WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermostat-controlled household appliances

  1. Optimal daily operation of a smart-household under dynamic pricing considering thermostatically and non-thermostatically controllable appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Medeiros, M.F.; Catalao, J.P.S.; Siaraka, A.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Erdinc, O.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a home energy management system structure is developed in order to determine the optimal commitment of a smart-household. Two types of loads are explicitly modeled: non-thermostatically controllable (electric vehicle, shiftable appliances) and thermostatically controllable loads (air

  2. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-01-01

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper. PMID:23202205

  3. Ubiquitous monitoring of electrical household appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloret, Jaime; Macías, Elsa; Suárez, Alvaro; Lacuesta, Raquel

    2012-11-07

    The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home). The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g) and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  4. Electric household appliances lighting. Synthesis; Electromenager eclairage. Note de synthese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    This study has been realized on 10000 families in order to know the French behavior concerning the electric household appliances and the lighting of their accommodation. The document presents statistically the answers to the questions on the electric household in the accommodation, the choice criteria, the use conditions, the washing temperatures, the nature of the electric household appliances, the microwave ovens, the influence of the energy-label on the appliances and the lighting. (A.L.B.)

  5. Implementing peak load reduction algorithms for household electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlamini, Ndumiso G.; Cromieres, Fabien

    2012-01-01

    Considering household appliance automation for reduction of household peak power demand, this study explored aspects of the interaction between household automation technology and human behaviour. Given a programmable household appliance switching system, and user-reported appliance use times, we simulated the load reduction effectiveness of three types of algorithms, which were applied at both the single household level and across all 30 households. All three algorithms effected significant load reductions, while the least-to-highest potential user inconvenience ranking was: coordinating the timing of frequent intermittent loads (algorithm 2); moving period-of-day time-flexible loads to off-peak times (algorithm 1); and applying short-term time delays to avoid high peaks (algorithm 3) (least accommodating). Peak reduction was facilitated by load interruptibility, time of use flexibility and the willingness of users to forgo impulsive appliance use. We conclude that a general factor determining the ability to shift the load due to a particular appliance is the time-buffering between the service delivered and the power demand of an appliance. Time-buffering can be ‘technologically inherent’, due to human habits, or realised by managing user expectations. There are implications for the design of appliances and home automation systems. - Highlights: ► We explored the interaction between appliance automation and human behaviour. ► There is potential for considerable load shifting of household appliances. ► Load shifting for load reduction is eased with increased time buffering. ► Design, human habits and user expectations all influence time buffering. ► Certain automation and appliance design features can facilitate load shifting.

  6. How do household characteristics affect appliance usage? Application of conditional demand analysis to Japanese household data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Although both appliance ownership and usage patterns determine residential electricity consumption, it is less known how households actually use their appliances. In this study, we conduct conditional demand analyses to break down total household electricity consumption into a set of demand functions for electricity usage, across 12 appliance categories. We then examine how the socioeconomic characteristics of the households explain their appliance usage. Analysis of micro-level data from the Nation Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan reveals that the family and income structure of households affect appliance usage. Specifically, we find that the presence of teenagers increases both air conditioner and dishwasher use, labor income and nonlabor income affect microwave usage in different ways, air conditioner usage decreases as the wife's income increases, and microwave usage decreases as the husband's income increases. Furthermore, we find that households use more electricity with new personal computers than old ones; this implies that the replacement of old personal computers increases electricity consumption. - Highlights: •We conduct conditional demand analyses to study household appliance usage. •Micro-level data from the National Survey of Family and Expenditure in Japan are analyzed. •We show how household characteristics determine appliance usage. •High-income households use specific appliances less intensively than low-income households. •The replacement of old TVs and PCs lead to greater electricity consumption.

  7. Advances in household appliances- A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2011-01-01

    An overview of options and potential barriers and risks for reducing the energy consumption, peak demand, and emissions for seven key energy consuming residential products (refrigerator-freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers, clothes dryers, electric ovens, gas ovens and microwave ovens) is presented. The paper primarily concentrates on the potential energy savings from the use of advanced technologies in appliances for the U.S. market. The significance and usefulness of each technology was evaluated in order to prioritize the R and D needs to improve energy efficiency of appliances in view of energy savings, cost, and complexity. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R and D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Although significant energy savings may be achieved, one of the major barriers in most cases is high first cost. One way of addressing this issue and promoting the introduction of new technologies is to 'level' the playing field for all manufacturers by establishing Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) which are not cost prohibitive and promoting energy efficient products through incentives to both manufacturers and consumers. - Highlights: → This paper presents latest developments/status of advanced residential appliances. → Stringent minimum energy performance standards can reduce appliance energy use. → There is a potential to reduce energy use in appliances by up to 50%.

  8. Appliance choice functions in Canadian households. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydinalp, M.; Fung, A.; Ugursal, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    Decisions regarding the purchase of various types of major household appliances are influenced by the economic and demographic characteristics of households, i.e., appliance customers. It is therefore necessary to understand the relationship between these characteristics and the decisions made regarding the purchase of appliances to be able to predict future trends in appliance purchases, and consequently, the future appliance energy consumption of the national stock of appliances. In this paper, a methodology is presented to develop choice functions for the purchase of new major household appliances. This methodology is used to develop appliance choice functions for Canada. (author)

  9. Ubiquitous Monitoring of Electrical Household Appliances 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Lacuesta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of appliances at home is increasing continuously, mainly because they make our lives easier. Currently, technology is integrated in all objects of our daily life. TCP/IP let us monitor our home in real time and check ubiquitously if something is happening at home. Bearing in mind this idea, we have developed a low-cost system, which can be used in any type of electrical household appliance that takes information from the appliance and posts the information to the Twitter Social network. Several sensors placed in the household appliances gather the sensed data and send them wired or wirelessly, depending on the case, using small and cheap devices to a gateway located in the home. This gateway takes decisions, based on the received data, and sends notifications to Twitter. We have developed a software application that takes the values and decides when to issue an alarm to the registered users (Twitter friends of our smart home. The performance of our system has been measured taking into account the home network (using IEEE 802.3u and IEEE 802.11g and the data publishing in Twitter. As a result, we have generated an original product and service for any electrical household appliance, regardless of the model and manufacturer, that helps home users improve their quality of life. The paper also shows that there is no system with the same innovative features like the ones presented in this paper.

  10. Household appliances using solar energy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, H.

    2000-01-01

    Many solar energy technologies are now sufficiently developed to make it possible to use these to replace some of our conventional energy sources, but still need improvement and reduction in cost. It is, therefore, necessary to focus attention on household uses of solar energy. This paper describes the recent developments and current position in respect of several such devices, which include; solar cooker, with curved concentrator, Panel Cooker, Solar Dryer, solar water heater, Solar Still, Solar Water Pump, Solar Water Disinfection, Solar space Heating and greenhouse solar Reflectors, Development and Extension activities on these should be taken up at various levels. (author)

  11. CE APPROVAL IN ELECTRICAL HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazmi EKREN

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the reason for rapidly developing technology, increasing competition medium, and awareness of the consumers, nowadays, the exigency of production with good quality has gained more and more significance. Certification of the quality and safety of the products to the consumers is compulsory in terms of producers. There are some documents to certify safety of the products. One of them is CE certificate. In this paper, basic information about CE mark is given and CE standards and tests required for electrical household appliances are mentioned. As an application, one of an electrical household appliance, toaster grill is treated and examined. To obtain CE certificate for toaster grill, required tests are made according to EN60335-2-9 and CE certificate is obtained.

  12. Realizing potential savings of energy and emissions from efficient household appliances in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Parikh, Jyoti K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper projects households' stock of four major electricity consuming appliances till 2030 and explores policy options to accelerate adoption of more energy efficient appliances. India's rapid economic growth has enabled the growing middle class to buy household appliances in increasing numbers. The consequent rise in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be significantly reduced if consumers are motivated by awareness and options in the market to buy energy efficient appliances. India has introduced a star rating scheme for appliances, and even without incentives consumers purchase star-rated appliances. The stock of household appliances is projected using the data of a national sample survey of household consumption, observed sale of star-rated appliances and projected consumption distribution. Estimated savings in households' electricity consumption from just four appliances, ACs, refrigerators, TVs, and ceiling fans, for which data were available, range from 52 bKwh to 145 bkwh in 2030, reductions of 10–27%. The corresponding reduction in CO_2 emissions will be between 42 Mt and 116 Mt in 2030. With policies of finance and bulk procurement to reduce costs, emissions reduction can be 128 Mt in 2030, a reduction of 30%. - Highlights: • Estimates the stock of selected household appliances with 20 classes of rural and urban households in the years 2030 in India. • Assesses the economics of energy efficient appliances. • Estimates spread of selected energy efficient appliances. • Assesses savings in energy consumption and CO_2 emissions in four alternative scenarios. • Suggests policies to promote energy efficient appliances.

  13. Thermostat Controlled Loads Flexibility Assessment for Enabling Load Shifting – An Experimental Proof in a Low Voltage Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Kosek, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the usability of thermostat controlled domestic appliances for load shift in LV distribution grids. The proposed method uses refrigerators for the demonstration of adaptive load prediction to estimate its flexibility and perform scheduling based on load threshold limit. Tw...

  14. Evaluation of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Household Appliances Manufacturing Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aioob Ghanbary

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are the most prevalent work-related disorders and injuries and being the main cause of disability. This study was conducted to assessment of the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in worker company household appliances production. Posture analysis was evaluated by OWAS method and prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders by Nordic questionnaire. With evaluating musculoskeletal disorders among company household appliances production can intervention action to reduce musculoskeletal disorders was carried out. This cross-sectional study was performed on 100 workers of the appliance manufacturing industry. These Individuals were included 15 persons from foam injection workshop, 17 persons from molding workshop, 17 operators of presses, 17 persons from packaging, 17 person from cutting unit and 17 operators of rivet. The Nordic questionnaire was completed by Individuals for the organs of arm, back, leg and wrist and Posture analysis was performed by OWAS method. The data were analyzed using Spss software version 18 and descriptive statistics and Anova test. Nordic questionnaire results revealed that highest disorders were observed in the arm (25%, back (22% and leg (21%. Also Anova test showed that was observed a significant correlation respectively between age and work experience with the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders (p<0.02 (p<0.01. The results showed based on the level of risk OWAS for each job respectively, the highest level of risk associated with foam injection unit, packaging and cutting unit (risk level 4 and the lowest level of risk associated with molding workshop unit (risk level 2.The results of this study showed that household appliances Manufacturing workers due to the nature of their jobs are at risk of musculoskeletal disorders and Ergonomic interventions to do such as workstation redesign, reduced working hours, cycle of rest-work development.

  15. Demand Response on domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam

    . For a safe and reliable operation of electric power systems, the balance between electricity generation and consumption has to be maintained. The conventional fossil fuel based power generation achieves this balance by adjusting the generation to follow the consumption. In the electric power system......Electricity has become an inevitable part of human life in present day world. In the past two centuries, the electric power system has undergone a lot of changes. Due to the awareness about the adverse impact of the fossil fuels, the power industry is adopting green and sustainable energy sources....... In general, the electricity consumers are classified as industrial, commercial and domestic. In this dissertation, only the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) in the domestic segment are considered for the demand response study. The study is funded by Danish Council for Strategic Research (DCSR...

  16. Boundedly rational consumers, energy and investment literacy, and the display of information on household appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Filippini, Massimo; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    It is an ongoing debate how to increase the adoption of energy-efficient light bulbs and household appliances in the presence of the so-called ‘energy efficiency gap’. One measure to support consumers’ decision-making towards the purchase of more efficient appliances is the display of energy-related

  17. Plastic profiled sealing element for household refrigeration appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wunderlich, E; Robl, G

    1988-12-28

    A plastic profiled sealing element for household refrigeration appliances, such as freezers, refrigerators, and freezer compartments, includes a sealing bellows having a hose-shaped cross section. The sealing bellows is provided with two side walls and a covering wall, and is made of a plastic that has been set by means of a softener so as to be continuously flexible. Further, the profiled sealing element is provided with an anchor member made of a plastic of the same or different material hardness, with the sealing bellows and the anchor member being connected with one another to form a unit. The cross sections of the two side walls of the sealing bellows narrow as the side walls rise from the region of the connection of the side walls with the covering wall of the anchor member to approximately half the height of the sealing bellows, so that the side walls become increasingly thinner. Thereafter, the cross sections of the side walls increase again to the edges of the covering wall of the sealing bellows, until the side walls again reach approximately their initial cross sections. The side walls, on the one hand, and the covering wall, on the other hand, are kept flexible by means of softeners having different characteristics.

  18. A Study on Efficient Energy Use for Household Appliances in Malawi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Efficient , energy use, household appliances, power consumption. ... Although the hydro-electric power transmission lines extend the entire length of ..... R. Karri and P. Mishra, “Minimizing Energy Consumption of Secure Wireless ...

  19. Realization of Intelligent Household Appliance Wireless Monitoring Network Based on LEACH Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilong ZHOU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent household appliance wireless monitoring network can real-time monitor the apparent power and power factor of various household appliances in different indoor regions, and can realize the real-time monitoring on the household appliance working status and performance. The household appliance wireless monitoring network based on LEACH protocol is designed in the paper. Firstly, the basic idea of LEACH routing algorithm is proposed. Aiming at the node-distribution feature of intelligent home, the selection of cluster head in the routing algorithm and the data transmission method at the stable communication phase is modified. Moreover, the hardware circuit of power acquisition and power factor measurement is designed. The realization of wireless monitoring network based on CC2530 is described, each module and the whole system were conducted the on-line debugging. Finally, the system is proved to meet the practical requirement through the networking test.

  20. Model predictive control for a thermostatic controlled system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shafiei, Seyed Ehsan; Rasmussen, Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a model predictive control scheme to provide temperature set-points to thermostatic controlled cooling units in refrigeration systems. The control problem is formulated as a convex programming problem to minimize the overall operating cost of the system. The foodstuff temperat......This paper proposes a model predictive control scheme to provide temperature set-points to thermostatic controlled cooling units in refrigeration systems. The control problem is formulated as a convex programming problem to minimize the overall operating cost of the system. The foodstuff...

  1. Application of shape changing smart materials in household appliances : A fragmented and inconsistent uptake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bin Kassim, A.; Horvath, I.; Gerritsen, B.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    Shape changing smart materials (SCSM) have a wide range of applications, supporting product functions through material features. Surprisingly, their application in consumer durables such as household appliances is not as expected. This phenomenon could be related to a possible SCSM knowledge gap

  2. Optimal household appliances scheduling under day-ahead pricing and load-shaping demand response strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Erdinç, O.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed home energy management system structure is developed to determine the optimal dayahead appliance scheduling of a smart household under hourly pricing and peak power-limiting (hard and soft power limitation)-based demand response strategies. All types of controllable assets

  3. Cost-benefit analysis: introducing energy efficient and renewable energy appliances in Lebanese households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruble, Isabella [American University of Beirut, Department of Economics (Lebanon)], E-mail: economics.ir@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Lebanon, neglect of the electricity sector has led to a serious shortage in installed capacity. Recently, the government of Lebanon declared its intention to raise the share of renewable energy (RE) year by year in order to reduce energy consumption. This paper gave a cost-benefit analysis and reviewed the replacement of five major traditional household appliances with their energy efficient (EE) or renewable energy counterparts. This initiative would mostly be felt in three main areas: electricity consumption, consumer costs, and government expenditure. There is a strong possibility that the electricity demand of the 1.2 million Lebanese households can be reduced by introduction of these EE household appliances. Benefits would also accrue to the government in the form of avoided subsidies and reduced need for installed capacity. This paper finds that the benefits to be expected from these policy recommendations largely outweigh the costs.

  4. Energy and associated greenhouse gas emissions from household appliances in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saidur, R.; Masjuki, H.H.; Jamaluddin, M.Y.; Ahmed, S.

    2007-01-01

    Today, electricity is an indispensable key for civilization and development. The trend of electricity consumption is rather escalating. Electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. In one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. Further, electricity driven appliances use emanate anti-environmental gases that also affect human health and climate. Therefore, estimation of energy consumption for operating household appliances, savings of energy under policy intervention, and emission of poisonous gases in a fast developing country deserve academic attention. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases for use of household appliances in Malaysia between 1999 and 2015. In the upstream side of electricity generation, the study estimates the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) resulting from burning of fossil fuels. In downstream side, it considers the energy savings and reduction of CHGs. The results show that significant amount of energy can be saved and thus huge volume of toxic emissions can be controlled. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users

  5. Impact of thermostatically controlled loads' demand response activation on aggregated power: A field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    activation. The outcome of this experimental study quantifies the actual flexibility of household TCLs and the consequence for the different parties with respect to power behaviour. Each DR activation method adopts different scenarios to meet the power reduction, and has different impacts on the parameters......This paper describes the impacts of different types of DR (demand response) activation on TCLs' (thermostatically controlled loads) aggregated power. The different parties: power system operators, DR service providers (or aggregators) and consumers, have different objectives in relation to DR....... The experiments are conducted with real domestic refrigerators representing TCL. Activating refrigerators for DR with a delay reduces the ISE (integral square error) in power limitation by 28.46%, overshoot by 7.69%. The delay in refrigerator activation causes reduction in power ramp down rate by 39.90%, ramp up...

  6. A new approach to household appliance energy test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernebrant, S.; Wihlborg, M.

    1999-03-01

    Energy test procedures provides the industry with a method to measure its products energy consumption. The energy test procedures are the technical foundation to every energy standard and labelling system. Depending on which country the product is going to be sold in, the manufacturers must follow different standards. This report concentrates on appliance test procedures, with the main focus on refrigerators. Recently, a new technology -microcontrollers- is undermining the credibility of the test procedures. New features, saving energy in real-life, are not picked up by the test procedures. It is estimated that as much as 30% of energy could be saved with this technology. Microcontrollers have also led to the possibility to circumvent tests. A new model is presented in the report, which handles these energy savings and make it harder cheating on tests. The model divides the test procedure in two parts; hardware tests and software tests, and uses a Matlab/Simulink computer model to calculate the energy consumption. Examples of hardware- and software test methods for refrigerators are described. A refrigerator is used as an example to present the model. The possibility to harmonize the energy standards to one global standard, which could mean substantial savings and make international trade more efficient, is also discussed 24 refs, 30 figs. Examination paper

  7. Measures for improving the adoption of higher efficiency appliances in Indonesian households: An analysis of lifetime use and decision-making in the purchase of electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijaya, Muhammad Ery; Tezuka, Tetsuo

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We observe human psychosocial variables regarding purchase of electrical appliances. ► Two cities with different cultures are subject of this study – Bandung and Yogyakarta. ► Differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural. ► Ads and store’s staff have the greatest impact on people’s choice of appliances. ► Adoption of higher-efficiency appliances could be implemented based on each culture. - Abstract: One approach to decreasing electricity consumption is to facilitate the replacement of older appliances with new, higher-efficiency. The objectives of this paper are to compare and analyse the replacement of appliances in two cities of Indonesia – Yogyakarta and Bandung – that are characterised by different cultural backgrounds, ethnicities, and decision-making processes in the household purchase of electrical appliances. A questionnaire survey method was employed to obtain information on behavioural economics and human psychosocial variables such as attitudes, beliefs and perceived benefits regarding the replacement and purchase of electrical appliances. The results show that refrigerators in Yogyakarta have a longer lifetime than in Bandung. However, in Bandung, air conditioners, electric fans, rice cookers, and water pumps have a longer lifetime than in Yogyakarta. These differences in the lifetime of appliances can be attributed to the cultural differences within the two cities that are reflected in the manner in which people use electrical appliances as well as to their lack of knowledge regarding appliance operation. An analysis of the factors influencing the purchase of appliances indicated that people in Yogyakarta show a greater awareness of the benefits of adopting higher-efficiency appliances than do persons in Bandung. The following suggestions could be implemented to improve the strategy of encouraging the adoption of higher-efficiency appliances: (1) in Yogyakarta, energy labelling could be

  8. Economic MPC based on LPV model for thermostatically controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zemtsov, Nikita; Hlava, Jaroslav; Frantsuzova, Galina

    2017-01-01

    Rapid increase of the renewable energy share in electricity production requires optimization and flexibility of the power consumption side. Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) have a large potential for regulation service provision. Economic model predictive control (MPC) is an advanced...... control method which can be used to syncronize the power consumption with undispatchable renewable electricity production. Thermal behavior of TCLs can be described by linear models based on energy balance of the system. In some cases, parameters of the model may be time-varying. In this work, we present...... a modified economic MPC based on linear parameter-varying model. In particular, we provide an exact transformation from a standard economic MPC formulation to a linear program. We assume that the variables influencing the model parameters are known (predictable) for the prediction horizon of the controller...

  9. Household and caregiver characteristics and behaviours as predictors of unsafe exposure of children to paraffin appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Niekerk, A; Govender, R; Hornsby, N; Swart, L

    2017-06-01

    This study examines adult safety knowledge and practices regarding the use of paraffin cooking appliances. The use of these is common in South Africa with injury risks that are poorly understood. This cross-sectional study was in an informal settlement in Johannesburg, South Africa, where children were reportedly at high risk for burns. This study sought to clarify relationships between key risks and developed individual and composite variables from theoretical constructs and operational definitions of risks for burns. Risks included Child Use of Paraffin Appliances, Child Proximity to Cooking, Risky Stove Use, Caregiver's Burn Treatment Knowledge, Children Locked in House, Children Alone in House. Number of children remains as in proof as this was not a composite scale. Child Proximity to Cooking was associated with more children in the home. Households where children were in greater proximity to cooking were 6 times more likely to be left alone at home, with caregivers with no education over 100 times more likely to lock their children at home. Children locked in were often from homes where caregivers used appliances unsafely. In settings with hazardous energy use, compressed household configurations, and families with multiple children, Risky Stove Use and the practice of locking children in the home may be catastrophic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  10. Introducing mandatory standards for select household appliances in Lebanon: A cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruble, Isabella; Karaki, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Lebanon's energy sector crisis leads to a lack of access to uninterrupted, basic modern electricity services that affects all sectors of the economy. Energy conservation measures are nearly inexistent yet they can potentially lead to substantial reductions in energy demand growth, environmental damages and public expenditures. This paper presents an analysis of the costs and benefits associated with the introduction of mandatory standards for energy efficiency for four different household appliances (refrigerator/freezers, AC split units, washing machines and lighting) over the period 2013–2027. Our results show potential savings in electricity consumption reaching 2054 GW h annually in 2027 as well as a reduction of subsidies paid to the public utility of 3.6 billion USD in 2027 while CO 2 emissions avoided amount to 8.9 million tons over the period of analysis. Furthermore, we propose a financially attractive refrigerator/freezer replacement program for low income households. If this program would cover all existing low-income households in 2013, the savings in electricity consumption would lead to a reduction in subsidies of 9 billion USD (NPV) over the period 2013–2027, while full funding for this program would cost the government 223.8 million USD. This program would thereby benefit consumers, the government and further economic development. - Highlights: ► We model the effect of mandatory appliance standards on electricity consumption. ► We present a refrigerator replacement program contributing to economic development. ► We show that economic efficiency favors the introduction of standards for appliances.

  11. Investigation of the economic possibilities regarding the reduction of energy intensity for electrical household appliances. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, G

    1980-01-01

    Investigation results concerning the analysis of the energy application for electrical household appliances have not been available up to now. The investigation had the purpose of analysing the energy consumption of energy-intensive household appliances so that energy conservation possibilities with regard to the effectiveness may be developed. The parts of the effective and of the lost energy are being experimentally determined for the following appliances: large-scale hot water tank, washing machine, laundry drier, dish washer, electric hearth, coolers and refrigerators. The influence of the utilization habits on the specific energy consumption and the relationship between the energy application and the application properties are being investigated. On the basis of the investigation results the different possibilities of energy conservation are shown, together with some aspects of economical operation. On the basis of the investigation results also, the potential of the energy conservation, related to practical consumption values, is estimated at about 5-40%, depending on the appliance.

  12. The Role of Corporate Social Responsibility in Supply Chain Management: The Case of Household Appliances Businesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal ŞİŞMAN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To take advantage of sustainable competition the success of business in the environmental and social areas as important as such factors innovation-oriented growth, profitability, cost and quality. In both, supply chain management and the other work processes companies adapted to sense of corporate social responsibility (CSR achieve not only the economic objectives but also social and environmental objectives. In that context, the aim of this study is to provide a conceptual framework by determining the place of CSR in supply chain management. In this study, CSR activities in supply chain management of Arçelik inc., Vestel Household inc. and Bosch and Siemens (BSH Household Appliances inc. are examined. Data used in study are handled in the context of Panayiotou (2009 model. According to the model, CSR issues consist of three fundamental dimensions as economic, environmental and social, and their sub-dimensions.

  13. Equivalent electricity storage capacity of domestic thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sossan, Fabrizio

    2017-01-01

    A method to quantify the equivalent storage capacity inherent the operation of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) is developed. Equivalent storage capacity is defined as the amount of power and electricity consumption which can be deferred or anticipated in time with respect to the baseline consumption (i.e. when no demand side event occurs) without violating temperature limits. The analysis is carried out for 4 common domestic TCLs: an electric space heating system, freezer, fridge, and electric water heater. They are simulated by applying grey-box thermal models identified from measurements. They describe the heat transfer of the considered TCLs as a function of the electric power consumption and environment conditions. To represent typical TCLs operating conditions, Monte Carlo simulations are developed, where models inputs and parameters are sampled from relevant statistical distributions. The analysis provides a way to compare flexible demand against competitive storage technologies. It is intended as a tool for system planners to assess the TCLs potential to support electrical grid operation. In the paper, a comparison of the storage capacity per unit of capital investment cost is performed considering the selected TCLs and two grid-connected battery storage systems (a 720 kVA/500 kWh lithium-ion unit and 15 kVA/120 kWh Vanadium flow redox) is performed. - Highlights: • The equivalent storage capacity of domestic TCLs is quantified • A comparison with battery-based storage technologies is performed • We derive metrics for system planners to plan storage in power system networks • Rule-of-thumb cost indicators for flexible demand and battery-based storage

  14. Experimental analysis of flexibility change with different levels of power reduction by demand response activation on thermostat controlled loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lakshmanan, Venkatachalam; Marinelli, Mattia; Hu, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the flexibility available with thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to provide power system services by demand response (DR) activation. Although the DR activation on TCLs can provide power system ancillary services, it is important to know how long such services can...... be provided for when different levels of power reduction are imposed. The flexibility change with different levels of power reduction is tested experimentally with domestic fridges used by real customers with unknown user interaction. The investigation quantifies the flexibility of household fridges...... and the impact of DR activation in terms of deviation in the average temperature. The maximum possible power reduction with the cluster of refrigerators is 67% and the available flexibility with the cluster of refrigerators is 10%. The resulting deviation in the average temperature is 14%....

  15. Reduction of electric power consumption in relation to household appliances. Elbesparelser ved husholdningsapparater; Forprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gydesen, A.

    1989-07-15

    Possibilities were investigated for the reduction of electric power consumption in relation to household appliances, and for cooperation with manufacturers in this respect. It is suggested that in the cases of washing-up machines, and washing and drying machines, hot water from the tap could be utilized. This would mean that the energy consumption would then shift to domestic heating equipment, dual-purpose power plants and district heating plants. Ovens, drying machines, washing machines and washing-up machines could use natural gas, especially in areas where this fuel could be conveyed to each household via pipes. Cooperation with manufacturers seems feasible, especially with regard to electric ovens, saucepans for use in combination with the latter, and water beds. Considering future developments, it is reasonable to expect that ultra sound will be utilized in connection with washing-up and washing machines, moreover it is likely that the use of enzymes in washing powders will mean that washing machines will be able to run on cold water. (AB) 21 refs.

  16. Omnidirectional Wireless Power Transfer System Based on Rotary Transmitting Coil for Household Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongjun Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available An omnidirectional magnetically coupled resonant wireless power transfer (WPT system based on rotary transmitting coil is presented. The proposed scheme can ease the variations of the transfer efficiency and output power caused by the deviation of transfer direction, and improve the unbalanced power distribution phenomenon between the receivers, which are still not fully achieved in current WPT systems. The modified coupled-mode model is built first to describe the non-rotary multi-receiver WPT system. The analysis indicates that the transfer efficiency and output power of the system can be expressed as functions of the deviation angle between the transmitting coil and receiving coil, which has a non-negligible influence on the system performances. Then, the modified high order coupled-mode model containing time-varying parameters about the deviation angle is derived for the proposed omnidirectional WPT system. Theoretical analysis and simulated results indicate that this system can transfer power to multiple receivers around the transmitter synchronously and evenly, which is very suitable for wireless charging for household appliances indoors. The scheme feasibility and theoretical analysis are verified by experimental results.

  17. Product carbon footprint assessment supporting the green supply chain construction in household appliance manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianhua; Sun, Liang; Guo, Huiting

    2017-11-01

    Supply chain carbon emission is one of the factors considered in the green supply chain management. A method was designed to support the green supply chain measures based on the carbon footprint assessment for products. A research for 3 typical household appliances carbon footprint assessment was conducted to explore using product carbon footprint assessment method to guide the green supply chain management of the manufacturers. The result could reflect the differences directions on green supply chain management of manufacturers of washing machine, air conditioner and microwave, respectively That is, the washing machine manufacturer should pay attention to the low carbon activities in upstream suppliers in highest priority, and also the promotion of product energy efficiency. The air conditioner manufacturer should pay attention to the product energy efficiency increasing in highest priority, and the improvement of refrigerant to decrease its GWP. And the microwave manufacture could only focus on the energy efficiency increasing because it contributes most of the carbon emission to its carbon footprint. Besides, the representativeness of product and the applicability of the method were also discussed. As the manufacturer could master the technical information on raw material and components of its products to conduct the product carbon footprint assessment, this method could help the manufacturer to identify the effective green supply chain measures in the preliminary stage.

  18. Modeling heterogeneous populations of thermostatically controlled loads using diffusion-advection PDEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moura, Scott; Ruiz, Victor; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on developing a partial differential equation (PDE)-based model and parameter identification scheme for heterogeneous populations of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs). First, a coupled two-state hyperbolic PDE model for homogenous TCL populations is derived. This model i...

  19. Simulation platform for direct load control of household appliances. Literature survey and G2 implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolm, J; Vlaheli, A

    1996-10-01

    There is an incentive for the power utilities to look for other ways than building new power stations to satisfy increasing customer power needs. One way to fulfill this demand is by redistributing the available electric power between the different power consumers. This method can successfully be used during high peak hours. The utility is also able to make financial profits selling the redistributed electric power at a higher price to customers with temporary high power demands. Direct Load Control - DLC, a Demand Side Management - DSM tool, is one way to achieve a redistribution of electric power. This masters thesis project consisted in developing a user-friendly simulation platform for domestic appliances combined with an electric power control system to be employed for Direct Load Control. The platform contains the necessary facilities for designing an electrical distribution network model and is implemented in G2, an object-oriented real-time environment. The final application provides an on-line instrument for the utility to control the power consumption over the entire system in terms of dispensing power in an electrical network. The report consists of two main parts. The first part describes a literature survey we systematically compiled to gather literature sources. The second part outlines our design and implementation of the G2 simulation platform for a water-heater model with a Direct Load Control system. The entire simulation platform is designed to allow a flexible change and improvement of the different models. Consequently, our software is a powerful tool for studying a wide range of problems related to a Load Management program involving electrical household loads. 9 refs, 32 figs

  20. Design and Modelling of Thermostatically Controlled Loads as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2007-01-01

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is beneficial to power systems in many aspects. To study the impacts of this technology on power system operation, control logics and simulation models of relevant loads should be carefully developed. Two advanced control logics for using demand...... frequency, is developed. The developed simulation model is able to represent a variety of aggregated thermostatically controlled loads, such as heaters or refrigerators. Uncertainties including customer behaviours and ambient temperature variation are also modelled. Preliminary simulation results...

  1. Generation Following with Thermostatically Controlled Loads via Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers Sharing Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Burger, Eric M.; Moura, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    A fundamental requirement of the electric power system is to maintain a continuous and instantaneous balance between generation and load. The intermittency and uncertainty introduced by renewable energy generation requires the expansion of ancillary power system services to maintain such a balance. In this paper, we examine the potential of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as refrigerators and electric water heaters, to provide generation following services in real-time energy m...

  2. Labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances: current situation, main results and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menanteau, Ph.

    2000-09-01

    To control the rise in electricity consumption for specific uses, the industrialized countries started by introducing special programs aimed at improving energy efficiency. Among the different instruments available, labeling programs and minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) have proved to be very effective. The first part of this document presents the current situation, the main results and recommendations concerning the labeling programs and efficiency standards to control the energy consumption of household appliances. This analyze is done for each country in details providing the name of the program or measure, the date of implementation, the objective and the main characteristics of the program, the impacts and evaluation. (A.L.B.)

  3. Saturation, energy consumption, CO{sub 2} emission and energy efficiency from urban and rural households appliances in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas-Flores, Jorge Alberto; Rosas-Flores, Dionicio [Division de Estudios de Posgrado, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Galvez, David Morillon [Posgrado de Arquitectura, Facultad de Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad Universitaria Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad, Universitaria, Coyoacan 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    Energy usage and energy efficiency are of increasing concern in Mexico, electricity generation principally depends upon fossil fuels. On one hand, the stocks of these fuels have been confirmed to be critically limited. On the other hand, in process of electricity generation by means of these fuels, a number of poisonous by-products adversely affect the conservation of natural eco-system. This paper focuses on estimation of energy consumption, energy savings, reduction of emissions of CO{sub 2} for use of urban and rural household appliances in Mexico between 1996 and 2021. The analysis concentrates on six major energy end uses in the residential sector: refrigerators, air conditioners, washing machines, TV set, iron and heater. It is estimated that by 2021 there will be a cumulative saving of 22,605 GWh, as a result of the implementation of government programs on energy efficiency that represents a cumulative reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions of 15,087 Tg CO{sub 2}. It means that Mexico can reduce in 5650 MW the generation capacity of national electricity system, which is to avoid burning 40.35 MM barrels of oil. The findings can be useful to policy makers as well as household appliances users. (author)

  4. Preliminary Study of Perception and Consumer Behaviour Towards Energy Saving for Household Appliances: A Case of Makassar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam Akil, Yusri; Mangngenre, Saiful; Mawar, Sri; Amar, Kifayah

    2018-03-01

    Electricity load has tendency to increase over the time. Therefore, efforts to maintain a balance between electricity supply and demand such as increasing energy saving related to the use of home electricity appliances are urgently needed. In general, one of the household appliances which consumes relatively high electricity energy is refrigerator. The purpose of this study is to analyze residential consumers perceptions and their behaviours about electricity energy saving in relation to the usage of household appliances in Makassar, Indonesia particularly for refrigerator. Moreover, typical relationship between perceptions and consumers behaviours is also analyzed by composed two regression models, namely model for usage behaviour (UREFm model) and model for habitual behaviour (HREFm model) by using general perception, specific perception, and external factors as explanation variables. To collect data, a questionnaire was designed for survey which involved 40 respondents as a preliminary study and then statistical tests including regression analysis were applied to analyze usable data. The target of respondent was an owner of a house in Makassar with installed power capacity at least 900 VA. Reliability test shown that all items in the developed questionnaire can be used for main survey as obtained Cronbach’s alpha values were above 0.6. Evaluation for consumers perceptions on energy saving in relation to demographic aspect using mean and Standard Deviation values indicated some significant differences. Other results regarding regression analysis shown that both composed models were well validated and had quite good fitness degree with adjusted R-squared values around 49.31% for UREFm model and 80.90% for HREFm model. Among considered variables, specific perception, and external factors were found have significant influence to the usage and habitual behaviours of consumers as confirmed by their p-values in each model below 0.05. Findings of this research can be

  5. Practice of gas appliance engineering in households and trade; Praxis der Gasanwendungstechnik in Haushalt und Gewerbe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joos, L.

    2002-07-01

    This practice oriented dictionary describes gas burners and gas engine technology as also required gases for operation of this appliances. Beside the presentation of this used fuel gases an their characteristica many gas appliances for cooking, heating and hot water treatment etc. are shown and described. Cogeneration is also a topic as reduction of pollutant emissions, gas exchangeability and possibilities to save energy. Many pictures and tables support the understanding of this complex technology. From the authors experiences of 34 years developing gas appliances can profit customer consultants of gas supplies, gas installation crews and constructors of heating systems. Last not least for students this practice oriented completion should be interesting in contrast to the mainly theoretical high school education. (GL) [German] Das vorliegende Buch spiegelt den aktuellen Stand der Gasanwendungstechnik auf dem haushaltlichen und gewerblichen Sektor. Als praxisorientiertes Nachschlagewerk beschreibt es sowohl die Gasbrenner- und Gasgeraetetechnik als auch die fuer den Betrieb dieser Gasgeraete erforderlichen Gase. Neben der Vorstellung der eingesetzten Brenngase und ihrer Kenngroessen wird eine Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Gasgeraete zum Heizen, Kochen, zur Warmwasserbereitung etc. beschrieben und erlaeutert. Darueber hinaus ist die Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung ebenso ein Thema wie die Reduzierung von Schadstoffemissionen, die Austauschbarkeit der Gase und die Moeglichkeiten der Energieeinsparung. Dem besseren Verstaendnis der komplexen Thematik dienen zahlreiche Bilder und Tabellen. Von den praktischen Erfahrungen, die der Autor in 35 Jahren auf dem Gebiet der gasanwendungstechnischen Entwicklung sammelte, profitieren in erster Linie Kundenberater der Gasversorgungsgesellschaften, Gasinstallateure und Heizungsbauer. Aber auch fuer Studenten wird diese praxisbezogene Ergaenzung des ueberwiegend theoretischen Hochschulunterrichts interessant sein. (orig.)

  6. Effects of socioeconomic factors on household appliance, lighting, and space cooling electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydinalp, M. [Itron Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Ismet Ugursal, V.; Fung, A.S. [Dalhousie University, Halifax (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Two methods are currently used to model residential energy consumption at the national or regional level: the engineering method and the conditional demand analysis (CDA) method. One of the major difficulties associated with the use of engineering models is the inclusion of consumer behaviour and socioeconomic factors that have significant effects on the residential energy consumption. The CDA method can handle socioeconomic factors if they are included in the model formulation. However, the multicollinearity problem and the need for a very large amount of data make the use of CDA models very difficult. It is shown in this paper that the neural network (NN) method can be used to model the residential energy consumption with the inclusion of socioeconomic factors. The appliances, lighting, and cooling component of the NN based energy consumption model developed for the Canadian residential sector is presented here and the effects of some socioeconomic factors on the residential energy consumption are examined using the model. (author)

  7. Techno-economic analysis of household and community energy storage for residential prosumers with smart appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, Sander; Alskaif, T.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/411176455; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074628526

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of Decentralized Energy Resources (DERs) and rising electricity demand are known to cause grid instability. Additionally, recent policy developments indicate a decreased tariff in the future for electricity sold to the grid by households with DERs. Energy Storage Systems (ESS) combined

  8. Household adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances: An analysis of attitudes, labelling and complementary green behaviours in selected OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu-Hang, To; Grafton, R Quentin; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Garcia-Valiñas, Maria

    2017-07-15

    Using a household-based data set of more than 12,000 households from 11 OECD countries, we analyse the factors underlying the decision by households to adopt energy-efficient and water-efficient equipment. We evaluate the roles of both attitudes and labelling schemes on the adoption of energy and water-efficient equipment, and also the interaction and complementarity between energy and water conservation behaviours. Our findings show: one, 'green' social norms and favourable attitudes towards the environment are associated with an increased likelihood of households' adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances; two, households' purchase decisions are positively affected by their awareness, understanding, and trust of labelling schemes; and three, there is evidence of complementarity between energy conservation and water conservation behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Householders' Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabe-Thomas, Elizabeth; Walker, Ian; Verplanken, Bas; Shaddick, Gavin

    2016-01-01

    If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people's energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders' perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally 'went together', there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment) and location within the home (e.g., kitchen); energy consumption was not an important factor in people's categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself.

  10. Householders' Mental Models of Domestic Energy Consumption: Using a Sort-And-Cluster Method to Identify Shared Concepts of Appliance Similarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gabe-Thomas

    Full Text Available If in-home displays and other interventions are to successfully influence people's energy consumption, they need to communicate about energy in terms that make sense to users. Here we explore householders' perceptions of energy consumption, using a novel combination of card-sorting and clustering to reveal shared patterns in the way people think about domestic energy consumption. The data suggest that, when participants were asked to group appliances which they felt naturally 'went together', there are relatively few shared ideas about which appliances are conceptually related. To the extent participants agreed on which appliances belonged together, these groupings were based on activities (e.g., entertainment and location within the home (e.g., kitchen; energy consumption was not an important factor in people's categorisations. This suggests messages about behaviour change aimed at reducing energy consumption might better be tied to social practices than to consumption itself.

  11. Safe protocols for generating power pulses with heterogeneous populations of thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Kundu, Soumya; Backhaus, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Algorithms to produce useful load response from a heterogeneous group of TCLs. ► Generation of sharp power pulses without initiating any unwanted oscillation. ► Open-loop methods, not requiring any detailed system modeling. ► One-way, utility-to-consumer, communication. ► Potential use in secondary frequency regulation, generation-load balancing, etc. - Abstract: We explore methods to use thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as water heaters and air conditioners, to provide ancillary services by assisting in balancing generation and load. We show that by adding simple imbedded instructions and a small amount of memory to temperature controllers of TCLs, it is possible to design open-loop control algorithms capable of creating short-term pulses of demand response without unwanted power oscillations associated with temporary synchronization of the TCL dynamics. By moving a small amount of intelligence to each of the end point TCL devices, we are able to leverage our knowledge of the time dynamics of TCLs to shape the demand response pulses for different power system applications. A significant benefit of our open-loop method is the reduction from two-way to one-way broadcast communication which also eliminates many basic consumer privacy issues. In this work, we focus on developing the algorithms to generate a set of fundamental pulse shapes that can subsequently be used to create demand response with arbitrary profiles. Demand response control methods, such as the one developed here, open the door to fast, nonperturbative control of large aggregations of TCLs

  12. Load management: Model-based control of aggregate power for populations of thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfumo, Cristian; Kofman, Ernesto; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Ward, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Characterisation of power response of a population of air conditioners. ► Implementation of demand side management on a group of air conditioners. ► Design of a controller for the power output of a group of air conditioners. ► Quantification of comfort impact of demand side management. - Abstract: Large groups of electrical loads can be controlled as a single entity to reduce their aggregate power demand in the electricity network. This approach, known as load management (LM) or demand response, offers an alternative to the traditional paradigm in the electricity market, where matching supply and demand is achieved solely by regulating how much generation is dispatched. Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as air conditioners (ACs) and fridges, are particularly suitable for LM, which can be implemented using feedback control techniques to regulate their aggregate power. To achieve high performance, such feedback control techniques require an accurate mathematical model of the TCL aggregate dynamics. Although such models have been developed, they appear too complex to be effectively used in control design. In this paper we develop a mathematical model aimed at the design of a model-based feedback control strategy. The proposed model analytically characterises the aggregate power response of a population of ACs to a simultaneous step change in temperature set points. Based on this model, we then derive, and completely parametrise in terms of the ACs ensemble properties, a reduced-order mathematical model to design an internal-model controller that regulates aggregate power by broadcasting temperature set-point offset changes. The proposed controller achieves high LM performance provided the ACs are equipped with high resolution thermostats. With coarser resolution thermostats, which are typical in present commercial and residential ACs, performance deteriorates significantly. This limitation is overcome by subdividing the population

  13. The impact of socioeconomic and behavioural factors for purchasing energy efficient household appliances: A case study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Trivella, Alessio; Wente, Jordan William

    2018-01-01

    appliances. Interestingly, income is a weaker predictor. Despite a relatively wealthy national income and well-educated population, information campaigns have been largely ineffective in driving high efficiency investments. In light of this study's results and exogenous factors such as urbanising...

