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Sample records for thermosetting composites reinforced

  1. Flax reinforced thermoset composites from polyfurfuryl alcohol

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Composites from Polyfurfuryl Alcohol Rakesh Kumar and Rajesh Anandjiwala CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing, Nonwovens and Composites Group, Port Elizabeth Port Elizabeth 11th ICAM, Rio de Janerio, Brazil, September 20-25, 2009 © CSIR 2007...

  2. Multiply fully recyclable carbon fibre reinforced heat-resistant covalent thermosetting advanced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yanchao; Sun, Yanxiao; Yan, Shijing; Zhao, Jianqing; Liu, Shumei; Zhang, Mingqiu; Zheng, Xiaoxing; Jia, Lei

    2017-03-02

    Nondestructive retrieval of expensive carbon fibres (CFs) from CF-reinforced thermosetting advanced composites widely applied in high-tech fields has remained inaccessible as the harsh conditions required to recycle high-performance resin matrices unavoidably damage the structure and properties of CFs. Degradable thermosetting resins with stable covalent structures offer a potential solution to this conflict. Here we design a new synthesis scheme and prepare a recyclable CF-reinforced poly(hexahydrotriazine) resin matrix advanced composite. The multiple recycling experiments and characterization data establish that this composite demonstrates performance comparable to those of its commercial counterparts, and more importantly, it realizes multiple intact recoveries of CFs and near-total recycling of the principal raw materials through gentle depolymerization in certain dilute acid solution. To our best knowledge, this study demonstrates for the first time a feasible and environment-friendly preparation-recycle-regeneration strategy for multiple CF-recycling from CF-reinforced advanced composites.

  3. THERMOMECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF JUTE/BAGASSE HYBRID FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY THERMOSET COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Sudhir Kumar Saw; Chandan Datta

    2009-01-01

    Natural fibres are partly replacing currently used synthetic fibres as reinforcement for polymer composites. Jute fibre bundles were high-cellulose-content modified by alkali treatment, while the bagasse fibre bundles were modified by creating quinones in the lignin portions of fibre surfaces and reacting them with furfuryl alcohol (FA) to increase their adhesiveness. The effects of different fibre bundle loading and modification of bagasse fibre surfaces in hybrid fibre reinforced epoxy comp...

  4. Fabrication and characterization of high impact hybrid matrix composites from thermoset resin and dyneema-glass fabric reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. H.; Sharma, S.; Pansuriya, T.; Malgani, E. V.; Sevkani, V.

    2018-05-01

    Hybrid composites have been fabricated by hand lay-up technique with epoxy resin and diethylene tri amine as a hardener for high impact energy absorption with sandwich stacking of different reinforcements of dyneema and glass fabric. High impact grade composites are nowadays gaining a lot of importance in the field of high mechanical load bearing applications, ballistics and bulletproofing. The present work emphases on the fabrication and mechanical properties of the hybrid composites of cut resistant dyneema fabric along with glass fabric reinforced in the thermosetting resin. i.e. epoxy. The prime importance while fabricating such materials have been given to the processing along with selection of the raw materials. High impact resistive materials with low density and henceforth low weight have been manufactured and characterized by IZOD impact tester, UTM, Archimedes density meter and SEM. Throughout the work, satisfactory results have been obtained. Impact resistance was observed to be boosted three times as that of the reference sample of glass fabric and epoxy. The density of the hybrid composite is observed to be 25% as that of the reference sample.

  5. New recycling approaches for thermoset polymeric composite wastes – an experimental study on polyester based concrete materials filled with fibre reinforced plastic recyclates

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, M. C. S.; Fiúza, António; Meira Castro, A C; Dinis, M. L.; Silva, Francisco J. G.; Meixedo, João Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In this study, a new waste management solution for thermoset glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) based products was assessed. Mechanical recycling approach, with reduction of GFRP waste to powdered and fibrous materials was applied, and the prospective added-value of obtained recyclates was experimentally investigated as raw material for polyester based mortars. Different GFRP waste admixed mortar formulations were analyzed varying the content, between 4% up to 12% in we...

  6. Molding apparatus. [for thermosetting plastic compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heier, W. C. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Apparatus for compression molding of thermosetting plastics compositions including interfitting hollow male and female components is reported. The components are adapted to be compressed to form a rocket nozzle in a cavity. A thermal jacket is provided exteriorly adjacent to the female component for circulating a thermal transfer fluid to effect curing of a thermosetting plastics material being molded. Each of the male and female components is provided with suitable inlets and outlets for circulating a thermal transfer fluid.

  7. Soy-based fillers for thermoset composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Paula

    Considerable work has been done with bio-based fillers in thermoplastics. Wood dust has been used for decades in wood plastic composites in conjunction with recycled high HDPE and PET. In recent years rapidly renewable fillers derived from dried distillery grains and from wood have been introduced commercially for thermoset polymers. These fillers provide bio-content and weight reduction to thermoset molding compounds but issues with moisture absorption and polymerization inhibition have limited their commercial acceptance. The intent of this research was to develop a bio-based filler suitable for thermoset composites. This filler would provide a low density alternative to mined mineral filler, such as CaCO3 or clay. Composites made with these fillers would be lighter in weight, which is desirable for many markets, particularly transportation. Cost parity to the mineral fillers, on a volume basis, was desirable and the use of green chemistry principles was a key objective of the project. This work provides a basis from which further development of modified soy flours as fillers for thermoset composites will continue. Biomass has been evaluated as fillers for thermoset composites since the early 1980s but failed to gain commercial acceptance due to excessive water absorption and inhibition issues with free radical curing. Biomass, with a large percentage of carbohydrates, are very hydrophilic due to their abundance of hydroxyl groups, while biomass, high in lignin, resulted in inhibition of the free radical cure of the unsaturated styrenated polyester matrix systems. Generally protein use as a filler is not desirable due to its food value. Torrefaction has proved to be a good, cost effective, process to reduce hydrophilicity of high cellulose feedstock. Surprising, however, some levels of torrefaction were found to induce the inhibition effect of the filler. Scientific inquiry into this problem proved that aromatics form during the torrefaction process and can

  8. Dielectric Cure Monitoring of Thermosetting Matrix Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Geun [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dae Gil [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-15

    Cure monitoring can be used to improve the quality and productivity of thermosetting resin matrix composite products during their manufacturing process. In this work, the sensitivity of dielectrometry was improved by adequate separation the efforts of sensor and externals on the measured signal. A new algorithm to obtain the degree of cure during dielectric cure monitoring of glass/polyester and glass/epoxy composites was developed by employing a function of both temperature and dissipation factor, in which five cure monitoring parameters were used to calculate the degree of cure. The decreasing pattern of dissipation factor was compared with the relationships between the degree of cure and the resin viscosity. The developed algorithm might be employed for the in situ cure monitoring of thermosetting resin composites

  9. Dielectric Cure Monitoring of Thermosetting Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Geun; Lee, Dae Gil

    2003-01-01

    Cure monitoring can be used to improve the quality and productivity of thermosetting resin matrix composite products during their manufacturing process. In this work, the sensitivity of dielectrometry was improved by adequate separation the efforts of sensor and externals on the measured signal. A new algorithm to obtain the degree of cure during dielectric cure monitoring of glass/polyester and glass/epoxy composites was developed by employing a function of both temperature and dissipation factor, in which five cure monitoring parameters were used to calculate the degree of cure. The decreasing pattern of dissipation factor was compared with the relationships between the degree of cure and the resin viscosity. The developed algorithm might be employed for the in situ cure monitoring of thermosetting resin composites

  10. Spray pond piping made from fiberglass-reinforced thermosetting resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    A method is presented for implementing requirements pertaining to the design, fabrication, and testing of fiberglass-reinforced thermosetting resin piping for spray pond applications. These requirements are given in 10 CFR Part 50, Section 50.55a and Apppendix A, Criterion 1. This guide applies to both light-water-cooled and gas-cooled reactors. Input has been provided by the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards

  11. Reinforced Plastic Composites Production: National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    National emissions standards for hazardous air pollutants for reinforced plastic composites production facilities. Regulates production and ancillary processes used to manufacture products with thermoset resins and gel coats.

  12. Innovative multifunctional siloxane treatment of jute fiber surface and its effect on the mechanical properties of jute/thermoset composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Yoldas, E-mail: yoldas.seki@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eyluel University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Tinaztepe Campus, Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2009-05-20

    Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites have many applications because of their ease of fabrication, relatively low cost, low density and renewable resource. In spite of the various desirable properties of natural fiber to act as a reinforcing material, poor adhesion characteristics between natural fiber and polymer resin result in low mechanical properties. In this study, jute-thermoset composites were fabricated by using unsaturated polyester and epoxy resins. To improve the adhesion between jute fabric and thermoset, alkali treated jute fibers were treated with oligomeric siloxane. FTIR analysis was used to confirm the surface treatment. The effects of fiber surface treatment on the mechanical properties of jute reinforced thermoset composites were determined by using tensile test, flexure test and short beam shear test. The fractured surfaces of composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) technique. Once jute fabrics were treated 1% siloxane concentration, the tensile and flexure properties of silane treated jute thermoset composites increased. Surface treatment of jute fiber caused a significant increase in the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the thermoset composites. From SEM observations, better adhesion was observed for the jute/thermoset composites in the presence of oligomeric siloxane.

  13. Innovative multifunctional siloxane treatment of jute fiber surface and its effect on the mechanical properties of jute/thermoset composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yoldas

    2009-01-01

    Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites have many applications because of their ease of fabrication, relatively low cost, low density and renewable resource. In spite of the various desirable properties of natural fiber to act as a reinforcing material, poor adhesion characteristics between natural fiber and polymer resin result in low mechanical properties. In this study, jute-thermoset composites were fabricated by using unsaturated polyester and epoxy resins. To improve the adhesion between jute fabric and thermoset, alkali treated jute fibers were treated with oligomeric siloxane. FTIR analysis was used to confirm the surface treatment. The effects of fiber surface treatment on the mechanical properties of jute reinforced thermoset composites were determined by using tensile test, flexure test and short beam shear test. The fractured surfaces of composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopic (SEM) technique. Once jute fabrics were treated 1% siloxane concentration, the tensile and flexure properties of silane treated jute thermoset composites increased. Surface treatment of jute fiber caused a significant increase in the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of the thermoset composites. From SEM observations, better adhesion was observed for the jute/thermoset composites in the presence of oligomeric siloxane.

  14. Thermoset composite recycling: Properties of recovered glass fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Fraisse, Anthony; Toncelli, C.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of glass fiber thermoset polymer composite is a challenging topic and a process able to recover the glass fibers original properties in a limited cost is still under investigation. This paper focuses on the recycling technique separating the glass fiber from the matrix material. Four...

  15. Process monitoring of fibre reinforced composites using optical fibre sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernando, G.F.; Degamber, B.

    2006-04-15

    The deployment of optical fibre based sensor systems for process monitoring of advanced fibre reinforced organic matrix composites is reviewed. The focus is on thermosetting resins and the various optical and spectroscopy-based techniques that can be used to monitor the processing of these materials. Following brief consideration of the manufacturing methods commonly used in the production of thermoset based composites, a discussion is presented on sensor systems that can be used to facilitate real-time chemical process monitoring. Although the focus is on thermosets, the techniques described can be adapted for chemical monitoring of organic species in general. (author)

  16. Anhydrides-Cured Bimodal Rubber-Like Epoxy Asphalt Composites: From Thermosetting to Quasi-Thermosetting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Kang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present engineering practices show the potential that epoxy asphalt composites (EACs would be a better choice to obtain long life for busy roads. To understand the service performance–related thermorheological properties of prepared bimodal anhydrides-cured rubber-like EACs (REACs, a direct tensile tester, dynamic shear rheometer and mathematical model were used. Tensile tests demonstrate that all the REACs reported here are more flexible than previously reported anhydrides-cured REACs at both 20 and 0 °C. The better flexibility is attributed to the change of bimodal networks, in which cross-linked short chains decreased and cross-linked long chains increased, relatively. Strain sweeps show that all the REACs have linear viscoelastic (LVE properties when their strains are smaller than 1.0% from −35 to 120 °C. Temperature sweeps illustrate that the thermorheological properties of REACs evolve from thermosetting to quasi-thermosetting with asphalt content, and all the REACs retain solid state and show elastic properties in the experimental temperature range. A Cole–Cole plot and Black diagram indicate that all the REACs are thermorheologically simple materials, and the master curves were constructed and well-fitted by the Generalized Logistic Sigmoidal models. This research provides a facile approach to tune the thermorheological properties of the REACs, and the cheaper quasi-thermosetting REAC facilitates their advanced applications.

  17. Modeling the curing process of thermosetting resin matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loos, A. C.

    1986-01-01

    A model is presented for simulating the curing process of a thermosetting resin matrix composite. The model relates the cure temperature, the cure pressure, and the properties of the prepreg to the thermal, chemical, and rheological processes occurring in the composite during cure. The results calculated with the computer code developed on the basis of the model were compared with the experimental data obtained from autoclave-curved composite laminates. Good agreement between the two sets of results was obtained.

  18. REINFORCED COMPOSITE PANEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A composite panel having front and back faces, the panel comprising facing reinforcement, backing reinforcement and matrix material binding to the facing and backing reinforcements, the facing and backing reinforcements each independently comprising one or more reinforcing sheets, the facing rein...... by matrix material, the facing and backing reinforcements being interconnected to resist out-of-plane relative movement. The reinforced composite panel is useful as a barrier element for shielding structures, equipment and personnel from blast and/or ballistic impact damage....

  19. Thermosets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benthem, van R.A.T.M.; Evers, L.J.; Mattheij, J.; Hofland, A.; Molhoek, L.J.; Koning, de A.J.; Jansen, J.F.G.A.; Duin, van M.; Meyer, T.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2005-01-01

    This chapter contains sections titled: Introduction Phenolic Resins Amino Resins Epoxy Resins Alkyd Resins Saturated Polyester Resins Unsaturated Polyester Resins and Composites Acrylate Resins and UV Curing Rubber

  20. Chapter 15: Characterization and Processing of Nanocellulose Thermosetting Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald C. Sabo; Rani F. Elhajjar; Craig M. Clemons; Krishna M. Pillai

    2015-01-01

    Fiber-reinforced polymer composites have gained popularity through their advantages over conventional metallic materials. Most polymer composites are traditionally made with reinforcing fibers such as carbon or glass. However, there has been recent interest in sourcing these reinforcing fibers from renewable, natural resources. Nanocellulose-based reinforcements...

  1. Flax fiber reinforced PLA composites: studies on types of PLA and different methods of fabrication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are used as reinforcement material for number of thermoplastic/thermoset polymers. The interest in using polylactic acid (PLA) as thermoplastic matrix to produce composites completely from 100% renewable resources has increased...

  2. Diffusion through composite materials made with thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno.

    1981-08-01

    Medium and low-level radioactive wastes may be coated in a solid matrix mainly made with thermosetting resins: the study of water and cesium migration through composite materials made with thermosetting resins is usefull to compare the water tightness of different coatings. Disks with a thickness of two millimeters were used to measure the water absorption. Diffusion cells including a plane membrane the thickness of which was at least 70μ were used to measure the diffusion of cesium 137. The diffusion coefficient of water in pure thermosetting resins, polyester or epoxyde, is about 10 -9 cm 2 .s -1 ; the diffusion coefficients of cesium in the same materials are about 10 -12 cm 2 .s -1 ; the introduction of solid particles in these polymers generally induces an acceleration of the diffusion process: the diffusion coefficient may reach 10 -8 cm 2 .s -1 . This lost of water-tightness may be reduced either by rendering insoluble the filler mixed to the polymer, or by diminushing the porosity of the interfacial zones by improving the bonding between the polymer and the filler [fr

  3. Temperature distribution of thick thermoset composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhan-Sheng; Du, Shanyi; Zhang, Boming

    2004-05-01

    The development of temperature distribution of thick polymeric matrix laminates during an autoclave vacuum bag process was measured and compared with numerically calculated results. The finite element formulation of the transient heat transfer problem was carried out for polymeric matrix composite materials from the heat transfer differential equations including internal heat generation produced by exothermic chemical reactions. Software based on the general finite element software package was developed for numerical simulation of the entire composite process. From the experimental and numerical results, it was found that the measured temperature profiles were in good agreement with the numerical ones, and conventional cure cycles recommended by prepreg manufacturers for thin laminates should be modified to prevent temperature overshoot.

  4. Improved fire retardancy of thermoset composites modified with carbon nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhongfu; Gou Jan

    2009-01-01

    Multifunctional thermoset composites were made from polyester resin, glass fiber mats and carbon nanofiber sheets (CNS). Their flaming behavior was investigated with cone calorimeter under well-controlled combustion conditions. The heat release rate was lowered by pre-planting carbon nanofiber sheets on the sample surface with the total fiber content of only 0.38 wt.%. Electron microscopy showed that carbon nanofiber sheet was partly burned and charred materials were formed on the combusting surface. Both the nanofibers and charred materials acted as an excellent insulator and/or mass transport barrier, improving the fire retardancy of the composite. This behavior agrees well with the general mechanism of fire retardancy in various nanoparticle-thermoplastic composites.

  5. Studies on Poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol Thermoset Composites towards the Development of Biodegradable Bone Fixation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jayabalan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of reinforcement in the cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol thermoset composites based on Kevlar fibres and hydroxyapatite was studied. Cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol was also studied without any reinforcement for comparison. The reinforcing fibre acts as a barrier for the curing reaction leading to longer setting time and lesser cross-link density. The fibre and HA reinforced composites have almost the same compressive strength. Nonreinforced material undergoes greater degree of swelling. Among the reinforced materials, the hydroxyapatite reinforced composite has a much higher swelling percentage than the fibre reinforced one. The studies on in vitro degradation of the cured materials reveal hydrolytic degradation in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging. All the three materials are found to swell initially in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging and then undergo gradual degradation. Compression properties of these cross-linked composites increase with aging; HA reinforced composite has the highest compressive strength and compressive modulus, whereas the aged fibre-reinforced composite has the least compressive strength and modulus.

  6. Studies on Poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol) Thermoset Composites towards the Development of Biodegradable Bone Fixation Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, M

    2009-01-01

    The effect of reinforcement in the cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol) thermoset composites based on Kevlar fibres and hydroxyapatite was studied. Cross-linked poly(propylene fumarate-co-caprolactone diol) was also studied without any reinforcement for comparison. The reinforcing fibre acts as a barrier for the curing reaction leading to longer setting time and lesser cross-link density. The fibre and HA reinforced composites have almost the same compressive strength. Nonreinforced material undergoes greater degree of swelling. Among the reinforced materials, the hydroxyapatite reinforced composite has a much higher swelling percentage than the fibre reinforced one. The studies on in vitro degradation of the cured materials reveal hydrolytic degradation in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging. All the three materials are found to swell initially in Ringer's solution and PBS medium during aging and then undergo gradual degradation. Compression properties of these cross-linked composites increase with aging; HA reinforced composite has the highest compressive strength and compressive modulus, whereas the aged fibre-reinforced composite has the least compressive strength and modulus.

  7. Healable thermoset polymer composite embedded with stimuli-responsive fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang; Meng, Harper; Hu, Jinlian

    2012-01-01

    Severe wounds in biological systems such as human skin cannot heal themselves, unless they are first stitched together. Healing of macroscopic damage in thermoset polymer composites faces a similar challenge. Stimuli-responsive shape-changing polymeric fibres with outstanding mechanical properties embedded in polymers may be able to close macro-cracks automatically upon stimulation such as heating. Here, a stimuli-responsive fibre (SRF) with outstanding mechanical properties and supercontraction capability was fabricated for the purpose of healing macroscopic damage. The SRFs and thermoplastic particles (TPs) were incorporated into regular thermosetting epoxy for repeatedly healing macroscopic damages. The system works by mimicking self-healing of biological systems such as human skin, close (stitch) then heal, i.e. close the macroscopic crack through the thermal-induced supercontraction of the SRFs, and bond the closed crack through melting and diffusing of TPs at the crack interface. The healing efficiency determined using tapered double-cantilever beam specimens was 94 per cent. The self-healing process was reasonably repeatable. PMID:22896563

  8. Flow Characteristics of a Thermoset Fiber Composite Photopolymer Resin in a Vat Polymerization Additive Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Spangenberg, Jon; Pedersen, David B.

    Additive manufacturing vat polymerization has become a leading technology and gained a massive amount of attention in industrial applications such as injection molding inserts. By the use of the thermoset polymerization process inserts have increased their market share. For most industrial...... applications, strength and stiffness are crucial factors to a successful implementation of cured photopolymer thermosets. Hence, fiber-reinforced polymers have recently been introduced. The behavior and especially orientation of fibers during the vat photopolymerization process has yet not been fully...

  9. High performance bio-based thermosets for composites and coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramarta, Adlina Ambeg

    In the recent decade, there has been increasing interest in using renewable feedstocks as chemical commodities for composites and coatings application. Vegetable oils are promising renewable resources due to their wide availability with affordable cost. In fact, the utilization of vegetable oils to produce composite and coatings products has been around for centuries; linseed oil was widely used for wide variety of paints. However, due to its chemical structure, the application of vegetable oils for high-performance materials is limited; and thus chemical modification is necessary. One of the modification approaches is by substituting the glycerol core in the triglycerides with sucrose to form sucrose esters of vegetable oil fatty acids, in which this resin possesses a higher number of functional group per molecule and a more rigid core. In this research, thermosets of highly functionalized sucrose esters of vegetable oils were developed. Two crosslinking methods of epoxidized surcrose soyate (ESS) resins were explored: direct polymerization with anhydride moieties for composite applications and Michael-addition reaction of acrylated-epoxidized sucrose soyate (AESS) for coatings applications. In the first project, it was shown that the reaction kinetics, thermal and mechanical properties of the materials can be tuned by varying the molar ratio between the epoxide and anhydride, plus the type and amount of catalyst. Furthermore, the toughness properties of the ESS-based thermosets can be improved by changing the type of anhydride crosslinkers and incorporating secondary phase rubbers. Then, in the second system, the epoxy functionality in the ESS was converted into acrylate group, which then crosslinked with amine groups through the Michael-addition reaction to produce coatings systems. The high number of functional groups and the fast reactivity of the crosslinker results in coatings that can be cured at ambient temperature, yet still possess moderately high glass

  10. Thermosetting Polymer-Matrix Composites for Strucutral Repair Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goertzen, William Kirby [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2007-12-01

    Several classes of thermosetting polymer matrix composites were evaluated for use in structural repair applications. Initial work involved the characterization and evaluation of woven carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites for structural pipeline repair. Cyanate ester resins were evaluated as a replacement for epoxy in composites for high-temperature pipe repair applications, and as the basis for adhesives for resin infusion repair of high-temperature composite materials. Carbon fiber/cyanate ester matrix composites and fumed silica/cyanate ester nanocomposites were evaluated for their thermal, mechanical, viscoelastic, and rheological properties as they relate to their structure, chemistry, and processing characteristics. The bisphenol E cyanate ester under investigation possesses a high glass transition temperature, excellent mechanical properties, and unique ambient temperature processability. The incorporate of fumed silica served to enhance the mechanical and rheological properties of the polymer and reduce thermal expansion without sacrificing glass transition or drastically altering curing kinetics. Characterization of the composites included dynamic mechanical analysis, thermomechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, rheological and rheokinetic evaluation, and transmission electron microscopy.

  11. Cardanol-based thermoset plastic reinforced by sponge gourd fibers (Luffa cylindrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leandro da Silva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A growing global trend for maximum use of natural resources through new processes and products has enhanced studies and exploration of renewable natural materials. In this study, cardanol, a component of the cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL, was used as a building block for the development of a thermosetting matrix, which was reinforced by raw and modified sponge gourd fibers (Luffa cylindrica. DSC and TG results showed that among biocomposites, the one reinforced by sponge gourd fibers treated with NaOH 10 wt% (BF10 had the highest thermal stability, besides the best performance in the Tensile testing, showing good incorporation, dispersion, and adhesion to polymer matrix, observed by SEM. After 80 days of simulated soil experiments, it has been discovered that the presence of treated fiber allowed better biodegradability behavior to biocomposites. The biobased thermoset plastic and biocomposites showed a good potential to several applications, such as manufacturing of articles for furniture and automotive industries, especially BF10.

  12. Continuous Natural Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites by Fiber Surface Modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patcharat Wongsriraksa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic materials are expected to replace inorganic fiber reinforced thermosetting materials. However, in the process of fabricating the composite, it is difficult to impregnate the thermoplastic resin into reinforcement fiber because of the high melt viscosity. Therefore, intermediate material, which allows high impregnation during molding, has been investigated for fabricating continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composite by aligning resin fiber alongside reinforcing fiber with braiding technique. This intermediate material has been called “microbraid yarn (MBY.” Moreover, it is well known that the interfacial properties between natural fiber and resin are low; therefore, surface treatment on continuous natural fiber was performed by using polyurethane (PU and flexible epoxy (FLEX to improve the interfacial properties. The effect of surface treatment on the mechanical properties of continuous natural fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites was examined. From these results, it was suggested that surface treatment by PU with low content could produce composites with better mechanical properties.

  13. High-temperature hybrid welding of thermoplastic (CF/Peek) to thermoset (CF/Epoxy) composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Villegas, I.; Vizcaino Rubio, P.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoset composites are widely used for the manufacturing of modern composite aircrafts. The use of thermoplastic composites (TPC) in aerospace applications is, however, gradually increasing owing to their cost-effectiveness in manufacturing and improved damage tolerance. An example of the use of

  14. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF CANNABIS INDICA FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar Singh Singha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the synthesis of Cannabis indica fiber-reinforced composites using Urea-Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (URF as a novel matrix through compression molding technique. The polycondensation between urea, resorcinol, and formaldehyde in different molar ratios was applied to the synthesis of the URF polymer matrix. A thermosetting matrix based composite, reinforced with lignocellulose from Cannabis indica with different fiber loadings 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50% by weight, was obtained. The mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed fiber particle reinforced composites were determined. Effects of fiber loadings on mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, flexural strength, and wear resistance were evaluated. Results showed that mechanical properties of URF resin matrix increased considerably when reinforced with particles of Cannabis indica fiber. Thermal (TGA/DTA/DTG and morphological studies (SEM of the resin, fiber and polymer composite thus synthesized were carried out.

  15. Diffusion in composite materials made of thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morin, Bruno.

    1981-03-01

    The embedding process of low and medium level radioactive wastes in thermosetting resins allows their containment in a solid matrix. During storage the risk of circulation of water is possible. The aim of this containment process is to prevent radionuclide migration in environment. Ion migration through membranes of thermosetting resins alone or filler added were measured to evaluate released radioactivity by embedded blocks with time and to compare the different embedding formulas. Water influence on diffusion was taken into account considering that radioactive wastes dispersion is faster in a wet medium than in a dry one [fr

  16. Thermal recycling and re-manufacturing of glass fibre thermosetting composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fraisse, Anthony; Beauson, Justine; Brøndsted, Povl

    2016-01-01

    The impact of using thermally recycled glass fibre in re-manufactured composites was investigated. A unidirectional glass fibre thermosetting composite laminate was manufactured. The matrix in one part of the laminate was burnt off to recover the glass fibres. These recycled glass fibres were used...

  17. Composite panels made with biofiber or office wastepaper bonded with thermoplastic and/or thermosetting resin

    Science.gov (United States)

    James H. Muehl; Andrzej M. Krzysik; Poo Chow

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate two groups of composite panels made from two types of underutilized natural fiber sources, kenaf bast fiber and office wastepaper, for their suitability in composite panels. All panels were made with 5% thermosetting phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin and 1.5% wax. Also, an additional 10% polypropylene (PP) thermoplastic resin was...

  18. A novel biaxial specimen for inducing residual stresses in thermoset polymers and fibre composite material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Johnny; Andreasen, Jens Henrik; Jensen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    engineers when they challenge the material limits in present and future thermoset and composite component. In addition to the new specimen configuration, this paper presents an analytical solution for the residual stress state in the specimen. The analytical solution assumes linear elastic and isotropic......A new type of specimen configuration with the purpose of introducing a well-defined biaxial residual (axisymmetric) stress field in a neat thermoset or a fibre composite material is presented. The ability to experimentally validate residual stress predictions is an increasing need for design...

  19. Thermosetting materials of the radiation-modified polymer compositions. 3. Development of thermoplastic thermosetting materials from polymeric blends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkis, V.; Zicans, J.; Bocoka, T.; Ivanova, T.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies of blends consisting of chemically and radiation modified polyethylene and ethylene-propylene-diene copolymers have been carried out. Measurements of crystallinity, toughness, viscoelastic, adhesion and thermorelaxation properties as well as scanning electron-microscopic studies have shown that the blends chemically vulcanized by elastomer phase crosslinking system possess a typical double-phase structure within the whole composition range and characteristics specific for rubber, whereas, in radiation-vulcanized blends where crosslinking of both disperse phases takes part, formation of chemical bonds between these phases was observed. Consequently, the radiation treatment improves the properties of the blends, and materials formed by such a system can be successfully used, e.g., as elastic and adhesion active thermosetting materials if the polymer is previously oriented. (author)

  20. Effect of neutron irradiation on the dimension and the strength of carbon fiber/carbon composite derived from thermosetting resin precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Eiichi; Tanabe, Yasuhiro; Kimura, Shiushichi; Maruyama, Tadashi; Iseki, Takayoshi; Yano, Toyohiko.

    1988-01-01

    Unidirectionally reinforced carbon fiber/carbon composite whose matrix was derived from thermosetting resin, was prepared. The heat-treatment temperature was 2800 deg C. The change in size and 4 point bending strength of the composite was measured after neutron irradiation (640 deg C, 6 x 10 24 n/m 2 , E > 1 MeV). Shrinkage in normal to the fiber direction was larger than that in fiber direction. Increase in strength and Young's modulus of the composite was observed after irradiation. Irradiated composite showed much higher deflection to fracture than unirradiated one. (author)

  1. Nanostructured composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Ludtka, Gerard M [Oak Ridge, TN

    2012-07-31

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  2. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant

    OpenAIRE

    Petersen, Richard C.

    2011-01-01

    Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats reve...

  3. Improvement in mechanical properties of high concentration particle doped thermoset composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.

    2009-01-01

    The paper relates to high concentration particle doped composites based on thermosetting polymer systems in which the sequential addition of particles of certain size distribution is followed by curing and casting of the slurry to form a thermoset composite. Conventionally, at a threshold of beyond 90% of particles by weight of the polymer using triglyceride, the mechanical properties of the composite exhibit a sharp decline. The present research mitigates this behavior by incorporating a unique combination of cross-linking agents in the base polymer to impart exceptional mechanical properties to the composite. More specifically, the base polymer consists of butadiene, with triglyceride as cross-linking agent together with hydroxy-alkane as the chain extension precursors, when tune to the appropriate level of hard segment ratio in the polymer. An added advantage according to the present work resides in the analytical nature of butadiene pre-polymer as opposed to natural product; traditional composites based on natural sources are hampered by their inconsistent chemical composition and poor shelf life in the fabricated composite. The thermoset composite according the present research exhibits superior tensile strength (200-300 psi) properties using particle loading as high as 92% by weight of the fabricated composite as measured on a Tinius Olsen machine. Dynamic Mechanical Testing reveals interesting combination of storage and loss moduli in the fabricated specimens as a function of optimizing the thermal response of the viscoelastic composite to imposed vibration loading. (author)

  4. Curing of Thick Thermoset Composite Laminates: Multiphysics Modeling and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, S.; Dhaliwal, G. S.; Huo, Z.; Chandrashekhara, K.; Apetre, N.; Iyyer, N.

    2017-11-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer composites are used in high-performance aerospace applications as they are resistant to fatigue, corrosion free and possess high specific strength. The mechanical properties of these composite components depend on the degree of cure and residual stresses developed during the curing process. While these parameters are difficult to determine experimentally in large and complex parts, they can be simulated using numerical models in a cost-effective manner. These simulations can be used to develop cure cycles and change processing parameters to obtain high-quality parts. In the current work, a numerical model was built in Comsol MultiPhysics to simulate the cure behavior of a carbon/epoxy prepreg system (IM7/Cycom 5320-1). A thermal spike was observed in thick laminates when the recommended cure cycle was used. The cure cycle was modified to reduce the thermal spike and maintain the degree of cure at the laminate center. A parametric study was performed to evaluate the effect of air flow in the oven, post cure cycles and cure temperatures on the thermal spike and the resultant degree of cure in the laminate.

  5. Optimal Substrate Preheating Model for Thermal Spray Deposition of Thermosets onto Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivosevic, M.; Knight, R.; Kalidindi, S. R.; Palmese, G. R.; Tsurikov, A.; Sutter, J. K.

    2003-01-01

    High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed, functionally graded polyimide/WC-Co composite coatings on polymer matrix composites (PMC's) are being investigated for applications in turbine engine technologies. This requires that the polyimide, used as the matrix material, be fully crosslinked during deposition in order to maximize its engineering properties. The rapid heating and cooling nature of the HVOF spray process and the high heat flux through the coating into the substrate typically do not allow sufficient time at temperature for curing of the thermoset. It was hypothesized that external substrate preheating might enhance the deposition behavior and curing reaction during the thermal spraying of polyimide thermosets. A simple analytical process model for the deposition of thermosetting polyimide onto polymer matrix composites by HVOF thermal spray technology has been developed. The model incorporates various heat transfer mechanisms and enables surface temperature profiles of the coating to be simulated, primarily as a function of substrate preheating temperature. Four cases were modeled: (i) no substrate preheating; (ii) substrates electrically preheated from the rear; (iii) substrates preheated by hot air from the front face; and (iv) substrates electrically preheated from the rear and by hot air from the front.

  6. Thermosetting materials from the radiation-modified polymer compositions, 2. Development of adhesion-active and thermostable thermosetting materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkis, V.; Maksimovs, R.D.; Zicans, J.; Bocoka, T.; Revjakins, O.

    1999-01-01

    Methods that improve the adhesion and thermal stability of the thermosetting materials are considered. Experimental studies of the blends composed of polyethylene, ethylene-propylene-diene copolymer (with characteristic specific for rubbers) and mesomorphic copolyesters, using rheological, spectrometric, and thermomechanical methods, have shown that radiation modification improves the adhesion and deformation properties as well as thermal stability of these blends. Therefore, materials of such system can be successfully used, e.g., as elastic and adhesion-active thermosetting materials at temperature above 473 K. (author)

  7. Recycling of shredded composites from wind turbine blades in new thermoset polymer composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Madsen, Bo; Toncelli, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    As the energy produced from wind increases every year, a concern has raised on the recycling of wind turbine blades made of glass fibre composites. In this context, the present study aims to characterize and understand the mechanical properties of polyester resin composites reinforced with shredd...

  8. Continuous carbon nanotube reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ci, L; Suhr, J; Pushparaj, V; Zhang, X; Ajayan, P M

    2008-09-01

    Carbon nanotubes are considered short fibers, and polymer composites with nanotube fillers are always analogues of random, short fiber composites. The real structural carbon fiber composites, on the other hand, always contain carbon fiber reinforcements where fibers run continuously through the composite matrix. With the recent optimization in aligned nanotube growth, samples of nanotubes in macroscopic lengths have become available, and this allows the creation of composites that are similar to the continuous fiber composites with individual nanotubes running continuously through the composite body. This allows the proper utilization of the extreme high modulus and strength predicted for nanotubes in structural composites. Here, we fabricate such continuous nanotube polymer composites with continuous nanotube reinforcements and report that under compressive loadings, the nanotube composites can generate more than an order of magnitude improvement in the longitudinal modulus (up to 3,300%) as well as damping capability (up to 2,100%). It is also observed that composites with a random distribution of nanotubes of same length and similar filler fraction provide three times less effective reinforcement in composites.

  9. Gentamicin-Loaded Thermosetting Hydrogel and Moldable Composite Scaffold: Formulation Study and Biologic Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorati, Rossella; De Trizio, Antonella; Genta, Ida; Merelli, Alessia; Modena, Tiziana; Conti, Bice

    2017-06-01

    The aim was to design biodegradable drug delivery systems for gentamicin local delivery, meanwhile acting as scaffold for bone regeneration. Gentamicin-loaded thermosetting composite hydrogels were prepared combining chitosan with bovine bone substitutes (Orthoss® granules), beta-glycerophosphate as cross-linker, and lyophilized to obtain moldable composite scaffolds (moldable composite scaffold loaded with gentamicin [mCSG]). Diverse techniques for gentamicin loading into mCS were investigated by drug incorporation during hydrogel preparation or drug absorption on preformed mCS. Rheologic hydrogel characterization was performed. mCSGs were characterized for porosity, stability (water retention, water uptake), gentamicin release, cell seeding and proliferation, and antimicrobial effect on Escherichia coli ATCC 10356. Results show suitable gentamicin loadings were 4 mg in 1 mL thermosetting composite hydrogel starting solution, irreversible hydrogel thermosetting behavior, and cosolute effect of gentamicin on sol-gel transition. Positive results in terms of porosity (80%-86%), scaffold water uptake, and retention capability were obtained. Antibiotic in vitro release was completed in 4 h. Good cell seeding results were observed for mCSG1-5; mCSG3 and mCSG5 resulted the best as cell proliferation results. mCSG exerted bactericidal effect for 24 h, with superimposition of chitosan bacteriostatic effect in the first 4 h. The results lead to consider the drug delivery for reducing infection risk during bone open surgeries. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Static and dynamic strain energy release rates in toughened thermosetting composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Douglas S.

    1992-01-01

    In this work, the static and dynamic fracture properties of several thermosetting resin based composite laminates are presented. Two classes of materials are explored. These are homogeneous, thermosetting resins and toughened, multi-phase, thermosetting resin systems. Multi-phase resin materials have shown enhancement over homogenous materials with respect to damage resistance. The development of new dynamic tests are presented for composite laminates based on Width Tapered Double Cantilevered Beam (WTDCB) for Mode 1 fracture and the End Notched Flexure (ENF) specimen. The WTDCB sample was loaded via a low inertia, pneumatic cylinder to produce rapid cross-head displacements. A high rate, piezo-electric load cell and an accelerometer were mounted on the specimen. A digital oscilloscope was used for data acquisition. Typical static and dynamic load versus displacement plots are presented. The ENF specimen was impacted in three point bending with an instrumented impact tower. Fracture initiation and propagation energies under static and dynamic conditions were determined analytically and experimentally. The test results for Mode 1 fracture are relatively insensitive to strain rate effects for the laminates tested in this study. The test results from Mode 2 fracture indicate that the toughened systems provide superior fracture initiation and higher resistance to propagation under dynamic conditions. While the static fracture properties of the homogeneous systems may be relatively high, the apparent Mode 2 dynamic critical strain energy release rate drops significantly. The results indicate that static Mode 2 fracture testing is inadequate for determining the fracture performance of composite structures subjected to conditions such as low velocity impact. A good correlation between the basic Mode 2 dynamic fracture properties and the performance is a combined material/structural Compression After Impact (CAI) test is found. These results underscore the importance of

  11. Nanocellulose reinforcement of Transparent Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua Steele; Hong Dong; James F. Snyder; Josh A. Orlicki; Richard S. Reiner; Alan W. Rudie

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we evaluate the impact of nanocellulose reinforcement on transparent composite properties. Due to the small diameter, high modulus, and high strength of cellulose nanocrystals, transparent composites that utilize these materials should show improvement in bulk mechanical performances without a corresponding reduction in optical properties. In this study...

  12. Properties of new fully bio-based thermoset composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bierer, M.; Pohl, T.; Natter, E.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, natural fibre textiles had been impregnated with the furan resin to form pre-pregs. The pre-pregs were consolidated into composites in a compression mould and the mechanical properties, the burning behaviour and the moisture sorption behaviour had been determined....

