacterial growth in RSM. All bacteria showed an increased proteolytic activity in RSM supplemented with large peptides (>10 kDa), and L. helveticus in general exhibited the highest proteolytic activity among the bacteria studied. The ACE-inhibitory activity was observed to be the maximum in RSM supplemented with larger peptides (>10 kDa) for all bacteria. The results suggest that proteolysis by bacteria leads to increased production of ACE-inhibitory peptides compared to the supplemented peptides produced by enzymatic hydrolysis.

  17. Instrumental texture and sensory evaluation of fermented dairy beverages processed with reconstituted goat whey powder and a co-culture of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus casei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Áurea Marcela de Souza Pereira

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Lactobacillus casei BGP93 used as adjunct culture on the physicochemical, textural and sensory characteristics of a dairy beverage processed with goat Coalho cheese whey powder and Streptococcus thermophilus TA-40 as starter (ST-LC beverage were investigated in comparison to a control product (ST beverage without L. casei. No significant differences were observed between the ST and ST-LC trials concerning the acidification pattern throughout the fermentation process (P>0.05. Post-acidification was also not observed for both trials since their pH values were maintained stable, without significant differences during 21 days at 4 ± 1 °C. This pH stability reinforced the maintenance of firmness, consistency, cohesiveness and viscosity index without significant differences between the sampling periods throughout the whole storage in both trials, and also that no significant difference was verified between the ST and ST-LC beverages in the sensory evaluation (P>0.05.

  18. The detail is dead - long live the detail!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen Nepper; Dalgaard, Kim; Kerstens, Vencent

    2018-01-01

    architecture when we look into architectural history. Too classic examples are; Adolf Loos who provoked already in 1908 with his statement; "Ornament and Crime", which contested the unconscious decorations of contemporary architects. Similarly, referring to the little need for superfluous detailing; "Less...... not change the fact that it is more important than ever to bring this 'small' architectural world to attention. Today, the construction industry is dictated by an economic management that does not leave much room for thorough studies of architectural details or visionary experiments. Today's more efficient......_Delft about the Symposium; "The Detail is Dead - Long Live the Detail". For this occasion a number of leading Danish and Northern European architects, researchers and companies were invited to discuss and suggest their 'architectural detail' and the challenges they face in today's construction. This book...

  19. Metagenome of a Versatile Chemolithoautotroph from Expanding Oceanic Dead Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, David A.; Zaikova, Elena; Howes, Charles L.; Song, Young; Wright, Jody; Tringe, Susannah G.; Tortell, Philippe D.; Hallam, Steven J.

    2009-07-15

    Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), also known as oceanic"dead zones", are widespread oceanographic features currently expanding due to global warming and coastal eutrophication. Although inhospitable to metazoan life, OMZs support a thriving but cryptic microbiota whose combined metabolic activity is intimately connected to nutrient and trace gas cycling within the global ocean. Here we report time-resolved metagenomic analyses of a ubiquitous and abundant but uncultivated OMZ microbe (SUP05) closely related to chemoautotrophic gill symbionts of deep-sea clams and mussels. The SUP05 metagenome harbors a versatile repertoire of genes mediating autotrophic carbon assimilation, sulfur-oxidation and nitrate respiration responsive to a wide range of water column redox states. Thus, SUP05 plays integral roles in shaping nutrient and energy flow within oxygen-deficient oceanic waters via carbon sequestration, sulfide detoxification and biological nitrogen loss with important implications for marine productivity and atmospheric greenhouse control.

  20. Between My Body and My "Dead Body": Narratives of Coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoded Danon, Limor

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on narrative research that focuses on corporeal experience during coma and during the rehabilitation process. Seventeen participants from different areas of Israel who had been in various kinds of coma states reveal what the corporeal experience of coma is. The participants are divided into three types of narrative protagonists--"dead-alive," "rational," and "emissaries." Each of the participants redefined the boundaries of the body, especially in cases when they spoke of experiences they did not understand as corporeal, for example, out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences, or experiences of being between the earthly and unearthly. Their struggle to find suitable words to tell their coma stories emphasizes these boundaries between experiencing and telling, which crossed the normative discursive border of the medical establishment and illustrates the ambiguous nature of human existence. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Deadly pressure pneumothorax after withdrawal of misplaced feeding tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Erik Nygaard; Frydland, Martin; Usinger, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients have a nasogastric feeding tube inserted during admission; however, misplacement is not uncommon. In this case report we present, to the best of our knowledge, the first documented fatality from pressure pneumothorax following nasogastric tube withdrawal. CASE PRESENTATION......, but our patient died less than an hour after withdrawal. The autopsy report stated that cause of death was tension pneumothorax, which developed following withdrawal of the misplaced feeding tube. CONCLUSIONS: The indications for insertion of nasogastric feeding tubes are many and the procedure...... is considered harmless; however, if the tube is misplaced there is good reason to be cautious on removal as this can unmask puncture of the pleura eliciting pneumothorax and, as this case report shows, result in an ultimately deadly tension pneumothorax....

  2. A deadly combination of AIDS, TB and cardiac tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahasrabudhe, Tushar Ramesh

    2013-05-22

    Immunocompromised status in AIDS makes differential diagnosis of any symptom very difficult for a clinician. Sharp clinical judgement and plenty of investigations may be needed to reach the diagnosis, as in this case. We hereby present a case of AIDS and active tuberculosis (TB) under treatment. The patient developed acute onset multifocal neurological symptoms following an episode of fever and diarrhoea. The MRI scan revealed numerous large cerebral infarcts. On investigations to evaluate brain infarcts, we made a diagnosis of left atrial cardiac tumour. Association of cardiac tumours with AIDS has only been rarely reported. It is uncertain if these can be opportunistic tumours in AIDS. The patient successfully came out of this deadly combination of diseases, viz AIDS, TB and large brain infarcts due to atrial tumour; with almost complete recovery.

  3. Digital instrumentation and dead-time processing for radionuclide metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Censier, B.; Bobin, Ch.; Bouchard, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most of the acquisition chains used in radionuclide metrology are based on NIM modules. These analogue setups have been thoroughly tested for decades now, becoming a reference in the field. Nevertheless, the renewal of ageing modules and the need for extra features both call for the development of new acquisition schemes based on digital processing. In this article, several technologies usable for instrumentation are first presented. A review of past and present projects is made in the second part, highlighting the fundamental role of dead-time management. The last part is dedicated to the description of two digital systems developed at LNE-LNHB. The first one has been designed for the instrumentation of a NaI(Tl) well-type crystal set-up, while the second one is used for the management of three photomultipliers in the framework of the TDCR method and as a part of the development of a digital platform for coincidence counting. (authors)

  4. Experimental evaluation of the extended Dytlewski-style dead time correction formalism for neutron multiplicity counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockhart, M.; Henzlova, D.; Croft, S.; Cutler, T.; Favalli, A.; McGahee, Ch.; Parker, R.

    2018-01-01

    Over the past few decades, neutron multiplicity counting has played an integral role in Special Nuclear Material (SNM) characterization pertaining to nuclear safeguards. Current neutron multiplicity analysis techniques use singles, doubles, and triples count rates because a methodology to extract and dead time correct higher order count rates (i.e. quads and pents) was not fully developed. This limitation is overcome by the recent extension of a popular dead time correction method developed by Dytlewski. This extended dead time correction algorithm, named Dytlewski-Croft-Favalli(DCF), is detailed in reference Croft and Favalli (2017), which gives an extensive explanation of the theory and implications of this new development. Dead time corrected results can then be used to assay SNM by inverting a set of extended point model equations which as well have only recently been formulated. The current paper discusses and presents the experimental evaluation of practical feasibility of the DCF dead time correction algorithm to demonstrate its performance and applicability in nuclear safeguards applications. In order to test the validity and effectiveness of the dead time correction for quads and pents, 252Cf and SNM sources were measured in high efficiency neutron multiplicity counters at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the count rates were extracted up to the fifth order and corrected for dead time. In order to assess the DCF dead time correction, the corrected data is compared to traditional dead time correction treatment within INCC. The DCF dead time correction is found to provide adequate dead time treatment for broad range of count rates available in practical applications.

  5. 9 CFR 325.20 - Transportation and other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died... other transactions concerning dead, dying, disabled, or diseased livestock, and parts of carcasses of livestock that died otherwise than by slaughter. No person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or...

  6. Uranium and thorium uptake by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siva Prasath, C.S.; Manikandan, N.; Prakash, S.

    2010-01-01

    This study presents uptake of uranium (U) and thorium (Th) by live and dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. Increasing concentration of U and Tb showed decrease in absorption by Pseudomonas Sp. Dead cells of Pseudomonas Sp. exhibited same or more uptake of U and Th than living cells. Increasing temperature promotes uptake of U and Th by Pseudomonas Sp. (author)

  7. Contact with the Dead, Religion, and Death Anxiety among Older Mexican Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal; Bastida, Elena

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to see if contact with the dead is associated with lower death anxiety among older Mexican Americans. The data come from a nationwide survey of older Mexican Americans (N = 1,005). The study model specifies that (a) older Mexican Americans who have experienced contact with the dead are more likely to see the…

  8. 75 FR 7536 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Dead Sea Scrolls...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    ... Determinations: ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Words That Changed the World'' Summary: Notice is hereby given of the... included in the exhibition ``The Dead Sea Scrolls: Words That Changed the World,'' imported from abroad for... pursuant to a loan agreement with the foreign owner or custodian. I also determine that the exhibition or...

  9. Safety evaluation of traces of nickel and chrome in cosmetics: The case of Dead Sea mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma'or, Ze'evi; Halicz, Ludwik; Portugal-Cohen, Meital; Russo, Matteo Zanotti; Robino, Federica; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2015-12-01

    Metal impurities such as nickel and chrome are present in natural ingredients-containing cosmetic products. These traces are unavoidable due to the ubiquitous nature of these elements. Dead Sea mud is a popular natural ingredient of cosmetic products in which nickel and chrome residues are likely to occur. To analyze the potential systemic and local toxicity of Dead Sea mud taking into consideration Dead Sea muds' natural content of nickel and chrome. The following endpoints were evaluated: (Regulation No. 1223/20, 21/12/2009) systemic and (SCCS's Notes of Guidance) local toxicity of topical application of Dead Sea mud; health reports during the last five years of commercial marketing of Dead Sea mud. Following exposure to Dead Sea mud, MoS (margin of safety) calculations for nickel and chrome indicate no toxicological concern for systemic toxicity. Skin sensitization is also not to be expected by exposure of normal healthy skin to Dead Sea mud. Topical application, however, is not recommended for already nickel-or chrome-sensitized persons. As risk assessment of impurities present in cosmetics may be a difficult exercise, the case of Dead Sea mud is taken here as an example of a natural material that may contain traces of unavoidable metals. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 14 CFR 1203b.105 - Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Use of non-deadly physical force when making an arrest. When a security force officer has the right to... believes to be the use or threat of imminent use of non-deadly physical force by the offender. Verbal abuse...

  11. Changes in down dead wood volume across a chronosequence of silvicultural openings in southern Indiana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael A. Jenkins; George R. Parker

    1997-01-01

    The volume and decay stages of down dead wood were evaluated across a chronosequence of 46 silvicultural openings and 10 uncut control stands to determine how down dead wood volume changes with stand development. Openings ranged in age from 8 to 26 years and were divided into three age groups: (1) 16 years. Individual logs...

  12. Generalized projective synchronization of chaotic nonlinear gyros coupled with dead-zone input

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, M.-L.; Yan, J.-J.; Liao, T.-L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the synchronization problem of drive-response chaotic gyros coupled with dead-zone nonlinear input. Using the sliding mode control technique, a novel control law is established which guarantees generalized projective synchronization even when the dead-zone nonlinearity is present. Numerical simulations are presented to verify that the synchronization can be achieved by using the proposed synchronization scheme

  13. Load structure seismites in the Dead Sea Area, Israel : Chronological benchmarking with C-14 dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowman, D; Bruins, HJ; van der Plicht, J; Boaretto, E.; Bruins, Hendrik J.; Carmi, I.

    2001-01-01

    The Dead Sea is a terminal lake located in the seismically active zone of the Syro-African Rift Valley. The water level of the Dead Sea has been receding dramatically during the last decades, resulting in significant entrenchment of wadis towards its shores. Exposed sections in fan deltas reveal

  14. Diversity of dead wood inhabiting fungal and bryophytes in semi-natural beech forests in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ódor, P.; Heilmann-Clausen, J.; Christensen, M.; Aude, E.; Dort, van K.W.; Piltaver, A.; Siller, I.; Veerkamp, M.T.; Walleyn, R.; Standovár, T.; Hees, van A.F.M.; Kosec, J.; Matocec, N.; Kraigher, H.; Grebenc, T.

    2006-01-01

    Saproxylic organisms are among the most threatened species in Europe and constitute a major conservation problem because they depend on the most important forestry product - dead wood. Diversity of fungal and bryophyte communities occurring on dead beech trees was analyzed in five European countries

  15. Postfire Succession of Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Nesting in Dead Wood of Northern Boreal Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Philippe; Hébert, Christian; Francoeur, André; Sirois, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Dead wood decomposition begins immediately after tree death and involves a large array of invertebrates. Ecological successions are still poorly known for saproxylic organisms, particularly in boreal forests. We investigated the use of dead wood as nesting sites for ants along a 60-yr postfire chronosequence in northeastern coniferous forests. We sampled a total of 1,625 pieces of dead wood, in which 263 ant nests were found. Overall, ant abundance increased during the first 30 yr after wildfire, and then declined. Leptothorax cf. canadensis Provancher, the most abundant species in our study, was absent during the first 2 yr postfire, but increased steadily until 30 yr after fire, whereas Myrmica alaskensis Wheeler, second in abundance, was found at all stages of succession in the chronosequence. Six other species were less frequently found, among which Camponotus herculeanus (Linné), Formica neorufibarbis Emery, and Formica aserva Forel were locally abundant, but more scarcely distributed. Dead wood lying on the ground and showing numerous woodborer holes had a higher probability of being colonized by ants. The C:N ratio was lower for dead wood colonized by ants than for noncolonized dead wood, showing that the continuous occupation of dead wood by ants influences the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of dead wood after wildfire in northern boreal forests. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effect of dead space on breathing stability at exercise in hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermand, Eric; Lhuissier, François J; Richalet, Jean-Paul

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that normal subjects exhibit periodic breathing when submitted to concomitant environmental (hypoxia) and physiological (exercise) stresses. A mathematical model including mass balance equations confirmed the short period of ventilatory oscillations and pointed out an important role of dead space in the genesis of these phenomena. Ten healthy subjects performed mild exercise on a cycloergometer in different conditions: rest/exercise, normoxia/hypoxia and no added dead space/added dead space (aDS). Ventilatory oscillations (V˙E peak power) were augmented by exercise, hypoxia and aDS (Pspace. This underlines opposite effects observed in heart failure patients and normal subjects, in which added dead space drastically reduced periodic breathing and sleep apneas. It also points out that alveolar ventilation remains very close to metabolic needs and is not affected by an added dead space. Clinical Trial reg. n°: NCT02201875. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-Poisson counting statistics of a hybrid G-M counter dead time model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jae, Moosung; Gardner, Robin P.