  14. Operation and Management of Thermostatically Controlled Loads for Providing Regulation Services to Power Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanouni, Maziar

    The notion of demand-side participation in power systems operation and control is on the verge of realization because of the advancement in the required technologies an tools like communications, smart meters, sensor networks, large data management techniques, large scale optimization method, etc. Therefore, demand-response (DR) programs can be one of the prosperous solutions to accommodate part of the increasing demand for load balancing services which is brought about by the high penetration of intermittent renewable energies in power systems. This dissertation studies different aspects of the DR programs that utilized the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) to provide load balancing services. The importance of TCLs among the other loads lie on their flexibility in power consumption pattern while the customer/end-user comfort is not (or minimally) impacted. Chapter 2 discussed a previously presented direct load control (DLC) to control the power consumption of aggregated TCLs. The DLC method performs a power tracking control and based on central approach where a central controller broadcasts the control command to the dispersed TCLs to toggle them on/off. The central controller receives measurement feedback from the TCLs once per couple of minutes to run a successful forecast process. The performance evaluation criteria to evaluate the load balancing service provided by the TCLs are presented. The results are discussed under different scenarios and situation. The numerical results show the proper performance of the DLC method. This DLC method is used as the control method in all the studies in this dissertation. Chapter 3 presents performance improvements for the original method in Chapter 2 by communicating two more pieces of information called forecast parameters (FPs). Communicating improves the forecast process in the DLC and hence, both performance accuracy and the amount of tear-and-wear imposed on the TCLs. Chapter 4 formulates a stochastic

  15. Household consumption of different generations. Purchase of electric appliances and energy; Hushaallens konsumtion i olika generationer. Inkoep av eldriven hushaallsutrustning och energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika; Stenerus, Ann-Sofie

    2008-02-15

    Considering that energy efficiency is an important task for the future, this study shows to what extent generation affiliation and other household characteristics affect consumption of primarily electrical household appliances and energy. The material used is a number of studies concerning household expenditures as well as average prices for goods and energy. Material from 1958, 1978, 1985, 1995 and 2003-2005 have been used. This report also includes a discussion regarding opportunities for energy efficiency. The term generation is explained in this context and earlier studies with relevance to generation affiliation and energy are summarized. An analysis of consumption habits among different generations highlights that the generations living in Sweden today experienced substantially different consumption opportunities during childhood and youth. Some generations have memories of much lower consumption levels, memories which could be recalled with the right policy instruments. The consumption experiences of the veteran generation are studied from 1958 up to 2003-2005, and this study also includes a comparison between the consumption levels in families with children in the 1950s and today. The current Swedish population have very different frames of reference concerning possible consumption styles. However, no generation would easily accept a more energy efficient lifestyle, because all generations have adapted to the increased consumption opportunities with high mobility and easy access. The analysis of household purchases of electrical appliances is based on information from 6 700 households (2003-2005) and 4 400 households (1985). The results are both surprising and expected. Generation affiliation is important for explaining expenditure levels for equipment for entertainment and information, where the youngest generations spend the most. But there are also differences related to gender as well as differences related to income and dwelling type. The differences

  16. Adult Competency Education Kit. Basic Skills in Speaking, Math, and Reading for Employment. Part H. ACE Competency Based Job Descriptions: #25--Household Appliance Mechanic; #26--Lineworker; #27--Painter Helper, Spray; #28--Painter, Brush; #29--Carpenter Apprentice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Mateo County Office of Education, Redwood City, CA. Career Preparation Centers.

    This fifth of fifteen sets of Adult Competency Education (ACE) Competency Based Job Descriptions in the ACE kit contains job descriptions for Household Appliance Mechanic; Lineworker; Painter Helper, Spray; Painter, Brush; and Carpenter Apprentice. Each begins with a fact sheet that includes this information: occupational title, D.O.T. code, ACE…

  17. Replacement or additional purchase: The impact of energy-efficient appliances on household electricity saving under public pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizobuchi, Kenichi; Takeuchi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the influence of additional and replacement purchases of energy-efficient air-conditioners on power savings. We used a questionnaire survey and measured electricity use data from 339 Japanese households, collected from two city areas with different level of government-requested electricity-saving rates, namely, Osaka (10%) and Matsuyama (5%). The main findings of our study are as follows: (1) Households that purchased energy-efficient air-conditioners saved more electricity than those that did not. (2) “Additional-purchase households” showed significant energy savings, whereas “replacement households” did not. The rebound effect may negate the energy-saving effects of a new air-conditioner. (3) Altruistic attitude is associated with more active participation in power saving. (4) Households in Osaka saved more electricity than those in Matsuyama, probably because the government call to save electricity was more forceful. - Highlights: •Energy efficient air conditioner purchases affect household power savings. •Additional air conditioner purchase led to significant energy savings. •Replacement units did not produce more savings than non-purchase. • “Electricity conservation directives” amount had a significant power-saving effect. •Altruistic households were more likely to cooperate with power-saving requests.

  18. Reputation-based Joint Scheduling of Households Appliances and Storage in a Microgrid with a Shared Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    AlSkaif, Tarek; Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Guerrero Zapata, Manel

    2017-01-01

    . Deploying a shared storage unit in a residential microgrid is an alternative scenario that allows households to store their surplus renewable energy for a later use. However, this creates some challenges in managing the battery and the available energy resource in a fair way. In this paper, a reputation...... be achieved, in comparison with the classical scheduling scenario. The saving can reach up to 68% when dierent classes of households exist in the microgrid. The results also show that the fairness in energy allocation is guaranteed by the reputation-based policy, and that the total power absorbed from...... the main grid by the whole microgrid is significantly decreased....

  19. FY 2000 report on the results of the development of the stand-by consumption power reduction technology. Verification experiment on the technology to reduce stand-by power of household electric appliances; 2000 nendo taikiji shohi denryoku sakugen gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kaden seihin taikiji denryoku sakugen gijutsu no jissho jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Study was made of the energy conservation by reducing stand-by consumption power of household electric appliances. In the study, remote control, household electric appliance, and outlet box were developed, and a system was developed in which each of the three was connected by network and the commercial power source supply is cut off at the time of the stand-by state of household electric appliances. The outlet box collectively manages timer information and reservation information. User sends out control command toward the outlet box using the two-way remote control, and controls all the household electric appliances connected via network. The screen data of household electric appliances are sent to the two-way remote control via the outlet box and presented to user. When the time comes for automatic execution such as video recording during absence, the outlet box carries commercial power source to household electric appliances. Using these appliances, verification experiment was carried out in the model house which was built with the ordinary house as model. A reduction in stand-by consumption power, approximately 218kWh/year(center dot)household, was verified. (NEDO)

  20. Technical and legal application possibilities of the compulsory labelling of the standby consumption of electrical household and office appliances - Project No. 53/03. Summary of the final report for the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomann, B.; Cremer, C.; Friedewald, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2005-06-13

    The standby consumption of electrical households and office appliances continues to be significant world-wide since the number of products with standby components is constantly increasing. For Germany, a recent assessment of the Fraunhofer ISI (Cremer et al. 2003) for 2001 arrived at an electricity demand of almost 15 TWh for household and office appliances in standby mode. i.e. in standby and off-mode. This represents almost 40% of the total consumption of these appliances and around 3% of the total electricity demand of the final energy sectors in Germany. The standby share in electricity demand is over 80 or even 90% for numerous appliances. The Federal Environmental Agency calculated that every year standby losses in German households and offices are responsible for wasted electricity amounting to 3.5 billion Euro (UBA 2004). For the OECD countries, field studies show that between 3 and 13% of the electricity consumption of households can be ascribed to standby losses (IEA 2001). Without energy policy measures on both national and international levels, there is a great risk that a further increase in standby consumption will occur. Many studies dealing with this subject have already been conducted and have shown that low standby consumption is technically feasible and usually achievable at a reasonable cost. One possible energy policy measure to reduce the standby consumption of electrical household and office appliances is the introduction of mandatory consumption labelling. In principle, a high degree of effectiveness is attributed to such regulatory/command-and-control measures with regard to influencing the energy efficiency of devices. Compulsory energy labels to identify and, where necessary, to classify electricity consumption produce greater market transparency and offer buyers an additional decision criterion. In this way they promote indirectly the development, production and supply of energy-efficient products. When combined with comparatively low

  1. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S3: THIRD INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  2. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S2: SECOND INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  3. Study on Semantic Assets for Smart Appliances Interoperability : D-S1: FIRST INTERIM REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Daniele, L.M.; Roes, J.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings originates from the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Household appliances or home appliances are electrical/mechanical machines which accomplish some household functions. Nowadays, appliances are not stand-alone systems anymore.

  4. Achievement report for fiscal 1998 on development of advanced household electric appliance recycling technology; 1998 nendo senshinteki kaden recycle gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to develop a household electric appliance recycling technology, research and development has been made on crushing of compressors, separation of resins and metals, and regenerative utilization of urethane used as the refrigerator heat insulating material. In the compressor crushing technology, development was made on a ring hammer crusher of wood pattern horizontal type. In the research of the resin-metal separation technology, the dry-type separation and material purity were enhanced successfully by means of classification of materials to be crushed according to grain sizes, and classification using an eddy current screening device and a specific gravity screening device. In the research of the urethane regenerative utilization technology, the contained fluorocarbon was decomposed at the rate of 99.999% by modifying and rinsing the pyrolytic gas from the urethane by means of cracking, having achieved to make the material innocuous. The fuel gas thus obtained can be utilized for electric power generation. In addition, a method to granulate the material was established by mixing it with thermo-plastic resins. It was discovered that using the recovered urethane, which is pulverized smaller than 300 {mu} m, can elevate the heat insulation performance when it is used as the vacuum heat insulator, proving its capability of being re-utilized in refrigerators. (NEDO)

  5. Energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leahy, Eimear; Lyons, Sean

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines household energy use and appliance ownership in Ireland. Logit regression analyses on a large micro-dataset reveal how household characteristics can help explain the ownership of energy using appliances. Using OLS regression models, we explore the factors affecting residential energy demand conditional on appliance ownership. Results suggest that the methods of space and water heating employed by a household are even more important than electrical appliances in explaining domestic energy usage. However, the stock of appliances must be included in such models so that results will not be biased. The methods employed in this paper can be easily adopted for studies of household energy use in other countries where household expenditure survey data are available.

  6. Okanagan indoor wood burning appliance inventory survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the usage and nature of wood burning appliances used by residents in British Columbia's Okanagan region. The objective was to better understand this source of air quality concern and to facilitate strategic planning, guidelines and legislation. The survey also provides a baseline to track the effectiveness of any reduction strategies. It identifies the different types of wood burning appliances used in the community and presents residential options about potential bylaws to protect air quality. The receptivity of households to switch to more efficient wood burning appliances was also examined. The survey completes a portion of an overall emissions inventory for the Okanagan Valley. Environment Canada uses the particulate loading results to model the air quality in the airshed. Results showed that approximately 21 per cent of the households in the Okanagan use indoor wood burning appliances, and burn an average of 2.3 cords of wood each year. Only 11 per cent of the appliances are considered to have advanced burning technology. It is projected that the use of wood burning appliances in the Okanagan will increase by 5 to 7 per cent in the next 2 years. Most residents have good burning habits, but some improvements can still be made. Many residents are considering exchanging old wood burning appliances for clean burning technology appliances for environmental and health reasons. Most households would support a bylaw to control nuisance amounts of smoke from wood burning appliances. 20 tabs., 5 figs

  7. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  8. 76 FR 79057 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ... Part 305 Advertising, Energy conservation, Household appliances, Labeling, Reporting and recordkeeping... emitting diode (OLED) means a thin-film light- emitting device that typically consists of a series of...

  9. Association of early-life exposure to household gas appliances and indoor nitrogen dioxide with cognition and attention behavior in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Eva; Julvez, Jordi; Torrent, Maties; de Cid, Rafael; Guxens, Mònica; Bustamante, Mariona; Künzli, Nino; Sunyer, Jordi

    2009-06-01

    The authors investigated the association of early-life exposure to indoor air pollution with neuropsychological development in preschoolers and assessed whether this association differs by glutathione-S-transferase gene (GSTP1) polymorphisms. A prospective, population-based birth cohort was set up in Menorca, Spain, in 1997-1999 (n = 482). Children were assessed for cognitive functioning (McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities) and attention-hyperactivity behaviors (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) at age 4 years. During the first 3 months of life, information about gas appliances at home and indoor nitrogen dioxide concentration was collected at each participant's home (n = 398, 83%). Genotyping was conducted for the GSTP1 coding variant Ile105Val. Use of gas appliances was inversely associated with cognitive outcomes (beta coefficient for general cognition = -5.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): -9.92, -0.28; odds ratio for inattention symptoms = 3.59, 95% CI: 1.14, 11.33), independent of social class and other confounders. Nitrogen dioxide concentrations were associated with cognitive function (a decrease of 0.27 point per 1 ppb, 95% CI: -0.48, -0.07) and inattention symptoms (odds ratio = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.12). The deleterious effect of indoor pollution from gas appliances on neuropsychological outcomes was stronger in children with the GSTP1 Val-105 allele. Early-life exposure to air pollution from indoor gas appliances may be negatively associated with neuropsychological development through the first 4 years of life, particularly among genetically susceptible children.

  10. 15 CFR 9.3 - Appliances and equipment included in program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appliances and equipment included in... VOLUNTARY LABELING PROGRAM FOR HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES AND EQUIPMENT TO EFFECT ENERGY CONSERVATION § 9.3 Appliances and equipment included in program. The appliances and equipment included in this program are room...

  11. Exploration on the Recycling Mechanism of Waste Household Appliances and Electronic Products in China%我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理机制探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐少艺

    2012-01-01

    我国因人口众多,电子电器产品的实际拥有量非常大,当这些产品被淘汰或换代时,产品废弃的数量同样巨大。如何有效地进行废旧电器电子的资源化回收处理,已经成为当前关系到我国经济、社会和环境可持续发展及我国再生资源回收利用面临的一个新课题。分析了我国废旧家电电子产品回收处理现状及存在问题,提出建立相关的法律、法规、市场机制及出台积极的经济政策,同时利用经济政策和利益驱动刺激回收市场发展,并加大绿色技术投入,使得废旧家电回收利用规模化发展。%Our country has a large population, electronic appliances products with the actual ownership is very big, when these products are eliminated or generation, the number of waste products also great. How to effectively carry out of waste electrical and electronic resources recycling processing, already became current relates our country economy, society and the environment sustainable development and our country renewable resource recycling faces a new topic. This article has analyzed our country waste household appliances and electronic products recycling status and problems, proposed the establishment of relevant laws, regulations, the market mechanism and the introduction of active economic policy, while the use of economic policy and interest drive stimulus recycling market development, and increase the green technology investment, the scale development of waste house-hold appliances recycling.

  12. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  13. Electric emissions from electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intra-corporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. (authors)

  14. A health intervention or a kitchen appliance? Household costs and benefits of a cleaner burning biomass-fuelled cookstove in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cundale, Katie; Thomas, Ranjeeta; Malava, Jullita Kenala; Havens, Deborah; Mortimer, Kevin; Conteh, Lesong

    2017-06-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of mortality for children under five years in sub-Saharan Africa. Household air pollution has been found to increase risk of pneumonia, especially due to exposure from dirty burning biomass fuels. It has been suggested that advanced stoves, which burn fuel more efficiently and reduce smoke emissions, may help to reduce household air pollution in poor, rural settings. This qualitative study aims to provide an insight into the household costs and perceived benefits from use of the stove in Malawi. It was conducted alongside The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS), the largest village cluster-level randomised controlled trial of an advanced combustion cookstove intervention to prevent pneumonia in children under five to date. In 2015, using 100 semi-structured interviews this study assessed household time use and perceptions of the stove from both control and intervention participants taking part in the CAPS trial in Chilumba. Household direct and indirect costs associated with the intervention were calculated. Users overwhelming liked using the stove. The main reported benefits were reduced cooking times and reduced fuel consumption. In most interviews, the health benefits were not initially identified as advantages of the stove, although when prompted, respondents stated that reduced smoke emissions contributed to a reduction in respiratory symptoms. The cost of the stove was much higher than most respondents said they would be willing to pay. The stoves were not primarily seen as health products. Perceptions of limited impact on health was subsequently supported by the CAPS trial data which showed no significant effect on pneumonia. While the findings are encouraging from the perspective of acceptability, without innovative financing mechanisms, general uptake and sustained use of the stove may not be possible in this setting. The findings also raise the question of whether the stoves should be marketed and championed as 'health

  15. Characterization of electrical appliances in transient state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Augustyn; Winiecki, Wiesław

    2017-08-01

    The article contains the study about electrical appliance characterization on the basis of power grid signals. To represent devices, parameters of current and voltage signals recorded during transient states are used. In this paper only transients occurring as a result of switching on devices are considered. The way of data acquisition performed in specialized measurement setup developed for electricity load monitoring is described. The paper presents the method of transients detection and the method of appliance parameters calculation. Using the set of acquired measurement data and appropriate software the set of parameters for several household appliances operating in different operating conditions was processed. Usefulness of appliances characterization in Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS) with the use of proposed method is discussed focusing on obtained results.

  16. What's driving energy efficient appliance label awareness and purchase propensity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    The EU appliance energy consumption labeling scheme is a key component of efforts to increase the diffusion of energy-efficient household appliances. In this paper, the determinants of consumer knowledge of the energy label for household appliances and the choice of class-A energy-efficient appliances are jointly estimated using data from a large survey of more than 20,000 German households. The results for five major appliances suggest that lack of knowledge of the energy label can generate considerable bias in both estimates of rates of uptake of class-A appliances and in estimates of the underlying determinants of choice of class-A appliance. Simulations of the choice to purchase a class-A appliance, given knowledge of the labeling framework, reveal that residence characteristics and, in several cases, regional electricity prices strongly increase the propensity to purchase a class-A appliance, but socio-economic characteristics have surprisingly little impact on appliance energy-class choice.

  17. Technical and legal application possibilities of the compulsory labelling of the standby consumption of electrical household and office appliances - Project No. 53/03. Final report for the Federal Ministry of Economics and Labour; Technische und rechtliche Anwendungsmoeglichkeiten einer verpflichtenden Kennzeichnung des Leerlaufverbrauchs strombetriebener Haushalts- und Buerogeraete - Dienstleistungsvorhaben Nr. 53/03. Abschlussbericht an das Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft und Arbeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlomann, B.; Cremer, C.; Friedewald, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Systemtechnik und Innovationsforschung, Karlsruhe (DE)] (and others)

    2005-04-27

    The standby consumption of electrical households and office appliances continues to be significant world-wide since the number of products with standby componen ts is constantly increasing. For Germany, a recent assessment of the Fraunhofer ISI (Cremer et al. 2003) for 2001 arrived at an electricity demand of almost 15 TWh for household and office appliances in standby mode. i.e. in standby and off -mode. This represents almost 40% of the total consumption of these appliances and around 3% of the total electricity demand of the final energy sectors in Ge rmany. The standby share in electricity demand is over 80 or even 90% for numer ous appliances. The Federal Environmental Agency calculated that every year stan dby losses in German households and offices are responsible for wasted electrici ty amounting to 3.5 billion Euro (UBA 2004). For the OECD countries, field studi es show that between 3 and 13% of the electricity consumption of households can be ascribed to standby losses (IEA 2001). Without energy policy measures on bot h national and international levels, there is a great risk that a further increa se in standby consumption will occur. Many studies dealing with this subject hav e already been conducted and have shown that low standby consumption is technica lly feasible and usually achievable at a reasonable cost. One possible energy po licy measure to reduce the standby consumption of electrical household and offic e appliances is the introduction of mandatory consumption labelling. In principl e, a high degree of effectiveness is attributed to such regulatory/command-and-c ontrol measures with regard to influencing the energy efficiency of devices. Com pulsory energy labels to identify and, where necessary, to classify electricity consumption produce greater market transparency and offer buyers an additional d ecision criterion. In this way they promote indirectly the development, producti on and supply of energy-efficient products. When combined with

  18. Scheduling home appliances for energy efficient buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2010-01-01

    The number of appliances found in users’ homes is increasing together with electricity consumption of users’ residences. In addition, there is a tendency to consume during the same period leading to demand peaks. During these periods, electricity providers are forced to develop costly methods...... to generate enough power to meet consumers’ requirements. In addition, high demand peaks can lead to electricity shortages or even blackouts in certain areas. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances should consume electricity in a more distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home...... appliances is proposed and analyzed. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power consumption threshold, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where...

  19. Multi-kanban mechanism for appliance disassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udomsawat, Gun; Gupta, Surendra M.

    2005-11-01

    The use of household appliances continues to rise every year. A significant number of End-Of-Life (EOL) appliances are generated because of the introduction of newer models that are more attractive, efficient and affordable. Others are, of course, generated when they become non-functional. Many regulations encourage recycling of EOL appliances to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills. In addition, EOL appliances offer the appliance manufacturing and remanufacturing industries a source of less expensive raw materials and components. For this reason product recovery has become a subject of interest during the past decade. In this paper, we study the disassembly line for appliance disassembly. We discuss and incorporate some of the complications that are inherent in disassembly line including product arrival, demand arrival, inventory fluctuation and production control mechanisms. We show how to overcome such complications by implementing a multi-kanban system in the appliance disassembly line setting. The multi-kanban system (MKS) relies on dynamic routing of kanbans according to the state of the system. We investigate the multi-kanban mechanism using simulation and explore the effect of product mix on performance of the traditional push system (TPS) and MKS in terms of controlling the system's inventory while attempting to achieve a decent customer service level.

  20. The greenhouse advantage of natural gas appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombe, N.

    2000-01-01

    The life cycle report prepared recently by Energetics for the AGA, Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Natural Gas, demonstrates clearly the greenhouse advantage natural gas has over coal in generating electricity. This study also goes one step further in applying this life cycle approach to the use of space and water heating within the home. The study shows the significant green-house advantage that natural gas appliances have over electric appliances. Findings from other studies also support this claim. The natural gas suppliers are encouraged to take advantage of the marketing opportunity that these studies provide, offering the householders the fuel that will significantly reduce their contribution to greenhouse emission

  1. Household appliance data collection and market survey in central and eastern european countries; Raccolta dati e analisi del mercato sugli apparecchi elettrodomestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale e orientale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Presutto, M. [ENEA, Funzione Centrali Studi, Centro Ricerche Ispra, Vercelli (Italy); Ricci, A. [Istituto di Studi per l' Integrazione dei Sistemi, Rome (Italy); Meli, L. [ANIE, Federazione delle Imprese Elettrotecniche ed Elettroniche, International Affaires Direction, Milan (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    Since 1995 the European Commission, through the SAVE programme, and the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations, through the Energy Efficiency 2000 Project, jointly sponsored the so called SACHA projects in Central and Eastern European Countries regarding major household appliances. Consistently, the main objective of the projects was to analyse and interpret the situation of refrigerators, freezers and washing machines in seven CEEC, so as to increase the knowledge and understanding of the issues at stake in the area of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness, and therefore to identify possible scenarios of improvement. This paper describes the work accomplished and the results achieved in this context, focusing more on the data collection and market survey moments and illustrates, with an abundant series of exhibits, the quantitative picture resulting form the analyses carried out. Possibility exists for replication in Latin America, where ENEA and Italian experience could be fruitfully applied. Reliable and complete information is in fact one of the prerequisites to overcome potential barriers and facilitate a successful enforcement of any energy efficiency policy. Effective implementation and regional harmonisation are necessary, even if projects can facilitate the fulfilment of these goals as it provides a consolidated methodology and an integrated scheme for basic data collection and analysis. [Italian] A partire dal 1995 la Commissione Europea e la Commissione Economica per l'Europa delle Nazioni Unite hanno congiuntamente promosso lo studio dei piu' importanti apparecchi domestici nei paesi dell'Europa centrale ed orientale. Principale obiettivo di questi progetti, piu' noti come progetti con SACHA, dall'acronimo del titolo, era analizzare e soprattutto interpretare la situazione dei frigoriferi, congelatori e lavatrici in sette PECO, per migliorare da un lato la conoscenza e la comprensione delle problematiche

  2. Electrical field of electrical appliances versus distance: A preliminary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, Nur Badariah Ahmad; Nordin, Farah Hani; Ismail, Fakaruddin Ali Ahmad; Alkahtani, Ammar Ahmed; Balasubramaniam, Nagaletchumi; Hock, Goh Chin; Shariff, Z A M

    2013-01-01

    Every household electrical appliance that is plugged in emits electric field even if it is not operating. The source where the appliance is plugged into and the components of household electrical appliance contribute to electric field emission. The electric field may cause unknown disturbance to the environment or also affect the human health and the effect might depends on the strength of the electric field emitted by the appliance. This paper will investigate the strength of the electric field emitted by four different electrical appliances using spectrum analyser. The strength will be captured at three different distances; (i) 1m (ii) 2m and (iii) 3m and analysis of the strength of the electrical field is done based on the three different distances. The measurement results show that the strength of the electric field is strongest when it is captured at 1m and the weakest at 3m from the electrical appliance. The results proved that the farther an object is located from the electrical appliance; the less effect the magnetic field has.

  3. Domestic energy use and householders' energy behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohanis, Yigzaw Goshu

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses domestic energy use and energy behaviour. It shows some improvement in domestic energy consumption and adoption of good energy practice. The survey conducted indicated that 35% of homes could improve their energy efficiency by improved tank insulation. In the last 5 years condensing boilers have been installed only in 3% of homes, indicating that householders are unaware of their advantages. Although 88% of surveyed homes had purchased a major appliance in the last 2 years, only 16% had any idea of the energy rating of their new appliances. Use of energy saving light bulbs is predominant in kitchens compared to other rooms. 70–80% of householders undertook some kind of day-to-day energy efficiency measures. 20–35% of householders would like to invest in energy-saving measures but found cost to be a key barrier. Approximately 84% of those surveyed were unaware of the energy rating of their household appliances. Price and brand were the most important factors determining the purchase of a new appliance. Significant energy-saving could be achieved by providing appropriate information to the general public regarding temperature control, efficiency of appliances and energy-saving heating systems. - Highlights: ▶ Good practice in household energy use is being adopted but actual use is rising. ▶ Cost is dominant in energy related decisions purchasing of household appliances. ▶ Energy behaviour is improving but level of awareness needs more work.

  4. Test households' experiences with a feedback system for power consumption of appliances designed on the basis of user driven innovation. A qualitative study; Testhusholdningers erfaringer med et feedbacksystem for elforbrug paa apparatniveau designet paa basis af brugerdrevet innovation - en kvalitativ undersoegelse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenhoej, A.; Thoegersen, J.

    2010-03-15

    In the project a system was developed and tested to provide electricity consumers detailed feedback on their electricity consumption at equipment level. In twenty test households equipment was installed for collecting consumption data at equipment level, and a 7 inch screen was installed, which showed the household's consumption in (kWh). Electricity consumption could be read continuously and compared with earlier periods, both in total and at appliance level. The evaluation of the families' use of the system was performed both by interviewing the twenty families personally in their homes and by calculating the change in power consumption during the period of the feedback device, based on consumption data supplied by the electric utility. For most households the newly developed system caused many technical problems in the beginning. Yet, consumption data showed that the 19 families, who had no business activities at home, saved an average of approx. 8% on their electricity consumption compared to the previous year. A comparable control group achieved a saving of 0.8% over the same period. Overall, the project shows that if power companies are better to visualize the power consumption to their customers by remote meters and user feedback, this will very likely result in more informed and educated consumers and thus result in electricity savings. The project shows, however, that there are still major technical and design challenges inherent in making such a system effectively. (ln)

  5. When do energy-efficient appliances generate energy savings? Some evidence from Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the energy efficiency of household appliances have the potential to decrease residential energy use, but these reductions accrue gradually over time as newer appliances replace older models. SHEU-2003 data are used to examine appliance replacement patterns in Canada for refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers and clothes dryers. The data indicate that the ages at which appliances are replaced tend to be lowest for dishwashers and highest for freezers, with over 40% of freezers in use for more than 20 years before being retired. The life spans of Canadian appliances are compared to the underlying assumptions regarding appliance lifetimes used in models of residential energy demand. We find that Canadian appliance retirement patterns differ from those assumed in the previous literature. Socioeconomic factors related to appliance replacement are also examined. We find that replacement patterns can be sensitive to household characteristics such as income, providing evidence that there may be scope for targeted policies aimed at inducing earlier replacements of older household appliances with new energy-efficient models

  6. Created in Close Interaction with the Industry: The Smart Appliances REFerence (SAREF) Ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.M.; Hartog, F.T.H. den; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    Around two thirds of the energy consumed by buildings can be traced back to the residential sectors and thus household appliances. Today, most appliances are highly intelligent and networked devices, in principle being able to form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing

  7. Eu-energy label for electric appliances; Das EU-Energielabel fuer Elektrogeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-04-15

    When buying a new appliances to have clear and understandable information on energy consumption to avoid later expensive surprices by to high power cost. But European classifiaction A to G of big household appliances is out of date and must be changed.(orig./GL)

  8. Toward semantic interoperability of energy using and producing appliances in residential environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Daniele, L.M.; Roes, J.B.M.

    2015-01-01

    About two thirds of the energy consumed in buildings originates household appliances. Nowadays, appliances are often intelligent and networked devices that form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing systems. Reducing energy is therefore a matter of managing and optimizing the energy

  9. Switch green : Energy Star appliance feebate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Between 1990 and 2004, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the residential sector have grown by 10 per cent, and are likely to continue growing unless a policy aimed at reducing emissions is introduced. The residential sector is a significant contributor to Canada's overall GHG emissions, and an important source for potential reductions. This report presented the results of a study that described and evaluated a new economic instrument aimed at reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption in Canada from household appliances, such as air conditioners, furnaces and boilers. Results of a quantitative analysis to determine the effect of changing taxation of residential appliances to reflect energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions were presented. In addition, the report presented the results of a qualitative evaluation of the policy, using the criteria established in the 2005 budget plan, a framework for evaluating environmental tax proposals. The report outlined the context for the tax proposal that was evaluated and provided a summary of trends in Canada's greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption as well as a discussion of important trends in residential energy consumption. A review of policies already in place to address energy consumption from household appliances was also presented. 11 tabs., 6 figs

  10. Standby-consumption in households; Standby-Verbrauch im Haushalt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnder, U.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made in five types of housing on the standby-consumption of various household appliances. 461 measurements were made in 37 households, whereby three modes - ready-for-use, standby and sleep - were examined. 71 different appliances were looked at in six consumer groups. These included entertainment, hygiene/health, kitchen/household, communication, office and garage. Data is presented in tabular form and commented on.

  11. Scheduling home-appliances to optimize energy consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana

    In order to optimize the energy consumption, energy demand peaks should be avoided, and energy consumption should be smoothly distributed over time. This can be achieved by setting a maximum energy consumption per user’s household. In other words, the overall consumption of the user’s appliances...

  12. Interoperability for smart appliances in the IoT world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniele, L.; Solanki, M.; Hartog, F. den; Roes, J.

    2016-01-01

    Household appliances are set to become highly intelligent, smart and networked devices in the near future. Systematically deployed on the Internet of Things (IoT), they would be able to form complete energy consuming, producing, and managing ecosystems. Smart systems are technically very

  13. Real-time identification of residential appliance events based on power monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhao; Zhu, Zhicheng; Wei, Zhiqiang; Yin, Bo; Wang, Xiuwei

    2018-03-01

    Energy monitoring for specific home appliances has been regarded as the pre-requisite for reducing residential energy consumption. To enhance the accuracy of identifying operation status of household appliances and to keep pace with the development of smart power grid, this paper puts forward the integration of electric current and power data on the basis of existing algorithm. If average power difference of several adjacent cycles varies from the baseline and goes beyond the pre-assigned threshold value, the event will be flagged. Based on MATLAB platform and domestic appliances simulations, the results of tested data and verified algorithm indicate that the power method has accomplished desired results of appliance identification.

  14. Crew appliance study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Viable crew appliance concepts were identified by means of a thorough literature search. Studies were made of the food management, personal hygiene, housekeeping, and off-duty habitability functions to determine which concepts best satisfy the Space Shuttle Orbiter and Modular Space Station mission requirements. Models of selected appliance concepts not currently included in the generalized environmental-thermal control and life support systems computer program were developed and validated. Development plans of selected concepts were generated for future reference. A shuttle freezer conceptual design was developed and a test support activity was provided for regenerative environmental control life support subsystems.

  15. Energy efficient appliance choice under the EU labeling scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer System- und Innovationsforschung (ISI), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2010-02-15

    This paper extends the existing empirical literature on consumers' choices when exposed to energy labeling schemes by allowing choices to depend on household socio-economic characteristics, technology-related factors, behavioral and motivational factors, and country conditions in a multi-country analysis. To account for a possible knowledge-based selection bias, the econometric model distinguishes label class knowledge from the energy class choice decision. As a general finding, most covariates show stronger relationships with knowledge of labeling class than with the choice of energy efficiency class. Four factors show particularly strong and expected influences on label class awareness. First, general awareness of household energy use and energy saving technologies spills over into awareness of the energy class of specific appliances. Second, socioeconomic characteristics mater, as education increases label class awareness and older age reduces awareness. Third, economic incentives matter, as stated economic importance of energy saving and higher country electricity prices both generate greater label awareness. By contrast, stated concerns about global warming do not appear to have a broad impact on awareness. Fourth, effective country implementation of the labeling scheme raises label awareness. More surprisingly, most factors that promote awareness of appliance energy classes have a limited influence on actual appliance energy class choice. Efficient energy behavior in the household is not strongly linked to appliance energy class choice. Socio-economic characteristics also have limited influence. This finding is inline with other studies that find that household socio-economic characteristics have relatively weak associations with the adoption of energy efficient technologies (Mills and Schleich 2010, Brohmann et al. 2009). In fact, with education it is vocational degrees rather than university degrees that are positively associated with the propensity to

  16. File System Virtual Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    4 KB of data is read or written, data is copied back and forth using trampoline buffers — pages that are shared during proxy initialization — because...in 2008. CIO Magazine. 104 · File system virtual appliances [64] Megiddo, N. and Modha, D. S. 2003. ARC: A Self-Tuning, Low Over- head Replacement

  17. Status Checking System of Home Appliances using machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Chi-Yurl

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes status checking system of home appliances based on machine learning, which can be applied to existing household appliances without networking function. Designed status checking system consists of sensor modules, a wireless communication module, cloud server, android application and a machine learning algorithm. The developed system applied to washing machine analyses and judges the four-kinds of appliance’s status such as staying, washing, rinsing and spin-drying. The measurements of sensor and transmission of sensing data are operated on an Arduino board and the data are transmitted to cloud server in real time. The collected data are parsed by an Android application and injected into the machine learning algorithm for learning the status of the appliances. The machine learning algorithm compares the stored learning data with collected real-time data from the appliances. Our results are expected to contribute as a base technology to design an automatic control system based on machine learning technology for household appliances in real-time.

  18. Wisdom Appliance Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick; Jheng, Jyun-Teng; Tsai, Chen-Chai; Liou, Jia-Wei; Wang, Zhi-Hao; Jong, Gwo-Jia

    2017-07-01

    Intelligent appliances wisdom involves security, home care, convenient and energy saving, but the home automation system is still one of the core unit, and also using micro-processing electronics technology to centralized and control the home electrical products and systems, such as: lighting, television, fan, air conditioning, stereo, it composed of front-controller systems and back-controller panels, user using front-controller to control command, and then through the back-controller to powered the device.

  19. Oral radiation protector appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persico, T.M.; Dudas, R.M.; Shusta, G.W.

    1982-01-01

    An appliance for protecting teeth, gingiva, periodontal or alveola bone, salivary glands, and adjacent body areas against the harmful side effects of radiation therapy consists of an intraoral portion and an extraoral portion that may be selectively attached. The intraoral portion is substantially u-shaped to encompass the teeth and adjacent areas. The intraoral part may be made of lead sheet coated with plastic; the extraoral portion may be of lead sheet

  20. Estimating Price Elasticity using Market-Level Appliance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-04

    This report provides and update to and expansion upon our 2008 LBNL report “An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Appliances,” in which we estimated an average relative price elasticity of -0.34 for major household appliances (Dale and Fujita 2008). Consumer responsiveness to price change is a key component of energy efficiency policy analysis; these policies influence consumer purchases through price both explicitly and implicitly. However, few studies address appliance demand elasticity in the U.S. market and public data sources are generally insufficient for rigorous estimation. Therefore, analysts have relied on a small set of outdated papers focused on limited appliance types, assuming long-term elasticities estimated for other durables (e.g., vehicles) decades ago are applicable to current and future appliance purchasing behavior. We aim to partially rectify this problem in the context of appliance efficiency standards by revisiting our previous analysis, utilizing data released over the last ten years and identifying additional estimates of durable goods price elasticities in the literature. Reviewing the literature, we find the following ranges of market-level price elasticities: -0.14 to -0.42 for appliances; -0.30 to -1.28 for automobiles; -0.47 to -2.55 for other durable goods. Brand price elasticities are substantially higher for these product groups, with most estimates -2.0 or more elastic. Using market-level shipments, sales value, and efficiency level data for 1989-2009, we run various iterations of a log-log regression model, arriving at a recommended range of short run appliance price elasticity between -0.4 and -0.5, with a default value of -0.45.

  1. Appliances facilitating everyday life - electricity use derived from daily activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellegaard, Kajsa (Dept of Thematic Studies, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden)), e-mail: kajsa.ellegard@liu.se; Widen, Joakim (Dept of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)); Vrotsou, Katerina (Dept of Science and Technology, Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    The purpose of this paper is to present how, using a visualization method, electricity use can be derived from the everyday activity patterns of household members. Target groups are, on the one hand, professionals in the energy sector and energy advisors who need more knowledge about household energy use, and, on the other hand, household members wanting to reduce the energy use by revealing their own habits and thereby finding out how changed activity performance may influence electricity use. The focus is on the relation between utilizing electric appliances to perform everyday life activities and the use of electricity. The visualization method is based on the time-geographic approach developed by Haegerstrand and includes a model that estimates appliance electricity use from household members' activities. Focus, in this paper, is put on some basic activities performed to satisfy daily life needs: cooking and use of information, communication and entertainment devices. These activities appear frequently in the everyday life of households, even though not all household members perform them all. The method is applied on a data material comprising time-diaries written by 463 individuals (aged 10 to 85+) in 179 households in different parts of Sweden. The visualization method reveals when and for how long activities that claim electric appliances are performed by which individual(s). It also shows electricity load curves generated from the use of appliances at different levels, such as individual, household and group or population levels. At household level the method can reveal which household members are the main users of electricity, i.e. the division of labour between household members. Thereby it also informs about whom could be approached by energy companies and energy advisors in information campaigns. The main result of the study is that systematic differences in activity patterns in subgroups of a population can be identified (e.g. men and women) but

  2. Experimental determination of demand side management potential of wet appliances in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staats, M. R.; de Boer-Meulman, P. D M; van Sark, W. G J H M

    2017-01-01

    The potential of demand side management (DSM) of wet appliances (washing machine, dishwasher and tumble dryer) in households with photovoltaic (PV) systems is studied experimentally focusing on evening peak demand reduction and increase in PV self-consumption. In a sample of 100 Dutch households the

  3. 46 CFR 111.77-3 - Appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances. 111.77-3 Section 111.77-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Appliances and Appliance Circuits § 111.77-3 Appliances. All electrical appliances, including, but...

  4. 78 FR 25724 - Petition for Waiver of GE Appliances From the Department of Energy Residential Refrigerator and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers that are the focus of this notice.\\1\\ Part B includes definitions, test... division of General Electric Co., (``GE'') is a leading manufacturer and marketer of household appliances...

  5. 78 FR 25728 - Notice of Petition for Waiver of GE Appliances From the Department of Energy Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ... refrigerator-freezers that are the focus of this notice.\\1\\ Part B includes definitions, test procedures... a leading manufacturer and marketer of household appliances, including, as relevant to this...

  6. Reducing Electricity Demand Peaks by Scheduling Home Appliances Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossello Busquet, Ana; Kardaras, Georgios; Iversen, Villy Bæk

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users’ appliances...... should consume electricity in a more temporarily distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home appliances is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power...... consumption limit, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where the electrical devices are classified in low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate without temporal restrictions...

  7. FY 1999 project on the development of new industry support type international standards. Standardization for securing mutual connection among informative household electric appliances; 1999 nendo shinki sangyo shiengata kokusai hyojun kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. Joho kaden kikikan no sogo setsuzokusei kakuho no tame no hyojunka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The R and D were conducted with the aim of the international standardization for securing mutual connection among informative household electric appliances, and the FY 1999 results were summarized. In FY 1999, the following were conducted: trial manufacture (for mass production) and evaluation of wide band POF (plastic optical fiber), trial manufacture and evaluation of home use small connector, and trial manufacture and evaluation of optical transceiver module. Various data required for the targeted standardization (transmission band: S400 or more, transmission distance: 100m) were obtained. In the next fiscal year, tests to demonstrate validity/reliability of the data are conducted so that the standards to be accepted as an international standard can be established. In the study of strategies of international standardization, the contents of the standards proposed were discussed, and activities of IEC/TC100 (multi-media) and the related TC were investigated. Early in the next fiscal year, the TC to be proposed is fixed, and international proposing activities are started such as the introduction of the standardization for this R and D to the organizations and persons concerned overseas. (NEDO)

  8. An Iterative Load Disaggregation Approach Based on Appliance Consumption Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM, monitoring single-appliance consumption level by decomposing the aggregated energy consumption, is a novel and economic technology that is beneficial to energy utilities and energy demand management strategies development. Hardware costs of high-frequency sampling and algorithm’s computational complexity hampered NILM large-scale application. However, low sampling data shows poor performance in event detection when multiple appliances are simultaneously turned on. In this paper, we contribute an iterative disaggregation approach that is based on appliance consumption pattern (ILDACP. Our approach combined Fuzzy C-means clustering algorithm, which provide an initial appliance operating status, and sub-sequence searching Dynamic Time Warping, which retrieves single energy consumption based on the typical power consumption pattern. Results show that the proposed approach is effective to accurately disaggregate power consumption, and is suitable for the situation where different appliances are simultaneously operated. Also, the approach has lower computational complexity than Hidden Markov Model method and it is easy to implement in the household without installing special equipment.

  9. Documentation of Appliances & Interaction Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The interaction devices and appliances explored in the WorkSPACE project, address spatial computing in the context of work. We have developed and explored a range of appliances and interaction devices. The scope has been to develop tools for support of collaboration by mixing digital and physical...

  10. Remote repair appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heumann, F.K.; Wilkinson, J.C.; Wooding, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    A remote appliance for supporting a tool for performing work at a work site on a substantially circular bore of a work piece and for providing video signals of the work site to a remote monitor comprises: a base plate having an inner face and an outer face; a plurality of rollers, wherein each roller is rotatably and adjustably attached to the inner face of the base plate and positioned to roll against the bore of the work piece when the base plate is positioned against the mouth of the bore such that the appliance may be rotated about the bore in a plane substantially parallel to the base plate; a tool holding means for supporting the tool, the tool holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate such that the working end of the tool is positioned on the inner face side of the base plate; a camera for providing video signals of the work site to the remote monitor; and a camera holding means for supporting the camera on the inner face side of the base plate, the camera holding means being adjustably attached to the outer face of the base plate. In a preferred embodiment, roller guards are provided to protect the rollers from debris and a bore guard is provided to protect the bore from wear by the rollers and damage from debris. 5 figs

  11. Improvements in appliance holders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Reference is made to appliance holders for locating tools, instruments, etc. in operative relationship to workpieces and accessible through passageways of restricted transverse dimensions. The appliance holder described comprises an elongated external frame provided with transversely, outwardly expanding frictional gripping means in two longitudinally spaced sets and with a ring of spur teeth. An inner elongated frame is held within the external frame in two longitudinally spaced rotary bearings and carries a spur wheel which engages the ring of the spur teeth. A motor is arranged to rotate the spur wheel and hence the inner frame in relation to the external frame. A carriage is carried by the inner frame, longitudinally movable by a motor in relation thereto, and a further carriage is mounted on this first carriage. This second cariage is transversely movable in relation to the inner frame and is provided with a face plate for attachment of tools, instruments, etc. A motor is mounted on the first carriage for moving the second carriage. (U.K.)

  12. Transforce lingual appliances pre-adjusted invisible appliances simplify treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William John

    2011-01-01

    Transforce lingual appliances are designed to be used in conjunction with conventional fixed appliances. Lingual arch development is normally followed by bonded fixed appliances to detail the occlusion. Alternatively Transforce appliance treatment is an efficient method of preparing complex malocclusions prior to a finishing stage with invisible appliances. This approach is ideal for adult treatment, using light continuous forces for arch development with appliances that are comfortable to wear. Sagittal and Transverse appliances are designed for arch development in a range of sizes for contracted arches. They can be used to treat all classes of malocclusion and are pre-adjusted fixed/removable devices for non-compliance treatment. Force modules with nickel titanium coil springs enclosed in a tube deliver a gentle, biocompatible continuous force with a long range of action. They are excellent for mixed dentition and ideal for adult arch development. There are multiple sizes for upper and lower arch development and a sizing chart may be placed over a study model for correct selection, eliminating the need for laboratory work.