  13. Self-Healing Composite of Thermoset Polymer and Programmed Super Contraction Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqiang (Inventor); Meng, Harper (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A composition comprising thermoset polymer, shape memory polymer to facilitate macro scale damage closure, and a thermoplastic polymer for molecular scale healing is disclosed; the composition has the ability to resolve structural defects by a bio-mimetic close-then heal process. In use, the shape memory polymer serves to bring surfaces of a structural defect into approximation, whereafter use of the thermoplastic polymer for molecular scale healing allowed for movement of the thermoplastic polymer into the defect and thus obtain molecular scale healing. The thermoplastic can be fibers, particles or spheres which are used by heating to a level at or above the thermoplastic's melting point, then cooling of the composition below the melting temperature of the thermoplastic. Compositions of the invention have the ability to not only close macroscopic defects, but also to do so repeatedly even if another wound/damage occurs in a previously healed/repaired area.

  14. Performance of Integrated Fiber Optic, Piezoelectric, and Shape Memory Alloy Actuators/Sensors in Thermoset Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, C. Michael

    1996-01-01

    Recently, scientists and engineers have investigated the advantages of smart materials and structures by including actuators in material systems for controlling and altering the response of structural environments. Applications of these materials systems include vibration suppression/isolation, precision positioning, damage detection and tunable devices. Some of the embedded materials being investigated for accomplishing these tasks include piezoelectric ceramics, shape memory alloys, and fiber optics. These materials have some benefits and some shortcomings; each is being studied for use in active material design in the SPICES (Synthesis and Processing of Intelligent Cost Effective Structures) Consortium. The focus of this paper concerns the manufacturing aspects of smart structures by incorporating piezoelectric ceramics, shape memory alloys and fiber optics in a reinforced thermoset matrix via resin transfer molding (RTM).

  15. Environmental effects on the compressive properties - Thermosetting vs. thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, A.; Jeelani, S.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of moisture and temperature on the compressive properties of graphite/epoxy and APC-2 materials systems was investigated to assess the viability of using APC-2 instead of graphite/epoxy. Data obtained indicate that the moisture absorption rate of T-300/epoxy is higher than that of APC-2. Thick plate with smaller surface area absorbs less moisture than thin plate with larger surface area. The compressive strength and modulus of APC-2 are higher than those of T-300/epoxy composite, and APC-2 sustains higher compressive strength in the presence of moisture. The compressive strength and modulus decrease with the increase of temperature in the range of 23-100 C. The compression failure was in the form of delamination, interlaminar shear, and end brooming.

  16. Braided reinforced composite rods for the internal reinforcement of concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonilho Pereira, C.; Fangueiro, R.; Jalali, S.; Araujo, M.; Marques, P.

    2008-05-01

    This paper reports on the development of braided reinforced composite rods as a substitute for the steel reinforcement in concrete. The research work aims at understanding the mechanical behaviour of core-reinforced braided fabrics and braided reinforced composite rods, namely concerning the influence of the braiding angle, the type of core reinforcement fibre, and preloading and postloading conditions. The core-reinforced braided fabrics were made from polyester fibres for producing braided structures, and E-glass, carbon, HT polyethylene, and sisal fibres were used for the core reinforcement. The braided reinforced composite rods were obtained by impregnating the core-reinforced braided fabric with a vinyl ester resin. The preloading of the core-reinforced braided fabrics and the postloading of the braided reinforced composite rods were performed in three and two stages, respectively. The results of tensile tests carried out on different samples of core-reinforced braided fabrics are presented and discussed. The tensile and bending properties of the braided reinforced composite rods have been evaluated, and the results obtained are presented, discussed, and compared with those of conventional materials, such as steel.

  17. Kevlar reinforced neoprene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, B. G.; Daniels, J. G.; White, W. T.; Thompson, L. M.; Clemons, L. M.

    1985-01-01

    Kevlar/neoprene composites were prepared by two techniques. One method involved the fabrication of a composite from a rubber prepreg prepared by coating Kevlar with viscous neoprene solution and then allowing the solvent to evaporate (solution impregnation technique). The second method involved heating a stack of Kevlar/neoprene sheets at a temperature sufficient to cause polymer flow (melt flow technique). There was no significant difference in the breaking strength and percent elongation for samples obtained by the two methods; however the shear strength obtained for samples fabricated by the solution impregnation technique (275 psi) was significantly higher than that found for the melt flow fabricated samples (110 psi).

  18. Kevlar reinforced neoprene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penn, B.G.; Daniels, J.G.; White, W.T.; Thompson, L.M.; Clemons, L.M.

    1985-01-01

    Kevlar/neoprene composites were prepared by two techniques. One method involved the fabrication of a composite from a rubber prepreg prepared by coating kevlar with viscous neoprene solution and then allowing the solvent to evaporate (solution impregnation technique). The second method involved heating a stack of kevlar/neoprene sheets at a temperature sufficient to cause polymer flow (melt flow technique). There was no significant difference in the breaking strength and percent elongation for samples obtained by the two methods; however the shear strength obtained for samples fabricated by the solution impregnation technique (275 psi) was significantly higher than that found for the melt flow fabricated samples (110 psi). 1 reference, 2 tables

  19. Thermomechanical and adhesive properties of radiation-modified polymer composites for thermosetting products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkis, V.; Maksimov, R.D.; Kalnins, M.; Zicans, J.; Bocoka, T.; Revjakin, O.

    2000-01-01

    The gamma-irradiated blends of polyethylene (PE) with ethylene / propylene / diene copolymer (Epdm) and thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (LCP) are investigated. The radiation dose absorbed does not exceed 150 kGy (10 kGy=1 Mrad). It is shown that the even small amounts of LCP added to PE improve the mechanical and operational properties of composites and the thermosetting products made of them. The temperature dependences of the elastics modulus, tension diagrams at a temperature above the PE melting point, and recovery curves of the oriented specimens are presented. The kinetics of thermorelaxation and residual setting stresses upon isometric heating and cooling of the previously oriented composites is studied. The data on the influence of LCP on the adhesion interaction of the blend with steel are obtained. The features of thermomechanical and adhesive properties are discussed and the results of morphological and calorimetric tests are given. (author)

  20. Compilation of radiation damage test data. Pt. 2. Thermoset and thermoplastic resins, composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavlet, M.; Fontaine, A.; Schoenbacher, H.

    1998-01-01

    This catalogue summarizes radiation damage test data on thermoplastic and thermoset resins and composites. Most of them are epoxy resins used as insulator for magnet coils. Many results are also given for new engineering thermoplastics which can be used either for their electrical properties or for their mechanical properties. The materials have been irradiated either in a 60 Co source, up to integrated absorbed doses between 200 kGy and a few megagrays, at dose rates of the order of 1 Gy/s, or in a nuclear reactor at dose rates of the order of 50 Gy/s, up to doses of 100 MGy. The flexural strength, the deformation and the modulus of elasticity have been measured on irradiated and non-irradiated samples, according to the recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commissions. The results are presented in the form of tables and graphs to show the effect of the absorbed dose on the measured properties. (orig.)

  1. Compilation of radiation damage test data. Pt. 2. Thermoset and thermoplastic resins, composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavlet, M; Fontaine, A; Schoenbacher, H

    1998-05-18

    This catalogue summarizes radiation damage test data on thermoplastic and thermoset resins and composites. Most of them are epoxy resins used as insulator for magnet coils. Many results are also given for new engineering thermoplastics which can be used either for their electrical properties or for their mechanical properties. The materials have been irradiated either in a {sup 60}Co source, up to integrated absorbed doses between 200 kGy and a few megagrays, at dose rates of the order of 1 Gy/s, or in a nuclear reactor at dose rates of the order of 50 Gy/s, up to doses of 100 MGy. The flexural strength, the deformation and the modulus of elasticity have been measured on irradiated and non-irradiated samples, according to the recommendations of the International Electrotechnical Commissions. The results are presented in the form of tables and graphs to show the effect of the absorbed dose on the measured properties. (orig.)

  2. Thermoset precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Y.

    1983-04-01

    This invention pertains to a distinctive thermoset precursor which is prepared by mixing a resin composition (A) which can be hardened by ionizing radiation, and a resin composition (B) which can be hardened by heat but cannot be hardened by, or is resistant to, ionizing radiation, and by coating or impregnating a molding or other substrate with a sheet or film of this mixture and irradiating this with an ionizing radiation. The principal components of composition (A) and (B) can be the following: (1) an acrylate or methacrylate and an epoxy resin and an epoxy resin hardener; (2) an unsaturated polyester resin and epoxy resin and an epoxy resin hardener; (3) a diacrylate or dimethacrylate or polyethylene glycol and an epoxy resin; (4) an epoxy acrylates or epoxy methacrylate obtained by the addition reaction of epoxy resin and acrylic or methacrylic acid

  3. Solvent Free Low-Melt Viscosity Imide Oligomers And Thermosetting Polyimide Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, CHun-Hua (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    This invention relates to the composition and a solvent-free process for preparing novel imide oligomers and polymers specifically formulated with effective amounts of a dianhydride such as 2,3,3',4-biphenyltetra carboxylic dianydride (a-BPDA), at least one aromatic diamine' and an endcapped of 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) or nadic anhydride to produce imide oligomers that possess a low-melt viscosity of 1-60 poise at 260-280" C. When the imide oligomer melt is cured at about 371 C. in a press or autoclave under 100-500 psi, the melt resulted in a thermoset polyimide having a glass transition temperature (T(sub g)) equal to and above 310 C. A novel feature of this process is that the monomers; namely the dianhydrides, diamines and the endcaps, are melt processable to form imide oligomers at temperatures ranging between 232-280 C. (450-535 F) without any solvent. These low-melt imide oligomers can be easily processed by resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) or the resin infusion process with fiber preforms e.g. carbon, glass or quartz preforms to produce polyimide matrix composites with 288-343C (550-650 F) high temperature performance capability.

  4. Fracture toughness behaviour of carbon fibre epoxy composite with Kevlar reinforced interleave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, S.N.; Kumar, Vijai; Verma, Sushil K.

    2006-01-01

    This work was to evaluate as to how mode II fracture toughness G II is affected by interleave having Kevlar fibre reinforcement in the fracture plane. Thermoset interleave and chopped Kevlar fibres were applied between the carbon/epoxy composite layers. An artificial crack starter was implanted in the mid-plane to initiate the fracture process. The following five different types of carbon fibre/epoxy composites were prepared and tested. (a) Base laminate without interleave (b) unreinforced interleave and (c) 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg/cm 2 chopped Kevlar fibre reinforced interleave. Results obtained show that fracture toughness G IIC enhanced up to about two times in all the laminates. However, enhancement in fracture toughness G IIC was more effective in interleaved laminate than Kevlar reinforced interleaved because of large energy absorbing capabilities of interleaf. Mechanism of fracture and toughening were examined by using scanning electron microscope

  5. Fretting Fatigue Behaviour of Pin-Loaded Thermoset Carbon-Fibre-Reinforced Polymer (CFRP Straps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Baschnagel

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the fretting fatigue behaviour of pin-loaded carbon-fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP straps studied as models for rigging systems in sailing yachts, for suspenders of arch bridges and for pendent cables in cranes. Eight straps were subjected to an ultimate tensile strength test. In total, 26 straps were subjected to a fretting fatigue test, of which ten did not fail. An S–N curve was generated for a load ratio R of 0.1 and a frequency f of 10 Hz, showing a fatigue limit stress of the straps around the matrix fatigue limit, corresponding to 46% of the straps’ ultimate tensile strength (σUTS. The fatigue limit was defined as 3 million load cycles (N = 3 × 106, but tests were even conducted up to N = 11.09 × 106. Catastrophic failure of the straps was initiated in their vertex areas. Investigations on the residual strength and stiffness properties of straps tested around the fatigue limit stress (for N ≥ 1 × 106 showed little influence of the fatigue loading on these properties. Quasi-static finite element analyses (FEA were conducted. The results obtained from the FEA are in good agreement with the experiments and demonstrate a fibre parallel stress concentration in the vertex area of factor 1.3, under the realistic assumption of a coefficient of friction (cof between pin and strap of 0.5.

  6. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Richard C

    2011-05-03

    Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats revealed far-reaching significant osseoconductivity increases from bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber composites when compared to state-of-the-art titanium-6-4 alloy controls. Midtibial percent bone area measured from the implant surface increased when comparing the titanium alloy to the polymer composite from 10.5% to 41.6% at 0.8 mm, P engineering potential.

  7. Continuous jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jute fibre; laminated paper composite; plastic bag pollution. Abstract. Plastic bags create a serious environmental problem. The proposed jute fibre reinforced laminated paper composite and reinforcement-fibre free paper laminate may help to combat the war against this pollutant to certain extent. The paper laminate ...

  8. Solvent free low-melt viscosity imide oligomers and thermosetting polymide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chun-Hua (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    .[.This invention relates to the composition and a solvent-free process for preparing novel imide oligomers and polymers specifically formulated with effective amounts of a dianhydride such as 2,3,3',4-biphenyltetra carboxylic dianydride (a-BPDA), at least one aromatic diamine and an endcapped of 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride (PEPA) or nadic anhydride to produce imide oligomers that possess a low-melt viscosity of 1-60 poise at 260-280.degree. C. When the imide oligomer melt is cured at about 371.degree. C. in a press or autoclave under 100-500 psi, the melt resulted in a thermoset polyimide having a glass transition temperature (T.sub.g) equal to and above 310.degree. C. A novel feature of this process is that the monomers; namely the dianhydrides, diamines and the endcaps, are melt processable to form imide oligomers at temperatures ranging between 232-280.degree. C. (450-535.degree. F.) without any solvent. These low-melt imide oligomers can be easily processed by resin transfer molding (RTM), vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) or the resin infusion process with fiber preforms e.g. carbon, glass or quartz preforms to produce polyimide matrix composites with 288-343.degree. C. (550-650.degree. F.) high temperature performance capability..]. .Iadd.This invention relates to compositions and a solvent-free reaction process for preparing imide oligomers and polymers specifically derived from effective amounts of dianhydrides such as 2,3,3',4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (a-BPDA), at least one aromatic polyamine and an end-cap such as 4-phenylethynyphthalic anhydride (PEPA) or nadic anhydride to produce imide oligomers that possess a low-melt viscosity of 1-60 poise at 260.degree. C.-280.degree. C..Iaddend.

  9. Recycling of carbon fibre reinforced composites using water in subcritical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Yuyan, E-mail: liuyy@hit.edu.cn [Harbin Institute of Technology, No.92 Xidazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China); Shan Guohua; Meng Linghui [Harbin Institute of Technology, No.92 Xidazhi Street, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2009-09-15

    In this paper, a method of chemical recycling of thermosetting epoxy composite was discussed. Water was used to be reaction medium and the decomposition of carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites was studied. Experiments were devised in order to identify the significant process parameters that affect fibre reinforced composite recovery potential including temperature, time, catalyst, feedstock, and pressure. Experiments were performed in a batch-type reactor without stirring. Under the condition that the temperature was 260 deg. C and the ratio of resin and water was 1:5 g/mL, the decomposition rate could reach 100 wt.% and the carbon fibres were obtained. The results from the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements showed that the fibres were clean and no cracks or defects were found. The average tensile strength of the reclaimed fibres was about 98.2% than that of the virgin fibres.

  10. Hybrid welding of carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy based composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lionetto, Francesca; De Nicolas Morillas, M.; Pappadà, Silvio; Buccoliero, Giuseppe; Fernandez Villegas, I.; Maffezzoli, Alfonso

    2018-01-01

    The approach for joining thermosetting matrix composites (TSCs) proposed in this study is based on the use of a low melting co-cured thermoplastic film, added as a last ply in the stacking sequence of the composite laminate. During curing, the thermoplastic film partially penetrates in the first

  11. Rubber-like Quasi-thermosetting Polyetheramine-cured Epoxy Asphalt Composites Capable of Being Opened to Traffic Immediately.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang; Wu, Qiang; Jin, Rui; Yu, Pengfei; Cheng, Jixiang

    2016-01-06

    This paper reports the facile preparation, mechanical performance and linear viscoelasticity of polyetheramine-cured rubber-like epoxy asphalt composites (EACs) with different asphalt contents. Compared with previous EACs prepared via complex chemical reactions and time-consuming high-temperature curing, the EACs reported here were obtained by using a compatible, bi-functional polyetheramine and a simple physical co-blend process, which make the EACs feasibly scalable for production at a lower cost. The EACs were cured for 1 h at 160 °C and 3 d at 60 °C; therefore, these composites can be opened to traffic immediately. The EACs have a much greater temperature stability than common thermoplastic polymer-modified asphalt composites from -30 °C to 120 °C, but their complex shear moduli at higher temperatures slightly decrease instead of remaining constant when temperatures are greater than 80 °C, especially for the higher asphalt content composites; that is, these composites are quasi-thermosetting. Wicket plots illustrate that the EACs reported here are thermorheological simple materials, and the master curves are constructed and well-fitted by generalized logistic sigmoidal model functions. This research provides a facile, low-cost method for the preparation of polyetheramine-cured EACs that can be opened to traffic immediately, and the concept of quasi-thermosetting may facilitate the development of cheaper EACs for advanced applications.

  12. Rubber-like Quasi-thermosetting Polyetheramine-cured Epoxy Asphalt Composites Capable of Being Opened to Traffic Immediately

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yang; Wu, Qiang; Jin, Rui; Yu, Pengfei; Cheng, Jixiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the facile preparation, mechanical performance and linear viscoelasticity of polyetheramine-cured rubber-like epoxy asphalt composites (EACs) with different asphalt contents. Compared with previous EACs prepared via complex chemical reactions and time-consuming high-temperature curing, the EACs reported here were obtained by using a compatible, bi-functional polyetheramine and a simple physical co-blend process, which make the EACs feasibly scalable for production at a lower cost. The EACs were cured for 1 h at 160 °C and 3 d at 60 °C therefore, these composites can be opened to traffic immediately. The EACs have a much greater temperature stability than common thermoplastic polymer-modified asphalt composites from -30 °C to 120 °C, but their complex shear moduli at higher temperatures slightly decrease instead of remaining constant when temperatures are greater than 80 °C, especially for the higher asphalt content composites; that is, these composites are quasi-thermosetting. Wicket plots illustrate that the EACs reported here are thermorheological simple materials, and the master curves are constructed and well-fitted by generalized logistic sigmoidal model functions. This research provides a facile, low-cost method for the preparation of polyetheramine-cured EACs that can be opened to traffic immediately, and the concept of quasi-thermosetting may facilitate the development of cheaper EACs for advanced applications.

  13. Chemical modification of flax reinforced polypropylene composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the static and dynamic mechanical properties of nonwoven based flax fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. The effect of zein modification on flax fibres is also reported. Flax nonwovens were treated...

  14. PROPERTIES OF CHITIN REINFORCES COMPOSITES: A REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    mechanical and thermal properties of chitin reinforced composites. ..... with crabyon fiber and normal viscose filaments. Also. Zhang et al.,[65] successfully blended chitin/cellulose using two different coagulating systems (immersed in 5.

  15. Three-Dimensional Microvascular Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    are varied to meet the desired design criteria. The interstitial pore space between fi bers is infi ltrated with a low-viscosity thermosetting resin...uid. d) μ CT image of composite with glass fi bers (blue) and channels fi lled with electrically conductive gallium–indium alloy (red). Probe

  16. Reinforced Conductive Polyaniline-Paper Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Yan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A method for direct aniline interfacial polymerization on polyamideamine-epichlorohydrin (PAE-reinforced paper substrate is introduced in this paper. Cellulose-based papers with and without reinforcement were considered. The polyaniline (PANI-paper composites had surface resistivity lower than 100 Ω/sq after more than 3 polymerizations. Their mechanical strength and thermal stability were analyzed by tensile tests and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR results revealed that there was strong interaction between NH groups in aniline monomers and OH groups in fibers, which did not disappear until after 3 polymerizations. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and field emission (FE SEM images showed morphological differences between composites using reinforced and untreated base papers. Conductive composites made with PAE-reinforced base paper had both good thermal stability and good mechanical strength, with high conductivity and a smaller PANI amount.

  17. Investigations on the Manufacturing and Mechanical Properties of Spun Yarns Made from Staple CF for Thermoset Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mir Mohammad Badrul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the results of investigations carried out to produce yarns consisting of staple carbon fiber (CF obtained from process waste for the manufacturing of composites suitable especially for thermoset applications. For this purpose, a comparative analysis is done on processability between 100% staple CF and 60 weight% staple CF mixed with 40 weight% PVA fibers in carding, drawing and spinning process. The hybrid yarns are produced by varying twist level. The PVA fibers of the hybrid yarn are then dissolved using hot water treatment. The mechanical properties of yarns consisting of 100% staple CF and hybrid yarns consisting of staple CF and PVA before and after hot water treatment are investigated. Furthermore, test specimen is also prepared by impregnating 100% staple CF yarn and the hybrid yarns (after the dissolving of PVA with epoxy resin. The results of the tensile test of the yarns in consolidated state reveals that the hybrid yarn produced with 80 T/m after hot water treatment exhibits approximately 75% of the tensile strength of virgin filament tow, and it is expected that the hybrid yarns can be applied for the manufacturing of thermoset based composites for load bearing structures.

  18. Bamboo reinforced polymer composite - A comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslan, S. A. H.; Rasid, Z. A.; Hassan, M. Z.

    2018-04-01

    Bamboo has greatly attention of researchers due to their advantages over synthetic polymers. It is entirely renewable, environmentally-friendly, non-toxic, cheap, non-abrasive and fully biodegradable. This review paper summarized an oveview of the bamboo, fiber extraction and mechanical behavior of bamboo reinforced composites. A number of studies proved that mechanical properties of bamboo fibers reinforced reinforced polymer composites are excellent and competent to be utilized in high-tech applications. The properties of the laminate are influenced by the fiber loading, fibre orientation, physical and interlaminar adhesion between fibre and matrix. In contrast, the presence of chemical constituents such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose and wax substances in natural fibres preventing them from firmly binding with polymer resin. Thus, led to poor mechanical properties for composites. Many attempt has been made in order to overcome this issue by using the chemical treatment.

  19. The effect of calcining temperature on the properties of 0-3 piezoelectric composites of PZT and a liquid crystalline thermosetting polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Groen, W.A.; Zwaag, S. van der

    2011-01-01

    We report on the optimisation of a recently developed high performance 0-3 piezoelectric composite comprising of the piezoelectric Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) powder and a liquid crystalline thermosetting matrix polymer (LCT). The matrix polymer is a liquid crystalline polymer comprising of an

  20. Thermosetting polyimide resin matrix composites with interpenetrating polymer networks for precision foil resistor chips based on special mechanical performance requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, X.Y., E-mail: wxy@tju.edu.cn [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ma, J.X.; Li, C.G. [School of Electronic Information Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, H.X. [ZHENGHE electronics Co., Ltd, Jining 272023 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • Macromolecular materials were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI). • The formation of IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers was discussed. • The special mechanical properties required were the main study object. • The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness. • The specific mechanical data are quantitatively determined by experiments. - Abstract: Based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) different macromolecular materials such as epoxy, phenolic, and silicone resin were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI) resin to solve the lack of performance when used for protecting precision foil resistor chips. Copolymerization modification, controlled at curing stage, was used to prepare TSPI composites considering both performance and process requirements. The mechanical properties related to trimming process were mainly studied due to the special requirements of the regularity of scratch edges caused by a tungsten needle. The analysis on scratch edges reveals that the generation and propagation of microcracks caused by scratching together with crack closure effect may lead to regular scratch traces. Experiments show that the elongation at break of TSPI composites is the main reason that determines the special mechanical properties. The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness, and the specific mechanical data are that the mean elongation at break and tensile strength of polymer materials are in the range of 9.2–10.4% and 100–107 MPa, respectively. Possible reasons for the effect of the modifiers chosen on TSPI polymers, the reaction mechanisms on modified TSPI resin and the IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers were discussed based on IR and TG analysis.

  1. Thermosetting polyimide resin matrix composites with interpenetrating polymer networks for precision foil resistor chips based on special mechanical performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.Y.; Ma, J.X.; Li, C.G.; Wang, H.X.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Macromolecular materials were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI). • The formation of IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers was discussed. • The special mechanical properties required were the main study object. • The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness. • The specific mechanical data are quantitatively determined by experiments. - Abstract: Based on interpenetrating networks (IPNs) different macromolecular materials such as epoxy, phenolic, and silicone resin were chosen to modify thermosetting polyimide (TSPI) resin to solve the lack of performance when used for protecting precision foil resistor chips. Copolymerization modification, controlled at curing stage, was used to prepare TSPI composites considering both performance and process requirements. The mechanical properties related to trimming process were mainly studied due to the special requirements of the regularity of scratch edges caused by a tungsten needle. The analysis on scratch edges reveals that the generation and propagation of microcracks caused by scratching together with crack closure effect may lead to regular scratch traces. Experiments show that the elongation at break of TSPI composites is the main reason that determines the special mechanical properties. The desired candidate materials should have proper hardness and toughness, and the specific mechanical data are that the mean elongation at break and tensile strength of polymer materials are in the range of 9.2–10.4% and 100–107 MPa, respectively. Possible reasons for the effect of the modifiers chosen on TSPI polymers, the reaction mechanisms on modified TSPI resin and the IPN structure in TSPI composite polymers were discussed based on IR and TG analysis

  2. Fabrication and mechanical testing of fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tufail, M.

    2005-01-01

    Polymer based composites are produced using less expensive moulds and quick fabrication techniques. The overall processing cost for such materials is much lesser than metallic materials. Usually monolithic parts are produced out of composite materials which further decreases the processing time needed for joining sub- , assemblies as in the case of metallic parts. Any defects encountered due to sub-assemblies are also eliminated. Thermoset based composites have been used for long time to produce parts for automotive, aerospace, marine, and sports industries. The properties thus obtained by using thermoset as matrix are very well in comparison with metals but certain draw backs a.e there with this kind of matrix. Thermoset based composites are processed in untidy environment and once the object is produced can not be reshaped. In contrary to that thermoplastic materials are processed in a clean environment and the material can be recycled. The component once produced can easily be reshaped if required as no chemical reaction does take place during the process. Although the high melt viscosity of thermoplastic has limited its application as due to its high viscosity, its processing would be very difficult. Various methods have been developed to resolve this issue. In this study, a commingled material has been used to produce thermoplastic based composite tubes. The method developed for making such tubes is defined along with the method adopted to measure some of the mechanical properties of these tubes. (author)

  3. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented. PMID:29562635

  4. Machining of Fibre Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caggiano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are difficult to machine because of the anisotropy and inhomogeneity characterizing their microstructure and the abrasiveness of their reinforcement components. During machining, very rapid cutting tool wear development is experienced, and surface integrity damage is often produced in the machined parts. An accurate selection of the proper tool and machining conditions is therefore required, taking into account that the phenomena responsible for material removal in cutting of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are fundamentally different from those of conventional metals and their alloys. To date, composite materials are increasingly used in several manufacturing sectors, such as the aerospace and automotive industry, and several research efforts have been spent to improve their machining processes. In the present review, the key issues that are concerning the machining of fibre reinforced plastic composite materials are discussed with reference to the main recent research works in the field, while considering both conventional and unconventional machining processes and reporting the more recent research achievements. For the different machining processes, the main results characterizing the recent research works and the trends for process developments are presented.

  5. Mechanical properties, microstructure and magnetic properties of composite magnet base on SrO.6Fe_2O_3 (SRM)-thermoplastic and thermoset polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grace Tj Sulungbudi; Aloma Karo Karo; Mujamilah; Sudirman

    2010-01-01

    The use of magnets in industrial applications do not always require high magnetic properties. Therefore, the use of polymer as a matrix that serves as a binder can be applied to obtain lightweight, flexible and cheap composite magnet. This report discuss composite magnet base on SrO.6Fe_2O_3(SRM)-thermoplastic and thermoset polymer. Thermoplastic polymer consist of polypropylene (PP) type of PP2 and PP10 and polyethylene (PE) type of LDPE were used. For thermoset polymer, epoxy and polyester were used. Synthesis of composite magnet based on thermoplastic polymer (PP2, PP10, LDPE) were carried using the blending method, while the thermoset composites magnet using casting method. Thermoplastic composite magnets were prepared with compositions of 50, 41, 38, 33 and 29 % weight of SRM with the blending temperature of 160 °C for LDPE and 180 °C for PP2 and PP10. For thermoset composite magnets, the compositions were 30, 40, 50 and 60 % by weight of SRM. The mechanical test conducted include tensile strength and elongation at break. Microstructure on the surface of the composite materials were observed using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) and the magnetic properties were measured using VSM (Vibrating Sample Magnetometer). The SEM results showed the formation of flat shape powder particle with size of 1.6 µm. In general, the mechanical properties of polypropylene polymer composite magnet are better than that using polyethylene (LDPE) binder. For polypropylene binder PP10 is better than PP2. Magnetic properties are not significantly affected by the change of polymer or binder types. (author)

  6. Kenaf-and hemp-reinforced natural fibre composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifah Hanisah Aziz

    2003-01-01

    The main aim of this research is to combine hemp and kenaf fibres with thermosetting resin matrices to produce sustainable composites and to investigate their mechanical properties. The matirces used in this work are based on either unsaturated polyester resins or cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL). The latter can be polymerised to form a phenolic-based natural resin. Four types of differently formulated polyester resins provided by Scott Bader Ltd, a UK-based resin company, were used to assess the effect of resin formulation on the properties of natural fibre composites. CSNL resins were used because CNSL is a sustainable resource and these resins are compatible with natural fibres. Kenaf, which is extensively grown in the Far East including Malaysia, has been identified as a bast (stem) fibre with significant market potential. Hemp is a United Kingdom-grown bast fibre with strong potential as a natural fibre reinforcement. In order to improve matrix to fibre adhesion, the fibres were treated with 6 % NaOH solution before being made into composites. The composites were fabricated using unidirectional and randomly oriented fibres to assess the effect of fibre alignment on the properties of the composites. The effect of moulding pressure on the fibre volume fraction and mechanical properties was also investigated. Kenaf and hemp fibre composites were successfully hot-pressed with polyester and CNSL resin matrices. Kenaf-CNSL (treated long fibre) composites possess the highest flexural modulus (MOE) at 16.7 GPa and flexural strength (MOR) at 165.4 MPa indicating good matrix to fibre adhesion. Generally, the treated fibre composites gave higher MOE and MOR values compared to the untreated composites. However, the work of fracture values were generally higher for the untreated fibre composites. among the four types of polyester used, the molecular structure of polyester B, modified to make it more polar in nature, resulted in the best performance with treated long kenaf

  7. GLASS-FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES: THE EFFECT OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    mechanical and corrosion wear behaviour of any reinforced composites. In other ..... physical properties of glass fibre reinforced epoxy resin and the following .... waste in concrete and cement composites," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol.

  8. Flow Characteristics of a Thermoset Fiber Composite Photopolymer Resin in a Vat Polymerization Additive Manufacturing Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Spangenberg, Jon; Pedersen, David B.

    Additive manufacturing vat polymerization has become a leading technology and gained a massive amount of attention in industrial applications such as injection molding inserts. By the use of the thermoset polymerization process inserts have increased their market share. For most industrial...... understood. Research indicates an orientation within the manufacturing layer and efforts have been made to achieve a more uniform orientation within the part. A vat polymerization machine consisting of a resin vat and a moving build plate has been simulated using the fluid flow module of Comsol Multiphysics...... photopolymer resin. The prediction can be used to identify potential clusters or misalignment of fibers and in the future allow for optimization of the machine design and manufacturing process....

  9. Design and analysis of reinforced fiber composites

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagata, Nobuki

    2016-01-01

    The papers in this volume present a broad range of applications for reinforced fiber composites - from thin shell structures to tires. Linear and nonlinear structural behavior (from linear buckling to nonlinear yelding and fracture) are discussed as well as different materials are presented. Latest developments in computational methods for constructíons are presented which will help to save money and time. This is an edited collection of papers presented at a symposium at the WCCM, Barcelona, 2014.

  10. Ferroelastic ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Composite materials comprising ferroelastic ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the ferroelastic ceramic particulates are subjected to stress, such as the cyclic stress experienced during vibration of the material, internal stresses in the ceramic cause the material to deform via twinning, domain rotation or domain motion thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The ferroelastic ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to impro...

  11. Piezoelectric ceramic-reinforced metal matrix composites

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Composite materials comprising piezoelectric ceramic particulates dispersed in a metal matrix are capable of vibration damping. When the piezoelectric ceramic particulates are subjected to strain, such as the strain experienced during vibration of the material, they generate an electrical voltage that is converted into Joule heat in the surrounding metal matrix, thereby dissipating the vibrational energy. The piezoelectric ceramic particulates may also act as reinforcements to improve the mec...

  12. Titanium reinforced boron-polyimide composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, G. A.; Clayton, K. I.

    1969-01-01

    Processing techniques for boron polyimide prepreg were developed whereby composites could be molded under vacuum bag pressure only. A post-cure cycle was developed which resulted in no loss in room temperature mechanical properties of the composite at any time during up to 16 hours at 650 F. A design utilizing laminated titanium foil was developed to achieve a smooth transition of load from the titanium attachment points into the boron-reinforced body of the structure. The box beam test article was subjected to combined bending and torsional loads while exposed to 650 F. Loads were applied incrementally until failure occurred at 83% design limit load.

  13. Reinforcing of Cement Composites by Estabragh Fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merati, A. A.

    2014-04-01

    The influence of Estabragh fibres has been studied to improve the performance characteristics of the reinforced cement composites. The concrete shrinkage was evaluated by counting the number of cracks and measuring the width of cracks on the surface of concrete specimens. Although, the Estabragh fibres lose their strength in an alkali environment of cement composites, but, the ability of Estabragh fibres to bridge on the micro cracks in the concrete matrix causes to decrease the width of the cracks on the surface of the concrete samples in comparison with the plain concrete. However, considering the mechanical properties of specimens such as bending strength and impact resistance, the specimens with 0.25 % of Estabragh fibre performed better in all respects compared to the physical and mechanical properties of reinforced cement composite of concrete. Consequently, by adding 0.25 % of Estabragh fibres to the cement composite of concrete, a remarkable improvement in physical and mechanical properties of fibre-containing cement composite is achieved.

  14. Multi-Scaled Modeling the Mechanical Properties of Tubular Composites Reinforced with Innovated 3D Weft Knitted Spacer Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, Elahe; Hasani, Hossein; Dibajian, Sayed Houssain

    2018-02-01

    Textile composites of 3D integrated spacer configurations have been recently focused by several researchers all over the world. In the present study, newly-designed tubular composites reinforced with 3D spacer weft knitted fabrics were considered and the effects of their structural parameters on some applicable mechanical properties were investigated. For this purpose, two different samples of 3D spacer weft knitted textile types in tubular form were produced on an electronic flat knitting machine, using glass/nylon hybrid yarns. Thermoset tubular-shaped composite parts were manufactured via vacuum infusion molding process using epoxy resin. The mechanical properties of the produced knitted composites in term of external static and internal hydrostatic pressures were evaluated. Resistance of the produced composites against the external static and internal hydrostatic pressures was numerically simulated using multi-scale modeling method. The finding revealed that there is acceptable correlation between experimental and theoretical results.

  15. Bisphenyl-Polymer/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite Compared to Titanium Alloy Bone Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Petersen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace/aeronautical thermoset bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites are considered as new advanced materials to replace metal bone implants. In addition to well-recognized nonpolar chemistry with related bisphenol-polymer estrogenic factors, carbon-fiber-reinforced composites can offer densities and electrical conductivity/resistivity properties close to bone with strengths much higher than metals on a per-weight basis. In vivo bone-marrow tests with Sprague-Dawley rats revealed far-reaching significant osseoconductivity increases from bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber composites when compared to state-of-the-art titanium-6-4 alloy controls. Midtibial percent bone area measured from the implant surface increased when comparing the titanium alloy to the polymer composite from 10.5% to 41.6% at 0.8 mm, P<10−4, and 19.3% to 77.7% at 0.1 mm, P<10−8. Carbon-fiber fragments planned to occur in the test designs, instead of producing an inflammation, stimulated bone formation and increased bone integration to the implant. In addition, low-thermal polymer processing allows incorporation of minerals and pharmaceuticals for future major tissue-engineering potential.

  16. Processes for fabricating composite reinforced material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Ludtka, Gerard M.

    2015-11-24

    A family of materials wherein nanostructures and/or nanotubes are incorporated into a multi-component material arrangement, such as a metallic or ceramic alloy or composite/aggregate, producing a new material or metallic/ceramic alloy. The new material has significantly increased strength, up to several thousands of times normal and perhaps substantially more, as well as significantly decreased weight. The new materials may be manufactured into a component where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the bulk and/or matrix material, or as a coating where the nanostructure or nanostructure reinforcement is incorporated into the coating or surface of a "normal" substrate material. The nanostructures are incorporated into the material structure either randomly or aligned, within grains, or along or across grain boundaries.

  17. Micromechanical failure in fiber-reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashouri Vajari, Danial

    Micromechanical failure mechanisms occurring in unidirectional fiber-reinforced composites are studied by means of the finite element method as well as experimental testing. This study highlights the effect of micro-scale features such as fiber/matrix interfacial debonding, matrix cracking...... and microvoids on the microscopic and macroscopic mechanical response of composite materials. To this end, first a numerical study is carried out to explore ways to stabilize interfacial crack growth under dominant Mode-I fracture using the cohesive zone model. Consequently, this study suggests a method...... composites. In the first approach, the J2 plasticity model is implemented to model the elasto-plastic behavior of the matrix while in the second strategy the modified Drucker-Prager plasticity model is utilized to account for brittle-like and pressure dependent behavior of an epoxy matrix. In addition...

  18. Reinforced concrete treatment as composite material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oller, S.; Onate, E.; Miguel, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the general mixing theory applied to the numerical simulation of multiphase composite material behaviour as reinforced concrete materials. This theory is based on the mixture of that composite basic substances and allows to evaluate the inter-dependence behaviour between the different compounding constitutive models. If it would be necessary to consider the initial anisotropy of each compound it could be done by mean of the mapped isotropic plastic formulation. The approach is a generalization of the classic isotropic plasticity theory to be applied to either ortho tropic or anisotropic materials such as reinforced concrete. The existence of a stress and strain real anisotropic spaces, and the respective fictitious isotropic spaces are assumed, where a mapped fictitious problem is solved. Those spaces are relating by means of two fourth order transformation tensors. Both formulation are joined establishing a powerful work tool for the treatment of bulk-fiber composite materials. The induced anisotropy behaviour is take into account by each compounding constitutive formulation. (author). 24 refs., 3 figs

  19. A Review on Natural Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Layth Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers are getting attention from researchers and academician to utilize in polymer composites due to their ecofriendly nature and sustainability. The aim of this review article is to provide a comprehensive review of the foremost appropriate as well as widely used natural fiber reinforced polymer composites (NFPCs and their applications. In addition, it presents summary of various surface treatments applied to natural fibers and their effect on NFPCs properties. The properties of NFPCs vary with fiber type and fiber source as well as fiber structure. The effects of various chemical treatments on the mechanical and thermal properties of natural fibers reinforcements thermosetting and thermoplastics composites were studied. A number of drawbacks of NFPCs like higher water absorption, inferior fire resistance, and lower mechanical properties limited its applications. Impacts of chemical treatment on the water absorption, tribology, viscoelastic behavior, relaxation behavior, energy absorption flames retardancy, and biodegradability properties of NFPCs were also highlighted. The applications of NFPCs in automobile and construction industry and other applications are demonstrated. It concluded that chemical treatment of the natural fiber improved adhesion between the fiber surface and the polymer matrix which ultimately enhanced physicomechanical and thermochemical properties of the NFPCs.