    2007-01-01

    The counting statistics of a G-M counter with a considerable dead time event rate deviates from Poisson statistics. Important characteristics such as observed counting rates as a function true counting rates, variances and interval distributions were analyzed for three dead time models, non-paralyzable, paralyzable and hybrid, with the help of GMSIM, a Monte Carlo dead time effect simulator. The simulation results showed good agreements with the models in observed counting rates and variances. It was found through GMSIM simulations that the interval distribution for the hybrid model showed three distinctive regions, a complete cutoff region for the duration of the total dead time, a degraded exponential and an enhanced exponential regions. By measuring the cutoff and the duration of degraded exponential from the pulse interval distribution, it is possible to evaluate the two dead times in the hybrid model

  18. Instrumental dead-time and its relationship with matrix corrections in X-ray fluorescence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, I.L.; Haukka, M.T.; Anderson, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between instrumental dead-time and the self-absorption coefficients, αsub(ii) in x.r.f. matrix correction by means of influence coefficients, is not generally recognized but has important analytical consequences. Systematic errors of the order of 1% (relative) for any analyte result from experimental uncertainties in instrumental dead-time. Such errors are applied unevenly across a given range of concentration because the error depends on the calibration standards and on the instrumental conditions used. Refinement of the instrumental dead-time value and other calibration parameters to conform with influence coefficients determined elsewhere assumes exact knowledge of dead-time of the instrument used originally, and quite similar excitation conditions and spectrometer geometry for the two instruments. Though these qualifications may not be met, adjustment of any of the parameters (dead-time, reference concentration, background concentration, self-absorption and other influence coefficients) can be easily achieved. (Auth.)

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus AY/CSL (LMG P-17224) and Streptococcus thermophilus 9Y/CSL (LMG P-17225) and “beneficial modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of a health claim related to a combination of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus AY/CSL (LMG P-17224) and Streptococcus thermophilus 9Y/CSL (LMG P-17225) and “beneficial modulation of intestinal microflora”. The scope of the application was proposed to fall under a health claim referring to children......’s development and health. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim, a combination of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus AY/CSL (LMG P-17224) and S. thermophilus 9Y/CSL (LMG P-17225), has not been sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “beneficial modulation of the intestinal...... that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of the food constituent, the combination of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus AY/CSL (LMG P-17224) and S. thermophilus 9Y/CSL (LMG P-17225), and a beneficial physiological effect related to “beneficial modulation...

  20. Thermo-reversible inhibition makes aqualysin 1 from Thermus aquaticus a potent tool for studying the contribution of the wheat gluten network to the crumb texture of fresh bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbauwhede, Annelien E; Lambrecht, Marlies A; Fierens, Ellen; Hermans, Senne; Shegay, Oksana; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2018-10-30

    The thermo-active serine peptidase aqualysin 1 (Aq1) of Thermus aquaticus was applied in bread making to study the relative contribution of thermoset gluten to bread crumb texture. Aq1 is active between 30 °C and 90 °C with an optimum activity temperature of around 65 °C. It is inhibited by wheat endogenous serine peptidase inhibitors during dough mixing and fermentation and starts hydrolyzing gluten proteins during baking above 80 °C when the enzyme is no longer inhibited and most of the starch is gelatinized and contributes to structure formation. Aq1 activity reduced the molecular weight of gluten proteins and significantly increased their extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing medium. While it had no impact on the specific bread volume and only limited impact on hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, resilience and chewiness, it impacted bread crumb coherence. We conclude that starch has a greater impact on crumb texture than thermoset gluten. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Caracteristicas de crescimento de uma linhagem selvagem de Streptococcus thermophilus, sua adesão em superficie de aço inoxidavel e comportamento frente a detergencia e sanificação

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Lourdes Neves Gandara

    1995-01-01

    Resumo: Microrganismo selvagem isolado de leite pasteurizado, obtido de processo contínuo de pasteurização HTST com 4 h de operação foi identificado como Streptococcus thermophilus, formando a maior densidade celular em caldo M11 a 45°C em 6h. O número de células viáveis desse microrganismo foi avaliado em meios de cultura PCA, APT, MRS e Ml1 sendo os meios M11 e MRS os que permitiram melhor crescimento. Menores contagens do microrganismo foram observadas no meio APT em relação aos meios ante...

  2. Vector Graph Assisted Pedestrian Dead Reckoning Using an Unconstrained Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuchao Qian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a hybrid indoor positioning solution based on a pedestrian dead reckoning (PDR approach using built-in sensors on a smartphone. To address the challenges of flexible and complex contexts of carrying a phone while walking, a robust step detection algorithm based on motion-awareness has been proposed. Given the fact that step length is influenced by different motion states, an adaptive step length estimation algorithm based on motion recognition is developed. Heading estimation is carried out by an attitude acquisition algorithm, which contains a two-phase filter to mitigate the distortion of magnetic anomalies. In order to estimate the heading for an unconstrained smartphone, principal component analysis (PCA of acceleration is applied to determine the offset between the orientation of smartphone and the actual heading of a pedestrian. Moreover, a particle filter with vector graph assisted particle weighting is introduced to correct the deviation in step length and heading estimation. Extensive field tests, including four contexts of carrying a phone, have been conducted in an office building to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm. Test results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve sub-meter mean error in all contexts.

  3. Sarcopenia and critical illness: a deadly combination in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Joseph S

    2015-03-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of lean skeletal muscle mass. It is the result of multiple physiologic derangements, ultimately resulting in an insidious functional decline. Frailty, the clinical manifestation of sarcopenia and physical infirmity, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The underlying pathology results in a disruption of the individual's ability to tolerate internal and external stressors such as injury or illness. This infirmity results in a markedly increased risk of falls and subsequent morbidity and mortality from the resulting traumatic injury, as well as an inability to recover from medical insults, resulting in critical illness. The increasing prevalence of sarcopenia and critical illness in the elderly has resulted in a deadly intersection of disease processes. The lethality of this combination appears to be the result of altered muscle metabolism, decreased mitochondrial energetics needed to survive critical illness, and a chronically activated catabolic state likely mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, these underlying derangements are independently associated with an increased incidence of critical illness, resulting in a progressive downward spiral. Considerable evidence has been gathered supporting the role of aggressive nutrition support and physical therapy in improving outcomes. Critical care practitioners must consider sarcopenia and the resulting frailty phenotype a comorbid condition so that the targeted interventions can be instituted and research efforts focused. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. Effects of dead load on ductility of a floor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisaki, E.; Sarkar, B.E.; Ho, H.; Reed, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    In seismic margin or seismic fragility calculations, the ductility scale factor F μ is often used to quantify the effect of inelastic energy absorption on structural capacity. In concept, the ductility scale factor can be thought of as a response spectrum reduction factor. For a given ductile structural element and input response spectrum, the product of F μ and the factor of safety against yield (F s ) provides a measure of the total factor of safety against failure (F). Testing and analytical studies by others have shown that structures such as shear walls and building frames (mounted vertically) subjected to horizontal input motions are capable of absorbing earthquake energy through inelastic behavior. Kennedy, 1984, Riddell, 1979, and Reed, 1991 studied the ductility scale factor and developed simplified procedures through the use of nonlinear analyses. For floor systems (mounted horizontally), we are mainly interested in the response to vertical input motions. Because of the constant downward pull of gravity, the nonlinear displacement of a floor structure is biased downward. This ratcheting phenomenon reduces the ductility scale factor for a horizontal element compared to the case where the same element is mounted vertically and is subjected to horizontal input motion. Through the use of nonlinear time history analyses, we investigated the effects of dead loads on the ductility scale factor of floor systems. We also developed a simple modification to the Riddell-Newmark procedure (Riddell, 1979), which is used to calculate the ductility scale factor for vertically mounted elements, to determine F μ for horizontally mounted elements

  5. Dead Sea mud packs for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Shakra, Mahmoud; Mayer, Amit; Friger, Michael; Harari, Marco

    2014-09-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is chronic disease without a curative therapy. Alternative and complementary therapies are widely used in the management of this condition. To evaluate the efficacy of home application of Dead Sea mud compresses to the back of patients with chronic LBP. Forty-six consecutive patients suffering from chronic LBP were recruited. All patients were followed at the Soroka University Rheumatic Diseases Unit. The patients were randomized into two groups: one group was treated with mineral-rich mud compresses, and the other with mineral-depleted compresses. Mud compresses were applied five times a week for 3 consecutive weeks. The primary outcome was the patient's assessment of the overall back pain severity. The score of the Ronald & Morris questionnaire served as a secondary outcome. Forty-four patients completed the therapy and the follow-up assessments: 32 were treated with real mud packs and 12 used the mineral-depleted packs. A significant decrease in intensity of pain, as described by the patients, was observed only in the treatment group. In this group, clinical improvement was clearly seen at completion of therapy and was sustained a month later. Significant improvement in the scores of the Roland & Morris questionnaire was observed in both groups. The data suggest that pain severity was reduced in patients treated with mineral-rich mud compresses compared with those treated with mineral-depleted compresses. Whether this modest effect is the result of a "true" mud effect or other causes can not be determined in this study.

  6. Sexual Masochism Disorder with Asphyxiophilia: A Deadly yet Underrecognized Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Coluccia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DSM-5 distinguishes between paraphilias and paraphilic disorders. Paraphilias are defined as atypical, yet not necessarily disordered, sexual practices. Paraphilic disorders are instead diseases, which include distress, impairment in functioning, or entail risk of harm one’s self or others. Hence, DSM-5 new approach to paraphilias demedicalizes and destigmatizes unusual sexual behaviors, provided they are not distressing or detrimental to self or others. Asphyxiophilia, a dangerous and potentially deadly form of sexual masochism involving sexual arousal by oxygen deprivation, are clearly described as disorders. Although autoerotic asphyxia has been associated with estimated mortality rates ranging from 250 to 1000 deaths per year in the United States, in Italy, knowledge on this condition is very poor. Episodes of death caused by autoerotic asphyxia seem to be underestimated because it often can be confounded with suicide cases, particularly in the Italian context where family members of the victim often try to disguise autoerotic behaviors of the victims. The current paper provides a review on sexual masochism disorder with asphyxiophilia and discusses one specific case as an example to examine those conditions that may or may not influence the likelihood that death from autoerotic asphyxia be erroneously reported as suicide or accidental injury.

  7. Exotic primitivism of death in classical Hollywood living dead films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Outi Hakola

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2012n62p219 The classical Hollywood horror exhibited the undead monsters, such as mummies, zombies and vampires, at the time when cultural practices of death and dying were changing in the United States. Consequently, the way death is handled in these films is connected to the ongoing marginalization of death. In the classical films, heroes represent modern, medicalized, scientific and marginalized death. In contrast, the undead represent traditional, or irrational and magical, death. When the heroes hunt down and kill the monsters, they also claim the superiority of modern death. Furthermore, the exclusion of traditional death is highlighted by using (postcolonial tensions. The non-western monsters and realm of the world stand for traditional death and the past whereas western heroes represent modern death and the future. This article concentrates on how the classical living dead films narrate the cultural tension between the waning (traditional and emerging (modern practices of death.

  8. Reductions in dead space ventilation with nasal high flow depend on physiological dead space volume: metabolic hood measurements during sleep in patients with COPD and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biselli, Paolo; Fricke, Kathrin; Grote, Ludger; Braun, Andrew T; Kirkness, Jason; Smith, Philip; Schwartz, Alan; Schneider, Hartmut

    2018-05-01

    Nasal high flow (NHF) reduces minute ventilation and ventilatory loads during sleep but the mechanisms are not clear. We hypothesised NHF reduces ventilation in proportion to physiological but not anatomical dead space.11 subjects (five controls and six chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients) underwent polysomnography with transcutaneous carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) monitoring under a metabolic hood. During stable non-rapid eye movement stage 2 sleep, subjects received NHF (20 L·min -1 ) intermittently for periods of 5-10 min. We measured CO 2 production and calculated dead space ventilation.Controls and COPD patients responded similarly to NHF. NHF reduced minute ventilation (from 5.6±0.4 to 4.8±0.4 L·min -1 ; pspace ventilation (from 2.5±0.4 to 1.6±0.4 L·min -1 ; pspace ventilation correlated with baseline physiological dead space fraction (r 2 =0.36; pspace volume.During sleep, NHF decreases minute ventilation due to an overall reduction in dead space ventilation in proportion to the extent of baseline physiological dead space fraction. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  9. The improvement of precision for estimating the abundance of standing dead trees using auxiliary information under the FIA pot design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Su An; David W. MacFarlane; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    Standing dead trees are an important component of forest ecosystems. However, reliable estimates of standing dead tree population parameters can be difficult to obtain due to their low abundance and spatial and temporal variation. After 1999, the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Program began collecting data for standing dead trees at the Phase 2 stage of sampling....

  10. Synthesis of regional wildlife and vegetation field studies to guide management of standing and down dead trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce G. Marcot; Janet L. Ohmann; Kim L. Mellen-McLean; Karen L. Waddell

    2010-01-01

    We used novel methods for combining information from wildlife and vegetation field studies to develop guidelines for managing dead wood for wildlife and biodiversity. The DecAID Decayed Wood Adviser presents data on wildlife use of standing and down dead trees (snags and down wood) and summaries of regional vegetation plot data depicting dead wood conditions, for...

  11. THE QUANTITY AND TURNOVER OF DEAD WOOD IN PERMANENT FOREST PLOTS IN SIX LIFE ZONES OF VENEZUELA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dead wood can be an important component of the carbon pool in many forests, but few measurements have been made of this pool in tropical forests. To fill this gap, we determined the quantity of dead wood (downed and standing dead) in 25 long-term (up to 30 yr) permanent forest pl...

  12. Pulmonary Dead Space Fraction and Extubation Success in Children After Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devor, Renee L; Kang, Paul; Wellnitz, Chasity; Nigro, John J; Velez, Daniel A; Willis, Brigham C

    2018-04-01

    1) Determine the correlation between pulmonary dead space fraction and extubation success in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients; and 2) document the natural history of pulmonary dead space fractions, dynamic compliance, and airway resistance during the first 72 hours postoperatively in postoperative pediatric cardiac patients. A retrospective chart review. Cardiac ICU in a quaternary care free-standing children's hospital. Twenty-nine with balanced single ventricle physiology, 61 with two ventricle physiology. None. We collected data for all pediatric patients undergoing congenital cardiac surgery over a 14-month period during the first 72 hours postoperatively as well as prior to extubation. Overall, patients with successful extubations had lower preextubation dead space fractions and shorter lengths of stay. Single ventricle patients had higher initial postoperative and preextubation dead space fractions. Two-ventricle physiology patients had higher extubation failure rates if the preextubation dead space fraction was greater than 0.5, whereas single ventricle patients had similar extubation failure rates whether preextubation dead space fractions were less than or equal to 0.5 or greater than 0.5. Additionally, increasing initial dead space fraction values predicted prolonged mechanical ventilation times. Airway resistance and dynamic compliance were similar between those with successful extubations and those who failed. Initial postoperative dead space fraction correlates with the length of mechanical ventilation in two ventricle patients but not in single ventricle patients. Lower preextubation dead space fractions are a strong predictor of successful extubation in two ventricle patients after cardiac surgery, but may not be as useful in single ventricle patients.