  13. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  14. An orthodontic oral appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklund, Marie; Legrell, Per Erik

    2010-11-01

    This pilot study was performed to test the hypothesis that an orthodontic oral appliance (OA) that is designed to work against the backwardly directed forces on the upper incisors may counteract the reduction in overjet from these devices. Thirty patients with normal bites, good oral health, and milder sleep apnea were randomized to treatment with either OAs or orthodontic OAs. Bite changes were evaluated on plaster casts and radiographs and by questionnaires after a mean of 2.4 years in 19 frequent users. Four of nine patients in the orthodontic OA group increased their overjet by > or =0.4 mm, while none of the 10 patients in the OA group experienced that effect. Only the orthodontic OA increases the overjet; this design may therefore be beneficial to patients at risk of negative effects on their bite during OA treatment.

  15. Policy instruments force climate protection by increasing the energy efficiency of electric appliances and electrical systems in private households and the commercial and small-scale sector; Politikinstrumente zur Effizienzsteigerung von Elektrogeraeten und -anlagen in Privathaushalten, Bueros und im Kleinverbrauch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duscha, Markus; Seebach, Dominik; Griessmann, Benjamin [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2006-06-15

    The implementation of new, more market-oriented instruments represents an additional starting point for future developments. This path was started on in the EU in 2005 with the CO{sub 2} emission trade. The price signals that could be expected for end customers in households and trade from this alone would most likely be too low to be a sufficient motivation for exhausting the electricity efficiency potential. At this point, we must again point out that only rarely are there economic hindrances to the complete use of potential, but rather a lack of information and organization leads to increased transaction costs in the implementation. This must be corrected by accompanying efficiency instruments and programs. However, implementing these programs does not (yet) represent an economic alternative to the efficiency measures in their own systems for the industry and power company involved in the emission trade due to such transaction costs. Otherwise there would be initiatives in the meantime for this type of privately organized program, as these have been suggested in this report as tasks for a national electricity fund. Therefore, the instrument of the EU emission trade must be supplemented in the foreseeable future with the instruments presented here. There is not much evidence as to how much a comparable implementation of tradable energy efficiency certificates (often referred to as ''white certificates'') is a suitable start for concluding efficiency potential at the level of the very inhomogeneous group of end consumers. We still see a need for research before such an instrument can be recommended as a guide for Germany or even Europe. The questions still to be clarified include, among other things, the ability of standardizing the assignment rules as well as the amount of the transaction costs to be expected, even in dependency on the market level at which the trade is started (end consumer, energy service provider, electronic equipment

  16. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  17. Analyzing price and efficiency dynamics of large appliances with the experience curve approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, Martin; Patel, Martin K.; Junginger, Martin; Blok, Kornelis

    2010-01-01

    Large appliances are major power consumers in households of industrialized countries. Although their energy efficiency has been increasing substantially in past decades, still additional energy efficiency potentials exist. Energy policy that aims at realizing these potentials faces, however, growing concerns about possible adverse effects on commodity prices. Here, we address these concerns by applying the experience curve approach to analyze long-term price and energy efficiency trends of three wet appliances (washing machines, laundry dryers, and dishwashers) and two cold appliances (refrigerators and freezers). We identify a robust long-term decline in both specific price and specific energy consumption of large appliances. Specific prices of wet appliances decline at learning rates (LR) of 29±8% and thereby much faster than those of cold appliances (LR of 9±4%). Our results demonstrate that technological learning leads to substantial price decline, thus indicating that the introduction of novel and initially expensive energy efficiency technologies does not necessarily imply adverse price effects in the long term. By extending the conventional experience curve approach, we find a steady decline in the specific energy consumption of wet appliances (LR of 20-35%) and cold appliances (LR of 13-17%). Our analysis suggests that energy policy might be able to bend down energy experience curves. (author)

  18. Consumer’s Attitude Towards Investments in Residential Energy-Efficient Appliances: How End-User Choices Contribute to Change Future Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baldini, Mattia; Trivella, Alessio; Wente, Jordan William Halverson

    2017-01-01

    conventional and environmentally friendly alternatives when purchasing new household electric appliances. This study employs empirical data from a survey conducted by the Danish Energy Agency to model the decision criteria behind Danish consumer investment in energy-efficient labeled appliances. The analysis...... uses logistic regression over a set of socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral variables to predict purchase propensities. The findings are relevant for policy makers interested in targeting consumers in the appliance market, particularly for a relatively wealthy national context. The study...

  19. PAT portable appliance testing

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 require any electrical system to be constructed, maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent danger. This means that inspection and testing of systems, including portable appliances, is needed in order to determine if maintenance is required.This book explains in clear language what needs to be done and includes expert advice on legislation as well as actual testing. The book contains an appendix providing the electrical fundamentals needed by non-specialists and also has sample questions (with answers) for the C&G 2377 exam that anyone who conducts this work is required to take by law.It is an affordable and handy reference for electricians who administer PAT. It is also an ideal refesher and revision guide for the non-specialist, such as maintenance staff, caretakers and charity shop volunteers who carry out these tasks part-time, alongside their many other duties.Brian Scaddan, I Eng, MIET, is a consultant for and an Honorary Member of City & Guilds. ...

  20. Economics of appliance efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiedemann, K.H.

    2009-01-01

    Several significant developments occurred in 2001 that affect the impact of market transformation programs. This paper presented and applied an econometric approach to the identification and estimation of market models for refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers and room air conditioners. The purpose of the paper was to understand the impact of energy conservation policy developments on sales of energy efficient appliances. The paper discussed the approach with particular reference to building a database of sales and drivers of sales using publicly available information; estimation of the determinants of sales using econometric models; and estimation of the individual impacts of prices, gross domestic product (GDP) and energy conservation policies on sales using regression results. Market and policy developments were also presented, such as change a light, save the world promotion; the California energy crisis; and the Pacific Northwest drought induced hydro power shortage. It was concluded that an increase in GDP increased the sales of both more efficient and less efficient refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. An increase in electricity price increased sales of Energy Star refrigerators, clothes washers, dishwashers, and room air conditioners. 4 refs., 8 tabs.

  1. What can we learn from high-frequency appliance-level energy metering? Results from a field experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Victor L.; Delmas, Magali A.; Kaiser, William J.; Locke, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses high-frequency appliance-level electricity consumption data for 124 apartments over 24 months to provide a better understanding of appliance-level electricity consumption behavior. We conduct our analysis in a standardized set of apartments with similar appliances, which allows us to identify behavioral differences in electricity use. The Results show that households' estimations of appliance-level consumption are inaccurate and that they overestimate lighting use by 75% and underestimate plug-load use by 29%. We find that similar households using the same major appliances exhibit substantial variation in appliance-level electricity consumption. For example, households in the 75th percentile of HVAC usage use over four times as much electricity as a user in the 25th percentile. Additionally, we show that behavior accounts for 25–58% of this variation. Lastly, we find that replacing the existing refrigerator with a more energy-efficient model leads to overall energy savings of approximately 11%. This is equivalent to results from behavioral interventions targeting all appliances but might not be as cost effective. Our findings have important implications for behavior-based energy conservation policies. - Highlights: • Hourly electricity usage was collected from 124 comparable apartments for 24 months. • Households overestimate lighting use by 75% and underestimate HVAC usage by 29%. • Households using the same appliances show substantial variations in electricity use. • Plug load accounts for the largest share of electricity use at all hours of the day. • Savings of 11% were achieved by replacing old refrigerators

  2. Evaluation of safety management in an Appliances manufacturing company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Golbabaei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevention of accidents and work related diseases, are not allowed regardless of the safety of employees, customers, contractors and other persons. Assessment of individual safety management activities could reduce many losses. Present study aimed to evaluate the safety management of a household appliance manufacturing company.  .Material and Method: This study has done in a household appliance manufacturing company in Damavand city. Two questionnaires were firstly designed based on the weighted scores. The questionnaire 1 consisted of 4 indicators: Safety of machinery, Electrical safety, Risk assessment and Fire safety. Questionnaire 2 consisted of 11 sub indicators. Both questionnaires were completed by 30 HSE experts and supervisors. Reliability of questionnaires was based on cronbachs alpha coefficient. the safety status of each unit was determined and scored using information acquired by the questionnaires. Lastly, the safety of the entire company was determined.  .Result: Results showed that in safety management: the pressing and store house were in a good range of 66.66 and 60.12 points. Powder painting, enameling, laboratory were in a average range of 56.25, 55.92 and 54.15 points. Assembling and door storage were in a week range of 46.06 points.  .Conclusion: The findings showed that the safety status in the studied appliances company is in average range with 55.45 points. Therefore, it is recommended that the safety indicators should be improved for the betterment of the safety management in the company.

  3. Emissions from wood domestic heating appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collet, S.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to study emissions from wood domestic heating appliances. This work reviews the available emission factors about pollutants produced in different types of wood domestic heating appliances. The main sources of pollutants are older stoves that in most cases are used as an additional heating appliance. These stoves causes higher emissions than modern appliances. Then, substitution of an old type wood appliance with a modern appliance or boiler or a pellet boilers, would reduce considerably emissions in this sector. The efficiency of this measure is estimated for each pollutant. (author)

  4. Household energy transition in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Peter (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management)

    1994-05-01

    A household energy survey in Hong Kong confirmed that domestic energy consumption is dominated by modern fuels. Household spending on fuels typically amounts to less than 3% of monthly income. Delivered energy use per household per month averages 1.77 GJ and per capita use 0.37 GJ. Electricity accounts for more than half of fuel expenditure and energy use. Patterns of fuel choice and use are quite consistent across income levels, although electricity use rises with higher household incomes. Many households use a combination of kerosene, gas and electricity (rice cookers) for cooking, which appears to reflect culinary practices more than fuel prices, perceived safety or availability. Electrical appliance saturation is high already, and air conditioning use is growing rapidly. Household electricity consumption may increase substantially during the 1990s as higher comfort levels lead to increased heating and cooling demand and space standards in public housing units improve. (Author)

  5. Compliance with removable orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Nirmal

    2017-12-22

    Data sourcesMedline via OVID, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science Core Collection, LILACS and BBO databases. Unpublished clinical trials accessed using ClinicalTrials.gov, National Research Register, ProQuest Dissertation and Thesis database.Study selectionTwo authors searched studies from inception until May 2016 without language restrictions. Quantitative and qualitative studies incorporating objective data on compliance with removable appliances, barriers to appliance wear compliance, and interventions to improve compliance were included.Data extraction and synthesisQuality of research was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool, the risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions (ROBINS-I), and the mixed methods appraisal tool. Statistical heterogeneity was investigated by examining a graphic display of the estimated compliance levels in conjunction with 95% confidence intervals and quantified using the I-squared statistic. A weighted estimate of objective compliance levels for different appliances in relation to stipulated wear and self-reported levels was also calculated. Risk of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots. Meta-regression was undertaken to assess the relative effects of appliance type on compliance levels.ResultsTwenty-four studies met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 11 were included in the quantitative synthesis. The mean duration of objectively measured wear was considerably lower than stipulated wear time amongst all appliances. Headgear had the greatest discrepancy (5.81 hours, 95% confidence interval, 4.98, 6.64). Self-reported wear time was consistently higher than objectively measured wear time amongst all appliances. Headgear had the greatest discrepancy (5.02 hours, 95% confidence interval, 3.64, 6.40). Two studies found an increase in compliance with headgear and Hawley retainers when patients were aware of monitoring. Five studies found younger age groups to

  6. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  7. Designing, Building and Controlling of Home Appliances Unit Using PC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saleh Ben Safar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Smart home is a residential building that is usually new or modern equipped with necessary tools and wiring that enable its occupants to control a number of electrical devices and several household appliances through a suitable software. Recently, the development of home automation systems is accelerating rapidly as a result of the rapid intersection of modern technologies. Here we are talking about systems for home communication networks as well as entertainment, security, convenience, etc. These systems are controlled by sending signals through wires distributed throughout the house or Through wireless means to programmable keys or devices so that they understand these commands and deal with them as desired. In this paper, I will discuss how to design the circuit with appropriate components, build it in Printed Circuit Board and connect it to a personal computer by using programmable language in order to control all home appliances by just one click. 

  8. Urban household energy consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongsapich, Amara; Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana (Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Social Research Inst.)

    1994-05-01

    This study was aimed at developing a better understanding of urban household energy consumption in Thailand through a series of in-depth household energy surveys. Households in urban areas used electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood. Traditional biomass fuels such as husk and dung, as well as kerosene, were essentially not used in urban households. Nearly all households used electricity and most households used LPG. Some households used more than one fuel for cooking, particularly LPG and charcoal. There was a great difference in electricity used between the households in Bangkok and other urban areas. Most households in the study areas used LPG stove or burners for cooking. But charcoal stoves were also used by many households for specific culinary purposes. Electric rice-cookers are widely used for convenience. The study suggests that the number of households using charcoal stoves will decrease gradually and fuelwood use will disappear. Saturation rates for refrigerators and colour television sets were very high and air conditioners were common in Bangkok. Some users may be unaware of the benefits of LPG as a cooking fuel. To improve indoor air quality and cooking safety and reduce pressures on forests from commercial fuelwood use, measures to promote LPG should be undertaken. The government should also provide information about efficient appliances and electricity conservation. (Author)

  9. Assessment of perceived orthodontic appliance attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziuchkovski, James P; Fields, Henry W; Johnston, William M; Lindsey, Delwin T

    2008-04-01

    To date, no studies have been published in the literature evaluating the esthetics of orthodontic appliances. The purpose of this study was to assess appliance variables, including appliance type, brand, wire, and ligature tie, for their relative attractiveness. Demographic factors were also evaluated. Appliances were placed in an adult, and digital images were captured, standardized, and incorporated into a computer-based survey. Subjects (n = 200) rated each image for attractiveness on a visual analog scale. The attractiveness ratings were analyzed by using factorial analysis of variance with repeated measures. Post-hoc testing was done with the Tukey-Kramer test (overall a appliances), ceramic, and all self-ligating/stainless steel appliances. No differences between brands in each appliance type were found. Ratings of some ceramic appliances were significantly affected by archwire and ligature tie, depending on several demographic interactions. Orthodontic appliance attractiveness varies by the following hierarchy of appliance types: alternative > ceramic > all stainless steel/self-ligating. Wire and tie selection can affect the appearance of ceramic appliances but have no impact on stainless steel or self-ligating appliances. Certain demographic factors have variable effects on attractiveness ratings.

  10. 24 CFR 3280.714 - Appliances, cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appliances, cooling. 3280.714... Systems § 3280.714 Appliances, cooling. (a) Every air conditioning unit or a combination air conditioning... accordance with ANSI Z21.40.1-1996, Gas Fired, Heat Activated, Air Conditioning and Heat Pump Appliances, and...

  11. 24 CFR 3285.503 - Optional appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Optional appliances. 3285.503... appliances. (a) Comfort cooling systems. When not provided and installed by the home manufacturer, any comfort cooling systems that are installed must be installed according to the appliance manufacturer's...

  12. 49 CFR 238.429 - Safety appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety appliances. 238.429 Section 238.429... Equipment § 238.429 Safety appliances. (a) Couplers. (1) The leading and the trailing ends of a semi... appliance mechanical strength and fasteners. (1) All handrails, handholds, and sill steps shall be made of 1...

  13. Condições de produção vocal de vendedores de móveis e eletrodomésticos: correlação entre questões de saúde, hábitos e sintomas vocais Vocal production conditions for furniture and household appliance salespeople: correlation between health issues and vocal symptoms and habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Léslie Piccolotto Ferreira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: analisar as condições de produção vocal, considerando saúde geral, hábitos vocais, assim como seus sintomas e possíveis causas, em vendedores de móveis e eletrodomésticos. MÉTODOS: foram selecionados 100 vendedores de móveis e eletrodomésticos, de ambos os sexos, em seu próprio local de trabalho, para responderem 16 questões que pesquisou dados pessoais, saúde geral, hábitos e sintomas vocais. Os dados foram analisados com auxílio do programa Statistical Package for Social Sciences, em sua versão 13.0. RESULTADOS: 66 homens e 34 mulheres, com idade média de 24 anos e tempo médio de profissão de 8,5 anos apontaram em maior número os distúrbios de saúde geral, relacionados às questões emocionais (31%, alterações no sono (27% e problemas digestivos (25%; as alterações auditivas, como coceira no ouvido (36%, intolerância a sons altos (29%, e dificuldade para ouvir (20%. Quanto aos hábitos relacionados à voz, fizeram referência a falar muito (83%, tomar gelado (73% e tomar café (68%. Os sintomas mais apontados foram garganta e boca seca (30%, cansaço ao falar (22% e pigarro (18%. As possíveis causas para a ocorrência dos sintomas foram uso intenso da voz (49%, presença de poeira (27% e de ar condicionado (23%. Apenas quatro deles relataram ter alteração de voz. CONCLUSÃO: os vendedores pesquisados percebem a presença dos sintomas vocais, mas não os relacionam com alterações de voz, assim como desconhecem os cuidados com a mesma. Necessitam, portanto, de ações de promoção de saúde e prevenção de alterações vocais, com o objetivo de sensibilizá-los com relação a essas questões.PURPOSE: to analyze the vocal production conditions for furniture and household appliance salespeople, considering the aspects of general health, vocal habits, as well as vocal symptoms and their possible causes. METHODS: 100 furniture and household appliance salespeople of both genders were selected in their

  14. Population at high-risk of indoor heatstroke: the usage of cooling appliances among urban elderlies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Masahide; Ono, Masaji; Nakazawa, Kouichi; Kayaba, Momoko; Minakuchi, Emiko; Sugimoto, Kazutoshi; Honda, Yasushi

    2013-05-01

    Heatstroke due to a heat wave during the summer is one of the commonly known health impacts of climate change in Japan. The elderly are particularly at high-risk of developing indoor heatstroke with poor prognosis. This study aims to describe the population among elderlies at high-risk of indoor heatstroke by focusing on the usage of cooling appliances. We conducted a web-based household survey in eight urban areas during the winter season of 2011. Households with a person aged 65 and over were selected as samples from panel members of a research firm, and the oldest member of the household was queried about his/her usage of cooling appliances. The population at high-risk of indoor heatstroke is defined as the elderly staying in a room without cooling appliances, or not using the installed cooling appliances, or turning the cooling appliances on only when the room temperature is above 28 °C. 15.4 and 19.1 % of the elderlies living in urban areas of Japan are identified as at high-risk of indoor heatstroke during activity time and sleeping time, respectively, according to the definition of high-risk of indoor heatstroke in this study. These figures are not negligible since the consequences of heatstroke are grave, but its risk can be eliminated by an appropriate usage of cooling appliances. The preventive interventions are needed to protect the elderlies at high-risk of heatstroke.

  15. Households' hourly electricity consumption and peak demand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Andersen, Frits; Baldini, Mattia; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2017-01-01

    consumption, we analyse the contribution of appliances and new services, such as individual heat pumps and electric vehicles, to peak consumption and the need for demand response incentives to reduce the peak.Initially, the paper presents a new model that represents the hourly electricity consumption profile...... of households in Denmark. The model considers hourly consumption profiles for different household appliances and their contribution to annual household electricity consumption. When applying the model to an official scenario for annual electricity consumption, assuming non-flexible consumption due...... to a considerable introduction of electric vehicles and individual heat pumps, household consumption is expected to increase considerably, especially peak hour consumption is expected to increase.Next the paper presents results from a new experiment where household customers are given economic and/or environmental...

  16. Dynamic Appliances Scheduling in Collaborative MicroGrids System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilil, Hasnae; Aniba, Ghassane; Gharavi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a new approach which is based on a collaborative system of MicroGrids (MG’s), is proposed to enable household appliance scheduling. To achieve this, appliances are categorized into flexible and non-flexible Deferrable Loads (DL’s), according to their electrical components. We propose a dynamic scheduling algorithm where users can systematically manage the operation of their electric appliances. The main challenge is to develop a flattening function calculus (reshaping) for both flexible and non-flexible DL’s. In addition, implementation of the proposed algorithm would require dynamically analyzing two successive multi-objective optimization (MOO) problems. The first targets the activation schedule of non-flexible DL’s and the second deals with the power profiles of flexible DL’s. The MOO problems are resolved by using a fast and elitist multi-objective genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). Finally, in order to show the efficiency of the proposed approach, a case study of a collaborative system that consists of 40 MG’s registered in the load curve for the flattening program has been developed. The results verify that the load curve can indeed become very flat by applying the proposed scheduling approach. PMID:28824226

  17. Leaking electricity in domestic appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost

  18. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  19. Demand side management—A simulation of household behavior under variable prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottwalt, Sebastian; Ketter, Wolfgang; Block, Carsten; Collins, John; Weinhardt, Christof

    2011-01-01

    Within the next years, consumer households will be increasingly equipped with smart metering and intelligent appliances. These technologies are the basis for households to better monitor electricity consumption and to actively control loads in private homes. Demand side management (DSM) can be adopted to private households. We present a simulation model that generates household load profiles under flat tariffs and simulates changes in these profiles when households are equipped with smart appliances and face time-based electricity prices. We investigate the impact of smart appliances and variable prices on electricity bills of a household. We show that for households the savings from equipping them with smart appliances are moderate compared to the required investment. This finding is quite robust with respect to variation of tariff price spreads and to different types of appliance utilization patterns. Finally, our results indicate that electric utilities may face new demand peaks when day-ahead hourly prices are applied. However, a considerable amount of residential load is available for shifting, which is interesting for the utilities to balance demand and supply. - Highlights: ► Our model generates residential load profiles that are based on real world data. ► We simulate changes in load profiles when smart appliances and time-of-use tariffs are applied. ► The economic incentive for households to invest in smart appliances is low. ► Time-of-use tariffs create new, even higher peaks. ► Electric utilities have a large amount of the hourly load available for shifting.

  20. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of orthodontic metallic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Oda, Hirotake; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2014-01-01

    Biocorrosion (microbiologically influenced corrosion; MIC) occur in aquatic habitats varying in nutrient content, temperature, stress and pH. The oral environment of organisms, including humans, should be one of the most hospitable for MIC. Corrosion of metallic appliances in the oral region is one cause of metal allergy in patients. In this study, an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer revealed elution of Fe, Cr and Ni from stainless steel (SUS) appliances incubated with oral bacteria. Three-dimensional laser confocal microscopy also revealed that oral bacterial culture promoted increased surface roughness and corrosion pits in SUS appliances. The pH of the supernatant was lowered after co-culture of appliances and oral bacteria in any combinations, but not reached at the level of depassivation pH of their metallic materials. This study showed that Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis which easily created biofilm on the surfaces of teeth and appliances, did corrode orthodontic SUS appliances.

  1. 24 CFR 3280.709 - Installation of appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Installation of appliances. 3280... Fuel Burning Systems § 3280.709 Installation of appliances. (a) The installation of each appliance... the manufacturer's instructions attached to the appliance. Every appliance shall be secured in place...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.707 - Heat producing appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat producing appliances. 3280.707... Systems § 3280.707 Heat producing appliances. (a) Heat-producing appliances and vents, roof jacks and... appliance, the heating appliance shall be installed by the manufacturer of the manufactured home in...

  3. Designing appliances for mobile commerce and retailtainment

    OpenAIRE

    Roussos, George; Kourouthanassis, P.; Moussouri, T.

    2003-01-01

    In the emerging world of the new consumer and the `anytime, anywhere' mobile commerce, appliances are located at the collision point of the retailer and consumer agendas. The consequence of this is twofold: on the one hand appliances that were previously considered plain and utilitarian become entertainment devices and on the other, for the effective design of consumer appliances it becomes paramount to employ multidisciplinary expertise. In this paper, we discuss consumer perceptions of a re...

  4. Cooking Appliances Using High-Frequency Heating

    OpenAIRE

    木村, 秀行; Hideyuki, KIMURA; (株)日立製作所機械研究所

    2007-01-01

    We have produced a guide suitable for people with no technical knowledge of cooking appliances that use high-frequency heating. In general, cooking appliances that use an electric heat source are popular since, they are simple to use because the offer easy heat control, are safe because they do not have naked flames, and do not make kitchens dirty because there is no exhaust. In recent years, high-efficiency cooking appliances using high-frequency heating technology have surged in popularity....

  5. Fibrotic encapsulation of orthodontic appliance in palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthu, Jananni; Muthanandam, Sivaramakrishnan; Umapathy, Gubernath; Kannan, Anitha Logaranjani

    2017-01-01

    Iatrogenic trauma though not serious is very common in dental practice. Orthodontic treatment can inflict such injuries as they are prolonged over a long period of time. Ill-fabricated orthodontic appliances, such as wires and brackets, or the patients' habits such as application of constant pressure over the appliance can traumatize the adjacent oral soft tissues. In rare cases, these appliances can get embedded into the mucosa and gingival tissues. This case report describes one such case of iatrogenic trauma to the palatal mucosa due to entrapment of a tongue spike appliance and its surgical management.

  6. Estimation of Operating Condition of Appliances Using Circuit Current Data on Electric Distribution Boards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwafune, Yumiko; Ogimoto, Kazuhiko; Yagita, Yoshie

    The Energy management systems (EMS) on demand sides are expected as a method to enhance the capability of supply and demand balancing of a power system under the anticipated penetration of renewable energy generation such as Photovoltaics (PV). Elucidation of energy consumption structure in a building is one of important elements for realization of EMS and contributes to the extraction of potential energy saving. In this paper, we propose the estimation method of operating condition of household appliances using circuit current data on an electric distribution board. Circuit current data are broken down by their shape using a self-organization map method and aggregated by appliance based on customers' information of appliance possessed. Proposed method is verified using residential energy consumption measurement survey data.

  7. The flexibility of household electricity demand over time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halvorsen, B.; Larsen, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    Empirical estimates of long run effects on residential electricity demand from changes in the electricity price are usually estimated by cross-sectional variation in the current stock of electric household appliances across households at a certain point in time. Here, we use a discrete-continuous approach modeling the long run effects by investments in new appliances. We apply the annual Norwegian Survey of Consumer Expenditure for the period 1975 to 1994 to estimate the short and long run own price elasticities in the two approaches. We find the estimated long run elasticity only slightly more price elastic than the short run. We also find that the long run elasticity does not differ significantly between the two approaches. The reason for both results is that, since there is no alternative source of energy for these appliances, there are no substitution effects

  8. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihala, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a fairly new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-meters. Appliances have special electrical characteristics, the positive and negative active and reactive power changes during the time they are switched on or off. These changes are called events and are detected with a monitoring device called an event recorder. Different NIALM-concepts developed in Europe and in the United States are generally discussed. The NIALM-concept developed in this study is based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. This modern kWh-meter with a serial data bus to a laptop personal computer is used as die event recorder. The NIALM-concept of this presentation shows for the first time how a kWh-meter can be used at the same time for billing, power quality and appliance end-use monitoring. An essential part of the developed NIALM-system prototype is the software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer. These algorithms are able to identify, with a certain accuracy, both two-state and multi-state appliances. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of the prototype NIALMS were verified in a large, single family detached house and they were compared to the results of other prototypes in France and the United States, although this comparison is difficult because of different supply systems, appliance stock and number of tested sites. Different applications of NIALM are discussed. Gathering of load research data, verification of DSM-programs, home automation, failure analysis of appliances and security surveillance of buildings are interesting areas of NIALM. Both utilities and customers can benefit from these applications. It is possible to

  9. Using smart meter to monitor the energy consumption of home appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, M.; Xu, W.

    2010-01-01

    A smart meter provides the foundation for the smart grid, which represent the future electric system in terms of communications, sensors and automation to improve the flexibility, reliability and efficiency of power systems. Smart meters are installed at the utility-customer interface point to provide real-time power usage and price data to each electricity user. The purpose is to create customer awareness on electricity consumption and help users to conserve energy. Smart meters are being deployed throughout North America to replace most traditional meters. However, this paper discussed a major technical gap of the smart meter. Existing smart meters do not provide households with enough feedback needed to achieve effective energy saving. In order to support the energy conservation effort of a customer, the whole house energy data must be displayed on minute or second basis, and it must also be broken down into individual appliance levels. The data of an appliance's energy usage is the most useful information for users to modify their actions and conserve energy. This paper proposed to make the smart meter capable of reporting the overall consumption of a household, as well as monitoring how individual appliances use electricity. It presented a method on using different appliance signatures to identify appliances and make energy estimations on their respective consumptions. Paired with time-of-use or other real time pricing mechanisms, the method enables customers to save energy. This paper also demonstrated how to implement an algorithm on the smart meter platform. Future work will focus on making the algorithm more accurate and faster, and on integrating the smart meter with an appliance energy monitoring system. 21 refs., 6 tabs., 3 figs.

  10. An Analysis on change of household electricity demand pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, In Gang [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-01-01

    The object of this study is to analyze the behavioral pattern change of household electricity demand. Through the cross section analysis using materials from the energy total research report, the change in income elasticity of household electricity demand was studied. In this study, two methodologies were used. Firstly, it was shown that the effect of an income variable was very significant with a positive value in simultaneous equations model using exponential equations of electrical appliances holding. Cross section income effect showed a various distribution according to the season or income level. Overall, it was calculated at 0.111 when the appliances are fixed and 0.432 when even appliances are changed. Secondly, using a choice convenient correction model, it is resulted that lambda, the choice convenient correction factor, has a positive value and is statistically significant. In 1996, income elasticity of electricity demand for households with air-conditioning was 0.305 and for households without air-conditioning was 0.172. Income elasticity of households with air-conditioning is increasing as time goes by while income elasticity of households without air-conditioning is decreasing. (author). 32 refs., 35 tabs.

  11. Coordinated operation of a neighborhood of smart households comprising electric vehicles, energy storage and distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterakis, N.G.; Erdinc, O.; Pappi, I.N.; Bakirtzis, A.G.; Catalao, J.P.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal operation of a neighborhood of smart households in terms of minimizing the total energy procurement cost is analyzed. Each household may comprise several assets such as electric vehicles, controllable appliances, energy storage and distributed generation. Bi-directional

  12. Survey of household energy use (SHEU) : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    A survey was conducted to gather information on energy use and the factors affecting energy use in households residing in houses and residential buildings with fewer than 5 storeys. Dwelling characteristics, usage of appliances, and energy efficiency and consumption data were collected. An overview of the main findings were presented in this summary and included details of thermal envelopes; residential heating, air-conditioning and ventilation; household appliances; hot water; lighting; and Energy Star systems and appliances. The survey covered over 11 million households in all 10 Canadian provinces. Data were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews with owners, renters, landlords and property managers. It was observed that the average heated area of a Canadian dwelling was 1321 square feet, and that dwellings constructed after 1979 were larger and more energy efficient than previous dwellings. The majority of households located west of Quebec used natural gas, whereas the majority of Quebec households used electricity. Households in the Atlantic region used both electricity and oil. Penetration rates for high efficiency furnaces using natural gas, propane or oil furnaces was 62 per cent among dwellings built between 1990-2003. It was noted that more basements, attics, crawlspaces and garages are now being insulated. An increasing number of households use both a main and a secondary refrigerator. Nearly 25 per cent of households used 3 or more televisions. The use of central and window/room air-conditioners has increased, with Ontario households accounting for more than 60 per cent of all air-conditioning systems. Nearly 25 per cent of light bulbs were energy-efficient bulbs. It was also observed that Energy Star products have had a high penetration since the inception of the Energy Star initiative. However, a significant number of households were not aware if their products were Energy Star qualified. tabs., figs.

  13. Reducing electricity demand peaks by scheduling home appliances usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossello-Busquet, A.; Kardaras, G.; Baek Iversen, V.; Soler, J.; Dittmann, L.

    2011-05-15

    Nowadays there is a tendency to consume electricity during the same period of the day leading to demand peaks. Regular energy consumption habits lead to demand peaks at specific temporal intervals, because users consume power at the same time. In order to avoid demand peaks, users' appliances should consume electricity in a more temporarily distributed way. A new methodology to schedule the usage of home appliances is proposed and analyzed in this paper. The main concept behind this approach is the aggregation of home appliances into priority classes and the definition of a maximum power consumption limit, which is not allowed to be exceeded during peak hours. The scenario simulated describes a modern household, where the electrical devices are classified in low and high priority groups. The high priority devices are always granted power in order to operate without temporal restrictions. On the contrary, the low priority devices have to pause their operation, when the algorithm dictates it, and resume it in the future. This can become beneficial for both energy companies and users. The electricity suppliers companies will be capable of regulating power generation during demand peaks periods. Moreover, users can be granted lower electricity bill rates for accepting delaying the operation of some of their appliances. In order to analyze this scenario, teletraffic engineering theory, which is used in evaluating the performance of telecommunication networks, is used. A reversible fair scheduling (RFS) algorithm, which was originally developed for telecommunication networks, is applied. The purpose is to analyze how a power consumption limit and priorities for home appliances will affect the demand peak and the users' everyday life. Verification of the effectiveness of the RFS algorithm is done by means of simulation and by using real data for power consumption and operation hours. The defined maximum power limit of 750 and 1000 Watt was not exceeded during

  14. Custom Made Pressure Appliance for Presurgical Sustained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the most common complications of this therapy is ulceration due to excessive pressure. A case of presurgical size reduction for a large ear keloid with a custom made pressure appliance is presented. This novel design of the appliance allows for better control over the amount and direction of the pressure applied on ...

  15. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J.; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2016-02-02

    An appliance that includes a cabinet having an exterior surface; a refrigeration compartment located within the cabinet; and a hydrophilic structure disposed on the exterior surface. The hydrophilic structure is configured to spread condensation. The appliance further includes a wicking structure located in proximity to the hydrophilic structure, and the wicking structure is configured to receive the condensation.

  16. Modeling of electricity savings in the Danish household sector using Balmorel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trivella, Alessio; Baldini, Mattia

    In this paper we examine the investments in energy-efficient household appliances from an energy system perspective. We consider a set of ten appliances constituting the majority of the electricity consumption in the private household sector, and investigate whether investing in improved energy...... efficiency can compete with the cost of electricity supply from existing or new power plants. To assess the analysis, Balmorel, a linear optimization model for heat and power sectors, has been extended in order to assess the best possible investments in more efficient household appliances. The model is non......-exclusively tested on the Danish energy system under different scenarios, and computational experiments show that several energy efficiency measures in the household sector should be regarded as valuable investments, while others would require some form of support to become profitable. The analysis also reveals...

  17. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  18. Minat Masyarakat dalam Menggunakan Smart Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diah Yuniarti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Harga sumber energi yang semakin naik dari tahun ke tahun dan kemajuan teknologi telah mendorong perkembangan smart grid. Smart appliance merupakan salah satu komponen penting dalam smart grid. Penerapan smart appliance sejalan dengan kebijakan untuk mengurangi konsumsi energi, mengurangi emisi karbon dan penyediaan energi dari energi terbarukan. Penetrasi telepon bergerak turut memudahkan manajemen energi dan otomatisasi home appliance. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisis minat masyarakat, yang merupakan aktor aktif dalam konsumsi dan manajemen energi di rumah tangga. Data penelitian dianalisis  dengan menggunakan metode structural equation modeling (SEM Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variabel enjoyment memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat dalam menggunakan smart appliance. Sedangkan, variabel compatibility ease of use, relative advantage dan image tidak memiliki pengaruh yang signifikan terhadap minat menggunakan smart appliance.

  19. Air conditioning with small power gas appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canci, Franco

    1997-01-01

    This article describes research and test activities on small power air conditioning appliances for residential use carried out in the United States, Japan and Europe. The absorption technology aims at the following objectives: to develop appliances requiring reduced maintenance and having a size comparable with electric units of the same output; to reduce production costs and therefore the final prince by adopting special manufacturing technologies such as welded plate exchangers; to obtain appliances which operate both in summer and winter ( as heat pumps), allowing to minimize management and installation costs in southern European climates. The final aim is to offer the customer one appliance only for the following purposes: hot water production for sanitary use, water refrigeration for summer air conditioning, hot water production production for winter heating. This kind of appliance should have management and maintenance costs similar to current individual boilers

  20. Office management of obstructive sleep apnoea: appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew D

    2015-08-01

    Oral appliances are becoming increasingly common in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). They work by advancing the mandible and opening the pharynx. There are several types of devices available for use. Many patients intolerant to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) are using oral appliances for OSA. Oral appliances have been shown to improve polysomnography, quality of life and health measures associated with OSA. There is current work to better identify patients who are ideal candidates. Development of titratable devices and monitoring are optimizing usage. They have been compared with CPAP, with both showing improvement in OSA; however, CPAP remains superior overall. Oral appliances are becoming first-line therapy for mild and moderate OSA. They provide a meaningful alternative in severe OSA for patients unable to use CPAP. Device titration and usage monitoring are beginning to hone oral appliances as a therapeutic option.

  1. Retrospective evaluation of appliance price trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, Larry; Antinori, Camille; McNeil, Michael; McMahon, James E.; Sydny Fujita, K.

    2009-01-01

    Real prices of major appliances (refrigerators, dishwashers, heating and cooling equipment) have been falling since the late 1970s despite increases in appliance efficiency and other quality variables. This paper demonstrates that historic increases in efficiency over time, including those resulting from minimum efficiency standards, incur smaller price increases than were expected by the Department of Energy (DOE) forecasts made in conjunction with standards. This effect can be explained by technological innovation, which lowers the cost of efficiency, and by market changes contributing to lower markups and economies of scale in production of higher efficiency units. We reach four principal conclusions about appliance trends and retail price setting: 1.For the past several decades, the retail price of appliances has been steadily falling while efficiency has been increasing. 2.Past retail price predictions made by the DOE analyses of efficiency standards, assuming constant prices over time, have tended to overestimate retail prices. 3.The average incremental price to increase appliance efficiency has declined over time. DOE technical support documents have typically overestimated this incremental price and retail prices. 4.Changes in retail markups and economies of scale in production of more efficient appliances may have contributed to declines in prices of efficient appliances

  2. Three Essays Examining Household Energy Demand and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Anthony G.

    This dissertation consists of three essays examining household energy decisions and behavior. The first essay examines the adoption of energy efficient Energy Star home appliances by U.S. households. Program effectiveness requires that consumers be aware of the labeling scheme and also change their purchase decisions based on label information. The first essay examines the factors associated with consumer awareness of the Energy Star label of recently purchased major appliances and the factors associated with the choice of Energy Star labeled appliances. The findings suggest that eliminating identified gaps in Energy Star appliance adoption would result in house electricity cost savings of $164 million per year and associated carbon emission reductions of about 1.1 million metric tons per year. The second essay evaluates household energy security and the effectiveness of the Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP), the single largest energy assistance program available to poor households within the United States. Energy security is conceptually akin to the well-known concept of food security. Rasch models and household responses to energy security questions in the 2005 Residential Energy Consumption Survey are used to generate an energy insecurity index that is consistent with those found in the food insecurity literature. Participating in LIHEAP is found to significantly reduce household energy insecurity score in the index. Further, simulations show that the elimination of the energy assistance safety net currently available to households increases the number of energy insecure house- holds by over 16 percent. The third essay develops a five equation demand system to estimate household own-price, cross-price and income elasticities between electricity, natural gas, food at home, food away from home, and non-durable commodity groups. Household cross-price elasticities between energy and food commodities are of particular importance. Energy price shocks

  3. Household's use of information and communication technologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Røpke, Inge

    2009-01-01

    of theories of domestication of technologies, it is argued that aspects such as consumers' creativity in technology use and their non-adaption are relevant aspects to include in policy and regulation discussions on how to limit the escalating electricity consumption from household ICT use.......Increasing consumption of electricity due to a growing number of information and communication technology (ICT) appliances in households is a major challenge to reducing energy consumption. Several studies have predicted escalating ICT-related energy consumption, but relatively little has been said...... and done about possible initiatives to curb this increase. This paper presents results of a research project focusing on how dynamics of consumption influence household energy consumption on ICT. Results of the project include scenarios on how electricity consumption on ICT is expected to grow, suggesting...

  4. 46 CFR 188.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 188.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 188.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall be in accordance with the requirements for...

  5. 46 CFR 195.06-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 195.06-1 Section... VESSELS VESSEL CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 195.06-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements shall be...

  6. 46 CFR 90.27-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 90.27-1 Section... VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 90.27-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with subchapter W (Lifesaving...

  7. 49 CFR 173.219 - Life-saving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Life-saving appliances. 173.219 Section 173.219... Life-saving appliances. (a) A life-saving appliance, self-inflating or non-self-inflating, containing small quantities of hazardous materials that are required as part of the life-saving appliance must...

  8. 24 CFR 3280.807 - Fixtures and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fixtures and appliances. 3280.807... Fixtures and appliances. (a) Electrical materials, devices, appliances, fittings, and other equipment... fasten appliances when the manufactured home is in transit. (See § 3280.809.) (b) Specifically listed...

  9. 46 CFR 70.28-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. 70.28-1 Section... PROVISIONS Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 70.28-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on passenger vessels must be in accordance with subchapter W...

  10. Inventory of usage pattern for wood burning appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David; Joeborn, Inger; Sjoedin, Aake; Munkhammar, Inger; Gustavsson, Lennart

    2005-02-01

    The Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) in co-operation with the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP) and Statistics Sweden (SCB) have investigated the use of domestic wood burning for wood stoves and open fireplaces. The results from a closer examination of existing national energy statistics for residential heating has enabled a division of the average consumption of firewood for each house by the category 'fireplace for open fire' and 'tiled stove/heating stove/fireplace for wood'. The estimation of emissions can therefore be improved by differentiating emission factors for different wood stoves and open fireplaces. Today, only one emission factor is used. An insight into general firing procedures, wood storage routines etc. was investigated using a questionnaire for the Teleborg area of the city Vaexjoe. The results of this study provide a foundation for further work, which will subsequently enable improvements for emission inventories on small-scale biomass combustion from household appliances

  11. European Gas Appliances Directive and the Dutch Decree on Gas Appliances. Special section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruin, B.; Venhorst, T.; Van Tricht, A.

    1998-01-01

    The Gas Appliances Decree is the Dutch translation of the European Gas Appliances Directive. The Decree and the EU Directive contain substantial information, provided they will be read carefully. The EU Directive lays down general safety requirements for gas appliances. They serve as a practical tool for manufacturers and service engineers. In two articles, the Directive is explained, addressing uncertainties and answering important questions. 5 ills

  12. A segmented appliance for space closure followed by Invisalign and fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uribe, Flavio; Cutrera, Alice; Nanda, Ravinda

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the use of a segmented appliance for space closure prior to using Invisalign. The maxillary right canine was retracted into the extracted first premolar space with a sectional wire from the first molar to the canine with no visible brackets in the incisor region. The advantage of this technique is the ability to achieve better root and rotational control during space closure with a fixed appliance that also has limited visibility. A maxillary fixed appliance was used to refine the esthetics in the maxillary arch due to the limitations of the Invisalign appliance in achieving rotational and vertical movements.

  13. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  14. Home Appliance Load Scheduling with SEMIAH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune Hylsberg; Ghasem Azar, Armin; Zhang, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The European research project SEMIAH aims at designing a scalable infrastructure for residential demand response. This paper presents the progress towards a centralized load scheduling algorithm for controlling home appliances taking power grid constraints and satisfaction of consumers into account....

  15. Quality of Lab Appliances in Orthodontic Offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruzansky, D P; Park, J H

    Lab appliances are an integral part of orthodontics, from active treatment to retention. The quality and fit of an appliance can affect the treatment result and stability. This study aims to determine common points of failure in orthodontic appliances, and suggest methods to reduce this rate. A survey consisting of 23 questions was distributed to active members of the American Association of Orthodontists (AAO) via Survey Monkey. The most common appliance to need an adjustment was the wrap-around retainer, with the Hawley retainer as a close second. The least common appliance needing adjustment was the Essix/clear retainer. Respondents were asked which component of each appliance was most commonly responsible for an ill-fit. For Hawley and wrap-around retainers, clasps were the most common problem at 50%, whereas spring aligners had two components - clasps and labial bows, both at 38%. Ill-fitting Essix/clear retainers had gingival impingement (52%) closely followed by poor posterior seating (43%). Communication between the orthodontist and lab technician can be improved by establishing a quality assurance protocol for outgoing and incoming cases. The labial bow of Hawley's, wrap-arounds and spring aligners should be clearly demarcated on the casts. Impressions should be free of distortion and casts should be inspected for accuracy. Clear retainers and positioner should be trimmed to avoid gingival impingement. The type of clasp should be selected based on the anatomy of the teeth, and bands should be checked for accuracy of fit.