  20. Natural fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taj, S.; Khan, S.; Munawar, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Natural fibers have been used to reinforce materials for over 3,000 years. More recently they have been employed in combination with plastics. Many types of natural fi fibers have been investigated for use in plastics including Flax, hemp, jute, straw, wood fiber, rice husks, wheat, barley, oats, rye, cane (sugar and bamboo), grass reeds, kenaf, ramie, oil palm empty fruit bunch, sisal, coir, water hyacinth, pennywort, kapok, paper-mulberry, raphia, banana fiber, pineapple leaf fiber and papyrus. Natural fibers have the advantage that they are renewable resources and have marketing appeal. The Asian markets have been using natural fibers for many years e.g., jute is a common reinforcement in India. Natural fibers are increasingly used in automotive and packaging materials. Pakistan is an agricultural country and it is the main stay of Pakistan's economy. Thousands of tons of different crops are produced but most of their wastes do not have any useful utilization. Agricultural wastes include wheat husk, rice husk, and their straw, hemp fiber and shells of various dry fruits. These agricultural wastes can be used to prepare fiber reinforced polymer composites for commercial use. This report examines the different types of fibers available and the current status of research. Many references to the latest work on properties, processing and application have been cited in this review. (author)

  1. Thermosetting behavior of pitch-resin from heavy residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingfang, Z.; Yansheng, G.; Baohua, H.; Yuzhen, Z. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Dongying, Shandong (China). State Key LAboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, Heavy Oil Research Inst.

    2006-07-01

    Thermosetting resins are widely employed as a basic matrix for c/c composites in carbon materials production. A new type of synthesized thermosetting resin is called pitch resin. Pitch resin is a cheaper resin and possesses a potential opportunity for future use. However, the thermosetting behavior of pitch resin is not very clear. The hardening process and conditions for thermosetting are very important for future use of pitch resin. B-stage pitch resin is a soluble and meltable inter-media condensed polymer, which is not fully reacted and is of a low molecular weight. The insoluble and unmelted pitch resin can only be obtained from synthesized B-stage resin after a hardening stage. This paper presented an experiment that synthesized B-stage pitch resin with a link agent (PXG) under catalyst action from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) of the slurry's aromatic enriched component (FCCDF). The paper discussed the experiment, including the synthesis of pitch resin and thermosetting of pitch resin. Two kinds of thermosetting procedures were used in the study called one-step thermosetting and two-step thermosetting. It was concluded that the B-stage pitch resin could be hardened after a thermosetting procedure by heat treatment. The thermosetting pitch resin from 2-step thermosetting possesses was found to have better thermal resistant properties than that of the 1-step thermosetting pitch resin. 13 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  2. Composites reinforcement by rods a SAS study

    CERN Document Server

    Urban, V; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W; Richter, D; Straube, E

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical properties of composites are governed by size, shape and dispersion degree of so-called reinforcing particles. Polymeric fillers based on thermodynamically driven microphase separation of block copolymers offer the opportunity to study a model system of controlled rod-like filler particles. We chose a triblock copolymer (PBPSPB) and carried out SAS measurements with both X-rays and neutrons, in order to characterize separately the hard phase and the cross-linked PB matrix. The properties of the material depend strongly on the way that stress is carried and transferred between the soft matrix and the hard fibers. The failure of the strain-amplification concept and the change of topological contributions to the free energy and scattering factor have to be addressed. In this respect the composite shows a similarity to a two-network system, i.e. interpenetrating rubber and rod-like filler networks. (orig.)

  3. Thermal expansion of fibre-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, B.

    1991-07-01

    The integral thermal expansion and the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of carbon and Kevlar fibre-reinforced composites were measured with high accuracy from 5 K to room temperature. For this, a laser dilatometer and a sophisticated measuring procedure were used. CTE dependence on the orientation angle ω of angle-ply laminates was determined for samples with 5 different fibre alignments (UD 0deg, +/-30deg, +/-45deg, +/-60deg and UD 90deg). A high variability of the CTE with the orientation angle was shown. At angles of approximately +/-30deg even negative CTEs were found. With suitable reinforcing fibres being selected, their absolute values rose up to 30-100% of the positive CTEs of metals. Hence, composites of this type would be suitable as compensating materials in metal constructions where little thermal expansion is desired. To check the lamination theory, theoretical computations of the CTE- ω -dependence were compared with the measured values. An excellent agreement was found. Using the lamination theory, predictions about the expansion behaviour of angle-ply laminates can be made now, if the thermal and mechanical properties of the unidirectional (UD) laminate are known. Furthermore, it is possible to carry out simulation computations aimed at investigating the influence of a single parameter of the UD-laminate (e.g. shear modulus) on the expansion of the angle-ply laminate. (orig.) [de

  4. Hybrid fiber and nanopowder reinforced composites for wind turbine blades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloz M. Chikhradze

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of an investigation into the production of wind turbine blades manufactured using polymer composites reinforced by hybrid (carbon, basalt, glass fibers and strengthened by various nanopowders (oxides, carbides, borides are presented. The hybrid fiber-reinforced composites (HFRC were manufactured with prepreg technology by molding pre-saturated epoxy-strengthened matrix-reinforced fabric. Performance of the manufactured composites was estimated with values of the coefficient of operating condition (COC at a moderate and elevated temperature.

  5. Strengthening of the Timber Members Using Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Sorina Enţuc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The reinforcement of structural wood products has become in the last decades an efficient method of improving structural capabilities of load carrying members made of this material. Some important steps in earlier stages of research were focused on using metallic reinforcement, including steel bars, prestressed stranded cables, and bonded steel and aluminum plates. A disadvantage of the metallic reinforcement was the poor compatibility between the wood and the reinforcing materials. In comparison with metallic reinforcement, fiber reinforced polymers (FRP composites are compatible with structural wood products leading to efficient hybrid members. Some interesting strengthening alternatives using FRP applied to wood beams and to wood columns are presented in this paper.

  6. Damage tolerance of candidate thermoset composites for use on single stage to orbit vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Lance, D.; Hodge, A.

    1994-01-01

    Four fiber/resin systems were compared for resistance to damage and damage tolerance. One toughened epoxy and three toughened bismaleimide (BMI) resins were used, all with IM7 carbon fiber reinforcement. A statistical design of experiments technique was used to evaluate the effects of impact energy, specimen thickness, and impactor diameter on the damage area, as computed by C-scans, and residual compression-after-impact (CAI) strength. Results showed that two of the BMI systems sustained relatively large damage zones yet had an excellent retention of CAI strength.

  7. Thermoforming of Continuous Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCool, Rauri; Murphy, Adrian; Wilson, Ryan; Jiang Zhenyu; Price, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of new materials, particularly for aerospace products, is not a simple, quick or cheap task. New materials require extensive and expensive qualification and must meet challenging strength, stiffness, durability, manufacturing, inspection and maintenance requirements. Growth in industry acceptance for fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite systems requires the determination of whole life attributes including both part processing and processed part performance data. For thermoplastic composite materials the interactions between the processing parameters, in-service structural performance and end of life recyclability are potentially interrelated. Given the large number and range of parameters and the complexity of the potential relationships, understanding for whole life design must be developed in a systematic building block approach. To assess and demonstrate such an approach this article documents initial coupon level thermoforming trials for a commercially available fibre reinforced thermoplastic laminate, identifying the key interactions between processing and whole life performance characteristics. To examine the role of the thermoforming process parameters on the whole life performance characteristics of the formed part requires a series of manufacturing trials combined with a series of characterisation tests on the manufacturing trial output. Using a full factorial test programme and considering all possible process parameters over a range of potential magnitudes would result in a very large number of manufacturing trials and accompanying characterisation tests. Such an approach would clearly be expensive and require significant time to complete, therefore failing to address the key requirement for a future design methodology capable of rapidly generating design knowledge for new materials and processes. In this work the role of mould tool temperature and blank forming temperature on the thermoforming of a commercially available

  8. Weathering effects on tensile and stress rupture strength of glass fiber reinforced vinylester and epoxy thermoset pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamuddin, Syed

    Glass fiber reinforced vinylester (GFRE) and epoxy (GFRE) pipes have been used for more than three decades to mitigate corrosion problems in oil fields, chemical and industrial plants. In these services, both GFRV and GFRE pipes are exposed to various environmental conditions. Long-term mechanical durability of these pipes after exposure to environmental conditions, which include natural weathering exposure to seasonal temperature variation, sea water, humidity and other corrosive fluids like crude oil, should be well known. Although extensive research has been undertaken, several major issues pertaining to the performance of these pipes under a number of environmental conditions still remain unresolved. The main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of natural weathering, combined natural weathering with seawater and crude oil exposure, for time periods ranging from 3 to 36 months respectively, on the tensile and stress rupture behavior of GFRV and GFRE pipes. Ring specimens are machined from GFRV and GFRE pipes and tested before and after exposure to different weathering conditions prevalent in the eastern region (Dhahran) of Saudi Arabia and present under service conditions. The natural weathering and combined natural weathering with crude oil exposure of GFRV specimens revealed increased tensile strength even after 36 months of exposure when compared with that of the as received samples. However, the combined natural weathering with seawater exposure of GFRV samples revealed better tensile behavior till 24 months of exposure, and after 36 months their tensile strength was seen to be below that of the as received GFRV samples. The stress rupture behavior of natural weather exposed GFRV samples showed an improvement after 12 months of exposure and it decreased after 24 and 36 months of exposure when compared with the as received GFRV samples. The combined natural weathering with crude oil and seawater exposure of GFRV sample revealed improved

  9. Nano-Zirconium Tungstate Reinforced Liquid Crystalline Thermosetting Composites with Near Zero Thermal Expansion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-25

    Novel Bainitic Steel . Scripta Materialia 2005, 52, 461-466. (92)Nicholson, D. M. C.; Kisner, R. A.; Ludtka, G. M.; Sparks, C. J.; Petit, L.; Jaramillo...P. N., In Situ Evidence of Enhanced Transformation Kinetics in a Medium Carbon Steel Due to a High Magnetic Field. Scripta Materialia 2004, 51, 171

  10. Thermal Analysis of Filler Reinforced Polymeric Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadge, Mahesh Devidas

    compared with that predicted by mean field theories. At low volume fractions the FEM and mean field theory results are matching. However, at high volume fractions, the results obtained by the two methods are not in agreement. This is due to the fact that mean field theory do not consider the particle interactions happening at higher volume fractions. The present analysis can be used to tailor the thermal properties of ESBR for required thermal conductivity for a wide range of applications such as racing tires, electronic gadgets or aeronautical components. In addition, the proposed FEM models can be used to design and optimize the properties of new composite materials providing more insight into the thermal conductivity of composite polymers and aid in understanding heat transfer mechanism of reinforced polymers.

  11. Halloysite reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saif Muhammad Jawwad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Halloysite nanotubes (HNTs reinforced epoxy composites with improved mechanical properties were prepared. The prepared HNTs reinforced epoxy composites demonstrated improved mechanical properties especially the fracture toughness and flexural strength. The flexural modulus of nanocomposite with 6% mHNTs loading was 11.8% higher than that of neat epoxy resin. In addition, the nanocomposites showed improved dimensional stability. The prepared halloysite reinforced epoxy composites were characterized by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. The improved properties are attributed to the unique characteristics of HNTs, uniform dispersion of reinforcement and interfacial coupling.

  12. Innovative Chemical Process for Recycling Thermosets Cured with Recyclamines® by Converting Bio-Epoxy Composites in Reusable Thermoplastic—An LCA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela D. La Rosa

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An innovative recycling process for thermoset polymer composites developed by Connora Technologies (Hayward, CA, USA was studied. The process efficacy has already been tested, and it is currently working at the plant level. The main aspect investigated in the present paper was the environmental impact by means of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA method. Because of the need to recycle and recover materials at their end of life, the Connora process creates a great innovation in the market of epoxy composites, as they are notoriously not recyclable. Connora Technologies developed a relatively gentle chemical recycling process that induces the conversion of thermosets into thermoplastics. The LCA demonstrated that low environmental burdens are associated with the process itself and, furthermore, impacts are avoided due to the recovery of the epoxy-composite constituents (fibres and matrix. A carbon fibre (CF epoxy-composite panel was produced through Vacuum Resin Transfer Moulding (VRTM and afterwards treated using the Connora recycling process. The LCA results of both the production and the recycling phases are reported.

  13. Radiation processing for PTFE composite reinforced with carbon fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akihiro Oshima; Akira Udagawa; Yousuke Morita

    1999-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to evaluate the performance of crosslinked PTFE as a polymer matrix for carbon fiber-reinforced composite materials. The carbon fiber-reinforced PTFE pre-composite, which is laminated with PTFE fine powder, is crosslinked by electron beam irradiation. Mechanical and frictional properties of the crosslinked PTFE composite obtained are higher than those of PTFE resin. The crosslinked PTFE composite with high mechanical and radiation resistant performance is obtained by radiation crosslinking process

  14. Quantitative radiographic analysis of fiber reinforced polymer composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baidya, K P; Ramakrishna, S; Rahman, M; Ritchie, A

    2001-01-01

    X-ray radiographic examination of the bone fracture healing process is a widely used method in the treatment and management of patients. Medical devices made of metallic alloys reportedly produce considerable artifacts that make the interpretation of radiographs difficult. Fiber reinforced polymer composite materials have been proposed to replace metallic alloys in certain medical devices because of their radiolucency, light weight, and tailorable mechanical properties. The primary objective of this paper is to provide a comparable radiographic analysis of different fiber reinforced polymer composites that are considered suitable for biomedical applications. Composite materials investigated consist of glass, aramid (Kevlar-29), and carbon reinforcement fibers, and epoxy and polyether-ether-ketone (PEEK) matrices. The total mass attenuation coefficient of each material was measured using clinical X-rays (50 kev). The carbon fiber reinforced composites were found to be more radiolucent than the glass and kevlar fiber reinforced composites.

  15. Properties of compression moulded new fully biobased thermoset composites with aligned flax fibre textiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pohl, Th.; Bierer, M.; Natter, E.

    2011-01-01

    into composites using an industrial scale compression moulding machine, and their material properties were analysed. The density was calculated by using a computed microtomography system, and tensile tests were carried out. Besides the mechanical properties, the burning and the moisture absorption behaviour have...

  16. Mechanical properties of thermoplastic composites reinforced with Entada Mannii fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwayomi BALOGUN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of thermoplastic composites reinforced with Entada mannii fibres was investigated. Polypropylene reinforced with 1, 3, 5, and 7 wt% KOH treated and untreated Entada mannii fibres were processed using a compression moulding machine. The tensile properties, impact strength, and flexural properties of the composites were evaluated while the tensile fracture surface morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The results show that reinforcing polypropylene with Entada mannii fibres resulted in improvement of the tensile strength and elastic modulus. This improvement is remarkable for 5 wt% KOH treated Entada mannii fibre reinforced composites by 28 % increase as compared with the unreinforced polypropylene. The composites reinforced with Entada mannii fibres also had impact strength values of 70 % higher than the unreinforced polypropylene. However, the polypropylene reinforced with 5 and 7wt% KOH treated fibres exhibited significantly higher flexural strength and Young’s modulus by 53% and 52% increase as compared with the unreinforced polypropylene. The fracture surface of the polypropylene composites reinforced with untreated Entada mannii fibres were characterized by fibre debonding, fibre pull-out and matrix yielding while less voids and fibre pull-outs are observed in the composites reinforced with KOH treated Entada mannii fibres. v

  17. Thermoconductive Thermosetting Composites Based on Boron Nitride Fillers and Thiol-Epoxy Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaac Isarn

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of the addition of boron nitride (BN fillers in a thiol-cycloaliphatic epoxy formulation has been investigated. Calorimetric studies put into evidence that the kinetics of the curing has been scarcely affected and that the addition of particles does not affect the final structure of the network. Rheologic studies have shown the increase in the viscoelastic properties on adding the filler and allow the percolation threshold to be calculated, which was found to be 35.5%. The use of BN agglomerates of bigger size increases notably the viscosity of the formulation. Glass transition temperatures are not affected by the filler added, but Young’s modulus and hardness have been notably enhanced. Thermal conductivity of the composites prepared shows a linear increase with the proportion of BN particle sheets added, reaching a maximum of 0.97 W/K·m. The addition of 80 μm agglomerates, allowed to increase this value until 1.75 W/K·m.

  18. Mechanical Behaviour of Sisal Fibre Reinforced Cement Composites

    OpenAIRE

    M. Aruna

    2014-01-01

    Emphasis on the advancement of new materials and technology has been there for the past few decades. The global development towards using cheap and durable materials from renewable resources contributes to sustainable development. An experimental investigation of mechanical behaviour of sisal fibre-reinforced concrete is reported for making a suitable building material in terms of reinforcement. Fibre reinforced Composite is one such material, which has reformed the concept of high strength. ...

  19. Reinforced magnesium composites by metallic particles for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vahid, Alireza; Hodgson, Peter [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); Li, Yuncang, E-mail: yuncang.li@rmit.edu.au [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong, Victoria 3217 (Australia); School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001 (Australia)

    2017-02-08

    Pure magnesium (Mg) implants have unsatisfactory mechanical properties, particularly in loadbearing applications. Particulate-reinforced Mg composites are known as promising materials to provide higher strength implants compared to unreinforced metals. In the current work biocompatible niobium (Nb) and tantalum (Ta) particles are selected as reinforcement, and Mg-Nb and Mg-Ta composites fabricated via a powder metallurgy process associated with the ball milling technique. The effect of Nb and Ta contents on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg matrix was investigated. There was a uniform distribution of reinforcements in the Mg matrix with reasonable integrity and no intermetallic formation. The compressive mechanical properties of composites vary with reinforcement contents. The optimal parameters to fabricate biocompatible Mg composites and the optimal composition with appropriate strength, hardness and ductility are recommended.

  20. Superelastic SMA–FRP composite reinforcement for concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wierschem, Nicholas; Andrawes, Bassem

    2010-01-01

    For many years there has been interest in using fiber-reinforced polymers (FRPs) as reinforcement in concrete structures. Unfortunately, due to their linear elastic behavior, FRP reinforcing bars are never considered for structural damping or dynamic applications. With the aim of improving the ductility and damping capability of concrete structures reinforced with FRP reinforcement, this paper studies the application of SMA–FRP, a relatively novel type of composite reinforced with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) wires. The cyclic tensile behavior of SMA–FRP composites are studied experimentally and analytically. Tests of SMA–FRP composite coupons are conducted to determine their constitutive behavior. The experimental results are used to develop and calibrate a uniaxial SMA–FRP analytical model. Parametric and case studies are performed to determine the efficacy of the SMA–FRP reinforcement in concrete structures and the key factors governing its behavior. The results show significant potential for SMA–FRP reinforcement to improve the ductility and damping of concrete structures while still maintaining its elastic characteristic, typical of FRP reinforcement

  1. On the simulation of kink bands in fiber reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.D.; Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard; Jensen, H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Simulations of kink band formation in fiber reinforced composites are carried out using the commercial finite element program ABAQUS. A smeared-out, plane constitutive model for fiber reinforced materials is implemented as a user subroutine, and effects of fiber misalignment on elastic and plastic...

  2. Strength and thermal stability of fiber reinforced plastic composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, the strength properties and thermal stability of plastic composites reinforced with rattan fibers were investigated in this work. Particles of rattan species (Eremospatha macrocarpa (EM) and Laccosperma secundiflorum (LS)) were blended with High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE) to produce fiber reinforced plastic ...

  3. Engineered cementitious composites for strengthening masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehghani, Ayoub; Nateghi-Alahi, Fariborz; Fischer, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    The results of the second part of a comprehensive experimental program, aimed at investigating the behavior of masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames strengthened with fiber reinforced engineered cementitious composites (ECC) used as an overlay on the masonry wall, are presented...

  4. Fiber-reinforced Composite for Chairside Replacement of Anterior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fiber-reinforced Composite for Chairside Replacement of Anterior Teeth: A Case Report. ... investigation will be required to provide additional information on the survival of directly-bonded anterior fixed prosthesis made with FRC systems.

  5. Synthesis of carbon fibre-reinforced, silicon carbide composites by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon fibre (Cf) reinforced, silicon carbide matrix composites which are ... eral applications, such as automotive brakes, high-efficiency engine systems, ... The PIP method is based on the use of organo metallic pre-ceramic precursors.

  6. Compressive behavior of wire reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung-Yub [Department of Materials Science, M/C 138-78, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Clausen, Bjorn [Lujan Neutron Science Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Uestuendag, Ersan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)]. E-mail: ustundag@iastate.edu; Choi-Yim, Haein [Department of Materials Science, M/C 138-78, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Aydiner, C. Can [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Bourke, Mark A.M. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) possess a unique set of mechanical properties that make them attractive structural materials. However, when loaded without constraint, BMGs fracture catastrophically due to formation of macroscopic shear bands and this behavior reduces their reliability. To address this issue, BMG matrix composites have been developed. In this investigation, neutron diffraction was used during uniaxial compressive loading to measure the internal strains in the second phases of various BMG composites reinforced with Ta, Mo, or stainless steel wires. The diffraction data were then employed to develop a finite element model that deduced the in situ constitutive behavior of each phase. It was found that the reinforcements yielded first and started transferring load to the matrix, which remained elastic during the whole experiment. While the present composites exhibited enhanced ductility, largely due to their ductile reinforcements, they yielded at applied stresses lower than those found in W reinforced composites.

  7. Technology and development of self-reinforced polymer composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alcock, B.; Peijs, T.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing amount of interest, both commercially and scientifically, in the emerging field of "self-reinforced polymer composites". These materials, which are sometimes also referred to as "single polymer composites", or "all-polymer composites", were first

  8. Manufacturing of composite parts reinforced through-thickness by tufting

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Anno, G.; Treiber, J. W G; Partridge, Ivana K

    2016-01-01

    The paper aims at providing practical guidelines for the manufacture of composite parts reinforced by tufting. The need for through-thickness reinforcement of high performance carbon fibre composite structures is reviewed and various options are presented. The tufting process is described in detail and relevant aspects of the technology are analysed such as: equipment configuration and setup, latest advances in tooling, thread selection, preform supporting systems and choice of ancillary mate...

  9. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    OpenAIRE

    Botta, Luigi; Fiore, Vincenzo; Scalici, Tommaso; Valenza, Antonino;  , Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid) (PLA)-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w) were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID) reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM) reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanica...

  10. Micromechanical modeling of strength and damage of fiber reinforced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishnaevsky, L. Jr.; Broendsted, P.

    2007-03-15

    The report for the first year of the EU UpWind project includes three parts: overview of concepts and methods of modelling of mechanical behavior, deformation and damage of unidirectional fiber reinforced composites, development of computational tools for the automatic generation of 3D micromechanical models of fiber reinforced composites, and micromechanical modelling of damage in FRC, and phenomenological analysis of the effect of frequency of cyclic loading on the lifetime and damage evolution in materials. (au)

  11. Effect of hybrid fiber reinforcement on the cracking process in fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Eduardo B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, Joaquim A.O.

    2012-01-01

    The simultaneous use of different types of fibers as reinforcement in cementitious matrix composites is typically motivated by the underlying principle of a multi-scale nature of the cracking processes in fiber reinforced cementitious composites. It has been hypothesized that while undergoing...... tensile deformations in the composite, the fibers with different geometrical and mechanical properties restrain the propagation and further development of cracking at different scales from the micro- to the macro-scale. The optimized design of the fiber reinforcing systems requires the objective...... materials is carried out by assessing directly their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The efficiency of hybrid fiber reinforcements and the multi-scale nature of cracking processes are discussed based on the experimental results obtained, as well as the micro-mechanisms underlying the contribution...

  12. Hybrid fiber reinforcement and crack formation in Cementitious Composite Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, E.B.; Fischer, Gregor; Barros, J.A.O.

    2011-01-01

    reinforcement systems. The research described in this paper shows that the multi-scale conception of cracking and the use of hybrid fiber reinforcements do not necessarily result in an improved tensile behavior of the composite. Particular material design requirements may nevertheless justify the use of hybrid......- to the macroscale. In this study, the performance of different fiber reinforced cementitious composites is assessed in terms of their tensile stress-crack opening behavior. The results obtained from this investigation allow a direct quantitative comparison of the behavior obtained from the different fiber...

  13. Titanium Implant Osseointegration Problems with Alternate Solutions Using Epoxy/Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard C. Petersen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to present recent developments in material research with bisphenyl-polymer/carbon-fiber-reinforced composite that have produced highly influential results toward improving upon current titanium bone implant clinical osseointegration success. Titanium is now the standard intra-oral tooth root/bone implant material with biocompatible interface relationships that confer potential osseointegration. Titanium produces a TiO2 oxide surface layer reactively that can provide chemical bonding through various electron interactions as a possible explanation for biocompatibility. Nevertheless, titanium alloy implants produce corrosion particles and fail by mechanisms generally related to surface interaction on bone to promote an inflammation with fibrous aseptic loosening or infection that can require implant removal. Further, lowered oxygen concentrations from poor vasculature at a foreign metal surface interface promote a build-up of host-cell-related electrons as free radicals and proton acid that can encourage infection and inflammation to greatly influence implant failure. To provide improved osseointegration many different coating processes and alternate polymer matrix composite (PMC solutions have been considered that supply new designing potential to possibly overcome problems with titanium bone implants. Now for important consideration, PMCs have decisive biofunctional fabrication possibilities while maintaining mechanical properties from addition of high-strengthening varied fiber-reinforcement and complex fillers/additives to include hydroxyapatite or antimicrobial incorporation through thermoset polymers that cure at low temperatures. Topics/issues reviewed in this manuscript include titanium corrosion, implant infection, coatings and the new epoxy/carbon-fiber implant results discussing osseointegration with biocompatibility related to nonpolar molecular attractions with secondary bonding, carbon fiber in vivo

  14. Radiation processing for carbon fiber-reinforced polytetrafluoroethylene composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshima, Akihiro; Udagawa, Akira; Morita, Yousuke

    2001-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to evaluate the performance of the fiber composites with crosslinked polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) as a polymer matrix by radiation. The uni-directional carbon fiber-reinforced composites were fabricated with PTFE fine powder impregnation method and then crosslinked by electron beams irradiation under selective conditions. The carbon fiber-reinforced crosslinked PTFE composites show good mechanical properties compared with crosslinked PTFE. The radiation resistance of crosslinked PTFE composites is improved more than that of crosslinked resin without fiber. (author)

  15. Elastic Property Simulation of Nano-particle Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Jiawei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of numerical micro-mechanical models for two kinds of particle (cylindrical and discal particle reinforced composites are developed to investigate the effect of microstructural parameters on the elastic properties of composites. The effects of both the degree of particle clustering and particle’s shape on the elastic mechanical properties of composites are investigated. In addition, single particle unit cell approximation is good enough for the analysis of the effect of averaged parameters when only linear elastic response is considered without considering the particle clustering in particle-reinforced composites.

  16. Prediction of process induced shape distortions and residual stresses in large fibre reinforced composite laminates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Michael Wenani

    to their accuracy in predicting process induced strain and stress development in thick section laminates during curing, and more precisely regarding the evolution of the composite thermoset polymer matrix mechanical behaviour during the phase transitions experienced during curing. The different constitutive...

  17. High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites 6 HPFRCC 6

    CERN Document Server

    Reinhardt, Hans; Naaman, A

    2012-01-01

    High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites (HPFRCC) represent a class of cement composites whose stress-strain response in tension undergoes strain hardening behaviour accompanied by multiple cracking, leading to a high strain prior to failure. The primary objective of this International Workshop was to provide a compendium of up-to-date information on the most recent developments and research advances in the field of High Performance Fiber Reinforced Cement Composites. Approximately 65 contributions from leading world experts are assembled in these proceedings and provide an authoritative perspective on the subject. Special topics include fresh and hardening state properties; self-compacting mixtures; mechanical behavior under compressive, tensile, and shear loading; structural applications; impact, earthquake and fire resistance; durability issues; ultra-high performance fiber reinforced concrete; and textile reinforced concrete. Target readers: graduate students, researchers, fiber producers, desi...

  18. Designing bioinspired composite reinforcement architectures via 3D magnetic printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joshua J.; Fiore, Brad E.; Erb, Randall M.

    2015-10-01

    Discontinuous fibre composites represent a class of materials that are strong, lightweight and have remarkable fracture toughness. These advantages partially explain the abundance and variety of discontinuous fibre composites that have evolved in the natural world. Many natural structures out-perform the conventional synthetic counterparts due, in part, to the more elaborate reinforcement architectures that occur in natural composites. Here we present an additive manufacturing approach that combines real-time colloidal assembly with existing additive manufacturing technologies to create highly programmable discontinuous fibre composites. This technology, termed as `3D magnetic printing', has enabled us to recreate complex bioinspired reinforcement architectures that deliver enhanced material performance compared with monolithic structures. Further, we demonstrate that we can now design and evolve elaborate reinforcement architectures that are not found in nature, demonstrating a high level of possible customization in discontinuous fibre composites with arbitrary geometries.

  19. Designing bioinspired composite reinforcement architectures via 3D magnetic printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Joshua J; Fiore, Brad E; Erb, Randall M

    2015-10-23

    Discontinuous fibre composites represent a class of materials that are strong, lightweight and have remarkable fracture toughness. These advantages partially explain the abundance and variety of discontinuous fibre composites that have evolved in the natural world. Many natural structures out-perform the conventional synthetic counterparts due, in part, to the more elaborate reinforcement architectures that occur in natural composites. Here we present an additive manufacturing approach that combines real-time colloidal assembly with existing additive manufacturing technologies to create highly programmable discontinuous fibre composites. This technology, termed as '3D magnetic printing', has enabled us to recreate complex bioinspired reinforcement architectures that deliver enhanced material performance compared with monolithic structures. Further, we demonstrate that we can now design and evolve elaborate reinforcement architectures that are not found in nature, demonstrating a high level of possible customization in discontinuous fibre composites with arbitrary geometries.

  20. Graphene-Reinforced Metal and Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasar, Ashish K.; Xiong, Guoping; Menezes, Pradeep L.

    2018-06-01

    Composites have tremendous applicability due to their excellent capabilities. The performance of composites mainly depends on the reinforcing material applied. Graphene is successful as an efficient reinforcing material due to its versatile as well as superior properties. Even at very low content, graphene can dramatically improve the properties of polymer and metal matrix composites. This article reviews the fabrication followed by mechanical and tribological properties of metal and polymer matrix composites filled with different kinds of graphene, including single-layer, multilayer, and functionalized graphene. Results reported to date in literature indicate that functionalized graphene or graphene oxide-polymer composites are promising materials offering significantly improved strength and frictional properties. A similar trend of improved properties has been observed in case of graphene-metal matrix composites. However, achieving higher graphene loading with uniform dispersion in metal matrix composites remains a challenge. Although graphene-reinforced composites face some challenges, such as understanding the graphene-matrix interaction or fabrication techniques, graphene-reinforced polymer and metal matrix composites have great potential for application in various fields due to their outstanding properties.

  1. Repairing reinforced concrete slabs using composite layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naghibdehi, M. Ghasemi; Sharbatdar, M.K.; Mastali, M.

    2014-01-01

    There are several strengthening methods for rehabilitation of RC structural elements. The efficiency of these methods has been demonstrated by many researchers. Due to their mechanical properties, using fibrous materials in rehabilitation applications is growing fast. Therefore, this study presents rehabilitation of slabs in such a way that plain concrete layers on top, on bottom, on the entire cross section are replaced by reinforced concrete layers. In order to reinforce the concrete, Polypropylene (PP) and steel fibers were used by 0.5%, 1% and 2% fiber volume fractions. Nineteen slabs were studied under flexural loadings and fibrous material effects on the initial crack force, the maximum loading carrying capacity, absorbed energy and ductility were investigated. The obtained results demonstrated that increasing the fiber volume fraction or using reinforced concrete layer on top, bottom, or at the entire cross section of the slabs not only always leads to improvement in the slab performance, but also sometimes debilitates the slab performance. Hence, this study will propose the best positioning of reinforced concrete layer, fiber volume fraction and fiber type to achieve the best flexural performance of slabs. - Highlights: • Using PP fibers at the bottom layer led to the best slab performance in bending. • Using steel fiber at the top layer and entire cross-section led to the best slab performance. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 2% steel fiber. • Maximum increase in the initial crack force and loading were obtained at 1% PP fiber

  2. Analytical, Numerical and Experimental Examination of Reinforced Composites Beams Covered with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimzade, A. A.; Tuhta, S.

    2012-03-01

    In the article, analytical, numerical (Finite Element Method) and experimental investigation results of beam that was strengthened with fiber reinforced plastic-FRP composite has been given as comparative, the effect of FRP wrapping number to the maximum load and moment capacity has been evaluated depending on this results. Carbon FRP qualitative dependences have been occurred between wrapping number and beam load and moment capacity for repair-strengthen the reinforced concrete beams with carbon fiber. Shown possibilities of application traditional known analysis programs, for the analysis of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) strengthened structures.

  3. Physical and Mechanical Properties of Jute Mat Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Sadaf

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose jute fibre offers a number of benefits as reinforcement for synthetic polymers since it has a high specific strength and stiffness, low hardness, relatively low density and biodegradability. To reduce moisture uptake and hence to improve the mechanical properties of the composites, bleached jute mats were incorporated as reinforcing elements in the epoxy matrix. Composites at varying volume fractions and different orientations of jute mat were fabricated by hot compression machine under specific pressures and temperatures. Tensile, flexure, impact and water absorption tests of composites were conducted. Jute mat oriented at (0 ± 45–90° composites showed reduced strength compared to (0–90° fibre mat composites. Impact strength and water uptake of high volume fraction jute mat reinforced composites was higher compared to that of lower volume fraction composites. Fracture surfaces of jute mat composites were analyzed under SEM. Fracture surface of (0–90° jute mat oriented composites showed twisted fibres, while (0 ± 45–90° jute mat oriented composites had fibre pull-out without any twisting. Overall, composites containing 52% jute mat at orientations of (0–90° showed better properties compared to other fabricated composites.

  4. Coir fiber reinforced polypropylene composite panel for automotive interior applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir Ayrilmis; Songklod Jarusombuti; Vallayuth Fueangvivat; Piyawade Bauchongkol; Robert H. White

    2011-01-01

    In this study, physical, mechanical, and flammability properties of coconut fiber reinforced polypropylene (PP) composite panels were evaluated. Four levels of the coir fiber content (40, 50, 60, and 70 % based on the composition by weight) were mixed with the PP powder and a coupling agent, 3 wt % maleic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) powder. The water resistance and the...

  5. Fibre Reinforced Polymer Composites as Internal and External Reinforcements for Building Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin Banu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the latest decades fibre reinforced polymer (FRP composite materials have proven valuable properties and suitable to be used in construction of new buildings and in upgrading the existing ones. These materials have covered the road from research laboratory and demonstration projects to implementation in actual structures. Nowadays the civil and structural engineering communities are about to commence the stage in which the use of FRP composites is becoming a routine similar to that of traditional material such as concrete, masonry and wood. Two main issues are presented in this paper, the use of FRP composite materials for new structural members (internal reinforcements and strengthening of existing members (externally bonded reinforcements. The advantages and disadvantages as well as the problems and constraints associated with both issues are discussed in detail mainly related to concrete members.

  6. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Joaquim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana chemical (organosolv pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressing method as a crude simulation of the Hatschek process. Composites were evaluated at 28 days of age, after exposition to accelerated carbonation and after 100 soak/dry cycles. Composites containing organosolv pulp presented lower mechanical strength, water absorption and apparent porosity than composites reinforced with kraft pulp. The best mechanical performance after ageing was also achieved by samples reinforced with kraft pulp. The addition of PP fibres favoured the maintenance of toughness after ageing. Accelerated carbonation promoted the densification of the composites reinforced with sisal organosolv + PP fibres.

  7. In vitro study of transverse strength of fiber reinforced composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharraf, R; Hashemi, Z; Torkan, S

    2011-01-01

    Reinforcement with fiber is an effective method for considerable improvement in flexural properties of indirect composite resin restorations. The aim of this in-vitro study was to compare the transverse strength of composite resin bars reinforced with pre-impregnated and non-impregnated fibers. Thirty six bar type composite resin specimens (3×2×25 mm) were constructed in three groups. The first group was the control group (C) without any fiber reinforcement. The specimens in the second group (P) were reinforced with pre-impregnated fibers and the third group (N) with non-impregnated fibers. These specimens were tested by the three-point bending method to measure primary transverse strength. Data were statistically analyzed with one way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. There was a significant difference among the mean primary transverse strength in the three groups (Ptransverse strength (Pstudy, it was concluded that reinforcement with fiber considerably increased the transverse strength of composite resin specimens, but impregnation of the fiber used implemented no significant difference in the transverse strength of composite resin samples.

  8. Sisal organosolv pulp as reinforcement for cement based composites

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim, Ana Paula; Tonoli, Gustavo Henrique Denzin; Santos, Sérgio Francisco Dos; Savastano Junior, Holmer

    2009-01-01

    The present work describes non-conventional sisal (Agave sisalana) chemical (organosolv) pulp from residues of cordage as reinforcement to cement based materials. Sisal organosolv pulp was produced in a 1:1 ethanol/water mixture and post chemically and physically characterized in order to compare its properties with sisal kraft pulp. Cement based composites reinforced with organosolv or kraft pulps and combined with polypropylene (PP) fibres were produced by the slurry de-watering and pressin...

  9. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  10. Cellular thermosetting fluorodiepoxide polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng Y. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    Thermosetting fluoropolymer foams are made by mixing fluid form thermosetting fluoropolymer components having a substantial fluorine content, placing the mixture in a pressure tight chamber, filling the chamber with a gas, at relatively low pressure, that is unreactive with the fluoropolymer components, allowing the mixture to gel, removing the gelled fluoropolymer from the chamber and thereafter heating the fluoropolymer at a relatively low temperature to simultaneously sure and foam the fluoropolymer. The resulting fluoropolymer product is closed celled with the cells storing the gas employed for foaming. The fluoropolymer resins employed may be any thermosetting fluoropolymer including fluoroepoxies, fluoropolyurethanes and fluoroacrylates.

  11. Fique Fabric: A Promising Reinforcement for Polymer Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Neves Monteiro

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A relatively unknown natural fiber extracted from the leaves of the fique plant, native of the South American Andes, has recently shown potential as reinforcement of polymer composites for engineering applications. Preliminary investigations indicated a promising substitute for synthetic fibers, competing with other well-known natural fibers. The fabric made from fique fibers have not yet been investigated as possible composite reinforcement. Therefore, in the present work a more thorough characterization of fique fabric as a reinforcement of composites with a polyester matrix was performed. Thermal mechanical properties of fique fabric composites were determined by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The ballistic performance of plain woven fique fabric-reinforced polyester matrix composites was investigated as a second layer in a multilayered armor system (MAS. The results revealed a sensible improvement in thermal dynamic mechanical behavior. Both viscoelastic stiffness and glass transition temperature were increased with the amount of incorporated fique fabric. In terms of ballistic results, the fique fabric composites present a performance similar to that of the much stronger KevlarTM as an MAS second layer with the same thickness. A cost analysis indicated that armor vests with fique fabric composites as an MAS second layer would be 13 times less expensive than a similar creation made with Kevlar™.

  12. Fabrication of tungsten wire reinforced nickel-base alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, W. D.; Toth, I. J.

    1974-01-01

    Fabrication methods for tungsten fiber reinforced nickel-base superalloy composites were investigated. Three matrix alloys in pre-alloyed powder or rolled sheet form were evaluated in terms of fabricability into composite monotape and multi-ply forms. The utility of monotapes for fabricating more complex shapes was demonstrated. Preliminary 1093C (2000F) stress rupture tests indicated that efficient utilization of fiber strength was achieved in composites fabricated by diffusion bonding processes. The fabrication of thermal fatigue specimens is also described.