  13. Functions of DEAD-box proteins in bacteria: current knowledge and pending questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iost, Isabelle; Bizebard, Thierry; Dreyfus, Marc

    2013-08-01

    DEAD-box proteins are RNA-dependent ATPases that are widespread in all three kingdoms of life. They are thought to rearrange the structures of RNA or ribonucleoprotein complexes but their exact mechanism of action is rarely known. Whereas in yeast most DEAD-box proteins are essential, no example of an essential bacterial DEAD-box protein has been reported so far; at most, their absence results in cold-sensitive growth. Moreover, whereas yeast DEAD-box proteins are implicated in virtually all reactions involving RNA, in E. coli (the bacterium where DEAD-box proteins have been mostly studied) their role is limited to ribosome biogenesis, mRNA degradation, and possibly translation initiation. Plausible reasons for these differences are discussed here. In spite of their dispensability, E. coli DEAD-box proteins are valuable models for the mechanism of action of DEAD-box proteins in general because the reactions in which they participate can be reproduced in vitro. Here we review our present understanding of this mechanism of action. Using selected examples for which information is available: (i) we describe how, by interacting directly with a particular RNA motif or by binding to proteins that themselves recognize such a motif, DEAD-box proteins are brought to their specific RNA substrate(s); (ii) we discuss the nature of the structural transitions that DEAD-box proteins induce on their substrates; and (iii) we analyze the reasons why these proteins are mostly important at low temperatures. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The Biology of RNA helicases-Modulation for life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental dead time corrections for a linear position-sensitive proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelon, W.B.; Tompson, C.W.; Mildner, D.F.R.; Berliner, R.; Missouri Univ., Columbia

    1984-01-01

    Two simple counters included in the charge-digitization circuitry of a position-sensitive proportional counter using the charge division method for position encoding have enabled us to determine the dead time losses for the system. An interesting positional dependence of the dead time tau is observed, which agrees with a simple model. The system enables us to correct the experimental data for dead time and to be indifferent to the relatively slow analog-to-digital converters used in the system. (orig.)

  15. Empirical formulae for excess noise factor with dead space for single carrier multiplication

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.

    2011-09-01

    In this letter, two empirical equations are presented for the calculation of the excess noise factor of an avalanche photodiode for single carrier multiplication including the dead space effect. The first is an equation for calculating the excess noise factor when the multiplication approaches infinity as a function of parameters that describe the degree of the dead space effect. The second equation can be used to find the minimum value of the excess noise factor for any multiplication when the dead space effect is completely dominant, the so called "deterministic" limit. This agrees with the theoretically known equation for multiplications less than or equal to two. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  16. Dynamic optimum dead time in piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Andersen, Thomas; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    to charge and discharge the input capacitance of piezoelectric transformers in order to achieve zero-voltage switching. This paper proposes a method for detecting the optimum dead time in piezoelectric transformer-based switch-mode power supplies. The provision of sufficient dead time in every cycle......Soft switching is required to attain high efficiency in high-frequency power converters. Piezoelectric transformerbased converters can benefit from soft switching in terms of significantly diminished switching losses and stresses. Adequate dead time is needed in order to deliver sufficient energy...

  17. Smith predictor-based multiple periodic disturbance compensation for long dead-time processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Fang; Li, Han-Xiong; Shen, Ping

    2018-05-01

    Many disturbance rejection methods have been proposed for processes with dead-time, while these existing methods may not work well under multiple periodic disturbances. In this paper, a multiple periodic disturbance rejection is proposed under the Smith predictor configuration for processes with long dead-time. One feedback loop is added to compensate periodic disturbance while retaining the advantage of the Smith predictor. With information of the disturbance spectrum, the added feedback loop can remove multiple periodic disturbances effectively. The robust stability can be easily maintained through the rigorous analysis. Finally, simulation examples demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method for processes with long dead-time.

  18. Empirical formulae for excess noise factor with dead space for single carrier multiplication

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Ahmad H.; Ajia, Idris A.; Marsland, John S.

    2011-01-01

    In this letter, two empirical equations are presented for the calculation of the excess noise factor of an avalanche photodiode for single carrier multiplication including the dead space effect. The first is an equation for calculating the excess noise factor when the multiplication approaches infinity as a function of parameters that describe the degree of the dead space effect. The second equation can be used to find the minimum value of the excess noise factor for any multiplication when the dead space effect is completely dominant, the so called "deterministic" limit. This agrees with the theoretically known equation for multiplications less than or equal to two. © 2011 World Scientific Publishing Company.

  19. An autopsy of dead planetary systems with COS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debes, John

    2014-10-01

    We propose to use HST/COS to conduct autopsies of dead planetary systems around UV bright hydrogen-white dwarfs (WDs), which have dust disks found via their mid-IR emission in excess of that expected from the photosphere. As part of a WISE survey, and followed up with a combination of NASA Keck HIRES/Magellan MIKE optical spectroscopy, we have identified three new systems that are accreting dust. These WDs are bright in the mid-IR and UV, gold-standard targets for studies with HST/COS and later with JWST. The dusty material is debris resulting from the tidal disruption of exo-asteroids that accrete onto the WD surface. Many atomic elements from the accreted and dissociated dust particles are detectable with COS, enabling abundance determinations of exo-asteroidal material. Moreover, the photospheric abundances of this material can be directly compared with a determination of the dust mineralogy obtained with future JWST mid-IR spectroscopy-our proposed UV observations provide complementary constraints on mineralogical compositions of the accreting dust particles. UV spectroscopy is crucial for cataloging elemental abundances for these exo-asteroids. For the majority of WDs, optical spectroscopy reveals only a couple of lines of Ca or Mg, while UV spectroscopy captures lines from Al, Fe, Si, C, Ni, O, S, Cr, P, and Ti. Obtaining the elemental abundances of exo-asteroids is comparable to the spectroscopic characterization of transiting exoplanets or protoplanetary disks-all of these techniques determine how the chemical diversity of planetary systems translate into planetary architectures and the probability of habitable planets around solar-type stars.

  20. Thermostabilization of desulfurization enzymes from Rhodococcos sp. IGTS8. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John J. Kilbane II

    2000-12-15

    The objective of this project was to develop thermophilic cultures capable of expressing the desulfurization (dsz) operon of Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8. The approaches taken in this project included the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors that function well in Thermus thermophilus, the cloning of Rhodococcus dsz genes in Thermus expression vectors, and the isolation of bacterial cultures that express the dsz operon at thermophilic temperatures. This project has resulted in the development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for use in T. thermophilus. The dsz genes have been expressed at moderately thermophilic temperatures (52 C) in Mycobacterium phlei and at temperatures as high as 72 C in T. thermophilus. The tools and methods developed in this project will be generally useful for the expression of heterologous genes in Thermus. Key developments in the project have been the isolation of a Mycobacterium phlei culture capable of expressing the desulfurization operon at 52 C, development of plasmid and integrative expression vectors for Thermus thermophilus, and the development of a host-vector system based on the malate dehydrogenase gene that allows plasmids to be stably maintained in T. thermophilus and provides a convenient reporter gene for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Publications have been prepared regarding each of these topics; these preprints are included.

  1. Development of a pentaplex PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, L. helveticus, L. fermentum in whey starter for Grana Padano cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremonesi, Paola; Vanoni, Laura; Morandi, Stefano; Silvetti, Tiziana; Castiglioni, Bianca; Brasca, Milena

    2011-03-30

    A pentaplex PCR assay for the rapid, selective and simultaneous detection of Lactobacillus helveticus, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. fermentum, was developed. The target sequences were a group of genes coding for beta-galactosidase production (S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus), for cell-enveloped associated proteinase synthesis (L. helveticus), for dipeptide transport system production (L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis) and for arginine-ornithine antiporter protein production (L. fermentum). The analytical specificity of the assay was evaluated with 5 reference strains and 140 lactic acid bacterial strains derived from raw milk cheeses and belonging to the Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Lactococcus and Enterococcus genera. The identification limit for each target strain was 10(3)CFU/ml. This new molecular assay was used to investigate the LAB population by direct extraction of DNA from the 12 whey cultures for Grana Padano. The pentaplex PCR assay revealed a good correspondence with microbiological analyses and allowed to identify even minor LAB community members which, can be out-competed in vitro by numerically more abundant microbial species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Children, death, and the dead: the Mebengokré-Xikrin case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice Cohn

    Full Text Available This article approaches the relations children entertain with the dead, as well as with their own death risk, among the Mebenkogré-Xikrin, an indigenous Jê-speaking Indigenous group living in the North of Brazil. These themes are developed by analyzing the fabrication of the body, the formation of the self and the person, and the relations with the dead, with a special focus on children. Mebengokré-Xikrin notions of childhood are therefore discussed in an innovative manner through the formation of the self and the child's relations with the cosmos and the dead, by looking at the eventuality of caputre by the spirits of the dead, their adoption in the after-life, the mourning of children, their bodily adornments and painting, how they should be taken care of in life in order to prevent death, and their bodies and social interactions.

  3. MOOCs are dead! Open Education and the Quality of Online Courses Towards a Common QRF

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stracke, Christian M.

    2016-01-01

    Paper Presentation at the 25th EDEN Annual Conference 2016, Budapest, Hungary, by Stracke, C. M. (2016, 16 June): "MOOCs are dead! Open Education and the Quality of Online Courses Towards a Common QRF"

  4. The Brain Dead Patient Is Still Sentient: A Further Reply to Patrick Lee and Germain Grisez.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austriaco, Nicanor Pier Giorgio

    2016-06-01

    Patrick Lee and Germain Grisez have argued that the total brain dead patient is still dead because the integrated entity that remains is not even an animal, not only because he is not sentient but also, and more importantly, because he has lost the radical capacity for sentience. In this essay, written from within and as a contribution to the Catholic philosophical tradition, I respond to Lee and Grisez's argument by proposing that the brain dead patient is still sentient because an animal with an intact but severed spinal cord can still perceive and respond to external stimuli. The brain dead patient is an unconscious sentient organism. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Water quality modeling in the dead end sections of drinking water (Supplement)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Dead-end sections of drinking water distribution networks are known to be problematic zones in terms of water quality degradation. Extended residence time due to...

  6. A cluster of tularaemia after contact with a dead hare in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Wetering, D.; dos Santos, C. Oliveira; Wagelaar, M.; de Kleuver, M.; Koene, M. G. J.; Roest, H. I. J.; Sinha, B.; Tomaso, H.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Stienstra, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Tularemia is thought to be rare in the Netherlands. Here we describe a cluster of two patients who contracted tularaemia after field dressing of a hare found dead. Additionally, infection from the same source is suggested in three animals.

  7. Graveyards on the Move: The Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Dead Ophiocordyceps-Infected Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Maj-Britt; Himaman, Winanda; Hywel-Jones, Nigel L.

    2009-01-01

    rainforest. We established that high density aggregations exist (up to 26 dead ants/m2), which we coined graveyards. We further established that graveyards are patchily distributed in a landscape with no or very few O. unilateralis-killed ants. At some, but not all, spatial scales of analysis the density...... unilateralis, which is pan-tropical in distribution, causes infected worker ants to leave their nest and die under leaves in the understory of tropical rainforests. Working in a forest dynamic plot in Southern Thailand we mapped the occurrence of these dead ants by examining every leaf in 1,360 m2 of primary...... of dead ants correlated with temperature, humidity and vegetation cover. Remarkably, having found 2243 dead ants inside graveyards we only found 2 live ants of the principal host, ant Camponotus leonardi, suggesting that foraging host ants actively avoid graveyards. We discovered that the principal host...

  8. Diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome: Genetic Testing Identifies a Potentially Deadly Hereditary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Lynch Syndrome Follow us A Diagnosis of Lynch Syndrome Genetic testing identifies a potentially deadly hereditary disease ... helped Jack learn what was wrong. Jack had Lynch Syndrome—an inherited disorder. Lynch Syndrome increases the risk ...

  9. Detector dead-time effects and paralyzability in high-speed quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Daniel J; Bienfang, Joshua C; Nakassis, Anastase; Xu Hai; Clark, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum key distribution (QKD) have given rise to systems that operate at transmission periods significantly shorter than the dead times of their component single-photon detectors. As systems continue to increase in transmission rate, security concerns associated with detector dead times can limit the production rate of sifted bits. We present a model of high-speed QKD in this limit that identifies an optimum transmission rate for a system with given link loss and detector response characteristics

  10. Dead time effects from linear amplifiers and discriminators in single detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funck, E.

    1986-01-01

    The dead-time losses originating from a linear amplifier combined with a discriminator for pulse-height selection are investigated. Measurements are carried out to determine the type of dead time represented by the amplifier-discriminator combination. The corrections involved by feeding the discriminator output pulses into an electronic module producing a blocking time are discussed and practical hints are given to reduce them. (orig.)

  11. Dead-time corrections on long-interval measurements of short-lived activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, M.

    1977-01-01

    A method has been proposed to make correction for counting losses due to dead time where the counting interval is comparable to or larger than the half-life of the activity under investigation. Counts due to background and any long-lived activity present in the source have been taken into consideration. The method is, under certain circumstances, capable of providing a valuable check on the accuracy of the dead time of the counting system. (Auth.)

  12. Giant, Voltage-Actuated Deformation of a Dielectric Elastomer under Dead Load

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jiangshui; Li, Tiefeng; Foo, Choon Chiang; Clarke, David R.; Zhu, Jian; Suo, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    Far greater voltage-actuated deformation is achievable for a dielectric elastomer under equal-biaxial dead load than under rigid constraint usually employed. Areal strains of 488% are demonstrated. The dead load suppresses electric breakdown, enabling the elastomer to survive the snap-through electromechanical instability. The breakdown voltage is found to increase with the voltage ramp rate. A nonlinear model for viscoelastic dielectric elastomers is developed and shown to be consistent with...

  13. Ecology, environmental requirements and conservation of corticioid fungi occupying small diameter dead wood

    OpenAIRE

    Juutilainen, Katja

    2016-01-01

    The increasing human impact upon the biosphere of earth is causing profound changes across all spatial scales. The ability to cope with human-induced disturbance varies among organisms; specialist species are more negatively affected than generalist species. Forests are among the most heavily affected ecosystems; especially the dead wood associated organisms are in peril. The earlier research has strongly focused on large diameter dead wood and associated species. The ...