  16. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  17. Exposure from Appliances (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartwright, R.A

    1999-07-01

    The dosemeter studies on exposures to ELF electromagnetic irradiation from domestic equipment all suggest the whole-body doses are low, whilst some exposure to extremities could be high but of brief duration. Old style electric overblankets, however, are an exception and produce high fields and relatively high whole-body doses if switched on during the night. Relatively few epidemiological studies have addressed these issues. All of the studies have associated problems of interpretations. Two isolated studies throw up on association with the frequency of spontaneous abortion and electric blanket use whilst another links adult AML and electric shaver usage. Both results could be fortuitous. More consistency appears from three studies of childhood leukaemia. Here statistically significant associations between electric blanket use in pregnancies appear in two separate studies, as does hair dryer use in the case of children: other appliances use associations have been reported. These results are critically assessed. The United Kingdom Childhood Cancer Study (UKCCS) addresses some of these issues as part of a wider ranging assessment of EMF at home and at school. External sources are incorporated with the measurement of domestic ambient conditions in an attempt to make an overall assessment of total exposure. (author)

  18. Estimating returns to scale and scale efficiency for energy consuming appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, Helcio [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Efficiency Standards Group; Okwelum, Edson O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Efficiency Standards Group

    2018-01-18

    Energy consuming appliances accounted for over 40% of the energy use and $17 billion in sales in the U.S. in 2014. Whether such amounts of money and energy were optimally combined to produce household energy services is not straightforwardly determined. The efficient allocation of capital and energy to provide an energy service has been previously approached, and solved with Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) under constant returns to scale. That approach, however, lacks the scale dimension of the problem and may restrict the economic efficient models of an appliance available in the market when constant returns to scale does not hold. We expand on that approach to estimate returns to scale for energy using appliances. We further calculate DEA scale efficiency scores for the technically efficient models that comprise the economic efficient frontier of the energy service delivered, under different assumptions of returns to scale. We then apply this approach to evaluate dishwashers available in the market in the U.S. Our results show that (a) for the case of dishwashers scale matters, and (b) the dishwashing energy service is delivered under non-decreasing returns to scale. The results further demonstrate that this method contributes to increase consumers’ choice of appliances.

  19. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Khan, Murad; Han, Kijun

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST) algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism. PMID:29495346

  20. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Nathali Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism.

  1. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bhagya Nathali; Khan, Murad; Han, Kijun

    2018-02-25

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption. Hence, we propose a smart home energy management system that reduces unnecessary energy consumption by integrating an automated switching off system with load balancing and appliance scheduling algorithm. The load balancing scheme acts according to defined constraints such that the cumulative energy consumption of the household is managed below the defined maximum threshold. The scheduling of appliances adheres to the least slack time (LST) algorithm while considering user comfort during scheduling. The performance of the proposed scheme has been evaluated against an existing energy management scheme through computer simulation. The simulation results have revealed a significant improvement gained through the proposed LST-based energy management scheme in terms of cost of energy, along with reduced domestic energy consumption facilitated by an automated switching off mechanism.

  2. Cephalometric effects of the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances in Class II malocclusion treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mayara Paim; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Grec, Roberto Henrique da Costa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to cephalometrically assess the skeletal and dentoalveolar effects of Class II malocclusion treatment performed with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances. The sample comprised 25 patients with Class II malocclusion treated with the Jones Jig appliance followed by fixed appliances, at a mean initial age of 12.90 years old. The mean time of the entire orthodontic treatment was 3.89 years. The distalization phase lasted for 0.85 years, after which the fixed appliance was used for 3.04 years. Cephalograms were used at initial (T1), post-distalization (T2) and final phases of treatment (T3). For intragroup comparison of the three phases evaluated, dependent ANOVA and Tukey tests were used. Jones Jig appliance did not interfere in the maxillary and mandibular component and did not change maxillomandibular relationship. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss, mesialization and significant extrusion of first and second premolars, as well as a significant increase in anterior face height at the end of treatment. The majority of adverse effects that occur during intraoral distalization are subsequently corrected during corrective mechanics. Buccal inclination and protrusion of mandibular incisors were identified. By the end of treatment, correction of overjet and overbite was observed. Jones Jig appliance promoted distalization of first molars with anchorage loss represented by significant mesial movement and extrusion of first and second premolars, in addition to a significant increase in anterior face height.

  3. Power factor regulation for household usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daud, Nik Ghazali Nik; Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan; Tarmizi, Muhammad Haziq Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    Power factor regulator technology has recently drawn attention to the consumer and to power generation company in order for consumers to use electricity efficiently. Controlling of power factor for efficient usage can reduce the production of power in fulfilment demands hence reducing the greenhouse effect. This paper presents the design method of power factor controller for household usage. There are several methods to improve the power factor. The power factor controller used by this method is by using capacitors. Total harmonic distortion also has become a major problem for the reliability of the electrical appliances and techniques to control it will be discussed.

  4. Orthodontic appliance preferences of children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Daniel K; Fields, Henry W; Johnston, William M; Rosenstiel, Stephen F; Firestone, Allen R; Christensen, James C

    2010-12-01

    Although attractiveness and acceptability of orthodontic appliances have been rated by adults for themselves and for adolescents, children and adolescents have not provided any substantial data. The objective of this study was to evaluate preferences and acceptability of orthodontic appliances in children and adolescents. Images of orthodontic appliances previously captured and standardized were selected and incorporated into a computer-based survey. Additional images of shaped brackets and colored elastomeric ties, as well as discolored clear elastomeric ties, were captured and incorporated onto existing survey images with Photoshop (Adobe, San Jose, Calif). The survey displayed 12 orthodontic appliance variations to 139 children in 3 age groups: 9 to 11 years (n = 45), 12 to 14 years (n = 49), and 15 to 17 years (n = 45). The subjects rated each image for attractiveness and acceptability. All images were displayed and rated twice to assess rater reliability. Overall reliability ratings were r = 0.74 for attractiveness and k = 0.66 for acceptability. There were significant differences in bracket attractiveness and acceptability in each age group. The highest-rated appliances were clear aligners, twin brackets with colored ties, and shaped brackets with and without colored ties. Colored elastomeric ties improved attractiveness significantly over brackets without colored ties for children in the 12-to-14 year group. There was a tendency for older subjects to rate clear orthodontic appliances higher than did younger subjects. Ceramic brackets with discolored ties tended to be rated lower than ceramic brackets with new ties and scored lowest in acceptability and attractiveness in all age groups. Girls rated shaped brackets significantly higher than did boys. Children's preferences for orthodontic appliances differ by age and sex. Child and adolescent preferences differ from adult preferences. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby

  5. System of liquid thermostatic control for jet experiments on NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selivanov, S.I.; Bogatkin, R.A.; Ershov, B.A.

    1983-01-01

    The system of liquid thermostating of a sensor of NMR spectrometer, used as a registering device in the method of continuous and interrupting stream, is described. Such method of thermostating permits to make kinetic measurements in the temperature range from -40 to +60 deg C with the accuracy +-0.1 deg C and removes the necessity for applying secondary temperature NMR standards

  6. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasing, T J [ORNL; Schroeder, Dana [University of Georgia, Athens, GA

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  7. Hierarchical Control of Thermostatically Controller Loads for Primary Frequency Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Haoran; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2016-01-01

    reserve references. At the middle level, distribution substations estimate the available power of TCLs based on the aggregated bin model, and dispatch control signals to individual TCLs. At the local level, a supplementary frequency control loop is implemented at the local controller, which makes TCLs...... respond to the frequency event autonomously. Case studies show that the proposed controller can efficiently respond to frequency events and fulfill the requirement specified by the system operator. The users’ comforts are not compromised and the short cycling of TCLs is largely reduced. Due...... to the autonomous control, the communication requirement is minimized....

  8. Design and Implementation of Frequency-responsive Thermostat Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    properties and needs of each application, and on the other hand the requirements of the system operator. The control algorithms are implemented on a microcontroller unit that is interfaced with existing thermostats for each application. To validate the control algorithms and overall system design, a series...

  9. Bens de consumo e insegurança alimentar: diferenças de gênero, cor de pele autorreferida e condição socioeconômica Household appliances and food insecurity: gender, referred skin color and socioeconomic differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Marin-Leon

    2011-09-01

    nos de mulheres negras. CONCLUSÃO: Em nível nacional e em domicílios com renda de até um salário mínimo, condições socioeconômicas mais precárias estão associadas à insegurança alimentar, sendo a situação agravada naqueles chefiados por mulheres e onde residem pessoas de cor autorreferida como negra. A ausência de bens identifica, entre os pobres, a população mais vulnerável à insegurança alimentar e pode se constituir em indicador complementar, sobretudo em estudos locais, onde há escassez de recursos técnicos para coleta de dados e análises mais sofisticadas.OBJECTIVE: Data from the National Household Survey 2004 was analyzed to compare differences in prevalence among moderate or severe food insecurity. Also, it was compared food security or mild food insecurity households in relation to the assets and other socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the household. METHOD: Private permanent households, with per capita monthly income of up to one minimum wage and with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale answered by a household resident were studied (n=51,357. Association of variables with the dependent variable (food security was verified using Χ2 test, with 5% significance level. Crude prevalence ratio, respective 95% confidence interval and adjusted analyses were carried out using Poisson multiple regression Stata 8.0. It considers the weights of the complex sampling design of the survey. RESULTS: The per capita monthly household income was the variable with strongest association to food security. Both in urban and rural areas, there were higher risk of moderate or severe food insecurity prevalence ratio when the head of the household was a female, black color, presence of six or more members in the household, metropolitan area and with absence of some specific assets (stove, water filter, refrigerator, freezer, washing machine and cellular phone. In a model that, among assets, included just the refrigerator, it was observed the highest

  10. Pellet fired appliances. Market survey. 7. rev. ed.; Pelletheizungen. Marktuebersicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    The market survey under consideration reports on pellet central heating systems and pellet fired appliances. The main chapters of this market survey are concerned to: (1) Information on wood pellets and pellet fired appliances; (2) Information about the interpretation of the market survey; (3) Survey of all compared pellet fired appliances with respect to the nominal power; (4) Price lists of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems; (5) Type sheets of the compared pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems. Finally, this brochure contains the addresses of the produces and distribution partners of pellet fired appliances and pellet central heating systems.

  11. Demand side management in households. Potentials and restraints of short-term power supply; Demand Side Management in Haushalten. Potenziale und Hemmnisse fuer kurzfristige Leistungsbereitstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roon, Serafin von; Gobmaier, Thomas [FfE Forschungsstelle fuer Energiewirtschaft e.V., Muenchen (Germany); Huck, Malte

    2010-07-01

    Within the project ''Wind energy - balancing forecast errors'' we examine potentials, restraints and costs of various options for balancing forecast errors of wind power generation. One possibility of providing this backup power could be to practice Demand Side Management (DSM) of household appliances. The integration of these appliances in a DSM network is facilitated by standardized data transmission procedures and the increasing deployment of microprocessors. Due to the low power consumption of the switchable devices no DSM measures are implemented in the household sector so far, despite the numerous appliances. (orig.)

  12. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  13. Colostomies and the use of colostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Elaine

    The surgical formation of a colostomy is indicated as part of the treatment of various conditions, primarily colon cancer, requiring the patient (ostomist) to wear a colostomy pouch. Today's stoma appliances bear no resemblance to those worn three or four decades ago when colostomy, ileostomy and urostomy bags were made entirely from rubber. The patient, who would have two to three bags in circulation at a time, would interchange them allowing for the washing and drying of the previous one, thus minimizing odour and potential perishing of the rubber. The design of these appliances was simple, but they were large and bulky and the outlet resembled that of a hot-water bottle stopper or a cap from an old soda bottle that required the insertion of coinage (2p) to open it. This article explores the range of colostomy appliances and management options available to the nurse when caring for patients with a colostomy.

  14. Extra-oral Appliances in Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almuzian, Mohammed; Alharbi, Fahad; McIntyre, Grant

    2016-01-01

    Extra-oral appliances are used in orthodontics to apply forces to the jaws, dentition or both and the popularity of these appliances is cyclical. Although the use of retraction headgear for the management of Class II malocclusion has declined over the last 20 years with the refinement of non-compliance approaches, including temporary anchorage devices, headgear still has a useful role in orthodontics. The use of protraction headgear has increased as more evidence of its effectiveness for the treatment of Class lIl malocclusion has become available. This paper describes the mechanics and contemporary uses of headgear in orthodontics for primary care dentists and specialist orthodontists. CPD/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Extra-oral appliances have specific uses in orthodontic biomechanics. Clinicians using retraction headgear and protraction headgear should be familiar with their clinical indications, the potential problems and how these can be avoided.

  15. Electrical Appliances and other Equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    After some reflection on the efficiency concept, the paper first outlines how the most important electrical end-use technologies, used in households as well as in many service institutions, can be designed to consume much less energy than they do today. This is based on techno-physical analyses...... combined with some consideration on the future human need for the energy service output from the technologies. On the above basis is suggested one set of energy services, which a family in a cold climate can enjoy from just annually consuming 250 kWh of electricity per person. This is actually sufficient......-use technologies, are here suggested progressive electricity taxes, followed by critical reflections on the use of energy suppliers to promote selling less energy. Finally are suggested how research can be most effective and useful by being more interdisciplinary and less dependent on business interests...

  16. The effect of life-cycle cost disclosure on consumer behavior. Evidence from a field experiment with cooling appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, M. [Prognos AG, Goethestr. 85, 10623 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Theory suggests that providing consumers with an estimated life-cycle cost (LCC) may make them buy more energy-efficient household appliances in cases where energy efficiency is cost effective. This article evaluates the link between the provision of LCC and consumer behavior by using an online field experiment for cooling appliances. Internet users arriving at a commercially operating price comparison website were randomly assigned to two experimental groups, and the groups were exposed to different visual stimuli. The control group received regular product price information, whereas the treatment group was offered additional information about estimated operating cost and total LCC. Consumers' click behavior was evaluated with multiple regression controlling for several product characteristics (n=1,969 clicks). We find that LCC disclosure reduces the mean specific energy use of chosen cooling appliances by 2.5% (p<0.01), making it a potentially interesting approach for environmental policy regarding the market transformation toward more energy-efficient household appliances. However, LCC disclosure also decreases the number of clicks from the price comparison website to final retailers by about 23% (p<0.01), which makes it - in the format chosen here - undesirable from a business perspective. Therefore, future research should clarify under what (if any) conditions can monetary energy cost disclosure be associated with more positive effects for price comparison websites.

  17. Real-Time Recognition Non-Intrusive Electrical Appliance Monitoring Algorithm for a Residential Building Energy Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Afrifa Agyeman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The concern of energy price hikes and the impact of climate change because of energy generation and usage forms the basis for residential building energy conservation. Existing energy meters do not provide much information about the energy usage of the individual appliance apart from its power rating. The detection of the appliance energy usage will not only help in energy conservation, but also facilitate the demand response (DR market participation as well as being one way of building energy conservation. However, energy usage by individual appliance is quite difficult to estimate. This paper proposes a novel approach: an unsupervised disaggregation method, which is a variant of the hidden Markov model (HMM, to detect an appliance and its operation state based on practicable measurable parameters from the household energy meter. Performing experiments in a practical environment validates our proposed method. Our results show that our model can provide appliance detection and power usage information in a non-intrusive manner, which is ideal for enabling power conservation efforts and participation in the demand response market.

  18. Energy-efficient appliance labeling in China: Lessons for successful labeling programs in varied markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Townend, Jeanne; Fridley, David; McNeil, Gary; Silva, Tony; Clark, Robin

    2002-08-20

    Appliance ownership and production has increased dramatically in China in the past two decades. From extremely low levels in 1980, China's appliance industry has become one of the largest in the world, with sales topping U.S. $14.4 billion in 2000. In 1981, less than 1 percent of urban Chinese households owned a refrigerator; by 1998, that number had increased to over 75 percent. This dramatic increase in sales and ownership leads to an excellent opportunity to impact energy consumption in China by affecting the energy efficiency of appliances being bought and sold. In general, Chinese consumers value energy efficiency and are knowledgeable about the operating costs of major appliances. However, the Chinese marketplace does not provide information that consumers trust about the energy consumption of specific products. Thus, several interdependent organizations have emerged in China to provide information and market supports for energy efficiency. This paper describes the appliance market in China and the evolution of its standards and labeling programs and the agencies that implement them. It discusses the authors' work with these organizations in developing energy efficiency criteria and supporting an energy efficiency endorsement labeling program in China. It describes how the authors have used their experience with ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} and other programs in the U.S. to work with China to develop a successful program specific to Chinese conditions, with a particular emphasis on refrigerators. It then gives the author's market assessment of the Chinese refrigerator market and recommendations for a successful labeling program and transferable lessons for developing energy efficiency labeling programs in varied markets. This paper is based on the authors' market research, their support in setting energy efficiency criteria in China, interviews with Chinese manufacturers, retailers, and sales staff, and the development and implementation of

  19. Gas appliances in the domestic market - legal basis and questioning concerning the Directive for Gas Appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rienen, W. van

    1994-01-01

    Four years after the Directive for Gas Appliances has been passed by the European Community it shows the first effects on the market. Gas appliances bearing an CE label can prove that the EC-standardised demands are observed. Thus it can be demanded from every member state by law not to hinder a launch on the market and the initiation. The directive also effects the demands for national environmental protection. A new DVGW (Deutscher Verein des Gas und Wasserfaches e.V.) quality label for gas appliances is going to certify the observance of a quality level which exceeds the minimum EC level. (orig.) [de

  20. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  1. Equipment and appliances for underwater operations. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, P.

    1976-01-01

    The 6/75 edition of 'mt' reported on the 'ARGE underwater appliances' and the study on 'design development of appliances and equipment for underwater use' in a brief summary. One of these designs, the 'unmanned DSWS underwater appliance' was described in detail. The present article describes three further design developments mentioned in the above study and which are based on unmanned appliances connected to the mother-ship. These designs were developed by Preussag-Meerestechnik. (orig.) [de

  2. 14 CFR 25.1365 - Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Equipment § 25.1365 Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. (a) Domestic appliances must be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical appliances, motors, and transformers. 25.1365 Section 25.1365 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 46 CFR 78.17-5 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.17-5 Section 78.17-5..., Drills, and Inspections § 78.17-5 Valves and closing appliances. (a) It shall be the duty of the master to see that all valves, including cross connecting valves where fitted, and other appliances such as...

  4. 46 CFR 109.209 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 109.209 Section 109... OPERATIONS Tests, Drills, and Inspections § 109.209 Appliances for watertight integrity. (a) Before getting underway, the master or person in charge shall insure that each appliance for watertight integrity is...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-38 - Valves and closing appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valves and closing appliances. 78.47-38 Section 78.47-38... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-38 Valves and closing appliances. (a) All valves and closing appliances, or other mechanisms which may be required to be operated for damage control purposes in case of...

  6. Load Characterization for small domestic appliances and electronics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Sluis, P.

    2009-01-01

    In this report, the energy consumption of small domestic loads has been analysed. To make the around 100 types of appliances considereda bit manageable, the appliances were categorized into several groups. The possibilities for time-shifting of the energy use of these small appliances was

  7. 38 CFR 17.150 - Prosthetic and similar appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appliances. 17.150 Section 17.150 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.150 Prosthetic and similar appliances... appliances including invalid lifts and therapeutic and rehabilitative devices, and special clothing made...

  8. 46 CFR 199.70 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal lifesaving appliances. 199.70 Section 199.70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS... appliances. (a) Lifebuoys. Each vessel must carry lifebuoys approved under approval series 160.150 as follows...

  9. 42 CFR 409.14 - Supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplies, appliances, and equipment. 409.14 Section... Hospital Services § 409.14 Supplies, appliances, and equipment. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b) of this section, Medicare pays for supplies, appliances, and equipment as inpatient hospital or inpatient...

  10. Projected electricity savings from implementing minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerators in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Choudhury, I.A.; NoorLeha, A.R.

    2003-01-01

    The Malaysian economy has grown rapidly in the last two decades. This growth has increased the ownership of household electrical appliances, especially refrigerator-freezers. Almost every house in Malaysia owns a refrigerator-freezer. The Malaysia Energy Center considered implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to predict the amount of energy savings in the residential sector by implementing a minimum energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers. The calculations are based on the growth of refrigerator-freezer ownership data in Malaysian households. By implementing the programs in 2004, about 8722 GWh will be saved in the year 2013. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will provide a significant impact in future electricity consumption in Malaysia

  11. Mandibular advancement appliance for obstructive sleep apnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petri, Niels; Svanholt, Palle; Solow, Beni

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this trial was to evaluate the efficacy of a mandibular advancement appliance (MAA) for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Ninety-three patients with OSA and a mean apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) of 34.7 were centrally randomised into three, parallel groups: (a) MAA; (b) mandibular non...

  12. A modified, lingually supported cantilevered Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snodgrass, D

    1996-01-01

    This new, fixed-functional appliance/Herbst/Bioprogressive system is designed for patient comfort and mandatory compliance. It also combines the positive clinical effects of four fixed-functional systems. It allows rapid palatal expansion of the upper arch, alveolar uprighting of the lower arch, upper and lower incisor alignment, and sagittal correction of Class II malocclusions to occur simultaneously with one appliance fixed in both arches. It is indicated for use in growing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusions. The ideal timing for treatment is the late mixed dentition. Being able to remove the appliance after one year with the upper second bicuspids erupting slightly Class III so the clinician can immediately begin fixed finishing mechanics would be ideal. This new Herbst design will reduce the frequency of orthognathic surgery and upper bicuspid extraction to camouflage Class II malocclusions. At the same time, it gives total control to the clinician in treating some more difficult, non-compliant patients. Fixed-functional appliances, which improve treatment efficiency and treatment results and provide for patient comfort, while at the same time give the treating clinician almost total control of the three planes of facial growth will open new doors for orthodontic treatment and research in the next century.

  13. Incorporating experience curves in appliance standards analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Louis-Benoit; Garbesi, Karina; Kantner, Colleen; Van Buskirk, Robert; Yang, Hung-Chia

    2013-01-01

    There exists considerable evidence that manufacturing costs and consumer prices of residential appliances have decreased in real terms over the last several decades. This phenomenon is generally attributable to manufacturing efficiency gained with cumulative experience producing a certain good, and is modeled by an empirical experience curve. The technical analyses conducted in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have, until recently, assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. This assumption does not reflect real market price dynamics. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards analyses for these products. Including experience curves increases the national consumer net present value of potential standard levels. In some cases a potential standard level exhibits a net benefit when considering experience, whereas without experience it exhibits a net cost. These results highlight the importance of modeling more representative market prices. - Highlights: ► Past appliance standards analyses have assumed constant equipment prices. ► There is considerable evidence of consistent real price declines. ► We incorporate experience curves for several large appliances into the analysis. ► The revised analyses demonstrate larger net present values of potential standards. ► The results imply that past standards analyses may have undervalued benefits.

  14. Custom Made Pressure Appliance for Presurgical Sustained ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    was done to match the color of the appliance with that of the adjoining skin to make ... of the surface of the swelling with the gap between the two ... Figure 1: Preoperative view of keloid .... “multi model” approach for treating ear keloids. Indian J ...

  15. Educational Electrical Appliance Power Meter and Logger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, John

    2013-01-01

    The principles behind two different designs of inductive power meter are presented. They both make use of the microphone input of a computer which, together with a custom-written program, can record the instantaneous power of a domestic electrical appliance. The device can be built quickly and can be calibrated with reference to a known power…

  16. Mobile based Appliances switching using Bluetooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sureshchandra J., Dr; Desai, Kalp; Gaikawad, Deepak; Pawar, Vijay N.; Gangal, Devendranath R.

    2008-04-01

    How many times do you have to get up from your desk to switch on your Air conditioner or fan when you are completely into your table work? How many times do you feel lazy to get off your comfort to switch on/off your home appliances in different rooms? How much energy do you lose in a day for operating your appliances? The solution is either a large amount of manual work—or the idea that is presented over here: APP-CON (APP-CON stands for appliances control). Here the ordinary cell phone with bluetooth capability acts as remote designed in such a manner that it acts as a helping hand to human by reducing its manual work and therefore saving human energy. The cell phone control of APP-CON units lets you access many of your home appliances situated in different rooms by using just a single remote from distance. Electronics hobbyists would love to make such a remote control themselves. But they find it difficult due to complex circuitry rather than the high cost because of using a number of frequency counting techniques and decade counters. The APP-CON system given here overcomes the aforesaid problems by using a single microcontroller and moreover a simple program or software for bluetooth enabled cell phone and employing simple coding and decoding of remote signals. Here the mobile based remote control is used to operate a number of home appliances basically consists of Bluetooth technology. The unit consists of a transmitter and a receiver consisting of a microcontroller. The importance of bluetooth technology is that the signal to be transmitted from transmitter to the receiver is done without requiring line of sight.

  17. Rational gas consumption resulting from technological innovations and improved gas appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doering, H

    1980-07-01

    Ruhrgas AG has developed several new or improved appliances with a view toward conserving energy. Its household heat center (see also Gas Abstr. 36, 80-1144f) uses a single core unit to supply heat for all the major heat requirements in the house, from cooking and dishwashing to water heating, space heating, and laundry washing/drying. A new burner that can function at both full and partial load with an air ratio of about 1.35 offers economical, yet quiet operation. Ruhrgas is also continuing its laboratory and field research into the application of gas-fired compression-type heat pumps.

  18. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Budi Mulyono

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Energy resilience is one of the famous issues among researchers and practitioners in energy sector. With enabling new technologies in power engineering for smart grid such as distributed generation, distributed storage, and intelligent information and management, each household community can establish a resilience energy production, distribution, and consumption. A household in smart grid system behaves as a customer and producer at the same time. This condition enabled them to reduce the power shortage in the peak hours, reduce CO2 pollution using renewable electricity, and minimizing electricity usage by changing life style. In developing countries, the amount of electricity supply is less than its demand. Most of the demand comes from the household that has peak load on nighttime. Keywords: User behavior, Game theory, Smart grid, Heating and cooling appliances, Energy resilientdoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1 How to cite this article:Mulyono, N. B. (2013. User Behavior Assessment of Household Electric Usage. The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 65-71. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X. doi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.1  

  19. The potential of a script to portray the acquisition of major household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of a script to portray the acquisition of major household appliances in consumer behaviour research. AC Erasmus, E Boshoff, GG Rousseau. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Removable orthodontic appliances: new perspectives on capabilities and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid Zafarmand, A; Mahdi Zafarmand, M

    2013-06-01

    Removable appliances are a dependable choice for many patients but like all orthodontic appliances, they have some limitations in use. Patient selection and appropriate appliance design are two key factors for success. Many patients, especially adults, prefer intra-oral appliances to extra-oral devices. Sometimes a removable intra-oral appliance can solve a dental problem in a shorter period of time compared to fixed treatment, and this has also been repeatedly seen in molar distalisation. From the interceptive perspective, the appliance can prevent or alleviate an impending crowding for erupting permanent incisors. This article describes 5 patients with different orthodontic problems: impending crowding for erupting upper canine with 2 approaches, provision of space for upper cuspids, resolution of chronic attrition of anterior teeth, relief of space shortage for upper canines eruption, and reduction of excess overjet. All subjects were treated with removable appliances of various designs.

  1. Household energy use in Asian cities: Responding to development success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Stephen R.

    In the past 10-15 years, gains in household income and urban development in many countries in Asia have led to significant shifts in household use of fuels away from traditional, biomass-based household fuels to modern, fossil fuels. These results suggest that, while the global atmospheric emissions implications need further analysis, the local air quality effects of urban household fuel use changes have been positive. These changes also demonstrate improvements in living conditions, particularly for poor women and children most affected by indoor air quality. However, for electricity use, where there is evidence of dramatic increases in household consumption, the longer term implications for atmospheric emissions are more troubling. Rapid demand growth in the urban household sector is contributing to huge increases in thermal electric generating capacity needs in Asia. Improving technologies of electricity use in the household sector appears to be easily achievable and could be stimulated through market and policy mechanisms which have been used elsewhere. These measures offer the prospect of real environmental and economic gains without sacrificing lifestyle advantages of electrical appliance use in households.

  2. Appliance based control for Home Power Management Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özkan, Hanife Apaydın

    2016-01-01

    This study scrutinizes energy-friendly smart home appliances (hereafter ‘smart appliances’), control of these appliances and their effects on the efficient use of energy. To accomplish this, smart appliances and their operation principles are introduced and their energy savings compared to conventional appliances are analyzed using precise measurements. Then, a real-time Appliance-based Home Power Management System (Ab-HPMS) which manages power consumption of smart appliances and that of the house as a whole is proposed. For Ab-HPMS, an appliance control algorithm, called Appliance-based Rolling Wave Planning (Ab-RWP), is developed with the aim of reducing electricity cost and improving energy efficiency while maintaining user comfort. Ab-RWP algorithm interacts with appliances in a priority order based on user comfort which is determined by utilizing their smart operational characteristics. Operations of smart appliances and their integrations with Ab-HPMS are modeled with Petri nets to verify that they meet the requirements expressed in the specifications. Simulation results demonstrate that proposed Ab-HPMS provides improvements in terms of the energy consumption reduction of about 5%–16%, cost reduction of about 10%–24% and peak reduction at high demand period of about 38%–53% compared to conventional appliances usage. - Highlights: • The effects of smart home appliances on energy saving are investigated. • Petri nets models of smart appliances are developed to simulate their operations in smart home. • A real-time appliance-based home power management system (Ab-HPMS) is proposed. • Power density function is evaluated to interrupt the operation of smart washing machine.

  3. Powering a Home with Just 25 Watts of Solar PV. Super-Efficient Appliances Can Enable Expanded Off-Grid Energy Service Using Small Solar Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jacobson, Arne [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Park, Won Young [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Ga Rick [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States); Alstone, Peter [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Khare, Amit [Schatz Energy Research Center, Arcata, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Highly efficient direct current (DC) appliances have the potential to dramatically increase the affordability of off-grid solar power systems used for rural electrification in developing countries by reducing the size of the systems required. For example, the combined power requirement of a highly efficient color TV, four DC light emitting diode (LED) lamps, a mobile phone charger, and a radio is approximately 18 watts and can be supported by a small solar power system (at 27 watts peak, Wp). Price declines and efficiency advances in LED technology are already enabling rapidly increased use of small off-grid lighting systems in Africa and Asia. Similar progress is also possible for larger household-scale solar home systems that power appliances such as lights, TVs, fans, radios, and mobile phones. When super-efficient appliances are used, the total cost of solar home systems and their associated appliances can be reduced by as much as 50%. The results vary according to the appliances used with the system. These findings have critical relevance for efforts to provide modern energy services to the 1.2 billion people worldwide without access to the electrical grid and one billion more with unreliable access. However, policy and market support are needed to realize rapid adoption of super-efficient appliances.

  4. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account. Problem statement The goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  5. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances for obstructive sleep apnoea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F R; Lentini-Oliveira, D; Machado, M A C; Prado, G F; Prado, L B F; Saconato, H

    2007-04-18

    Apnoea is a breathing disorder marked by the absence of airflow at the nose or mouth. In children, risk factors include adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, neuromuscular disorders and craniofacial anomalies. The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in childhood is adenotonsillectomy. This approach is limited by its surgical risks, mostly in children with comorbities and, in some patients, by recurrence that can be associated with craniofacial problems. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances have been used for patients who have OSAS and craniofacial anomalies because they change the mandible posture forwards and potentially enlarge the upper airway and increase the upper airspace, improving the respiratory function. To assess the effectiveness of oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances for OSAS in children. A sensitive search was developed for the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2005, Issue 3); PubMed (January 1966 to September 2005); EMBASE (1980 to September 2005); Lilacs (1982 to September 2005); BBO-Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia (1986 to September 2005); and SciELO (1997 to September 2005). There was no restriction of language or source of information. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all types of oral and functional orthopaedic appliances with placebo or no treatment, in children 15 years old or younger. reduction of apnoea to less than one episode per hour. dental and skeletal relationship, sleep parameters improvement, cognitive and phonoaudiologic function, behavioural problems, drop outs and withdrawals, quality of life, side effects (tolerability), economic evaluation. Data were independently extracted by two review authors. Authors were contacted for additional information. Risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for all important dichotomous outcomes. The initial search identified 384 trials

  6. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  7. Catalytic combustion in small wood burning appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    There is over a million hand fired small heating appliances in Finland where about 5,4 million cubic meters of wood fuel is used. Combustion in such heating appliances is a batch-type process. In early stages of combustion when volatiles are burned, the formation of carbon monoxide (CO) and other combustible gases are difficult to avoid when using fuels that have high volatile matter content. Harmful emissions are formed mostly after each fuel adding but also during char burnout period. When the CO-content in flue gases is, say over 0.5 %, also other harmful emissions will be formed. Methane (CH{sub 4}) and other hydrocarbons are released and the amount of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)-compounds can be remarkable. Some PAH-compounds are very carcinogenic. It has been estimated that in Finland even more than 90 % of hydrocarbon and PAH emissions are due to small scale wood combustion. Emissions from transportation is excluded from these figures. That is why wood combustion has a net effect on greenhouse gas phenomena. For example carbon monoxide emissions from small scale wood combustion are two fold compared to that of energy production in power plants. Methane emission is of the same order as emission from transportation and seven fold compared with those of energy production. Emissions from small heating appliances can be reduced by developing the combustion techniques, but also by using other means, for example catalytic converters. In certain stages of the batch combustion, temperature is not high enough, gas mixing is not good enough and residence time is too short for complete combustion. When placed to a suitable place inside a heating appliance, a catalytic converter can oxidize unburned gases in the flue gas into compounds that are not harmful to the environment. (3 refs.)

  8. Metal release from simulated fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, C J; Shin, J S; Cha, J Y

    2001-10-01

    Most orthodontic appliances and archwires are stainless steel or nickel-titanium (NiTi) alloys that can release metal ions, with saliva as the medium. To measure metal released from the fixed orthodontic appliances currently in use, we fabricated simulated fixed orthodontic appliances that corresponded to half of the maxillary arch and soaked them in 50 mL of artificial saliva (pH 6.75 +/- 0.15, 37 degrees C) for 3 months. We used brackets, tubes, and bands made by Tomy (Tokyo, Japan). Four groups were established according to the appliance manufacturer and the type of metal in the .016 x .022-in archwires. Groups A and B were stainless steel archwires from Ormco (Glendora, Calif) and Dentaurum (Ispringen, Germany), respectively, and groups C and D were both NiTi archwires with Ormco's copper NiTi and Tomy's Bioforce sentalloy, respectively. Stainless steel archwires were heat treated in an electric furnace at 500 degrees C for 1 minute and quenched in water. We measured the amount of metal released from each group by immersion time. Our conclusions were as follows: (1) there was no increase in the amount of chromium released after 4 weeks in group A, 2 weeks in group B, 3 weeks in group C, and 8 weeks in group D; (2) there was no increase in the amount of nickel released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, 7 days in group C, and 3 weeks in group D; and (3) there was no increase in the amount of iron released after 2 weeks in group A, 3 days in group B, and 1 day in groups C and D. In our 3-month-long investigation, we saw a decrease in metal released as immersion time increased.

  9. Turning the appliance market around towards A++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noergaard, Joergen S.; Guldbrandsen, Tom [Dept. of Civil Engineering, Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark); Brange, Birgitte; Karbo, Peter [Elsparefonden (Denmark)

    2007-07-01

    In an effort to exploit better the labelling schemes for appliances the Danish Electricity Saving Trust has run some campaigns on cold appliances. In 1999 focus was on getting people to choose A-rated models, the 2004 campaign focussed on A+, and in 2005 on A++. These campaigns and their results are described in the paper and some conclusions are drawn.The campaigns have consisted of various elements, namely 1) a general information about the campaigns, 2) a subsidy offered temporarily during some months to people buying the A, A+ and A++ models, 3) a website where people can easily find the most energy efficient model within their specification, and 4) in the website are also listed the shops, where consumers can get the appliances at lowest prices. The latter was the most innovative and maybe also the most effective measure in the package.Results showed up as a permanent U-turn of the market in the course of a few years. Where models C, D, E earlier dominated the market, the A, A+ and A++, came to dominate as the standard models in stock. Consequently, their prices dropped significantly. The theory of a rational market behavior is based on some assumptions, one being that full information is available to all actors. The website identifying to the consumers the shops with the lowest priced efficient models was a step in that direction, and the result did not fail to turn up.

  10. Real Time Information Based Energy Management Using Customer Preferences and Dynamic Pricing in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Babar Rasheed

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents real time information based energy management algorithms to reduce electricity cost and peak to average ratio (PAR while preserving user comfort in a smart home. We categorize household appliances into thermostatically controlled (tc, user aware (ua, elastic (el, inelastic (iel and regular (r appliances/loads. An optimization problem is formulated to reduce electricity cost by determining the optimal use of household appliances. The operational schedules of these appliances are optimized in response to the electricity price signals and customer preferences to maximize electricity cost saving and user comfort while minimizing curtailed energy. Mathematical optimization models of tc appliances, i.e., air-conditioner and refrigerator, are proposed which are solved by using intelligent programmable communication thermostat ( iPCT. We add extra intelligence to conventional programmable communication thermostat (CPCT by using genetic algorithm (GA to control tc appliances under comfort constraints. The optimization models for ua, el, and iel appliances are solved subject to electricity cost minimization and PAR reduction. Considering user comfort, el appliances are considered where users can adjust appliance waiting time to increase or decrease their comfort level. Furthermore, energy demand of r appliances is fulfilled via local supply where the major objective is to reduce the fuel cost of various generators by proper scheduling. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms efficiently schedule the energy demand of all types of appliances by considering identified constraints (i.e., PAR, variable prices, temperature, capacity limit and waiting time.

  11. Measure Guideline: Combustion Safety for Natural Draft Appliances Through Appliance Zone Isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzgerald, J. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Bohac, D. [Center for Energy and Environment, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2014-04-01

    This measure guideline covers how to assess and carry out the isolation of natural draft combustion appliances from the conditioned space of low-rise residential buildings. It deals with combustion appliances located either within the living space in enclosed closets or side rooms or outside the living space in an adjacent area like an attic or garage. This subset of houses does not require comprehensive combustion safety tests and simplified prescriptive procedures can be used to address safety concerns. This allows residential energy retrofit contractors inexperienced in advanced combustion safety testing to effectively address combustion safety issues and allow energy retrofits including tightening and changes to distribution and ventilation systems to proceed.

  12. Cost-benefit analysis of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Saidur, R.; Amalina, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The ownership of household electrical appliances especially refrigerator-freezer has increased rapidly in Malaysia. Almost every household in this country has a refrigerator-freezer. To reduce energy consumption in this sector the refrigerator is one of the top priorities of the energy efficiency program for household appliances. Malaysian authority is considering implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for refrigerator-freezer sometime in the coming year. This paper attempts to analyze cost-benefit of implementing minimum energy efficiency standards for household refrigerator-freezers in Malaysia. The calculations were made based on growth of ownership data for refrigerators in Malaysian households. The number of refrigerator-freezer has increased from 175,842 units in 1970 to 4,196,486 in 2000 and it will be about 11,293,043 in the year of 2020. Meanwhile it has accounted for about 26.3% of electricity consumption in a single household. Therefore, efficiency improvement of this appliance will give a significant impact in the future of electricity consumption in this country. Furthermore, it has been found that implementing an energy efficiency standard for household refrigerator-freezers is economically justified

  13. Measurement of HTO permeability of materials for protective appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, H.; Tomooka, M.; Kato, S.; Murata, M.; Kinouchi, N.; Yamamoto, H.

    1992-01-01

    Tritiated water (HTO) vapor permeabilities were measured for plastic and rubber films used for protective appliances (suits, gloves, wrappings, etc.). The measurement data prove that polyehylene and butyl rubbers are materials suitable for HTO protective appliances with their lower permeability. The data also indicate that desiccating protective appliances before reuse is effective for restoring their original resistances to penetrating HTO vapor when they are repeatedly used. (author)

  14. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  15. Family and household demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Zeng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Households are groups of people that co-reside and share some resources. Families are households of related individuals. Household and family demography is the study of these primary social groups or social units, and in particular of group membership and the relationships between members of the

  16. 21 CFR 872.5410 - Orthodontic appliance and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5410 Orthodontic appliance and... device includes the preformed orthodontic band, orthodontic band material, orthodontic elastic band...

  17. Magnetic fields from electric toothbrushes promote corrosion in orthodontic stainless steel appliances but not in titanium appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameda, Takashi; Ohkuma, Kazuo; Oda, Hirotake; Sano, Natsuki; Batbayar, Nomintsetseg; Terashima, Yukari; Sato, Soh; Terada, Kazuto

    2013-01-01

    Electric toothbrushes are widely used, and their electric motors have been reported to produce low-frequency electromagnetic fields that induced electric currents in metallic objects worn by the users. In this study, we showed that electric toothbrushes generated low-frequency magnetic fields (MFs) and induced electric currents in orthodontic appliances in artificial saliva (AS), which accelerated corrosion in stainless steel (SUS) appliances, but not in titanium (Ti) appliances; the corrosion was evaluated by using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer and a three-dimensional laser confocal microscope. The pH of AS used for appliance immersion did not change during or after MF exposure. These results suggested that MF-induced currents from electric toothbrushes could erode SUS appliances, but not Ti appliances, because of their high corrosion potentials. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms of metallic corrosion by induced currents in dental fields, which may trigger metal allergies in patients.

  18. Effects of mandibular protraction appliance associated to fixed appliance in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno D'Aurea Furquim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This retrospective study aimed to conduct a cephalometric evaluation of the skeletal, dental and soft tissue effects resulting from treatment of adult patients presenting Class II malocclusion, performed with a Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed orthodontic appliance. METHODS: The sample consisted of teleradiographs obtained before and after treatment of 9 adult patients (initial mean age of 22.48 years with bilateral Class II, division 1, malocclusion. Paired t test (p < 0.05 was applied to compare initial and final values. RESULTS: t test revealed an increase in anteroinferior facial height and posterior facial height. The dental changes include: extrusion of upper incisors, buccal inclination, protrusion of lower incisors, mesialization and extrusion of mandibular molars. Regarding the soft tissue component, there was an increase in nasolabial angle in addition to upper lip retrusion. CONCLUSIONS: The effects of treating Class II malocclusion adult patients, by means of using Mandibular Protraction Appliance (MPA combined with a fixed appliance were mostly observed in the mandibular arch, and consisted of buccal inclination, protrusion and intrusion of incisors, and mesialization and extrusion of the molars.

  19. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances for obstructive sleep apnoea in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Fernando R; Lentini-Oliveira, Débora A; Prado, Lucila Bf; Prado, Gilmar F; Carvalho, Luciane Bc

    2016-10-05

    Apnoea is a breathing disorder marked by the absence of airflow at the nose or mouth. In children, risk factors include adenotonsillar hypertrophy, obesity, neuromuscular disorders and craniofacial anomalies. The most common treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) in childhood is adeno-tonsillectomy. This approach is limited by its surgical risks, mostly in children with comorbidities and, in some patients, by recurrence that can be associated with craniofacial problems. Oral appliances and functional orthopaedic appliances have been used for patients who have OSAS and craniofacial anomalies because they hold the lower jaw (mandible) forwards which potentially enlarges the upper airway and increases the upper airspace, improving the respiratory function. To assess the effects of oral appliances or functional orthopaedic appliances for obstructive sleep apnoea in children. We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 7 April 2016); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2016, Issue 3) in the Cochrane Library (searched 7 April 2016); MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 7 April 2016); Embase Ovid (1980 to 7 April 2016); LILACS BIREME (from 1982 to 7 April 2016); BBO BIREME (from 1986 to 7 April 2016) and SciELO Web of Science (from 1997 to 7 April 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials on 7 April 2016. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing all types of oral and functional orthopaedic appliances with placebo or no treatment, in children 15 years old or younger. reduction of apnoea to less than one episode per hour. dental and skeletal relationship, sleep parameters improvement, cognitive and phonoaudiological function, behavioural problems, quality of life, side effects

  20. Household MIPS. Natural resource consumption of Finnish households and its reduction; KotiMIPS. Kotitalouksien luonnonvarojen kulutus ja sen pienentaeminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotakorpi, E.; Laehteenoja, S.; Lettenmeier, M.