  13. Graphene reinforced alumina nano-composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Porwal, H.; Tatarko, Peter; Grasso, S.; Khaliq, J.; Dlouhý, Ivo; Reece, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 64, NOV (2013), s. 359-369 ISSN 0008-6223 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0068 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 264526 - GLACERCO Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : fracture toughness determination * ceramic-matrix composites * carbon nanotubes Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 6.160, year: 2013

  14. Seismic Behaviour of Composite Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boita, Ioana-Emanuela; Dan, Daniel; Stoian, Valeriu

    2017-10-01

    In this paper is presented an experimental study conducted at the “Politehnica” University of Timisoara, Romania. This study provides results from a comprehensive experimental investigation on the behaviour of composite steel fibre reinforced concrete shear walls (CSFRCW) with partially or totally encased profiles. Two experimental composite steel fibre reinforced concrete walls (CSFRCW) and, as a reference specimen, a typical reinforced concrete shear wall (RCW), (without structural reinforcement), were fabricated and tested under constant vertical load and quasi-static reversed cyclic lateral loads, in displacement control. The tests were performed until failure. The tested specimens were designed as 1:3 scale steel-concrete composite elements, representing a three storeys and one bay element from the base of a lateral resisting system made by shear walls. Configuration/arrangement of steel profiles in cross section were varied within the specimens. The main objective of this research consisted in identifying innovative solutions for composite steel-concrete shear walls with enhanced performance, as steel fibre reinforced concrete which was used in order to replace traditional reinforced concrete. A first conclusion was that replacing traditional reinforcement with steel fibre changes the failure mode of the elements, as from a flexural mode, in case of element RCW, to a shear failure mode for CSFRCW. The maximum lateral force had almost similar values but test results indicated an improvement in cracking response, and a decrease in ductility. The addition of steel fibres in the concrete mixture can lead to an increase of the initial cracking force, and can change the sudden opening of a crack in a more stable process.

  15. Fatigue damage propagation in unidirectional glass fibre reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Zangenberg; Alzamora Guzman, Vladimir Joel; Østergaard, R.C.

    2012-01-01

    bundles. The underlying mechanisms are examined using digital microscopy, and it is postulated that fatigue damage initiates due to stress concentrations between the backing (transverse) layer and the unidirectional layer, followed by a cyclic fretting and axial fibre debonding. This fretting mechanism......Damage progression in unidirectional glass fibre reinforced composites exposed to tension fatigue is investigated, and a quantitative explanation is given for the observed stiffness loss. The stiffness degradation during fatigue is directly related to fibre breaks in the load-carrying axial fibre...... needs further attention and understanding in order to improve the fatigue life-time of glass fibre reinforced composites....

  16. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization...

  17. Friction Joint Between Basalt-Reinforced Composite and Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costache, Andrei; Glejbøl, Kristian; Sivebæk, Ion Marius

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to anchor basalt-reinforced polymers in an aluminum grip using dry friction. Dry friction clamping is considered the optimal solution for post-mounting of load-bearing terminations on composite structures. A new test method is presented for characterizing the frictio......The purpose of this study was to anchor basalt-reinforced polymers in an aluminum grip using dry friction. Dry friction clamping is considered the optimal solution for post-mounting of load-bearing terminations on composite structures. A new test method is presented for characterizing...

  18. Kinetics and mechanics of photo-polymerized triazole-containing thermosetting composites via the copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Han Byul; Wang, Xiance; Patton, James R; Stansbury, Jeffrey W; Bowman, Christopher N

    2017-06-01

    Several features necessary for polymer composite materials in practical applications such as dental restorative materials were investigated in photo-curable CuAAC (copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition) thermosetting resin-based composites with varying filler loadings and compared to a conventional BisGMA/TEGDMA based composite. Tri-functional alkyne and di-functional azide monomers were synthesized for CuAAC resins and incorporated with alkyne-functionalized glass microfillers for CuAAC composites. Polymerization kinetics, in situ temperature change, and shrinkage stress were monitored simultaneously with a tensometer coupled with FTIR spectroscopy and a data-logging thermocouple. The glass transition temperature was analyzed by dynamic mechanical analysis. Flexural modulus/strength and flexural toughness were characterized in three-point bending on a universal testing machine. The photo-CuAAC polymerization of composites containing between 0 and 60wt% microfiller achieved ∼99% conversion with a dramatic reduction in the maximum heat of reaction (∼20°C decrease) for the 60wt% filled CuAAC composites as compared with the unfilled CuAAC resin. CuAAC composites with 60wt% microfiller generated more than twice lower shrinkage stress of 0.43±0.01MPa, equivalent flexural modulus of 6.1±0.7GPa, equivalent flexural strength of 107±9MPa, and more than 10 times higher energy absorption of 10±1MJm -3 when strained to 11% relative to BisGMA-based composites at equivalent filler loadings. Mechanically robust and highly tough, photo-polymerized CuAAC composites with reduced shrinkage stress and a modest reaction exotherm were generated and resulted in essentially complete conversion. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Carbon nanotube reinforced hybrid composites: Computational modeling of environmental fatigue and usability for wind blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Gaoming; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2015-01-01

    The potential of advanced carbon/glass hybrid reinforced composites with secondary carbon nanotube reinforcement for wind energy applications is investigated here with the use of computational experiments. Fatigue behavior of hybrid as well as glass and carbon fiber reinforced composites...... with the secondary CNT reinforcements (especially, aligned tubes) present superior fatigue performances than those without reinforcements, also under combined environmental and cyclic mechanical loading. This effect is stronger for carbon composites, than for hybrid and glass composites....

  20. Microfractographic analysis of delamination growth in fatigue loaded - carbon fibre/thermosetting matrix composites; Mikrofraktographische Analyse des Delaminationswachstums in zyklisch belasteten Kohlenstoffaser/Duroplastharz-Verbundwerkstoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heutling, F.; Franz, H.E. [Daimler-Benz AG, Muenchen (Germany); Friedrich, K. [Kaiserslautern Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Composite Materials Ltd.

    1998-05-01

    Carbon-fibre-reinforced plastics (CFRP) are known to be considerably less sensitive to fatigue loading than aluminium (Al) alloys, for instance. However, even in the presence of small delaminations, the damage tolerance of structural components may be considerably reduced. The scope of the present contribution is to investigate fatigue phenomena in CFRP materials (with thermosetting matrix) by means of microfractography. The microfractographic features of the fracture surfaces mirror the processes of deformation and fracture at the delamination front. The fatigue fracture behaviour of a CFRP laminate subjected to cyclic mixed-mode loading is determined by matrix-controlled failure mechanisms. Under pure mode-II loading conditions, rollers in addition to fatigue striations appear in the fibre imprints whose formation mechanism was explained by means of high-resolution field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The ratio between the local tensile and shear stress components influences the propagation direction of secondary cracks originating at the fibres. The local fracture propagations in these secondary cracks can be recognised through the fatigue striations appearing on the surface of the matrix. A comparison with static mixed-mode loading reveals that in both cases the crack propagation follows the path of the local maximum main stress. Applying mathematical relationships derived from the theory of elasticity permitted developing a mixed-mode loading model which makes it possible to predict the crack processes and hence to explain the formation of typical fracture-morphological features. (orig.) 26 refs.

  1. Fiber-reinforced composites materials, manufacturing, and design

    CERN Document Server

    Mallick, P K

    2007-01-01

    The newly expanded and revised edition of Fiber-Reinforced Composites: Materials, Manufacturing, and Design presents the most up-to-date resource available on state-of-the-art composite materials. This book is unique in that it not only offers a current analysis of mechanics and properties, but also examines the latest advances in test methods, applications, manufacturing processes, and design aspects involving composites. This third edition presents thorough coverage of newly developed materials including nanocomposites. It also adds more emphasis on underlying theories, practical methods, and problem-solving skills employed in real-world applications of composite materials. Each chapter contains new examples drawn from diverse applications and additional problems to reinforce the practical relevance of key concepts. New in The Third Edition: Contains new sections on material substitution, cost analysis, nano- and natural fibers, fiber architecture, and carbon-carbon composites Provides a new chapter on poly...

  2. Technology and Development of Self-Reinforced Polymer Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Ben; Peijs, Ton

    In recent years there has been an increasing amount of interest, both commercially and scientifically, in the emerging field of "self-reinforced polymer composites". These materials, which are sometimes also referred to as "single polymer composites", or "all-polymer composites", were first conceived in the 1970s, and are now beginning to appear in a range of commercial products. While high mechanical performance polymer fibres or tapes are an obvious precursor for composite development, various different technologies have been developed to consolidate these into two- or three-dimensional structures. This paper presents a review of the various processing techniques that have been reported in the literature for the manufacture of self-reinforced polymer composites from fibres or tapes of different polymers, and so exploit the fibre or tape performance in a commercial material or product.

  3. Inorganic-whisker-reinforced polymer composites synthesis, properties and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sun, Qiuju

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic-Whisker-Reinforced Polymer Composites: Synthesis, Properties and Applications gives a comprehensive presentation of inorganic microcrystalline fibers, or whiskers, a polymer composite filler. It covers whisker synthesis, surface modification, applications for reinforcing polymer-matrix composites, and analysis of resulting filled polymer composites. It focuses on calcium carbonate whiskers as a primary case study, introducing surface treatment methods for calcium carbonate whiskers and factors that influence them. Along with calcium carbonate, the book discusses potassium titanate and aluminum borate whiskers, which also comprise the new generation of inorganic whiskers. According to research results, composites filled by inorganic whiskers show improved strength, wear-resistance, thermal conductivity, and antistatic properties. It explains the importance of modifying polymer materials for use with inorganic whiskers and describes preparation and evaluation methods of polymers filled with inorganic ...

  4. Effects of Processing Parameters on the Forming Quality of C-Shaped Thermosetting Composite Laminates in Hot Diaphragm Forming Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, X. X.; Gu, Y. Z.; Sun, J.; Li, M.; Liu, W. P.; Zhang, Z. G.

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the effects of processing temperature and vacuum applying rate on the forming quality of C-shaped carbon fiber reinforced epoxy resin matrix composite laminates during hot diaphragm forming process were investigated. C-shaped prepreg preforms were produced using a home-made hot diaphragm forming equipment. The thickness variations of the preforms and the manufacturing defects after diaphragm forming process, including fiber wrinkling and voids, were evaluated to understand the forming mechanism. Furthermore, both interlaminar slipping friction and compaction behavior of the prepreg stacks were experimentally analyzed for showing the importance of the processing parameters. In addition, autoclave processing was used to cure the C-shaped preforms to investigate the changes of the defects before and after cure process. The results show that the C-shaped prepreg preforms with good forming quality can be achieved through increasing processing temperature and reducing vacuum applying rate, which obviously promote prepreg interlaminar slipping process. The process temperature and forming rate in hot diaphragm forming process strongly influence prepreg interply frictional force, and the maximum interlaminar frictional force can be taken as a key parameter for processing parameter optimization. Autoclave process is effective in eliminating voids in the preforms and can alleviate fiber wrinkles to a certain extent.

  5. Metal Matrix Composites Reinforced by Nano-Particles—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Casati

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composites reinforced by nano-particles are very promising materials, suitable for a large number of applications. These composites consist of a metal matrix filled with nano-particles featuring physical and mechanical properties very different from those of the matrix. The nano-particles can improve the base material in terms of wear resistance, damping properties and mechanical strength. Different kinds of metals, predominantly Al, Mg and Cu, have been employed for the production of composites reinforced by nano-ceramic particles such as carbides, nitrides, oxides as well as carbon nanotubes. The main issue of concern for the synthesis of these materials consists in the low wettability of the reinforcement phase by the molten metal, which does not allow the synthesis by conventional casting methods. Several alternative routes have been presented in literature for the production of nano-composites. This work is aimed at reviewing the most important manufacturing techniques used for the synthesis of bulk metal matrix nanocomposites. Moreover, the strengthening mechanisms responsible for the improvement of mechanical properties of nano-reinforced metal matrix composites have been reviewed and the main potential applications of this new class of materials are envisaged.

  6. Study of flax hybrid preforms reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, B. A

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We examine the thermal, viscoelastic and mechanical behaviour of flax preform hybrid composites. • The thermal stability of the matrix decrease with increasing volume fraction of flax preforms. • The effect of number of preform layers and the lay-up architecture were studied.. • Morphological study on the fractured surface of the composite laminate is carried out. - Abstracts: This study investigates the thermal, mechanical and thermomechanical properties of flax hybrid preform reinforced epoxy composites. Flax plain weave fabric and 1 × 1 weft rib knitted structures were together used as reinforcements and the composites were produced using hand lay-up technique. Specimen preparation and testing were carried out as per ASTM standards. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates a decrease in thermal stability of the matrix polymer with the incorporation of flax hybrid preform. The dynamic mechanical analysis revealed a shift in the T g with the addition of flax hybrid preforms. Mechanical data obtained showed that tensile strength and stiffness is a product of the fibre/matrix synergy, whereas the compressive strength and stiffness are contributed by the reinforcing matrix. Additionally, investigation show that laminate with knitted preform as skin layer exhibits superior mechanical properties. However, improved tensile properties at lower fibre volume fraction, reinforces the opinion that hybrid preform composites can offer significant benefits in terms of performance, weight and overall cost. The failure mechanism was analysed, by scanning electron microscope (SEM)

  7. Aluminum matrix composites reinforced with alumina nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Casati, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    This book describes the latest efforts to develop aluminum nanocomposites with enhanced damping and mechanical properties and good workability. The nanocomposites exhibited high strength, improved damping behavior and good ductility, making them suitable for use as wires. Since the production of metal matrix nanocomposites by conventional melting processes is considered extremely problematic (because of the poor wettability of the nanoparticles), different powder metallurgy routes were investigated, including high-energy ball milling and unconventional compaction methods. Special attention was paid to the structural characterization at the micro- and nanoscale, as uniform nanoparticle dispersion in metal matrix is of prime importance. The aluminum nanocomposites displayed an ultrafine microstructure reinforced with alumina nanoparticles produced in situ or added ex situ. The physical, mechanical and functional characteristics of the materials produced were evaluated using different mechanical tests and micros...

  8. Infrared processed Cu composites reinforced with WC particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, P.K.; Li, J.H.; Lin, R.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Copper matrix composites with WC particle reinforcements have been prepared with an innovative infrared infiltration technique. The volume content of the reinforcement particles in the composite is about 53%. The relative composite density of as high as 99.9% has been obtained with this process. The electric conductivity of composites prepared in this study as determined by a four-point probe method, is similar to commercially available Cu/W composites containing 52 vol% tungsten. Microhardness, microstructure and wear resistance of the composites were also determined. The microstructure of Cu/WC composite reveals excellent wetting between the two constituent phases, WC and copper. The microhardness values of all completely infiltrated Cu/WC composites were in the range of 360-370 HV which is significantly higher than the microhardness of pure copper, 65 HV. Wear resistance of the composites was determined with a pin on disk wear test technique. The wear test results show that composites prepared in this study performed much better than those commercially available Cu/W composites by more than two-fold against silicon carbide abrasive disks

  9. High performance carbon-carbon composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These composites are made of fibres in various directions and carbonaceous polymers and hydrocarbons as matrix precursors. Their density and properties depend on the type and volume fraction of reinforcement, matrix precursor used and end heat treatment temperature. Composites made with thermosetting resins as ...

  10. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to ...

  11. Microhardness of resin composite materials light-cured through fiber reinforced composite.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Ray, N.J.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Kreulen, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To compare polymerization efficiency of resin composite basing materials when light-cured through resin composite and fiber reinforced composite (FRC) by testing microhardness. METHODS: Simulated indirect restorations were prepared by application of resin composite (Clearfil AP-X) or FRC

  12. Ductile thermoset polymers via controlling network flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, N; Salim, N V; Walsh, T R; Wiggins, J S; Ajayan, P M; Fox, B L

    2015-06-18

    We report the design and synthesis of a polymer structure from a cross-linkable epoxy-ionic liquid system which behaves like a hard and brittle epoxy thermoset, perfectly ductile thermoplastic and an elastomer, all depending on controllable network compositions.

  13. Reinforcing graphene oxide/cement composite with NH2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reinforcing graphene oxide/cement composite with NH2 functionalizing group. M EBRAHIMIZADEH ABRISHAMI1,∗ and V ZAHABI2. 1Materials and Electroceramics Laboratory, Department of Physics, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad. 9177948974, Iran. 2Department of Civil Engineering, Islamic Azad University, ...

  14. High performance co-polyimide nanofiber reinforced composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, Jian; Li, Guang; Bastiaansen, Cees; Peijs, Ton

    2015-01-01

    Electrospun co-polyimide BPDA (3, 3′, 4, 4′-Biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride)/PDA (p-Phenylenediamine)/ODA (4, 4′-oxydianiline) nanofiber reinforced flexible composites were manufactured by impregnating these high performance nanofibers with styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) triblock copolymer

  15. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M

    2003-07-15

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix.

  16. Compressive yielding of tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, B.; Lee, S.-Y.; Uestuendag, E.; Aydiner, C.C.; Conner, R.D.; Bourke, M.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    In-situ uniaxial compression tests were conducted on four tungsten fiber reinforced bulk metallic glass matrix composites using neutron diffraction. The results were interpreted with a finite element model. Both phases were seen to approximately obey the von Mises yield criterion. The fibers were observed to yield first and then transfer load to the matrix

  17. Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present communication, a study on the synthesis and mechanical properties of new series of green composites involving Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre as a reinforcing material in urea–formaldehyde (UF) resin based polymer matrix has been reported. Static mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed ...

  18. Fiber-reinforced Composite Resin Prosthesis to Restore Missing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fiber-reinforced composite inlay-onlay FPD was used for a single posterior tooth replacement in a patient refusing implant for psychological reasons. The FRC-FPD was made of pre-impregnated E-glass fibers (everStick, StickTeck, Turku, Finland) embedded in a resin matrix (Stick Resin, StickTeck, Turku, Finland).

  19. Ceramic fiber reinforced glass-ceramic matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A slurry of BSAS glass powders is cast into tapes which are cut to predetermined sizes. Mats of continuous chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-SiC fibers are alternately stacked with these matrix tapes. This tape-mat stack is warm-pressed to produce a 'green' composite which is heated to burn out organic constituents. The remaining interim material is then hot-pressed to form a BSAS glass-ceramic fiber-reinforced composite.

  20. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    OpenAIRE

    A.E. Ismail; M.A. Che Abdul Aziz

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that...

  1. CODIFICATION OF FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITE PIPING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawls, G.

    2012-10-10

    The goal of the overall project is to successfully adapt spoolable FRP currently used in the oil industry for use in hydrogen pipelines. The use of FRP materials for hydrogen service will rely on the demonstrated compatibility of these materials for pipeline service environments and operating conditions. The ability of the polymer piping to withstand degradation while in service, and development of the tools and data required for life management are imperative for successful implementation of these materials for hydrogen pipeline. The information and data provided in this report provides the technical basis for the codification for fiber reinforced piping (FRP) for hydrogen service. The DOE has invested in the evaluation of FRP for the delivery for gaseous hydrogen to support the development of a hydrogen infrastructure. The codification plan calls for detailed investigation of the following areas: System design and applicable codes and standards; Service degradation of FRP; Flaw tolerance and flaw detection; Integrity management plan; Leak detection and operational controls evaluation; Repair evaluation. The FRP codification process started with commercially available products that had extensive use in the oil and gas industry. These products have been evaluated to assure that sufficient structural integrity is available for a gaseous hydrogen environment.

  2. Mechanical properties of aluminium matrix composites reinforced with intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, B.; Garcia-Escorial, A.; Ibanez, J.; Lieblich, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this work 2124 aluminium matrix composites reinforced with Ni 3 Al, NiAl, MoSi 2 and Cr 3 Si intermetallic powder particles have been investigated. For comparison purposes, un reinforced 2124 and reinforced with SiC have also been studied. In all cases, the same powder metallurgy route was used, i. e. the 2124 alloy was obtained by rapid solidification and the intermetallic particles by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). The matrix and the intermetallics were mechanically blended, cold compacted and finally hot extruded. Tensile tests were carried out in T1 and T4 treatments. Results indicate that mechanical properties depend strongly on the tendency to form new phases at the matrix-intermetallic interface during processing and/or further thermal treatments. The materials which present better properties are those that present less reaction between matrix and intermetallic reinforcement, i. e. MoSi 2 and SiC reinforced composites. (Author) 9 refs

  3. Epoxy-based carbon nanotubes reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of the three major epoxy resin producers worldwide [May, 1987]. Epoxy resin is most commonly used as a matrix for advanced composites due to their superior thermal, mechanical and electrical properties; dimensional stability and chemical resistance. Epoxy... are electrical insulators, and the widespread use of the epoxy resins for many high-performance applications is constrained because of their inherent brittleness, delamination and fracture toughness limitations. There were quite a few approaches to enhance...

  4. Epoxy-based carbon nanotubes reinforced composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kesavan Pillai, Sreejarani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available of the three major epoxy resin producers worldwide [May, 1987]. Epoxy resin is most commonly used as a matrix for advanced composites due to their superior thermal, mechanical and electrical properties; dimensional stability and chemical resistance. Epoxy... and modifiers to create products with an almost unlimited range and variety of performance properties [The epoxy book, 2000]. Epoxy resins are widely used as high-grade synthetic resins, for example, in the electronics, aeronautics and astronautic industries...

  5. Dimensional stability of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced phenolic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, M.; Jawaid, M.; Abdan, K.; Ishak, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    In this research, pineapple leaves fibre (PALF)/phenolic resin (PF) composites were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The aim of this work is to investigate the physical properties (water absorption and thickness swelling) of PALF reinforced phenolic resin composites. Long-term water absorption (WA) and thickness swelling (TS) behaviours of the PALF/PF composites were investigated at several water immersion times. The effects of different fibre loading on WA and TS of PALF/PF composites were also analyzed. Obtained results indicated that the WA and TS of PALF/PF composites vary with fibres content and water immersion time before reaching to equilibrium. WA and TS of PALF/PF composites were increased by increasing fibre loading. Results obtained in this study will be used for further study on hybridization of PALF and Kenaf fibre based phenolic composites.

  6. Development of Textile Reinforced Composites for Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, H. Benson

    1998-01-01

    NASA has been a leader in development of composite materials for aircraft applications during the past 25 years. In the early 1980's NASA and others conducted research to improve damage tolerance of composite structures through the use of toughened resins but these resins were not cost-effective. The aircraft industry wanted affordable, robust structures that could withstand the rigors of flight service with minimal damage. The cost and damage tolerance barriers of conventional laminated composites led NASA to focus on new concepts in composites which would incorporate the automated manufacturing methods of the textiles industry and which would incorporate through-the-thickness reinforcements. The NASA Advanced Composites Technology (ACT) Program provided the resources to extensively investigate the application of textile processes to next generation aircraft wing and fuselage structures. This paper discusses advanced textile material forms that have been developed, innovative machine concepts and key technology advancements required for future application of textile reinforced composites in commercial transport aircraft. Multiaxial warp knitting, triaxial braiding and through-the-thickness stitching are the three textile processes that have surfaced as the most promising for further development. Textile reinforced composite structural elements that have been developed in the NASA ACT Program are discussed. Included are braided fuselage frames and window-belt reinforcements, woven/stitched lower fuselage side panels, stitched multiaxial warp knit wing skins, and braided wing stiffeners. In addition, low-cost processing concepts such as resin transfer molding (RTM), resin film infusion (RFI), and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) are discussed. Process modeling concepts to predict resin flow and cure in textile preforms are also discussed.

  7. Basalt fiber reinforced polymer composites: Processing and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiang

    A high efficiency rig was designed and built for in-plane permeability measurement of fabric materials. A new data derivation procedure to acquire the flow fluid pattern in the experiment was developed. The measurement results of the in-plane permeability for basalt twill 31 fabric material showed that a high correlation exists between the two principal permeability values for this fabric at 35% fiber volume fraction. This may be the most important scientific contribution made in this thesis. The results from radial measurements corresponded quite well with those from Unidirectional (UD) measurements, which is a well-established technique. No significant differences in mechanical properties were found between basalt fabric reinforced polymer composites and glass composites reinforced by a fabric of similar weave pattern. Aging results indicate that the interfacial region in basalt composites may be more vulnerable to environmental damage than that in glass composites. However, the basalt/epoxy interface may have been more durable than the glass/epoxy interface in tension-tension fatigue because the basalt composites have significantly longer fatigue life. In this thesis, chapter I reviews the literature on fiber reinforced polymer composites, with concentration on permeability measurement, mechanical properties and durability. Chapter II discusses the design of the new rig for in-plane permeability measurement, the new derivation procedure for monitoring of the fluid flow pattern, and the permeability measurement results. Chapter III compares the mechanical properties and durability between basalt fiber and glass fiber reinforced polymer composites. Lastly, chapter IV gives some suggestions and recommendations for future work.

  8. Shear behavior of reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC) beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the shear behavior of beams consisting of steel reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC). Based on the strain hardening and multiple cracking behavior of ECC, this study investigates the extent to which ECC can improve the shear...... capacity of beams loaded primarily in shear and if ECC can partially or fully replace the conventional transverse steel reinforcement in beams. However, there is a lack of understanding of how the fibers affect the shear carrying capacity and deformation behavior of structural members if used either...

  9. Shear crack formation and propagation in reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    capacity of beams loaded primarily in shear. The experimental program consists of ECC with short randomly distributed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fiber beams with different stirrup arrangements and conventional reinforced concrete (R/C) counterparts for comparison. The shear crack formation mechanism of ECC......This paper describes an experimental investigation of the shear behaviour of beams consisting of steel reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites (R/ECC). Based on the strain hardening and multiple cracking behaviour of ECC, this study investigates the extent to which ECC influences the shear...

  10. Carbon fiber reinforcements for sheet molding composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Soydan; Paulauskas, Felix L.

    2017-11-14

    A method of processing a carbon fiber tow includes the steps of providing a carbon fiber tow made of a plurality of carbon filaments, depositing a sizing composition at spaced-apart sizing sites along a length of the tow, leaving unsized interstitial regions of the tow, and cross-cutting the tow into a plurality of segments. Each segment includes at least a portion of one of the sizing sites and at least a portion of at least one of the unsized regions of the tow, the unsized region including and end portion of the segment.

  11. Fabrication and properties of carbon network reinforced composite fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umer, Malik Adeel; Mistarihi, Qusai Mahmoud; Kim, Joon Hui; Hong, Soon Hyung; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2014-01-01

    Zirconium dioxide composites reinforced with 3D glassy carbon foam was fabricated using Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) with a heating rate of 100degC/min and a uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa at 1500degC, 1600degC, and 1700degC, respectively. The effect of carbon foam on the thermal properties of the ZrO 2 composites was investigated. In addition, the effect of the sintering temperature on the densification of the composites was also investigated and the optimized sintering temperature was identified. The microstructures of 3D carbon foam reinforced ZrO 2 composites showed that the 3D shape of carbon foam was retained after the sintering process, and the ZrO 2 was homogeneously distributed within the 3D carbon foam. At the interfaces between the 3D carbon foam and ZrO 2 , neither a chemical reaction nor a new phase formation was detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffractometry (XRD). The thermal diffusivity of carbon foam reinforced ZrO 2 composites measured at 1100degC was increased by 47% and reached to 0.66 mm 2 s -1 and the thermal conductivity was increased by 50% and reached to 2.428 W/m-K. (author)

  12. Service life prediction and fibre reinforced cementitious composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoklund Larsen, E.

    The present Ph.D.thesis addresses the service life concept on the fibre reinforced cementitious composites. The advantages and problems of adding fibre to a cementitious matrix and the influence on service life are described. In SBI Report 221, Service life prediction and cementitious somposites......, the factors affecting the pure cementitious composite are described. Different sizes and types of fibre reinforced crmentitious composites have been chosen to illustrate different ageing and deterioration mechanisms. Some ageing mechanisms can be accelerated and others cannot which is demonstrated in a test...... programme. Moisture, micro structural and mechanical properties were measured before, during and after ageing, with the purpose of giving a detailed "picture" of the materials during ageing....

  13. Elastic properties of uniaxial-fiber reinforced composites - General features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Subhendu; Ledbetter, Hassel; Lei, Ming

    The salient features of the elastic properties of uniaxial-fiber-reinforced composites are examined by considering the complete set of elastic constants of composites comprising isotropic uniaxial fibers in an isotropic matrix. Such materials exhibit transverse-isotropic symmetry and five independent elastic constants in Voigt notation: C(11), C(33), C(44), C(66), and C(13). These C(ij) constants are calculated over the entire fiber-volume-fraction range 0.0-1.0, using a scattered-plane-wave ensemple-average model. Some practical elastic constants such as the principal Young moduli and the principal Poisson ratios are considered, and the behavior of these constants is discussed. Also presented are the results for the four principal sound velocities used to study uniaxial-fiber-reinforced composites: v(11), v(33), v(12), and v(13).

  14. Basalt woven fiber reinforced vinylester composites: Flexural and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmisciano, Salvatore; Rosa, Igor Maria De; Sarasini, Fabrizio; Tamburrano, Alessio; Valente, Marco

    2011-01-01

    A preliminary comparative study of basalt and E-glass woven fabric reinforced composites was performed. The fabrics were characterized by the same weave pattern and the laminates tested by the same fiber volume fraction. Results of the flexural and interlaminar characterization are reported. Basalt fiber composites showed higher flexural modulus and apparent interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) in comparison with E-glass ones but also a lower flexural strength and similar electrical properties. With this fiber volume fraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of the fractured surfaces enabled a better understanding both of the failure modes involved and of points of concern. Nevertheless, the results of this study seem promising in view of a full exploitation of basalt fibers as reinforcement in polymer matrix composites (PMCs).

  15. Oxygen index tests of thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilwee, W. J., Jr.; Parker, J. A.; Kourtides, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The flammability characteristics of nine thermosetting resins under evaluation for use in aircraft interiors are described. These resins were evaluated using the Oxygen Index (ASTM 2863) testing procedure. The test specimens consisted of both neat resin and glass reinforced resin. When testing glass-reinforced samples it was observed that Oxygen Index values varied inversely with resin content. Oxygen values were also obtained on specimens exposed to temperatures up to 300 C. All specimens experienced a decline in Oxygen Index when tested at an elevated temperature.

  16. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Catalin [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Papancea, Adina [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites surface analysis by photographic method. • The composites are submitted to accelerated ageing by UV irradiation at 254 nm. • The UV irradiation promotes differences in the surface chemistry of the composites. • MB dye is differently adsorbed on surfaces with different degradation degrees. • Good correlation between the colouring degree and surface chemistry. - Abstract: The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  17. Load sharing in tungsten fiber reinforced Kanthal composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, B.; Bourke, Mark A.M.; Brown, Donald W.; Ustuendag, E.

    2006-01-01

    The load sharing in three tungsten fiber reinforced Kanthal matrix composites (with fiber volume fractions of 10, 20 and 30%) have been determined using in situ neutron diffraction measurements. The expected iso-strain region was limited in the 20 and 30% composites due to thermal residual stresses. The experimental data have been used to validate the predictions of a unit-cell finite element model. The model was able to accurately predict the measured in situ loading data for all three composites using the same material properties for all calculations

  18. Load sharing in tungsten fiber reinforced Kanthal composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausen, B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, LANSCE-12, P.O. Box 1663, MS H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)]. E-mail: clausen@lanl.gov; Bourke, Mark A.M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-8, P.O. Box 1663, MS H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Brown, Donald W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MST-8, P.O. Box 1663, MS H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Ustuendag, E. [California Institute of Technology, Keck Laboratory, M/C 138-78, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The load sharing in three tungsten fiber reinforced Kanthal matrix composites (with fiber volume fractions of 10, 20 and 30%) have been determined using in situ neutron diffraction measurements. The expected iso-strain region was limited in the 20 and 30% composites due to thermal residual stresses. The experimental data have been used to validate the predictions of a unit-cell finite element model. The model was able to accurately predict the measured in situ loading data for all three composites using the same material properties for all calculations.

  19. Coir dust reinforced recycled polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Bianca B. dos; Costa, Marysilvia F. da; Thire, Rossana M. da S.M.

    2015-01-01

    The environmental impacts caused by disposed plastics encourage the search for new alternatives. Recycling polymers leads to the degradation of their mechanical properties, which can be modified by the addition of fillers. In this paper, recycled polypropylene from plastic cups with 2%, 5% and 10% of coir dust were produced with and without the addition of additives. These composites were characterized by tensile tests, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy on the fracture surface. It was verified the effectiveness of the addition of coir dust in improving the elasticity modulus of recycled polypropylene besides the effectiveness of additives used in promoting the adhesion of the powder to the matrix. However, higher levels of coir dust caused the appearance of air bubbles inside the material, which contributed to its embrittlement. The addition of coir dust promoted a decrease in the degree of polypropylene crystallinity. (author)

  20. Poisson's ratio of fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansson, Henrik; Helsing, Johan

    1996-05-01

    Poisson's ratio flow diagrams, that is, the Poisson's ratio versus the fiber fraction, are obtained numerically for hexagonal arrays of elastic circular fibers in an elastic matrix. High numerical accuracy is achieved through the use of an interface integral equation method. Questions concerning fixed point theorems and the validity of existing asymptotic relations are investigated and partially resolved. Our findings for the transverse effective Poisson's ratio, together with earlier results for random systems by other authors, make it possible to formulate a general statement for Poisson's ratio flow diagrams: For composites with circular fibers and where the phase Poisson's ratios are equal to 1/3, the system with the lowest stiffness ratio has the highest Poisson's ratio. For other choices of the elastic moduli for the phases, no simple statement can be made.

  1. Application of carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite to nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Carbon fiber reinforced carbon matrix composite (C/C composite) is thought to be one of promising structural materials with high temperature resistivity in the nuclear engineering field. In the high temperature gas-cooled reactors with gas outlet temperature maximum around 1000degC, high performance core internal structures, such as control rod sheath, core restraint mechanism, will be expected to achieve by the C/C composite application. Moreover, in the fusion reactors, plasma facing structures having high temperature with high neutron irradiation and particle collision will be expected to achieve by the C/C composite application. In this paper, current research and development studies of the C/C composite application on both reactors are reviewed and vista of the future on the C/C composite application is mentioned. (author)

  2. Recycling of Reinforced Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, R. D.; Collins, Andrew; Cooper, Duncan; Wingfield-Digby, Mark; Watts-Farmer, Archibald; Laurence, Anna; Patel, Kayur; Stevens, Mark; Watkins, Rhodri

    2014-02-01

    This work has shown is that it is possible to recycle continuous and short fibre reinforced thermosetting resins while keeping almost the whole of the original material, both fibres and matrix, within the recyclate. By splitting, crushing hot or cold, and hot forming, it is possible to create a recyclable material, which we designate a Remat, which can then be used to remanufacture other shapes, examples of plates and tubes being demonstrated. Not only can remanufacturing be done, but it has been shown that over 50 % of the original mechanical properties, such as the E modulus, tensile strength, and interlaminar shear strength, can be retained. Four different forms of composite were investigated, a random mat Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GFRP) bathroom component and boat hull, woven glass and carbon fibre cloth impregnated with an epoxy resin, and unidirectional carbon fibre pre-preg. One of the main factors found to affect composite recyclability was the type of resin matrix used in the composite. Thermoset resins tested were shown to have a temperature range around the Glass Transition Temperature (Tg) where they exhibit ductile behaviour, hence aiding reforming of the material. The high-grade carbon fibre prepreg was found to be less easy to recycle than the woven of random fibre laminates. One method of remanufacturing was by heating the Remat to above its glass transition temperature, bending it to shape, and then cooling it. However, unless precautions are taken, the geometric form may revert. This does not happen with the crushed material.

  3. Fracture morphology of carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite laminates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Srinivasa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP composites have been extensively used in fabrication of primary structures for aerospace, automobile and other engineering applications. With continuous and widespread use of these composites in several advanced technology, the frequency of failures is likely to increase. Therefore, to establish the reasons for failures, the fracture modes should be understood thoroughly and unambiguously. In this paper, CFRP composite have been tested in tension, compression and flexural loadings; and microscopic study with the aid of Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM has been performed on failed (fractured composite surfaces to identify the principle features of failure. Efforts have been made in correlating the fracture surface characteristics to the failure mode. The micro-mechanics analysis of failure serves as a useful guide in selecting constituent materials and designing composites from the failure behavior point of view. Also, the local failure initiation results obtained here has been reliably extended to global failure prediction.

  4. Discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites via XD synthesis. [exothermal dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. S.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of recent results obtained for discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites produced using the XD process. Intermetallic matrices investigated include NiAl, multiphase NiAl + Ni2AlTi, CoAl, near-gamma titanium aluminides, and Ll2 trialuminides containing minor amounts of second phase. Such mechanical properties as low and high temperature strength, compressive and tensile creep, elastic modulus, ambient ductility, and fracture toughness are discussed as functions of reinforcement size, shape, and volume fraction. Microstructures before and after deformation are examined and correlated with measured properties. An observation of interest in many of the systems examined is 'dispersion weakening' at high temperatures and high strain rates. This behavior is not specific to the XD process; rather similar observations have been reported in other discontinuous composites. Proposed mechanisms for this behavior are presented.

  5. Dielectric studies of Graphene and Glass Fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, D.; Shashi Kumar, M. E.; Pramod, R.

    2018-02-01

    Graphene and E-glass fibres are one of the key materials used currently due to their unique chemical and mechanical properties. Lately graphene has attracted many researchers across academic fraternity as it can yield better properties with lesser reinforcement percentages. The current research emphasizes on the development of graphene-based nanocomposites and its investigation on dielectric applications. The composites were fabricated by adding graphene reinforcements from 1%-3% by weight using conventional Hand-lay process. A thorough investigation was carried out to determine the dielectric behaviour of the nano-composites using impedance analyser according to ASTM standards. The dielectric measurements were carried out in the temperature range of 300K to 400K in a step of 20K. The current research proposes the material for application in capacitor industry as the sample of 2.5% weight fraction showed highest value of K with 14 at 26.1 Hz and 403K.

  6. Load transfer in short fibre reinforced metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garces, Gerardo; Bruno, Giovanni; Wanner, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The internal load transfer and the deformation behaviour of aluminium-matrix composites reinforced with 2D-random alumina (Saffil) short fibres was studied for different loading modes. The evolution of stress in the metallic matrix was measured by neutron diffraction during in situ uniaxial deformation tests. Tensile and compressive tests were performed with loading axis parallel or perpendicular to the 2D-reinforcement plane. The fibre stresses were computed based on force equilibrium considerations. The results are discussed in light of a model recently established by the co-authors for composites with visco-plastic matrix behaviour and extended to the case of plastic deformation in the present study. Based on that model, the evolution of internal stresses and the macroscopic stress-strain were simulated. Comparison between the experimental and computational results shows a qualitative agreement in all relevant aspects

  7. Numerical investigation of porous materials composites reinforced with natural fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikhi, M.; Metidji, N.; Mokhtari, F.; Merzouk, N. k.

    2018-05-01

    The present article tends to predict the effective thermal properties of porous biocomposites materials. The composites matrix consists on porous materials namely gypsum and the reinforcement is a natural fiber as date palm fibers. The numerical study is done using Comsol software resolving the heat transfer equation. The results are fitted with theoretical model and experimental results. The results of this study indicate that the porosity has an effect on the Effective thermal conductivity biocompoites.

  8. Silver matrix composites reinforced with galvanically silvered particles

    OpenAIRE

    J. Śleziona; J. Wieczorek,

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The paper presents the possibility of the application of metalic layers drifted with the use of the galvanic methods on the ceramic particles surface. The application of the layers was aimed at obtaining the rewetting of the reinforcing particles with the liquid silver in the course of the producing of silver matrix composites with the use of mechanical stirring method. To enable introducing of the iron powder and glass carbon powder to liquid silver the solution of covering the powd...

  9. Elastic constants and internal friction of fiber-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.

    1982-01-01

    We review recent experimental studies at NBS on the anisotropic elastic constants and internal friction of fiber-reinforced composites. Materials that were studied include: boron-aluminum, boron-epoxy, graphite-epoxy, glass-epoxy, and aramid-epoxy. In all cases, elastic-constant direction dependence could be described by relationships developed for single crystals of homogeneous materials. Elastic stiffness and internal friction were found to vary inversely

  10. Inplane shear capacity of reinforced composite masonry block walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.H.; Tseng, W.S.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe a test program performed to determine the inplane shear capacity, stiffness and ductility of composite masonry walls subjected to earthquake type loadings. Specimens were simultaneously subjected to a range of compressive loads to simulate dead load; and inplane shear loads with full load reversal to simulate the earthquake cycling load. The influence of horizontal and vertical reinforcing steel percentages on the inplane shear capacity, stiffness and ductility was also investigated. (orig./HP)

  11. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  12. Fracture Resistance Evaluation of Fibre Reinforced Brittle Matrix Composites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dlouhý, Ivo; Chlup, Zdeněk

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 290, - (2005), s. 167-174 ISSN 1013-9826. [Fractography of Advanced Ceramic s /2./. Stará Lesná, 03.10.2004-06.10.2004] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA2041003; GA ČR(CZ) GA101/02/0683 Keywords : fibre-reinforced ceramic s * glass matrix composites * chevron notch Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.224, year: 2005

  13. Natural Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Composites as Engineered Structural Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittenber, David B.