  14. Correction of the counting up number by dead time in detector systems for radiograph images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerdeira E, A.; Cicuttin, A.; Cerdeira, A.; Estrada, M.; Luca, A. de

    2002-01-01

    The effect of the dead time in a detection system by counting up of particles and the contribution of this error in the final image resolution is analysed. It is given a statistical criteria for the optimization of electronic parameters such as dead time and counting up memory which help in the implementation of these systems with the minimum necessary characteristics which satisfy the resolution requirements. (Author)

  15. MTR2: a discriminator and dead-time module used in counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, J.

    2000-01-01

    In the field of radioactivity measurement, there is a constant need for highly specialized electronic modules such as ADCs, amplifiers, discriminators, dead-time modules, etc. But sometimes it is almost impossible to find on the market the modules having the performances corresponding to our needs. The purpose of the module presented here, called MTR2 (Module de Temps-mort Reconductible), is to process, in terms of pulse height discrimination and dead-time corrections, the pulses delivered by the detectors used in counting systems. This dead-time, of the extendible type, is triggered by both the positive and negative parts of the incoming pulse and the dead-time corrections are made according to the live-time method. This module, which has been developed and tested at LPRI, can be used alone in simple counting channels or in more complex systems such as coincidence systems. The philosophy governing the choice and the implementation of this type of dead-time as well as the system used for the dead-time corrections is presented. The electronic scheme and the performances are also presented. This module is available in the NIM standard

  16. DEF: an automated dead-end filling approach based on quasi-endosymbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lili; Zhang, Zijun; Sheng, Taotao; Chen, Ming

    2017-02-01

    Gap filling for the reconstruction of metabolic networks is to restore the connectivity of metabolites via finding high-confidence reactions that could be missed in target organism. Current methods for gap filling either fall into the network topology or have limited capability in finding missing reactions that are indirectly related to dead-end metabolites but of biological importance to the target model. We present an automated dead-end filling (DEF) approach, which is derived from the wisdom of endosymbiosis theory, to fill gaps by finding the most efficient dead-end utilization paths in a constructed quasi-endosymbiosis model. The recalls of reactions and dead ends of DEF reach around 73% and 86%, respectively. This method is capable of finding indirectly dead-end-related reactions with biological importance for the target organism and is applicable to any given metabolic model. In the E. coli iJR904 model, for instance, about 42% of the dead-end metabolites were fixed by our proposed method. DEF is publicly available at http://bis.zju.edu.cn/DEF/. mchen@zju.edu.cn Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. Microbial and chemical characterization of underwater fresh water springs in the Dead Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Ionescu

    Full Text Available Due to its extreme salinity and high Mg concentration the Dead Sea is characterized by a very low density of cells most of which are Archaea. We discovered several underwater fresh to brackish water springs in the Dead Sea harboring dense microbial communities. We provide the first characterization of these communities, discuss their possible origin, hydrochemical environment, energetic resources and the putative biogeochemical pathways they are mediating. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and community fingerprinting methods showed that the spring community originates from the Dead Sea sediments and not from the aquifer. Furthermore, it suggested that there is a dense Archaeal community in the shoreline pore water of the lake. Sequences of bacterial sulfate reducers, nitrifiers iron oxidizers and iron reducers were identified as well. Analysis of white and green biofilms suggested that sulfide oxidation through chemolitotrophy and phototrophy is highly significant. Hyperspectral analysis showed a tight association between abundant green sulfur bacteria and cyanobacteria in the green biofilms. Together, our findings show that the Dead Sea floor harbors diverse microbial communities, part of which is not known from other hypersaline environments. Analysis of the water's chemistry shows evidence of microbial activity along the path and suggests that the springs supply nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter to the microbial communities in the Dead Sea. The underwater springs are a newly recognized water source for the Dead Sea. Their input of microorganisms and nutrients needs to be considered in the assessment of possible impact of dilution events of the lake surface waters, such as those that will occur in the future due to the intended establishment of the Red Sea-Dead Sea water conduit.

  18. Inosine Released from Dying or Dead Cells Stimulates Cell Proliferation via Adenosine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionMany antitumor therapies induce apoptotic cell death in order to cause tumor regression. Paradoxically, apoptotic cells are also known to promote wound healing, cell proliferation, and tumor cell repopulation in multicellular organisms. We aimed to characterize the nature of the regenerative signals concentrated in the micromilieu of dead and dying cells.MethodsCultures of viable melanoma B16F10 cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary human fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS in the presence of dead and dying cells, their supernatants (SNs, or purified agonists and antagonists were used to evaluate the stimulation of proliferation. Viable cell quantification was performed by either flow cytometry of harvested cells or by crystal violet staining of adherent cells. High-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry of cell SNs were deployed to identify the nature of growth-promoting factors. Coimplantation of living cells in the presence of SNs collected from dead and dying cells and specific agonists was used to evaluate tumor growth in vivo.ResultsThe stimulation of proliferation of few surviving cells by bystander dead cells was confirmed for melanoma cells, mouse fibroblasts, and primary FLS. We found that small soluble molecules present in the protein-free fraction of SNs of dead and dying cells were responsible for the promotion of proliferation. The nucleoside inosine released by dead and dying cells acting via adenosine receptors was identified as putative inducer of proliferation of surviving tumor cells after irradiation and heat treatment.ConclusionInosine released by dead and dying cells mediates tumor cell proliferation via purinergic receptors. Therapeutic strategies surmounting this pathway may help to reduce the rate of recurrence after radio- and chemotherapy.

  19. Investigating a method of producing "red and dead" galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skory, Stephen

    2010-08-01

    In optical wavelengths, galaxies are observed to be either red or blue. The overall color of a galaxy is due to the distribution of the ages of its stellar population. Galaxies with currently active star formation appear blue, while those with no recent star formation at all (greater than about a Gyr) have only old, red stars. This strong bimodality has lead to the idea of star formation quenching, and various proposed physical mechanisms. In this dissertation, I attempt to reproduce with Enzo the results of Naab et al. (2007), in which red and dead galaxies are formed using gravitational quenching, rather than with one of the more typical methods of quenching. My initial attempts are unsuccessful, and I explore the reasons why I think they failed. Then using simpler methods better suited to Enzo + AMR, I am successful in producing a galaxy that appears to be similar in color and formation history to those in Naab et al. However, quenching is achieved using unphysically high star formation efficiencies, which is a different mechanism than Naab et al. suggests. Preliminary results of a much higher resolution, follow-on simulation of the above show some possible contradiction with the results of Naab et al. Cold gas is streaming into the galaxy to fuel starbursts, while at a similar epoch the galaxies in Naab et al. have largely already ceased forming stars in the galaxy. On the other hand, the results of the high resolution simulation are qualitatively similar to other works in the literature that show a somewhat different gravitational quenching mechanism than Naab et al. I also discuss my work using halo finders to analyze simulated cosmological data, and my work improving the Enzo/AMR analysis tool "yt". This includes two parallelizations of the halo finder HOP (Eisenstein and Hut, 1998) which allows analysis of very large cosmological datasets on parallel machines. The first version is "yt-HOP," which works well for datasets between about 2563 and 5123 particles

  20. Effect of the addition of phytosterols and tocopherols on Streptococcus thermophilus robustness during industrial manufacture and ripening of a functional cheese as evaluated by qPCR and RT-qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pega, J; Rizzo, S; Pérez, C D; Rossetti, L; Díaz, G; Ruzal, S M; Nanni, M; Descalzo, A M

    2016-09-02

    The quality of functional food products designed for the prevention of degenerative diseases can be affected by the incorporation of bioactive compounds. In many types of cheese, the performance of starter microorganisms is critical for optimal elaboration and for providing potential probiotic benefits. Phytosterols are plant lipophilic triterpenes that have been used for the design of functional dairy products because of their ability to lower serum cholesterol levels in humans. However, their effect on the starter culture behavior during cheesemaking has not yet been studied. Here, we followed DNA and RNA kinetics of the bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus, an extensively used dairy starter with probiotic potential, during industrial production of a functional, semi-soft, reduced-fat cheese containing phytosterol esters and alpha-tocopherol as bioactive compounds. For this purpose, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription-qPCR (RT-qPCR) assays were optimized and applied to samples obtained during the manufacture and ripening of functional and control cheeses. An experimental set-up was used to evaluate the detection threshold of free nucleic acids for extraction protocols based on pelleted microorganisms. To our knowledge, this straight-forward approach provides the first experimental evidence indicating that DNA is not a reliable marker of cell integrity, whereas RNA may constitute a more accurate molecular signature to estimate both bacterial viability and metabolic activity. Compositional analysis revealed that the bioactive molecules were effectively incorporated into the cheese matrix, at levels considered optimal to exert their biological action. The starter S. thermophilus was detected by qPCR and RT-qPCR during cheese production at the industrial level, from at least 30min after its inoculation until 81days of ripening, supporting the possible role of this species in shaping organoleptic profiles. We also showed for the first time that

  1. New perspectives on interdisciplinary earth science at the Dead Sea: The DESERVE project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kottmeier, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Kottmeier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Agnon, Amotz [The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem (Israel); Al-Halbouni, Djamil [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Alpert, Pinhas [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Corsmeier, Ulrich [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dahm, Torsten [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Eshel, Adam [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Geyer, Stefan [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH — UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Haas, Michael; Holohan, Eoghan [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany); Kalthoff, Norbert [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Kishcha, Pavel [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Krawczyk, Charlotte [Leibniz Institute for Applied Geophysics (LIAG), Stilleweg 2, 30655 Hannover (Germany); Lati, Joseph [Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv-Yafo (Israel); Laronne, Jonathan B. [Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Be' er Sheva (Israel); Lott, Friederike [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mallast, Ulf; Merz, Ralf [Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research GmbH — UFZ, Theodor-Lieser-Strasse 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Metzger, Jutta [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann von Helmholtz Platz 1, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Mohsen, Ayman [An-Najah National University, Nablus, Palestine (Country Unknown); and others

    2016-02-15

    The Dead Sea region has faced substantial environmental challenges in recent decades, including water resource scarcity, ~ 1 m annual decreases in the water level, sinkhole development, ascending-brine freshwater pollution, and seismic disturbance risks. Natural processes are significantly affected by human interference as well as by climate change and tectonic developments over the long term. To get a deep understanding of processes and their interactions, innovative scientific approaches that integrate disciplinary research and education are required. The research project DESERVE (Helmholtz Virtual Institute Dead Sea Research Venue) addresses these challenges in an interdisciplinary approach that includes geophysics, hydrology, and meteorology. The project is implemented by a consortium of scientific institutions in neighboring countries of the Dead Sea (Israel, Jordan, Palestine Territories) and participating German Helmholtz Centres (KIT, GFZ, UFZ). A new monitoring network of meteorological, hydrological, and seismic/geodynamic stations has been established, and extensive field research and numerical simulations have been undertaken. For the first time, innovative measurement and modeling techniques have been applied to the extreme conditions of the Dead Sea and its surroundings. The preliminary results show the potential of these methods. First time ever performed eddy covariance measurements give insight into the governing factors of Dead Sea evaporation. High-resolution bathymetric investigations reveal a strong correlation between submarine springs and neo-tectonic patterns. Based on detailed studies of stratigraphy and borehole information, the extension of the subsurface drainage basin of the Dead Sea is now reliably estimated. Originality has been achieved in monitoring flash floods in an arid basin at its outlet and simultaneously in tributaries, supplemented by spatio-temporal rainfall data. Low-altitude, high resolution photogrammetry, allied to

  2. New perspectives on interdisciplinary earth science at the Dead Sea: The DESERVE project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottmeier, Christoph; Agnon, Amotz; Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Alpert, Pinhas; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Dahm, Torsten; Eshel, Adam; Geyer, Stefan; Haas, Michael; Holohan, Eoghan; Kalthoff, Norbert; Kishcha, Pavel; Krawczyk, Charlotte; Lati, Joseph; Laronne, Jonathan B.; Lott, Friederike; Mallast, Ulf; Merz, Ralf; Metzger, Jutta; Mohsen, Ayman

    2016-01-01

    The Dead Sea region has faced substantial environmental challenges in recent decades, including water resource scarcity, ~ 1 m annual decreases in the water level, sinkhole development, ascending-brine freshwater pollution, and seismic disturbance risks. Natural processes are significantly affected by human interference as well as by climate change and tectonic developments over the long term. To get a deep understanding of processes and their interactions, innovative scientific approaches that integrate disciplinary research and education are required. The research project DESERVE (Helmholtz Virtual Institute Dead Sea Research Venue) addresses these challenges in an interdisciplinary approach that includes geophysics, hydrology, and meteorology. The project is implemented by a consortium of scientific institutions in neighboring countries of the Dead Sea (Israel, Jordan, Palestine Territories) and participating German Helmholtz Centres (KIT, GFZ, UFZ). A new monitoring network of meteorological, hydrological, and seismic/geodynamic stations has been established, and extensive field research and numerical simulations have been undertaken. For the first time, innovative measurement and modeling techniques have been applied to the extreme conditions of the Dead Sea and its surroundings. The preliminary results show the potential of these methods. First time ever performed eddy covariance measurements give insight into the governing factors of Dead Sea evaporation. High-resolution bathymetric investigations reveal a strong correlation between submarine springs and neo-tectonic patterns. Based on detailed studies of stratigraphy and borehole information, the extension of the subsurface drainage basin of the Dead Sea is now reliably estimated. Originality has been achieved in monitoring flash floods in an arid basin at its outlet and simultaneously in tributaries, supplemented by spatio-temporal rainfall data. Low-altitude, high resolution photogrammetry, allied to

  3. Dielectrophoretic Separation of Live and Dead Monocytes Using 3D Carbon-Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagmur Yildizhan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Blood has been the most reliable body fluid commonly used for the diagnosis of diseases. Although there have been promising investigations for the development of novel lab-on-a-chip devices to utilize other body fluids such as urine and sweat samples in diagnosis, their stability remains a problem that limits the reliability and accuracy of readouts. Hence, accurate and quantitative separation and characterization of blood cells are still crucial. The first step in achieving high-resolution characteristics for specific cell subpopulations from the whole blood is the isolation of pure cell populations from a mixture of cell suspensions. Second, live cells need to be purified from dead cells; otherwise, dead cells might introduce biases in the measurements. In addition, the separation and characterization methods being used must preserve the genetic and phenotypic properties of the cells. Among the characterization and separation approaches, dielectrophoresis (DEP is one of the oldest and most efficient label-free quantification methods, which directly purifies and characterizes cells using their intrinsic, physical properties. In this study, we present the dielectrophoretic separation and characterization of live and dead monocytes using 3D carbon-electrodes. Our approach successfully removed the dead monocytes while preserving the viability of the live monocytes. Therefore, when blood analyses and disease diagnosis are performed with enriched, live monocyte populations, this approach will reduce the dead-cell contamination risk and achieve more reliable and accurate test results.

  4. The Dead Sea: A model of a desiccating terminal salt lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The continuing decline in the water level of the Dead Sea and the commensurate increase in salinity and precipitation of evaporates results in an irreversible evolution of the structure of the sea. The Dead Sea has been switching from its holomictic regime to short meromictic phases of up to 4-year duration, following the particular rainy winters of 1980 and 1992. The massive precipitation of halite in recent years, as well as the re-introduction of the end-brines of the potash plant, is changing the ion composition of the Dead Sea waters. This necessitates the adjustment of the equation-of-state of the brine and the solubility curve of halite. One consequence is that the onset of halite precipitation during the summer occurs earlier and earlier in the annual cycle. New isotopic measurement of δ 37 Cl of the brine and evaporate deposits and of δ 18 O in dissolved oxygen in the water column have yielded new information on geochemical processes in the Dead Sea system. A systematic monitoring of the oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in the Dead Sea waters has, unfortunately, not been continued in recent years and should be encouraged for the future. (author)

  5. Dead end metabolites--defining the known unknowns of the E. coli metabolic network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Mackie

    Full Text Available The EcoCyc database is an online scientific database which provides an integrated view of the metabolic and regulatory network of the bacterium Escherichia coli K-12 and facilitates computational exploration of this important model organism. We have analysed the occurrence of dead end metabolites within the database--these are metabolites which lack the requisite reactions (either metabolic or transport that would account for their production or consumption within the metabolic network. 127 dead end metabolites were identified from the 995 compounds that are contained within the EcoCyc metabolic network. Their presence reflects either a deficit in our representation of the network or in our knowledge of E. coli metabolism. Extensive literature searches resulted in the addition of 38 transport reactions and 3 metabolic reactions to the database and led to an improved representation of the pathway for Vitamin B12 salvage. 39 dead end metabolites were identified as components of reactions that are not physiologically relevant to E. coli K-12--these reactions are properties of purified enzymes in vitro that would not be expected to occur in vivo. Our analysis led to improvements in the software that underpins the database and to the program that finds dead end metabolites within EcoCyc. The remaining dead end metabolites in the EcoCyc database likely represent deficiencies in our knowledge of E. coli metabolism.