    2008-10-15

    In the study the natural resource consumption of 27 Finnish households was calculated using the MIPS method (Material Input per Service unit). The households monitored their consumption over a 6-week period in seven sub-sectors - housing, mobility, tourism, foodstuffs, household goods and appliances, leisure time activities, and packaging and household wastes. In the consumption monitoring only the households' direct consumption was taken into account and not consumption due to, e.g. public services. MIPS figures were calculated for five natural resource categories: abiotic natural resources, biotic natural resources, water, air and erosion. Service performance was expressed as kilograms per person per year. The calculation of natural resource consumption was based, to a large extent, on previously carried out sub-studies under the main FIN-MIPS study on households. The sub-studies focused on foodstuffs, leisure time activities, tourism, household goods and appliances, and construction. All the people participating in the study were interested in environmental matters to a greater extent than the average Finn. Nevertheless, the difference between the household consuming the most natural resources, and the one consuming the least, was approximately 10-fold. Especially in mobility and tourism there were appreciable differences between the households. The most material-intensive sub-sectors of consumption with reference to the households studied are housing, mobility and tourism. The TMR (total material requirement, i.e. abiotic and biotic natural resources and erosion combined) is approximately 10,000 kg/person per year. In the case of foodstuffs the average TMR per person per year is around 4,000 kg, in relation to household goods, for appliances about 2,000 kg, and for packaging and household waste management approximately 200 kg. The precise definition of each sub-sector in the study has an influence on the results. The ranking of the different sub-sectors of

  1. Household energy use in urban Venezuela: Implications from surveys in Maracaibo, Valencia, Merida, and Barcelona-Puerto La Cruz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Sathaye, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report identifies the most important results of a comparative analysis of household commercial energy use in Venezuelan urban cities. The use of modern fuels is widespread among all cities. Cooking consumes the largest share of urban household energy use. The survey documents no use of biomass and a negligible use of kerosene for cooking. LPG, natural gas, and kerosene are the main fuels available. LPG is the fuel choice of low-income households in all cities except Maracaibo, where 40% of all households use natural gas. Electricity consumption in Venezuela`s urban households is remarkably high compared with the levels used in households in comparable Latin American countries and in households of industrialized nations which confront harsher climatic conditions and, therefore, use electricity for water and space heating. The penetration of appliances in Venezuela`s urban households is very high. The appliances available on the market are inefficient, and there are inefficient patterns of energy use among the population. Climate conditions and the urban built form all play important roles in determining the high level of energy consumption in Venezuelan urban households. It is important to acknowledge the opportunities for introducing energy efficiency and conservation in Venezuela`s residential sector, particularly given current economic and financial constraints, which may hamper the future provision of energy services.

  2. Convex stoma appliances: an audit of stoma care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Angie

    2016-12-08

    This article observes the complexities surrounding the use of convex appliances within the specialist sphere of stoma care. It highlights some of the results taken from a small audit carried out with 24 stoma care nurses examining the general use of convex appliances and how usage of convex products has evolved, along with specialist stoma care practice.

  3. Economical regulation power through load shifting with smart energy appliances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlot, M.C.; Knigge, J.D.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the technical and economical feasibility of the introduction of automated demand response from domestic smart appliances in a European setting as a means to create a significant amount of regulating power. Simplified power-time flexibility models for appliances are introduced on

  4. 49 CFR 238.230 - Safety appliances-new equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety appliances-new equipment. 238.230 Section... I Passenger Equipment § 238.230 Safety appliances—new equipment. (a) Applicability. This section..., 2007, that is equipped with a safety appliance, required by the “manner of application” provisions in...

  5. 46 CFR 108.580 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal lifesaving appliances. 108.580 Section 108.580 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Lifesaving Equipment § 108.580 Personal lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifebuoys. Each unit...

  6. 46 CFR 108.645 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings on lifesaving appliances. 108.645 Section 108.645 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.645 Markings on lifesaving appliances. (a...

  7. 49 CFR 238.229 - Safety appliances-general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety appliances-general. 238.229 Section 238.229... Equipment § 238.229 Safety appliances—general. (a) Except as provided in this part, all passenger equipment continues to be subject to the safety appliance requirements contained in Federal statute at 49 U.S.C...

  8. 46 CFR 133.70 - Personal lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal lifesaving appliances. 133.70 Section 133.70 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS Requirements for All OSVs § 133.70 Personal lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifebuoys. Each OSV must...

  9. 46 CFR 108.665 - Appliances for watertight integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight integrity. 108.665 Section 108.665 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.665 Appliances for watertight integrity...

  10. A comparative study of two-piece ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welser, Marion; Riedlinger, Inge; Prause, Ulla

    The quality of life of people with a stoma may be affected by peristomal skin disorders and by frequent unplanned changes of ostomy appliances due to problems with those appliances. The aim of this study was to evaluate two new, two-piece ostomy appliances with mechanical couplings (both from the SenSura range by Coloplast) and their ability to address areas that may be important to the quality of life of people with stomas, including appliance changes, stool seepage and overfilling. The study design featured two comparative, crossover, randomized multi-centre studies that were conducted in Germany. The SenSura appliances were evaluated against established reference appliances. Seventy-three individuals with a colostomy (closed-end appliances) and 75 individuals with an ileostomy (drainable appliances) participated in the studies. The participants tested 4-6 flanges of each type within a maximum period of two weeks. The results demonstrated that there was less seepage of stool observed under the SenSura flange when it was removed (pappliances. The SenSura flanges had better adhesion and flexibility and were easier to remove than the references (pappliances on quality of life indicators - there were fewer unplanned changes and less seepage of stool was observed in patients using the SenSura products.

  11. 33 CFR 81.20 - Lights and sound signal appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Lights and sound signal appliances. 81.20 Section 81.20 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... appliances. Each vessel under the 72 COLREGS, except the vessels of the Navy, is exempt from the requirements...

  12. DC Home Appliances for DC Distribution System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD KAMRAN

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper strengthens the idea of DC distribution system for DC microgrid consisting of a building of 50 apartments. Since the war of currents AC system has been dominant because of the paucity of research in the protection of the DC system. Now with the advance research in power electronics material and components, generation of electricity is inherently DC as by solar PV, fuel cell and thermoelectric generator that eliminates the rectification process. Transformers are replaced by the power electronics buck-boost converters. DC circuit breakers have solved the protection problems for both DC transmission and distribution system. In this paper 308V DC microgrid is proposed and home appliances (DC internal are modified to operate on 48V DC from DC distribution line. Instead of using universal and induction motors in rotary appliances, BLDC (Brushless DC motors are proposed that are highly efficient with minimum electro-mechanical and no commutation losses. Proposed DC system reduces the power conversion stages, hence diminishes the associated power losses and standby losses that boost the overall system efficiency. So in view of all this a conventional AC system can be replaced by a DC system that has many advantages by cost as well as by performance

  13. Incorporating Experience Curves in Appliance Standards Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Chan, Peter; Greenblatt, Jeffery; Kantner, Colleen; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Stephen; Rosenquist, Gregory; Buskirk, Robert Van; Yang, Hung-Chia; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2011-10-31

    The technical analyses in support of U.S. energy conservation standards for residential appliances and commercial equipment have typically assumed that manufacturing costs and retail prices remain constant during the projected 30-year analysis period. There is, however, considerable evidence that this assumption does not reflect real market prices. Costs and prices generally fall in relation to cumulative production, a phenomenon known as experience and modeled by a fairly robust empirical experience curve. Using price data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, and shipment data obtained as part of the standards analysis process, we present U.S. experience curves for room air conditioners, clothes dryers, central air conditioners, furnaces, and refrigerators and freezers. These allow us to develop more representative appliance price projections than the assumption-based approach of constant prices. These experience curves were incorporated into recent energy conservation standards for these products. The impact on the national modeling can be significant, often increasing the net present value of potential standard levels in the analysis. In some cases a previously cost-negative potential standard level demonstrates a benefit when incorporating experience. These results imply that past energy conservation standards analyses may have undervalued the economic benefits of potential standard levels.

  14. Corrosion of weldments in orthodontic appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, S.M.; Riesgo, O.; Duffo, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    The study of corrosion-related problems of dental materials has undergone a considerable development in recent years in order to avoid the use of materials with insufficient corrosion resistance in patients mouth. The subject of the present work was to study a particular type of corrosion: galvanic corrosion. One of the most common case of galvanic couples in patients mouth are the orthodontic appliances. The materials studied in the present work were stainless steel strips and silver-copper wires, isolated and welded between them. The electrochemical tests were performed in a NaCl 0.1M and Lactic Acid 0.1 M solution (pH2.3), and after test, the specimens were observed using the optical and scanning electron microscope. The results show that when stainless steel is coupled with a silver solder, the last is the anode of the galvanic couple. As a consequence of this, the silver solder undergone a severe attack. Stainless steel orthodontic appliances with silver solder are feasibly destroyed due to a severe attack on the filler metal disjoining the welded parts. (author) 9 refs

  15. Energy Efficiency and Conservation for Households - an Internet Site; Energispartips och energitester foer hushaall - en Internet hemsida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    This Internet site gives advice for energy conservation in households e.g. on space heating, lighting et cetera. You can also find energy tests of electric appliances, energy impacts of life styles, contact information for your local energy advisor and other information

  16. Embedded Systems for Smart Appliances and Energy Management

    CERN Document Server

    Neumann, Peter; Mahlknecht, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management, bringing together for the first time a multidisciplinary blend of topics from embedded systems, information technology and power engineering.  Coverage includes challenges for future resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.   Provides a comprehensive, multidisciplinary introduction to embedded systems for smart appliances and energy management; Equips researchers and engineers with information required to succeed in designing energy management for smart appliances; Includes coverage of resource distribution grids, energy management in smart appliances, micro energy generation, demand response management, ultra-low power stand by, smart standby and communication networks in home and building automation.  

  17. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilecki, R.

    1997-01-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs

  18. Energy end use statistics and estimations in the Polish household sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilecki, R [Energy Information Centre, Warsaw (Poland)

    1997-09-01

    The energy statistics in Poland was in the past concentrated on energy production and industrial consumption, but little information was available on the households energy consumption. This data unavailability was an important barrier for the various analyses and forecasting of the energy balance developments. In the recent years some successful attempts were made to acquire a wider and more reliable picture of household energy consumption. The households surveys were made and some existing data were analyzed and verified. The better and more detailed picture of households energy use was in this way constructed. The breakdown of energy consumption by end-use categories (space heating, water heating, cooking, electrical appliances) was quite reliably estimated. Important international cooperation and guidance was used in the course of Polish households energy consumption research. (author). 6 refs.

  19. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 4, appendix C: Modular space station appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Data collected for the appliances considered for the space station are presented along with plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. The food management, and personal hygiene data are applicable to a six-man mission of 180-days.

  20. Crew appliance concepts. Volume 2, appendix B: Shuttle orbiter appliances supporting engineering data. [food management and personal hygiene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, B. W.; Reysa, R. P.; Russell, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Technical data collected for the food management and personal hygiene appliances considered for the shuttle orbiter are presented as well as plotted and tabulated trade study results for each appliance. Food storage, food operation, galley cleanup, waste collection/transfer, body cleansing, and personal grooming were analyzed.

  1. Optimal Scheduling of Domestic Appliances via MILP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Bradac

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes a consumption scheduling mechanism for domestic appliances within a home area network. The aim of the proposed scheduling is to minimize the total energy price paid by the consumer and to reduce power peaks in order to achieve a balanced daily load schedule. An exact and computationally efficient mixed-integer linear programming (MILP formulation of the problem is presented. This model is verified by several problem instances. Realistic scenarios based on the real price tariffs commercially available in the Czech Republic are calculated. The results obtained by solving the optimization problem are compared with a simulation of the ripple control service currently used by many domestic consumers in the Czech Republic.

  2. Oral health with fixed appliances orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konta, Brigitte

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment represents an important fraction in dental interventions. According to other medical methods the question for scientific evidence for the effectiveness of these treatments arises. The question of the effectiveness is connected with the question what is understood as an effect. In principle, the effect of the intervention is understood on the basis of the occlusion or dental health, what disregards further functions of oral health. The generalization to oral health is therefore a necessary consideration in science now. If one appreciates this further development, then there is no one single randomised study available which examines the long-term effect of the orthodontic intervention or for the effects on the oral health. The question, whether the application of a fixed appliance in an orthodontic treatment causes a long-term improvement in oral health, cannot be answered at the present time. The scientific status is the definition of oral health at present. Also the question, whether in the long run the dental health can be improved by fixed appliances cannot be answered with a quality usually achieved by evidence-based medicine. Whether correction of a dental malposition is an effective prerequisite for the preservation of the natural teeth, cannot be answered. There is no generalizing study with sufficient scientific background for Europe or Germany to this topic. The risk for caries cannot be quantified. Caries is identified as a central topic in general but due to numerous factors influencing the risk it is not quantified. The question of the indications is completely open from the scientific literature. For the question of the therapy need or therapy priority some indexes were developed, which lead to a quantification. These indices however are fundamentally criticised by recent research in their meaning and the empirical relevance. There is an impression that there exists a big gap between the practical application

  3. Investigation of transient behaviour of combi boiler type appliances for domestic hot water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmaca, Ayşe Uğurcan; Erek, Aytunç; Altay, Hürrem Murat

    2015-01-01

    Combi boiler type appliances heating both space and water demanded for use and consuming natural gas as the energy source are one of the most common branches of the household goods. This study touches mainly on two types of combi boiler concepts to investigate only domestic hot water (DHW) heating function since highly efficient condensing appliances have been manufactured in terms of space heating. First concept has the normal working configuration of the heat exchangers of a standard combi boiler; whereas, the second has the opposite operation order of the heat exchangers. 1D transient energy equations have been constructed with the help of the laws of thermodynamics in order to model the heat exchangers in a standard combi boiler. After obtaining a general mathematical model for the standard combi boiler, the energy equations have been discretised with finite difference scheme, and solved numerically in Matlab ® . Subsequently, numerical results are validated experimentally in different working modes of a standard appliance. As the last step, similar results are obtained for the second proposed concept using the related equations of the standard combi model to compare both concepts on a numerical basis. - Highlights: • 1D theoretical model of a combi boiler was constructed and verified experimentally. • Preliminary estimations will be obtained from the model about the laboratory tests. • Number of the laboratory tests will be decreased thanks to the theoretical model. • The model was used to compare the transient behaviour of two kinds of combi boilers. • The second combi boiler alternative to standard one has a higher comfort potential

  4. Hot surface temperatures of domestic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Malcolm; Arild, Anne-Helene

    2002-09-01

    Domestic appliances are burning people. In the European Union, accidents requiring hospital treatment due to burns from hot objects account for between 0 and 1% of all such accidents. Young children are particularly at risk. These reported accidents requiring hospital treatment are also likely to be a small proportion of the total number of burns from hot objects. There is a lack of hard evidence about the level of accidents, typical consumer expectation and use, and on the state of the art of appliances. Results of technical laboratory tests carried out on products are used to demonstrate the state of the art and also show how consumer expectations could be changing. Results of a survey into accidents, based on a written questionnaire following telephone contact, provide information on non-hospital cases. Results of tests on products show that there are significant differences in the temperatures of touchable surfaces, even in products of the same type. Typically, these differences are due to variations in design and/or materials of construction. Some products are hot enough to burn skin. Accident research indicates that non-hospital medical practices are treating burn injuries, which are therefore not being included into the current accident statistics. For products with the same function, some types of design or materials of construction are safer, with lower surface temperatures. Many product standards have no or unnecessarily high limits on surface temperatures. Many standards do not address the realities of who is using their products, for what purpose or where they are located. Some standards use unreasonable general limitations and exclusions that allow products with higher surface temperatures than they should have. Many standards rely on the experience factor for avoiding injury that is no longer valid, with the increased availability of safer products of the same type. A major field of work ahead is to carry out more surveys and in-depth studies of non

  5. Decision-making in electrical appliance use in the home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Akihiko; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Sato, Tomohiro

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey as well as an argument from the viewpoint of behavioral economics with the aim of clarifying how consumers make decisions about electrical appliance use in the home. A survey of consumers showed that most have little awareness of the energy efficiency of appliances, the price of the services produced by electrical appliances, or electricity rates. These findings indicate that price does not function as a signal in electricity consumption through electrical appliance use. Rather, we found that consumer decision-making in electricity consumption is dependent on the characteristics of the particular electrical appliances they use. Additionally, we argue that the payment system for home electricity consumption plays an important role in decision-making, causing biases due to aspects of human psychology discussed here in terms of satisficing and heuristics, payment decoupling, and budgeting. We conclude that decision-making about electrical appliance use and electricity consumption in the home is not always rational and is affected both by the particular characteristics of appliances and the payment system for electricity consumption along with human psychology

  6. Unilateral maxillary molar distalization with zygoma-gear appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkis, Dogan; Bayram, Mehmet; Celikoglu, Mevlut; Nur, Metin

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to present the orthodontic treatment of a 15-year-old boy with a unilateral maxillary molar distalization system, called the zygoma-gear appliance. It consisted of a zygomatic anchorage miniplate, an inner bow, and a Sentalloy closed coil spring (GAC International, Bohemia, NY). A distalizing force of 350 g was used during the distalization period. The unilateral Class II malocclusion was corrected in 5 months with the zygoma-gear appliance. The maxillary left first molar showed distalization of 4 mm with an inclination of 3°. The maxillary premolars moved distally with the help of the transseptal fibers. In addition, there were slight decreases in overjet (-0.5 mm) and maxillary incisor inclination (-1°), indicating no anchorage loss from the zygoma-gear appliance. Preadjusted fixed appliances (0.022 × 0.028-in, MBT system; 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) were placed in both arches to achieve leveling and alignment. After 14 months of unilateral distalization with the zygoma-gear appliance and fixed appliances, Class I molar and canine relationships were established with satisfactory interdigitation of the posterior teeth. Acceptable overjet and overbite were also achieved. This article shows that this new system, the zygoma-gear appliance, can be used for unilateral maxillary molar distalization without anchorage loss. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  8. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  9. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  10. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  11. Household Wealth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  12. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  13. Smart meter deployment optimisation and its analysis for appliance load monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shaharyar Khwaja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the authors study the problem of smart meter deployment optimisation for appliance load monitoring, that is, to monitor a number of devices without any ambiguity using the minimum number of low-cost smart meters. The importance of this problem is due to the fact that the number of meters should be reduced to decrease the deployment cost, improve reliability and decrease congestion. In this way, in future, smart meters can provide additional information about the type and number of distinct devices connected, besides their normal functionalities concerned with providing overall energy measurements and their communication. The authors present two exact smart meter deployment optimisation algorithms, one based on exhaustive search and the other based on efficient implementation of the exhaustive search. They formulate the problem mathematically and present computational complexity analysis of their algorithms. Simulation scenarios show that for a typical number of home appliances, the efficient search method is significantly faster compared to the exhaustive search and can provide the same optimal solution. The authors also show the dependency of their method on the distribution of the load pattern that can potentially be in a typical household.

  14. EPA ENERGY STAR: Tackling Growth in Home Electronics and Small Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, Marla Christine; Brown, Richard; Homan, Gregory

    2008-11-17

    Over a decade ago, the electricity consumption associated with home electronics and other small appliances emerged onto the global energy policy landscape as one of the fastest growing residential end uses with the opportunity to deliver significant energy savings. As our knowledge of this end use matures, it is essential to step back and evaluate the degree to which energy efficiency programs have successfully realized energy savings and where savings opportunities have been missed.For the past fifteen years, we have quantified energy, utility bill, and carbon savings for US EPA?s ENERGY STAR voluntary product labeling program. In this paper, we present a unique look into the US residential program savings claimed to date for EPA?s ENERGY STAR office equipment, consumer electronics, and other small household appliances as well as EPA?s projected program savings over the next five years. We present a top-level discussion identifying program areas where EPA?s ENERGY STAR efforts have succeeded and program areas where ENERGY STAR efforts did not successfully address underlying market factors, technology issues and/or consumer behavior. We end by presenting the magnitude of ?overlooked? savings.

  15. Effective Maxillary Protraction with Tandem Traction Bow Appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Kumar S Marure

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tandem traction bow appliance (TTBA promotes patient compliance, because it is more esthetic and comfortable than extraoral appliances. TTBA should be used only in case where maxillary deficiency and normal mandible is present. Advantages of it includes good oral hygiene, early treatment of any Class III malocclusion, optimal retention, distribution of the forces for protraction to all maxillary teeth, free mandibular movement. It can be used in conjunction with fixed appliances if necessary. This paper includes two case reports. The treatment results in both the cases demonstrated significant skeletal and dental response to TTBA therapy. Skeletal change was primarily a result of anterior movement of the maxilla.

  16. Pyogenic granuloma: a rare side complication from an orthodontic appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Priti N; Gill, Daljit; Lloyd, Tim

    2011-12-01

    This case report discusses a rare side effect associated with the use ofa fixed quad helix orthodontic appliance. A 14-year-old healthy girl presented with a painful enlarging mass on her tongue, which was causing distress to both her and her parents. Investigations confirmed that the mass was a pyogenic granuloma and management involved surgical excision of the mass and removal of the quad helix appliance. At least once previous case associated with an orthodontic quad helix appliance has been reported in the literature.

  17. Research & Development Roadmap for Next-Generation Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Foley, Kevin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Appliances present an attractive opportunity for near-term energy savings in existing building, because they are less expensive and replaced more regularly than heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems or building envelope components. This roadmap targets high-priority research and development (R&D), demonstration and commercialization activities that could significantly reduce residential appliance energy consumption. The main objective of the roadmap is to seek activities that accelerate the commercialization of high-efficiency appliance technologies while maintaining the competitiveness of American industry. The roadmap identified and evaluated potential technical innovations, defined research needs, created preliminary research and development roadmaps, and obtained stakeholder feedback on the proposed initiatives.

  18. The use of functional appliances in contemporary orthodontic practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiBiase, A T; Cobourne, M T; Lee, R T

    2015-02-16

    Functional appliances have been used for over 100 years in orthodontics to correct Class II malocclusion. During this time numerous different systems have been developed often accompanied by claims of modification and enhancement of growth. Recent clinical evidence has questioned whether they really have a lasting influence on facial growth, their skeletal effects appearing to be short term. However, despite these findings, the clinical effectiveness of these appliances is acknowledged and they can be very useful in the correction of sagittal arch discrepancies. This article will discuss the clinical use of functional appliances, the underlying evidence for their use and their limitations.

  19. PROTECTION OF HOUSEHOLD APPLIANCES INDUCTION MOTORS AGAINST OVERCURRENT TAKING INTO ACCOUNT NONLINEAR DISTORTION OF PHASE CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. Sereda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Theoretical justification and engineering of induction motors heat protection method from overload currents taking into account nonlinear distortion of the phase current and implementation as a microprocessor device functioning algorithm. Methodology. To solve the problem used the theory of the representing complex harmonic oscillations analog signals expansion into the oscillation spectrum forming elementary harmonic components in order to compare their properties by applying the theory of discrete signals and systems, as well as methods of spectral analysis and discrete signals filtering. The harmonic analysis versatility is that any periodic signal may be synthesized from harmonic oscillation of certain amplitude, frequency and initial phase. A mathematical model for determining the phase current harmonic content of power supply networks with isolated neutral and non-linear loads types and, as a consequence, the distortion of sinusoidal phase current change is developed by multiplying the analog current in time dependency on the grate delta-function with different sampling intervals, in which the use of simple and widely used in relay protection units, in particular electronic overcurrent relays, mathematical operations of integration squares instantaneous current allows the most in harmony with the mathematical tools to build other network protection types. Findings. The necessity to increase the sensitivity of the induction motors heat protection from overload currents taking into account nonlinear distortion of the phase currents is proved. By nonlinear distortion harmonic analysis of the phase currents the motor protection reliability increasing provided by taking into account the higher harmonic components of the phase currents, which causes to additional losses and heating of the stator winding. It uses the simplest and widely used in protective relaying mathematical apparatus determining of most significant higher harmonics currents RMS. Originality. A possibility of extending the implemented protection list of electronic overcurrent relays based on the digital processing of signals from the current sensors is theoretical research by the harmonious analysis of phase current spectrum with the nonlinear distortions presence. A new technical solution is proposed that allows in online sliding monitoring mode to form response time of electronic overcurrent relays for reliable protection of induction motors from overload currents taking into account nonlinear distortion of the phase current. Practical value. A microprocessor protection functioning algorithm of induction motors is designed against impermissible heating coils with overload currents taking into account nonlinear distortion of the phase current.

  20. Grey-box Modeling for System Identification of Household Refrigerators: a Step Toward Smart Appliances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costanzo, Giuseppe Tommaso; Sossan, Fabrizio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2013-01-01

    units, which operation can be shifted within temperature and operational constraints. Even if the refrigerators are not intended to be used as smart loads, validated models are useful in predicting units consumption. This information can increase the optimality of the management of other flexible units......This paper presents the grey-box modeling of a vapor-compression refrigeration system for residential applications based on maximum likelihood estimation of parameters in stochastic differential equations. Models obtained are useful in the view of controlling refrigerators as flexible consumption...

  1. Learning energy efficiency: experience curves for household appliances and space heating, cooling, and lighting technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiss, M.; Junginger, H.M.; Patel, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Improving demand side energy efficiency is an important strategy for establishing a sustainable energy system. Large potentials for energy efficiency improvements exist in the residential and commercial buildings sector. This sector currently accounts for almost 40% of the European Union’s (EU)

  2. Innovation Intensity and Adoption at the Base of the Pyramid Market: A Study of Household Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Koki da Costa Nogami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the innovation intensity and adoption characteristics at the base of the pyramid market. The innovation intensity is configured as radical and incremental, while the innovation adoption is configured as early and tardy. As an empirical approach it was conducted a study type survey. Data analysis is based on non-parametric statistics. The results indicate that the base of the pyramid consumers is characterized by adopting incremental innovations tardily, as pointed out by the literature. Furthermore, it was also observed that women have greater decision-making power in the families of this segment.

  3. 46 CFR 31.36-1 - Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lifesaving appliances and arrangements-TB/ALL. 31.36-1... CERTIFICATION Lifesaving Appliances and Arrangements § 31.36-1 Lifesaving appliances and arrangements—TB/ALL. All lifesaving appliances and arrangements on tank vessels must be in accordance with subchapter W...

  4. 46 CFR 174.100 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity... Offshore Drilling Units § 174.100 Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity. (a) Appliances to... watertight closures for openings in watertight decks and bulkheads. (b) Appliances to insure weathertight...

  5. 14 CFR 21.502 - Approval of materials, parts, and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appliances. 21.502 Section 21.502 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., Materials, Parts, and Appliances: Import § 21.502 Approval of materials, parts, and appliances. (a) A material, part, or appliance, manufactured in a foreign country with which the United States has an...

  6. 46 CFR 108.114 - Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity... Appliances for watertight and weathertight integrity. (a) Appliances to ensure watertight integrity include... watertight decks and bulkheads. (b) Appliances to ensure weathertight integrity include weathertight doors...

  7. 14 CFR 21.305 - Approval of materials, parts, processes, and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., and appliances. 21.305 Section 21.305 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., Parts, Processes, and Appliances § 21.305 Approval of materials, parts, processes, and appliances. Whenever a material, part, process, or appliance is required to be approved under this chapter, it may be...

  8. Data Mining Techniques for Detecting Household Characteristics Based on Smart Meter Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Gajowniczek

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research is to discover the structure of home appliances usage patterns, hence providing more intelligence in smart metering systems by taking into account the usage of selected home appliances and the time of their usage. In particular, we present and apply a set of unsupervised machine learning techniques to reveal specific usage patterns observed at an individual household. The work delivers the solutions applicable in smart metering systems that might: (1 contribute to higher energy awareness; (2 support accurate usage forecasting; and (3 provide the input for demand response systems in homes with timely energy saving recommendations for users. The results provided in this paper show that determining household characteristics from smart meter data is feasible and allows for quickly grasping general trends in data.

  9. A retrospective cephalometric investigation of two fixed functional orthodontic appliances in class II treatment: Functional Mandibular Advancer vs. Herbst appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzinger, Gero Stefan Michael; Lisson, Jörg Alexander; Frye, Linda; Gross, Ulrich; Hourfar, Jan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study is to compare skeletal and dental changes in class II patients treated with fixed functional appliances (FFA) that pursue different biomechanical concepts: (1) FMA (Functional Mandibular Advancer) from first maxillary molar to first mandibular molar through inclined planes and (2) Herbst appliance from first maxillary molar to lower first bicuspid through a rod-and-tube mechanism. Forty-two equally distributed patients were treated with FMA (21) and Herbst appliance (21), following a single-step advancement protocol. Lateral cephalograms were available before treatment and immediately after removal of the FFA. The lateral cephalograms were analyzed with customized linear measurements. The actual therapeutic effect was then calculated through comparison with data from a growth survey. Additionally, the ratio of skeletal and dental contributions to molar and overjet correction for both FFA was calculated. Data was analyzed by means of one-sample Student's t tests and independent Student's t tests. Statistical significance was set at p appliance were found, intergroup comparisons showed no statistically significant differences. Almost all measurements resulted in comparable changes for both appliances. Statistically significant dental changes occurred with both appliances. Dentoalveolar contribution to the treatment effect was ≥70%, thus always resulting in ≤30% for skeletal alterations. FMA and Herbst appliance usage results in comparable skeletal and dental treatment effects despite different biomechanical approaches. Treatment leads to overjet and molar relationship correction that is mainly caused by significant dentoalveolar changes.

  10. Reduction of peak energy demand based on smart appliances energy consumption adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powroźnik, P.; Szulim, R.

    2017-08-01

    In the paper the concept of elastic model of energy management for smart grid and micro smart grid is presented. For the proposed model a method for reducing peak demand in micro smart grid has been defined. The idea of peak demand reduction in elastic model of energy management is to introduce a balance between demand and supply of current power for the given Micro Smart Grid in the given moment. The results of the simulations studies were presented. They were carried out on real household data available on UCI Machine Learning Repository. The results may have practical application in the smart grid networks, where there is a need for smart appliances energy consumption adjustment. The article presents a proposal to implement the elastic model of energy management as the cloud computing solution. This approach of peak demand reduction might have application particularly in a large smart grid.

  11. Robust Optimization for Household Load Scheduling with Uncertain Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jidong Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Home energy management systems (HEMS face many challenges of uncertainty, which have a great impact on the scheduling of home appliances. To handle the uncertain parameters in the household load scheduling problem, this paper uses a robust optimization method to rebuild the household load scheduling model for home energy management. The model proposed in this paper can provide the complete robust schedules for customers while considering the disturbance of uncertain parameters. The complete robust schedules can not only guarantee the customers’ comfort constraints but also cooperatively schedule the electric devices for cost minimization and load shifting. Moreover, it is available for customers to obtain multiple schedules through setting different robust levels while considering the trade-off between the comfort and economy.

  12. Time-saving innovations, time allocation, and energy use. Evidence from Canadian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise [University of Alberta, 8-14 HM Tory, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to affect both a household's (1) allocation of time across home production and leisure activities; and (2) energy use. For example, with a household's adoption of a microwave or a dishwasher, cooking food and washing dishes will require less time, and therefore in-home meal preparation may increase. Households with microwaves or dishwashers may also opt to spend more time undertaking other production activities, inside or outside the home, or engage in more leisure (watching TV, reading, exercising). To the extent that time is reallocated from less to more energy-intensive activities in the home, residential energy use will increase as households adopt appliances that embody time-saving technology. Furthermore, an adoption of time-saving technologies for basic household chores, such as meal preparation and laundry, can impact energy use due to the fact that many time-saving technologies are more energy intensive than alternative technologies that require larger time commitments. In this paper, we use the Canadian Survey of Household Energy Use data from 2003 to examine the extent to which ownership of products that embody time-saving innovations affects time allocation and energy use at the household level. (author)

  13. Customer service in appliance sales departments of selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Customer service in appliance sales departments of selected prominent retail outlets: store manager, ... A single measurement of customers' perception of service quality in various stores however suggested ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Effect of Fixed Metallic Oral Appliances on Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnazzawi, Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    There is a substantial proportion of the population using fixed metallic oral appliances, such as crowns and bridges, which are composed of various dental alloys. These restorations may be associated with a number of effects on oral health with variable degrees of severity, to review potential effects of using fixed metallic oral appliances, fabricated from various alloys. The MEDLINE/PubMed database was searched using certain combinations of keywords related to the topic. The search revealed that burning mouth syndrome, oral pigmentation, hypersensitivity and lichenoid reactions, and genotoxic and cytotoxic effects are the major potential oral health changes associated with fixed prosthodontic appliances. Certain oral disorders are associated with the use of fixed metallic oral appliances. Patch test is the most reliable method that can be applied for identifying metal allergy, and the simultaneous use of different alloys in the mouth is discouraged.

  15. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  16. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Deise Caldas; Lima, Tatiana Araújo de; Duplat, Candice Belchior; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276) was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those with higher economic status, golden orthodontic brackets and

  17. Treatment with active orthodontic appliance in adult patient

    OpenAIRE

    Radeska, Ana; Radeski, Josif; Zlatanovska, Katerina; Papakoca, Kiro; Zarkova, Julija

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Showing the efficiency of orthodontic mobile appliance in treatment of adult patient Case summary: The patient A.K. Age 25 years whit forced progenia, bilateral hypodontia of the maxillary incisors and cross bite of 2 mm in front. The patient was treated with active orthodontic appliance whit bitten ridge and down labial arch. The treatment lasted 18 months after which periods is reached normal occlusion with normal overlap in front and closed diastema mediana. The hypodontia of the m...

  18. Wood-burning appliances and indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Benoit; Allaire, Sylvain; Gauvin, Denis; Gingras, Suzanne; Rhainds, Marc; Prud' Homme, Henri; Duchesne, Jean-Francois [CHUQ-Centre de Recherche du CHUL, Unite de Recherche en Sante Publique, 2400, d' Estimauville, Beauport, G1E 7G9 Quebec (Canada); Koutrakis, Petros [Harvard School of Public Health, 677 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2001-12-17

    Wood heating represents an interesting economic alternative to electrical or heating oil and gas systems. However, many people are concerned about poor indoor air quality in homes equipped with wood-burning appliances. We conducted a study in the Quebec City region (Canada) to verify the extent of indoor air contamination, and to examine the frequency of respiratory symptoms and illnesses among occupants of wood-heated homes. One child attending primary school (median=8 years old; range=5-14 years old) and an adult (median=37 years old; range=23-52 years old) were recruited in each eligible house. Eligible houses were without known sources of combustion products (smokers, attached garage, oil or gas furnace, gas stove, etc.) except for wood-burning appliance. Out of the 89 houses included in the study, 59 had wood-burning appliances. Formaldehyde, nitrogen dioxide, respirable particles (PM10) and carbon monoxide were measured in a sub-set of 49 houses (41 with a wood-burning appliance and 8 without). The frequency of respiratory symptoms and diseases among participants were documented using a daily symptom diary. Concentrations of contaminants were low in most houses, both with or without a wood-burning appliance. Globally, there was no consistent relationship between the presence of a wood-burning appliance and respiratory morbidity in residents. Nevertheless, residents who mentioned being exposed to fumes emitted by such an appliance reported more respiratory illnesses and symptoms. The presence of animals or molds, and keeping windows closed most of the time in winter were other factors associated with respiratory problems. We conclude that wood burning appears to be a respiratory health risk for occupants if the appliance is not maintained and used properly.

  19. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Deise Caldas; de Lima, Tatiana Araújo; Duplat, Candice Belchior; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. Methods: A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276) was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Results: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Conclusion: Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those with higher

  20. Esthetic perception of orthodontic appliances by Brazilian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Caldas Kuhlman

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The objective of this present study was to understand how children and adolescents perceive esthetic attractiveness of a variety of orthodontic appliances. It also analyzed preferences according to patients' age, sex and socioeconomic status. Methods: A photograph album consisting of eight photographs of different orthodontic appliances and clear tray aligners placed in a consenting adult with pleasing smile was used. A sample of children or adolescents aged between 8 and 17 years old (n = 276 was asked to rate each image for its attractiveness on a visual analog scale. Comparisons between the appliances attractiveness were performed by means of nonparametric statistics with Friedman's test followed by Dunn's multiple comparison post-hoc test. Correlation between appliances and individuals' socioeconomic status, age, sex, and esthetic perception was assessed by means of Spearman's correlation analysis. Results: Attractiveness ratings of orthodontic appliances varied nonsignificantly for children in the following hierarchy: traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures > traditional metallic brackets with gray elastomeric ligatures > sapphire esthetic brackets; and for adolescents, as follows: sapphire esthetic brackets > clear aligner without attachments > traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. The correlation between individuals' socioeconomic status and esthetic perception of a given appliance was negative and statistically significant for appliances such as the golden orthodontic brackets and traditional metallic brackets with green elastomeric ligatures. Conclusion: Metal appliances were considered very attractive, whereas aligners were classified as less attractive by children and adolescents. The correlation between esthetic perception and socioeconomic status revealed that individuals with a higher socioeconomic level judged esthetics as the most attractive attribute. For those

  1. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  2. Maxillary molar distalization with first class appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Namitha; Palukunnu, Biswas; Ravindran, Nidhi; Nair, Preeti P

    2014-02-27

    Non-extraction treatment has gained popularity for corrections of mild-to-moderate class II malocclusion over the past few decades. The distalization of maxillary molars is of significant value for treatment of cases with minimal arch discrepancy and mild class II molar relation associated with a normal mandibular arch and acceptable profile. This paper describes our experience with a 16-year-old female patient who reported with irregularly placed upper front teeth and unpleasant smile. The patient was diagnosed to have angles class II malocclusion with moderate maxillary anterior crowding, deep bite of 4 mm on a skeletal class II base with an orthognathic maxilla and retrognathic mandible and normal growth pattern. She presented an ideal profile and so molar distalization was planned with the first-class appliance. Molars were distalised by 8 mm on the right and left quadrants and class I molar relation achieved within 4 months. The space gained was utilised effectively to align the arch and establish a class I molar and canine relation.

  3. Choice of foods: Allocation of time and money, household production and market services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1992-01-01

    of meals as a case of household production with four kinds of input: the food products bought, the time used for shopping, cooking, and washing up, ho capital like kitchen appliances, and human capital like cooking skills. Maximum welfare will result when these inputs are optimised given the household...... somewhat in the same period, the overall disposable time for households has been going down. At the same time, incomes have been rising. Rational economic behaviour would imply that households react to these changed constraints by employing time-saving and time-buying strategies in meal preparation. 4......'s constraints of disposable income and disposable time. 3. In recent decades, women's participation in the labour market has increased significantly, with non-employed women becoming employed part-time, and part-time employed women becoming employed full-time. Even though men's working time has decreased...

  4. Initial Evaluation of a Titration Appliance for Temporary Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levendowski, Daniel J; Morgan, Todd; Westbrook, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Custom oral appliances that adjustably advance the mandible provide superior outcomes when treating patients with moderate or severe sleep apnea. Custom appliances, however, are expensive, must be fitted by a dentist, and the likelihood of successful outcomes are difficult to predict. An inexpensive trial appliance, if proven efficacious, might be used to predict custom appliance outcomes or to provide temporary therapeutic benefit. The aim of this initial study was to assess the treatment efficacy of a novel titration oral appliance with that of an optimized custom appliance. Seventeen patients, treated with a custom oral appliance for at least one year, successfully completed a three-night home sleep test. The baseline obstructive sleep apnea severity was established on Night 1 with seven patients exhibiting severe, six moderate and four mild apnea/hypopnea indexes. Patients were randomly assigned to wear their custom appliance or the titration appliance on Nights 2 and 3. Significant reductions in the mean overall and supine apnea indexes (p titration and custom appliances. The proportion of patients who exhibited at least a 50% reduction in the overall apnea index and supine apnea/hypopnea were similar for the titration and custom appliance (~60%). The custom appliance reduced the overall apnea/hypopnea index by 50% in a greater proportion of the patients compared to the titration appliance (77% vs. 53%). The titration appliance significantly reduced the degree of hypoxic exposure across sleep disordered breathing events overall (p titration appliance, but preferred the titration appliance to no therapy. The titration appliance may be useful in assessing oral appliance treatment efficacy. When set to 70% of maximum protrusion, the titration appliance may provide immediate, temporary therapeutic benefit.

  5. Self-reported neurological symptoms in relation to CO emissions due to problem gas appliance installations in London: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kreis Irene

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research by the authors found evidence that up to 10% of particular household categories may be exposed to elevated carbon monoxide (CO concentrations from poor quality gas appliance installations. The literature suggests certain neurological symptoms are linked to exposure to low levels of CO. This paper addresses the hypothesis that certain self-reported neurological symptoms experienced by a householder are linked to an estimate of their CO exposure. Methods Between 27 April and 27 June 2006, 597 homes with a mains supply of natural gas were surveyed, mainly in old, urban areas of London. Qualified gas engineers tested all gas appliances (cooker, boiler, gas fire, and water heater and reported, according to the Gas Industry Unsafe Situations Procedure, appliances considered At Risk (AR, Immediately Dangerous (ID or Not to Current Standards (NCS. Five exposure risk categories were defined based on measurement of CO emitted by the appliance, its features and its use, with "high or very high" exposure category where occupants were considered likely to be exposed to levels greater than 26 ppm for one hour. The prevalence of symptoms at each level of exposure was compared with that at lowest level of exposure. Results Of the households, 6% were assessed as having a "high or very high" risk of exposure to CO. Of the individuals, 9% reported at least one neurological symptom. There was a statistically significant association between "high or very high" exposure risk to CO and self-reported symptoms compared to "no exposure" likelihood, for households not in receipt of benefit, controlling for "number of residents" and presence of pensioners, OR = 3.23 (95%CI: 1.28, 8.15. Risk ratios across all categories of exposure likelihood indicate a dose-response pattern. Those households in receipt of benefit showed no dose-response pattern. Conclusion This study found an association between risk of CO exposure at low concentration

  6. Enabling Graph Appliance for Genome Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Rina [ORNL; Graves, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Lee, Sangkeun (Matt) [ORNL; Sukumar, Sreenivas R [ORNL; Shankar, Mallikarjun [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a huge growth in the amount of genomic data available as reads generated from various genome sequencers. The number of reads generated can be huge, ranging from hundreds to billions of nucleotide, each varying in size. Assembling such large amounts of data is one of the challenging computational problems for both biomedical and data scientists. Most of the genome assemblers developed have used de Bruijn graph techniques. A de Bruijn graph represents a collection of read sequences by billions of vertices and edges, which require large amounts of memory and computational power to store and process. This is the major drawback to de Bruijn graph assembly. Massively parallel, multi-threaded, shared memory systems can be leveraged to overcome some of these issues. The objective of our research is to investigate the feasibility and scalability issues of de Bruijn graph assembly on Cray s Urika-GD system; Urika-GD is a high performance graph appliance with a large shared memory and massively multithreaded custom processor designed for executing SPARQL queries over large-scale RDF data sets. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on representing a de Bruijn graph as an RDF graph or finding Eulerian paths in RDF graphs using SPARQL for potential genome discovery. In this paper, we address the issues involved in representing a de Bruin graphs as RDF graphs and propose an iterative querying approach for finding Eulerian paths in large RDF graphs. We evaluate the performance of our implementation on real world ebola genome datasets and illustrate how genome assembly can be accomplished with Urika-GD using iterative SPARQL queries.

  7. Class II malocclusion treatment using combined Twin Block and fixed orthodontic appliances – A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Anezi, Saud A.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of the Twin Block functional orthodontic appliances is mostly dento-alveolar with small skeletal effect. There are certain clinical indications where functional appliances can be used successfully in class II malocclusion e.g. in a growing patient. The use of these appliances is greatly dependent on the patient’s compliance and they simplify the fixed appliance phase. In this case, a 13-year old adolescent was treated with Twin Block appliance followed by fixed appliance to detail the occlusion. The design and treatment effects were demonstrated in this case report. PMID:24151413

  8. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2006-03-07

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  9. Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Matthew K [Kennewick, WA; Chassin, David P [Pasco, WA; Dagle, Jeffery E [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael [Richland, WA; Winiarski, David W [Kennewick, WA; Pratt, Robert G [Kennewick, WA; Boberly-Bartis, Anne Marie [Alexandria, VA

    2008-09-02

    Electrical appliance energy consumption control methods and electrical energy consumption systems are described. In one aspect, an electrical appliance energy consumption control method includes providing an electrical appliance coupled with a power distribution system, receiving electrical energy within the appliance from the power distribution system, consuming the received electrical energy using a plurality of loads of the appliance, monitoring electrical energy of the power distribution system, and adjusting an amount of consumption of the received electrical energy via one of the loads of the appliance from an initial level of consumption to an other level of consumption different than the initial level of consumption responsive to the monitoring.

  10. New horizons in orthodontics & dentofacial orthopedics: fixed Twin Blocks & TransForce lingual appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William John

    2011-01-01

    During the 20th century functional appliances evolved from night time wear to more flexible appliances for increased day time wear to full time wear with Twin Block appliances. The current trend is towards fixed functional appliances and this paper introduces the Fixed Twin Block, bonded to the teeth to eliminate problems of compliance in functional therapy. TransForce lingual appliances are pre-activated and may be used in first phase treatment for sagittal and transverse arch development. Alternatively they may be integrated with fixed appliances at any stage of treatment.