    The objective of this work was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of natural fiber reinforced polymer (NFRP)'s ability to act as a structural material. As a chemical treatment, aligned kenaf fibers were treated with sodium hydroxide (alkalization) in different concentrations and durations and then manufactured into kenaf fiber / vinyl ester composite plates. Single fiber tensile properties and composite flexural properties, both in dry and saturated environments, were assessed. Based on ASTM standard testing, a comparison of flexural, tensile, compressive, and shear mechanical properties was also made between an untreated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a chemically treated kenaf fiber reinforced composite, a glass fiber reinforced composite, and oriented strand board (OSB). The mechanical properties were evaluated for dry samples, samples immersed in water for 50 hours, and samples immersed in water until saturation (~2700 hours). Since NFRPs are more vulnerable to environmental effects than synthetic fiber composites, a series of weathering and environmental tests were conducted on the kenaf fiber composites. The environmental conditions studied include real-time outdoor weathering, elevated temperatures, immersion in different pH solutions, and UV exposure. In all of these tests, degradation was found to be more pronounced in the NFRPs than in the glass FRPs; however, in nearly every case the degradation was less than 50% of the flexural strength or stiffness. Using a method of overlapping and meshing discontinuous fiber ends, large mats of fiber bundles were manufactured into composite facesheets for structural insulated panels (SIPs). The polyisocyanurate foam cores proved to be poorly matched to the strength and stiffness of the NFRP facesheets, leading to premature core shear or delamination failures in both flexure and compressive testing. The NFRPs were found to match well with the theoretical stiffness prediction methods of classical lamination

  14. Experimental study on mix proportion of fiber reinforced cementitious composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yi; Zhao, Renda; Liao, Ping; Li, Fuhai; Yuan, Yuan; Zhou, Shuang

    2017-10-01

    To study the mechanical property of fiber reinforced cementations composites influenced by the fiber length, quartz sand diameter, matrix of water cement ratio, volume fraction of fiber and magnesium acrylate solution. Several 40×40×160 mm standard test specimens, "8" specimens and long "8" specimens and 21 groups of fiber concrete specimens were fabricated. The flexural, compressive and uniaxial tensile strength were tested by using the bending resistance, compression resistance and electronic universal testing machine. The results show that flexural and compressive strength of fiber reinforced cementations composites increases along with the increase of quartz sand diameter, with the growth of the PVA fiber length increases; When the water-binder ratio is 0.25 and powder-binder ratio is 0.3, the PVA fiber content is 1.5% of the mass of cementations materials, there is a phenomenon of strain hardening; The addition of magnesium acrylate solution reduces the tensile strength of PVA fiber reinforced cementations composites, the tensile strength of the specimens in the curing age of 7d is decreased by about 21% and the specimens in curing age of 28d is decreased by more than 50%.

  15. Electron beam processing of carbon fibre reinforced braided composites beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halasz, L.; Zsigmond, B.; Czvikovszky, T.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In this paper the possibility of producing a new type carbon fiber reinforced composite is examined by applying braiding, a well-known process of textile technology. The appearance of the new Hungarian carbon fiber with excellent mechanical properties in the market enables the development of newer type carbon fiber reinforced composites in the continuously widening range of engineering applications. Advanced hollow profiles, pipes and other composite products can be manufactured in continuous operation. A new way of composite production of this kind is the manufacturing of reinforcing structure by braiding technology producing a composite with sufficient mechanical properties from this cross directional fabric-like textile structure by impregnation. This manufacturing process can complete the variety of hollow products serving the same purpose as pultrusion or filament winding. This way a profile type framework element with a hollow cross section is manufactured having favorable mechanical properties. Owing to its small mass and high specific strength this product can be applied in dynamically loaded structures e.g. in the automotive industry. For crosslinking of the matrix the method of high-speed electron beam curing has been examined in order to reach continuous operation. The field of use and application of carbon fiber braided structures has a great chance especially in machine engineering and in the automotive industry. The main reason for this is that braiding processes are capable of producing structures having good mechanical properties at a low processing price. The mass of the composite load-bearing structure produced this way is one fifth of the steel product having similar geometry, and its specific mechanical properties are nearly as good as that of the most commonly applied semiproduct and structural component, the welded steel profile

  16. Acoustic properties of polypropylene composites reinforced with stone groundwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Pere López

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Currently, acoustic isolation is one of the problems raised with building construction in Spain. The publication of the Basic Document for the protection against noise of the Technical Building Code has increased the demand of comfort for citizens. This has created the need to seek new composite materials that meet the new required acoustical building codes. In this paper we report the results of the newly developed composites that are able to improve the acoustic isolation of airborne noise. These composites were prepared from polypropylene (PP reinforced with mechanical pulp fibers from softwood (Pinus radiata. Mechanical and acoustical properties of the composites from mechanical pulp (MP and polypropylene (PP have been investigated and compared to fiberglass (FG composites. MP composites had lower tensile properties compared with FG composites, although these properties can be improved by incorporation of a coupling agent. The results of acoustical properties of MP composites were reported and compared with the conventional composites based on fiberglass and gypsum plasterboards. Finally, we suggest the application of MP composites as a light-weight building material to reduce acoustic transmitions.

  17. Energy Absorption Capacity in Natural Fiber Reinforcement Composites Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías López-Alba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of natural fiber reinforcement composite structures has focused the attention of the automobile industry due to the new regulation in relation to the recyclability and the reusability of the materials preserving and/or improving the mechanical characteristics. The influence of different parameters on the material behavior of natural fiber reinforced plastic structures has been investigated, showing the potential for transport application in energy absorbing structures. Two different woven fabrics (twill and hopsack made of flax fibers as well as a non-woven mat made of a mixture of hemp and kenaf fibers were employed as reinforcing materials. These reinforcing textiles were impregnated with both HD-PE (high-density polyethylen and PLA (polylactic acid matrix, using a continuous compression molding press. The impregnated semi-finished laminates (so-called organic sheets were thermoformed in a second step to half-tubes that were assembled through vibration-welding process to cylindric crash absorbers. The specimens were loaded by compression to determine the specific energy absorption capacity. Quasi-static test results were compared to dynamic test data obtained on a catapult arrangement. The differences on the specific energies absorption (SEA as a function of different parameters, such as the wall thickness, the weave material type, the reinforced textiles, and the matrix used, depending on the velocity rate application were quantified. In the case of quasi-static analysis it is observed a 20% increment in the SEA value when wove Hopsack fabric reinforcement is employed. No velocity rate influence from the material was observed on the SEA evaluation at higher speeds used to perform the experiments. The influence of the weave configuration (Hopsack seems to be more stable against buckling effects at low loading rates with 10% higher SEA values. An increase of SEA level of up to 72% for PLA matrix was observed when compared with HD

  18. Reinforcement Learning Based Web Service Compositions for Mobile Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Juan; Chen, Shouming

    In this paper, we propose a new solution to Reactive Web Service Composition, via molding with Reinforcement Learning, and introducing modified (alterable) QoS variables into the model as elements in the Markov Decision Process tuple. Moreover, we give an example of Reactive-WSC-based mobile banking, to demonstrate the intrinsic capability of the solution in question of obtaining the optimized service composition, characterized by (alterable) target QoS variable sets with optimized values. Consequently, we come to the conclusion that the solution has decent potentials in boosting customer experiences and qualities of services in Web Services, and those in applications in the whole electronic commerce and business sector.

  19. MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF RANDOMLY DISTRIBUTED SHORT BANANA FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Misra

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Short banana fiber reinforced composites have been prepared in laboratory to determine mechanical properties. It has been observed that as soon as the percentage of the banana fiber increases slightly there is a tremendous increase in ultimate tensile strength, % of strain and young modulus of elasticity. Reinforcement of banana fibers in epoxy resin increases stiffness and decreases damping properties of the composites. Therefore, 2.468% banana fiber reinforced composite plate stabilizes early as compared to 7.7135 % banana fiber reinforced composite plate but less stiff as compared to 7.7135 % banana fiber reinforced composite plate

  20. Fiber reinforced silicon-containing arylacetylene resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available A silicon-containing arylacetylene resin (SAR, a poly(dimethylsilyleneethynylene phenyleneethynylene (PMSEPE, was synthesized. The PMSEPE is a solid resin at ambient temperature with a softening temperature about 60°C and soluble in some solvents like tetrahydrofuran. The melt viscosity of the PMSEPE resin is less than 1 Pa•s. The resin could cure at the temperature of lower than 200°C. Fiber reinforced PMSEPE composites were prepared from prepregs which were made by the impregnation of fibers in PMSEPE resin solution. The composites exhibit good mechanical properties at room temperature and 250°C. The observation on fracture surfaces of the composites reinforced by glass fibers and carbon fibers demonstrates that the adhesion between the fibers and resin is good. The results from an oxyacetylene flame test show that the composites have good ablation performance and XRD analyses indicate that SiC forms in the residues during the ablation of the composites.

  1. Enhanced tensile properties of magnesium composites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, Muhammad; Pan, Fusheng; Hu, Huanhuan; Asif, Muhammad; Hussain, Shahid; She, Jia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to fabricate magnesium reinforced metal matrix composites using graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) via powder metallurgy processing in order to enhance room temperature mechanical properties. The microstructural evaluation and mechanical behaviors of composite powders and extruded bulk materials were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectrometer and mechanical tests. The uniform dispersion and large specific surface area per volume of GNPs embedded in magnesium matrix led to increament in microhardness, tensile strength and fracture strains of the composites. For example, when employing the pure magnesium reinforced with 0.30 wt% GNPs, the increase of Young's modulus, yield strength, and failure strain of extruded nanocomposite was +131%, +49.5% and +74.2% respectively, compared to those of extruded materials with no GNPs additive. Additionally, mechanical properties of synthesized composites were compared with previously reported Mg–CNTs composites. It was found that GNPs outperform CNTs due their high specific surface area

  2. Enhanced tensile properties of magnesium composites reinforced with graphene nanoplatelets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashad, Muhammad, E-mail: rashadphy87@gmail.com [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401123 (China); Hu, Huanhuan [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Asif, Muhammad [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Hussain, Shahid [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); She, Jia [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-04-10

    The aim of this study is to fabricate magnesium reinforced metal matrix composites using graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) via powder metallurgy processing in order to enhance room temperature mechanical properties. The microstructural evaluation and mechanical behaviors of composite powders and extruded bulk materials were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive spectrometer and mechanical tests. The uniform dispersion and large specific surface area per volume of GNPs embedded in magnesium matrix led to increament in microhardness, tensile strength and fracture strains of the composites. For example, when employing the pure magnesium reinforced with 0.30 wt% GNPs, the increase of Young's modulus, yield strength, and failure strain of extruded nanocomposite was +131%, +49.5% and +74.2% respectively, compared to those of extruded materials with no GNPs additive. Additionally, mechanical properties of synthesized composites were compared with previously reported Mg–CNTs composites. It was found that GNPs outperform CNTs due their high specific surface area.

  3. Ballistic Performance of Mallow and Jute Natural Fabrics Reinforced Epoxy Composites in Multilayered Armor

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Lucio Fabio Cassiano; Louro, Luis Henrique Leme; Monteiro, Sergio Neves; Gomes, Alaelson Vieira; Marçal, Rubens Lincoln Santana Blazutti; Lima Júnior, Édio Pereira; Margem, Jean Igor

    2017-01-01

    Natural fiber reinforced polymer composites have recently been investigated as a component of multilayered armor system (MAS). These composites were found to present advantages when replacing conventional high strength synthetic aramid fabric laminate composite (KevlarTM, with same thickness, as MAS second layer. Continuous and loose natural fibers were up to now mostly used to reinforce these ballistic composites. Only two natural fabrics reinforced polymer composite were so far used with sa...

  4. Fabrication and properties of graphene reinforced silicon nitride composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yaping; Li, Bin, E-mail: libin@nudt.edu.cn; Zhang, Changrui; Wang, Siqing; Liu, Kun; Yang, Bei

    2015-09-17

    Silicon nitride (Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}) ceramic composites reinforced with graphene platelets (GPLs) were prepared by hot pressed sintering and pressureless sintering respectively. Adequate intermixing of the GPLs and the ceramic powders was achieved in nmethyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) under ultrasonic vibration followed by ball-milling. The microstructure and phases of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic composites were investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of GPLs on the composites' mechanical properties were analyzed. The results showed that GPLs were well dispersed in the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic matrix. β-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4,} O′-sialon and GPLs were present in the hot-pressed composites while pressureless sintered composites contain β-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, Si, SiC and GPLs. Graphene has the potential to improve the mechanical properties of both the hot pressed and pressureless sintered composites. Toughening effect of GPLs on the pressureless sintered composites appeared more effective than that on the hot pressed composites. Toughening mechanisms, such as pull-out, crack bridging and crack deflection induced by GPLs were observed in the composites prepared by the two methods.

  5. Fabrication and properties of graphene reinforced silicon nitride composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yaping; Li, Bin; Zhang, Changrui; Wang, Siqing; Liu, Kun; Yang, Bei

    2015-01-01

    Silicon nitride (Si 3 N 4 ) ceramic composites reinforced with graphene platelets (GPLs) were prepared by hot pressed sintering and pressureless sintering respectively. Adequate intermixing of the GPLs and the ceramic powders was achieved in nmethyl-pyrrolidone (NMP) under ultrasonic vibration followed by ball-milling. The microstructure and phases of the Si 3 N 4 ceramic composites were investigated by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of GPLs on the composites' mechanical properties were analyzed. The results showed that GPLs were well dispersed in the Si 3 N 4 ceramic matrix. β-Si 3 N 4, O′-sialon and GPLs were present in the hot-pressed composites while pressureless sintered composites contain β-Si 3 N 4 , Si, SiC and GPLs. Graphene has the potential to improve the mechanical properties of both the hot pressed and pressureless sintered composites. Toughening effect of GPLs on the pressureless sintered composites appeared more effective than that on the hot pressed composites. Toughening mechanisms, such as pull-out, crack bridging and crack deflection induced by GPLs were observed in the composites prepared by the two methods

  6. Mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arib, R.M.N.; Sapuan, S.M.; Ahmad, M.M.H.M.; Paridah, M.T.; Zaman, H.M.D. Khairul

    2006-01-01

    Pineapple leaf fibre, which is rich in cellulose, relative inexpensive and abundantly available has the potential for polymer-reinforced composite. The present study investigates the tensile and flexural behaviours of pineapple leaf fibre-polypropylene composites as a function of volume fraction. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of the composites were found to be increasing with fibre content in accordance with the rule of mixtures. The tensile modulus and tensile strength with a volume fraction 10.8% are 687.02 and 37.28 MPa, respectively. The flexural modulus gives higher value at 2.7% volume fraction. The flexural strength of the composites containing 5.4% volume fraction was found to be higher than that of pure polypropylene resin by 5.1%. Scanning electron microscopic studies were carried out to understand the fibre-matrix adhesion and fibre breakage

  7. Chairside fabricated fiber-reinforced composite fixed partial denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufyan Garoushi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The advances in the materials and techniques for adhesive dentistry have allowed the development of non-invasive or minimally invasive approaches for replacing a missing tooth in those clinical situations when conservation of adjacent teeth is needed. Good mechanical and cosmetic/aesthetic properties of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC, with good bonding properties with composite resin cement and veneering composite are needed in FRC devices. Some recent studies have shown that adhesives of composite resins and luting cements allow diffusion of the adhesives to the FRC framework of the bridges. By this so-called interdiffusion bonding is formed [1]. FRC bridges can be made in dental laboratories or chairside. This article describes a clinical case of chairside (directly made FRC Bridge, which was used according to the principles of minimal invasive approach. Treatment was performed by Professor Vallittu from the University of Turku, Finland.

  8. Micromechanisms of damage in unidirectional fiber reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishnaevsky, Leon; Brøndsted, Povl

    2009-01-01

    strength of a composite at the pre-critical load, while the fibers with randomly distributed strengths lead to the higher strength of the composite at post-critical loads. In the case of randomly distributed fiber strengths, the damage growth in fibers seems to be almost independent from the crack length...... in the numerical experiments. The effect of the statistical variability of fiber strengths, viscosity of the polymer matrix as well as the interaction between the damage processes in matrix, fibers and interface are investigated numerically. It is demonstrated that fibers with constant strength ensure higher......Numerical micromechanical investigations of the mechanical behavior and damage evolution of glass fiber reinforced composites are presented. A program code for the automatic generation of 3D micromechanical unit cell models of composites with damageable elements is developed, and used...

  9. Puncture-Healing Thermoplastic Resin Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Keith L. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Grimsley, Brian W. (Inventor); Cano, Roberto J. (Inventor); Czabaj, Michael W. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A composite comprising a combination of a self-healing polymer matrix and a carbon fiber reinforcement is described. In one embodiment, the matrix is a polybutadiene graft copolymer matrix, such as polybutadiene graft copolymer comprising poly(butadiene)-graft-poly(methyl acrylate-co-acrylonitrile). A method of fabricating the composite is also described, comprising the steps of manufacturing a pre-impregnated unidirectional carbon fiber preform by wetting a plurality of carbon fibers with a solution, the solution comprising a self-healing polymer and a solvent, and curing the preform. A method of repairing a structure made from the composite of the invention is described. A novel prepreg material used to manufacture the composite of the invention is described.

  10. Electron processing of fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Saunders, C.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Lopata, V.J.; Kremers, W.; McDougall, T.E.; Chung, M.; Tateishi, Miyoko

    1996-01-01

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxies, are used in the aircraft, aerospace, sporting goods, and transportation industries. Though thermal curing is the dominant industrial process for advanced composites, electron curing of similar composites containing acrylated epoxy matrices has been demonstrated by our work. The main attraction of electron processing technology over thermal technology is the advantages it offers which include ambient temperature curing, reduced curing times, reduced volatile emissions, better material handling, and reduced costs. Electron curing technology allows for the curing of many types of products, such as complex shaped, those containing different types of fibres and up to 15 cm thick. Our work has been done principally with the AECL's 10 MeV, 1 kW electron accelerator; we have also done some comparative work with an AECL Gammacell 220. In this paper we briefly review our work on the various aspects of electron curing of advanced composites and their properties. (Author)

  11. Electron processing of fibre-reinforced advanced composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, A.; Saunders, C.B.; Barnard, J.W.; Lopata, V.J.; Kremers, W.; McDougall, T.E.; Chung, M.; Tateishi, Miyoko [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Pinawa, MB (Canada). Whiteshell Labs.

    1996-08-01

    Advanced composites, such as carbon-fibre-reinforced epoxies, are used in the aircraft, aerospace, sporting goods, and transportation industries. Though thermal curing is the dominant industrial process for advanced composites, electron curing of similar composites containing acrylated epoxy matrices has been demonstrated by our work. The main attraction of electron processing technology over thermal technology is the advantages it offers which include ambient temperature curing, reduced curing times, reduced volatile emissions, better material handling, and reduced costs. Electron curing technology allows for the curing of many types of products, such as complex shaped, those containing different types of fibres and up to 15 cm thick. Our work has been done principally with the AECL`s 10 MeV, 1 kW electron accelerator; we have also done some comparative work with an AECL Gammacell 220. In this paper we briefly review our work on the various aspects of electron curing of advanced composites and their properties. (Author).

  12. Mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arib, R.M.N. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sapuan, S.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)]. E-mail: sapuan@eng.upm.edu.my; Ahmad, M.M.H.M. [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Paridah, M.T. [Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Zaman, H.M.D. Khairul [Radiation Processing Technology Division, Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT), Bangi 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2006-07-01

    Pineapple leaf fibre, which is rich in cellulose, relative inexpensive and abundantly available has the potential for polymer-reinforced composite. The present study investigates the tensile and flexural behaviours of pineapple leaf fibre-polypropylene composites as a function of volume fraction. The tensile modulus and tensile strength of the composites were found to be increasing with fibre content in accordance with the rule of mixtures. The tensile modulus and tensile strength with a volume fraction 10.8% are 687.02 and 37.28 MPa, respectively. The flexural modulus gives higher value at 2.7% volume fraction. The flexural strength of the composites containing 5.4% volume fraction was found to be higher than that of pure polypropylene resin by 5.1%. Scanning electron microscopic studies were carried out to understand the fibre-matrix adhesion and fibre breakage.

  13. Progress in Research on Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Cementitious Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghua Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As one-dimensional (1D nanofiber, carbon nanotubes (CNTs have been widely used to improve the performance of nanocomposites due to their high strength, small dimensions, and remarkable physical properties. Progress in the field of CNTs presents a potential opportunity to enhance cementitious composites at the nanoscale. In this review, current research activities and key advances on multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs reinforced cementitious composites are summarized, including the effect of MWCNTs on modulus of elasticity, porosity, fracture, and mechanical and microstructure properties of cement-based composites. The issues about the improvement mechanisms, MWCNTs dispersion methods, and the major factors affecting the mechanical properties of composites are discussed. In addition, large-scale production methods of MWCNTs and the effects of CNTs on environment and health are also summarized.

  14. Mechanical property characterization of polymeric composites reinforced by continuous microfibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubayar, Ali

    Innumerable experimental works have been conducted to study the effect of polymerization on the potential properties of the composites. Experimental techniques are employed to understand the effects of various fibers, their volume fractions and matrix properties in polymer composites. However, these experiments require fabrication of various composites which are time consuming and cost prohibitive. Advances in computational micromechanics allow us to study the various polymer based composites by using finite element simulations. The mechanical properties of continuous fiber composite strands are directional. In traditional continuous fiber laminated composites, all fibers lie in the same plane. This provides very desirable increases in the in-plane mechanical properties, but little in the transverse mechanical properties. The effect of different fiber/matrix combinations with various orientations is also available. Overall mechanical properties of different micro continuous fiber reinforced composites with orthogonal geometry are still unavailable in the contemporary research field. In this research, the mechanical properties of advanced polymeric composite reinforced by continuous micro fiber will be characterized based on analytical investigation and FE computational modeling. Initially, we have chosen IM7/PEEK, Carbon Fiber/Nylon 6, and Carbon Fiber/Epoxy as three different case study materials for analysis. To obtain the equivalent properties of the micro-hetero structures, a concept of micro-scale representative volume elements (RVEs) is introduced. Five types of micro scale RVEs (3 square and 2 hexagonal) containing a continuous micro fiber in the polymer matrix were designed. Uniaxial tensile, lateral expansion and transverse shear tests on each RVE were designed and conducted by the finite element computer modeling software ANSYS. The formulae based on elasticity theory were derived for extracting the equivalent mechanical properties (Young's moduli, shear

  15. EB treatment of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szebenyi, G.; Romhany, G.; Czvikovszky, T.; Vajna, B.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. A small amount - less than 0.5% - carbon nanotube reinforcement may improve significantly the mechanical properties of epoxy based composite materials. The basic technical problem is on one side the dispersion of the nanotubes into the viscous matrix resin. Namely the fine, powder-like - less than 100 nanometer diameter - nanotubes are prone to form aggregates. On the other side, the good connection between the nanofiber and matrix, - which is determining the success of the reinforcement, - requires some efficient adhesion promoting treatment. After an elaborate masterbatch mixing technology we applied Electron Beam treatment of epoxy-matrix polymer composites containing carbon nanotubes in presence of vinylester resins. The Raman spectra of vinylester-epoxy mixtures treated by an 8 MeV EB showed the advantage of the electron treatment. Even in the case of partially immiscible epoxy and vinylester resins, the anchorage of carbon nanotubes reflects improvement if a reasonable 25 kGy EB dose is applied. Atomic Force Microscopy as well as mechanical tests on flexural and impact properties confirm the benefits of EB treatment. Simultaneous application of multiwall carbon nanotubes and 'conventional' carbon fibers as reinforcement in vinylester modified epoxies results in new types of hybrid nanocomposites as engineering materials. The bending- and interlaminar properties of such hybrid systems showed the beneficial effect of the EB treatment. Acknowledgement: This work has been supported by the New Hungary Development Plan (Project ID: TAMOP-4.2.1/B-09/1/KMR-2010-0002).

  16. New Polylactic Acid Composites Reinforced with Artichoke Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Botta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, artichoke fibers were used for the first time to prepare poly(lactic acid (PLA-based biocomposites. In particular, two PLA/artichoke composites with the same fiber loading (10% w/w were prepared by the film-stacking method: the first one (UNID reinforced with unidirectional long artichoke fibers, the second one (RANDOM reinforced by randomly-oriented long artichoke fibers. Both composites were mechanically characterized in tensile mode by quasi-static and dynamic mechanical tests. The morphology of the fracture surfaces was analyzed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Moreover, a theoretical model, i.e., Hill’s method, was used to fit the experimental Young’s modulus of the biocomposites. The quasi-static tensile tests revealed that the modulus of UNID composites is significantly higher than that of the neat PLA (i.e., ~40%. Moreover, the tensile strength is slightly higher than that of the neat matrix. The other way around, the stiffness of RANDOM composites is not significantly improved, and the tensile strength decreases in comparison to the neat PLA.

  17. FINELY DISPERSED COMPOSITE BINDER FOR REINFORCING SOILS BY INJECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko Igor Yakovlevich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject: we consider the problem of supplying the construction industry, in particular underground construction, with mineral binder for diluted aqueous suspensions that meet the requirements for reinforcement of low-strength sand and clastic soils by injections into the reinforced soil mass. Research objectives: substantiating possibility of using amorphous biosilica in combination with carbide sludge, whose particles size does not exceed 10 mm on average, as a binder for aqueous suspensions being injected. Materials and methods: as raw materials we used: common construction hydrated lime from “Stroimaterialy” JSC, Belgorod, hydrated lime in the form of carbide sludge from the dumps of Protvino plant (carbide sludge, hereafter, active mineral admixture biosilica from the group of companies “DIAMIX” and a plasticizer Sika viscocrete 5 new. Test methods are in accordance with applicable standards. To obtain samples of impregnated soils, a specially developed technique was used in the form of a unidirectional model. Results: properties of the composite binder prepared with different compositions are presented. The optimal component ratios are determined. The following properties of aqueous suspensions are studied: conditional viscosity, sedimentation and penetrating ability. Conditional viscosity is no more than 40 sec on average. Sedimentation does not exceed 1.2 %. Soil-concrete obtained by injection of a dilute aqueous suspension based on this composite binder has a compressive strength in the range from 4.44 to 12.5 MPa. Conclusions: utilization of finely dispersed composite mineral binder, which is based on interaction of amorphous silica with calcium hydroxide, as a binder for high penetration aqueous suspensions has been substantiated. This binder is not inferior to foreign analogues in terms of its strength and technological parameters and can be used for reinforcement of loose and low-strength soils. In case of using carbide

  18. Corrosion and tribological properties of basalt fiber reinforced composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jin Cheol; Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Myeong-Hoon; Moon, Kyung-Man; Park, Se-Ho

    2015-03-01

    This experiment has examined the corrosion and tribological properties of basalt fiber reinforced composite materials. There were slight changes of weight after the occurring of corrosion based on time and H2SO4 concentration, but in general, the weight increased. It is assumed that this happens due to the basalt fiber precipitate. Prior to the corrosion, friction-wear behavior showed irregular patterns compared to metallic materials, and when it was compared with the behavior after the corrosion, the coefficient of friction was 2 to 3 times greater. The coefficient of friction of all test specimen ranged from 0.1 to 0.2. Such a result has proven that the basalt fiber, similar to the resin rubber, shows regular patterns regardless of time and H2SO4 concentration because of the space made between resins and reinforced materials.

  19. Investigations of the mechanical properties of bi-layer and trilayer fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakrishna, K.; Balasubramani, K.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Karthikeyan, S.

    2016-10-01

    Natural fibers are renewable raw materials with an environmental-friendly properties and they are recyclable. The mechanical properties of bi-layer and tri-layer thermoset polymer composites have been analyzed. The bi-layer composite consists of basalt and jute mats, while the tri-layer composite consists of basalt fiber, jute fiber and glass fiber mats. In both cases, the epoxy resin was used as the matrix and PTFE as a filler in the composites. The developed trilayer natural fiber composite can be used in various industrial applications such as automobile parts, construction and manufacturing. Furthermore, it also can be adopted in aircraft interior decoration and designed body parts. Flexural, impact, tensile, compression, shear and hardness tests, together with density measurement, were conducted to study the mechanical properties of both bi-layer and tri-layer composites. From the comparison, the tri-layer composite was found to perform in a better way in all tests.

  20. Study of the stress-strain state of compressed concrete elements with composite reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Yurii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency analysis of the application of glass composite reinforcement in compressed concrete elements as a load-carrying component has been performed. The results of experimental studies of the deformation-strength characteristics of this reinforcement on compression and compressed concrete cylinders reinforced by this reinforcement are presented. The results of tests and mechanisms of sample destruction have been analyzed. The numerical analysis of the stress-strain state has been performed for axial compression of concrete elements with glasscomposite reinforcement. The influence of the reinforcement percentage on the stressed state of a concrete compressed element with the noted reinforcement is estimated. On the basis of the obtained results, it is established that the glass-composite reinforcement has positive effect on the strength of the compressed concrete elements. That is, when calculating the load-bearing capacity of such structures, the function of composite reinforcement on compression should not be neglected.

  1. Carbide-reinforced metal matrix composite by direct metal deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novichenko, D.; Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection for industrial applications. The actual objective is to demonstrate the possibility to produce metal matrix composite objects in a single-step process. Powders of Fe-based alloy (16NCD13) and titanium carbide (TiC) are premixed before cladding. Volume content of the carbide-reinforced phase is varied. Relationships between the main laser cladding parameters and the geometry of the built-up objects (single track, 2D coating) are discussed. On the base of parametric study, a laser cladding process map for the deposition of individual tracks was established. Microstructure and composition of the laser-fabricated metal matrix composite objects are examined. Two different types of structures: (a) with the presence of undissolved and (b) precipitated titanium carbides are observed. Mechanism of formation of diverse precipitated titanium carbides is studied.

  2. Nano-Fiber Reinforced Enhancements in Composite Polymer Matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, Christos C.

    2009-01-01

    Nano-fibers are used to reinforce polymer matrices to enhance the matrix dependent properties that are subsequently used in conventional structural composites. A quasi isotropic configuration is used in arranging like nano-fibers through the thickness to ascertain equiaxial enhanced matrix behavior. The nano-fiber volume ratios are used to obtain the enhanced matrix strength properties for 0.01,0.03, and 0.05 nano-fiber volume rates. These enhanced nano-fiber matrices are used with conventional fiber volume ratios of 0.3 and 0.5 to obtain the composite properties. Results show that nano-fiber enhanced matrices of higher than 0.3 nano-fiber volume ratio are degrading the composite properties.

  3. Core reilforced braided composite armour as a substitute to steel in concrete reinforcement

    OpenAIRE

    Fangueiro, Raúl; Sousa, Guilherme José Miranda de; Araújo, Mário Duarte de; Pereira, C. Gonilho; Jalali, Said

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the work that is being done at the University of Minho concerning the development of brainded rods concrete reinforcement. Several samples of core reinforced braided fabrics have been produced varying the type of braided fabric (core reinforced and hybrid), the linear density of the core reinforcing yarns and the type of braiding structure (with or without ribs). The tensile properties of braided fabrics has also been analysed. Core reinforced braided composites rods were ...

  4. Development of glass fibre reinforced composites using microwave heating technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, T.; Vonberg, K.; Gries, T.; Seide, G.

    2017-10-01

    Fibre reinforced composites are differentiated by the used matrix material (thermoplastic versus duroplastic matrix) and the level of impregnation. Thermoplastic matrix systems get more important due to their suitability for mass production, their good shapeability and their high impact resistance. A challenge in the processing of these materials is the reduction of the melt flow paths of the thermoplastic matrix. The viscosity of molten thermoplastic material is distinctly higher than the viscosity of duroplastic material. An approach to reduce the flow paths of the thermoplastic melt is given by a commingling process. Composites made from commingling hybrid yarns consist of thermoplastic and reinforcing fibres. Fabrics made from these hybrid yarns are heated and consolidated by the use of heat pressing to form so called organic sheets. An innovative heating system is given by microwaves. The advantage of microwave heating is the volumetric heating of the material, where the energy of the electromagnetic radiation is converted into thermal energy inside the material. In this research project microwave active hybrid yarns are produced and examined at the Institute for Textile Technology of RWTH Aachen University (ITA). The industrial research partner Fricke und Mallah Microwave Technology GmbH, Peine, Germany develops an innovative pressing systems based on a microwave heating system. By implementing the designed microwave heating technology into an existing heat pressing process, FRTCs are being manufactured from glass and nanomodified polypropylene fibre woven fabrics. In this paper the composites are investigated for their mechanical and optical properties.

  5. EB treatment of carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szebényi, G.; Romhány, G.; Vajna, B.; Czvikovszky, T.

    2012-01-01

    A small amount — less than 0.5% — carbon nanotube reinforcement may improve the mechanical properties of epoxy based composite materials significantly. The basic technical problem on one side is the dispersion of the nanotubes into the viscous matrix resin, namely, the fine powder-like — less than 100 nanometer diameter — nanotubes are prone to form aggregates. On the other side, the good connection between the nanofiber and matrix, which is determining the success of the reinforcement, requires some efficient adhesion promoting treatment. The goal of our research was to give one such treatment capable of industrial size application. A two step curing epoxy/vinylester resin process technology has been developed where the epoxy component has been cured conventionally, while the vinylester has been cured by electron treatment afterwards. The sufficient irradiation dose has been selected according to Raman spectroscopy characterization. Using the developed hybrid resin system hybrid composites containing carbon fibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes have been prepared. The effect of the electron beam induced curing of the vinylester resin on the mechanical properties of the composites has been characterized by three point bending and interlaminar shear tests, which showed clearly the superiority of the developed resin system. The results of the mechanical tests have been supported by AFM studies of the samples, which showed that the difference in the viscoelastic properties of the matrix constituents decreased significantly by the electron beam treatment.

  6. The effect of radiation processing and filler morphology on the biomechanical stability of a thermoset polyester composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayabalan, M; Shalumon, K T; Mitha, M K [Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Polymer Division, BMT Wing, Thiruvananthapuram 695 012, Kerala (India); Ganesan, K; Epple, M, E-mail: muthujayabalan@rediffmail.co [University of Duisburg-Essen, Inorganic Chemistry and Center for Nanointegration Duisburg-Essen (CeNIDE), Universitaetsstr. 5-7, 45117 Essen (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of radiation processing and filler morphology on the biodegradation and biomechanical stability of a poly(propylene fumarate)/hydroxyapatite composite was investigated. Radiation processing influenced both cross-linking and biodegradation of the composites. Irradiation with a dose of 3 Mrad resulted in enhanced cross-linking, mechanical properties and a higher storage modulus which are favourable for dimensional stability of the implant. The particle morphology of the added hydroxyapatite in the highly cross-linked state significantly influenced the biomechanical and interfacial stability of the composites. Reorganization of agglomerated hydroxyapatite occurred in the cross-linked polymeric matrix under dynamic mechanical loading under simulated physiological conditions. Such a reorganization may increase the damping characteristics of the composite.

  7. The effect of radiation processing and filler morphology on the biomechanical stability of a thermoset polyester composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayabalan, M; Shalumon, K T; Mitha, M K; Ganesan, K; Epple, M

    2010-04-01

    The effect of radiation processing and filler morphology on the biodegradation and biomechanical stability of a poly(propylene fumarate)/hydroxyapatite composite was investigated. Radiation processing influenced both cross-linking and biodegradation of the composites. Irradiation with a dose of 3 Mrad resulted in enhanced cross-linking, mechanical properties and a higher storage modulus which are favourable for dimensional stability of the implant. The particle morphology of the added hydroxyapatite in the highly cross-linked state significantly influenced the biomechanical and interfacial stability of the composites. Reorganization of agglomerated hydroxyapatite occurred in the cross-linked polymeric matrix under dynamic mechanical loading under simulated physiological conditions. Such a reorganization may increase the damping characteristics of the composite.

  8. The effect of radiation processing and filler morphology on the biomechanical stability of a thermoset polyester composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayabalan, M; Shalumon, K T; Mitha, M K; Ganesan, K; Epple, M

    2010-01-01

    The effect of radiation processing and filler morphology on the biodegradation and biomechanical stability of a poly(propylene fumarate)/hydroxyapatite composite was investigated. Radiation processing influenced both cross-linking and biodegradation of the composites. Irradiation with a dose of 3 Mrad resulted in enhanced cross-linking, mechanical properties and a higher storage modulus which are favourable for dimensional stability of the implant. The particle morphology of the added hydroxyapatite in the highly cross-linked state significantly influenced the biomechanical and interfacial stability of the composites. Reorganization of agglomerated hydroxyapatite occurred in the cross-linked polymeric matrix under dynamic mechanical loading under simulated physiological conditions. Such a reorganization may increase the damping characteristics of the composite.

  9. Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Smart Soft Composite Actuators According to Material Composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Min-Woo; Kim, Hyung-Il; Song, Sung-Hyuk; Ahn, Sung-Hoon [Seoul Nat’l Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Fiber-reinforced polymer composites, which are made by combining a continuous fiber that acts as reinforcement and a homogeneous polymeric material that acts as a host, are engineering materials with high strength and stiffness and a lightweight structure. In this study, a shape memory alloy(SMA) reinforced composite actuator is presented. This actuator is used to generate large deformations in single lightweight structures and can be used in applications requiring a high degree of adaptability to various external conditions. The proposed actuator consists of numerous individual laminas of the glass-fiber fabric that are embedded in a polymeric matrix. To characterize its deformation behavior, the composition of the actuator was changed by changing the matrix material and the number of the glass-fiber fabric layers. In addition, current of various magnitudes were applied to each actuator to study the effect of the heating of SMA wires on applying current.

  10. Characteristics of continuous unidirectional kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjoub, Reza; Yatim, Jamaludin Mohamad; Mohd Sam, Abdul Rahman; Raftari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To show the potential of continuous kenaf fiber to use in bio-composite. • To introduce new method of hand lay-up for fabricating bio-fiber composite. • To characterize the properties of kenaf fiber epoxy composite. • Morphology of the fracture area by using of SEM. • To use analytical method to predict the bio-composite properties. - Abstract: Kenaf fibers generally has some advantages such as eco-friendly, biodegradability, renewable nature and lighter than synthetic fibers. The aims of the study are to characterize and evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of continuous unidirectional kenaf fiber epoxy composites with various fiber volume fractions. The composites materials and sampling were prepared in the laboratory by using the hand lay-up method with a proper fabricating procedure and quality control. Samples were prepared based on ASTM: D3039-08 for tensile test and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed for microstructure analysis to observe the failure mechanisms in the fracture planes. A total of 40 samples were tested for the study. Results from the study showed that the rule of mixture (ROM) analytical model has a close agreement to predict the physical and tensile properties of unidirectional kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites. It was also observed that the tensile strength, tensile modulus, ultimate strain and Poisson’s ratio of 40% fiber volume content of unidirectional kenaf fiber epoxy composite were 164 MPa, 18150 MPa, 0.9% and 0.32, respectively. Due to the test results, increasing the fiber volume fraction in the composite caused the increment in the tensile modulus and reduction in the ultimate tensile strain of composite

  11. Electron beam irradiation effects on carbon fiber reinforced PEEK composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasuga, Tsuneo; Hagiwara, Miyuki; Odajima, Tosikazu; Sakai, Hideo; Nakakura, Toshiyuki; Masutani, Masahiro.