  6. Design and analysis of a dead volume control for a solar Stirling engine with induction generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beltrán-Chacon, Ricardo; Leal-Chavez, Daniel; Sauceda, D.; Pellegrini-Cervantes, Manuel; Borunda, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a power generation system dish/Stirling with cavity receiver and an electrical induction generator was simulated. We propose a control system using a variable-dead-volume and analyze its influence on the mechanical performance. A system with a dead volume of 160 cm"3 was designed to control the power and speed of the engine considering annual insolation, mechanical properties of the heater and the limits of frequency and voltage for the systems interconnected to the electricity network. The designed system achieves net efficient solar conversion to electric of 23.38% at an irradiance of 975 W/m"2 and allows an annual increase of 18% of the useful electrical energy compared to a system without control. - Highlights: • Numerical simulation of a nitrogen charged solar Stirling engine for electric power generation. • Design and analysis of a dead volume control for performance increase and power modulation. • Effect of dead space on average working pressure and mass flow rate. • Comparison between dead volume and average pressure control methods. • Impact of Stirling engine control settings on annual generated electric power.

  7. The Dead Sea Mud and Salt: A Review of Its Characterization, Contaminants, and Beneficial Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawab, Abeer Al; Bozeya, Ayat; Abu-Mallouh, Saida; Abu Irmaileh, Basha'er; Daqour, Ismail; Abu-Zurayk, Rund A.

    2018-02-01

    The Dead Sea has been known for its therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The unique climatic conditions in the Dead Sea area make it a renowned site worldwide for the field of climatotherapy, which is a natural approach for the provision of medications for many human diseases including unusual exclusive salt composition of the water, a special natural mud, thermal mineral springs, solar irradiation, oxygen-rich and bromine-rich haze. This review focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the Dead Sea mud and salts, in addition to their contaminants, allowing this review to serve as a guide to interested researchers to their risks and the importance of treatment. Beneficial effects of Dead Sea mud and salts are discussed in terms of therapy and cosmetics. Additional benefits of both Dead Sea mud and salts are also discussed, such as antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties, and the potency of mud and salts to be a good medium for the growth of a halophilic unicellular algae, used for the commercial production of β-carotene Dunaliella.

  8. Dead wood biomass and turnover time, measured by radiocarbon, along a subalpine elevation gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kueppers, Lara M; Southon, John; Baer, Paul; Harte, John

    2004-12-01

    Dead wood biomass can be a substantial fraction of stored carbon in forest ecosystems, and coarse woody debris (CWD) decay rates may be sensitive to climate warming. We used an elevation gradient in Colorado Rocky Mountain subalpine forest to examine climate and species effects on dead wood biomass, and on CWD decay rate. Using a new radiocarbon approach, we determined that the turnover time of lodgepole pine CWD (340+/-130 years) was roughly half as long in a site with 2.5-3 degrees C warmer air temperature, as that of pine (630+/-400 years) or Engelmann spruce CWD (800+/-960 and 650+/-410 years) in cooler sites. Across all sites and both species, CWD age ranged from 2 to 600 years, and turnover time was 580+/-180 years. Total standing and fallen dead wood biomass ranged from 4.7+/-0.2 to 54+/-1 Mg ha(-1), and from 2.8 to 60% of aboveground live tree biomass. Dead wood biomass increased 75 kg ha(-1) per meter gain in elevation and decreased 13 Mg ha(-1) for every degree C increase in mean air temperature. Differences in biomass and decay rates along the elevation gradient suggest that climate warming will lead to a loss of dead wood carbon from subalpine forest.

  9. The Influence Of Dead Layer Effect On The Characteristics Of The High Purity Germanium P-Type Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Quang Huy

    2011-01-01

    The present work aims at reviewing the studies of the influence of dead layer effect on the characteristics of a high purity germanium (HPGe) p-type detector, obtained by the author and his colleagues in the recent years. The object for study was the HPGe GC1518 detector-based gamma spectrometer of the Center for Nuclear Techniques, Ho Chi Minh City. The studying problems were: The modeling of an HPGe detector-based gamma spectrometer with using the MCNP code; the method of determining the thickness of dead layer by experimental measurements of gamma spectra and the calculations using MCNP code; the influence of material parameters and dead layer on detector efficiency; the increase of dead layer thickness over the operating time of the GC1518 detector; the influence of dead layer thickness increase on the decrease of detector efficiency; the dead layer effect for the gamma spectra measured in the GC1518 detector. (author)

  10. Enhancement of the thermostability of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus cytochrome c(552) through introduction of an extra methylene group into its hydrophobic protein interior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hulin; Irie, Kiyofumi; Mikami, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Yasuhiko

    2011-04-19

    Careful scrutiny of the protein interior of Hydrogenobacter thermophilus cytochrome c(552) (HT) on the basis of its X-ray structure [Travaglini-Allocatelli, C., Gianni, S., Dubey, V. K., Borgia, A., Di Matteo, A., Bonivento, D., Cutruzzola, F., Bren, K. L., and Brunori, M. (2005) J. Biol. Chem. 280, 25729-25734] indicated that a void space, which is large enough to accommodate a methyl group, exists in the hydrophobic protein interior near the heme. We tried to reduce the void space through the replacement of a Val by Ile or Leu (Val/Ile or Val/Leu mutation), and then the structural and functional consequences of these two mutations were characterized in order to elucidate the relationship between the nature of the packing of hydrophobic residues and the functional properties of the protein. The study demonstrated striking differences in the structural and functional consequences between the two mutations. The Val/Ile mutation was found to cause further enhancement of the thermostability of the oxidized HT, as reflected in the increase of the denaturation temperature (T(m)) value by ∼ 3 deg, whereas the thermostability of the reduced form was essentially unaffected. As a result, the redox potential (E(m)) of the Val/Ile mutant exhibited a negative shift of ∼ 50 mV relative to that of the wild-type protein in an enthalpic manner, this being consistent with our previous finding that a protein with higher stability in its oxidized form exhibits a lower E(m) value [Terui, N., Tachiiri, N., Matsuo, H., Hasegawa, J., Uchiyama, S., Kobayashi, Y., Igarashi, Y., Sambongi, Y., and Yamamoto, Y. (2003) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125, 13650-13651]. In contrast, the Val/Leu mutation led to a decrease in thermostability of both the redox forms of the protein, as reflected in the decreases of the T(m) values of the oxidized and reduced proteins by ∼ 3 and ∼ 5 deg, respectively, and the E(m) value of the Val/Leu mutant happened to be similar to that of the Val/Ile one. The E

  11. Simple circuit for precise measurement of live dead or clock time in gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, W.; Sterlinski, S.

    1976-01-01

    The basic design features and characteristics of circuit are described in the paper. The circuit coupled to a multichannel analyser (MCA) enables one of times: live(Tsub(iota)), dead (Tsub(d)) or clock(Tsub(c)) to be measured precisely. Second one is measured by a built-in timer of MCA. Having the Tsub(c)/Tsub(iota) ratio and utilizing suitable mathematical formulas one can make the corrections for both main effects (dead-time and pile-up) which yield counting losses in gamma-ray spectrometry at high and/or variable activities. Two examples of the dead-time and pile-up corrections by using the new circuit are presented in this paper. (author)

  12. Dead Reckoning in the Desert Ant: A Defence of Connectionist Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Dead reckoning is a feature of the navigation behaviour shown by several creatures, including the desert ant. Recent work by C. Randy Gallistel shows that some connectionist models of dead reckoning face important challenges. These challenges are thought to arise from essential features of the connectionist approach, and have therefore been taken to show that connectionist models are unable to explain even the most primitive of psychological phenomena. I show that Gallistel's challenges are successfully met by one recent connectionist model, proposed by Ulysses Bernardet, Sergi Bermúdez i Badia, and Paul F.M.J. Verschure. The success of this model suggests that there are ways to implement dead reckoning with neural circuits that fall within the bounds of what many people regard as neurobiologically plausible, and so that the wholesale dismissal of the connectionist modelling project remains premature.

  13. Levels of Cs-137 and pathological shifts in the organs and tissues of dead humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lushnikov, E.F.; Koleganov, Yu.F.; Lantsov, S.I.; Mozhaev, V.K.; Solov'eva, L.P.; Fomin, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of the levels of Cs-137, alpha- and beta-radionuclides in the organs and tissues of 30 subjects dead 6 years after the accident, assessment of the pathological shifts and relationships between these shifts and exposure was carried out at territories contaminated with radionuclides in the Bryansk and Kaluga districts, in the town of Obninsk, and in region of Russia free of radionuclides. Study of radioautographs did not show alpha- or beta-radionuclides in any of the dead subjects. Cs-137 was detected in small quantities in the organs of all cadavers (3 to 424 Bq/kg) irrespective of their residence. The extent of radioactivity varied for different organs and was unrelated to organ pathology. Moreover, Cs-137 was detected in the organs of dead newborns and two-month-old infants, whose patients lived at territories contaminated with radionuclides [ru

  14. Communication media and the dead: from the Stone Age to Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Tony

    2015-07-03

    This article argues as follows: (i) The presence of the dead within a society depends in part on available communication technologies, specifically speech, stone, sculpture, writing, printing, photography and phonography (including the mass media), and most recently the internet. (ii) Each communication technology affords possibilities for the dead to construct and legitimate particular social groups and institutions - from the oral construction of kinship, to the megalithic legitimation of the territorial rights of chiefdoms, to the written word's construction of world religions and nations, to the photographic and phonographic construction of celebrity-based neo-tribalism, and to the digital reconstruction of family and friendship. (iii) Historically, concerns about the dead have on a number of occasions aided the development of new communication technologies - the causal connection between the two can go both ways. The argument is based primarily on critical synthesis of existing research literature.

  15. Temperature dependence of magnetically dead layers in ferromagnetic thin-films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tokaç

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Polarized neutron reflectometry has been used to study interface magnetism and magnetic dead layers in model amorphous CoFeB:Ta alloy thin-film multilayers with Curie temperatures tuned to be below room-temperature. This allows temperature dependent variations in the effective magnetic thickness of the film to be determined at temperatures that are a significant fraction of the Curie temperature, which cannot be achieved in the material systems used for spintronic devices. In addition to variation in the effective magnetic thickness due to compositional grading at the interface with the tantalum capping layer, the key finding is that at the interface between ferromagnetic film and GaAs(001 substrate local interfacial alloying creates an additional magnetic dead-layer. The thickness of this magnetic dead-layer is temperature dependent, which may have significant implications for elevated-temperature operation of hybrid ferromagnetic metal-semiconductor spintronic devices.

  16. [Wood transformation in dead-standing trees in the forest-tundra of Central Siberia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhortova, L V; Kirdianov, A V; Myglan, V S; Guggenberger, G

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the composition of wood organic matter in dead-standing spruce and larch trees depending on the period after their death have been studied in the north of Central Siberia. The period after tree death has been estimated by means of cross-dating. The results show that changes in the composition of wood organic matter in 63% of cases are contingent on tree species. Wood decomposition in dead-standing trees is accompanied by an increase in the contents of alkali-soluble organic compounds. Lignin oxidation in larch begins approximately 80 years after tree death, whereas its transformation in spruce begins not earlier than after 100 years. In the forest-tundra of Central Siberia, the rate of wood organic matter transformation in dead-standing trees is one to two orders of magnitude lower than in fallen wood, which accounts for their role as a long-term store of carbon and mineral elements in these ecosystems.

  17. Integrated 3D density modelling and segmentation of the Dead Sea

    OpenAIRE

    H.-J. Götze; R. El-Kelani; Sebastian Schmidt; M. Rybakov; M. Hassouneh; Hans-Jürgen Förster; J. Ebbing; DESERT Group;  ;  ;  

    2007-01-01

    A 3D interpretation of the newly compiled Bouguer anomaly in the area of the '‘Dead Sea Rift’’ is presented. A high-resolution 3D model constrained with the seismic results reveals the crustal thickness and density distribution beneath the Arava/Araba Valley (AV), the region between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba/Elat. The Bouguer anomalies along the axial portion of the AV, as deduced from the modelling results, are mainly caused by deep-seated sedimentary basins (D > 10 km). An inferred...

  18. Challenges to estimate surface- and groundwater flow in arid regions: the Dead Sea catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, Christian; Rödiger, Tino; Mallast, Ulf; Gräbe, Agnes; Guttman, Joseph; Laronne, Jonathan B; Storz-Peretz, Yael; Greenman, Anat; Salameh, Elias; Al-Raggad, Marwan; Vachtman, Dina; Zvi, Arie Ben; Ionescu, Danny; Brenner, Asher; Merz, Ralf; Geyer, Stefan

    2014-07-01

    The overall aim of the this study, which was conducted within the framework of the multilateral IWRM project SUMAR, was to expand the scientific basement to quantify surface- and groundwater fluxes towards the hypersaline Dead Sea. The flux significance for the arid vicinity around the Dead Sea is decisive not only for a sustainable management in terms of water availability for future generations but also for the resilience of the unique ecosystems along its coast. Coping with different challenges interdisciplinary methods like (i) hydrogeochemical fingerprinting, (ii) satellite and airborne-based thermal remote sensing, (iii) direct measurement with gauging station in ephemeral wadis and a first multilateral gauging station at the river Jordan, (iv) hydro-bio-geochemical approach at submarine and shore springs along the Dead Sea and (v) hydro(geo)logical modelling contributed to the overall aim. As primary results, we deduce that the following: (i) Within the drainage basins of the Dead Sea, the total mean annual precipitation amounts to 300 mm a(−1) west and to 179 mm a(−1) east of the lake, respectively. (ii) The total mean annual runoff volumes from side wadis (except the Jordan River) entering the Dead Sea is approximately 58–66 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1) (western wadis: 7–15 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1); eastern wadis: 51 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1)). (iii) The modelled groundwater discharge from the upper Cretaceous aquifers in both flanks of the Dead Sea towards the lake amounts to 177 × 10(6) m(3) a(−1). (iv) An unexpected abundance of life in submarine springs exists, which in turn explains microbial moderated geo-bio-chemical processes in the Dead Sea sediments, affecting the highly variable chemical composition of on- and offshore spring waters.The results of this work show a promising enhancement of describing and modelling the Dead Sea basin as a whole. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Dead Sea Rift Basins of Israel and Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, James; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2016-01-01

    Following its middle Miocene inception, numerous basins of varying lengths and depths developed along the Dead Sea fault zone, a large continental transform plate boundary. The modern day left-lateral fault zone has an accumulated left-lateral offset of 105 to 110 km (65 to 68 mi). The deepest basin along the fault zone, the Lake Lisan or Dead Sea basin, reaches depths of 7.5 to 8.5 km (24,500 ft to 28,000 ft), and shows evidence of hydrocarbons. The basins are compartmentalized by normal faulting associated with rapid basin subsidence and, where present, domal uplift accompanying synrift salt withdrawal.