  11. Exploring the impact of network tariffs on household electricity expenditures using load profiles and socio-economic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarova, Valeriya; Engel, Dominik; Ferner, Cornelia; Kollmann, Andrea; Reichl, Johannes

    2018-04-01

    Growing self-generation and storage are expected to cause significant changes in residential electricity utilization patterns. Commonly applied volumetric network tariffs may induce imbalance between different groups of households and their respective contribution to recovering the operating costs of the grid. Understanding consumer behaviour and appliance usage together with socio-economic factors can help regulatory authorities to adapt network tariffs to new circumstances in a fair way. Here, we assess the effects of 11 network tariff scenarios on household budgets using real load profiles from 765 households. Thus we explore the possibly disruptive impact of applying peak-load-based tariffs on the budgets of households when they have been mainly charged for consumed volumes before. Our analysis estimates the change in household network expenditure for different combinations of energy, peak and fixed charges, and can help to design tariffs that recover the costs needed for the sustainable operation of the grid.

  12. Making energy visible: A qualitative field study of how householders interact with feedback from smart energy monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargreaves, Tom; Nye, Michael; Burgess, Jacquelin

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how UK householders interacted with feedback on their domestic energy consumption in a field trial of real-time displays or smart energy monitors. After examining relevant bodies of literature on the effects of energy feedback on consumption behaviour, and on the complex role of energy and appliances within household moral economies, the paper draws on qualitative evidence from interviews with 15 UK householders trialling smart energy monitors of differing levels of sophistication. It focuses specifically on householder motivations for acquiring the monitors, how the monitors have been used, how feedback has changed consumption behaviour, and the limitations to further behavioural change the householders experienced. The paper concludes by identifying significant implications for future research and policy in this area.

  13. Speech and orthodontic appliances: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junyu; Wan, Jia; You, Lun

    2018-01-23

    Various types of orthodontic appliances can lead to speech difficulties. However, speech difficulties caused by orthodontic appliances have not been sufficiently investigated by an evidence-based method. The aim of this study is to outline the scientific evidence and mechanism of the speech difficulties caused by orthodontic appliances. Randomized-controlled clinical trials (RCT), controlled clinical trials, and cohort studies focusing on the effect of orthodontic appliances on speech were included. A systematic search was conducted by an electronic search in PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library databases, complemented by a manual search. The types of orthodontic appliances, the affected sounds, and duration period of the speech disturbances were extracted. The ROBINS-I tool was applied to evaluate the quality of non-randomized studies, and the bias of RCT was assessed based on the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. No meta-analyses could be performed due to the heterogeneity in the study designs and treatment modalities. Among 448 screened articles, 13 studies were included (n = 297 patients). Different types of orthodontic appliances such as fixed appliances, orthodontic retainers and palatal expanders could influence the clarity of speech. The /i/, /a/, and /e/ vowels as well as /s/, /z/, /l/, /t/, /d/, /r/, and /ʃ/ consonants could be distorted by appliances. Although most speech impairments could return to normal within weeks, speech distortion of the /s/ sound might last for more than 3 months. The low evidence level grading and heterogeneity were the two main limitations in this systematic review. Lingual fixed appliances, palatal expanders, and Hawley retainers have an evident influence on speech production. The /i/, /s/, /t/, and /d/ sounds are the primarily affected ones. The results of this systematic review should be interpreted with caution and more high-quality RCTs with larger sample sizes and longer follow-up periods are

  14. The International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA): A new tool to support appliance energy-efficiency deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerke, Brian F.; McNeil, Michael A.; Tu, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •IDEA collects, organizes, and stores data on appliance features and efficiency. •Data can be gathered for any appliance type on any international market. •IDEA enables new approaches to efficiency deployment and monitoring. •Techniques are developed for cross-market comparison of energy-savings potential. •We find significant cost-effective energy-savings potential from efficiency for Indian and Chinese refrigerators. -- Abstract: Appliance energy-efficiency programs are a central component of many countries’ energy-policy portfolios. A major barrier to optimal implementation of these programs is lack of data to determine market baselines, assess the potential for cost-effective energy savings, and track markets over time to evaluate and verify program impacts. To address this gap, we have developed the International Database of Efficient Appliances (IDEA), a suite of software tools that automatically gathers data that is currently dispersed across various online sources and compiles it into a unified repository of information on efficiency, price, and features for a diversity of appliances and devices in markets around the world. In this article we describe the framework and functionality of IDEA, and we demonstrate its power as a resource for research and policy development related to appliance energy efficiency. Using IDEA data for refrigerators in China and India, we assess the potential for cost-effective energy savings within each market by computing robust indicators that can also be easily compared across different appliances and markets. We find that significant cost-effective savings are available on both markets. We discuss implications for the development of future energy-efficiency deployment programs.

  15. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  16. Face and neck dermatitis from a stainless steel orthodontic appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrnrooth, Minna; Kerosuo, Heidi

    2009-11-01

    Although nickel is the most common cause of contact allergy, nickel-containing orthodontic appliances seldom cause adverse reactions that result in discontinuation of treatment. We report on an eruption of dermatitis in the face and neck of an adult female patient after placement of a rapid maxillary expansion appliance (RME). Because the patient suspected nickel allergy, her tolerance to the appliance material was tested intraorally before treatment by cementing bands on four teeth for a week. No visible adverse reactions were seen during the test. One week after cementation of the RME appliance, the patient reported strong itching of the face and a red rash. Clinical examination showed itchy papular erythema on the face and neck. No intraoral reactions or symptoms were present. The RME appliance was removed, and symptoms disappeared in 4 to 5 days. The patient was referred for a nickel patch test, which gave a strong positive result. Adverse patient reactions of potential allergic origin should be diagnosed carefully, and their possible impact on further treatment should be evaluated accordingly.

  17. Electronic Control System Of Home Appliances Using Speech Command Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aye Min Soe

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The main idea of this paper is to develop a speech recognition system. By using this system smart home appliances are controlled by spoken words. The spoken words chosen for recognition are Fan On Fan Off Light On Light Off TV On and TV Off. The input of the system takes speech signals to control home appliances. The proposed system has two main parts speech recognition and smart home appliances electronic control system. Speech recognition is implemented in MATLAB environment. In this process it contains two main modules feature extraction and feature matching. Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients MFCC is used for feature extraction. Vector Quantization VQ approach using clustering algorithm is applied for feature matching. In electrical home appliances control system RF module is used to carry command signal from PC to microcontroller wirelessly. Microcontroller is connected to driver circuit for relay and motor. The input commands are recognized very well. The system is a good performance to control home appliances by spoken words.

  18. UK Household Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James; Smith, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the composition of household portfolios, using both aggregate and micro-data. Among the key findings are that: Most household wealth is held in the form of housing and pensions. Over time, there has been a shift away from housing towards financial assets, driven largely by the growth in life and pension funds. Liquid financial wealth (excluding life and pension funds) is not predominantly held in risky form. By far the most commonly held asset is an ...

  19. Fixed-functional appliance treatment combined with growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min-Ho

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to illustrate the effects of growth hormone (GH) therapy and fixed functional appliance treatment in a 13-year-old Class II malocclusion patient without GH deficiency. GH has been shown to effectively increase endochondral growth and induce a more prognathic skeletal pattern. Although a major concern in Class II retrognathic patients is chin deficiency, long-term studies have shown that the mandibular growth enhancement effects of functional appliances are clinically insignificant. This case report demonstrates that the mandible grew significantly during fixed functional appliance treatment combined with GH therapy, with stable results during 2 years 11 months of retention. More studies are needed to evaluate GH therapy as a supplement in Class II treatment. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, V. H.; Less, B. D.; Singer, B. C.; Stratton, J. C.; Wray, C. P.

    2015-02-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is often constrained by safety concerns with naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter residential buildings more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spill combustion exhaust into the living space. Several measures, such as installation guidelines, vent sizing codes, and combustion safety diagnostics, are in place with the intent to prevent backdrafting and combustion spillage, but the diagnostics conflict and the risk mitigation objective is inconsistent. This literature review summarizes the metrics and diagnostics used to assess combustion safety, documents their technical basis, and investigates their risk mitigations. It compiles information from the following: codes for combustion appliance venting and installation; standards and guidelines for combustion safety diagnostics; research evaluating combustion safety diagnostics; research investigating wind effects on building depressurization and venting; and software for simulating vent system performance.

  1. Measurements of intermediate-frequency electric and magnetic fields in households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aerts, Sam, E-mail: sam.aerts@intec.ugent.be [Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/iMinds, iGent, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Calderon, Carolina [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Valič, Blaž [Institute of Non-Ionizing Radiation (INIS), Pohorskega bataljona 215, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Maslanyj, Myron; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Public Health England, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0RQ (United Kingdom); Verloock, Leen; Van den Bossche, Matthias [Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/iMinds, iGent, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium); Gajšek, Peter [Institute of Non-Ionizing Radiation (INIS), Pohorskega bataljona 215, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia); Vermeulen, Roel [Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Department of Environmental Epidemiology, Utrecht University, Yalelaan 2, 3508 Utrecht (Netherlands); Röösli, Martin [Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute (Swiss TPH), Socinstrasse 57, P.O. Box, 4002 Basel (Switzerland); University of Basel, Petersplatz 1, 4003 Basel (Switzerland); Cardis, Elisabeth [Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) and Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona (Spain); Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout [Department of Information Technology, Ghent University/iMinds, iGent, Technologiepark-Zwijnaarde 15, B-9052 Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-04-15

    Historically, assessment of human exposure to electric and magnetic fields has focused on the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) ranges. However, research on the typically emitted fields in the intermediate-frequency (IF) range (300 Hz to 1 MHz) as well as potential effects of IF fields on the human body remains limited, although the range of household appliances with electrical components working in the IF range has grown significantly (e.g., induction cookers and compact fluorescent lighting). In this study, an extensive measurement survey was performed on the levels of electric and magnetic fields in the IF range typically present in residences as well as emitted by a wide range of household appliances under real-life circumstances. Using spot measurements, residential IF field levels were found to be generally low, while the use of certain appliances at close distance (20 cm) may result in a relatively high exposure. Overall, appliance emissions contained either harmonic signals, with fundamental frequencies between 6 kHz and 300 kHz, which were sometimes accompanied by regions in the IF spectrum of rather noisy, elevated field strengths, or much more capricious spectra, dominated by 50 Hz harmonics emanating far in the IF domain. The maximum peak field strengths recorded at 20 cm were 41.5 V/m and 2.7 A/m, both from induction cookers. Finally, none of the appliance emissions in the IF range exceeded the exposure summation rules recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62233) standard at 20 cm and beyond (maximum exposure quotients EQ{sub E} 1.0 and {sub E}Q{sub H} 0.13). - Highlights: • Survey of residential electric and magnetic fields at intermediate frequencies (IF). • IF-EF and -MF emitted by 280 household appliances were characterised. • Strongest emitters were induction cookers, CFLs, LCD-TVs, and microwave ovens. • No

  2. Measurements of intermediate-frequency electric and magnetic fields in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, Sam; Calderon, Carolina; Valič, Blaž; Maslanyj, Myron; Addison, Darren; Mee, Terry; Goiceanu, Cristian; Verloock, Leen; Van den Bossche, Matthias; Gajšek, Peter; Vermeulen, Roel; Röösli, Martin; Cardis, Elisabeth; Martens, Luc; Joseph, Wout

    2017-01-01

    Historically, assessment of human exposure to electric and magnetic fields has focused on the extremely-low-frequency (ELF) and radiofrequency (RF) ranges. However, research on the typically emitted fields in the intermediate-frequency (IF) range (300 Hz to 1 MHz) as well as potential effects of IF fields on the human body remains limited, although the range of household appliances with electrical components working in the IF range has grown significantly (e.g., induction cookers and compact fluorescent lighting). In this study, an extensive measurement survey was performed on the levels of electric and magnetic fields in the IF range typically present in residences as well as emitted by a wide range of household appliances under real-life circumstances. Using spot measurements, residential IF field levels were found to be generally low, while the use of certain appliances at close distance (20 cm) may result in a relatively high exposure. Overall, appliance emissions contained either harmonic signals, with fundamental frequencies between 6 kHz and 300 kHz, which were sometimes accompanied by regions in the IF spectrum of rather noisy, elevated field strengths, or much more capricious spectra, dominated by 50 Hz harmonics emanating far in the IF domain. The maximum peak field strengths recorded at 20 cm were 41.5 V/m and 2.7 A/m, both from induction cookers. Finally, none of the appliance emissions in the IF range exceeded the exposure summation rules recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection guidelines and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62233) standard at 20 cm and beyond (maximum exposure quotients EQ E 1.0 and E Q H 0.13). - Highlights: • Survey of residential electric and magnetic fields at intermediate frequencies (IF). • IF-EF and -MF emitted by 280 household appliances were characterised. • Strongest emitters were induction cookers, CFLs, LCD-TVs, and microwave ovens. • No emissions exceeded

  3. Assessment of Literature Related to Combustion Appliance Venting Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wray, Craig P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    In many residential building retrofit programs, air tightening to increase energy efficiency is constrained by concerns about related impacts on the safety of naturally vented combustion appliances. Tighter housing units more readily depressurize when exhaust equipment is operated, making combustion appliances more prone to backdraft or spillage. Several test methods purportedly assess the potential for depressurization-induced backdrafting and spillage, but these tests are not robustly reliable and repeatable predictors of venting performance, in part because they do not fully capture weather effects on venting performance. The purpose of this literature review is to investigate combustion safety diagnostics in existing codes, standards, and guidelines related to combustion appliances. This review summarizes existing combustion safety test methods, evaluations of these test methods, and also discusses research related to wind effects and the simulation of vent system performance. Current codes and standards related to combustion appliance installation provide little information on assessing backdrafting or spillage potential. A substantial amount of research has been conducted to assess combustion appliance backdrafting and spillage test methods, but primarily focuses on comparing short-term (stress) induced tests and monitoring results. Monitoring, typically performed over one week, indicated that combinations of environmental and house operation characteristics most conducive to combustion spillage were rare. Research, to an extent, has assessed existing combustion safety diagnostics for house depressurization, but the objectives of the diagnostics, both stress and monitoring, are not clearly defined. More research is also needed to quantify the frequency of test “failure” occurrence throughout the building stock and assess the statistical effects of weather (especially wind) on house depressurization and in turn on combustion appliance venting

  4. Households at Grasshopper Pueblo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Whittlesey, Stephanie M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the archaeological reconstruction of domestic life in Grasshopper, Arizona, a mogollon pueblo community which began around 1300 A.D. Categories of space and domestic activities are discussed. An analysis of variations in the patterns of household types within the pueblo is included. (AM)

  5. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    about the layout of buildings and the contextual origin of the many domestic objects recovered permit a full reconstruction of life in the household, especially the use of space. Generally, the upstairs area served as the primary living quarters, whereas the ground floor was used to house valuable...... domestic animals and for light workshop activities....

  6. Reporting 1998 - households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Jostein

    1998-01-01

    The report summarises the results from an investigation among households in the seven counties which participates in the project ''Sustainable local communities'' - Fredrikstad, Flora, Hurum, Kristiansand, Roeros, Stavanger and Steigen. The study contained the fields of environmental involvement and motivation, transportation, energy utilisation, purchases, waste management and communication with the local project leadership

  7. International comparison of product certification and verification methods for appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  8. International Comparison of Product Certification and Verification Methods for Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Nan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Romankiewicz, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fridley, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zheng, Nina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Enforcement of appliance standards and consumer trust in appliance labeling are important foundations of growing a more energy efficient economy. Product certification and verification increase compliance rates which in turn increase both energy savings and consumer trust. This paper will serve two purposes: 1) to review international practices for product certification and verification as they relate to the enforcement of standards and labeling programs in the U.S., E.U., Australia, Japan, Canada, and China; and 2) to make recommendations for China to implement improved certification processes related to their mandatory standards and labeling program such as to increase compliance rates and energy savings potential.

  9. Orthodontic parotitis: a rare complication from an orthodontic appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Eileen; Cobb, Alistair R M

    2012-12-01

    A case is presented of a 14-year-old female undergoing orthodontic fixed appliance treatment who presented with right facial swelling in the parotid region. An initial diagnosis of acute infective parotitis was made by her primary care clinician. However, after clinical examination and ultrasonographic imaging, a diagnosis of salivary stasis secondary to inflammatory occlusion of Stensen's ductal orifice was made. The ductal orifice had been traumatized by the adjacent orthodontic appliance. This has not been described before in the literature. The differential diagnosis of parotid enlargement in children is discussed.

  10. Management of anterior dental crossbite with removable appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayca Tuba Ulusoy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This case report describes the treatment of an 8-year-old girl with anterior dental crossbite using a series of removable appliances to bring the teeth into a normal position. Clinical presentation and intervention: A removable acrylic appliance with a bite plate incorporating a screw was used to correct the anterior dental crossbite and align the incisors. The subsequent eruption of the maxillary left lateral incisor on the palatinal side was treated with a second acrylic plate incorporating a labiolingual spring. After an 8-month period, the anterior crossbite involving multiple incisors was corrected.

  11. A quantile approach to assess the effectiveness of the subsidy policy for energy-efficient home appliances: Evidence from Rizhao, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Xi-Long; Liu, Yang; Yan, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    A one-year subsidy program for energy-efficient home appliances has been implemented in China. We construct a dataset consisting of participant and non-participant households in both urban and rural areas of Rizhao city. By applying a quantile regression and counterfactual analysis, this study disentangles the impact of this subsidy program and inherent household attributes on per capita residential electricity consumption. First, contrary to the mean regression, the elasticity of electricity consumption to household's income, age, education and energy-saving awareness, varies markedly across the electricity consumption distribution and shows discrepancy between urban and rural areas. Second, while inherent household attributes are identified as a primary determinant to the changes in residential electricity consumption, the effect induced by the subsidy incentive is more significant at the middle of the electricity consumption distribution than at the tails. Third, there are significant rebound effects that lead to overall increase in household electricity consumption. Our results suggest that the disparity between urban and rural regions and targeted consumer behavior changes should be taken into account to ensure the effectiveness of a future energy-efficient subsidy program. - Highlights: • The effect of the subsidy policy on electricity consumption is assessed with a quantile regression. • Policy induced effect is more significant at the middle of the distribution than at the tails. • The rebound effects lead to overall increase in electricity consumption. • The impact of households attributes varies markedly across electricity consumption distribution

  12. Three case reports demonstrating treatment of relatively complex orthodontic cases using a completely customised lingual appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, John

    2016-01-01

    It is a commonly held misconception among Irish dentists that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances. This article demonstrates the use of contemporary completely customised lingual orthodontic appliances to treat a diverse range of malocclusions, to a satisfactory level, and thereby may disabuse clinicians of the belief that only minor malocclusions can be treated with lingual appliances.

  13. 46 CFR 167.15-28 - Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SCHOOLS PUBLIC NAUTICAL SCHOOL SHIPS Inspections § 167.15-28 Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. The inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements must be in accordance with the... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspection of lifesaving appliances and arrangements...

  14. Drawing on international experience to reform the Belgian market for ostomy appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoens, Steven; Van den Steen, Dirk; Vanleene, Veerle; De Maré, Luc; Moldenaers, Ingrid; Debruyne, Hans; Ramaekers, Dirk

    2007-02-01

    This article aims to review the regulatory framework governing the Belgian ostomy appliance market in the light of the experience of Denmark, France, the Netherlands and Ontario (Canada) with regulation of ostomy appliances. Information about the regulatory framework was derived from the international literature, analysis of legal texts and a survey completed by national experts. The comparative analysis revealed that these countries have adopted varying approaches towards regulating their domestic ostomy appliance market. Strategies to keep down prices include public procurement in Denmark, maximum prices in France and exclusion of expensive appliances from reimbursement in the Netherlands. To contain public expenditure on ostomy appliances, consumption patterns are monitored in the Netherlands, the quantity of reimbursed appliances is limited in Belgium and public reimbursement is restricted in Ontario. Ostomy appliances are generally distributed by community pharmacies and medical equipment shops. In countries that emphasise home care delivery such as Denmark, domiciliary distributors dominate the market to the detriment of community pharmacies which do not seem to be able to offer this service at a competitive price. An avenue for reforming the Belgian ostomy appliance market is proposed which valorizes the role of ostomy care nurses in guiding the choice of ostomy appliances. Furthermore, it is recommended that a competitive tendering process determines the price of ostomy appliances, that reimbursement for service provision by distributors is separated from reimbursement of appliances, and that patients receive a fixed grant from the third-party payer to buy ostomy appliances.

  15. 42 CFR 410.36 - Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope... Services § 410.36 Medical supplies, appliances, and devices: Scope. (a) Medicare Part B pays for the following medical supplies, appliances and devices: (1) Surgical dressings, and splints, casts, and other...

  16. 46 CFR 196.37-37 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., etc. § 196.37-37 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with...

  17. 38 CFR 17.153 - Training in the use of appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appliances. 17.153 Section 17.153 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Prosthetic, Sensory, and Rehabilitative Aids § 17.153 Training in the use of appliances. Beneficiaries supplied prosthetic and similar appliances will be additionally entitled to fitting and training...

  18. 49 CFR 176.54 - Repairs involving welding, burning, and power-actuated tools and appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-actuated tools and appliances. 176.54 Section 176.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to..., burning, and power-actuated tools and appliances. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, repairs or work involving welding or burning, or the use of power-actuated tools or appliances which may...

  19. 42 CFR 409.25 - Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and... Drugs, biologicals, supplies, appliances, and equipment. (a) Drugs and biologicals. Except as specified... can obtain a continuing supply. (c) Supplies, appliances, and equipment. Except as specified in...

  20. 46 CFR 58.16-20 - Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appliances. 58.16-20 Section 58.16-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED... and Heating § 58.16-20 Ventilation of compartments containing gas-consuming appliances. (a) Compartments containing gas-consuming appliances which are located above the weather deck shall be fitted with...

  1. 46 CFR 133.40 - Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appliances and arrangements. 133.40 Section 133.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... lifesaving appliances and arrangements. (a) Each item of lifesaving equipment required by this part to be... OCMI for use on the OSV. (c) The Commandant (CG-521) may accept a novel lifesaving appliance or...

  2. 14 CFR 21.617 - Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...: import appliances. 21.617 Section 21.617 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Order Authorizations § 21.617 Issue of letters of TSO design approval: import appliances. (a) A letter of TSO design approval may be issued for an appliance that is manufactured in a foreign country with...

  3. 46 CFR 78.47-45 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to...-45 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with subchapter W...

  4. 33 CFR 150.507 - How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inflatable lifesaving appliances? 150.507 Section 150.507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... Specialty Equipment Inflatable Lifesaving Appliances § 150.507 How must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances? (a) The operator must service each inflatable liferaft according to 46 CFR subpart 160...

  5. 46 CFR 97.37-42 - Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to..., Etc. § 97.37-42 Markings for lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations. Lifesaving appliances, instructions to passengers, and stowage locations must be marked in accordance with...

  6. 21 CFR 888.3030 - Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... appliances and accessories. 888.3030 Section 888.3030 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT....3030 Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories. (a) Identification. Single/multiple component metallic bone fixation appliances and accessories are devices intended to be...

  7. 46 CFR 199.40 - Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... appliances and arrangements. 199.40 Section 199.40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) LIFESAVING APPLIANCES AND ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS General § 199.40 Evaluation, testing and approval of lifesaving appliances and arrangements. (a) Each item of...

  8. 14 CFR 183.63 - Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... appliances. 183.63 Section 183.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Designation Authorization § 183.63 Continuing requirements: Products, parts or appliances. For any approval or certificate for a product, part or appliance issued under the authority of this subpart, or under the...

  9. 14 CFR 3.5 - Statements about products, parts, appliances and materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., appliances and materials. 3.5 Section 3.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION DEFINITIONS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS § 3.5 Statements about products, parts, appliances... product, part, appliance or material. (b) Prohibition against fraudulent and intentionally false...

  10. Increased BMI in children-an indicator for less compliance during orthodontic treatment with removable appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bremen, Julia; Lorenz, Nathalie; Ludwig, Björn; Ruf, Sabine

    2018-02-19

    To assess whether or not childhood overweight is associated with lower levels of compliance during orthodontic therapy with removable appliances. Starting in 2011, all upper expansion plates and Sander II appliances were equipped with a Theramon® microsensor chip to assess appliance wear time objectively. According to their pre-treatment, BMI normal weight patients were matched to consecutively treated overweight or obese patients by gender, age, and appliance type. Cooperation was assessed with microelectronic wear time documentation over a period of at least 6 months. A total of 50 patients (25 overweight, 25 normal weight) with upper expansion plates and 64 patients (32 overweight, 32 normal weight) with Sander II appliances were analysed. Spearman Rho coefficients showed an indirect association between BMI and appliance wear time, indicating that the higher the BMI, the less the patients wore their appliances (P appliances (P appliance wear during orthodontic treatment with removable appliances. Additional factors which influenced cooperation during treatment with removable appliances were patient age and appliance type.

  11. 9708 INTRAHOUSEHOLD ALLOCATION, HOUSEHOLD HEADSHIP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    agricultural production, education, healthcare and other household needs [17]. ... to various assets within the household depends on age, gender and power ..... Omilola B Patterns and Trends of Child and Maternal Nutrition Inequalities in.

  12. Households and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Ventura

    2012-01-01

    Consider the following facts. First, with dramatic changes in the household and family structure in every major industrialized country during the last couple of decades, today's households are very far from traditional breadwinner husband and housekeeper wife paradigm. Second, average households face significant uninsurable idiosyncratic risk and countries differ significantly on their social insurance expenditure. Third, since mid 1980s, household income inequality has been rising, generatin...

  13. Determinants of residential electricity consumption: Using smart meter data to examine the effect of climate, building characteristics, appliance stock, and occupants' behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousian, Amir; Rajagopal, Ram; Fischer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to examine structural and behavioral determinants of residential electricity consumption, by developing separate models for daily maximum (peak) and minimum (idle) consumption. We apply our method on a data set of 1628 households' electricity consumption. The results show that weather, location and floor area are among the most important determinants of residential electricity consumption. In addition to these variables, number of refrigerators and entertainment devices (e.g., VCRs) are among the most important determinants of daily minimum consumption, while number of occupants and high-consumption appliances such as electric water heaters are the most significant determinants of daily maximum consumption. Installing double-pane windows and energy-efficient lights helped to reduce consumption, as did the energy-conscious use of electric heater. Acknowledging climate change as a motivation to save energy showed correlation with lower electricity consumption. Households with individuals over 55 or between 19 and 35 years old recorded lower electricity consumption, while pet owners showed higher consumption. Contrary to some previous studies, we observed no significant correlation between electricity consumption and income level, home ownership, or building age. Some otherwise energy-efficient features such as energy-efficient appliances, programmable thermostats, and insulation were correlated with slight increase in electricity consumption. - Highlights: • Weather, location and floor area are the most important determinants of residential electricity use. • Daily minimum and maximum are explained by different factors. • Number of refrigerators and entertainment devices explain daily minimum the best. • Number of occupants and high-consumption appliances explain daily maximum the best. • Other factors such as energy efficient features and household's socioeconomic status are examined

  14. Compatibility of fixed orthodontic appliances with MR environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Starčuk jr., Zenon; Hubálková, H.; Starčuková, Jana; Linetskiy, I.; Bartušek, Karel; Krupa, P.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 19, Suppl. 1 (2006), EPOS 726:1-7 E-ISSN 1352-8661 R&D Projects: GA MZd NR8110 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : orthodontic appliance * magnetic resonance * compatibility * dentistry * artifact Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment Impact factor: 0.756, year: 2005 http://posters.webges.com/esmrmb/epos

  15. 46 CFR 199.176 - Markings on lifesaving appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ARRANGEMENTS LIFESAVING SYSTEMS FOR CERTAIN INSPECTED VESSELS Requirements for All Vessels § 199.176 Markings on lifesaving appliances. (a) Lifeboats and rescue boats. Each lifeboat and rescue boat must be plainly marked as follows: (1) Each side of each lifeboat and rescue boat bow must be marked in block...

  16. Adverse reactions to orthodontic appliances in nickel-allergic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkman, Kristen K; Inda, Michael J; Reichl, Peter G; Zacharisen, Michael C

    2007-01-01

    Nickel allergy (NA) is common and causes more cases of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) than all other metals combined. Many orthodontic appliances (ODAs) contain nickel but their clinical relevance in nickel-allergic patients is unclear. We aimed to characterize the relationship between NA and ODAs because the medical literature investigating this is controversial. A survey concerning adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA was distributed to members of the Wisconsin Society of Orthodontics. Forty-three surveys were analyzed. The surveyed group was experienced, representing a mean of 21.2 years in practice and averaging 242 appliances placed per year per orthodontist. Most new patients with orthodontia were 10-18 years old. Most wires used were nickel-titanium alloy. Although 76% of orthodontists inquired about NA at initial evaluation, 37% still placed nickel-containing ODAs in known nickel-allergic patients. Fifty percent placed a single intraoral appliance, observing for reactions. Three orthodontists applied ODAs to the skin similar to patch testing. Only 8 patients with reactions to ODAs were described in detail, 6 were female patients and 6 were aged 13-14 years. Intraoral and extraoral reactions were mild; diffuse urticaria was reported in one patient. Treatment included removing the appliances or changing to nonnickel alternatives with favorable outcomes. These cases, which included >33,000 patients, suggest a prevalence of 0.03%. Adverse reactions to ODAs in patients with NA have been observed but are uncommon. Using suitable alternatives, patients usually can be accommodated.

  17. Low-power Appliance Recognition using Recurrent Neural Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rizky Pratama, Azkario; Simanjuntak, Frans Juanda; Lazovik, Aliaksandr; Aiello, Marco

    2018-01-01

    Indoor energy consumption can be understood by breaking overall power consumption down into individual components and appliance activations. The clas- sification of components of energy usage is known as load disaggregation or ap- pliance recognition. Most of the previous efforts address the

  18. Radioactive tracers in the assessment of cleaning of surgical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, A.B.M.G.; Chackett, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Radioactive tracers which may be used in the assessment of cleaning of surgical appliances are described. Five labelled compounds were used as soiling material and tested in the rather severe conditions that exist during cleaning cycles. Measurements of decontamination in two cases were considered reliable but in the other three some degree of decomposition of the soil occurred, which falsified the results. (author)

  19. Do soft drinks affect metal ions release from orthodontic appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulewicz, Marcin; Wołowiec, Paulina; Loster, Bartłomiej W; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The effect of orange juice and Coca Cola(®) on the release of metal ions from fixed orthodontic appliances. A continuous flow system designed for in vitro testing of orthodontic appliances was used. Orange juice/Coca Cola(®) was flowing through the system alternately with artificial saliva for 5.5 and 18.5h, respectively. The collected samples underwent a multielemental ICP-OES analysis in order to determine the metal ions release pattern in time. The total mass of ions released from the appliance into orange juice and Coca Cola(®) (respectively) during the experiment was calculated (μg): Ni (15.33; 37.75), Cr (3.604; 1.052), Fe (48.42; ≥ 156.1), Cu (57.87, 32.91), Mn (9.164; 41.16), Mo (9.999; 30.12), and Cd (0.5967; 2.173). It was found that orange juice did not intensify the release of metal ions from orthodontic appliances, whereas Coca Cola(®) caused increased release of Ni ions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. The Next Generation of Appliances: Visions for Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Guldbrandsen, Tom

    1998-01-01

    to consume no more than 50 kWh per year, without using any risky synthetic gasses. Washing appliances will use no electricity for heating, which will bring annual electricity consumption below 50 kWh for a washing machine. For electronic equipment, the efficiency gain known from battery operated version...

  1. The Acceptance of Domestic Ambient Intelligence Appliances by Prospective Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Allouch, Soumaya; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Peters, O.; Tokuda, Hideyuki; Beigl, Michael; Friday, Adrian; Bernheim Brush, A.J.; Tobe, Yoshito

    2009-01-01

    Ambient intelligence (AmI) is a growing interdisciplinary area where the focus is shifted towards users instead of merely emphasizing the technological opportunities of AmI. Different methods are employed to understand the adoption of AmI appliances by users. However, these are often small-scale

  2. Household energy consumption attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P

    1976-05-01

    This report contains a summary of the results of a study of household attitudes to energy use and conservation while the author was a member of staff at Massey University. During 1975 seven batches of a mail questionnaire were sent out to a random sample of people drawn from the 1974 Local Body Electoral Rolls. Valid replies were obtained from just under 60% of the 17,500 households to which the forms were sent. The study was undertaken for the simple reason that all energy demand depends on people and yet very little information seemed to be available which showed what people thought about the energy situation and how they felt about the need for conservation. The way people evaluate their energy needs represents a focal element in the energy system as it is this appraisal which results in their demand for energy. The impact of household attitudes goes far beyond the relative share of the energy market taken by the domestic sector, however, as the same people are involved in the demand from all other sectors.

  3. Design and Implementation of PIR-Array to Reduce Power Consumption for Iraq's Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhal Yousif Nasser

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to design and implement a model using PIR-sensors for motion detection to reduce the electrical power for designing smart home requirements for Iraq households. Reducing energy consumption of home appliances plays an important role in modern designs of smart homes. The PIR (passive infrared sensor has been designed to detect human motion and has many applications especially in security fields. The main concept of the proposed work in this paper has focused on controlling the electrical devices (appliances, based on the location of a person movement inside the home. The design of the circuit control has also been designed to run specific devices located closed to person position in a room by designing PIR sensor array mounted in different angles. The proposed work has been compared with normal state by finding consumption in power (kWh and tariffs belong to MoE-Iraq.

  4. Modeling of GE Appliances: Cost Benefit Study of Smart Appliances in Wholesale Energy, Frequency Regulation, and Spinning Reserve Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Parker, Graham B.

    2012-12-31

    This report is the second in a series of three reports describing the potential of GE’s DR-enabled appliances to provide benefits to the utility grid. The first report described the modeling methodology used to represent the GE appliances in the GridLAB-D simulation environment and the estimated potential for peak demand reduction at various deployment levels. The third report will explore the technical capability of aggregated group actions to positively impact grid stability, including frequency and voltage regulation and spinning reserves, and the impacts on distribution feeder voltage regulation, including mitigation of fluctuations caused by high penetration of photovoltaic distributed generation. In this report, a series of analytical methods were presented to estimate the potential cost benefit of smart appliances while utilizing demand response. Previous work estimated the potential technical benefit (i.e., peak reduction) of smart appliances, while this report focuses on the monetary value of that participation. The effects on wholesale energy cost and possible additional revenue available by participating in frequency regulation and spinning reserve markets were explored.

  5. Emergencies in Orthodontics. Part 2: Management of Removable Appliances, Functional Appliances and other Adjuncts to Orthodontic Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsing, Paul; Murray, Alison; Sandler, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    In the second of two papers, management of orthodontic emergencies involving appliances other than Fixed appliances will be detailed. Problems relating to removable appliances, as well as other orthodontic adjuncts, will be discussed. Unfortunately, orthodontic appliance breakage does occur, despite the clinicians giving clear and concise instructions to the patients and their parents at fitting. If general dental practitioners have a practical knowledge of how to diagnose problems and to provide appropriate advice or timely 'emergency' treatment, this will significantly reduce the inconvenience for all parties concerned. It should also ensure that treatment progresses in the most efficient and comfortable manner for their patients. In specific situations the early, accurate identification of the problem and instigation of its appropriate management can avoid more serious consequences. Clinical Relevance: Appropriate handling of an orthodontic 'emergency' by the dentist can, on many occasions, provide immediate relief to the patient. This will, in turn, allow treatment to continue in the right direction, thus allowing more efficient and effective use of valuable resources.

  6. The impact of a home visitation programme on household hazards associated with unintentional childhood injuries: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odendaal, Willem; van Niekerk, Ashley; Jordaan, Esme; Seedat, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    The continued high mortality and morbidity rates for unintentional childhood injuries remain a public health concern. This article reports on the influence of a home visitation programme (HVP) on household hazards associated with unintentional childhood injuries in a South African low-income setting. A randomised controlled trial (n=211 households) was conducted in a South African informal settlement. Community members were recruited and trained as paraprofessional visitors. Four intervention visits were conducted over 3 months, focusing on child development, and the prevention of burn, poison, and fall injuries. The HVP, a multi-component intervention, included educational inputs, provision of safety devices, and an implicit enforcement strategy. The intervention effect (IE) was measured with a standardised risk assessment index that compared post-intervention scores for intervention and control households. A significant reduction was observed in the hazards associated with electrical and paraffin appliances, as well as in hazards related to poisoning. Non-significant changes were observed for burn safety household practices and fall injury hazards. This study confirmed that a multi-component HVP effectively reduced household hazards associated with electrical and paraffin appliances and poisoning among children in a low-income South African setting.

  7. Fixed functional appliances with multibracket appliances have no skeletal effect on the mandible: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaq, Ramy Abdul Rahman; AlHammadi, Maged Sultan; Fayed, Mona M S; El-Ezz, Amr Abou; Mostafa, Yehya

    2016-05-01

    Our aim was to assess the skeletal mandibular changes (anteroposterior and vertical) in circumpubertal patients with fixed functional appliances installed on multibracket appliances compared with untreated patients. An open-ended electronic search of 4 databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) up to April 2014 was performed. Additional searches of relevant journals, reference lists of the retrieved articles, systematic reviews, and gray literature were performed. Specific inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to identify relevant articles. Quality was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa scale for prospective controlled clinical trials. Meta-analyses were conducted with fixed and random effects models as appropriate. Statistical heterogeneity was also examined. Seven articles were included in the qualitative synthesis and 5 in the meta-analysis. The included randomized controlled trials were at high risk of bias, and the methodologic quality of the prospective controlled clinical trials was high. Based on assessment of the fixed functional appliance phase in isolation, no difference in mandibular anteroposterior positional changes (SNB angle) (standard mean difference, 0.11°; 95% CI, -0.28, 0.50) was found between the treated and control groups. The vertical dimension was not influenced by the fixed functional appliance treatment. There is little high-quality evidence concerning the relative influence of fixed functional appliances on skeletal and dentoalveolar changes. However, based on the limited evidence, it appears that they have little effect on the skeletal mandibular parameters. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. 38 CFR 17.122 - Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished without prior... Payment or reimbursement of the expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances and similar devices furnished without prior authorization. The expenses of repairs to prosthetic appliances, or similar appliances...

  9. Orchestrating utility supply and demand in real-time via the Internet, home networks, and smart appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, R.F. III [Power Networks, Big Indian, NY (United States)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presented a model to illustrate the efficient coordination between the supply-side and demand-side of household electricity use and the magnitude of demand that can be managed using real-time pricing. In real-time supply and demand side management, a variable price for service is sent via Internet from the supply-side to the demand-side. The 3 benefits to this type of demand-side management are that traditional fossil-fuelled electrical capacity can operate less of the time and more efficiently; renewable electrical capacity such as wind and solar power can be put to use more efficiently when it becomes available; and additional means are available to protect the transmission and distribution infrastructure of the utility. A critical requirement is that pricing should change frequently throughout the day so that budget conscious consumers do not have to wait too long for favourable pricing to use their appliances. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Social perceptions of adults wearing orthodontic appliances: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremiah, H G; Bister, D; Newton, J T

    2011-10-01

    This study ascertained the influence of orthodontic appliances on subjective ratings for social competence (SC), intellectual ability (IA), psychological adjustment (PA), and attractiveness in young adult orthodontic patients. A cross-sectional analytical questionnaire study was conducted with 130 undergraduates from the UK. Each participant was asked to look at a single, randomly assigned colour photograph of a young adult female and then asked to make judgements concerning her personal characteristics. Five modified photographs of the same young adult female were used: (1) no appliance, (2) stainless steel fixed orthodontic appliance, (3) ceramic fixed orthodontic appliance, (4) gold fixed orthodontic appliance, and (5) clear colourless aligner. Likert scales with higher scores indicating more positive ratings were used. The results were analysed using chi-square test, one-way univariate analysis of variance, and post hoc Tukey-B and Kruskal-Wallis tests. The results showed that greater perceived IA was associated with the appearance of no appliance (mean values: 7.56) rather than steel (6.67) or ceramic appliances (6.65) but similar to the gold (7.35) and aligner (7.08) appliances. No significant differences between the different orthodontic appliance appearances were found for SC and PA. A trend existed where the no appliance image (resembling a lingual appliance) or clear aligner was considered more attractive than the visible buccal fixed appliances. In the absence of other information, the judgements an individual young adult makes concerning the personal characteristics of a young adult are influenced by dental appearance and orthodontic appliance design. This may influence orthodontic appliance choice.

  11. Behavior Intention towards the Adoption of Innovative Household Sanitary Ware: A Case Study of Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Adhiutama

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tried to describe the behavior intention factors related to adopt the innovative bidet toilet seats in the households. The increase of the middle class population in Indonesia creates a new demand for adopting innovative products to enhance lifestyles. There were many electronic home appliance products have been easily adopted in Jakarta households, however there has been low adoption for electronic bidet toilet seats in household bathrooms. This study aims to identify and analyse the critical factors involved in adopting these seats in households and to explore the relative significance of each of these factors. It reports the results of empirical tests conducted regarding the non users’ adoption of these seats, based on the extended Theory of Planned Behavior. This study was administrated to 115 participants in Jakarta. Descriptive statistic, correlation analysis and multiple regressions were performed to determine the important factors. The results indicate that intention, voluntariness, observability, water usage and age are positively influence the adoption of the seats in urban households in Jakarta. Keywords: behavior adoption, electronic bidet toilet seats, urban households, jakarta

  12. The Household Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Although longitudinal experimental community health research is crucial to testing hypotheses about the demographic impact of health technologies, longitudinal demographic research field stations are rare, owing to the complexity and high cost of developing requisite computer software systems. This paper describes the Household Registration System (HRS, a software package that has been used for the rapid development of eleven surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Features of the HRS automate software generation for a family of surveillance applications, obviating the need for new and complex computer software systems for each new longitudinal demographic study.

  13. Domestic appliances energy optimization with model predictive control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, E.M.G.; Godina, R.; Pouresmaeil, E.; Ferreira, J.R.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An alternative power management control for home appliances that require thermal regulation is presented. • A Model Predictive Control scheme is assessed and its performance studied and compared to the thermostat. • Problem formulation is explored through tuning weights with the aim of reducing energetic consumption and cost. • A modulation scheme of a two-level Model Predictive Control signal as an interface block is presented. • The implementation costs in home appliances with thermal regulation requirements are reduced. - Abstract: A vital element in making a sustainable world is correctly managing the energy in the domestic sector. Thus, this sector evidently stands as a key one for to be addressed in terms of climate change goals. Increasingly, people are aware of electricity savings by turning off the equipment that is not been used, or connect electrical loads just outside the on-peak hours. However, these few efforts are not enough to reduce the global energy consumption, which is increasing. Much of the reduction was due to technological improvements, however with the advancing of the years new types of control arise. Domestic appliances with the purpose of heating and cooling rely on thermostatic regulation technique. The study in this paper is focused on the subject of an alternative power management control for home appliances that require thermal regulation. In this paper a Model Predictive Control scheme is assessed and its performance studied and compared to the thermostat with the aim of minimizing the cooling energy consumption through the minimization of the energy cost while satisfying the adequate temperature range for the human comfort. In addition, the Model Predictive Control problem formulation is explored through tuning weights with the aim of reducing energetic consumption and cost. For this purpose, the typical consumption of a 24 h period of a summer day was simulated a three-level tariff scheme was used. The new

  14. Hoisting appliances and fuel handling equipment at nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-12-31

    The guide is followed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) in regulating hoisting and handling equipment Class 3 at nuclear facilities. The guide is applied e.g. to the following equipment: reactor building overhead cranes, hoisting appliances at nuclear fuel storages, fuel handling machines, other hoisting appliances, which because of nuclear safety aspects are classified in Safety Class 3, and load-bearing devices connected with the above equipment, such as replaceable hoisting tools and auxiliary lifting devices. The regulating of hoisting and handling equipment comprises the following stages: handling of preliminary and final safety analysis reports, inspection of the construction plan, supervision of fabrication and construction inspection, and supervision of initial start-up and commissioning inspection. 36 refs. Translation. The original text is published under the same guide number. The guide is valid from 5 January 1987 and will be in force until further notice.