    1987-03-01

    Carbon fiber(CF) reinforced composites, using polyarylether-sulfone (PES) or polyarylether-ether-ketone (PEEK) as matrix material, were prepared and their electron beam irradiation effects were studied on the basis of changes in mechanical and dynamic viscoelastic properties and observation of fracture surfaces. The flexural strength of PES-CF composite decreased to 70 % of the initial strength after the irradiation of 3 MGy and 40 % after 15 MGy. The change in the profile of stress-strain (S-S) curves and fractographic observation by electron microscopy indicated that this composite irradiated with over 3 MGy was fractured by delamination caused by to the degradation of matrix polymer. The mechanical properties of PEEK-CF composite were scarcely decreased even after irradiated up to 180 MGy and this composite showed very high radiation resistance. The change in the profile of S-S curves and fractographic observation showed that this composite fractured due to destruction of fiber in the dose range less than 180 MGy, indicating that PEEK was excellent matrix material used in high radiation field. PEEK-PES-CF composite which was composed of the carbon fibers coated with PES solution showed less radiation resistance compared with PEEK-CF composite; the flexural strength decreased to 85 % of the initial value after the irradiation with 90 MGy. It was revealed from the changes in the profile of S-S curve that the specimen irradiated over 120 MGy was fractured due to not only fiber destruction but delamination. Deterioration mechanism of PEEK-PES-CF composite was studied by dynamic viscoelastic measurements in connection with the damage on matrix-fiber interface. It was suggested that the deterioration in mechanical properties of this composite was caused by the degradation of PES that coated on the surface of the carbon fibers. (author)

  12. Chitosan composite hydrogels reinforced with natural clay nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Biao; Liu, Mingxian; Zhou, Changren

    2017-11-01

    Here, chitosan composites hydrogels were prepared by addition of halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) in the chitosan KOH/LiOH/urea solution. The raw chitosan and chitosan/HNTs composite hydrogels were obtained by heat treatment at 60°C for 8h and then regeneration in ethanol solution. The viscosity of the composite solution is increased with HNTs content. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) shows that the hydrogen bonds interactions exist between the HNTs and the chitosan. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results show that the crystal structure of HNT is not changed in the composite hydrogels. The compressive property test and storage modulus determination show that the mechanical properties and anti-deformation ability of the composite hydrogel significantly increase owing to the reinforcing effect of HNTs. The composites hydrogel with 66.7% HNTs can undergo 7 times compression cycles without breaking with compressive strength of 0.71MPa at 70% deformation, while pure chitosan hydrogel is broken after bearing 5 compression cycles with compressive strength of 0.14MPa and a maximum deformation of 59%. A porous structure with pore size of 100-500μm is found in the composite hydrogels by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the pore size and the swelling ratio in NaCl solution decrease by the addition of HNTs and the immersing of ethanol. Chitosan/HNTs composite hydrogels show low cytotoxicity towards MC3T3-E1 cells. Also, the composite hydrogels show a maximum drug entrapment efficiency of 45.7% for doxorubicin (DOX) which is much higher than that of pure chitosan hydrogel (27.5%). All the results illustrate that the chitosan/HNTs composite hydrogels show promising applications as biomaterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermosetting Fluoropolymer Foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sheng Yen

    1987-01-01

    New process makes fluoropolymer foams with controllable amounts of inert-gas fillings in foam cells. Thermosetting fluoropolymers do not require foaming additives leaving undesirable residues and do not have to be molded and sintered at temperatures of about 240 to 400 degree C. Consequently, better for use with electronic or other parts sensitive to high temperatures or residues. Uses include coatings, electrical insulation, and structural parts.

  14. An Investigation of Interfacial Fatigue in Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhua, Chen; Zhifei, Shi

    2005-09-01

    Based on the shear-lag model and the modified degradation formula for coefficient of friction, the interfacial fatigue and debonding for fiber reinforced composites under cyclic loading are studied. The loading condition is chosen as the kind that is the most frequently used in fiber-pull-out experiments. The stress components in the debonded and bonded regions are obtained according to the maximum and minimum applied loading. By the aid of theory of fracture mechanics and Paris formula, the governing equation is solved numerically and the interfacial debonding is simulated. The relationships between the parameters (such as the debond rate, debond length, debond force) and the number of cycles are obtained.

  15. Elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Davis, L. C.

    1995-05-01

    We study the elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites with perfect bonding between fibers and matrix, and also with sliding boundary conditions. In the dilute region, there exists an exact analytical solution. Around the rigidity threshold we find the elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio by decomposing the deformation into a compression mode and a rotation mode. For perfect bonding, both modes are important, whereas only the compression mode is operative for sliding boundary conditions. We employ the digital-image-based method and a finite element analysis to perform computer simulations which confirm our analytical predictions.

  16. Nanomodified compositions based on finely dispersed binders for soil reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimov Lev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical prerequisites on the possibility of improvement of physical and mechanical properties of soils at underground space development, their stability at different aggressive actions by means of their structure impregnation with nanomodified suspensions on the basis of especially finely dispersed mineral binders are developed. The features of influence of plasticizers on penetration ability and sedimentation stability of suspensions are revealed. Soil body reinforcement after its impregnation may achieve considerable values, which is related to the features of interaction of components of impregnating composition with extended surface of soil pore space.

  17. Nanoporous thermosetting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Vijay I; Palmese, Giuseppe R

    2005-02-15

    Potential applications of nanoporous thermosetting polymers include polyelectrolytes in fuel cells, separation membranes, adsorption media, and sensors. Design of nanoporous polymers for such applications entails controlling permeability by tailoring pore size, structure, and interface chemistry. Nanoporous thermosetting polymers are often synthesized via free radical mechanisms using solvents that phase separate during polymerization. In this work, a novel technique for the synthesis of nanoporous thermosets is presented that is based on the reactive encapsulation of an inert solvent using step-growth cross-linking polymerization without micro/macroscopic phase separation. The criteria for selecting such a monomer-polymer-solvent system are discussed based on FTIR analysis, observed micro/macroscopic phase separation, and thermodynamics of swelling. Investigation of resulting network pore structures by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and small-angle X-ray scattering following extraction and supercritical drying using carbon dioxide showed that nanoporous polymeric materials with pore sizes ranging from 1 to 50 nm can be synthesized by varying the solvent content. The differences in the porous morphology of these materials compared to more common free radically polymerized analogues that exhibit phase separation were evident from SEM imaging. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the chemical activity of the nanoporous materials obtained by our method could be tailored by grafting appropriate functional groups at the pore interface.

  18. Novel bio-composite of hydroxyapatite reinforced polyamide and polyethylene: Composition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Yi; Li Yubao; Li Jidong; Zhang Xiang; Liao Hongbing; Wang Yuanyuan; Yang Weihu

    2007-01-01

    A new bio-composite of hydroxyapatite reinforced polyamide 66 and high density polyethylene was prepared using melt mixing in a co-rotation twin screw extruder. Two series of composites with different composition were investigated using scanning electronic microscopy, mechanical testing, water absorption and infrared spectrometer. The results showed that the change of composition influenced significantly the properties of the composites by different mechanism. Polyethylene mixing with polyamide matrix induced different microstructure and adjusted water absorption and manufacturability. Hydrogen bonding between hydroxyapatite and the polar groups of polyamide improved the adhesion of interface

  19. Wear Characterization of Aluminium/Basalt Fiber Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites - A Novel Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Amuthakkannan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum alloy based metal matrix composite participate have a wider applications in wear resistance applications. Attempt made in current study is that, basalt fiber reinforced aluminum metal matrix composite have been prepared using stir casting method. Different weight percentage of basalt fiber reinforced with Al (6061 metal matrix composites are used to study the wear resistance of the composites. For wear study, percentage of reinforcement, normal load and sliding velocity are the considered as important parameters. To study the effect of basalt fiber reinforcement on the dry sliding wear of Al6061 alloy composites the Pin On wear tester is used. Initially hardness of the composites was tested, it was found that increasing reinforcement in the composite hardness value of the composites also increased. Based on the Grey relation analysis (GRA the effects of wear resistance of the composites were studied.

  20. Mechanical interaction of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC) reinforced with Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) rebar in tensile loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lárusson, Lárus Helgi; Fischer, Gregor; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a preliminary study of the composite interaction of Engineered Cementitious Composite (ECC), reinforced with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) rebar. The main topic of this paper will focus on the interaction of the two materials (ECC and GFRP) during axial loading......, particularly in post cracking phase of the concrete matrix. The experimental program carried out in this study examined composite behavior under monotonic and cyclic loading of the specimens in the elastic and inelastic deformation phases. The stiffness development of the composite during loading was evaluated...

  1. 3D printing-assisted interphase engineering of polymer composites: Concept and feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Szebenyi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduced a general concept to create smart, (multifunctional interphases in polymer composites with layered reinforcements, making use of 3D printing. The concept can be adapted for both thermoplastic and thermoset matrix-based composites with either thermoplastic- or thermoset-enriched interphases. We showed feasibility using an example of a composite containing a thermoset matrix/thermoplastic interphase. Carbon fiber unidirectional reinforcing layers were patterned with poly(ε-caprolactone (PCL through 3D printing, then infiltrated with an amine-cured epoxy (EP. The corresponding composites were subjected to static and dynamic flexure tests. The PCL-rich interphase markedly improved the ductility in static tests without deteriorating the flexural properties. Its effect was marginal in Charpy impact tests, which can be explained with effects of specimen and PCL pattern sizes. The PCL-rich interphase ensured self-healing when triggered by heat treatment above the melting temperature of PCL.

  2. Tribological wear behavior of diamond reinforced composite coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswarlu, K.; Ray, Ajoy Kumar; Gunjan, Manoj Kumar; Mondal, D.P.; Pathak, L.C.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, diamond reinforced composite (DRC) coating has been applied on mild steel substrate using thermal spray coating technique. The composite powder consists of diamond, tungsten carbide, and bronze, which was mixed in a ball mill prior deposition by thermal spray. The microstructure and the distribution of diamond and tungsten carbide particle in the bronze matrix were studied. The DRC-coated mild steel substrates were assessed in terms of their high stress abrasive wear and compared with that of uncoated mild steel substrates. It was observed that when sliding against steel, the DRC-coated sample initially gains weight, but then loses the transferred counter surface material. In case of abrasive wear, the wear rate was greatly reduced due to the coating; wherein the wear rate decreased with increase in diamond content

  3. Constitutional equations of thermal stresses of particle-reinforced composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakawa, Atsushi; Noda, Naotake; Tohgo, Keiichiro; Tsuji, Tomoaki.

    1994-01-01

    Functionally gradient materials (FGM) have been developed as ultrahigh-heat-resistant materials in aircraft, space engineering and nuclear fields. In the heat-resistant FGM which contain particles (ceramics) in the matrix (metal), the matrix will be subjected to plastic deformation, particles will be debonded, and finally cracks will be generated. The constitutive equations of FGM which take into account the damage process and change in temperature are necessary in order to solve these phenomena. In this paper, the constitutive equations of particle-reinforced composites with consideration of the damage process and change in temperature are estimated by the equivalent inclusion method in terms of elastoplasticity. The stress-strain relations and the coefficients of linear thermal expansion of the composites (Al-PSZ and Ti-PSZ) are calculated in ultrahigh temperature. (author)

  4. Tensile strength of woven yarn kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Ismail

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the tensile strength of woven kenaf fiber reinforced polyester composites. The as-received yarn kenaf fiber is weaved and then aligned into specific fiber orientations before it is hardened with polyester resin. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses. Two important parameters are studied such as fiber orientations and number of layers. According to the results, it is shown that fiber orientations greatly affected the ultimate tensile strength but it is not for modulus of elasticity for both types of layers. It is estimated that the reductions of both ultimate tensile strength and Young’s modulus are in the range of 27.7-30.9% and 2.4-3.7% respectively, if the inclined fibers are used with respect to the principal axis.

  5. Self Healing Fibre-reinforced Polymer Composites: an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Ian P.; Trask, Richard S.; Williams, Hugo R.; Williams, Gareth J.

    Lightweight, high-strength, high-stiffness fibre-reinforced polymer composite materials are leading contenders as component materials to improve the efficiency and sustainability of many forms of transport. For example, their widespread use is critical to the success of advanced engineering applications, such as the Boeing 787 and Airbus A380. Such materials typically comprise complex architectures of fine fibrous reinforcement e.g. carbon or glass, dispersed within a bulk polymer matrix, e.g. epoxy. This can provide exceptionally strong, stiff, and lightweight materials which are inherently anisotropic, as the fibres are usually arranged at a multitude of predetermined angles within discrete stacked 2D layers. The direction orthogonal to the 2D layers is usually without reinforcement to avoid compromising in-plane performance, which results in a vulnerability to damage in the polymer matrix caused by out-of-plane loading, i.e. impact. Their inability to plastically deform leaves only energy absorption via damage creation. This damage often manifests itself internally within the material as intra-ply matrix cracks and inter-ply delaminations, and can thus be difficult to detect visually. Since relatively minor damage can lead to a significant reduction in strength, stiffness and stability, there has been some reticence by designers for their use in safety critical applications, and the adoption of a `no growth' approach (i.e. damage propagation from a defect constitutes failure) is now the mindset of the composites industry. This has led to excessively heavy components, shackling of innovative design, and a need for frequent inspection during service (Richardson 1996; Abrate 1998).

  6. Energy absorption and failure response of silk/epoxy composite square tubes: Experimental

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oshkovr, Simin Ataollahi; Taher, Siavash Talebi; A. Eshkoor, Rahim

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on natural silk/epoxy composite square tubes energy absorption and failure response. The tested specimens were featured by a material combination of different lengths and same numbers of natural silk/epoxy composite layers in form of reinforced woven fabric in thermosetting epoxy...

  7. Dual-nanoparticulate-reinforced aluminum matrix composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hansang; Cho, Seungchan; Kawasaki, Akira; Leparoux, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) matrix composite materials reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and silicon carbide nanoparticles (nano-SiC) were fabricated by mechanical ball milling, followed by hot-pressing. Nano-SiC was used as an active mixing agent for dispersing the CNTs in the Al powder. The hardness of the produced composites was dramatically increased, up to eight times higher than bulk pure Al, by increasing the amount of nano-SiC particles. A small quantity of aluminum carbide (Al 4 C 3 ) was observed by TEM analysis and quantified using x-ray diffraction. The composite with the highest hardness values contained some nanosized Al 4 C 3 . Along with the CNT and the nano-SiC, Al 4 C 3 also seemed to play a role in the enhanced hardness of the composites. The high energy milling process seems to lead to a homogeneous dispersion of the high aspect ratio CNTs, and of the nearly spherical nano-SiC particles in the Al matrix. This powder metallurgical approach could also be applied to other nanoreinforced composites, such as ceramics or complex matrix materials. (paper)

  8. Mechanical properties of functionalised CNT filled kenaf reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapiai, Napisah; Jumahat, Aidah; Mahmud, Jamaluddin

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to study the effect of functionalised carbon nanotubes (CNT) on mechanical properties of kenaf fibre reinforced polymer composites. The CNT was functionalised using acid mixtures of H2SO4:HNO3 and 3-Aminopropyl Triethoxysilane before it was incorporated into epoxy resin. Three different types of CNT were used, i.e. pristine (PCNT), acid-treated (ACNT) and acid-silane treated (SCNT), to fabricate kenaf composite. Three different filler contents were mixed in each composite system, i.e. 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 wt%. The functionalised CNT was characterized using x-ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Tensile, flexural and Izod impact tests were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of CNT contents and surface treatment of mechanical properties of kenaf composites. It was observed that the inclusion of 1 wt% acid-silane treated CNT improved the tensile, flexural and impact strengths of kenaf/epoxy composite by 43.30%, 21.10%, and 130%, respectively. Silane modification had been proven to be beneficial in enhancing the dispersibility and reducing agglomeration of CNT in the epoxy matrix.

  9. Discontinuously reinforced titanium matrix composites for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, V.; Leguey, T.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Pareja, R.; Victoria, M.

    2002-01-01

    We have reinforced α-Ti with different contents of TiC particles using the in situ technique and conventional casting. Compositional and microstructural characterization of the TiC/Ti composite material was made by XRD and SEM-EDS. Tensile tests at RT, 723 and 973 K have been performed on samples heat treated at 1000 K for 30 min which were prepared from cold rolled material. The effect of the content, size and morphology of the TiC particles on the tensile properties has been investigated. The results indicate that the expected improvement in the mechanical characteristics of TiC/Ti composites is inhibited by the detrimental presence of coarse dendritic particles of TiC. The premature failure of these composites at RT is due to cracking of the coarse TiC particles. Local softening due to inhomogeneous plastic deformation of the Ti matrix appears to contribute to the tensile failure of the TiC/Ti composites deformed at 723 and 973 K.

  10. Discontinuously reinforced titanium matrix composites for fusion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, V. E-mail: mvcastro@fis.uc3m.es; Leguey, T.; Monge, M.A.; Munoz, A.; Pareja, R.; Victoria, M

    2002-12-01

    We have reinforced {alpha}-Ti with different contents of TiC particles using the in situ technique and conventional casting. Compositional and microstructural characterization of the TiC/Ti composite material was made by XRD and SEM-EDS. Tensile tests at RT, 723 and 973 K have been performed on samples heat treated at 1000 K for 30 min which were prepared from cold rolled material. The effect of the content, size and morphology of the TiC particles on the tensile properties has been investigated. The results indicate that the expected improvement in the mechanical characteristics of TiC/Ti composites is inhibited by the detrimental presence of coarse dendritic particles of TiC. The premature failure of these composites at RT is due to cracking of the coarse TiC particles. Local softening due to inhomogeneous plastic deformation of the Ti matrix appears to contribute to the tensile failure of the TiC/Ti composites deformed at 723 and 973 K.

  11. Anomaly detection of microstructural defects in continuous fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Stephen; Simmons, J. P.; Przybyla, Craig; Hardie, Russell

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMC) with continuous fiber reinforcements have the potential to enable the next generation of high speed hypersonic vehicles and/or significant improvements in gas turbine engine performance due to their exhibited toughness when subjected to high mechanical loads at extreme temperatures (2200F+). Reinforced fiber composites (RFC) provide increased fracture toughness, crack growth resistance, and strength, though little is known about how stochastic variation and imperfections in the material effect material properties. In this work, tools are developed for quantifying anomalies within the microstructure at several scales. The detection and characterization of anomalous microstructure is a critical step in linking production techniques to properties, as well as in accurate material simulation and property prediction for the integrated computation materials engineering (ICME) of RFC based components. It is desired to find statistical outliers for any number of material characteristics such as fibers, fiber coatings, and pores. Here, fiber orientation, or `velocity', and `velocity' gradient are developed and examined for anomalous behavior. Categorizing anomalous behavior in the CMC is approached by multivariate Gaussian mixture modeling. A Gaussian mixture is employed to estimate the probability density function (PDF) of the features in question, and anomalies are classified by their likelihood of belonging to the statistical normal behavior for that feature.

  12. Investigation of crack paths in natural fibre-reinforced composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Keck

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, fibre-reinforced composite materials are widely used in many fields, e.g. automotive and aerospace. Natural fibres such as flax and hemp provide good density specific mechanical properties. Additionally, the embodied production energy in natural fibres is much smaller than in synthetic ones. Within this paper the fracture mechanical behaviour of flax fibre-reinforced composites is discussed. Especially, this paper focuses on the determination and investigation of crack paths in compact tension specimens with three different fibre directions under a static as well as fatigue load. Differences and similarities in the obtained crack paths under different loading conditions are presented. Due to the pronounced orthotropic behaviour of those materials the crack path is not only governed by the stress state, but practically determined by the fibre direction and fibre volume fraction. Therefore, the well-known stress intensity factor solutions for the standard specimens are not applicable. It is necessary to carry out extensive numerical simulations to evaluate the stress intensity factor evolution along the growing crack in order to be able to determine fatigue crack growth rate curves. Those numerical crack growth simulations are performed with the three-dimensional crack simulation program ADAPCRACK3D to gain energy release rates and in addition stress intensity factors

  13. STUDY THE CREEP OF TUBULAR SHAPED FIBER REINFORCED COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najat J. Saleh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Inpresent work tubular –shaped fiber reinforced composites were manufactured byusing two types of resins ( Epoxy and unsaturated polyester and separatelyreinforced with glass, carbon and kevlar-49 fibers (filament and woven roving,hybrid reinforcement composites of these fibers were also prepared. The fiberswere wet wound on a mandrel using a purposely designed winding machine,developed by modifying an ordinary lathe, in winding angle of 55° for filament. A creep test was made of either the fulltube or specimens taken from it. Creep was found to increase upon reinforcementin accordance to the rule of mixture and mainly decided by the type of singleor hybridized fibers. The creep behavior, showed that the observed strain tendsto appear much faster at higher temperature as compared with that exhibited atroom temperate. The creep rate also found to be depending on fiber type, matrixtype, and the fiber /matrix bonding. The creep energy calculated fromexperimental observations was found to exhibit highest value for hybridizedreinforcement.

  14. Tungsten fibre-reinforced composites for advanced plasma facing components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Neu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The European Fusion Roadmap foresees water cooled plasma facing components in a first DEMO design in order to provide enough margin for the cooling capacity and to only moderately extrapolate the technology which was developed and tested for ITER. In order to make best use of the water cooling concept copper (Cu and copper-chromium-zirconium alloy (CuCrZr are envisaged as heat sink whereas as armour tungsten (W based materials will be used. Combining both materials in a high heat flux component asks for an increase of their operational range towards higher temperature in case of Cu/CuCrZr and lower temperatures for W. A remedy for both issues- brittleness of W and degrading strength of CuCrZr- could be the use of W fibres (Wf in W and Cu based composites. Fibre preforms could be manufactured with industrially viable textile techniques. Flat textiles with a combination of 150/70 µm W wires have been chosen for layered deposition of tungsten-fibre reinforced tungsten (Wf/W samples and tubular multi-layered braidings with W wire thickness of 50 µm were produced as a preform for tungsten-fibre reinforced copper (Wf /Cu tubes. Cu melt infiltration was performed together with an industrial partner resulting in sample tubes without any blowholes. Property estimation by mean field homogenisation predicts strongly enhanced strength of the Wf/CuCrZr composite compared to its pure CuCrZr counterpart. Wf /W composites show very high toughness and damage tolerance even at room temperature. Cyclic load tests reveal that the extrinsic toughening mechanisms counteracting the crack growth are active and stable. FEM simulations of the Wf/W composite suggest that the influence of fibre debonding, which is an integral part of the toughening mechanisms, and reduced thermal conductivity of the fibre due to the necessary interlayers do not strongly influence the thermal properties of future components.

  15. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. N.; Hou, T. H.; Bai, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    A chemoviscosity model, which describes viscosity rise profiles accurately under various cure cycles, and correlates viscosity data to the changes of physical properties associated with structural transformations of the thermosetting resin system during cure, was established. Work completed on chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins is reported.

  16. Crosslinking of thermoplastic composites using electron beam radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, A.B.; Black, S.R.; Bryce, G.R.; Olcott, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    The crosslinking of thermoset materials has been clearly demonstrated to improve many desirable physical and chemical properties for composite applications. While thermoplastic resins also offer many advantages for composite applications, they are not crosslinked and, therefore, may not meet the same property criteria as crosslinked thermosets. Electron beams have been used successfully for crosslinking non-reinforced thermoplastic materials. Electron beams have also been used for curing composite thermoset materials. This research utilizes electron beams to crosslink high performance thermoplastic composite materials (PEEK and PPS with glass and carbon fibers). The tensile strength and tensile modulus are compared under various crosslinking conditions. The method is found to have some advantages in potentially improving physical properties of thermoplastic composite materials

  17. Performance of carbon fiber reinforced rubber composite armour against shaped charge jet penetration

    OpenAIRE

    Yue Lian-yong; Li Wei; Zu Xu-dong; Huang Zheng-xiang; Gao Zhen-yu

    2016-01-01

    Natural rubber is reinforced with carbon fiber; the protective performances of the carbonfiber reinforced rubber composite armour to shaped charge jet have been studied based on the depth of penetration experiments. The craters on the witness blocks, the nature rubber based composite plates’ deformation and the Scanning Electron Microscopy for the hybrid fiber reinforced rubber plate also is analyzed. The results showed that the composite armour can affect the stability of the jet and made pa...

  18. Fatigue of multiscale composites with secondary nanoplatelet reinforcement: 3D computational analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Gaoming; Mishnaevsky, Leon, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    3D numerical simulations of fatigue damage of multiscale fiber reinforced polymer composites with secondary nanoclay reinforcement are carried out. Macro–micro FE models of the multiscale composites are generated automatically using Python based software. The effect of the nanoclay reinforcement....... Multiscale composites with exfoliated nanoreinforcement and aligned nanoplatelets ensure the better fatigue resistance than those with intercalated/clustered and randomly oriented nanoreinforcement....

  19. Nondestructive Determination of Reinforcement Volume Fractions in Particulate Composites : Ultrasonic Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyun Jo

    1998-01-01

    A nondestructive ultrasonic technique is presented for estimating the reinforcement volume fractions of particulate composites. The proposed technique employs a theoretical model which accounts for composite microstructures, together with a measurement of ultrasonic velocity to determine the reinforcement volume fractions. The approach is used for a wide range of SiC particulate reinforced Al matrix (SiC p /AI) composites. The method is considered to be reliable in determining the reinforcement volume fractions. The technique could be adopted in a production unit for the quality assessment of the metal matrix particulate composite extrusions

  20. Elastic Composite, Reinforced Lightweight Concrete as a Type of Resilient Composite Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeili, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    . A kind of "Elastic Composite, Reinforced Lightweight Concrete (ECRLC)" with the mentioned specifics is a type of "Resilient Composite Systems (RCS)" in which, contrary to the basic geometrical assumption of flexure theory in Solid Mechanics, "the strain changes in the beam height during bending" is typically "Non-linear". . Through employing this integrated structure, with significant high strain capability and modulus of resilience in bending, we could constructively achieve high bearing c...

  1. Development of Composite for Thermal Barriers Reinforced by Ceramic Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Holčapek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces the development process of fiber-reinforced composite with increased resistance to elevated temperatures, which could be additionally increased by the hydrothermal curing. However, production of these composites is extremely energy intensive, and that is why the process of the design reflects environmental aspects by incorporation of waste material—fine ceramic powder applied as cement replacement. Studied composite materials consisted of the basalt aggregate, ceramic fibers applied up to 8% by volume, calcium-aluminous cement (CAC, ceramic powder up to 25% by mass (by 5% as cement replacement, plasticizer, and water. All studied mixtures were subjected to thermal loading on three thermal levels: 105°C, 600°C, and 1000°C. Experimental assessment was performed in terms of both initial and residual material properties; flow test of fresh mixtures, bulk density, compressive strength, flexural strength, fracture energy, and dynamic modulus of elasticity were investigated to find out an optimal dosage of ceramic fibers. Resulting set of composites containing 4% of ceramic fibers with various modifications by ceramic powder was cured under specific hydrothermal condition and again subjected to elevated temperatures. One of the most valuable benefits of additional hydrothermal curing of the composites lies in the higher residual mechanical properties, what allows successful utilization of cured composite as a thermal barrier in civil engineering. Mixtures containing ceramic powder as cement substitute exhibited after hydrothermal curing increase of residual flexural strength about 35%; on the other hand, pure mixture exhibited increase up to 10% even higher absolute values.

  2. Toughening of thermosetting polyimides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollob, D. S.; Mandell, J. F.; Mcgarry, F. J.

    1979-01-01

    Work directed toward increasing the resistance to crack propagation of thermoset polyimides is described. Rubber modification and Teflon microfiber impregnation techniques for increasing fracture toughness are investigated. Unmodified Kerimid 601 has a fracture surface work value of 0.20 in-lbs/sq in. Dispersed particles of amine terminated butadiene acrylonitrile liquid rubber or of silicone rubber do not raise this value much. By contrast, 5 percent of well fibrillated Teflon produces an eight-fold increase in fracture toughness. Further process improvements should increase this factor to 20-30.

  3. Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites and comparison with jute and flax fibre PP composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abaca fibre reinforced PP composites were fabricated with different fibre loadings (20, 30, 40, 50wt% and in some cases 35 and 45 wt%. Flax and jute fibre reinforced PP composites were also fabricated with 30 wt% fibre loading. The mechanical properties, odour emission and structure properties were investigated for those composites. Tensile, flexural and Charpy impact strengths were found to increase for fibre loadings up to 40 wt% and then decreased. Falling weight impact tests were also carried out and the same tendency was observed. Owing to the addition of coupling agent (maleated polypropylene -MAH-PP, the tensile, flexural and falling weight impact properties were found to increase in between 30 to 80% for different fibre loadings. When comparing jute and flax fibre composites with abaca fibre composites, jute fibre composites provided best tensile properties but abaca fibre polypropylene composites were shown to provide best notch Charpy and falling weight impact properties. Odours released by flax fibre composites were smaller than jute and abaca fibre composites.

  4. Creep Forming of Carbon-Reinforced Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Wallace L.; Scotti, Stephan J.; Ashe, Melissa P.; Connolly, Liz

    2007-01-01

    A set of lecture slides describes an investigation of creep forming as a means of imparting desired curvatures to initially flat stock plates of carbon-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite (C-CMC) materials. The investigation is apparently part of a continuing effort to develop improved means of applying small CCMC repair patches to reinforced carbon-carbon leading edges of aerospace vehicles (e.g., space shuttles) prior to re-entry into the atmosphere of the Earth. According to one of the slides, creep forming would be an intermediate step in a process that would yield a fully densified, finished C-CMC part having a desired size and shape (the other steps would include preliminary machining, finish machining, densification by chemical vapor infiltration, and final coating). The investigation included experiments in which C-CMC disks were creep-formed by heating them to unspecified high temperatures for time intervals of the order of 1 hour while they were clamped into single- and double-curvature graphite molds. The creep-formed disks were coated with an oxidation- protection material, then subjected to arc-jet tests, in which the disks exhibited no deterioration after exposure to high-temperature test conditions lasting 490 seconds.

  5. Neutron stress measurement of W-fiber reinforced Cu composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishida, M.; Hanabusa, T.; Ikeuchi, Y.; Minakawa, N.

    2003-01-01

    Stress measurement methods using neutron and X-ray diffraction were examined by comparing the surface stresses with internal stresses in the continuous tungsten-fiber reinforced copper-matrix composite. Surface stresses were measured by X-ray stress measurement with the sin 2 ψ method. Furthermore, the sin 2 ψ method and the most common triaxal measurement method using Hooke's equation were employed for internal stress measurement by neutron diffraction. On the other hand, microstress distributions developed by the difference in the thermal expansion coefficients between these two phases were calculated by FEM. The weighted average strains and stresses were compared with the experimental results. The FEM results agreed with the experimental results qualitatively and confirmed the importance of the triaxial stress analysis in the neutron stress measurement. (Abstract Copyright [2003], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Failure Analysis of Alumina Reinforced Aluminum Microtruss and Tube Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Hsueh Fen (Karen)

    The energy absorption capacity of cellular materials can be dramatically increased by applying a structural coating. This thesis examined the failure mechanisms of alumina reinforced 3003 aluminum alloy microtrusses and tubes. Alumina coatings were produced by hard anodizing and by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO). The relatively thin and discontinuous oxide coating at the hinge acted as a localized weak spot which triggered a chain reaction of failure, including oxide fracture, oxide spallation, oxide penetration to the aluminum core and severe local plastic deformation of the core. For the PEO microtrusses, delamination occurred within the oxide coating resulting in a global strut buckling failure mode. A new failure mode for the anodized tubes was observed: (i) axisymmetric folding of the aluminum core, (ii) longitudinal fracture, and (iii) alumina pulverization. Overall, the alumina coating enhanced the buckling resistance of the composites, while the aluminum core supported the oxide during the damage propagation.

  7. Parametric Study of End Milling Glass Fibre Reinforced Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmi, Azwan I.; Lin, Richard J. T.; Bhattacharyya, Debes

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of Taguchi 'Design of Experiment' method to investigate the effects of end milling parameters on machinability characteristics of unidirectional E-glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) composites. A series of milling experiments were conducted using tungsten carbide end milling cutters at various spindle speeds, feed rates and depths of cut. Taguchi analysis was carried out and the signal to noise (S/N) ratio with analysis of variance (ANOVA) was employed to analyse the effects of those parameters on GFRP machinability. Overall, the results of the current investigations present some desirable combinations of the machining parameters that can further enhance the end milling machinability characteristics to suit the final requirements of the finished GFRP products.

  8. Characterization of B4C-composite-reinforced aluminum alloy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ram; Rai, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    Dry sliding wear tests conducted on Pin-on-disk wear test machine. The rotational speed of disc is ranging from (400-600rpm) and under loads ranging from (30-70 N) the contact time between the disc and pin is constant for each pin specimen of composites is 15 minute. In all manufacturing industries the uses of composite materials has been increasing globally, In the present study, an aluminum 5083 alloy is used as the matrix and 5% of weight percentage of Boron Carbide (B4C) as the reinforcing material. The composite is produced using stir casting technique. This is cost effective method. The aluminum 5083 matrix can be strengthened by reinforcing with hard ceramic particles like silicon carbide and boron carbide. In this experiment, aluminum 5083 alloy is selected as one of main material for making parts of the ship it has good mechanical properties, good corrosion resistance and it is can welded very easily and does have good strength. The samples are tested for hardness and tensile strength. The mechanical properties like Hardness can be increased by reinforcing aluminum 5083alloy 5% boron carbide (B4C) particles and tensile strength. Finally the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) analysis and EDS is done, which helps to study topography of composites and it produces images of a sample by scanning it with a focused beam of electrons and the presence of composition found in the matrix.

  9. Hybrid Composites Based on Carbon Fiber/Carbon Nanofilament Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehran Tehrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanofilament and nanotubes (CNTs have shown promise for enhancing the mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced composites (FRPs and imparting multi-functionalities to them. While direct mixing of carbon nanofilaments with the polymer matrix in FRPs has several drawbacks, a high volume of uniform nanofilaments can be directly grown on fiber surfaces prior to composite fabrication. This study demonstrates the ability to create carbon nanofilaments on the surface of carbon fibers employing a synthesis method, graphitic structures by design (GSD, in which carbon structures are grown from fuel mixtures using nickel particles as the catalyst. The synthesis technique is proven feasible to grow nanofilament structures—from ethylene mixtures at 550 °C—on commercial polyacrylonitrile (PAN-based carbon fibers. Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy were employed to characterize the surface-grown carbon species. For comparison purposes, a catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD technique was also utilized to grow multiwall CNTs (MWCNTs on carbon fiber yarns. The mechanical characterization showed that composites using the GSD-grown carbon nanofilaments outperform those using the CCVD-grown CNTs in terms of stiffness and tensile strength. The results suggest that further optimization of the GSD growth time, patterning and thermal shield coating of the carbon fibers is required to fully materialize the potential benefits of the GSD technique.

  10. Carbon fiber/carbon nanotube reinforced hierarchical composites: Effect of CNT distribution on shearing strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H. W.; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Yi, H. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The strength and fracture behavior of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites with carbon nanotube (CNT) secondary reinforcement are investigated experimentally and numerically. Short Beam Shearing tests have been carried out, with SEM observations of the damage evolution in the composites. 3D...... CNT nanoreinforcement into the matrix and/or the sizing of carbon fiber/reinforced composites ensures strong increase of the composite strength. The effect of secondary CNTs reinforcement is strongest when some small addition of CNTs in the polymer matrix is complemented by the fiber sizing with high...... multiscale computational (FE) models of the carbon/polymer composite with varied CNT distributions have been developed and employed to study the effect of the secondary CNT reinforcement, its distribution and content on the strength and fracture behavior of the composites. It is shown that adding secondary...

  11. An investigation of ductile and brittle reinforcement on the fracture behavior of molybdenum disilicide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, D.; Soboyejo, W.O.

    1994-01-01

    The results of an ongoing study of the effects of ductile and brittle reinforcement on the fracture toughness of particulate reinforced molybdenum disilicide matrix composites are presented. MoSi 2 composites reinforced with ductile Nb, Mo, and W particles are compared with MoSi 2 composites reinforced with SiC, TiB 2 , and partially stabilized zirconia (PSZ) particles. The effects of different degrees of yttria stabilization on zirconia reinforced composites will also be examined, as well as the effect of solid solution alloying with WSi 2 . The effects of multiple reinforcement of MoSi 2 with 20 vol.% Nb and 20 vol.% unstabilized zirconia (TZ-0) are discussed. The toughening is rationalized using micromechanical models for crack bridging, transformation toughening, and crack deflection

  12. NANOFIBRILLATED CELLULOSE (NFC AS A POTENTIAL REINFORCEMENT FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE CEMENT MORTAR COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Ardanuy,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC has been evaluated as a potential reinforcement for cement mortar composites. Two types of vegetable fibres with different composition and properties (cellulose content and microfibrillar angle, sisal, and cotton linters pulps, were initially characterised in order to assess their reinforcing capability. Sisal pulp was found to be most suitable as reinforcement for the brittle cementitious matrix. Nanofibrillated cellulose was produced by the application of a high intensity refining process of the sisal pulp. It was found that 6 hours of refining time was required to obtain the desired nanofibrillation of the fibers. Cement mortar composites reinforced with both the sisal fibres and the nanofibrillated cellulose were prepared, and the mechanical properties were determined under flexural tests. The cement mortar composites reinforced with the nanofibrillated cellulose exhibited enhanced flexural properties, but lower values of fracture energy, than the ones reinforced with the conventional sisal fibres.

  13. Chemoviscosity modeling for thermosetting resins - I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    A new analytical model for chemoviscosity variation during cure of thermosetting resins was developed. This model is derived by modifying the widely used WLF (Williams-Landel-Ferry) Theory in polymer rheology. Major assumptions involved are that the rate of reaction is diffusion controlled and is linearly inversely proportional to the viscosity of the medium over the entire cure cycle. The resultant first order nonlinear differential equation is solved numerically, and the model predictions compare favorably with experimental data of EPON 828/Agent U obtained on a Rheometrics System 4 Rheometer. The model describes chemoviscosity up to a range of six orders of magnitude under isothermal curing conditions. The extremely non-linear chemoviscosity profile for a dynamic heating cure cycle is predicted as well. The model is also shown to predict changes of glass transition temperature for the thermosetting resin during cure. The physical significance of this prediction is unclear at the present time, however, and further research is required. From the chemoviscosity simulation point of view, the technique of establishing an analytical model as described here is easily applied to any thermosetting resin. The model thus obtained is used in real-time process controls for fabricating composite materials.

  14. Drastic Improvements in Bonding of Fiber Reinforced Multifunctional Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Achievement of a dramatic increase in the bond strength in the composite/adhesive interfaces of existing fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite material joints and...

  15. Nonequilibrium Alloying of Aluminum for Improving the Corrosion Resistance of Graphite-Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shaw, Barbara

    1994-01-01

    .... Unfortunately, MMCs, especially Gr reinforced composites, are extremely susceptible to corrosion with severe attack in chloride-containing environments occurring in as little time as several weeks for Gr/Al composites...

  16. Nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) as a potential reinforcement for high performance cement mortar composites

    OpenAIRE

    Ardanuy Raso, Mònica; Claramunt Blanes, Josep; Arévalo Peces, Raquel; Parés Sabatés, Ferran; Aracri, Elisabetta; Vidal Lluciá, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    In this work, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) has been evaluated as a potential reinforcement for cement mortar composites. Two types of vegetable fibres with different composition and properties (cellulose content and microfibrillar angle), sisal, and cotton linters pulps, were initially characterized in order to assess their reinforcement capability. Sisal pulp was found to be most suitable as reinforcement for their brittle cementitious matrix. Nanofibrillated cellulose was produced by th...

  17. The influence of matrix composition and reinforcement type on the properties of polysialate composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammell, James A.