  20. The SVX3D integrated circuit for dead-timeless silicon strip readout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sciveres, M. E-mail: mgs@lbl.gov; Milgrome, O.; Zimmerman, T.; Volobouev, I.; Ely, R.P.; Connolly, A.; Fish, D.; Affolder, T.; Sill, A

    1999-10-01

    The revision D of the SVX3 readout IC has been fabricated in the Honeywell radiation-hard 0.8 {mu}m bulk CMOS process, for instrumenting 712,704 silicon strips in the upgrade to the Collider Detector at Fermilab. This final revision incorporates new features and changes to the original architecture that were added to meet the goal of dead-timeless operation. This paper describes the features central to dead-timeless operation, and presents test data for un-irradiated and irradiated SVX3D chips. (author)

  1. Energy Balance, Evapo-transpiration and Dew deposition in the Dead Sea Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is a terminal hypersaline lake, located at the lowest point on earth with a lake level of currently -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). It is located in a transition zone of semiarid to arid climate conditions, which makes it highly sensible to climate change (Alpert1997, Smiatek2011). The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. At the moment the most prominent environmental change is the lake level decline of approximately 1 m / year due to anthropogenic interferences (Gertman, 2002). This leads to noticeable changes in the fractions of the existing terrestrial surfaces - water, bare soil and vegetated areas - in the valley. Thus, the partitioning of the net radiation in the valley changes as well. To thoroughly study the atmospheric and hydrological processes in the Dead Sea valley, which are driven by the energy balance components, sound data of the energy fluxes of the different surfaces are necessary. Before DESERVE no long-term monitoring network simultaneously measuring the energy balance components of the different surfaces in the Dead Sea valley was available. Therefore, three energy balance stations were installed at three characteristic sites at the coast-line, over bare soil, and within vegetation, measuring all energy balance components by using the eddy covariance method. The results show, that the partitioning of the energy into sensible and latent heat flux on a diurnal scale is totally different at the three sites. This results in gradients between the sites, which are e.g. responsible for the typical diurnal wind systems at the Dead Sea. Furthermore, driving forces of evapo-transpiration at the sites were identified and a detailed analysis of the daily evaporation and dew deposition rates

  2. Relationship between γ detection dead-time and count correction factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huailong; Zhang Jianhua; Chu Chengsheng; Hu Guangchun; Zhang Changfan; Hu Gen; Gong Jian; Tian Dongfeng

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between dead-time and count correction factor was investigated by using interference source for purpose of high γ activity measurement. The count rates maintain several 10 s"-"l with γ energy of 0.3-1.3 MeV for 10"4-10"5 Bq radioactive source. It is proved that the relationship between count loss and dead-time is unconcerned at various energy and various count intensities. The same correction formula can be used for any nuclide measurement. (authors)

  3. Influenza A(H10N7) Virus in Dead Harbor Seals, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog, Jesper Schak; Hansen, Mette Sif; Holm, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined.......Since April 2014, an outbreak of influenza in harbor seals has been ongoing in northern Europe. In Denmark during June-August, 152 harbor seals on the island of Anholt were found dead from severe pneumonia. We detected influenza A(H10N7) virus in 2 of 4 seals examined....

  4. Production of 2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate from fructose to demonstrate a potential of artificial bio-synthetic pathway using thermophilic enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kohsuke; Maya, Shohei; Omasa, Takeshi; Hirota, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Akio; Ohtake, Hisao

    2010-08-02

    Six thermophilic enzymes from Thermus thermophilus were used to construct an 'artificial bio-synthetic pathway' for the production of 2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate from fructose. By a simple operation using six recombinant Escherichia coli strains producing the thermophilic enzymes, respectively, fructose was converted to 2-deoxyribose 5-phosphate with a molar yield of 55%. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An intermolecular binding mechanism involving multiple LysM domains mediates carbohydrate recognition by an endopeptidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Mei Mei Jaslyn Elizabeth; Midtgaard, Søren Roi; Gysel, Kira

    2015-01-01

    of multiple LysM domains in substrate binding has so far lacked support from high-resolution structures of ligand-bound complexes. Here, a structural study of the Thermus thermophilus NlpC/P60 endopeptidase containing two LysM domains is presented. The crystal structure and small-angle X-ray scattering...

  6. Functional consequences of T-stem mutations in E. coli tRNA Thr UGU in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saks, Margaret E; Sanderson, Lee E; Choi, Daniel S

    2011-01-01

    The binding affinities between Escherichia coli EF-Tu and 34 single and double base-pair changes in the T stem of E. coli tRNAThrUGU were compared with similar data obtained previously for several aa-tRNAs binding to Thermus thermophilus EF-Tu. With a single exception, the two proteins bound to m...

  7. 9 CFR 309.3 - Dead, dying, disabled, or diseased and similar livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... similar livestock. 309.3 Section 309.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... diseased and similar livestock. (a) Livestock found to be dead or in a dying condition on the premises of... § 309.13. (b) Livestock plainly showing on ante-mortem inspection any disease or condition that, under...

  8. Against Raising Hope of Raising the Dead: Contra Moody and Kubler-Ross.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicchio, Stephen J.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Kubler-Ross and Moody have made assertions about survival after death. They argued that the subjects were not dead, but in the process of dying. An alternative explanation to this "glimpse of the afterlife" approach is offered. Other theological objections are raised to the Moody/Kubler-Ross approach. (Author)

  9. Terminating the pregnancy of a brain-dead mother: Does a fetus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the recent Texas case of Munoz v. John Peter Smith Hospital, the court granted a husband an order for the removal of life support from his brain-dead pregnant wife whose body was decaying, after a hospital had tried to keep her on 'life support' until the fetus was born. In South Africa the court would have issued a similar ...

  10. Taxonomic analysis of extremely halophilic archaea isolated from 56-years-old dead sea brine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arahal, D R; Gutiérrez, M C; Volcani, B E; Ventosa, A

    2000-10-01

    A taxonomic study comprising both phenotypic and genotypic characterization, has been carried out on a total of 158 extremely halophilic aerobic archaeal strains. These strains were isolated from enrichments prepared from Dead Sea water samples dating from 1936 that were collected by B. E. Volcani for the demonstration of microbial life in the Dead Sea. The isolates were examined for 126 morphological, physiological, biochemical and nutritional tests. Numerical analysis of the data, by using the S(J) coefficient and UPGMA clustering method, showed that the isolates clustered into six phenons. Twenty-two out of the 158 strains used in this study were characterized previously (ARAHAL et al., 1996) and were placed into five phenotypic groups. The genotypic study included both the determination of the guanineplus-cytosine content of the DNA and DNA-DNA hybridization studies. For this purpose, representative strains from the six phenons were chosen. These groups were found to represent some members of three different genera - Haloarcula (phenons A, B, and C), Haloferax (phenons D and E) and Halobacterium (phenon F) - of the family Halobacteriaceae, some of them never reported to occur in the Dead Sea, such as Haloarcula hispanica, while Haloferax volcanii (phenons D and E) was described in the Dead Sea by studies carried out several decades later than Volcani's work.

  11. Consumer willingness to pay a price premium for standing-dead Alaska yellow-cedar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffrey H. Donovan

    2004-01-01

    Alaska yellow-cedar has declined in Southeast Alaska over the past 100 years, resulting in half a million acres of dead or dying trees. The natural decay resistance of Alaska yellow-cedar means that many of these trees are still merchantable. However, the topography of Southeast Alaska is such that selectively harvesting Alaska yellow-cedar may often require helicopter...

  12. Contacting the Spirits of the Dead: Paranormal Belief and the Teenage Worldview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Leslie J.; Williams, Emyr

    2009-01-01

    A number of previous studies have examined both the overall level of belief expressed by young people in the paranormal and the major demographic predictors of such belief. Building on this research tradition, the present study examines how one specific paranormal belief concerning contact with the spirits of the dead integrates with the wider…

  13. Si(Li) detectors with thin dead layers for low energy x-ray detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossington, C.S.; Walton, J.T.; Jaklevic, J.M.

    1990-10-01

    Regions of incomplete charge collection, or ''dead layers'', are compared for Si(Li) detectors fabricated with Au and Pd entrance window electrodes. The dead layers were measured by characterizing the detector spectral response to x-ray energies above and below the Si Kα absorption edge. It was found that Si(Li) detectors with Pd electrodes exhibit consistently thinner effective Si dead layers than those with Au electrodes. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the minimum thickness required for low resistivity Pd electrodes is thinner than that required for low resistivity Au electrodes, which further reduces the signal attenuation in Pd/Si(Li) detectors. A model, based on Pd compensation of oxygen vacancies in the SiO 2 at the entrance window Si(Li) surface, is proposed to explain the observed differences in detector dead layer thickness. Electrode structures for optimum Si(Li) detector performance at low x-ray energies are discussed. 18 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  14. A high-resolution and intelligent dead pixel detection scheme for an electrowetting display screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, ZhiJie; Luo, JianKun; Zhao, WenWen; Cao, Yang; Lin, WeiJie; Zhou, GuoFu

    2018-02-01

    Electrowetting display technology is realized by tuning the surface energy of a hydrophobic surface by applying a voltage based on electrowetting mechanism. With the rapid development of the electrowetting industry, how to analyze efficiently the quality of an electrowetting display screen has a very important significance. There are two kinds of dead pixels on the electrowetting display screen. One is that the oil of pixel cannot completely cover the display area. The other is that indium tin oxide semiconductor wire connecting pixel and foil was burned. In this paper, we propose a high-resolution and intelligent dead pixel detection scheme for an electrowetting display screen. First, we built an aperture ratio-capacitance model based on the electrical characteristics of electrowetting display. A field-programmable gate array is used as the integrated logic hub of the system for a highly reliable and efficient control of the circuit. Dead pixels can be detected and displayed on a PC-based 2D graphical interface in real time. The proposed dead pixel detection scheme reported in this work has promise in automating electrowetting display experiments.

  15. Dead regions in the cochlea: Implications for speech recognition and applicability of articulation index theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Martin David

    2003-01-01

    Dead regions in the cochlea have been suggested to be responsible for failure by hearing aid users to benefit front apparently increased audibility in terms of speech intelligibility. As an alternative to the more cumbersome psychoacoustic tuning curve measurement, threshold-equalizing noise (TEN...

  16. «Dead Men Attack» (Osovets, 1915: Archive Sources Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav I. Menjkovsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The article, basing on archive materials, attempts to examine one of the chapters of World War I history, namely, so-called “dead men attack” during Osovets Tower (westward of Bialystok, within the territory of modern Poland defense by Russian troops in 1915, reconstructs the battle, specifies attack, rather counterattack conditions, introduces new archive sources for scientific use.

  17. Bacteria associated with decomposing dead wood in a natural temperate forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tláskal, Vojtech; Zrustová, Petra; Vrška, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-12-01

    Dead wood represents an important pool of organic matter in forests and is one of the sources of soil formation. It has been shown to harbour diverse communities of bacteria, but their roles in this habitat are still poorly understood. Here, we describe the bacterial communities in the dead wood of Abies alba, Picea abies and Fagus sylvatica in a temperate natural forest in Central Europe. An analysis of environmental factors showed that decomposing time along with pH and water content was the strongest drivers of community composition. Bacterial biomass positively correlated with N content and increased with decomposition along with the concurrent decrease in the fungal/bacterial biomass ratio. Rhizobiales and Acidobacteriales were abundant bacterial orders throughout the whole decay process, but many bacterial taxa were specific either for young (<15 years) or old dead wood. During early decomposition, bacterial genera able to fix N2 and to use simple C1 compounds (e.g. Yersinia and Methylomonas) were frequent, while wood in advanced decay was rich in taxa typical of forest soils (e.g. Bradyrhizobium and Rhodoplanes). Although the bacterial contribution to dead wood turnover remains unclear, the community composition appears to reflect the changing conditions of the substrate and suggests broad metabolic capacities of its members. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: non-ideal cake filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Kattenbelt, C.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2007-01-01

    A control strategy aimed at minimizing energy consumption is formulated for non-ideal dead-end cake filtration with an inside-out hollow fiber ultrafiltration membrane system. The non-ideal behavior was assumed to originate from cake compression, non-linear cake resistance and a variable pump

  19. Dynamic optimization of a dead-end filtration trajectory: Blocking filtration laws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankert, B.; Betlem, Bernardus H.L.; Roffel, B.

    2006-01-01

    An operating model for dead-end membrane filtration is proposed based on the well-known blocking laws. The resulting model contains three parameters representing, the operating strategy, the fouling mechanism and the fouling potential of the feed. The optimal control strategy is determined by

  20. Estimating dead wood during national forest inventories: a review of inventory methodologies and suggestions for harmonization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher W. Woodall; Jacques Rondeux; Pieter J. Verkerk; G& #246; ran St& #229; hl

    2009-01-01

    Efforts to assess forest ecosystem carbon stocks, biodiversity, and fire hazards have spurred the need for comprehensive assessments of forest ecosystem dead wood (DW) components around the world. Currently, information regarding the prevalence, status, and methods of DW inventories occurring in the world's forested landscapes is scattered. The goal of this study...

  1. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Chinese Adolescents Exposed to a Deadly Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Long, Di; Li, Zhongquan; Armour, Cherie

    2011-01-01

    This present study examined the structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in a large sample of Chinese adolescents exposed to a deadly earthquake. A total of 2,800 middle school students aged 12 to 18 years participated in the study 6 months after the "Wenchuan Earthquake". Results of confirmatory factor analysis…

  2. System Identification for Nonlinear FOPDT Model with Input-Dependent Dead-Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhen; Yang, Zhenyu

    2011-01-01

    An on-line iterative method of system identification for a kind of nonlinear FOPDT system is proposed in the paper. The considered nonlinear FOPDT model is an extension of the standard FOPDT model by means that its dead time depends on the input signal and the other parameters are time dependent....

  3. Bacteria associated with decomposing dead wood in a natural temperate forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tláskal, Vojtěch; Zrůstová, Petra; Vrška, T.; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 93, č. 12 (2017), č. článku fix157. ISSN 0168-6496 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-27454S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : bacteria * dead wood * decomposition Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 3.720, year: 2016

  4. Existence and uniqueness results for Liénard́s equation having a dead band

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandqvist, Allan; Andersen, Kurt Munk

    1980-01-01

    a uniqueness theorem by de Figueiredo concerning periodic solutions to Liénard's equationddot{x} +f(x)dot{x} + g(x) = 0. By our method we are able to avoid the hitherto usual conditionxg(x) > 0, x {neq} 0, which excludes the possibility for the equation to have a dead band. Finally, we prove an existence...