  15. Analysis appliance by gamma tomography with focused collimators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    This invention concerns nuclear medicine and specifically an image-forming appliance providing a very sensitive quantitative determination and the localization in space of the radioactivity of a body organ such as the brain of a patient to whom a substance labelled with radioactive isotopes has been administered. The characteristics of this appliance, which forms an image in a transversal scanning field by means of radioactive isotope radiations, includes several highly focused collimators, placed in line and focused inwards so that they form an arrangement that surrounds a given scanning field. Each collimator is mobile with respect to the adjacent collimator and a system moves the collimators so that the focus of each one uniformly samples at least a half of the total scanning field corresponding to a cross section. The number of detectors is an even one between two and twenty four, and the collimators are twelve in number [fr

  16. Hoisting appliances and fuel handling equipment at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The guide is followed by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) in regulating hoisting and handling equipment Class 3 at nuclear facilities. The guide is applied e.g. to the following equipment: reactor building overhead cranes, hoisting appliances at nuclear fuel storages, fuel handling machines, other hoisting appliances, which because of nuclear safety aspects are classified in Safety Class 3, and load-bearing devices connected with the above equipment, such as replaceable hoisting tools and auxiliary lifting devices. The regulating of hoisting and handling equipment comprises the following stages: handling of preliminary and final safety analysis reports, inspection of the construction plan, supervision of fabrication and construction inspection, and supervision of initial start-up and commissioning inspection

  17. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    demands must satisfy a symmetry and rank condition on the Slutsky matrix. We also present some further results on the effects on demands of variables that do nor modify preferences but that do affect how decisions are made. We apply our theory to a series of surveys of household expendityres from Canada......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...... for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...

  18. Orthodontic treatment with a series of removable appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenin, David A; Trosien, Andrew H; Fong, Patricia F; Miller, Robert A; Lee, Rodney S

    2003-09-01

    In the United States, the demand for straight white teeth has never been more important to patients. Crowded, poorly aligned teeth are not esthetically pleasing and are difficult to keep clean. However, until recently, the process of straightening the teeth typically has involved appliances involving bands, brackets and wires that also can be difficult to clean. The desire for a cosmetic solution to misaligned teeth has led to an increase in the number of patients seeking veneers, crowns and other laboratory-fabricated cosmetic restorations. Some clinicians are not aware that there are other ways to align teeth without either significant enamel reduction or conspicuous fixed orthodontic appliances. An alternative method of treatment, involving a series of clear removable appliances, circumvents this shortcoming and enables tooth alignment while avoiding deterioration in the cosmetics of the smile during treatment. This article describes a method of treatment, Invisalign (Align Technology, Santa Clara, Calif.), that clinicians can use in conjunction with 3-D computer models to accomplish the esthetic and oral hygiene objectives during and after treatment. The authors present three case reports, all involving a chief concern of crowding. The first case involved treatment of both arches by interproximal reduction, alignment of teeth and leveling the curve of Spee. The second case involved treatment of both arches by proclination, expansion and minor interproximal reduction. The final case shows relief of lower-arch crowding via lower-incisor extraction. In addition to satisfying the patient's chief concern of desiring straight teeth, this method of treatment satisfies additional objectives of esthetic treatment and esthetic results with significant oral hygiene benefits. Clinicians can address a patient's chief concern effectively without requiring an inventory of appliances (such as bands, brackets, wires and instruments). Furthermore, the use of 3-D computer models

  19. Appliance of geochemical engineering in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuang; Zhang Chengjiang; Ni Shijun; Li Kuanliang

    2008-01-01

    The basic foundation of applying geochemical engineering to control environment, common engineering models of disposal radioactive waste and the functions of the engineering barriers are introduced in this paper. The authors take the geochemical engineering barrier materiel research of a radioactive waste repository as an example to explain the appliance of geochemical engineering in the disposal of radioactive waste. And the results show that it can enhance the security of the nuclear waste repository if we use geochemical engineering barrier. (authors)

  20. Evaluation of photo-activation appliances used in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thales Ribeiro de Magalhães Filho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Verify the Vickers microhardness promoted by three photo-activation appliances: one Halogen Light Ultralux (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and two Light Emitting Diodes. One with a larger diode (Ultraled, Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and the other with seven smaller diodes (Ultraled xp, Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in composites with different matrixes. Methods: Three test specimens were made for each resinous materials using silicone molds measuring 4 X 8 X 30 mm. Polymerization was performedin three stages and on the two surfaces. After having been submitted to careful polishing with sequential abrasive papers and diamond paste, the Vickers microhardness of the test specimens was determined. Afterwards these values were submitted to statistical analysis by the ANOVA table and Student’s-t test. Results: The microhardness values obtained in the hybrid composite were as follows: 51.63 kg/mm2 +- 3.27; 52.22 kg/mm2 +- 3.3; 38.08 kg/mm2 +-0.31 and in the ormocer, 41.87 kg/mm2 +- 2.36; 41.5 kg/mm2 +- 1.2; 33.63 kg/mm2 +- 1.2, by the Ultralux (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, Ultraled xp (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil appliances, respectively. Conclusion: The Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil and Ultraled xp (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil appliances promoted microhardness values that were similar between them and higher than the values produced by Ultraled (Dabi-Atlante, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in the composites. It was verified that the intensity of the photo-activator appliances is directly related to the microhardness they produce in the composites.

  1. Acceptability and attractiveness of intra- and extra-oral orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Alhaija, Elham S J; Karajeh, M A

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the acceptability of different intra-oral and extra-oral orthodontic appliances, to rank orthodontic appliances from the most to the least attractive and to investigate the factors that may affect the acceptance of orthodontic treatment. A random sample of 800 students (schoolchildren and university students) were invited to participate in this study and a total of 688 students were included (86%). A self-administrated structured questionnaire was constructed for the purpose of this study. More than one-half in each age group (53%) claimed that they would accept to have orthodontic treatment. Acceptance of the different orthodontic appliances was affected by gender, age and type of school. Removable appliance was reported as the most acceptable and facemask was reported as the least acceptable orthodontic appliances. Majority of subjects ranked ceramic and facemask appliances as the most and the least attractive orthodontic appliances, respectively. The predictor variables for the acceptance of orthodontic treatment were perceived demand for orthodontic treatment, perceived positive effect of orthodontic treatment and expected benefits from orthodontic treatment. Removable appliance was the most acceptable orthodontic appliance whereas ceramic appliance was ranked as the most attractive one. Facemask was the least acceptable and the least attractive option.

  2. Effective and persistent changes in household energy-saving behaviors: Evidence from post-tsunami Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimi, Toshio; Kajitani, Yoshio; Chang, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Some households’ adaptations to electricity shortage can be new efficient habits. • The electricity shortage in Japan was used as a natural experiment. • Some behaviors contributed to 2–4% electricity savings and persisted for two years. • Behaviors requiring frequency and discomfort cannot be effective or persistent. • Lowering the electricity-usage level of appliances might be a promising behavior. - Abstract: This paper focuses on households’ development of new energy-efficient habits as demonstrated in the context of a major electricity shortfall event. Energy conservation policies should encourage households to take measures that are actually effective in reducing energy consumption and that can be sustained over long periods of time. Few studies, however, have empirically examined what types of energy-saving measures are actually effective and persistent. The electricity shortages following the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake, tsunami, and nuclear disaster provided an opportunity to examine this question. A web survey of households in Japan was implemented to obtain data on metered electricity use in the summers of 2010–2013, household behaviors for electricity savings, and household socioeconomic attributes. Regression analysis was conducted to explain the effectiveness and persistence of energy saving behaviors. Results indicate that most households took several electricity-saving measures after the disaster to adapt to the electricity shortage. Certain types of measures led to 2–4% savings in electricity consumption (per measure) and persisted for two years. The effective and persistent electricity-saving measures tended to be those that did not require either frequent efforts or considerable discomfort. Findings suggest that electricity-saving behaviors requiring infrequent effort and little discomfort can become engrained as new habits or lifestyles. In particular, one promising measure may be to lower the electricity

  3. Households' use of information and communication technologies - a future challenge for energy savings?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Haunstrup Christensen, Toke; Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten (Danish Building Research Inst., Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark)). e-mail: joj@sbi.dk; Roepke, Inge (Dept. of Management Engineering, Aalborg Univ., Aalborg (Denmark))

    2009-07-01

    Increasing consumption of electricity due to a growing number of information and communication technology (ICT) appliances in households is a major challenge to reducing energy consumption. Several studies have predicted escalating ICT-related energy consumption, but relatively little has been said and done about possible initiatives to curb this increase. This paper presents results of a research project focusing on how dynamics of consumption influence household energy consumption on ICT. Results of the project include scenarios on how electricity consumption on ICT is expected to grow, suggesting that in a few years on average ICT will make up half of household electricity consumption. Recent initiatives from various actors to prevent this development are presented and discussed, and difficulties in regulating this area, as compared to other parts of household electricity consumption are highlighted. Through presentation and discussion of qualitative interviews with families having extensive ICT use in their everyday lives, the interviews illustrate how users domesticate and use technologies in many different ways. The interviews reveal a variety of practices and dynamics in different aspects of everyday life, including sport, shopping, entertainment and different hobbies. The growing electricity consumption related to ICT is thus as dependent on the consumers' use and domestication of the technologies as on the energy efficiency of the appliances. By analysing the interviews with the use of theories of domestication of technologies, it is argued that aspects such as consumers' creativity in technology use and their non-adaption are relevant aspects to include in policy and regulation discussions on how to limit the escalating electricity consumption from household ICT use.

  4. Factors affecting dental biofilm in patients wearing fixed orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Li; Chieng, Joyce; Wong, Connie; Benic, Gareth; Farella, Mauro

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the amount and the distribution of biofilm in patients wearing fixed appliances and its relation with age, gender, frequency of tooth brushing, and patient motivation. The sample comprised 52 patients (15.5 ± 3.6 years old, 30 females and 22 males) wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Dental biofilm was assessed using a modified plaque index (PI). A questionnaire was used to collect patient's information, including gender, age, treatment motivation, and frequency of tooth brushing. Gingival (PI score = 0.9 ± 0.7), mesial (0.8 ± 0.6), and distal (0.8 ± 0.5) areas accumulated more biofilm than occlusal areas (0.3 ± 0.3) (P appliances have the highest biofilm accumulation on the maxillary lateral incisors and maxillary canines, particularly in the gingival area and areas behind arch wires. Less biofilm was observed in female and adult patients and in those who were self-motivated and brushed their teeth more often.

  5. Efficient technologies or user behaviour, which is the more important when reducing households' energy consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Much policy effort focuses on energy efficiency of technology, though not only efficiency but also user behaviour is an important factor influencing the amount of consumed energy. This paper explores to what extent energy efficiency of appliances and houses or user behaviour is the more important...... and Danish national statistics. These Danish data are discussed together with international studies. Through the presentation of these different projects and examples, it is shown how user behaviour is at least as important as the efficiency of technology when explaining households' energy consumption...

  6. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  7. Association of tooth brushing behavior with oral hygiene index among students using fixed appliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ria, N.; Eyanoer, P.

    2018-03-01

    Uses of fixed appliance have become popular recently. The purpose of its use is to correct malposition of teeth in order to normalize the masticatory function and to eliminate the accumulation of food remain between the teeth. These will prevent the formation of caries and any periodontal tissue disease. Fixed appliance patients must routinely maintain their oral hygiene. This study was an analytical survey with cross-sectional design to know the relationship between behavior in tooth brushing of students using thefixed appliance and oral hygiene in Poltekkes Kemenkes Medan. The average of Oral Hygiene Index – Simplified (OHI-S) value of students using fixed appliance (2.68) was still above national target which is ≤2, and there was a relationship between behavior in tooth brushing of students using the fixed appliance and oral hygiene (phygiene and to prevent caries formation and periodontal disease patients using fixed appliances should maintain their dental health.

  8. Pacific Northwest GridWise™ Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part II. Grid Friendly™ Appliance Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Michie, Preston; Oliver, Terry V.; Carlon, Teresa A.; Eustis, Conrad; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Marek, W.; Munson, Ryan L.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2007-10-01

    Fifty residential electric water heaters and 150 new residential clothes dryers were modified to respond to signals received from underfrequency, load-shedding appliance controllers. Each controller monitored the power-grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances were installed and monitored for more than a year at residential sites at three locations in Washington and Oregon. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow underfrequency event—an average of one event per day—and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Appliance owners reported that the appliance responses were unnoticed and caused little or no inconvenience for the homes’ occupants.

  9. An assessment of household electricity load curves and corresponding CO2 marginal abatement cost curves for Gujarat state, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Amit; Shukla, P.R.; Maheshwari, Jyoti; Upadhyay, Jigeesha

    2014-01-01

    Gujarat, a large industrialized state in India, consumed 67 TWh of electricity in 2009–10, besides experiencing a 4.5% demand–supply short-fall. Residential sector accounted for 15% of the total electricity consumption. We conducted load research survey across 21 cities and towns of the state to estimate residential electricity load curves, share of appliances by type and usage patterns for all types of household appliances at utility, geographic, appliance, income and end-use levels. The results indicate that a large scope exists for penetration of energy efficient devices in residential sector. Marginal Abatement Cost (MAC) curves for electricity and CO 2 were generated to analyze relative attractiveness of energy efficient appliance options. Results indicate that up to 7.9 TWh of electricity can be saved per year with 6.7 Mt-CO 2 emissions mitigation at negative or very low CO 2 prices of US$ 10/t-CO 2 . Despite such options existing, their penetration is not realized due to myriad barriers such as financial, institutional or awareness and therefore cannot be taken as baseline options for CO 2 emission mitigation regimes. - Highlights: • Residential sector provides focused mitigation opportunities. • Energy efficient space cooling is the main technology transition required. • Almost 26% residential load could be reduced by DSM measures. • Myriad barriers limit penetration of negative marginal cost efficient options

  10. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  11. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a project aiming to develop a new feedback technology to support sustainable living in private households. Against the backdrop of a review of the relevant literature and based on qualitative family interviews and registration of the households' electricity ...

  12. The Main Drivers of Environmentally Responsible Behaviour in Lithuanian Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Streimikiene

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Preserving environmental and natural resources is one of the most important challenges for ensuring the sustainability of well-being over time. One can notice that measuring of environmental indicators related to environmentally responsible behaviour is complicated and demanding task. It is also important to define the main drivers of environmentally responsible development. The objective of this paper is to provide comparatives analysis of indicators of environmentally responsible behaviour in the Baltic States by comparing and assessing them in terms of the EU-28 average and to present the main drivers of environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuania. Environmentally responsible behaviour is related to resource and energy savings, use of renewable energy sources, waste sorting and recycling, wastewater disposal etc. Comparative assessment of environmentally responsible behaviour indicators in the Baltic States indicated that all these indicators are bellow the EU-average, except the use of renewable energy sources. The main drivers of consumption behaviour in Lithuania were assessed by applying households surveys in order to define the major issues of concern and to develop relevant policies targeting these issues. Age, gender, education, and income of Lithuanian residents do not have impact on environmentally responsible behaviour in Lithuanian households (energy saving, buying energy efficient electric appliances, willingness to pay electricity from renewable energy sources use of biofuels. Only environmental awareness has impact on energy saving behaviour at home and use of biofuels in cars and waste recycle.

  13. Evaluation of dentoskeletal effects of Farmand functional appliance (Fa II) on class II malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yassaei S.; Aghili H.; Razeghi D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aim: Functional appliances refer to a variety of removable or fixed appliances designed to alter the mandibular position both sagitally and vertically, resulting in orthodontic and orthopedic changes. Despite the long history of functional appliances, there is still much controversy related to their effectiveness and mode of action. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental and skeletal effects of Fa II in patients with class II malocclusion due to mandibular deficiency.Mate...

  14. A time use survey derived integrative human-physical household system energy performance model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiou, Y.S. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). School of Architecture

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a virtual experiment that extrapolated the stochastic yet patterned behaviour of the integrative model of a 4-bedroom house in Chicago with 4 different household compositions. The integrative household system theory considers the household as a combination of 2 sub-systems, notably the physical system and the human system. The physical system is the materials and devices of a dwelling, and the human system is the occupants that live within the dwelling. A third element is the environment that influences the operation of the 2 sub-systems. The human-physical integrative household energy model provided a platform to simulate the effect of sub-house energy conservation measures. The virtual experiment showed that the use of the bootstrap sampling approach on American Time Use Survey (ATUS) data to determine the occupant's stochastic energy consumption behaviour has resulted in a robust complex system model. Bell-shaped distributions were presented for annual appliance, heating and cooling load demands. The virtual experiment also pointed to the development of advanced multi-zone residential HVAC system as a suitable strategy for major residential energy efficiency improvement. The load profiles generated from the integrative model simulation were found to be in good agreement with those from field studies. It was concluded that the behaviour of the integrative model is a good representation of the energy consumption behaviour of real households. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 12 figs.

  15. Measurement and human exposure assessment of brominated flame retardants in household products from South China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shejun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ma Yunjuan [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhuhai Environmental Moniorting Center, Zhuhai 519000 (China); Wang Jing; Tian Mi [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Luo Xiaojun [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Chen Da [Department of Environmental and Aquatic Animal Health, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States); Mai Bixian, E-mail: nancymai@gig.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were examined in household products in the Pearl River Delta, South China, including electronic appliances, furniture and upholstery, car interiors, and raw materials for electronics. The concentrations of PBDEs derived from penta-BDE mixture were much lower (<111 ng/g) than those for octa- and deca-BDE commercially derived PBDEs, with maximum values of 15,107 and 1,603,343 ng/g, respectively, in all the household products. Our findings suggest the recycling of old electronic products and their reuse might be also a potential important source of discontinued PBDEs to the environment. DBDPE was found in 20.0% of all the samples, ranging from 311 to 268,230 ng/g. PBDE congener profiles in both the household products and raw materials suggest that some less brominated BDEs in the environment may be derived from the decomposition of higher brominated PBDEs in PBDE-containing products in process of the manufacturing, use and/or recycling. Human exposure to PBDEs from household products via inhalation ranged from 175 to 612 pg/kg bw day, accounting for a small proportion of the total daily exposure via indoor inhalation. Despite the low deleterious risk associated with household products with regard to PBDEs, they are of special concern because of the relatively higher exposures observed for young children and further work is required.

  16. Measurement and human exposure assessment of brominated flame retardants in household products from South China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shejun; Ma Yunjuan; Wang Jing; Tian Mi; Luo Xiaojun; Chen Da; Mai Bixian

    2010-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were examined in household products in the Pearl River Delta, South China, including electronic appliances, furniture and upholstery, car interiors, and raw materials for electronics. The concentrations of PBDEs derived from penta-BDE mixture were much lower (<111 ng/g) than those for octa- and deca-BDE commercially derived PBDEs, with maximum values of 15,107 and 1,603,343 ng/g, respectively, in all the household products. Our findings suggest the recycling of old electronic products and their reuse might be also a potential important source of discontinued PBDEs to the environment. DBDPE was found in 20.0% of all the samples, ranging from 311 to 268,230 ng/g. PBDE congener profiles in both the household products and raw materials suggest that some less brominated BDEs in the environment may be derived from the decomposition of higher brominated PBDEs in PBDE-containing products in process of the manufacturing, use and/or recycling. Human exposure to PBDEs from household products via inhalation ranged from 175 to 612 pg/kg bw day, accounting for a small proportion of the total daily exposure via indoor inhalation. Despite the low deleterious risk associated with household products with regard to PBDEs, they are of special concern because of the relatively higher exposures observed for young children and further work is required.

  17. Assessing consumer benefits of selected gas appliance technology center tasks. Topical report, April-December 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.R.; Bournakis, A.D.; Worek, W.M.; Kalensky, D.C.; Dombrowski, L.P.

    1992-12-01

    The Gas Appliance Technology Center (GATC) was created in 1983 to assist the gas industry in bringing about a new generation of reasonably priced, advanced gas appliances. The objective of the report is to evaluate consumer benefits of sixteen selected GATC tasks for the time period between 1983 and 1990. Tasks were selected for review based upon their degree of industry impact and how well they represented activities in the four targeted research areas of Space Conditioning, Commercial Appliances, Residential Appliances, and Codes and Standards

  18. A modified palatal crib appliance for children with predetermined thumb-sucking habit - Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlEmran, Sulaiman

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this case report was to introduce a modified design of palatal crib habit breaking appliance that can be used for children with predetermined thumb-sucking habit. The appliance is made of two bands on the upper first permanent molars and an extended metal framework to cover the anterior of the palatal roof. The appliance was applied for 4 months on an 8-year-old boy who persistently continued the habit of thumb-sucking. The appliance proved to be very effective for arresting thumb-sucking habit. (author)

  19. The impact of personality on adult patients' adjustability to orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Kazaz, Rena; Ivgi, Inbal; Canetti, Laura; Bachar, Eytan; Tsur, Boaz; Chaushu, Stella; Shalish, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of psychological traits on patients' choice of orthodontic appliances and their adjustability to orthodontic treatment. The sample consisted of 68 adult patients divided into three groups (28 buccal, 19 lingual, and 21 clear aligners). Prior to treatment participants filled out the Brief Symptom Inventory to assess symptoms of mental distress and the Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale to assess narcissistic personality traits. During the first week after appliance delivery and on day 14, patients completed a Health-Related Quality of Life questionnaire to assess their perception of pain and four areas of dysfunction. The correlation between personality traits and patients' reaction to treatment was evaluated. Somatization was the only trait that affected the choice of lingual and clear aligner appliance. Reduced self-esteem regulation was associated with increased pain in all patients, while exploitation was associated with pain in lingual patients. Narcissistic vulnerability slightly influenced patients' adaptability to orthodontic appliances. Although adjustability to lingual appliances was the most difficult, only two parameters were affected by personality features. In the buccal group, adjustability was affected by numerous parameters. Adaptation to the clear aligner appliance was relatively uneventful and least affected by psychological features. Anxious individuals tend to prefer lingual and clear aligner appliances. The selection of lingual and clear aligner appliances governs the patient's response and recovery process, leaving little room for the effect of psychological features. On the other hand, the buccal appliance allows for greater impact of personality traits on adjustability.

  20. Factors affecting domestic water consumption in rural households upon access to improved water supply: insights from the Wei River Basin, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liangxin; Liu, Guobin; Wang, Fei; Geissen, Violette; Ritsema, Coen J

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensively understanding water consumption behavior is necessary to design efficient and effective water use strategies. Despite global efforts to identify the factors that affect domestic water consumption, those related to domestic water use in rural regions have not been sufficiently studied, particularly in villages that have gained access to improved water supply. To address this gap, we investigated 247 households in eight villages in the Wei River Basin where three types of improved water supply systems are implemented. Results show that domestic water consumption in liters per capita per day was significantly correlated with water supply pattern and vegetable garden area, and significantly negatively correlated with family size and age of household head. Traditional hygiene habits, use of water appliances, and preference for vegetable gardening remain dominant behaviors in the villages with access to improved water supply. Future studies on rural domestic water consumption should pay more attention to user lifestyles (water appliance usage habits, outdoor water use) and cultural backgrounds (age, education).

  1. Energy activity guide : simple steps to reduce your household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byckalo-Khan, F.; Wallace, C.L. (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    This guide presents 13 practical activities that can help households reduce energy consumption in order to create a more sustainable lifestyle and to help meet Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Most energy sources create pollution that harms both human health and the Earth. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, smog, pollution and adverse health effects. This guide offers suggestions on how households can reduce the impact on the environment while saving money. Some of the initiatives include lowering the thermostat, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off appliances when not in use, weatherising building envelopes, using a clothes line to dry clothes instead of a dryer, laundering clothes with cold water, and proper maintenance of heating equipment. An energy use chart is included with this guide to help track activities and to estimate how much time and money is required by each activity. refs., figs.

  2. Energy activity guide : simple steps to reduce your household energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byckalo-Khan, F; Wallace, C L [ed.

    2003-07-01

    This guide presents 13 practical activities that can help households reduce energy consumption in order to create a more sustainable lifestyle and to help meet Canada's Kyoto commitment to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Most energy sources create pollution that harms both human health and the Earth. The burning of fossil fuels creates greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change, smog, pollution and adverse health effects. This guide offers suggestions on how households can reduce the impact on the environment while saving money. Some of the initiatives include lowering the thermostat, replacing incandescent light bulbs with compact fluorescent light bulbs, turning off appliances when not in use, weatherising building envelopes, using a clothes line to dry clothes instead of a dryer, laundering clothes with cold water, and proper maintenance of heating equipment. An energy use chart is included with this guide to help track activities and to estimate how much time and money is required by each activity. refs., figs.

  3. A model of household energy services in a low-income rural African village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.I.; Alfstad, T.; Victor, D.G.; Goldstein, G.; Remme, U.

    2005-01-01

    Energy use is closely linked to quality of life in rural Africa. The gathering of fuel-wood and other traditional fuels is a strenuous and time consuming task mainly performed by women; indoor exposure to particulate matter, mainly from cooking and heating with traditional fuels, causes about 2.5 million deaths each year in developing countries (Bruce et al., Bull World Org. 78 (2000) 1078). Modern fuels and appliances allow households to reduce their exposure to smoke from biomass cookers and heaters. Yet modern fuels are costly for income-poor households and often carry their own external costs. For example, numerous children are poisoned from ingesting paraffin, and whole villages have burned from fires triggered by paraffin stoves and lamps

  4. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of ... In order to improve households' food security status in both rural and urban areas, ... as reduction in household size through birth control, and increase in household ...

  6. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.

  7. Mechanical appliances, mechanical movements and novelties of construction

    CERN Document Server

    Hiscox, Gardner D

    2008-01-01

    From the devices that power ships and trains to the workings of clocks, typewriters, and guns, this engrossing visual narrative profiles the specific and unique properties of hundreds of mechanical devices. Nearly 1,000 detailed illustrations depict steam-powered appliances, spring-powered devices, hydraulic equipment, and other machines, many of which remain in common use today. Each apparatus features a detailed line drawing and an informative explanation of its workings and uses. A final chapter chronicles 400 years of impassioned but futile searching for a perpetual motion machine.The comp

  8. Simplified feeding appliance for an infant with cleft palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaila Masih

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A child born with cleft palate may experience difficulties while feeding. Early surgical treatment may need to be postponed until certain age and weight gain of the infant. The case presented here is of a 1-month-old neonate born with cleft palate, assisted with a new feeding appliance made with ethylene vinyl acetate using pressure molding technique to aid in proper feeding. The patient′s weight and health significantly improved after the insertion of obturator. The advantages of this material included being lightweight, moldability, good palatal fit and decreased soft tissue injury.

  9. Prediction of appliances energy use in smart homes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arghira, Nicoleta; Hawarah, Lamis; Ploix, Stéphane; Jacomino, Mireille

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents methods for prediction of energy consumption of different appliances in homes. The aim is to predict the next day electricity consumption for some services in homes. Historical data for a set of homes in France was used. Two basic predictors are tested and a stochastic based predictor is proposed. The performance of the predictors is studied and it shows that the proposed predictor gives better results than other approaches. Two processings are proposed to improve the performance of the predictor, segmentation and aggregation of data. Application results are provided.

  10. New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, Alan; Ernebrant, Stefan; Kawamoto, Kaoru; Wihlborg, Mats

    1999-01-01

    Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances

  11. Crozat appliance therapy for an arch-length discrepancy problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M

    1991-01-01

    The case involved a white male subject, aged 10 years 6 months, with a Class I molar relationship complicated by a deep overbite and impaction of all four permanent canines, which were completely blocked out of the arches. The growth rate of the arches was found to be abnormal, and there was premature loss of the deciduous teeth. Over a period of approximately 5 years, with intermittent pauses to allow growth to catch up with treatment, the Crozat removable appliance was used to help establish the arch form and correct the plane of occlusion.

  12. Modified distal shoe appliance--fabrication and clinical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gujjar, Kumar Raghav; Indushekar, K R; Amith, H V; Sharma, Shefali Li

    2012-01-01

    When the primary second molar is prematurely lost, mesial movement and migration of the permanent first molar often occurs. This is one of the most difficult problems of the developing dentition confronted by pediatric dentists. Use of a space maintainer that will guide the permanent first molar into its normal position is indicated. In cases with bilateral premature loss of primary molars, the conventional design of distal shoe poses a variety of problems and, therefore, necessitates a customized design for the eruption guidance of permanent first molars. The purpose of this case report is to discuss an innovative design of a distal shoe appliance, which was used with good clinical results.

  13. A comparison between indirect and objective wear-time assessment of removable orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Timm C; Meyer-Gutknecht, Hannes; Mayer, Nicolai; Weber, Joachim; Weimer, Katja

    2017-04-01

    Patients do not always adhere to the wear times prescribed for removable orthodontic appliances. We evaluated the validity and usability of indirect wear-time assessment methods by comparing wear-time estimates with microelectronically measured wear times in patients with removable orthodontic appliances. Wear times of 33 expansion plates, 34 functional appliances, and 42 retention plates of patients aged 6-20 years (12.3±2.9 years, 50.5% female) were indirectly determined by practitioners using a questionnaire assessing five parameters on a 5-point Likert scale: appliance handling, appliance appearance, bite shift, tooth movement, and appliance fit. The perceived difficulty in assessing each parameter was rated. Actual wear times were evaluated with microelectronic sensors in the appliances. Regression analyses revealed that practitioners' decisions about wear times varied depending on the type of appliance and criteria used, with only one standard criterion best predicting estimated wear time for each appliance. Different standard criteria were better predictors of measured wear time: 22.3% of wear-time variability was explained by expansion plate appearance, 31.2% by functional appliance handling, and 18.8% by retainer fitting. However, practitioners rated the difficulty of assessment in most cases as 'easy'. The study was not double blinded for technical reasons, and practitioners may have considered the evaluation criteria more carefully than in normal daily practice. Practitioners' decisions about wear times based on standard criteria strongly vary depending on the type of appliance and criteria used. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Estimation of urban residential electricity demand in China using household survey data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Shaojie; Teng, Fei

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses annual urban household survey data of Sichuan Province from 2007 to 2009 to estimate the income and price elasticities of residential electricity demand, along with the effects of lifestyle-related variables. The empirical results show that in the urban area of Sichuan province, the residential electricity demand is price- and income-inelastic, with price and income elasticities ranging from −0.35 to −0.50 and from 0.14 to 0.33, respectively. Such lifestyle-related variables as demographic variables, dwelling size and holdings of home appliances, are also important determinants of residential electricity demand, especially the latter. These results are robust to a variety of sensitivity tests. The research findings imply that urban residential electricity demand continues to increase with the growth of income. The empirical results have important policy implications for the Multistep Electricity Price, which been adopted in some cities and is expected to be promoted nationwide through the installation of energy-efficient home appliances. - Highlights: • We estimate price and income elasticities in China using household survey data. • The current study is the first such study in China at this level. • Both price and income are inelastic. • Behavior factors have important impact on electricity consumption

  15. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  16. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  17. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  18. The Pacific Northwest residential consumer: Perceptions and preferences of home heating fuels, major appliances, and appliance fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harkreader, S.A.; Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-09-01

    In 1983 the Bonneville Power Administration contracted with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to conduct an analysis of the marketing environment for Bonneville's conservation activities. Since this baseline residential study, PNL has conducted two follow up market research projects: Phase 2 in 1985, and Phase 3, in 1988. In this report the respondents' perceptions, preferences, and fuel switching possibilities of fuels for home heating and major appliances are examined. To aid in effective target marketing, the report identifies market segments according to consumers' demographics, life-cycle, attitudes, and opinions.

  19. Sale of electricity to households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    The Company Slovenske elektrarne (SE) Predaj has after two years of presence in the market expanded their business activities to the households segment. The first customers can be particularly employees of Slovenske elektrarne. This chance will be provided to them starting from 1 October of this year. 'The electricity supplies for households will only be supplementary segment of sales at SE Predaj Company. We will still focus mainly at businesses with higher consumption,' says director of the Company Mr. Stanislav Reguli. (author)

  20. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  1. Consumption Profiles for Future Households

    OpenAIRE

    Blikø, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a change in energy consumption in Norwegian households. New houses are far better insulated, have high demands for efficient energy carriers and new installations that affect the electricity consumption. Today, most of the electricity in a Norwegian household is used for space heating, but this demand is expected to be reduced in the future, mainly because the need for space heating is reduced as a result of stricter demands for isolation. Electricity co...

  2. 49 CFR 236.312 - Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movable bridge, interlocking of signal appliances with bridge devices. 236.312 Section 236.312 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Interlocking Standards § 236.312 Movable bridge, interlocking of signal...

  3. 46 CFR 160.031-4 - Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing appliance... Appliance, Shoulder Gun Type (and Equipment) § 160.031-4 Equipment for shoulder gun type line-throwing... the gun. The line canister shall be secured by clamps or brackets below the barrel of the gun. (c) One...

  4. Greening production and consumption: the case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thongplew, N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract

    Natapol Thongplew

    Thesis title: Greening production and consumption: The case of the appliance and dairy industries in Thailand

    This research looked into the greening of the appliance and dairy industries in

  5. What to Do If Your Appliances Are Wet After a Disaster

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2006-08-10

    If your home was flooded, look for signs that your appliances have gotten wet. Throw away wet or flooded appliances to protect from shock and fire.  Created: 8/10/2006 by Emergency Communications System.   Date Released: 7/30/2008.

  6. Efficacy of custom made oral appliance for treatment of obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V R Cilil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: oral appliance for the treatment of OSA is considered as an effective, low-risk alternative to CPAP. Demand for oral appliance increases as an alternative for those who cannot tolerate CPAP and refuse surgery. Oral appliances uses the traditional methods to advance the mandible thus modify the posture and their by enlarge the airway or otherwise reduce the collapsibility. Aims and Objectives: The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of custom made oral appliance on sleep characteristics of OSA patients. Materials and Methods: Polysomnography was done on 15 patients of 24-60 years of age before (T1, and after the delivery of the custom made oral appliance (T2. Statistical Analysis: Paired t tests were performed to determine the significance of change in the polysomnographic and cephalometric variables. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: All patients with oral appliance showed an improvement in sleep parameters with an increase in sleep efficiency, and desaturation index with the use of oral appliance. ESS and cephalometric findings showed improvement in the sleep apnea in concordance with the sleep parameters. Conclusions: Custom made oral appliance is a useful treatment option for improving quality of sleep and can be considered as an alternative treatment modality.

  7. 78 FR 54450 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty... the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic...\\ is certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks. The subject merchandise is currently classifiable...

  8. 77 FR 72324 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China: Countervailing Duty Administrative Review, 2010... countervailing duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's Republic of China. See Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Countervailing...

  9. 77 FR 12811 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Partial...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty... review of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's... Appliance Shelving and Racks from the People's Republic of China, dated January 10, 2012; and Letter to the...

  10. 76 FR 62765 - Certain Kitchen Appliance Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... Shelving and Racks From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the First Administrative... review of the antidumping duty order on certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the People's... administrative review of certain kitchen appliance shelving and racks from the PRC for the period March 5, 2009...

  11. Open-bite treatment utilizing clear removable appliances with intermaxillary and intramaxillary elastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hyun; Kim, Tae Weon

    2009-01-01

    Clear removable appliances with elastics can be effective and efficient in extruding maxillary teeth during aligner treatment or following a relapse of an open bite. Some patients with open bites refuse to wear conventional fixed appliances. In these individuals, clear aligners with elastics could be a valuable alternative. © 2009 Quintessence Publishing Co, Inc. All Rights Reserved

  12. Effects of mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials on the initial force of thermoplastic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Naohisa; Iijima, Masahiro; Muguruma, Takeshi; Brantley, William A; Ahluwalia, Karamdeep S; Mizoguchi, Itaru

    2013-05-01

    To measure the forces delivered by thermoplastic appliances made from three materials and investigate effects of mechanical properties, material thickness, and amount of activation on orthodontic forces. Three thermoplastic materials, Duran (Scheu Dental), Erkodur (Erkodent Erich Kopp GmbH), and Hardcast (Scheu Dental), with two different thicknesses were selected. Values of elastic modulus and hardness were obtained from nanoindentation measurements at 28°C. A custom-fabricated system with a force sensor was employed to obtain measurements of in vitro force delivered by the thermoplastic appliances for 0.5-mm and 1.0-mm activation for bodily tooth movement. Experimental results were subjected to several statistical analyses. Hardcast had significantly lower elastic modulus and hardness than Duran and Erkodur, whose properties were not significantly different. Appliances fabricated from thicker material (0.75 mm or 0.8 mm) always produced significantly greater force than those fabricated from thinner material (0.4 mm or 0.5 mm). Appliances with 1.0-mm activation produced significantly lower force than those with 0.5-mm activation, except for 0.4-mm thick Hardcast appliances. A strong correlation was found between mechanical properties of the thermoplastic materials and force produced by the appliances. Orthodontic forces delivered by thermoplastic appliances depend on the material, thickness, and amount of activation. Mechanical properties of the polymers obtained by nanoindentation testing are predictive of force delivery by these appliances.

  13. Optimal residential smart appliances scheduling considering distribution network constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Ree Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As smart appliances (SAs are more widely adopted within distribution networks, residential consumers can contribute to electricity market operations with demand response resources and reduce their electricity bill. However, if the schedules of demand response resources are determined only by the economic electricity rate signal, the schedule can be unfeasible due to the distribution network constraints. Furthermore, it is impossible for consumers to understand the complex physical characteristics and reflect them in their everyday behaviors. This paper introduces the concept of load coordinating retailer (LCR that deals with demand responsive appliances to reduce electrical consumption for the given distribution network constraints. The LCR can play the role of both conventional retailer and aggregated demand response provider for residential customers. It determines the optimal schedules for the aggregated neighboring SAs according to their types within each distribution feeder. The optimization algorithms are developed using Mixed Integer Linear Programming, and the distribution network is solved by the Newton–Raphson AC power flow.

  14. CernVM - a virtual software appliance for LHC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncic, P; Sanchez, C Aguado; Blomer, J; Franco, L; Mato, P; Harutyunian, A; Yao, Y

    2010-01-01

    CernVM is a Virtual Software Appliance capable of running physics applications from the LHC experiments at CERN. It aims to provide a complete and portable environment for developing and running LHC data analysis on any end-user computer (laptop, desktop) as well as on the Grid, independently of Operating System platforms (Linux, Windows, MacOS). The experiment application software and its specific dependencies are built independently from CernVM and delivered to the appliance just in time by means of a CernVM File System (CVMFS) specifically designed for efficient software distribution. The procedures for building, installing and validating software releases remains under the control and responsibility of each user community. We provide a mechanism to publish pre-built and configured experiment software releases to a central distribution point from where it finds its way to the running CernVM instances via the hierarchy of proxy servers or content delivery networks. In this paper, we present current state of CernVM project and compare performance of CVMFS to performance of traditional network file system like AFS and discuss possible scenarios that could further improve its performance and scalability.

  15. Multimedia architectures: from desktop systems to portable appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskaran, Vasudev; Konstantinides, Konstantinos; Natarajan, Balas R.

    1997-01-01

    Future desktop and portable computing systems will have as their core an integrated multimedia system. Such a system will seamlessly combine digital video, digital audio, computer animation, text, and graphics. Furthermore, such a system will allow for mixed-media creation, dissemination, and interactive access in real time. Multimedia architectures that need to support these functions have traditionally required special display and processing units for the different media types. This approach tends to be expensive and is inefficient in its use of silicon. Furthermore, such media-specific processing units are unable to cope with the fluid nature of the multimedia market wherein the needs and standards are changing and system manufacturers may demand a single component media engine across a range of products. This constraint has led to a shift towards providing a single-component multimedia specific computing engine that can be integrated easily within desktop systems, tethered consumer appliances, or portable appliances. In this paper, we review some of the recent architectural efforts in developing integrated media systems. We primarily focus on two efforts, namely the evolution of multimedia-capable general purpose processors and a more recent effort in developing single component mixed media co-processors. Design considerations that could facilitate the migration of these technologies to a portable integrated media system also are presented.

  16. Treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion using Eruption guidance appliance: A comparative study with Twin-block and Activator-Headgear appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jenny Jiayan Luo; Shu, Xiaochen; Magnusson, Britt Hedenberg; Burt, Idil Alatli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the compliance and short-term effects of eruption guidance appliance (EGA) in adolescents with class II division 1 malocclusion in comparison with twin-block appliance (TBA) and activator-headgear appliance (A-HG). Dental records of 1886 patients were viewed in this retrospective study 129 patients treated with one of these three functional appliances were identified. 123 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and data were extracted from the dental records. Gender, age, compliance, overjet change at every visit, number of appliance breakages and number of emergency visits apart from appliance breakage were studied. The data were analyzed with Chi-square test, General Linear Model and Fisher scoring test. Results showed that 47 patients were treated with EGA, 38 patients with TBA and 38 patients with A-HG. Mean ages starting the treatment were slightly lower with EGA (11.5 years) than with TBA (12.3 years) and A-HG (11.8 years). Non-compliance was higher in the EGA group (31.9%) than TBA group (26.3%) and A-HG group (23.7%). Mean overjet reduction per month was 0.6 mm for EGA which was lower than TBA group (0.7 mm) and A-HG groups (0.7 mm).The number of emergency visits and appliance breakage were lower in EGA group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the 3 groups regarding ages,compliance, mean overjet reduction, emergency visits and appliance breakage aspects. In conclusion, this study indicates that EGA is an alternative choice in the treatment of adolescent patients with class II division 1 malocclusion. However, long-term follow-up and cephalometric prospective study should be performed to continue our understanding more about the mechanisms of EGA and more definite conclusions can be made.

  17. Reputation-based joint scheduling of households appliances and storage in a microgrid with a shared battery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alskaif, T.A.; C. Luna, Adriana; Guerreo Zapata, Manel; Guerrero, Josep M.; Bellalta, Boris

    2017-01-01

    Due to the decreasing revenues from the surplus renewable energy injected into the grid, mechanisms promoting self-consumption of this energy are becoming increasingly important. Demand response (DR) and local storage are among the widely used mechanisms for reaching higher self-consumption levels.

  18. Assessment of Human Exposure to Magnetic Fields Produced by Domestic Appliances (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preece, A.W.; Kaune, W.T.; Grainger, P.; Golding, J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of 50 homes and their appliances examined whether a detailed appliance-use questionnaire and survey would yield data comparable with direct personal monitoring. This was coupled with direct measurement of the appliances in use to determine the field at 50 cm and 1 m. The findings were that individual time-weighted average (TWA) exposures calculated from questionnaire and activity diaries in conjunction with the appliance magnetic field were unrelated to actual personal exposure measurement. It was concluded that questionnaires are of little or no value for TWA estimation. However, peak exposure and short-term temporal variability could be modelled in subjects spending at least 15 min per day within 1 m of an operating microwave cooker or conventional cooker. This method could be extended to other appliances. (author)

  19. Accelerating the Adoption of Second-Tier Reach Standards forApplicable Appliance Products in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jiang; Fridley, David

    2007-03-01

    The minimum energy efficiency standards program for household appliances in China was initiated in 1989. Since 1996, CLASP and its implementing partner, LBNL, have assisted China in developing 11 minimum energy performance standards (MEPS) for 9 products and endorsement labels for 11 products including: refrigerators; air conditioners; clothes washers; televisions; printers; computers; monitors; fax machines; copiers; DVD/VCD players; external power supplies; and set-top boxes (under development). Before 2003, China's traditional approach to standards development involved small increases in efficiency requirements for implementation within 6 months of a standard's approval. Since 2003, China has adopted a new approach in setting MEPS. This new approach involves the development of two tiers of standards--one for initial implementation and a second tier at a more aggressive level of energy efficiency for implementation three to five years later. The second-tier standard is also referred to as a 'reach standard'. Reach standards have now been developed in China for: color TVs; refrigerators; air conditioners; and external power supplies. This report is presented in five sections. After the introduction in Section 1, Section 2 analyzes the distribution of the efficiency of refrigerators and air-conditioners in China based on data collected by the China Energy Label Center for the mandatory energy information label program. The results provide an assessment of the adoption of reach standards for these two products. Section 3 summarizes on-going collaborations with Shanghai related to early local adoption of reach standards, and presents both the impact and an analysis of barriers to the local adoption of reach standard for air-conditioners. Section 4 offers suggestions for local governments on how to move forward in adopting reach standards in their localities and concludes with a summary of the results and a plan for developing local capacity in

  20. Routines for interocclusal appliance therapy among general dental practitioners in a Swedish county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnauck, Maja; Helkimo, Martti; Magnusson, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate what kind of interocclusal appliances that were chosen among Swedish dentists when treating temporomandibular disorders (TMD), the clinical rationale for the treatment, the diagnoses that warranted the appliance treatment, the use of adjunct TMD treatments and prognostic considerations, and possible differences in these respects between children/adolescents and adults with TMD, and, finally, possible differences between private practitioners and general practitioners in the public dental service. During the 12-months-period April 2009-March 2010 all general dental practitioners in the county of Jönköping, Sweden, were asked to fill in a questionnaire when performing a TMD treatment with an interocclusal appliance. A total of 394 questionnaires were filled in and returned, 216 (55%) from dentists in public dental service and 178 (45%) from private practitioners. It was found that in 40% of the cases, no pre-treatment recording of the functional status in the masticatory system had been made. The commonest reasons for the treatment were bruxism, headache, and replacement of a previous appliance. Less than half of the appliances made were hard acrylic appliances. Some kind of adjunct therapy had been made in 22% of the cases treated in public dental service. The corresponding figure for those treated by private practitioners was 25%. Therapeutic jaw exercises was the commonest adjunct therapy followed by selective occlusal adjustment. In the vast majority of cases, the dentists judged the prognosis of the treatment to be good. It is concluded that a large number of appliances made to treat TMD were soft appliances, especially in public dental service. This reflects a possible overuse of soft appliances at the expense of hard acrylic appliances. Furthermore, in a large number of cases, the treatment was performed without any pre-treatment registrations, and adjunct therapies were rarely used. In all these respects,there is

  1. 33 CFR 150.504 - When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? 150.504 Section 150.504 Navigation and...: OPERATIONS Emergency and Specialty Equipment Launching Appliances § 150.504 When must the operator service and examine lifeboat and rescue boat launching appliances? (a) The operator must service launching...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart F of... - Method for Testing Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for Use With Small Appliances C Appendix C to Subpart F of Part 82 Protection of Environment... Recovery Devices for Use With Small Appliances Recovery Efficiency Test Procedure for Refrigerant Recovery Equipment Used on Small Appliances The following test procedure is utilized to evaluate the efficiency of...