    There is a critical need for the development of materials for eliminating fire as a cause of death in aircraft accidents. Currently available composites that use organic matrices not only deteriorate at temperatures above 300°C but also emit toxic fumes. The results presented in this dissertation focus on the development of an inorganic matrix that does not burn or emit toxic fumes. The matrix, known as polysialate, can withstand temperatures in excess of 1000°C. The matrix behaves like a ceramic, but does not need high curing temperatures, so it can be processed like many common organic matrices. The major parameters evaluated in this dissertation are: (i) Influence of reinforcement type, (ii) Matrix formulation for both wet-dry durability and high temperature resistance, (iii) Influence of processing variables such as moisture reduction and storage, (iv) Tensile strain capacity of modified matrices and matrices reinforced with ceramic microfibers and discrete carbon fibers, and (v) analytical modeling of mechanical properties. For the reinforcement type; carbon, glass, and stainless steel wire fabrics were investigated. Carbon fabrics with 1, 3, 12, and 50k tows were used. A matrix chemical formulation that can withstand wetting and drying was developed. This formulation was tested at high temperatures to ascertain its stability above 400°C. On the topic of processing, shelf life of prepregged fabric layers and efficient moisture removal methods were studied. An analytical model based on layered reinforcement was developed for analyzing flexural specimens. It is shown that the new inorganic matrix can withstand wetting and drying, and also high temperature. The layered reinforcement concept provides accurate prediction of strength and stiffness for composites reinforced with 1k and 3k tows. The prepregged fabric layers can be stored for 14 days at -15°C without losing strength.

  18. Design aid for shear strengthening of reinforced concrete T-joints using carbon fiber reinforced plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gergely, Ioan

    The research presented in the present work focuses on the shear strengthening of beam column joints using carbon fiber composites, a material considered in seismic retrofit in recent years more than any other new material. These composites, or fiber reinforced polymers, offer huge advantages over structural steel reinforced concrete or timber. A few of these advantages are the superior resistance to corrosion, high stiffness to weight and strength to weight ratios, and the ability to control the material's behavior by selecting the orientation of the fibers. The design and field application research on reinforced concrete cap beam-column joints includes analytical investigations using pushover analysis; design of carbon fiber layout, experimental tests and field applications. Several beam column joints have been tested recently with design variables as the type of composite system, fiber orientation and the width of carbon fiber sheets. The surface preparation has been found to be critical for the bond between concrete and composite material, which is the most important factor in joint shear strengthening. The final goal of this thesis is to develop design aids for retrofitting reinforced concrete beam column joints. Two bridge bents were tested on the Interstate-15 corridor. One bent was tested in the as-is condition. Carbon fiber reinforced plastic composite sheets were used to externally reinforce the second bridge bent. By applying the composite, the displacement ductility has been doubled, and the bent overall lateral load capacity has been increased as well. The finite element model (using DRAIN-2DX) was calibrated to model the actual stiffness of the supports. The results were similar to the experimental findings.

  19. Thermoplastic-thermosetting merged polyimides via furan-maleimide Diels–Alder polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh S. Patel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Novel thermoplastic-thermosetting merged polyimide system has been developed via Diels–Alder intermolecular polymerization of bisfuran namely, 2,5-bis(furan-2-ylmethylcarbamoyl terephthalic acid A with a series of bismaleimides B1–4. Thus obtained intermediate Diels–Alder adducts C1–4 were aromatized and imidized (i.e. cyclized through carboxylic and amide groups to afford thermoplastic-thermosetting merged polyimides D1–4. Bisfuran A was prepared by the condensation of pyromellitic dianhydride with furan-2-ylmethanamine and characterized by elemental, spectral, thermal and LCMS analyses. Synthesized Diels–Alder adducts C1–4 and polyimides D1–4 were characterized by elemental analysis, spectral features, number average molecular weight (Mn‾, degree of polymerization (DP and thermal analysis. To facilitate the correct structural assessment and to be able to verify the occurrence of the DA adducts and PIs, a model compound 4 was prepared from phthalic anhydride and furan-2-ylmethanamine in a similar way. FTIR spectral features of polyimides D1–4 were compared with model compound 4 and they were found to be quite identical. The ‘in situ' void-free glass fiber reinforced composites GFRC1–4 were prepared from the produced system and characterized by chemical, mechanical and electrical analyses. All the composites showed good mechanical, electrical and thermal properties and good resistance to organic solvents and mineral acids.

  20. Smart damping of laminated fuzzy fiber reinforced composite shells using 1–3 piezoelectric composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kundalwal, S I; Suresh Kumar, R; Ray, M C

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the investigation of active constrained layer damping (ACLD) of smart laminated continuous fuzzy fiber reinforced composite (FFRC) shells. The distinct constructional feature of a novel FFRC is that the uniformly spaced short carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are radially grown on the circumferential surfaces of the continuous carbon fiber reinforcements. The constraining layer of the ACLD treatment is considered to be made of vertically/obliquely reinforced 1–3 piezoelectric composite materials. A finite element (FE) model is developed for the laminated FFRC shells integrated with the two patches of the ACLD treatment to investigate the damping characteristics of the laminated FFRC shells. The effect of variation of the orientation angle of the piezoelectric fibers on the damping characteristics of the laminated FFRC shells has been studied when the piezoelectric fibers are coplanar with either of the two mutually orthogonal vertical planes of the piezoelectric composite layer. It is revealed that radial growth of CNTs on the circumferential surfaces of the carbon fibers enhances the attenuation of the amplitude of vibrations and the natural frequencies of the laminated FFRC shells over those of laminated base composite shells without CNTs. (paper)

  1. Comparison of Properties of Polymer Composite Materials Reinforced with Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygoń P.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes because of their high mechanical, optical or electrical properties, have found use as semiconducting materials constituting the reinforcing phase in composite materials. The paper presents the results of the studies on the mechanical properties of polymer composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNT. Three-point bending tests were carried out on the composites. The density of each obtained composite was determined as well as the surface roughness and the resistivity at room temperature.

  2. Effects of Fiber Coating Composition on Mechanical Behavior of Silicon Carbide Fiber-Reinforced Celsian Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P.; Elderidge, Jeffrey I.

    1998-01-01

    Celsian matrix composites reinforced with Hi-Nicalon fibers, precoated with a dual layer of BN/SiC by chemical vapor deposition in two separate batches, were fabricated. Mechanical properties of the composites were measured in three-point flexure. Despite supposedly identical processing, the composite panels fabricated with fibers coated in two batches exhibited substantially different mechanical behavior. The first matrix cracking stresses (sigma(sub mc)) of the composites reinforced with fibers coated in batch 1 and batch 2 were 436 and 122 MPa, respectively. This large difference in sigma(sub mc) was attributed to differences in fiber sliding stresses(tau(sub friction)), 121.2+/-48.7 and 10.4+/-3.1 MPa, respectively, for the two composites as determined by the fiber push-in method. Such a large difference in values of tau(sub friction) for the two composites was found to be due to the difference in the compositions of the interface coatings. Scanning Auger microprobe analysis revealed the presence of carbon layers between the fiber and BN, and also between the BN and SiC coatings in the composite showing lower tau(sub friction). This resulted in lower sigma(sub mc) in agreement with the ACK theory. The ultimate strengths of the two composites, 904 and 759 MPa, depended mainly on the fiber volume fraction and were not significantly effected by tau(sub friction) values, as expected. The poor reproducibility of the fiber coating composition between the two batches was judged to be the primary source of the large differences in performance of the two composites.

  3. Performance of carbon fiber reinforced rubber composite armour against shaped charge jet penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Lian-yong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber is reinforced with carbon fiber; the protective performances of the carbonfiber reinforced rubber composite armour to shaped charge jet have been studied based on the depth of penetration experiments. The craters on the witness blocks, the nature rubber based composite plates’ deformation and the Scanning Electron Microscopy for the hybrid fiber reinforced rubber plate also is analyzed. The results showed that the composite armour can affect the stability of the jet and made part of the jet fracture. The carbon fiber reinforced rubber composite armour has good defence ablity especially when the nature rubber plate hybrid 15% volume percentage carbonfiber and the obliquity angle is 68°. The hybrid fiber reinforced rubber composite armour can be used as a new kind of light protective armour.

  4. Study of damping characteristics of fibre reinforced composite aerospace structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.Z.; Saleh, S.; Munir, A.

    2006-01-01

    Composite materials are used in a variety of high demanding structural applications. Apart from their other preferable properties, they have high-energy dissipation characteristics, which is important aspect when we repeatedly wiggle the system back and forth. It is important to have thorough understanding of material damping behavior; in general materials damping tends to be complex nonlinear function of vibration amplitude, frequency of loading and material formulation. There are number of mathematical models available in literature to obtain hysteresis curves. One approach for identifying damping characteristics used mechanical hysteresis curves. In present work, a phenomenon was observed during testing of fibre reinforced composite beam of an aerospace structure, that for increase load in structure, the path of Force vs. Displacement curve is different than the path of unloading. A plot is generated which indicate the hysteresis loop representing the steady state dynamic behavior of material. The area enclosed by such curves is proportional to energy dissipation per cycle. However, the specific shape of the curve also has important implications for characterizing the specific functional form of the damping. Therefore, it is important to develop methods for accurately accounting for such effects. The current work explores the damping characteristics both theoretically and experimentally. (author)

  5. Production of Banana Fiber Yarns for Technical Textile Reinforced Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaida Ortega

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibers have been used as an alternative to synthetic ones for their greener character; banana fibers have the advantage of coming from an agricultural residue. Fibers have been extracted by mechanical means from banana tree pseudostems, as a strategy to valorize banana crops residues. To increase the mechanical properties of the composite, technical textiles can be used as reinforcement, instead of short fibers. To do so, fibers must be spun and woven. The aim of this paper is to show the viability of using banana fibers to obtain a yarn suitable to be woven, after an enzymatic treatment, which is more environmentally friendly. Extracted long fibers are cut to 50 mm length and then immersed into an enzymatic bath for their refining. Conditions of enzymatic treatment have been optimized to produce a textile grade of banana fibers, which have then been characterized. The optimum treating conditions were found with the use of Biopectinase K (100% related to fiber weight at 45 °C, pH 4.5 for 6 h, with bath renewal after three hours. The first spinning trials show that these fibers are suitable to be used for the production of yarns. The next step is the weaving process to obtain a technical fabric for composites production.

  6. Further development of the tungsten-fibre reinforced tungsten composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gietl, Hanns; Hoeschen, Till; Riesch, Johann [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Aumann, Martin; Coenen, Jan [Forschungszentrum Juelich, IEK4, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Huber, Philipp [Lehrstuhl fuer Textilmaschinenbau und Institut fuer Textiltechnik (ITA), 52062 Aachen (Germany); Neu, Rudolf [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    For the use in a fusion device tungsten has a unique property combination. The brittleness below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature and the embrittlement during operation e.g. by overheating, neutron irradiation are the main drawbacks for the use of pure tungsten. Tungsten fibre-reinforced tungsten composites utilize extrinsic mechanisms to improve the toughness. After proofing that this idea works in principle the next step is the conceptual proof for the applicability in fusion reactors. This will be done by producing mock-ups and testing them in cyclic high heat load tests. For this step all constituents of the composite, which are fibre, matrix and interface, and all process steps need to be investigated. Tungsten fibres are investigated by means of tension tests to find the optimum diameter and pretreatment. New interface concepts are investigated to meet the requirements in a fusion reactor, e.g. high thermal conductivity, low activation. In addition weaving processes are evaluated for their use in the fibre preform production. This development is accompanied by an extensive investigation of the materials properties e.g. single fibre tension tests.

  7. Primary Manufacturing Processes for Fiber Reinforced Composites: History, Development & Future Research Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapan Bhatt, Alpa; Gohil, Piyush P.; Chaudhary, Vijaykumar

    2018-03-01

    Composite Materials are becoming more popular gradually replacing traditional material with extra strength, lighter weight and superior property. The world is exploring use of fiber reinforced composites in all application which includes air, land and water transport, construction industry, toys, instrumentation, medicine and the list is endless. Based on application and reinforcement used, there are many ways to manufactures parts with fiber reinforced composites. In this paper various manufacturing processes have been discussed at length, to make fiber reinforced composites components. The authors have endeavored to include all the processes available recently in composite industry. Paper first highlights history of fiber reinforced composites manufacturing, and then the comparison of different manufacturing process to build composites have been discussed, to give clear understanding on, which process should be selected, based on reinforcement, matrix and application. All though, there are several advantages to use such fiber reinforcement composites, still industries have not grown at par and there is a lot of scope to improve these industries. At last, where India stands today, what are the challenges in market has been highlighted and future market and research trend of exploring such composite industries have been discussed. This work is carried out as a part of research project sanctioned by GUJCOST, Gandhinagar.

  8. Embedding in thermosetting resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzonniere, A. de

    1985-01-01

    Medium activity waste coming either from nuclear power plants in operation such as evaporator concentrates, spent resins, filter cartridges or the dismantling of installations are embedded in order to obtain a product suitable for long term disposal. Embedding in thermosetting resins (polyester or epoxy) is one among currently used techniques; it is being developed by the CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) and Technicatome (subsidiary of CEA and EDF). The process is easy to operate and yields excellent results particularly as far as volume reduction and radioelement containment (cesium particularly) are concerned. The process has already been in operation in four stationary plants for several years. Extension of the process to mobile units has been completed by Technicatome in collaboration with the CEA [fr

  9. Durability of Cement Composites Reinforced with Sisal Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianqiang

    This dissertation focuses mainly on investigating the aging mechanisms and degradation kinetics of sisal fiber, as well as the approaches to mitigate its degradation in the matrix of cement composites. In contrast to previous works reported in the literature, a novel approach is proposed in this study to directly determine the fiber's degradation rate by separately studying the composition changes, mechanical and physical properties of the embedded sisal fibers. Cement hydration is presented to be a crucial factor in understanding fiber degradation behavior. The degradation mechanisms of natural fiber consist of mineralization of cell walls, alkali hydrolysis of lignin and hemicellulose, as well as the cellulose decomposition which includes stripping of cellulose microfibrils and alkaline hydrolysis of amorphous regions in cellulose chains. Two mineralization mechanisms, CH-mineralization and self-mineralization, are proposed. The degradation kinetics of sisal fiber in the cement matrix are also analyzed and a model to predict the degradation rate of cellulose for natural fiber embedded in cement is outlined. The results indicate that the time needed to completely degrade the cellulose in the matrix with cement replacement by 30wt.% metakaolin is 13 times longer than that in pure cement. A novel and scientific method is presented to determine accelerated aging conditions, and to evaluating sisal fiber's degradation rate and durability of natural fiber-reinforced cement composites. Among the static aggressive environments, the most effective approach for accelerating the degradation of natural fiber in cement composites is to soak the samples or change the humidity at 70 °C and higher temperature. However, the dynamic wetting and drying cycling treatment has a more accelerating effect on the alkali hydrolysis of fiber's amorphous components evidenced by the highest crystallinity indices, minimum content of holocellulose, and lowest tensile strength. Based on the

  10. Field survey and laboratory tests on composite materials case of GRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester tubes for water suply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Hariga

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Moldova land, were made two lines of water adduction, having 6000 m length and 40 m slope, or 1/150 slope. The water supply component tubes were disposed under the plant: The tubes are made of glass – reinforced thermosetting plastics (GRP. After about 180 days of operation, one of the lines showed severe deterioration of the quality pipe components. This paper deals with some laboratory tests in order to detect the failure cases of the pipelines components.

  11. Manufacture of mold of polymeric composite water pipe reinforced charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfikar; Misdawati; Idris, M.; Nasution, F. K.; Harahap, U. N.; Simanjuntak, R. K.; Jufrizal; Pranoto, S.

    2018-03-01

    In general, household wastewater pipelines currently use thermoplastic pipes of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). This material is known to be not high heat resistant, contains hazardous chemicals (toxins), relatively inhospitable, and relatively more expensive. Therefore, researchers make innovations utilizing natural materials in the form of wood charcoal as the basic material of making the water pipe. Making this pipe requires a simple mold design that can be worked in the scale of household and intermediate industries. This research aims to produce water pipe mold with simple design, easy to do, and making time relatively short. Some considerations for molding materials are weight of mold, ease of raw material, strong, sturdy, and able to cast. Pipe molds are grouped into 4 (four) main parts, including: outer diameter pipe molding, pipe inside diameter, pipe holder, and pipe alignment control. Some materials have been tested as raw materials for outer diameter of pipes, such as wood, iron / steel, cement, and thermoset. The best results are obtained on thermoset material, where the process of disassembling is easier and the resulting mold weight is relatively lighter. For the inside diameter of the pipe is used stainless steel, because in addition to be resistant to chemical processes that occur, in this part of the mold must hold the press load due to shrinkage of raw materials of the pipe during the process of hardening (polymerization). Therefore, it needs high pressure resistant material and does not blend with the raw material of the pipe. The base of the mold is made of stainless steel material because it must be resistant to corrosion due to chemical processes. As for the adjustment of the pipe is made of ST 37 carbon steel, because its function is only as a regulator of the alignment of the pipe structure.

  12. Improvement of the piezoelectric properties of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites by poling treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S M; Hwang, H Y

    2013-01-01

    Recently, a new non-destructive method has been proposed for damage monitoring of glass fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials using the piezoelectric characteristics of a polymeric matrix. Several studies of the piezoelectric properties of unidirectional glass fiber epoxy composites and damage monitoring of double-cantilever beams have supported the claim that the piezoelectric method is feasible and powerful enough to monitor the damage of glass fiber epoxy composites. Generally, conventional piezoelectric materials have higher piezoelectric characteristics through poling treatment. In this work, we investigated the change of the piezoelectric properties of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites before and after poling treatment. The piezoelectric constants (d 33 ) of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites increased by more than 400%. Also, x-ray diffraction tests revealed that poling treatment changed the degree of crystallinity of the epoxy matrix, and this led to the improvement of the piezoelectric characteristics of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy composites. (paper)

  13. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Hemp/E-Glass Fabric Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R SANJAY

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work has been focusing on Hemp fibers has an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer composites due to its eco-friendly and biodegradable characteristics. This work has been carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of hemp/E-glass fabrics reinforced polyester hybrid composites. Vacuum bagging method was used for the preparation of six different kinds of hemp/glass fabrics reinforced polyester composite laminates as per layering sequences. The tensile, flexural, impact and water absorption tests of these hybrid composites were carried out experimentally according to ASTM standards. It reveals that an addition of E-glass fabrics with hemp fabrics can increase the mechanical properties of composites and decrease the water absorption of the hybrid composites.

  14. Incremental dynamic analysis of concrete moment resisting frames reinforced with shape memory composite bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, Adeel; Andrawes, Bassem

    2012-01-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing bars have been used in concrete structures as an alternative to conventional steel reinforcement, in order to overcome corrosion problems. However, due to the linear behavior of the commonly used reinforcing fibers, they are not considered in structures which require ductility and damping characteristics. The use of superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers with their nonlinear elastic behavior as reinforcement in the composite could potentially provide a solution for this problem. Small diameter SMA wires are coupled with polymer matrix to produce SMA–FRP composite, which is sought in this research as reinforcing bars. SMA–FRP bars are sought in this study to enhance the seismic performance of reinforced concrete (RC) moment resisting frames (MRFs) in terms of reducing their residual inter-story drifts while still maintaining the elastic characteristics associated with conventional FRP. Three story one bay and six story two bay RC MRF prototype structures are designed with steel, SMA–FRP and glass–FRP reinforcement. The incremental dynamic analysis technique is used to investigate the behaviors of the two frames with the three different reinforcement types under a suite of ground motion records. It is found that the frames with SMA–FRP composite reinforcement exhibit higher performance levels including lower residual inter-story drifts, high energy dissipation and thus lower damage, which are important for structures in highly seismic zones. (paper)

  15. Efficacy of Thermally Conditioned Sisal FRP Composite on the Shear Characteristics of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Tara; Reddy, H. N. Jagannatha

    2013-01-01

    The development of commercially viable composites based on natural resources for a wide range of applications is on the rise. Efforts include new methods of production and the utilization of natural reinforcements to make biodegradable composites with lignocellulosic fibers, for various engineering applications. In this work, thermal conditioning of woven sisal fibre was carried out, followed by the development of woven sisal fibre reinforced polymer composite system, and its tensile and flex...

  16. Milling of Nanoparticles Reinforced Al-Based Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alokesh Pramanik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the face milling of nanoparticles reinforced Al-based metal matrix composites (nano-MMCs using a single insert milling tool. The effects of feed and speed on machined surfaces in terms of surface roughness, surface profile, surface appearance, chip surface, chip ratio, machining forces, and force signals were analyzed. It was found that surface roughness of machined surfaces increased with the increase of feed up to the speed of 60 mm/min. However, at the higher speed (100–140 mm/min, the variation of surface roughness was minor with the increase of feed. The machined surfaces contained the marks of cutting tools, lobes of material flow in layers, pits and craters. The chip ratio increased with the increase of feed at all speeds. The top chip surfaces were full of wrinkles in all cases, though the bottom surfaces carried the evidence of friction, adhesion, and deformed material layers. The effect of feed on machining forces was evident at all speeds. The machining speed was found not to affect machining forces noticeably at a lower feed, but those decreased with the increase of speed for the high feed scenario.

  17. 40 CFR Table 2 to Subpart Wwww of... - Compliance Dates for New and Existing Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities 2 Table 2 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63 Protection of Environment...: Reinforced Plastic Composites Production Pt. 63, Subpt. WWWW, Table 2 Table 2 to Subpart WWWW of Part 63—Compliance Dates for New and Existing Reinforced Plastic Composites Facilities As required in §§ 63.5800 and...

  18. The influence of stiffeners on axial crushing of glass-fabric-reinforced epoxy composite shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vasanthanathan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A generic static and impact experimental procedure has been developed in this work aimed at improving the stability of glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell structures by bonding with axial stiffeners. Crashworthy structures fabricated from composite laminate with stiffeners would offer energy absorption superior to metallic structures under compressive loading situations. An experimental material characterisation of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite under uni-axial tension has been carried out in this study. This work provides a numerical simulation procedure to describe the static and dynamic response of unstiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell (without stiffeners and stiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell (with axial stiffeners under static and impact loading using the Finite Element Method. The finite element calculation for the present study was made with ANSYS®-LS-DYNA® software. Based upon the experimental and numerical investigations, it has been asserted that glass fabric reinforced epoxy shells stiffened with GFRP stiffeners are better than unstiffened glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell and glass fabric reinforced epoxy shell stiffened with aluminium stiffeners. The failure surfaces of the glass fabric reinforced epoxy composite shell structures tested under impact were examined by SEM.

  19. Service tough composite structures using the Z-direction reinforcement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Glenn; Magee, Constance; Boyce, Joseph; Bott, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Foster-Miller has developed a new process to provide through thickness reinforcement of composite structures. The process reinforces laminates locally or globally on-tool during standard autoclave processing cycles. Initial test results indicate that the method has the potential to significantly reduce delamination in carbon-epoxy. Laminates reinforced with the z-fiber process have demonstrated significant improvements in mode 1 fracture toughness and compression strength after impact. Unlike alternative methods, in-plane properties are not adversely affected.

  20. A fiber-reinforced composite prosthesis restoring a lateral midfacial defect: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurunmäki, Hemmo; Kantola, Rosita; Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Watts, David C; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2008-11-01

    This clinical report describes the use of a glass fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) substructure to reinforce the silicone elastomer of a large facial prosthesis. The FRC substructure was shaped into a framework and embedded into the silicone elastomer to form a reinforced facial prosthesis. The prosthesis is designed to overcome the disadvantages associated with traditionally fabricated prostheses; namely, delamination of the silicone of the acrylic base, poor marginal adaptation over time, and poor simulation of facial expressions.

  1. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  2. Investigations on Mechanical Behaviour of Micro Graphite Particulates Reinforced Al-7Si Alloy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, N.; Mahendra, K. V.; Nagaral, Madeva

    2018-02-01

    Micro particulates reinforced metal matrix composites are finding wide range of applications in automotive and sports equipment manufacturing industries. In the present study, an attempt has been made to develop Al-7Si-micro graphite particulates reinforced composites by using liquid melt method. 3 and 6 wt. % of micro graphite particulates were added to the Al-7Si base matrix. Microstructural characterization was done by using scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscope. Mechanical behaviour of Al-7Si-3 and 6 wt. % composites were evaluated as per ASTM standards. Scanning electron micrographs revealed the uniform distribution of micro graphite particulates in the Al-7Si alloy matrix. EDS analysis confirmed the presence of B and C elements in graphite reinforced composites. Further, it was noted that ultimate tensile and yield strength of Al-7Si alloy increased with the addition of 3 and 6wt. % of graphite particulates. Hardness of graphite reinforced composites was lesser than the base matrix.

  3. Bending test in epoxy composites reinforced with continuous and aligned PALF fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Oliveira Glória

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable actions aiming to prevent increasing worldwide pollution are motivating the substitution of environmentally friendly materials for conventional synthetic ones. A typical example is the use of natural lignocellulosic fiber (LCF as reinforcement of polymer composites that have traditionally been reinforced with glass fiber. Both scientific research and engineering applications support the use of numerous LCFs composites. The pineapple fiber (PALF, extracted from the leaves of Ananas comosus, is considered a LCF with potential for composite reinforcement. However, specific mechanical properties and microstructural characterization are still necessary for this purpose. Therefore, the objective of this short work is to evaluate the flexural properties, by means of three points, bend tests, of epoxy composites incorporated with up to 30 vol% of PALF. Results reveal that continuous and aligned fibers significantly increase the flexural strength. Scanning electron microscopy disclosed the fracture mechanism responsible for this reinforcement. Keywords: Pineapple fibers, PALF, Flexural properties, Bending test, Epoxy composites, Fracture mechanism

  4. On Healable Polymers and Fiber-Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Christian Eric

    Polymeric materials capable of healing damage would be valuable in structural applications where access for repair is limited. Approaches to creating such materials are reviewed, with the present work focusing on polymers with thermally reversible covalent cross-links. These special cross-links are Diels-Alder (DA) adducts, which can be separated and re-formed, enabling healing of mechanical damage at the molecular level. Several DA-based polymers, including 2MEP4FS, are mechanically and thermally characterized. The polymerization reaction of 2MEP4FS is modeled and the number of established DA adducts is associated with the glass transition temperature of the polymer. The models are applied to concentric cylinder rotational measurements of 2MEP4FS prepolymer at room and elevated temperatures to describe the viscosity as a function of time, temperature, and conversion. Mechanical damage including cracks and scratches are imparted in cured polymer samples and subsequently healed. Damage due to high temperature thermal degradation is observed to not be reversible. The ability to repair damage without flowing polymer chains makes DA-based healable polymers particularly well-suited for crack healing. The double cleavage drilled compression (DCDC) fracture test is investigated as a useful method of creating and incrementally growing cracks in a sample. The effect of sample geometry on the fracture behavior is experimentally and computationally studied. Computational and empirical models are developed to estimate critical stress intensity factors from DCDC results. Glass and carbon fiber-reinforced composites are fabricated with 2MEP4FS as the matrix material. A prepreg process is developed that uses temperature to control the polymerization rate of the monomers and produce homogeneous prepolymer for integration with a layer of unidirectional fiber. Multiple prepreg layers are laminated to form multi-layered cross-ply healable composites, which are characterized in

  5. An experimental study of mechanical behavior of natural fiber reinforced polymer matrix composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratna, Sanatan; Misra, Sheelam

    2018-05-01

    Fibre-reinforced polymer composites have played a dominant role for a long time in a variety of applications for their high specific strength and modulus. The fibre which serves as a reinforcement in reinforced plastics may be synthetic or natural. Past studies show that only synthetic fibres such as glass, carbon etc., have been used in fibre reinforced plastics. Although glass and other synthetic fibre-reinforced plastics possess high specific strength, their fields of application are very limited because of their inherent higher cost of production. In this connection, an investigation has been carried out to make use of horse hair, an animal fibre abundantly available in India. Animal fibres are not only strong and lightweight but also relatively very cheaper than mineral fibre. The present work describes the development and characterization of a new set of animal fiber based polymer composites consisting of horse hair as reinforcement and epoxy resin. The newly developed composites are characterized with respect to their mechanical characteristics. Experiments are carried out to study the effect of fibre length on mechanical behavior of these epoxy based polymer composites. Composite made form horse hair can be used as a potential reinforcing material for many structural and non-structural applications. This work can be further extended to study other aspects of such composites like effect of fiber content, loading pattern, fibre treatment on mechanical behavior of horse hair based polymer horse hair.

  6. Flax fabric reinforced arylated soy protein composites: A brittle-matrix behaviour

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biocomposites were successfully prepared by the reinforcement of soy protein isolate (SPI) with different weight fractions of woven flax fabric. The flax-fabric-reinforced SPI-based composites were then arylated with 2,2-diphenyl-2-hydroxyethanoic...

  7. Mechanical and thermal properties of sisal fiber-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakare, I.O.; Okieimen, F.E.; Pavithran, C.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Brahmakumar, M.

    2010-01-01

    The development of high-performance composite materials from locally sourced and renewable materials was investigated. Rubber seed oil polyurethane resin synthesized using rubber seed monoglyceride derived from glycerolysis of the oil was used as matrix in the composite samples. Rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composite reinforced with unidirectional sisal fibers were prepared and characterized. Results showed that the properties of unidirectional fiber-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane composites gave good thermal and mechanical properties. Also, the values of tensile strengths and flexural moduli of the polyurethane composites were more than tenfold and about twofold higher than un-reinforced rubber seed oil-based polyurethane. The improved thermal stability and the scanning electron micrographs of the fracture surface of the composites were attributed to good fiber-matrix interaction. These results indicate that high-performance 'all natural products' composite materials can be developed from resources that are readily available locally.

  8. A Review on the Perforated Impact Energy Absorption of Kenaf Fibres Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Al Emran; Khalid, S. N. A.; Nor, Nik Hisyamudin Muhd

    2017-10-01

    This paper reviews the potential of mechanical energy absorption of natural fiber reinforced composites subjected to perforated impact. According to literature survey, several research works discussing on the impact performances on natural fiber reinforced composites are available. However, most of these composite fibers are randomly arranged. Due to high demand for sustainable materials, many researches give high attention to enhance the mechanical capability of natural fiber composites especially focused on the fiber architecture. Therefore, it is important to review the progress of impact energy absorption on woven fiber composite in order to identify the research opportunities in the future.

  9. Thermoset epoxy polymers from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    East, Anthony [Madison, NJ; Jaffe, Michael [Maplewood, NJ; Zhang, Yi [Harrison, NJ; Catalani, Luiz H [Carapicuiba, BR

    2009-11-17

    Novel thermoset epoxy polymers using the bisglycidyl ethers of anhydrosugars, such as isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide, are disclosed. The bisglycidyl ethers are useful as substitutes for bisphenol A in the manufacture of thermoset epoxy ethers. The anhydrosugars are derived from renewable sources and the bisglycidyl ethers are not xenoestrogenic and the thermoset curing agents are likewise derived form renewable resources.

  10. Pengaruh One Direction Pre-Tension pada Reinforcement Fibre terhadap Kekuatan Tarik dan Impact Fibre-Powder Reinforcement Hybrid Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilang Gumilar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, industrial manufacturing needs environmentally and friendly material and has special properties which are difficult to obtain from the metal material. Composite is one of the alternative materials that can be used to meet those needs. A structural composite material consisting of a combination of two or more elements bonded material at the macroscopic level. This study was conducted to determine the effect of pre-tension one direction on a hybrid composite reinforcement against tensile strength and impact strength. Composite materials prepared by C-Glass fiber types woven rovings, coconut shell powder and vinyl ester resin. manufacturing composite using hand lay-up methods. The variation of the tension given 0N, 50N, 100N, 150N, and 200N. A tensile test based on the reference standard ASTM D 3039 while testing the impact based on ASTM D 6110-04. The results were obtained giving tension to the hybrid composite reinforcement increases tensile strength and impact strength of the material. The lowest tensile strength of the composite obtained in 0N treatment (without treatment ranged 71,58N / mm², and the greatest tensile strength is obtained in the pre-tension 200N, ranging from 106.05 N / mm2. As for the lowest impact on specimens obtained without treatment ranges 1,34J / mm2 and provision of pre-tension 200N biggest impact strength values obtained, ranging 15,09J / mm2.

  11. Mechanical and abrasive wear characterization of bidirectional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddhartha,; Gupta, Kuldeep

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Bi-directional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated. ► Three body abrasive wear behavior of fabricated composites has been assessed. ► Results are validated against existing microscopic models of Lancaster and Wang. ► Tensile strength of bi-directional E-glass fiber reinforced composites increases. ► Chopped glass fiber composites are found better in abrasive wear situations. -- Abstract: Bi-directional and chopped E-glass fiber reinforced epoxy composites are fabricated in five different (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35) wt% in an epoxy resin matrix. The mechanical characterization of these composites is performed. The three body abrasive wear behavior of fabricated composites has been assessed under different operating conditions. Abrasive wear characteristics of these composites are successfully analysed using Taguchi’s experimental design scheme and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results obtained from these experiments are also validated against existing microscopic models of Ratner-Lancaster and Wang. It is observed that quite good linear relationships is held between specific wear rate and reciprocal of ultimate strength and strain at tensile fracture of these composites which is an indicative that the experimental results are in fair agreement with these existing models. Out of all composites fabricated it is found that tensile strength of bi-directional E-glass fiber reinforced composites increases because of interface strength enhancement. Chopped glass fiber reinforced composites are observed to perform better than bi-directional glass fiber reinforced composites under abrasive wear situations. The morphology of worn composite specimens has been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to understand about dominant wear mechanisms.

  12. Collaboration of polymer composite reinforcement and cement concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khozin, V. G.; Gizdatullin, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    The results of experimental study of bond strength of cement concrete of different types with fiber reinforcing polymer (FRP) bars are reported. The reinforcing bars were manufactured of glass fibers and had a rebar with different types of the surface relief formed by winding a thin strip impregnated with a binder or by “sanding”. The pullout tests were carried out simultaneously for the steel reinforcing ribbed bars A400. The impact of friction, adhesion and mechanical bond on the strength of bonds between FRP and concrete was studied. The influence of the concrete strength and different operation factors on the bond strength of concrete was evaluated.

  13. Study on drilling induced delamination of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite using carbide drills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaily, M.; Hassan, C. H. Che; Jaharah, A. G.; Azmi, H.; Afifah, M. A.; Khairusshima, M. K. Nor

    2018-04-01

    In this research study, it presents the influences of drilling parameters on the delamination factor during the drilling of woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composite laminates when using the carbide drill bits. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of drilling parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and drill sizes on the delamination produced when drilling woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite using the non-coated carbide drill bits. The damage generated on the woven kenaf reinforced epoxy composite laminates were observed both at the entrance and exit surface during the drilling operation. The experiments were conducted according to the Box Behnken experimental designs. The results indicated that the drill diameter has a significant influence on the delamination when drilling the woven kenaf fiber reinforced epoxy composites.

  14. Fracture Toughness Improvement of Composites Reinforced with Optimally Shaped Short Ductile Fibers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wetherhold, Robert C; Patra, Abani K

    2001-01-01

    The fracture toughness of brittle matrix composites reinforced with ductile fibers has been greatly improved by shaping the fibers so that they fully contribute their plastic work to the fracture process...

  15. Application of ceramic short fiber reinforced Al alloy matrix composite on piston for internal combustion engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Shenqing

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The preparation and properties of ceramic short fiber reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite and it’s application on the piston for internal combustion engines are presented. Alumina or aluminosilicate fibers reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite has more excellent synthetical properties at elevated temperature than the matrix alloys. A partially reinforced Al-Si alloy matrix composite piston produced by squeeze casting technique has a firm interface between reinforced and unreinforced areas, low reject rate and good technical tolerance. As a new kind of piston material, it has been used for mass production of about 400,000 pieces of automobile engines piston. China has become one of a few countries in which aluminum alloy matrix composite materials have been used in automobile industry and attained industrialization.

  16. Thermal and mechanical behaviour of sub micron sized fly ash reinforced polyester resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantha Kumar, P.; Rajadurai, A.; Muthuramalingam, T.

    2018-04-01

    The utilization of particles reinforced resin matrix composites is being increased owing to its lower density and high strength to weight ratio. In the present study, an attempt has been made to synthesize fly ash particles reinforced polyester resin composite for engine cowling application. The thermal stability and mechanical behaviours such as hardness and flexural strength of the composite with 2, 3 and 4 weight % of reinforcement is studied and analyzed. The thermo gravimetric analysis indicates that the higher addition of reinforcement increases the decomposition temperature due to its refractory nature. It is also observed that the hardness increases with higher filler addition owing to the resistance of FA particles towards penetration. The flexural strength is found to increase up to the addition of 3% of FA particles, whereas the polyester resin composite prepared with 4% FA particles addition is observed to have low flexural strength owing to agglomeration of particles.

  17. Low Cost Resin for Self-Healing High Temperature Fiber Reinforced Polymer Matrix Composites, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over the past few decades, the manufacturing processes and our knowledge base for predicting the bulk mechanical response of fiber reinforced composite materials has...

  18. Mechanical properties of soil buried kenaf fibre reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapuan, S.M.; Pua, Fei-ling; El-Shekeil, Y.A.; AL-Oqla, Faris M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed composites from kenaf and thermoplastic polyurethane. • Soil burial of composites after 80 days shows increase in flexural strength. • Soil burial of composites after 80 days shows increase in flexural modulus. • Tensile properties of composites degrade after soil burial tests. • We investigate the morphological fracture through scanning electron microscopy. - Abstract: A study on mechanical properties of soil buried kenaf fibre reinforced thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites is presented in this paper. Kenaf bast fibre reinforced TPU composites were prepared via melt-mixing method using Haake Polydrive R600 internal mixer. The composites with 30% fibre loading were prepared based on some important parameters; i.e. 190 °C for reaction temperature, 11 min for reaction time and 400 rpm for rotating speed. The composites were subjected to soil burial tests where the purpose of these tests was to study the effect of moisture absorption on the mechanical properties of the composites. Tensile and flexural properties of the composites were determined before and after the soil burial tests for 20, 40, 60 and 80 days. The percentages of both moisture uptake and weight gain after soil burial tests were recorded. Tensile strength of kenaf fibre reinforced TPU composite dropped to ∼16.14 MPa after 80 days of soil burial test. It was also observed that there was no significant change in flexural properties of soil buried kenaf fibre reinforced TPU composite specimens

  19. Method for Forming Fiber Reinforced Composite Bodies with Graded Composition and Stress Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay (Inventor); Levine, Stanley R. (Inventor); Smialek, James A. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A near-net, complex shaped ceramic fiber reinforced silicon carbide based composite bodies with graded compositions and stress zones is disclosed. To provide the composite a fiber preform is first fabricated and an interphase is applied by chemical vapor infiltration, sol-gel or polymer processes. This first body is further infiltrated with a polymer mixture containing carbon, and/or silicon carbide, and additional oxide, carbide, or nitride phases forming a second body. One side of the second body is spray coated or infiltrated with slurries containing high thermal expansion and oxidation resistant. crack sealant phases and the other side of this second body is coated with low expansion phase materials to form a third body. This third body consisting of porous carbonaceous matrix surrounding the previously applied interphase materials, is then infiltrated with molten silicon or molten silicon-refractory metal alloys to form a fourth body. The resulting fourth body comprises dense composites consisting of fibers with the desired interphase which are surrounded by silicon carbide and other second phases materials at the outer and inner surfaces comprising material of silicon, germanium, refractory metal suicides, borides, carbides, oxides, and combinations thereof The resulting composite fourth body has different compositional patterns from one side to the other.

  20. Thermoset Blends of an Epoxy Resin and Polydicyclopentadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohde, Brian J.; Le, Kim Mai; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan L.