  5. Organismal death, the dead-donor rule and the ethics of vital organ procurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symons, Xavier; Chua, Reginald Mary

    2018-06-19

    Several bioethicists have recently discussed the complexity of defining human death, and considered in particular how our definition of death affects our understanding of the ethics of vital organ procurement. In this brief paper, we challenge the mainstream medical definition of human death-namely, that death is equivalent to total brain failure-and argue with Nair-Collins and Miller that integrated biological functions can continue even after total brain failure has occurred. We discuss the implications of Nair-Collins and Miller's argument and suggest that it may be necessary to look for alternative biological markers that reliably indicate the death of a human being. We reject the suggestion that we should abandon the dead-donor criteria for organ donation. Rather than weaken the ethical standards for vital organ procurement, it may be necessary to make them more demanding. The aim of this paper is not to justify the dead donor rule. Rather, we aim to explore the perspective of those who agree with critiques of the whole brain and cardiopulmonary definitions of death but yet disagree with the proposal that we should abandon the dead-donor rule. We will consider what those who want to retain the dead-donor rule must argue in light of Nair-Collins and Miller's critique. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Anticholinergic Toxic Syndrome Caused by Atropa Belladonna Fruit (Deadly Nightshade): A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirhan, Abdullah; Tekelioğlu, Ümit Yaşar; Yıldız, İsa; Korkmaz, Tanzer; Bilgi, Murat; Akkaya, Akcan; Koçoğlu, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Atropa Belladonna poisoning may lead to anticholinergic syndrome. Ingestion of high amounts of the plant may cause lethargy, coma, and even a serious clinical picture leading to death. In this case report, we aimed to present a case with anticholinergic syndrome that developed after ingestion of the fruit called “Deadly Nightshade” in our country. PMID:27366377

  7. Artemisinin and sesquiterpene precursors in dead and green leaves of Artemisia annua L. crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lommen, W.J.M.; Elzinga, S.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyses the accumulation and concentrations of the antimalarial artemisinin in green and dead leaves of Artemisia annua crops in two field experiments. Concentration differences were analysed as being determined by (a) the total production of artemisinin plus its upstream precursors

  8. A cluster of tularaemia after contact with a dead hare in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetering, van de D.; Oliveira dos Santos, C.; Wagelaar, M.; Kleuver, de M.; Koene, M.G.J.; Roest, H.I.J.; Sinha, B.; Tomaso, H.; Bierman, W.F.W.; Stienstra, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Tularemia is thought to be rare in the Netherlands. Here we describe a cluster of two patients who contracted tularaemia after field dressing of a hare found dead. Additionally, infection from the same source is suggested in three animals.

  9. Should the Dead Sea Be Sustainable?: Investigating Environmental Issues Using a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Cheston Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Many students leave the environmental science classroom with misconceptions centered on the availability of natural resources such as water. This article presents a case study where students assume the roles of various stakeholders and articulate their position on whether or not to pipe water from the Red Sea to the Dead Sea. Additionally,…

  10. Dead Sea deep cores: A window into past climate and seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mordechai; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Goldstein, Steven L.

    2011-12-01

    The area surrounding the Dead Sea was the locus of humankind's migration out of Africa and thus has been the home of peoples since the Stone Age. For this reason, understanding the climate and tectonic history of the region provides valuable insight into archaeology and studies of human history and helps to gain a better picture of future climate and tectonic scenarios. The deposits at the bottom of the Dead Sea are a geological archive of the environmental conditions (e.g., rains, floods, dust storms, droughts) during ice ages and warm ages, as well as of seismic activity in this key region. An International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) deep drilling project was performed in the Dead Sea between November 2010 and March 2011. The project was funded by the ICDP and agencies in Israel, Germany, Japan, Norway, Switzerland, and the United States. Drilling was conducted using the new Large Lake Drilling Facility (Figure 1), a barge with a drilling rig run by DOSECC, Inc. (Drilling, Observation and Sampling of the Earth's Continental Crust), a nonprofit corporation dedicated to advancing scientific drilling worldwide. The main purpose of the project was to recover a long, continuous core to provide a high resolution record of the paleoclimate, paleoenvironment, paleoseismicity, and paleomagnetism of the Dead Sea Basin. With this, scientists are beginning to piece together a record of the climate and seismic history of the Middle East during the past several hundred thousand years in millennial to decadal to annual time resolution.

  11. Game-Review: Red Dead Redemption - von Rockstar San Diego/Take 2 Interactive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Das Wilde im Westen befindet sich bereits in den letzten Atemzügen, am Vorabend zur industriellen Revolution. Red Dead Redemption lässt die Spieler in eine von Gewalt erfüllte Welt des ausklingenden Wilden Westens eintauchen.

  12. Decision making on organ donation: the dilemmas of relatives of potential brain dead donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, J.J.A.M. de; Hoek, M.; Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Hoitsma, A.J.; Smeets, W.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.J.F.J.; Leeuwen, E. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article is part of a study to gain insight into the decision-making process by looking at the views of the relatives of potential brain dead donors. Alongside a literature review, focus interviews were held with healthcare professionals about their role in the request and

  13. Influence of fire on dead woody material in forests of California and southwestern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl N. Skinner

    2002-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of fire in most forested areas of California and southwestern Oregon before this century has been well established. Likewise, the importance of dead woody material to various wildlife species as snags and downed logs has been well documented. It is unlikely that much large woody material survived fire long enough to decompose fully in fire...

  14. Effects of Calcium Superphosphate Additive on Nitrogen Conservation During Dead-pig Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEI Ping

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To study the effects of calcium superphosphate additive on nitrogen conservation, an experiment of 30 days dead-pig composting was carried out. Three mixtures were treated with different amount of calcium superphosphate additive of 0%(CK, 5%(T1 and 10%(T2. The results showed that each composte temperature higher than 50 ℃ remained above 10 days, meeting the requirements of hygiene index about the compost rotten. The pH of composting with calcium superphosphate was significantly decreased, while NH4+-N, NH3-N, total nitrogen contents were significant higher than the control. 5% and 10% calcium superphosphate addition increased the total nitrogen contents by 10.7%, 10.1%, respectively. The seed germination index(GI of 5% calcium superphosphate addition was up to 101.4% on the 14th day, which was significant higher than the contrast. It demonstrated that calcium superphosphate could accelerate maturity during dead-pig compositng. Thus, calcium superphosphate as an additive in dead-pig composting could decrease nitrogen losses, which would bring prospects of application in dead-pig composting.

  15. Factor VII-activating protease : Unraveling the release and regulation of dead cell nuclear damps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsman, G.

    2017-01-01

    Upon inflammation, uncleared dying cells are an important source of pro-inflammatory damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). Major DAMPs are histones and double-stranded DNA, which together form chromatin. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) is activated upon contact with dead cells, and its

  16. Provisional, Primordial and Preexistent Temples in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The Bible itself indicates that there is a prehistory to the Solomonic temple: It existed in a portable version during the wilderness years in the shape of the Tabernacle, and that in turn was built after a model shown to Moses on Mt. Sinai by God himself. It is no wonder that the Dead Sea Scrolls...

  17. Evolution of genomic diversity and sex at extreme environments: Fungal life under hypersaline Dead Sea stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Kirzhner, Valery; Wasser, Solomon P.; Nevo, Eviatar

    2003-01-01

    We have found that genomic diversity is generally positively correlated with abiotic and biotic stress levels (1–3). However, beyond a high-threshold level of stress, the diversity declines to a few adapted genotypes. The Dead Sea is the harshest planetary hypersaline environment (340 g·liter–1 total dissolved salts, ≈10 times sea water). Hence, the Dead Sea is an excellent natural laboratory for testing the “rise and fall” pattern of genetic diversity with stress proposed in this article. Here, we examined genomic diversity of the ascomycete fungus Aspergillus versicolor from saline, nonsaline, and hypersaline Dead Sea environments. We screened the coding and noncoding genomes of A. versicolor isolates by using >600 AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) markers (equal to loci). Genomic diversity was positively correlated with stress, culminating in the Dead Sea surface but dropped drastically in 50- to 280-m-deep seawater. The genomic diversity pattern paralleled the pattern of sexual reproduction of fungal species across the same southward gradient of increasing stress in Israel. This parallel may suggest that diversity and sex are intertwined intimately according to the rise and fall pattern and adaptively selected by natural selection in fungal genome evolution. Future large-scale verification in micromycetes will define further the trajectories of diversity and sex in the rise and fall pattern. PMID:14645702

  18. Attitude Toward Death, Fear of Being Declared Dead Too Soon, and Donation of Organs After Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessing, Dick J.; Elffers, Henk

    1987-01-01

    Describes a study of willingness to donate organs for transplantation after death based on Weyant's cost-benefit model for altruistic behavior. Two death anxieties (the attitude toward death and the fear of being declared dead too soon) were introduced to help explain the discrepancy between attitudes and behavior in the matter of organ donation.…

  19. Interconnection blocks with minimal dead volumes permitting planar interconnection to thin microfluidic devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabourin, David; Snakenborg, Detlef; Dufva, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We have previously described 'Interconnection Blocks' which are re-usable, non-integrated PDMS blocks which allowing multiple, aligned and planar microfluidic interconnections. Here, we describe Interconnection Block versions with zero dead volumes that allow fluidic interfacing to flat or thin s...

  20. The (w)hole story : Facilitation of dead wood fauna by bark beetles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Juan; Cornelissen, Johannes H. C.; Hefting, Mariet M.; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; van Logtestijn, Richard S. P.; van Hal, Jurgen; Goudzwaard, Leo; Liu, Jin C.; Berg, Matty P.

    Facilitation between species is thought to be a key mechanism in community assembly and diversity, as certain species create microhabitats for others. A profound characteristic of forest ecosystems is a large amount of dead wood which is colofiised by a vast array of invertebrate species. Bark

  1. The (w)hole story: Facilitation of dead wood fauna by bark beetles?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, J.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Hefting, M.M.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; van Logtestijn, R.S.P; van Hal, J.R.; Goudzwaard, L.; Liu, J.C.; Berg, M.P.

    2016-01-01

    Facilitation between species is thought to be a key mechanism in community assembly and diversity, as certain species create microhabitats for others. A profound characteristic of forest ecosystems is a large amount of dead wood which is colonised by a vast array of invertebrate species. Bark

  2. Predicting live and dead tree basal area of bark beetle affected forests from discrete-return lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin C. Bright; Andrew T. Hudak; Robert McGaughey; Hans-Erik Andersen; Jose Negron

    2013-01-01

    Bark beetle outbreaks have killed large numbers of trees across North America in recent years. Lidar remote sensing can be used to effectively estimate forest biomass, but prediction of both live and dead standing biomass in beetle-affected forests using lidar alone has not been demonstrated. We developed Random Forest (RF) models predicting total, live, dead, and...

  3. Can live tree size-density relationships provide a mechanism for predicting down and dead tree resources?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Woodall; James Westfall

    2009-01-01

    Live tree size-density relationships in forests have long provided a framework for understanding stand dynamics. There has been little examination of the relationship between the size-density attributes of live and standing/down dead trees (e.g., number and mean tree size per unit area, such information could help in large-scale efforts to estimate dead wood resources...

  4. [Spatial pattern of land surface dead combustible fuel load in Huzhong forest area in Great Xing'an Mountains].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Hua; Chang, Yu; Chen, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Rui; Jing, Guo-Zhi; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Zhang, Chang-Meng

    2008-03-01

    By using geo-statistics and based on time-lag classification standard, a comparative study was made on the land surface dead combustible fuels in Huzhong forest area in Great Xing'an Mountains. The results indicated that the first level land surface dead combustible fuel, i. e., 1 h time-lag dead fuel, presented stronger spatial auto-correlation, with an average of 762.35 g x m(-2) and contributing to 55.54% of the total load. Its determining factors were species composition and stand age. The second and third levels land surface dead combustible fuel, i. e., 10 h and 100 h time-lag dead fuels, had a sum of 610.26 g x m(-2), and presented weaker spatial auto-correlation than 1 h time-lag dead fuel. Their determining factor was the disturbance history of forest stand. The complexity and heterogeneity of the factors determining the quality and quantity of forest land surface dead combustible fuels were the main reasons for the relatively inaccurate interpolation. However, the utilization of field survey data coupled with geo-statistics could easily and accurately interpolate the spatial pattern of forest land surface dead combustible fuel loads, and indirectly provide a practical basis for forest management.

  5. Effects of Small-Scale Dead Wood Additions on Beetles in Southeastern U.S. Pine Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris E. Carlton

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pitfall traps were used to sample beetles (Coleoptera in plots with or without inputs of dead loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L. wood at four locations (Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina and Texas on the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The plots were established in 1998 and sampling took place in 1998, 1999, and 2002 (only 1998 for North Carolina. Overall, beetles were more species rich, abundant and diverse in dead wood addition plots than in reference plots. While these differences were greatest in 1998 and lessened thereafter, they were not found to be significant in 1998 due largely to interactions between location and treatment. Specifically, the results from North Carolina were inconsistent with those from the other three locations. When these data were excluded from the analyses, the differences in overall beetle richness for 1998 became statistically significant. Beetle diversity was significantly higher in the dead wood plots in 1999 but by 2002 there were no differences between dead wood added and control plots. The positive influence of dead wood additions on the beetle community can be largely attributed to the saproxylic fauna (species dependent on dead wood, which, when analyzed separately, were significantly more species rich and diverse in dead wood plots in 1998 and 1999. Ground beetles (Carabidae and other species, by contrast, were not significantly affected. These results suggest manipulations of dead wood in pine forests have variable effects on beetles according to life history characteristics.

  6. Dead-wood addition promotes non-saproxylic epigeal arthropods but effects are mediated by canopy openness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastian Seibold; Claus Bässler; Petr Baldrian; Lena Reinhard; Simon Thorn; Michael D. Ulyshen; Ingmar Weiß; Jörg Müller

    2016-01-01

    Restoring dead-wood amounts in forests is an increasingly and successfully applied conservation measure to counteract negative effects of intensive logging on biodiversity of saproxylic taxa. By contrast, if and how dead-wood addition benefits the vast number of non-saproxylic forest taxa, and how this varies with contextual factors like canopy openness, remains poorly...

  7. Relationships between the stocking levels of live trees and dead tree attributes in forests of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.W. Woodall; J.A. Westfall

    2009-01-01

    There has been little examination of the relationship between the stocking of live trees in forests and the associated attributes of dead tree resources which could inform large-scale efforts to estimate and manage deadwood resources. The goal of this study was to examine the relationships between the stocking of standing live trees and attributes of standing dead and...

  8. The effects of possible contamination on the radiocarbon dating of the Dead Sea Scrolls I : Castor oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasmussen, KL; van der Plicht, J; Cryer, FH; Doudna, G; Cross, FM; Strugnell, J; Rasmussen, Kaare L.; Cryer, Frederick H.; Cross, Frank M.

    2001-01-01

    Some fragments of the Dead Sea Scroll manuscripts were contaminated with castor oil in the late 1950s. We have conducted experiments in order to establish if the AAA pretreatment cleaning procedures conducted on Dead Sea Scroll manuscript samples in the last two dating series (Bonani et al. 1992;

  9. Contribution of dead wood to biomass and carbon stocks in the Caribbean: St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja N. Oswalt; Thomas J. Brandeis

    2008-01-01

    Dead wood is a substantial carbon stock in terrestrial forest ecosystems and hence a critical component of global carbon cycles. Given the limited amounts of dead wood biomass and carbon stock information for Caribbean forests, our objectives were to: (1) describe the relative contribution of down woody materials (DWM) to carbon stocks on the island of St. John; (2)...

  10. Diversity of macro-detritivores in dead wood is influenced by tree species, decay stage and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, Juan; Fonck, Myrthe; van Hal, Jurgen; Cornelissen, J. Hans C.; Berg, Matty P.