  3. 33 CFR 150.506 - When must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? 150.506 Section 150.506 Navigation and...: OPERATIONS Emergency and Specialty Equipment Inflatable Lifesaving Appliances § 150.506 When must the operator service inflatable lifesaving appliances and marine evacuation systems? (a) The operator must...

  4. Characteristics of residential energy consumption in China: Findings from a household survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xinye; Wei, Chu; Qin, Ping; Guo, Jin; Yu, Yihua; Song, Feng; Chen, Zhanming

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of 1450 households in 26 Chinese provinces was undertaken in 2012 to identify the characteristics and potential driving forces of residential energy consumption in China. The survey covers six areas: household characteristics, dwelling characteristics, kitchen and home appliances, space heating and cooling, residential transportation, and electricity billing, metering, and pricing options. The results show that a typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms standard coal equivalent, which is approximately 44 percent of the 2009 level in the United States and 38 percent of the 2008 level in the EU-27. District heating, natural gas, and electricity are three major residential energy sources, while space heating, cooking, and water heating are three major end-use activities. Moreover, the results suggest a large urban–rural gap in terms of energy sources and purpose of usage. Commercial energy is used mainly for space heating in urban areas, while biomass dominates mainly for cooking purpose in rural areas. The survey results can help decision makers and scholars identify energy conservation opportunities, and evaluate the effectiveness of energy policies. - Highlights: • We develop the first comprehensive survey of residential energy consumption in China. • A typical Chinese household in 2012 consumed 1426 kilograms coal equivalent. • Space heating accounts for half of energy demand. • A large rural–urban gap exists in terms of energy sources and end-use activities. • Results reveal challenges and opportunities for China's energy policy

  5. Adolescents and electricity consumption; Investigating sociodemographic, economic, and behavioural influences on electricity consumption in households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallis, Hannah; Nachreiner, Malte; Matthies, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    With respect to changes in the energy systems of many countries, electricity consumption in households is an important topic. Extensive research has investigated the various determinants of electricity consumption. However, insights into how specific sociodemographic, behavioural, and attitudinal determinants influence residential electricity consumption are still scarce. In this study, we used hierarchical regression analysis to systematically investigate these determinants (including household engagement in electricity saving) along with a wide range of other measures in a sample of German households (N=763). Special attention was given to households with adolescents and children by analysing the influence of the number of adolescents on electricity consumption in a path model. Our results indicate that sociodemographic influences can be explained by the purchasing and use behaviours of residents. Our findings also suggest that the use of behavioural information provides a more detailed picture of the conditions of electricity consumption and thus allows for more appropriate policy planning. - Highlights: •We examined causal drivers of sociodemographic influences on electricity consumption •Sociodemographic influences can be explained by behaviour •Influence of adolescents is mediated by their purchases of IT appliances •It is necessary to also use behavioural information for policy planning

  6. Measurement and human exposure assessment of brominated flame retardants in household products from South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, She-Jun; Ma, Yun-Juan; Wang, Jing; Tian, Mi; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Chen, Da; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2010-04-15

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) were examined in household products in the Pearl River Delta, South China, including electronic appliances, furniture and upholstery, car interiors, and raw materials for electronics. The concentrations of PBDEs derived from penta-BDE mixture were much lower (electronic products and their reuse might be also a potential important source of discontinued PBDEs to the environment. DBDPE was found in 20.0% of all the samples, ranging from 311 to 268,230 ng/g. PBDE congener profiles in both the household products and raw materials suggest that some less brominated BDEs in the environment may be derived from the decomposition of higher brominated PBDEs in PBDE-containing products in process of the manufacturing, use and/or recycling. Human exposure to PBDEs from household products via inhalation ranged from 175 to 612 pg/kg bw day, accounting for a small proportion of the total daily exposure via indoor inhalation. Despite the low deleterious risk associated with household products with regard to PBDEs, they are of special concern because of the relatively higher exposures observed for young children and further work is required. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Class III camouflage using skeletal anchorage and Pendex appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, José Augusto M; Zanardi, Gustavo

    2011-01-01

    This case report describes the orthodontic treatment for a young female, aged 18 years 4 months, with a Class III malocclusion on the right side, with a combination of a posterior and anterior crossbite. Two rigid orthodontic mini-implants were placed in the retromolar region in order to move the entire lower arch distally with nickel-titanium coil springs. In addition, a Pendex appliance was used to create space and to improve the arch form and the transverse relationship. The active treatment period was 17 months. Normal overjet and overbite were obtained, and facial balance was improved. Although the cephalometric superimposition has demonstrated the effects of dental compensation, the final dental and facial results were satisfactory and stable after the second year in retention. Copyright © 2011 Società Italiana di Ortodonzia SIDO. Published by Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  8. Solar water heating: The making of a simple, standard appliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    Within the solar community we have carried on never-ending discussions about the performance of solar water heaters. As a long-time solar advocate and researcher, I am continually asked, open-quotes When will solar usage become widespread?close quotes We who are in the solar business all face this question, and we must respond. Our answers usually take the form of some discussion on efficiency improvements, life-cycle costs, level playing field or environmental factors. But the only real way to answer this question is: Use of solar will be widewspread when a solar water heater is considered to be just another standard appliance. Increased installations is the key, and the solar technology with the greatest near-term potential for increased installation is solar water heating

  9. Contextual Mobile Learning: A Step Further to Mastering Professional Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Chalon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we describe our approach whose objective is to apply MOCOCO concepts to e-learning. After a short presentation of MOCOCO (Mobility, Cooperation, Contextualization and IMERA (Mobile Interaction in the Augmented Real Environment principles we will discuss their use in a project called HMTD (Help Me To Do whose aim is to use wearable computer for a framework of activities of better use, maintenance and repairing of professional appliances. We will successively describe m-learning scope, contextualization and cooperation advantages as well as learning methods. A case study of configuration of wearable computer and its peripherals, taking into account context, in-situ storage, traceability and regulation in these activities finishes this paper.

  10. Magnetic emission ranking of electrical appliances. A comprehensive market survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.; Lehofer, P.; Schmidpeter, U.; Rampetsreiter, M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decades emissions of magnetic fields from electric appliances have considerably changed. Based on a comprehensive market survey it could be shown that today magnetic emissions are usually characterised by complex frequency spectra while single-frequency emissions have become rare. Therefore, spectral assessment procedures play a critical role. Compared to frequency-weighted equivalent magnetic induction, rms values may underestimate emissions up to two orders of magnitudes. Therefore, rms measurements are not suitable and emission-ranking lists of devices need revision. Surface hot-spot measurements at nominal load conditions and 230 V/50 Hz supply involved 1146 new electrical devices of 166 different categories. High emissions were not rare. Magnetic emissions of devices of 73 different categories exceeded reference levels up to almost two orders of magnitudes above reference levels. Maximum values were higher than reported so far. Magnetic emissions were high enough to make even conformity with existing basic restrictions not self-evident. (authors)

  11. A cephalometric comparison of treatment with the Twin-block and stainless steel crown Herbst appliances followed by fixed appliance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Abbie T; McNamara, James A; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2004-07-01

    This study compared the effects of 2 treatment protocols for correcting Class II disharmony. The first phase of treatment consisted of functional jaw orthopedics with either the Twin-block or the stainless-steel crown Herbst appliance; the second phase consisted of comprehensive fixed-appliance therapy in both protocols. Each of the 2 samples comprised 28 consecutively treated Class II patients. The mean age at the start of treatment was approximately 12 years, and the mean age at the end of the treatment was approximately 14.5 years in both groups. The duration of the treatment phase with the functional appliance was approximately 13 months, and the duration of fixed-appliance therapy was approximately 15 months in both groups. The sex distribution was identical in the 2 groups. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed at the start of treatment (T1) and at the end of the overall treatment protocol (T2). Nonparametric statistics were used for comparisons of starting forms and of the T1-T2 changes between the 2 treatment groups. The stainless-steel crown Herbst appliance and the Twin-block appliance produced very similar therapeutic modifications in Class II patients, although the Twin-block group exhibited almost 2 mm greater correction of the maxillomandibular differential than did the crown Herbst group. The treatment effects of both protocols led to a normalization of the dentoskeletal parameters at the end of the overall treatment period. Twin-block therapy also induced a greater increase in the height of the mandibular ramus (posterior facial height). Overall, only minor differences were detected in the treatment and posttreatment effects of a compliance-free (crown Herbst) and a noncompliance-free (Twin-block) appliance for correcting Class II disharmony.

  12. Household demand for energy, water and the collection of waste. A microeconometric analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linderhof, V.G.M.

    2001-05-17

    This thesis focuses on the effectiveness and efficiency of economic incentives with respect to the household demand for energy, water and the collection of household waste. In particular, we are primarily interested in the price and income responses of households with respect to the energy and water consumption as well as the household waste production. Chapter 2 reviews the historical trends of the natural gas, electricity and water consumption and their determinants - in particular prices - in the Netherlands. The historical perspective covers the period 1950 - 1990. The development of prices has several aspects such as nominal versus real prices, pricing schedules and the price per unit of consumer durable services.' In addition, we present the penetration rates of household appliances. Furthermore, we review the development in household waste collection and taxes paid by households for the collection of household waste. Finally, we make a small side step and evaluate car ownership and usage. Chapter 3 analyzes two issues with respect to consumer durables: first, we analyze the effect of energy and water use on the purchase price of domestic appliances empirically, and secondly, we analyze the effect of subsidies on high-efficiency versions on the consumer decision and consequently on the penetration rate theoretically. As to the first issue, we estimate hedonic regressions equations for purchase prices, energy use and water use with data on four domestic appliances. As to the second issue, the purchase of an appliance has implications for future consumption. Therefore, the purchase decision is analyzed with an intertemporal choice model including the time preference of consumers measured by subjective discount rates. We build a general framework in which a consumer can choose between a low-efficiency version and a high-efficiency version. The latter version requires less energy, produces similar services, and has a higher purchase price; see Kooreman and

  13. Survival of palatal miniscrews used for orthodontic appliance anchorage: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagkiolidou, Angeliki; Ludwig, Björn; Pazera, Pawel; Gkantidis, Nikolaos; Pandis, Nikolaos; Katsaros, Christos

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the overall success of miniscrews inserted in the paramedian palatal region for support of various appliances during orthodontic treatment. The patients received 1 or 2 miniscrews in the paramedian anterior palate of 8.0-mm length and 1.6-mm diameter placed during orthodontic treatment by the same experienced orthodontist. In total, 196 patients (121 girls, 75 boys; median age, 11.7; interquartile range, 3.7) who received 384 miniscrews were evaluated. Two hundred four miniscrews were used with rapid palatal expansion appliances, 136 with appliances for distalization of posterior teeth, and 44 with other appliances, such as transpalatal arches for tooth stabilization. The overall survival of the miniscrews was excellent (97.9%) in the cases examined. Cox regression analysis showed no difference in the overall survival rates of miniscrews loaded with different appliances for sex (hazard ratio, 0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-1.27; P = 0.73) after adjusting for appliance and age. This study shows that miniscrews placed in the paramedian anterior palate for supporting various orthodontic appliances have excellent survival. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of thermoplastic appliance thickness on initial stress distribution in periodontal ligament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Shin Liu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation into the initial stress distribution induced within the periodontal ligament by thermoplastic appliances with different thicknesses is performed. Based on the plaster model of a 25-year-old male patient, a finite element model of the maxillary lateral incisors and their supporting structures is constructed. In addition, four finite element models of thermoplastic appliances with different thicknesses in the range of 0.5–1.25 mm are also constructed based on the same plaster model. Finite element analysis simulations are performed to examine the effects of the force delivered by the thermoplastic appliances on the stress response of the periodontal ligament during the elastic recovery process. The results show that the stress induced in the periodontal ligament increases with an increasing appliance thickness. For example, the stress triples from 0.0012 to 0.0038 MPa as the appliance thickness is increased from 0.75 to 1.25 mm. The results presented in this study provide a useful insight into as a result of the compressive and tensile stresses induced by thermoplastic appliances of different thicknesses. Moreover, the results enable the periodontal ligament stress levels produced by thermoplastic appliances of different thicknesses to be reliably estimated.

  15. Design and manufacturing of patient-specific orthodontic appliances by computer-aided engineering techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Sandro; Neri, Paolo; Paoli, Alessandro; Razionale, Armando Viviano

    2018-01-01

    Orthodontic treatments are usually performed using fixed brackets or removable oral appliances, which are traditionally made from alginate impressions and wax registrations. Among removable devices, eruption guidance appliances are used for early orthodontic treatments in order to intercept and prevent malocclusion problems. Commercially available eruption guidance appliances, however, are symmetric devices produced using a few standard sizes. For this reason, they are not able to meet all the specific patient's needs since the actual dental anatomies present various geometries and asymmetric conditions. In this article, a computer-aided design-based methodology for the design and manufacturing of a patient-specific eruption guidance appliances is presented. The proposed approach is based on the digitalization of several steps of the overall process: from the digital reconstruction of patients' anatomies to the manufacturing of customized appliances. A finite element model has been developed to evaluate the temporomandibular joint disks stress level caused by using symmetric eruption guidance appliances with different teeth misalignment conditions. The developed model can then be used to guide the design of a patient-specific appliance with the aim at reducing the patient discomfort. At this purpose, two different customization levels are proposed in order to face both arches and single tooth misalignment issues. A low-cost manufacturing process, based on an additive manufacturing technique, is finally presented and discussed.

  16. Treatment effects of the Jasper Jumper and the Bionator associated with fixed appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Leniana Santos; Janson, Guilherme; Cançado, Rodrigo Hermont; de Lima, Karina Jerônimo Rodrigues Santiago; Fernandes, Thaís Maria Freire; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Class II malocclusion treatment with the Jasper Jumper and the Bionator, associated with fixed appliances. The sample comprised 77 young individuals divided into 3 groups: Group 1 consisted of 25 patients treated with the Jasper Jumper appliance associated with fixed appliances for a mean period of 2.15 years; group 2 had 30 patients, treated with the Bionator and fixed appliances, for a mean treatment time of 3.92 years; and the control group included 22 subjects followed for a mean period of 2.13 years. The initial and final lateral cephalograms of the patients were evaluated. Intergroup comparison at the initial stage and of the treatment changes were performed by analysis of variance. Their effects consisted in a restrictive effect on the maxilla, a slight increase in anterior face height, retrusion and extrusion of the maxillary incisors, labial tipping and protrusion of the mandibular incisors in both groups and intrusion with the Jasper Jumper appliance, maxillary molar distalization with the Jasper Jumper, extrusion and mesialization of the mandibular molars, both appliances provided significant improvement of the maxillomandibular relationship, overjet, overbite and molar relationship. The effects of both appliances in class II malocclusion treatment are similar; however, treatment with the Jasper Jumper was shorter than with the Bionator.

  17. A comparison of pain experienced by patients treated with labial and lingual orthodontic appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Abby K Y; McGrath, Colman; Wong, Ricky W K; Wiechmann, D; Rabie, A Bakr M

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this prospective longitudinal study was to compare pain experiences among Chinese adult patients treated with labial and lingual orthodontic appliances. Sixty patients, 30 with labial appliances (18 females and 12 males, mean age 20.33 years, SD +/- 4.205) and 30 with lingual appliances (22 females and 8 males, mean age 21.63 years, SD +/- 2.236), rated their overall pain experience on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) at three time points: 1 week (T(1)), 1 month (T(2)), and 3 months (T(3)) after bracket placement. In addition, on a separate 100 mm VAS, they rated their pain experience at the locations of the tongue, lips, cheeks, gums, face, and jaw at T(1), T(2), and T(3). Changes in pain VAS were conducted using Friedman analysis of variance, area under the curve (AUC) analysis and the data were compared using a t-test. There was no significant difference in global ratings of pain among those treated with labial or lingual appliances (P > 0.05). Among both groups, global ratings of pain decreased over the study period (P appliances reported higher ratings of tongue pain (P appliances reported higher ratings of lip (P appliances rate similarly the level of overall pain they experience during treatment. Ratings of overall pain experienced decreased for both treatment groups with time. However, ratings of pain differed at various sites with respect to the type of orthodontic appliance. These findings have implications in informing patients' treatment decision-making processes regarding labial and lingual appliances and in the management of discomfort associated with different treatment modalities.

  18. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkalayci, Nurhat; Yetmez, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth.

  19. A New Orthodontic Appliance with a Mini Screw for Upper Molar Distalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurhat Ozkalayci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to present a new upper molar distalization appliance called Cise distalizer designed as intraoral device supported with orthodontic mini screw for upper permanent molar distalization. The new appliance consists of eight main components. In order to understand the optimum force level, the appliance under static loading is tested by using strain gage measurement techniques. Results show that one of the open coils produces approximately 300 gr distalization force. Cise distalizer can provide totally 600 gr distalization force. This range of force level is enough for distalization of upper first and second molar teeth.

  20. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Commercial Building Appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Ahlfeldt, Christopher [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Hiraiwa, Hirokazu [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sathe, Amul [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This study characterizes and assesses the appliances used in commercial buildings. The primary objectives of this study were to document the energy consumed by commercial appliances and identify research, development and demonstration (RD&D) opportunities for efficiency improvements, excluding product categories such as HVAC, building lighting, refrigeration equipment, and distributed generation systems. The study included equipment descriptions, characteristics of the equipment’s market, national energy consumption, estimates of technical potential for energy-saving technologies, and recommendations for U.S. Department of Energy programs that can promote energy savings in commercial appliances.

  1. Emissions from SF6 appliances in Norway. Additional report No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjarede, Anne Cathrine

    1999-01-01

    The report presents facts regarding the Norwegian SF 6 emissions and the significance for the Norwegian climatic gas accounts in order to evaluate whether 12-24 kV SF 6 appliances are environmentally acceptable. Estimations show that emissions from such equipment contribute with about 0.2 % of the total Norwegian CO 2 emissions in 1993. The SF 6 which is stored in electric appliances, may either be recycled or decomposed to more environmentally acceptable end products. The report concludes that the contribution to the greenhouse effects from SF 6 appliances is minimal

  2. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  3. Family Issues in Multigenerational Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinauer, Leslie L; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied issues faced by multigenerational families and their implications for family therapy. Major factors in multigenerational households included dependency, sibling relationships, depression, and demanding and egocentric behavior. Factors to consider during family therapy include respite care, age, interdependence, dignity, provision of care,…

  4. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  5. Inflation differentials among Czech households

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr; Hait, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2016), s. 71-84 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020188 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : households * inflation * inflation differentials Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.710, year: 2016

  6. Household Portfolios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    We describe and analyse the portfolio structure of Dutch households using micro panel data from the CentER Savings Survey, 1993-1998.The data allows for a distinction between many types of assets.Moreover, we have information on mortgage debt, consumer debt, etc.We analyse the composition of

  7. Development of a multimodal transportation educational virtual appliance (MTEVA) to study congestion during extreme tropical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    In this study, a prototype Multimodal Transportation Educational Virtual Appliance (MTEVA) is developed to assist in transportation and cyberinfrastructure undergraduate education. This initial version of the MTEVA provides a graphical user interface...

  8. Effect of dental wear, stabilization appliance and anterior tooth reconstruction on mandibular movements during speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Priscila de Oliveira; Faot, Fernanda; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha; Rodrigues Garcia, Renata Cunha Matheus

    2008-01-01

    This study described changes in mandibular movements during pronunciation of /m/ and /s/ sounds in Portuguese, in patients presenting dental wear before and after appliance insertion and tooth reconstruction. Subjects were divided into a control group of dentate patients and an experimental group of patients with incisal tooth wear due to bruxism. A magnetic jaw tracking device measured the jaw opening, and translations to left and right sides of the mandible during pronunciation of phonemes. Evaluations were carried out 1 week and immediately before appliance insertion; 24 h, 7, 30 and 60 days after appliance insertion; and 1 week and 1 month after tooth reconstruction. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Friedman tests (pspeech of /m/ and /s/ sounds were not changed after appliance insertion and reconstruction of teeth.

  9. Home Appliances as Home Controllers: Concepts and Set-Top Box Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Jovanovic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a novel softwarebased home control platform suitable as an extension to digital home appliances that are equipped with a CPU (settop boxes, home theatre systems, TV sets, gaming consoles, etc. By using an appliance they are already accustomed to, users become able to control lights, appliances and media playback in their homes. Intelligence and awareness are achieved with a support for execution of recipes – preprepared scripts that define timely actions and respond to triggers obtained from sensors. Software abstraction layer facilitates integration of any desired communication protocol. In our prototype, we supported Zigbee and DMX for light control, X10 for light/appliances control over power line, as well as Ethernet-based optical cameras as motion/presence sensors and UPnP/DLNA based equipment for distributed media playback.

  10. Design and explanation of organizational excellence model in home appliances industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Abbas Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Home appliances are considered as one of low margin and competitive industry in the world. This industry often needs significant amount of investment and resources and it often faces with some challenges during economic crises. In this paper, we present a framework for organizational excellence to detect any possible problems in home appliances industry. The proposed framework of this paper is used for a real-world case study of Iranian home appliances. The results of our survey indicate that there are four major dimensions involved with this industry including facilities, knowledge and skills, environment and vision. There are three criteria associated with facilities with 30 indexes, 14 criteria associated with knowledge and skills with 144 indexes, three criteria involved with environment with 33 indexes and five criteria linked with vision with 53 indexes. Therefore, home appliances in our case study needs 4 dimensions for achieving the organizational excellence.

  11. Technical Appliance in E-Learning: Student’s Perception on the Usage of Online Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Sarah Mohd Johari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to gain insights into student’s perception on the usage of technical appliances on online learning. The study took place in the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM based on the sample of 1084 student s with the experiences of using E-learning Portal as one of the distance education academic programme. The students were surveyed on the participation needs based on respondent’s personal background, such as age, gender, ethnic groups, education streams and year-of-study. Results of the study showed even though most of the students felt uncertain about the technical appliances in E-learning Portal, the study illustrates the true nature of the student’s perceptions with respect to the functionality and effectiveness of technical appliance in E-learning Portal. This research is essential to elucidate the functions of technical appliances in facilitating the process of learning through the portal.

  12. Modified custom made J-hook for maxillary protraction in a rapid maxillary expansion appliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jithesh Kumar Kodoth

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple yet innovative attaching the J-hook along with an rapid maxillary appliance for the protraction of maxilla is presented. The proposed method not only simplifies construction but also is equally effective.

  13. Changes in 3D Midfacial Parameters after Biomimetic Oral Appliance Therapy in Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Dave Singh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: These data support the notion that maxillary bone width and volume can be changed in nongrowing adults. Furthermore, midfacial redevelopment may provide a potentially-useful method of managing adults diagnosed with obstructive sleep apnea, using biomimetic, oral appliances.

  14. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Sukh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  15. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior cross bite and retrognathic maxilla at the mixed dentition stage. Anterior cross bite was corrected in 3 months and the positive overjet of 4 mm after continued use of the appliance for 1 year. There was a significant improvement in profile of the patient. The use of this appliance in this type of malocclusion enabled the correction of malocclusion in a few months and encouraging favorable skeletal growth in the future.

  16. Impacts of Imported Liquefied Natural Gas on Residential Appliance Components: Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex; Sturges, Andy; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2009-12-09

    An increasing share of natural gas supplies distributed to residential appliances in the U.S. may come from liquefied natural gas (LNG) imports. The imported gas will be of a higher Wobbe number than domestic gas, and there is concern that it could produce more pollutant emissions at the point of use. This report will review recently undertaken studies, some of which have observed substantial effects on various appliances when operated on different mixtures of imported LNG. While we will summarize findings of major studies, we will not try to characterize broad effects of LNG, but describe how different components of the appliance itself will be affected by imported LNG. This paper considers how the operation of each major component of the gas appliances may be impacted by a switch to LNG, and how this local impact may affect overall safety, performance and pollutant emissions.

  17. POSSIBLE ROLE OF INDOOR RADON REDUCTION SYSTEMS IN BACK-DRAFTING RESIDENTIAL COMBUSTION APPLIANCES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article gives results of a computational sensitivity analysis conducted to identify conditions under which residential active soil depressurization (ASD) systems for indoor radon reduction might contribute to or create back-drafting of natural draft combustion appliances. Par...

  18. Clinical Effectiveness of Using Aesthetic Fixed Prosthetic Appliances with Combined Occlusal Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrii Biben

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions. Aesthetic fixed prosthetic appliances with combined occlusal surface demonstrated high functional and aesthetic characteristics. The use of the USHPS system showed a decisive advantage of milled frameworks and combined occlusal surface over traditional cast ceramic frameworks.The combination of high mechanical, strength and tribological properties of zirconium dioxide and high biological as well as aesthetic properties of ceramic materials helped reveal high clinical characteristics of aesthetic appliances with combined occlusal surface.

  19. Photovoltaic power supply for appliances and small systems. Final report; Photovoltaik fuer Geraete und Kleinsysteme. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, W.; Anton, L.; Benz, J.; Kaiser, R.; Kuhmann, J.; Puls, H.G.; Pfanner, N.; Schmidt, H.; Schulz, W.; Steinhueser, A.

    2002-06-01

    The economic prospects of PV power supply to appliances and small systems were investigated. The research project was aimed at improving the conditions for efficient development of appliances and small systems with photovoltaic power supply and autonomous systems not connected to the grid. Innovative products were developed and tested in cooperation with industrial organizations. The project is to help small and medium-sized organizations with a technological orientation and enhance technology transfer between science and industry.

  20. The Hybrid Aesthetic Functional (HAF) Appliance: A Less Visible Proposal for Functional Orthodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    In modern orthodontics, aesthetics appear to have a decisive influence on orthodontic appliance preferences and acceptability. This paper reports the early application of a newly emerged functional device with enhanced aesthetics in a Class II treatment. Patient perspectives and technical considerations are discussed along with recommendations for further design development. It can be assumed that the use of thermoplastic material-based appliances may meet both the therapeutic and aesthetic demands of young age groups. PMID:23956884

  1. Space Maintenance with an Innovative ?Tube and Loop? Space Maintainer (Nikhil Appliance)

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Nikhil; Grover, Jyotika; Panthri, Prerna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the best efforts in prevention, premature loss of primary teeth continues to be a common problem in pediatric dentistry, resulting in disruption of arch integrity and adversely affecting the proper alignment of permanent successors. Space maintainers (SMs) are special appliances used for maintaining space created due to premature loss of primary teeth. Band and loop SM is mostly indicated for the premature loss of single primary molar, but this appliance has a number of limit...

  2. Occlus-o-Guide® versus Andresen activator appliance: neuromuscular evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farronato, Giampietro; Giannini, Lucia; Galbiati, Guido; Grillo, Elena; Maspero, Cinzia

    2013-05-20

    The aim of the present study was to assess the muscular variations at the electromyography (EMG) level for the anterior temporalis muscles and masseter muscles during treatment with Occlus-o-Guide® and Andresen activator appliances. Eighty-two patients (35 males and 47 females) aged between 8 and 12 years (mean age, 10.5±0.8 years) participated in the study. Fifty patients underwent treatment with an Occlus-o-Guide® and 32 patients with an Andresen activator. All patients underwent EMG examination using a Freely EMG (De Gotzen, Legnano, Italy) and surface bipolar electrodes when the appliances were worn for the first time (T0), and after 6 months (T1) and after 12 months (T2) of appliance use. Statistical analysis showed that both at T0 and T2, the percent overlapping coefficient (POC) of the anterior temporalis muscles was not statistically different between the appliance groups. At T0, the POC of the masseter muscles was significantly lower for the Andresen appliance as compared to the Occlus-o-Guide® (p=0.02), while at T2 this significance was lost. At insertion of an appliance, all patients show neuromuscular balance that does not correspond to orthognathic occlusion. Both appliances work by creating muscular imbalance. With the appliances in situ, EMG responses were generally analogous for the Occlus-o-Guide® and the Andresen activator; however, the imbalance was greater and the recovery of the orthological muscular balance was slower in patients under treatment with the Andresen activator as compared to those with the Occlus-o-Guide®.

  3. Load Balancing Integrated Least Slack Time-Based Appliance Scheduling for Smart Home Energy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagya Nathali Silva; Murad Khan; Kijun Han

    2018-01-01

    The emergence of smart devices and smart appliances has highly favored the realization of the smart home concept. Modern smart home systems handle a wide range of user requirements. Energy management and energy conservation are in the spotlight when deploying sophisticated smart homes. However, the performance of energy management systems is highly influenced by user behaviors and adopted energy management approaches. Appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage...

  4. Optimal joint scheduling of electrical and thermal appliances in a smart home environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, Elham; Zakariazadeh, Alireza; Jadid, Shahram

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal appliances are scheduled based on desired temperature and energy prices. • A discomfort index has been introduced within the home energy scheduling model. • Appliances are scheduled based on activity probability and desired options. • Starting probability depends on the social random factor and consumption behavior. - Abstract: With the development of home area network, residents have the opportunity to schedule their power usage in the home by themselves aiming at reducing electricity expenses. Moreover, as renewable energy sources are deployed in home, a home energy management system needs to consider both energy consumption and generation simultaneously to minimize the energy cost. In this paper, a smart home energy management model has been presented in which electrical and thermal appliances are jointly scheduled. The proposed method aims at minimizing the electricity cost of a residential customer by scheduling various type of appliances considering the residents consumption behavior, seasonal probability, social random factor, discomfort index and appliances starting probability functions. In this model, the home central controller receives the electricity price information, environmental factors data as well as the resident desired options in order to optimally schedule appliances including electrical and thermal. The scheduling approach is tested on a typical home including variety of home appliances, a small wind turbine, photovoltaic panel, combined heat and power unit, boiler and electrical and thermal storages over a 24-h period. The results show that the scheduling of different appliances can be reached simultaneously by using the proposed formulation. Moreover, simulation results evidenced that the proposed home energy management model exhibits a lower cost and, therefore, is more economical.

  5. A new modified tandem appliance for management of developing Class III malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Sukh, Ram; Singh, Gyan P; Tandon, Pradeep

    2013-01-01

    Most developing Class III patients display a retruded maxilla. Early intervention in mixed dentition is associated with better patient compliance and possibly a better orthopedic response, which can produce favorable results. The aim of this article is to present the fabrication of the new modified tandem appliance and its use in management of developing Class III malocclusion. The therapeutic results of a new modified tandem appliance are presented in an 8 year-old male patient with anterior...

  6. Treatment of cooling appliances. Interrelations between environmental protection, resource conservation, and recovery rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    The treatment of cooling appliances in Austria is primarily influenced by two factors. On the one hand is their changing composition and on the other hand the ordinance on Waste Prevention, Collection and Treatment of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE ordinance), which stipulates a minimum recycling rate of 75% for cooling appliances. This paper investigates whether this recycling rate leads to optimal treatment practices for cooling appliances with respect to resource conservation and environmental protection. Two different treatment technologies which achieve recycling rates between 50-60% and 80-90%, respectively, are compared both for cooling appliances containing Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and for appliances containing Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). Materials and energy balances are developed for each model. To evaluate resource consumption, expenditures as well as savings of energy and materials are incorporated via the Cumulative Energy Demand (CED). In order to analyse the environmental impact of the different practices, balances for CFC, CO 2 , HF, HCl and solid residues are established. The results show that the treatment type aiming for a maximum of materials recycling contributes more to resource conservation than the other treatment type. But for CFC appliances the former is associated with substantial CFC emissions, which turn out to be most relevant when treating these appliances. Generally, it is found that the optimum recycling rate is a function of the composition of the appliance and the technologies applied, both in recycling and in primary production. A high recycling rate per se does not automatically result in an optimal solution with regard to resource conservation and environmental protection. (author)

  7. Gas at work. Vision on decentralized gas appliances in the built environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Gastel, M.; Hooijschuur, J.; De Jong, A.; De Visser, I.; Overdiep, H.; Bakker, E.J.; Van Wolferen, H.

    2008-04-01

    Various platforms operate within the SenterNovem programme Creative Energy. This report is the first version of the vision document of the working group Decentralized gas appliances of the Platform New Gas, in which the following aspects of the various promising innovative gas appliances are indicated: the development stage, the intended energy saving, the CO2 reduction, the bottlenecks for large scale market introduction and the solutions for these bottlenecks. [mk] [nl

  8. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  9. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Dianshu; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Khuong Minh Vu

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  10. The barriers to energy efficiency in China. Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianshu, Feng; Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Minh Vu, Khuong [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond. (author)

  11. The barriers to energy efficiency in China: Assessing household electricity savings and consumer behavior in Liaoning Province

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Dianshu, E-mail: dianshu@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Sovacool, Benjamin K., E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore); Khuong Minh Vu, E-mail: sppkmv@nus.edu.s [Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, National University of Singapore, Oei Tiong Ham Building, 469C Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 259772 (Singapore)

    2010-02-15

    This article investigates the barriers to energy efficiency at the residential sector within one province in China and explores patterns of household electricity consumption. The article presents the results of a survey questionnaire distributed to more than 600 households in Liaoning Province, field research at various Liaoning government agencies, and research interviews of Liaoning government officials to determine the efficacy of their energy efficiency efforts in China. It then investigates the extent that electricity consumers have taken advantage of energy efficiency opportunities relating to more efficient lights, water heaters, appliances, air-conditioners and heaters, and better energy-efficiency labels. The article also assesses the degree that electricity users have become more aware about electricity prices and their levels of consumption, and touches on the connection between rising levels of income and electricity use. It concludes by providing recommendations for how to improve efforts to promote conservation and reduce electricity load growth in Liaoning Province and beyond.

  12. Effect of fixed orthodontic appliances on salivary microbial parameters at 6 months: a controlled observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine MARET

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the microbial changes in children with fixed orthodontic appliances compared with a control group of children without orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: Ninety-five children, aged between 12 and 16 years, participated in this study. Forty-eight subjects were fitted with fixed orthodontic appliances and forty-seven were free of any such appliances. The follow-up was 6 months for all children. The association between orthodontic appliances and high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp was assessed with logistic regression models, taking age, sex, pH and buffer capacity into account. Results: Differences at baseline between the two groups were not statistically significant. We found that wearing a fixed orthodontic appliance was associated with high levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp (adjusted OR: 6.65, 95% CI [1.98-22.37]; 9.49, 95% CI [2.57-35.07], respectively, independently of other variables. Conclusion: The originality of the present epidemiological study was to evaluate the evolution of salivary microbial parameters in a population of children with fixed orthodontic appliances. Our results show an increase of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus spp values during the follow-up. The whole dental workforce should be aware that preventive measures are of paramount importance during orthodontic treatment.

  13. BLOND, a building-level office environment dataset of typical electrical appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Jacobsen, Hans-Arno

    2018-03-27

    Energy metering has gained popularity as conventional meters are replaced by electronic smart meters that promise energy savings and higher comfort levels for occupants. Achieving these goals requires a deeper understanding of consumption patterns to reduce the energy footprint: load profile forecasting, power disaggregation, appliance identification, startup event detection, etc. Publicly available datasets are used to test, verify, and benchmark possible solutions to these problems. For this purpose, we present the BLOND dataset: continuous energy measurements of a typical office environment at high sampling rates with common appliances and load profiles. We provide voltage and current readings for aggregated circuits and matching fully-labeled ground truth data (individual appliance measurements). The dataset contains 53 appliances (16 classes) in a 3-phase power grid. BLOND-50 contains 213 days of measurements sampled at 50kSps (aggregate) and 6.4kSps (individual appliances). BLOND-250 consists of the same setup: 50 days, 250kSps (aggregate), 50kSps (individual appliances). These are the longest continuous measurements at such high sampling rates and fully-labeled ground truth we are aware of.

  14. Alteration in Taste Perception among Young Children during the use of Removable Orthodontic Appliance Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razdan, Priyanka; Sakthivel, V S; Naqvi, Zuber A; Goyal, Vinod; Tripathi, Swati; Singh, Smita

    2017-07-01

    The sense of smell is very influential in the taste of foods. If the smell pleases us, we anticipate the taste of the food with a great deal of relish. If our sense of smell is impaired, so is our taste. The effect of appliance on taste perceptions has always had a controversial subject. The present study was designed to analyze the change in taste perception in children using removable orthodontic appliances. All the selected volunteers were given different taste stimuli and were asked to score as per their perception. The verbal score was calculated based on the correct and incorrect taste stimuli given to them. Visual analog scale was used to assess intensity and hedonic (palatability) estimation of the volunteers. The volunteers from both study and control groups scored different values for taste stimuli. The majority of stimuli were estimated correctly by both groups. There was no statistically significant difference between the study and control groups. In different testing sessions, the scoring of the volunteers was nearly constant, indicating that an appliance does not play a major role in the alteration of taste stimuli. The appliance brings about transient change in taste perception, we should educate the patient before delivering the appliance about the transient change in taste perception and encourage full-time wear of the appliance, including during meals, without fear of affecting taste sensations.

  15. BLOND, a building-level office environment dataset of typical electrical appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriechbaumer, Thomas; Jacobsen, Hans-Arno

    2018-03-01

    Energy metering has gained popularity as conventional meters are replaced by electronic smart meters that promise energy savings and higher comfort levels for occupants. Achieving these goals requires a deeper understanding of consumption patterns to reduce the energy footprint: load profile forecasting, power disaggregation, appliance identification, startup event detection, etc. Publicly available datasets are used to test, verify, and benchmark possible solutions to these problems. For this purpose, we present the BLOND dataset: continuous energy measurements of a typical office environment at high sampling rates with common appliances and load profiles. We provide voltage and current readings for aggregated circuits and matching fully-labeled ground truth data (individual appliance measurements). The dataset contains 53 appliances (16 classes) in a 3-phase power grid. BLOND-50 contains 213 days of measurements sampled at 50kSps (aggregate) and 6.4kSps (individual appliances). BLOND-250 consists of the same setup: 50 days, 250kSps (aggregate), 50kSps (individual appliances). These are the longest continuous measurements at such high sampling rates and fully-labeled ground truth we are aware of.

  16. Comparison of External Apical Root Resorption after Orthodontic Treatment with Two Appliances (Standard Edgewise and MBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mollabashi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was todeterminetheamount of external apical root resorption(EARRwithin two orthodontic appliances (standard edgewise and MBT. Material & Methods In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs of 83 orthodontic patients (27 male and 56 female were evaluated. 46 patients had been treated with standard edgewise appliance (29 patients with extraction and 17 patients without extraction and 37 patients had been treated with MBT appliance (27 patients with extraction and 10 patients without extraction.EARR were evaluated in 24 teeth (anterior teeth, premolars and first molars in each patient. SPSS software and ordinal regression test were used for statistical analysis. Result: In this study the most EARR was seen in upper lateral incisors, then lower lateral incisors.EARR in upper canines and lower second premolars was significantly related to extraction of first premolarin MBT appliance. In non extraction cases, EARR was not related to the orthodontic appliance. Conclusion: Incisors teeth are the most disposed teeth to EARR. Orthodontic treatment with extraction increased EARR in canines and second premolars. MBT appliance may increase EARR. Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci . 2016; 22 (4 :316-322

  17. Evolution of treatment mechanics and contemporary appliance design in orthodontics: A 40-year perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Richard P; Bennett, John C

    2015-06-01

    Until the early 1970s, successful treatment with the Begg technique and the Tweed edgewise technique required tedious wire bending. The introduction of Andrews' straight wire appliance changed that, and it was one of the most significant contributions in the history of orthodontics. The straight wire appliance significantly reduced the amount of wire bending and also brought along other options in treatment mechanics. Retraction of the canines with elastic chains and ligature wires became more common. Sliding mechanics in place of closing loops became the method of space closure for a significant number of clinicians. Edgewise force levels were initially used to close spaces; however, it was soon observed that lighter forces were more effective with sliding mechanics. Along with these changes, it became apparent that compensation in the appliance was needed, depending on the type of malocclusion and particularly with varying extraction sequences. Various appliance designs were developed to accommodate changes in mechanics and force levels. These modifications improved tooth positions at the end of treatment as long as the brackets were properly placed. These major changes in appliances, force levels, and treatment mechanics can be traced back to the work of Dr Lawrence Andrews and the straight wire appliances. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A randomized clinical trial comparing mandibular incisor proclination produced by fixed labial appliances and clear aligners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Garvey, Thérèse; Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A

    2016-09-01

    To compare the mandibular incisor proclination produced by fixed labial appliances and third generation clear aligners. Patients underwent a course of orthodontic treatment using either fixed labial appliances or clear aligners (Invisalign). Mandibular incisor proclination was measured by comparing pretreatment and near-end treatment lateral cephalograms. Eligibility criteria included adult patients with mild mandibular incisor crowding (clear aligner group. Baseline characteristics were similar for both groups: Fixed appliance mean crowding was 2.1 ± 1.3 mm vs clear aligner mean crowding, 2.5 ± 1.3 mm; pretreatment mean mandibular incisor inclination for the fixed appliance group was 90.8 ± 5.4° vs 91.6 ± 6.4° for the clear aligner group. Fixed appliances produced 5.3 ± 4.3° of mandibular incisor proclination. Clear aligners proclined the mandibular incisors by 3.4 ± 3.2°. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P > .05). There was no difference in the amount of mandibular incisor proclination produced by clear aligners and fixed labial appliances in mild crowding cases.

  19. Full 3-dimensional digital workflow for multicomponent dental appliances: A proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, W Joerd; Vissink, Arjan; Ren, Yijin

    2016-04-01

    The authors used a 3-dimensional (3D) printer and a bending robot to produce a multicomponent dental appliance to assess whether 3D digital models of the dentition are applicable for a full digital workflow. The authors scanned a volunteer's dentition with an intraoral scanner (Lava Chairside Oral Scanner C.O.S., 3M). A digital impression was used to design 2 multicomponent orthodontic appliances. Biocompatible acrylic baseplates were produced with the aid of a 3D printer. The metal springs and clasps were produced by a bending robot. The fit of the 2 appliances was assessed by 2 experienced orthodontists. The authors assessed both orthodontic appliances with the volunteer's dentition and found the fit to be excellent. Clinicians can fully produce a multicomponent dental appliance consisting of both an acrylic baseplate and other parts, such as clasps, springs, or screws, using a digital workflow process without the need for a physical model of the patient's dentition. Plaster models can be superfluous for orthodontic treatment as digital models can be used in all phases of a full digital workflow in orthodontics. The arduous task of making a multicomponent dental appliance that involves bending wires can possibly be replaced by a computer, design software, a 3D printer, and a bending robot. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The impact of orthodontic appliances on eating - young people's views and experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Louise A; Geldenhuys, Mieke; Moynihan, Paula J; Slater, Dina R; Exley, Catherine E; Rolland, Sarah L

    2015-06-01

    Orthodontic appliances are known to cause patients difficulty with eating. Learning more about the issues patients face, while eating with orthodontic appliances in place, will allow us to create more informative and relevant patient information, thereby improving patient compliance and treatment success. This study aims to understand how orthodontic appliances impact on eating in the broader context and to explore adolescent patients' perceptions of eating with orthodontic appliances. Purposive sampling was used and 19 participants currently undergoing orthodontic treatment and aged 11-14 years were selected for either a focus group or semi-structured interview to explore eating-related issues. Data collection and analysis were carried out as an iterative process broadly following principles of thematic analysis. Data collection ceased when no new themes emerged. Two main themes relating to eating problems emerged: restriction of food choice and problems associated with the eating process. Participants reported restricting food choice due to physical aspects of the appliance, advice given by their orthodontist, fear of breakage and also to minimize embarrassment. Participants also reported problems with the time taken to eat, chewing problems, taste change and being messy while eating. Additionally, time in treatment, the location of eating and relationship with those present during eating influenced emotions. Some participants indicated a positive impact of orthodontic appliances on their diet. These results can be used to further inform dietary advice offered to patients. Factors were identified which may not be considered in clinical practice but which could improve the value of dietary advice given to patients.