    Diplopoda (millipedes) and Isopoda (woodlice) are among the most abundant macro-detritivores in temperate forests. These key regulators of plant litter decomposition are influenced by habitat and substrate quality, including that of dead wood. Dead wood provides shelter and resources to

  11. Diversity of macro-detritivores in dead wood is influenced by tree species, decay stage and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuo, J.; Fonck, M.; van Hal, J.R.; Cornelissen, J.H.C.; Berg, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Diplopoda (millipedes) and Isopoda (woodlice) are among the most abundant macro-detritivores in temperate forests. These key regulators of plant litter decomposition are influenced by habitat and substrate quality, including that of dead wood. Dead wood provides shelter and resources to

  12. Stratigraphy, climate and downhole logging data - an example from the ICDP Dead Sea deep drilling project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coianiz, Lisa; Ben-Avraham, Zvi; Lazar, Michael

    2017-04-01

    During the late Quaternary a series of lakes occupied the Dead Sea tectonic basin. The sediments that accumulated within these lakes preserved the environmental history (tectonic and climatic) of the basin and its vicinity. Most of the information on these lakes was deduced from exposures along the marginal terraces of the modern Dead Sea, e.g. the exposures of the last glacial Lake Lisan and Holocene Dead Sea. The International Continental Drilling Program (ICDP) project conducted in the Dead Sea during 2010-2011 recovered several cores that were drilled in the deep depocenter of the lake (water depth of 300 m) and at the margin (depth of 3 m offshore Ein Gedi spa). New high resolution logging data combined with a detailed lithological description and published age models for the deep 5017-1-A borehole were used to establish a sequence stratigraphic framework for the Lakes Amora, Samra, Lisan and Zeelim strata. This study presents a stratigraphic timescale for reconstructing the last ca 225 ka. It provides a context within which the timing of key sequence surfaces identified in the distal part of the basin can be mapped on a regional and stratigraphic time frame. In addition, it permitted the examination of depositional system tracts and related driving mechanisms controlling their formation. The sequence stratigraphic model developed for the Northern Dead Sea Basin is based on the identification of sequence bounding surfaces including: sequence boundary (SB), transgressive surface (TS) and maximum flooding surface (MFS). They enabled the division of depositional sequences into a Lowstand systems tracts (LST), Transgressive systems tracts (TST) and Highstand systems tracts (HST), which can be interpreted in terms of relative lake level changes. The analysis presented here show that system tract stacking patterns defined for the distal 5017-1-A borehole can be correlated to the proximal part of the basin, and widely support the claim that changes in relative lake

  13. Performance investigation of a salt gradient solar pond coupled with desalination facility near the Dead Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleh, A.; Qudeiri, J.A.; Al-Nimr, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Solar ponds provide the most convenient and least expensive option for heat storage for daily and seasonal cycles. This is particularly important for a desalination facility, if steady and constant water production is required. If, in addition to high storage capacity, other favorable conditions exist, the salt gradient solar ponds (SGSPs) are expected to be able to carry the entire load of a large-scale flash desalination plants without dependence upon supplementary sources. This paper presents a performance investigation of a SGSP coupled with desalination plant under Jordanian climatic conditions. This is particularly convenient in the Dead Sea region characterized by high solar radiation intensities, high ambient temperature most of the year, and by the availability of high concentration brine. It was found that a 3000 m 2 solar pond installed near the Dead Sea is able to provide an annual average production rate of 4.3 L min -1 distilled water compared with 3.3 L min -1 that would be produced by El Paso solar pond, which has the same surface area. Based on this study, solar ponds appear to be a feasible and an appropriate technology for water desalination near the Dead Sea in Jordan. -- Research highlights: → A performance investigation of a solar pond coupled with desalination plant. → Dead Sea area is characterized by availability of high solar radiation and brine. → The Dead Sea solar pond can provide production rate of 4.3 L min -1 . → El Paso solar pond has production rate of 3.32 L min -1 . The improvement is about 30%. → The solar pond with desalination investigated showed to be a feasible technology.

  14. Priority effects of early successional insects influence late successional fungi in dead wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Rannveig Margrete; Birkemoe, Tone; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Community assembly is an integral process in all ecosystems, producing patterns of species distributions, biodiversity, and ecosystem functioning. Environmental filters and colonization history govern the assembly process, but their relative importance varies depending on the study system. Dead wood decomposition is a slow process, allowing decomposer communities to develop within a slowly changing substrate for decades. Despite this, there are few long-term studies of priority effects from colonization history in this ecosystem. In this study, we investigate the importance of insects in early succession of dead wood on the fungal community present one decade later. Sixty aspen trees were killed in two study landscapes, each tree producing one aspen high stump and log. Insects were sampled with flight interception traps during the first 4 years after tree death, and fungal fruiting bodies were registered in year twelve. We found positive priority effects of two fungivorous beetles, the sap beetle Glischrochilus quadripunctatus and the round fungus beetle Agathidium nigripenne, on the Artist's bracket (Ganoderma applanatum) and a positive priority effect of wood-boring beetles on the ascomycete Yellow fairy cup (Bisporella citrina). The Aspen bracket (Phellinus tremulae) did not respond to insects in early succession of the dead wood. Our results suggest that early successional insects can have significant, long-lasting effects on the late successional fungal community in dead wood. Also, the effect can be specific, with one fungus species depending on one or a few fungivorous beetle species. This has implications for decomposition and biodiversity in dead wood, as loss of early colonizing beetles may also affect the successional pathways they seem to initiate.

  15. The effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory variables in paralyzed and spontaneously breathing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, R S; Davis, K; Johannigman, J A; Branson, R D

    2000-03-01

    Passive humidifiers have gained acceptance in the intensive care unit because of their low cost, simple operation, and elimination of condensate from the breathing circuit. However, the additional dead space of these devices may adversely affect respiratory function in certain patients. This study evaluates the effects of passive humidifier dead space on respiratory function. Two groups of patients were studied. The first group consisted of patients recovering from acute lung injury and breathing spontaneously on pressure support ventilation. The second group consisted of patients who were receiving controlled mechanical ventilation and were chemically paralyzed following operative procedures. All patients used 3 humidification devices in random order for one hour each. The devices were a heated humidifier (HH), a hygroscopic heat and moisture exchanger (HHME) with a dead space of 28 mL, and a heat and moisture exchanger (HME) with a dead space of 90 mL. During each measurement period the following were recorded: tidal volume, minute volume, respiratory frequency, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, ratio of dead space volume to tidal volume (VD/VT), and blood gases. In the second group, intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure was also measured. Addition of either of the passive humidifiers was associated with increased VD/VT. In spontaneously breathing patients, VD/VT increased from 59 +/- 13 (HH) to 62 +/- 13 (HHME) to 68 +/- 11% (HME) (p < 0.05). In these patients, constant alveolar ventilation was maintained as a result of increased respiratory frequency, from 22.1 +/- 6.6 breaths/min (HH) to 24.5 +/- 6.9 breaths/min (HHME) to 27.7 +/- 7.4 breaths/min (HME) (p < 0.05), and increased minute volume, from 9.1 +/- 3.5 L/min (HH) to 9.9 +/- 3.6 L/min (HHME) to 11.7 +/- 4.2 L/min (HME) (p < 0.05). There were no changes in blood gases or carbon dioxide production. In the paralyzed patient group, VD/VT increased from 54 +/- 12% (HH) to 56 +/- 10% (HHME

  16. Integrated 3D density modelling and segmentation of the Dead Sea Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götze, H.-J.; El-Kelani, R.; Schmidt, S.; Rybakov, M.; Hassouneh, M.; Förster, H.-J.; Ebbing, J.

    2007-04-01

    A 3D interpretation of the newly compiled Bouguer anomaly in the area of the “Dead Sea Rift” is presented. A high-resolution 3D model constrained with the seismic results reveals the crustal thickness and density distribution beneath the Arava/Araba Valley (AV), the region between the Dead Sea and the Gulf of Aqaba/Elat. The Bouguer anomalies along the axial portion of the AV, as deduced from the modelling results, are mainly caused by deep-seated sedimentary basins ( D > 10 km). An inferred zone of intrusion coincides with the maximum gravity anomaly on the eastern flank of the AV. The intrusion is displaced at different sectors along the NNW-SSE direction. The zone of maximum crustal thinning (depth 30 km) is attained in the western sector at the Mediterranean. The southeastern plateau, on the other hand, shows by far the largest crustal thickness of the region (38-42 km). Linked to the left lateral movement of approx. 105 km at the boundary between the African and Arabian plate, and constrained with recent seismic data, a small asymmetric topography of the Moho beneath the Dead Sea Transform (DST) was modelled. The thickness and density of the crust suggest that the AV is underlain by continental crust. The deep basins, the relatively large intrusion and the asymmetric topography of the Moho lead to the conclusion that a small-scale asthenospheric upwelling could be responsible for the thinning of the crust and subsequent creation of the Dead Sea basin during the left lateral movement. A clear segmentation along the strike of the DST was obtained by curvature analysis: the northern part in the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea is characterised by high curvature of the residual gravity field. Flexural rigidity calculations result in very low values of effective elastic lithospheric thickness ( t e < 5 km). This points to decoupling of crust in the Dead Sea area. In the central, AV the curvature is less pronounced and t e increases to approximately 10 km

  17. New perspectives on interdisciplinary earth science at the Dead Sea: The DESERVE project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmeier, Christoph; Agnon, Amotz; Al-Halbouni, Djamil; Alpert, Pinhas; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Dahm, Torsten; Eshel, Adam; Geyer, Stefan; Haas, Michael; Holohan, Eoghan; Kalthoff, Norbert; Kishcha, Pavel; Krawczyk, Charlotte; Lati, Joseph; Laronne, Jonathan B; Lott, Friederike; Mallast, Ulf; Merz, Ralf; Metzger, Jutta; Mohsen, Ayman; Morin, Efrat; Nied, Manuela; Rödiger, Tino; Salameh, Elias; Sawarieh, Ali; Shannak, Benbella; Siebert, Christian; Weber, Michael

    2016-02-15

    The Dead Sea region has faced substantial environmental challenges in recent decades, including water resource scarcity, ~1m annual decreases in the water level, sinkhole development, ascending-brine freshwater pollution, and seismic disturbance risks. Natural processes are significantly affected by human interference as well as by climate change and tectonic developments over the long term. To get a deep understanding of processes and their interactions, innovative scientific approaches that integrate disciplinary research and education are required. The research project DESERVE (Helmholtz Virtual Institute Dead Sea Research Venue) addresses these challenges in an interdisciplinary approach that includes geophysics, hydrology, and meteorology. The project is implemented by a consortium of scientific institutions in neighboring countries of the Dead Sea (Israel, Jordan, Palestine Territories) and participating German Helmholtz Centres (KIT, GFZ, UFZ). A new monitoring network of meteorological, hydrological, and seismic/geodynamic stations has been established, and extensive field research and numerical simulations have been undertaken. For the first time, innovative measurement and modeling techniques have been applied to the extreme conditions of the Dead Sea and its surroundings. The preliminary results show the potential of these methods. First time ever performed eddy covariance measurements give insight into the governing factors of Dead Sea evaporation. High-resolution bathymetric investigations reveal a strong correlation between submarine springs and neo-tectonic patterns. Based on detailed studies of stratigraphy and borehole information, the extension of the subsurface drainage basin of the Dead Sea is now reliably estimated. Originality has been achieved in monitoring flash floods in an arid basin at its outlet and simultaneously in tributaries, supplemented by spatio-temporal rainfall data. Low-altitude, high resolution photogrammetry, allied to

  18. Observations on the spatio-temporal patterns of radon along the western fault of the Dead Sea Transform, NW Dead Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinitz, G.; Piatibratova, O.; Malik, U.

    2015-01-01

    An extensive radon anomaly is developed along the western boundary fault of the Dead Sea Transform in the NW sector of the Dead Sea, extending 15-20 km north-south. The highest radon values occur in proximity to the fault scarp. Radon is measured, in gravel (depth 1.5-3 m) at sites located at a) on-fault positions, 1-30 meters east of the fault scarp, and b) off-fault positions located 600-800 the east. Prominent signals occur in the annual and daily periodicity bands, as well as non-periodic multi-day variations (2-20 days). Modulations occur among the annual variation and the multi-day and the daily signals, and between the multi-day and the daily signal. Dissimilar variation patterns occur at on-fault versus off-fault sites in the time domain, and in the relative amplitude of the daily periodicities. Variation patterns and their modulations are similar to those encountered in experimental simulations. It is concluded that: 1) above surface atmospheric influences can be excluded; 2) a remote above surface influence probably drives the periodic components in the annual and diurnal bands; 3) diurnal as well as the multi-day signals are modified and inter-modulated by near field geological (static) and geophysical (dynamic) influences. Systematically different influences are operating at on-fault versus off- fault positions, so far the natures of these near field influences are unidentified. (authors)

  19. Foehn-induced effects on local dust pollution, frontal clouds and solar radiation in the Dead Sea valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; Starobinets, Boris; Savir, Amit; Alpert, Pinhas; Kaplan, Michael

    2018-06-01

    Despite the long history of investigation of foehn phenomena, there are few studies of the influence of foehn winds on air pollution and none in the Dead Sea valley. For the first time the foehn phenomenon and its effects on local dust pollution, frontal cloudiness and surface solar radiation were analyzed in the Dead Sea valley, as it occurred on 22 March 2013. This was carried out using both numerical simulations and observations. The foehn winds intensified local dust emissions, while the foehn-induced temperature inversion trapped dust particles beneath this inversion. These two factors caused extreme surface dust concentration in the western Dead Sea valley. The dust pollution was transported by west winds eastward, to the central Dead Sea valley, where the speed of these winds sharply decreased. The transported dust was captured by the ascending airflow contributing to the maximum aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the central Dead Sea valley. On the day under study, the maximum surface dust concentration did not coincide with the maximum AOD: this being one of the specific effects of the foehn phenomenon on dust pollution in the Dead Sea valley. Radar data showed a passage of frontal cloudiness through the area of the Dead Sea valley leading to a sharp drop in noon solar radiation. The descending airflow over the downwind side of the Judean Mountains led to the formation of a cloud-free band followed by only the partial recovery of solar radiation because of the extreme dust pollution caused by foehn winds.

  20. A Unified Approach to Adaptive Neural Control for Nonlinear Discrete-Time Systems With Nonlinear Dead-Zone Input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-Jun; Gao, Ying; Tong, Shaocheng; Chen, C L Philip

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an effective adaptive control approach is constructed to stabilize a class of nonlinear discrete-time systems, which contain unknown functions, unknown dead-zone input, and unknown control direction. Different from linear dead zone, the dead zone, in this paper, is a kind of nonlinear dead zone. To overcome the noncausal problem, which leads to the control scheme infeasible, the systems can be transformed into a m -step-ahead predictor. Due to nonlinear dead-zone appearance, the transformed predictor still contains the nonaffine function. In addition, it is assumed that the gain function of dead-zone input and the control direction are unknown. These conditions bring about the difficulties and the complicacy in the controller design. Thus, the implicit function theorem is applied to deal with nonaffine dead-zone appearance, the problem caused by the unknown control direction can be resolved through applying the discrete Nussbaum gain, and the neural networks are used to approximate the unknown function. Based on the Lyapunov theory, all the signals of the resulting closed-loop system are proved to be semiglobal uniformly ultimately bounded. Moreover, the tracking error is proved to be regulated to a small neighborhood around zero. The feasibility of the proposed approach is demonstrated by a simulation example.