    2016-12-13

    The mechanical properties of two chemically distinct and complementary thermoset polymers were manipulated through development of thermoset blends. The thermoset blend system was composed of an anhydride-cured diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA)-based epoxy resin, contributing high tensile strength and modulus, and polydicyclopentadiene (PDCPD), which has a higher toughness and impact strength as compared to other thermoset polymers. Ultra-small-angle and small-angle X-ray scattering analysis explored the morphology of concurrently cured thermoset blends, revealing a macroscopically phase separated system with a surface fractal structure across blended systems of varying composition. The epoxy resin rich and PDCPD rich phases exhibited distinct glass transitions (Tg’s): the Tg observed at higher temperature was associated with the epoxy resin rich phase and was largely unaffected by the presence of PDCPD, whereas the PDCPD rich phase Tg systematically decreased with increasing epoxy resin content due to inhibition of dicyclopentadiene ring-opening metathesis polymerization. The mechanical properties of these phase-separated blends were in reasonable agreement with predictions by the rule of mixtures for the blend tensile strength, modulus, and fracture toughness. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the tensile and fracture specimen fracture surfaces showed an increase in energy dissipation mechanisms, such as crazing, shear banding, and surface roughness, as the fraction of the more ductile component, PDPCD, increased. These results present a facile method to tune the mechanical properties of a toughened thermoset network, in which the high modulus and tensile strength of the epoxy resin can be largely retained at high epoxy resin content in the blend, while increasing the fracture toughness.

  1. A Review on Artificial Aging Behaviors of Fiber Reinforced Polymer-matrix Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Jiangyan; Wang Yunying

    2016-01-01

    As is known, factors in climate environment such as hygrothermal effect and UV may have a negative effect on the mechanical properties of fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites, resulting in their strength and stiffness degraded. In this review, we summarize all the recent studies on the artificial climate aging, hygrothermal aging, and thermal-oxidation aging of fiber reinforced polymer-matrix composites, as well as their artificial accelerated aging and natural aging. In addition, studi...

  2. Hybrid Fiber Layup and Fiber-Reinforced Polymeric Composites Produced Therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnell, Thomas J. (Inventor); Garrigan, Sean P. (Inventor); Rauscher, Michael D. (Inventor); Dietsch, Benjamin A. (Inventor); Cupp, Gary N. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Embodiments of a hybrid fiber layup used to form a fiber-reinforced polymeric composite, and a fiber-reinforced polymeric composite produced therefrom are disclosed. The hybrid fiber layup comprises one or more dry fiber strips and one or more prepreg fiber strips arranged side by side within each layer, wherein the prepreg fiber strips comprise fiber material impregnated with polymer resin and the dry fiber strips comprise fiber material without impregnated polymer resin.

  3. Fracture Toughness of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Metal- and Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.L.; Liu, B.; Hwang, K.C.; Chen, Y.L.; Huang, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Hierarchical analysis of the fracture toughness enhancement of carbon nanotube- (CNT-) reinforced hard matrix composites is carried out on the basis of shear-lag theory and fracture mechanics. It is found that stronger CNT/matrix interfaces cannot definitely lead to the better fracture toughness of these composites, and the optimal interfacial chemical bond density is that making the failure mode just in the transition from CNT pull-out to CNT break. For hard matrix composites, the fracture toughness of composites with weak interfaces can be improved effectively by increasing the CNT length. However, for soft matrix composite, the fracture toughness improvement due to the reinforcing CNTs quickly becomes saturated with an increase in CNT length. The proposed theoretical model is also applicable to short fiber-reinforced composites.

  4. Fracture Toughness of Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Metal- and Ceramic-Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Chen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hierarchical analysis of the fracture toughness enhancement of carbon nanotube- (CNT- reinforced hard matrix composites is carried out on the basis of shear-lag theory and facture mechanics. It is found that stronger CNT/matrix interfaces cannot definitely lead to the better fracture toughness of these composites, and the optimal interfacial chemical bond density is that making the failure mode just in the transition from CNT pull-out to CNT break. For hard matrix composites, the fracture toughness of composites with weak interfaces can be improved effectively by increasing the CNT length. However, for soft matrix composite, the fracture toughness improvement due to the reinforcing CNTs quickly becomes saturated with an increase in CNT length. The proposed theoretical model is also applicable to short fiber-reinforced composites.

  5. Fibre reinforced composites '84; Proceedings of the International Conference, University of Liverpool, England, April 3-5, 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Among the topics discussed are phenolic resin matrix composites for high temperature and fire-exposure applications, novel resins for fiber-reinforced composite productivity improvement, the use of engineering textiles for mechanical property improvement in composites, the significance of aramid fiber reinforcement in composites, the energy absorption properties of Sheet Metal Compounds (SMCs) under crash conditions, and SMC impact behavior variations with temperature. Also covered are CFRP applications in high performance structures, composite helicopter main rotor blade technology, composite vehicular leaf springs, carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, filament winding development status, the injection processing of fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, civil aircraft composite structure certification, composite radomes, design procedures for short fiber-reinforced thermoplastics, the strength limitations of mechanically fastened lap joints, environmental fatigue and creep in glass-reinforced materials, the effects of moisture on high performance laminates, the environmental behavior of SMC, and corrugated composites.

  6. Mechanical properties of nanodiamond-reinforced hydroxyapatite composite coatings deposited by suspension plasma spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuyong; Zhang, Botao; Gong, Yongfeng; Zhou, Ping; Li, Hua

    2018-05-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings suffer from poor mechanical properties, which can be enhanced via incorporation of secondary bioinert reinforcement material. Nanodiamond (ND) possesses excellent mechanical properties to play the role as reinforcement for improving the mechanical properties of brittle HA bioceramic coatings. The major persistent challenge yet is the development of proper deposition techniques for fabricating the ND reinforced HA coatings. In this study, we present a novel deposition approach by plasma spraying the mixtures of ND suspension and micron-sized HA powder feedstock. The effect of ND reinforcement on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the coatings such as hardness, adhesive strength and friction coefficient were examined. The results showed that the ND-reinforced HA coatings display lower porosity, fewer unmelted particles and uniform microstructure, in turn leading to significantly enhanced mechanical properties. The study presented a promising approach to fabricate ND-reinforced HA composite coatings on metal-based medical implants for potential clinical application.

  7. Strength and deformability of concrete beams reinforced by non-metallic fiber and composite rebar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudyakov, K. L.; Plevkov, V. S.; Nevskii, A. V.

    2015-01-01

    Production of durable and high-strength concrete structures with unique properties has always been crucial. Therefore special attention has been paid to non-metallic composite and fiber reinforcement. This article describes the experimental research of strength and deformability of concrete beams with dispersed and core fiber-based reinforcement. As composite reinforcement fiberglass reinforced plastic rods with diameters 6 mm and 10 mm are used. Carbon and basalt fibers are used as dispersed reinforcement. The developed experimental program includes designing and production of flexural structures with different parameters of dispersed fiber and composite rebar reinforcement. The preliminary testing of mechanical properties of these materials has shown their effectiveness. Structures underwent bending testing on a special bench by applying flexural static load up to complete destruction. During the tests vertical displacements were recorded, as well as value of actual load, slippage of rebars in concrete, crack formation. As a result of research were obtained structural failure and crack formation graphs, value of fracture load and maximum displacements of the beams at midspan. Analysis of experimental data showed the effectiveness of using dispersed reinforcement of concrete and the need for prestressing of fiberglass composite rebar.

  8. The effect of reinforcement percentages on properties of copper matrix composites reinforced with TiC particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagheri, GH.A., E-mail: Gh.a.bagheri65@gmail.com

    2016-08-15

    In this research, copper matrix composites reinforced with different amounts of titanium carbide particles were produced by mechanical milling and in-situ formation of reinforcements. Morphology and size of milled powders were inspected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) several times during milling process. Changes in lattice parameter, crystallite size, lattice strain, dislocation density and Gibbs free energy changes (due to increasing in dislocation densities and grain boundaries) in different samples (with different TiC particles contents) were studied by X-Ray Diffraction technique with Cu-kα radiation and using Nelson–Riley method and Williamson–Hall equation. Microstructure of samples after sintering was investigated by FESEM. Finally, densitometry, hardness, determination of electrical resistance and pin on disk wear test were performed and effect of reinforcement percentages on the physical and mechanical properties of composites was studied. Results show incredible improvement in mechanical properties with increasing in TiC value, even though, electrical conductivity dropped off considerably. - Highlights: • Microstructures, mechanical and physical properties of composites have been studied. • Stored Gibbs free energy of dislocations and grain boundaries has been calculated. • Gibbs free energy increased with increasing in titanium percent. • Higher TiC percentage led to better mechanical and unfavorable physical properties.

  9. Influence of tool pin in friction stir welding on activated carbon reinforced aluminium metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    DijuSamuel, G.; Raja Dhas, J. Edwin

    2017-10-01

    This paper focus on impact of tool pin in friction stir welding on activated carbon reinforced aluminium metal matrix composite. For fabrication of metal matrix composite AA6061 is used as matrix and activated carbon is used as reinforcement and it is casted using modified stir casting technique. After casting metal matrix composite has undergone various microstructure tests like SEM,EDAX and XRD. FSW is carried out in this metal matrix composite by choosing various tool pin profile like square,round,Threaded round, hexagon and taper. The quality of welded plates is measured in terms of ultimate tensile strength and hardness.

  10. Failure phenomena in fibre-reinforced composites. Part 6: a finite element study of stress concentrations in unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, P.W.J.; Goutianos, S.; Young, R.J.; Peijs, A.A.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) finite element (FE) analysis of the stress situation around a fibre break in a unidirectional carbon fibre-reinforced epoxy composite has been performed. Two cases were considered: (i) good fibre/matrix adhesion and (ii) fibre/matrix debonding. In the case of good adhesion,

  11. Evaluation of the thermal properties of polypropylene reinforced with palm fibers composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capri, M.R.; Santana, L.C.; Mulinari, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize polypropylene reinforced with palm composites. Of this form, it was studied physical and chemical modifications of the in nature fibers, washed with hot water and mercerized. The composites of polypropylene reinforced with 5%, 10% and 20% (wt /wt) in nature fibers and mercerized were evaluated thermally. The fibers were characterized by SEM XRD and TGA / DSC techniques. Results revealed that the mercerized fibers presented higher crystallinity when compared to others, as well as increased roughness, facilitating interlacing with the reinforcement matrix. Thermal studies of the fibers showed that the mercerization caused displacement curves paragraph higher temperatures. The composites reinforced with treated fibers presented largest temperatures and enthalpies of degradation. The content of fiber influenced in enthalpy degradation and reduction in fusion temperature. (author)

  12. Preparation of Ti-aluminide reinforced in situ aluminium matrix composites by reactive hot pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, D.; Ghosh, S.; Basumallick, A.; Basu, B.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminium based metal matrix composites reinforced with in situ Ti-aluminide and alumina particles were prepared by reactive hot pressing a powder mix of aluminium and nanosized TiO 2 powders. The reinforcements were formed in situ by exothermal reaction between the TiO 2 nano crystalline powder and aluminium. The thermal characteristics of the in situ reaction were studied with the aid of Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed to study the microstructural architecture of the composites as a function of hot pressing temperature and volume percent reinforcement. Microhardness measurements on the as prepared in situ aluminium matrix composites exhibit significant increase in hardness with increase in hot pressing temperature and volume fraction of reinforcement

  13. Culvert rehabilitation & invert lining using fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    As part of the state of Maine bridge funding initiative, MaineDOT has partnered with the University of : Maines AEWC Advanced Structures and Composite Center and the Maine composites industry to : incorporate composite technologies into bridge con...

  14. Efficacy of Thermally Conditioned Sisal FRP Composite on the Shear Characteristics of Reinforced Concrete Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Sen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of commercially viable composites based on natural resources for a wide range of applications is on the rise. Efforts include new methods of production and the utilization of natural reinforcements to make biodegradable composites with lignocellulosic fibers, for various engineering applications. In this work, thermal conditioning of woven sisal fibre was carried out, followed by the development of woven sisal fibre reinforced polymer composite system, and its tensile and flexural behaviour was characterized. It was observed that thermal conditioning improved the tensile strength and the flexural strength of the woven sisal fibre composites, which were observed to bear superior values than those in the untreated ones. Then, the efficacy of woven sisal fibre reinforced polymer composite for shear strengthening of reinforced concrete beams was evaluated using two types of techniques: full and strip wrapping techniques. Detailed analysis of the load deflection behaviour and fracture study of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with woven sisal under shearing load were carried out, and it was concluded that woven sisal FRP strengthened beams, underwent very ductile nature of failure, without any delamination or debonding of sisal FRP, and also increased the shear strength and the first crack load of the reinforced concrete beams.

  15. Tensile Mechanical Property of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazilan, A. L. Ahmad; Mokhtar, H.; Shaik Dawood, M. S. I.; Aminanda, Y.; Ali, J. S. Mohamed

    2017-03-01

    Natural, short, untreated and randomly oriented oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber reinforced epoxy composites were manufactured using vacuum bagging technique with 20% fiber volume composition. The performance of the composite was evaluated as an alternative to synthetic or conventional reinforced composites. Tensile properties such as tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and Poisson’s ratio were compared to the tensile properties of pure epoxy obtained via tensile tests as per ASTM D 638 specifications using Universal Testing Machine INSTRON 5582. The tensile properties of oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber reinforced epoxy composites were lower compared to plain epoxy structure with the decrement in performances of 38% for modulus of elasticity and 61% for tensile strength.

  16. Experimental Studies on SiC and Rice Husk Ash Reinforced Al Alloy Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaprakash Y. M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work Aluminium alloy with Cu (4.5% as the major alloying element is used as the matrix in which SiC and Rice Husk Ash (RHA are dispersed to develop a hybrid composite. The dispersion is done by the motorized stir casting arrangement. The composite is fabricated by varying the proportions of the reinforcements in the base alloy. The composite specimens were tested for density changes, hardness and the wear. The microstructure images showed a uniform dispersion of the reinforcements in the matrix and this resulted in higher strength to weight ratio. The increase in strength of the composite is probably attributed to the increase in the dislocation density. Also, the abrasive wear resistance of the produced composite is found to be superior as compared to the matrix alloy because of the hard-ceramic particles in the reinforcements.

  17. A study on the crushing behavior of basalt fiber reinforced composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandian, A.; Veerasimman, A. P.; Vairavan, M.; Francisco, C.; Sultan, M. T. H.

    2016-10-01

    The crushing behavior and energy absorption capacity of basalt fiber reinforced hollow square structure composites are studied under axial compression. Using the hand layup technique, basalt fiber reinforced composites were fabricated using general purpose (GP) polyester resin with the help of wooden square shaped mould of varying height (100 mm, 150 mm and 200 mm). For comparison, similar specimens of glass fiber reinforced polymer composites were also fabricated and tested. Axial compression load is applied over the top end of the specimen with cross head speed as 2 mm/min using Universal Testing Machine (UTM). From the experimental results, the load-deformation characteristics of both glass fiber and basalt fiber composites were investigated. Crashworthiness and mode of collapse for the composites were determined from load-deformation curve, and they were then compared to each other in terms of their crushing behaviors.

  18. Processing and Characterization of Basalt Fiber Reinforced Ceramic Composites for High Temperature Applications Using Polymer Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sarah B.; Lui, Donovan; Gou, Jihua

    2014-01-01

    The development of high temperature structural composite materials has been very limited due to the high cost of the materials and the processing needed. Polymer Derived Ceramics (PDCs) begin as a polymer matrix, which allows a shape to be formed prior to the cure, and is then pyrolized in order to obtain a ceramic with the associated thermal and mechanical properties. The two PDCs used in this development are polysiloxane and polycarbosilane. Basalt fibers are used for the reinforcement in the composite system. The use of basalt in structural and high temperature applications has been under development for over 50 years, yet there has been little published research on the incorporation of basalt fibers as a reinforcement in composites. Continuous basalt fiber reinforced PDCs have been fabricated and tested for the applicability of this composite system as a high temperature structural composite material.

  19. Debonding failure and size effects in micro reinforced composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2010-01-01

    -plastic formulation. Bi-axially loaded unit cells are used and failure is modeled using a cohesive zone at the reinforcement interface. During debonding a sudden stress drop in the overall average stress–strain response is observed. Adaptive higher-order boundary conditions are imposed at the reinforcement interface...... for realistically modeling the restrictions on moving dislocations as debonding occurs. It is found that the influence of the imposed higher-order boundary conditions at the interface is minor. If strain-gradient effects are accounted for a void with a smooth shape develops at the reinforcement interface while...... a smaller void having a sharp tip nucleates if strain-gradient effects are excluded. Using orthogonalization of the plastic strain gradient with three corresponding material length scales it is found that, the first length scale dominates the evaluated overall average stress–strain response, the second one...

  20. Literature review of tufted reinforcement for composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnaba, I.; Legrand, X.; Wang, P.; Soulat, D.

    2017-10-01

    In order to minimize the damage caused by the 2D structures, several research have been done on more complex structures (3D-preforms) which have more interesting mechanical characteristics. Divers textile technologies are used to manufacture 3D preforms such as weaving, knitting, stitching, z-pinning, tufting… This kind of reinforcement aims to achieve a balance between the in-plane and out-of-plane properties. Recently, the tufting technology shows more opportunities to develop 3D reinforcements especially with the advances in robotics. The present paper focuses not only on the various technologies of reinforcement through the thickness but also on the mechanical behaviour of a tufted preform in a stamping process.

  1. Constitutive modeling of fiber-reinforced cement composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulfiza, Mohamed

    The role of fibers in the enhancement of the inherently low tensile stress and strain capacities of fiber reinforced cementitious composites (FRC) has been addressed through both the phenomenological, using concepts of continuum damage mechanics, and micro-mechanical approaches leading to the development of a closing pressure that could be used in a cohesive crack analysis. The observed enhancements in the matrix behavior is assumed to be related to the ability of the material to transfer stress across cracks. In the micromechanics approach, this is modeled by the introduction of a nonlinear closing pressure at the crack lips. Due to the different nature of cracking in the pre-peak and post peak regimes, two different micro-mechanical models of the cohesive pressure have been proposed, one for the strain hardening stage and another for the strain softening regime. This cohesive pressure is subsequently incorporated into a finite element code so that a nonlinear fracture analysis can be carried out. On top of the fact that a direct fracture analysis has been performed to predict the response of some FRC structural elements, a numerical procedure for the homogenization of FRC materials has been proposed. In this latter approach, a link is established between the cracking taking place at the meso-scale and its mechanical characteristics as represented by the Young's modulus. A parametric study has been carried out to investigate the effect of crack patterning and fiber volume fractions on the overall Young's modulus and the thermodynamic force associated with the tensorial damage variable. After showing the usefulness and power of phenomenological continuum damage mechanics (PCDM) in the prediction of ERC materials' response to a stimuli (loading), a combined PCDM-NLFMsp1 approach is proposed to model (predict, forecast) the complete response of the composite up to failure. Based on experimental observations, this approach assumes that damage mechanics which predicts

  2. Hierarchical Composites with Nanostructured Reinforcement for Multifunctional Aerospace Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced nano-engineered composites hold great potential for augmenting aerospace composites material performance by reducing spacecraft weight, increasing payload...

  3. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Metals and Ceramics Div.; Probst, K.J.; Anderson, T.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Starr, T.L. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    Silicon carbide-based heat exchanger tubes are of interest to energy production and conversion systems due to their excellent high temperature properties. Fiber-reinforced SiC is of particular importance for these applications since it is substantially tougher than monolithic SiC, and therefore more damage and thermal shock tolerant. This paper reviews a program to develop a scaled-up system for the chemical vapor infiltration of tubular shapes of fiber-reinforced SiC. The efforts include producing a unique furnace design, extensive process and system modeling, and experimental efforts to demonstrate tube fabrication.

  4. Strength of normal sections of NPP composite monolithic constructions with ribbed reinforced panels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyashitskij, V.I.; Kirillov, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Strength characteristics and recommendations on designing composite-monolytic structures of NPP with ribbed reinforced panels are considered. Ribbed reinforced panel consists of a system of cross ribs joined with a comparatively thin (25 mm thick) plate. The investigations were carried on using models representing columns symmetrically reinforced with reinforced panels with a low percent of reinforcing. The monolithic structures consisting of ribbed reinforced panels and cast concrete for making monoliths as well as monolithic having analogous strength characteristics of extended and compressed zones have similar strengths. It is shown that calculation of supporting power of composite-monolithic structures is performed according to techniques developed for monolithic structures. Necessity of structural transverse fittings no longer arises in case of corresponding calculational substitution of stability of compressed parts of fittings. Supporting power of a structure decreases not more than by 10% in the presence of cracks in the reinforced panels of the compressed zone. Application of composite-monolithic structures during the construction of the Kursk, Smolensk and Chernobylskaya NPPs permitted to decrease labour content and reduce periods of accomplishment of these works which saves over 6 million roubles

  5. Tensile strength characteristics of polypropylene composites reinforced with stone groundwood fibers from softwood

    OpenAIRE

    López, Joan Pere; Méndez González, José Alberto; Espinach Orús, Xavier; Julián Pérez, Fernando; Mutjé Pujol, Pere; Vilaseca Morera, Fabiola

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of stone groundwood / polypropylene injection-molded composites was evaluated with and without coupling agent. Stone groundwood (SGW) is a fibrous material commonly prepared in a high yield process and mainly used for papermaking applications. In this work, the use of SGW fibers was explored as a reinforcing element of polypropylene (PP) composites. The surface charge density of the composite components was evaluated, as well as the fiber’s length and diameter inside the composit...

  6. Mechanical properties of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    initiated in our laboratory on synthesis and study of pro- perties of Hibiscus sabdariffa fibre reinforced urea– formaldehyde (U–F) resin matrix based biocomposites. 2. Experimental. 2.1 Material and methods. Urea (Qualigens Chemicals Ltd), formaldehyde solution. (Qualigens Chemicals Ltd.) and sodium hydroxide (Quali-.

  7. Effects of moisture on glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alzamora Guzman, Vladimir Joel; Brøndsted, Povl

    2015-01-01

    performance of wind turbine blades over their lifetime. Here, environmental moisture conditions were simulated by immersing glass fiber-reinforced polymer specimens in salt water for a period of up to 8 years. The mechanical properties of specimens were analyzed before and after immersion to evaluate...

  8. THE USE OF SISAL FIBRE AS REINFORCEMENT IN CEMENT BASED COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romildo Dias Tolêdo Filho

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The inclusion of fibre reinforcement in concrete, mortar and cement paste can enhance many of the engineering properties of the basic materials, such as fracture toughness, flexural strength and resistance to fatigue, impact, thermal shock and spalling. In recent years, a great deal of interest has been created worldwide on the potential applications of natural fibre reinforced, cement based composites. Investigations have been carried out in many countries on various mechanical properties, physical performance and durability of cement based matrices reinforced with naturally occurring fibres including sisal, coconut, jute, bamboo and wood fibres. These fibres have always been considered promising as reinforcement of cement based matrices because of their availability, low cost and low consumption of energy. In this review, the general properties of the composites are described in relation to fibre content, length, strength and stiffness. A chronological development of sisal fibre reinforced, cement based matrices is reported and experimental data are provided to illustrate the performance of sisal fibre reinforced cement composites. A brief description on the use of these composite materials as building products has been included. The influence of sisal fibres on the development of plastic shrinkage in the pre-hardened state, on tensile, compressive and bending strength in the hardened state of mortar mixes is discussed. Creep and drying shrinkage of the composites and the durability of natural fibres in cement based matrices are of particular interest and are also highlighted. The results show that the composites reinforced with sisal fibres are reliable materials to be used in practice for the production of structural elements to be used in rural and civil construction. This material could be a substitute asbestos-cement composite, which is a serious hazard to human and animal health and is prohibited in industrialized countries. The

  9. Potential of Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Cement Composites as Concrete Repair Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir Manzur

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are a virtually ideal reinforcing agent due to extremely high aspect ratios and ultra high strengths. It is evident from contemporary research that utilization of CNT in producing new cement-based composite materials has a great potential. Consequently, possible practical application of CNT reinforced cementitious composites has immense prospect in the field of applied nanotechnology within construction industry. Several repair, retrofit, and strengthening techniques are currently available to enhance the integrity and durability of concrete structures with cracks and spalling, but applicability and/or reliability is/are often limited. Therefore, there is always a need for innovative high performing concrete repair materials with good mechanical, rheological, and durability properties. Considering the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs and the test results of CNT reinforced cement composites, it is apparent that such composites could be used conveniently as concrete repair material. With this end in view, the applicability of multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT reinforced cement composites as concrete repair material has been evaluated in this study in terms of setting time, bleeding, and bonding strength (slant shear tests. It has been found that MWNT reinforced cement mortar has good prospective as concrete repair material since such composites exhibited desirable behavior in setting time, bleeding, and slant shear.

  10. The effect of reinforcement volume ratio on porosity and thermal conductivity in Al-Mgo composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recep Calin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of reinforcement volume ratios (RVR on composite structure and thermal conductivity were examined in Al-MgO reinforced metal matrix composites (MMCs of 5%, 10% and 15% RVR produced by melt stirring. In the production of composites, EN AW 1050A aluminum alloy was used as the matrix material and MgO powders with particle size of -105 µm were used as the reinforcement material. For every composite specimen was produced at 500 rev/min stirring speed, at 750 °C liquid matrix temperature and 4 minutes stirring time. Composite samples were cooled under normal atmosphere. Then, microstructures of the samples were determined and evaluated by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS analysis. In general, it was observed that the reinforcement exhibited a homogeneous distribution. Furthermore, it was determined that the increase in the RVR increased porosity. From the Scanning Electron Microscope images, a thermal Ansys model was generated to determine effective thermal conductivity. Effective thermal conductivity of Al-MgO composites increased with the decrease in reinforcement volume ratio.

  11. Composites reinforced via mechanical interlocking of surface-roughened microplatelets within ductile and brittle matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libanori, R; Carnelli, D; Rothfuchs, N; Binelli, M R; Zanini, M; Nicoleau, L; Feichtenschlager, B; Albrecht, G; Studart, A R

    2016-04-12

    Load-bearing reinforcing elements in a continuous matrix allow for improved mechanical properties and can reduce the weight of structural composites. As the mechanical performance of composite systems are heavily affected by the interfacial properties, tailoring the interactions between matrices and reinforcing elements is a crucial problem. Recently, several studies using bio-inspired model systems suggested that interfacial mechanical interlocking is an efficient mechanism for energy dissipation in platelet-reinforced composites. While cheap and effective solutions are available at the macroscale, the modification of surface topography in micron-sized reinforcing elements still represents a challenging task. Here, we report a simple method to create nanoasperities with tailored sizes and densities on the surface of alumina platelets and investigate their micromechanical effect on the energy dissipation mechanisms of nacre-like materials. Composites reinforced with roughened platelets exhibit improved mechanical properties for both organic ductile epoxy and inorganic brittle cement matrices. Mechanical interlocking increases the modulus of toughness (area under the stress-strain curve) by 110% and 56% in epoxy and cement matrices, respectively, as compared to those reinforced with flat platelets. This interlocking mechanism can potentially lead to a significant reduction in the weight of mechanical components while retaining the structural performance required in the application field.

  12. Experimental data on the properties of natural fiber particle reinforced polymer composite material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Chandramohan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental study on the development of polymer bio-composites. The powdered coconut shell, walnut shells and Rice husk are used as reinforcements with bio epoxy resin to form hybrid composite specimens. The fiber compositions in each specimen are 1:1 while the resin and hardener composition 10:1 respectively. The fabricated composites were tested as per ASTM standards to evaluate mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength and impact strength are evaluated in both with moisture and without moisture. The result of test shows that hybrid composite has far better properties than single fibre glass reinforced composite under mechanical loads. However it is found that the incorporation of walnut shell and coconut shell fibre can improve the properties.

  13. Experimental data on the properties of natural fiber particle reinforced polymer composite material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandramohan, D; Presin Kumar, A John

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the development of polymer bio-composites. The powdered coconut shell, walnut shells and Rice husk are used as reinforcements with bio epoxy resin to form hybrid composite specimens. The fiber compositions in each specimen are 1:1 while the resin and hardener composition 10:1 respectively. The fabricated composites were tested as per ASTM standards to evaluate mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, shear strength and impact strength are evaluated in both with moisture and without moisture. The result of test shows that hybrid composite has far better properties than single fibre glass reinforced composite under mechanical loads. However it is found that the incorporation of walnut shell and coconut shell fibre can improve the properties.

  14. Crystallization and mechanical properties of reinforced PHBV composites using melt compounding: Effect of CNCs and CNFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Du; Guomin, Zhao; Mingzhu, Pan; Leilei, Zhuang; Dagang, Li; Rui, Zhang

    2017-07-15

    Nanocellulose reinforced poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) composites were prepared using melt compounding. The effects of nanocellulose types (CNCs and CNFs) and nanocellulose content (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7wt%) on the crystallization, thermal and mechanical properties of PHBV composites were systematically compared in this study. The thermal stability of PHBV composites was improved by both CNCs and CNFs. CNFs with a higher thermal stability leaded to a higher thermal stability of PHBV composites. Both CNCs and CNFs induced a reduction in the crystalline size of PHBV spherulites. Furthermore, CNCs could act as a better nucleating agent for PHBV than did CNFs. CNCs and CNFs showed reinforcing effects in PHBV composites. At the equivalent content of nanocellulose, CNCs led to a higher tensile modulus of PHBV composites than did CNFs. 1wt% CNCs/PHBV composites exhibited the most optimum mechanical properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Polarization Behavior of Squeeze Cast Al2O3 Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, S. H.; Kang, Y. C.; Cho, K. M.; Park, I. M.

    1992-01-01

    Electrochemical polarization behavior of squeeze cast Al 2 O 3 short fiber reinforced Al alloy matrix composites was investigated for the basic understanding of the corrosion properties of the composites. The composites were fabricated with variations of fiber volume fraction and matrix alloys. It was found that the reinforced composites are more susceptible to corrosion attack than the unreinforced matrix alloys in general. Corrosion resistance shows decreasing tendency with increasing Al 2 O 3 fiber volume fraction in AC8A matrix. Effect of the matrix alloys revealed that the AC8A Al matrix composite is less susceptible to corrosion attack than the 2024 and 7075 Al matrix composites. Effect of plastic deformation on electrochemical polarization behavior of the squeeze cast Al/Al 2 O 3 composites was examined after extrusion of AC8A-10v/o Al 2 O 3 . Result shows that corrosion resistance is deteriorated after plastic deformation

  16. Studies on fabrication of glass fiber reinforced composites using polymer blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. H.; Kachhia, P. H.; Patel, S. N.; Rathod, S. T.; Valand, J. K.

    2018-05-01

    Glass fiber reinforced PVC/NBR composites have been fabricated via hot compression moulding process. PVC is brittle in nature and thus lower thermal stability. Therefore, to improve the toughness of PVC, NBR was incorporated in certain proportions. As both are polar and thus they are compatible. To improve the strength property further, these blends were used to fabricate glass fiber reinforced composites. SEM micrograph shows good wettability of the blend with glass fibers resulting in proper bonding which increase the strength of the composites.

  17. Al/ B4C Composites with 5 and 10 wt% Reinforcement Content Prepared by Powder Metallurgy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Abdullah; Mohd Reusmaazran Yusof; Azali Muhammad; Nadira Kamarudin; Wilfred Sylvester Paulus; Roslinda Shamsudin; Nasrat Hannah Shudin; Nurazila Mat Zali

    2012-01-01

    The preparation, physical and mechanical properties of Al/ B 4 C composites with 5 and 10 wt.% reinforcement content were investigated. In order to obtain the feedstock with a low powder loading, B 4 C mixtures containing fine powders were investigated to obtain the optimal particle packing. The experimental results indicated that the fine containing 5 and 10 wt.% particles are able to prepare the feedstock with a good flowability. The composites fabricated by powder metallurgy have low densities and homogeneous microstructures. Additionally there is no interface reaction observed between the reinforcement and matrix by XRD analysis. The hardness of Al/ B 4 C composites prepared by powder metallurgy was high. (Author)

  18. Improved natural rubber composites reinforced with a complex filler network of biobased nanoparticles and ionomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biobased rubber composites are renewable and sustainable. Significant improvement in modulus of rubber composite reinforced with hydrophilic filler was achieved with the inclusion of ionomers. Soy particles aided with ionomer, carboxylated styrene-butadiene (CSB), formed a strong complex filler netw...

  19. An Investigation of Fiber Reinforced Chemically Bonded Phosphate Ceramic Composites at Room Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhu; Li, Yu-Yu; Lu, Can; Liu, Jian

    2018-05-21

    In this study, chemically bonded phosphate ceramic (CBPC) fiber reinforced composites were made at indoor temperatures. The mechanical properties and microstructure of the CBPC composites were studied. The CBPC matrix of aluminum phosphate binder, metakaolin, and magnesia with different Si/P ratios was prepared. The results show that when the Si/P ratio was 1.2, and magnesia content in the CBPC was 15%, CBPC reached its maximum flexural strength. The fiber reinforced CBPC composites were prepared by mixing short polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibers or unidirectional continuous carbon fiber sheets. Flexural strength and dynamic mechanical properties of the composites were determined, and the microstructures of specimens were analyzed by scanning electron micrography, X-ray diffraction, and micro X-ray computed tomography. The flexural performance of continuous carbon fiber reinforced CBPC composites was better than that of PVA fiber composites. The elastic modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor of the fiber composites were measured through dynamic mechanical analysis. The results showed that fiber reinforced CBPC composites are an inorganic polymer viscoelastic material with excellent damping properties. The reaction of magnesia and phosphate in the matrix of CBPC formed a different mineral, newberyite, which was beneficial to the development of the CBPC.

  20. Water absorption and tensile strength degradation of Petung bamboo (Dendrocalamus asper) fiber-reinforced polymeric composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Judawisastra, H.; Sitohang, Ramona; Rosadi, M. S.

    2017-01-01

    Bamboo fibers have attracted great interest and are believed to have the potential as natural fiber for reinforcing polymer composites. This research aims to study water absorption behavior and its effect to tensile strength of the composites made from petung bamboo fiber, which is one of the most

  1. Particle reinforced composites from acrylamide modified blend of styrene-butadiene and natural rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blends of styrene-butadiene rubber and natural rubber that provide balanced properties were modified with acrylamide and reinforced with soy protein particles. The rubber composites show improved mechanical properties. Both modified rubber and composites showed a faster curing rate. The crosslinking...

  2. Dual energy CT inspection of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite combined with metal components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Jakůbek, J.; Kumpová, Ivana; Pichotka, M.

    6, Part B, November (2016), s. 47-55 ISSN 2214-6571 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07210S Keywords : dual energy computed tomography * carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite * metal artefact suppression Subject RIV: JI - Composite Material s http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214657116300107

  3. Fracture resistance of reattached incisor fragments with mini fibre-reinforced composite anchors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Kreulen, C.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Fokkinga, W.A.; Machado, C.; Creugers, N.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Fractured coronal fragments of incisors can be adhered to the remaining tooth with resin composite, but are prone to failure. This study explores whether mini fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) anchors increase fracture resistance of reattached fragments. METHODS: Forty-five extracted

  4. Microstructural changes and residual properties of fiber reinforced cement composites exposed to elevated temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keppert, M.; Vejmelková, E.; Švarcová, Silvie; Bezdička, Petr; Černý, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2012), s. 77-89 ISSN 1425-8129 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : fiber reinforced cementcomposites * high temperatures * mineralodical composition * microstructure * residual strength * apparent moisture diffusivity Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 0.385, year: 2012

  5. Edge Effects in a Composite Weakly Reinforced with Fibers of Rectangular Cross Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boichuk, V. Yu.

    2001-05-01

    This paper deal with the edge effect in a composite weakly reinforced with fibers of rectangular cross section and subjected to biaxial uniform loading. The edge effects due to the difference between Poisson's ratios of the composite components are studied. Numerical results are presented

  6. Flammability and thermal properties studies of nonwoven flax reinforced acrylic based polyester composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasyid, M. F. Ahmad; Salim, M. S.; Akil, H. M.; Ishak, Z. A. Mohd.

    2017-12-01

    In the pursuit of green and more sustainable product, natural fibre reinforced composites originating from renewable resources has gained interest in recent years. These natural fibres exhibit good mechanical properties, low production costs, and good environmental properties. However, one of the disadvantages of natural fibre reinforced composites is their high flammability that limits their application in many fields. Within this research, the effect of sodium silicate on the flammability and thermal properties of flax reinforced acrylic based polyester composites has been investigated. Sodium silicate is applied as binder and flame retardant system in impregnation process of the natural flax fiber mats. The addition of sodium silicate significantly improved the flame retardant efficiency but reduced the degree of crosslinking of the composites.

  7. Fracture and fatigue considerations in the development of ductile-phase reinforced intermetallic-matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkateswara Rao, K.T.; Ritchie, R.O.

    1994-01-01

    The salient microstructural factors influencing fracture and fatigue-crack growth resistance of ductile-particle reinforced intermetallic-matrix composites at ambient temperature are reviewed through examples from the Nb/MoSi 2 , TiNb/TiAl, Nb/TiAl and Nb/Nb 3 Al systems; specific emphasis is placed on properties and morphology of the reinforcement and its interfacial properties with the matrix. It is shown that composites must be fabricated with a high aspect ratio ductile-reinforcement morphology in order to promote crack-particle interception and resultant crack bridging for improved fracture and fatigue properties. Concurrently, however, the ductile phases have contrasting effects on crack growth under monotonic vs. cyclic loading suggesting that composite microstructures tailored for optimal toughness may not necessarily yield optimal fatigue resistance. Perspectives for the future development of damage-tolerant intermetallic-composite microstructures are discussed

  8. Seawater infiltration effect on thermal degradation of fiber reinforced epoxy composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohd Haziq Izzuddin bin; Hassan, Mohamad Zaki bin; Ibrahim, Ikhwan; Rashidi, Ahmad Hadi Mohamed; Nor, Siti Fadzilah M.; Daud, Mohd Yusof Md

    2018-05-01

    Seawater salinity has been associated with the reduction of polymer structure durability. The aim of this study is to investigate the change in thermal degradation of fiber reinforced epoxy composite due to the presence of seawater. Carbon fiber, carbon/kevlar, fiberglass, and jute that reinforced with epoxy resin was laminated through hand-layup technique. Initially, these specimen was sectioned to 5×5 mm dimension, then immersed in seawater and distilled water at room temperature until it has thoroughly saturated. Following, the thermal degradation analysis using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), the thermic changes due to seawater infiltration was defined. The finding shows that moisture absorption reduces the glass transition temperature (Tg) of fiber reinforced epoxy composite. However, the glass transition temperature (Tg) of seawater infiltrated laminate composite is compareable with distilled water infiltrated laminate composite. The carbon fiber reinfored epoxy has the highest glass transition temperature out of all specimen.

  9. Characterisation of Microstructure of We43 Magnesium Matrix Composites Reinforced with Carbon Fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gryc A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the microstructures of WE43 matrix composites reinforced with carbon fibres have been characterised. The influence of reinforcement type and T6 heat treatment (a solution treatment at 525°C for 8 h, a hot water quench and a subsequent ageing treatment at 250°C for 16 h on microstructure have been evaluated. The light microscope and scanning electron microscope investigations have been carried out. No significant differences in samples reinforced with non-coated textiles have been reported. The substantial changes in sample reinforced with nickel-coated textile have been observed. The segregation of alloying elements to the matrix-reinforcement layer has been identified. The T6 heat treatment caused the appearance of disperse precipitates of β phase, but the process cannot be considered as satisfactory (irregular distribution, low volume fraction, relatively large size.

  10. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomaeki, M.; Ashammakhi, N.; Gomes, M. E.; Reis, R. L.; Chiellini, F.; Chiellini, E.

    2008-01-01

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-ε-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 deg. C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 deg. C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 deg. C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications

  11. Bioactive Glass Fiber Reinforced Starch-Polycaprolactone Composite for Bone Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jukola, H.; Nikkola, L.; Gomes, M. E.; Chiellini, F.; Tukiainen, M.; Kellomäki, M.; Chiellini, E.; Reis, R. L.; Ashammakhi, N.

    2008-02-01

    For bone regeneration and repair, combinations of different materials are often needed. Biodegradable polymers are often combined with osteoconductive materials, such as bioactive glass (BaG), which can also improve the mechanical properties of the composite. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize BaG fiber-reinforced starch-poly-ɛ-caprolactone (SPCL) composite. Sheets of SPCL (30/70 wt%) were produced using single-screw extrusion. They were then cut and compression molded in layers with BaG fibers to form composite structures of different combinations. Thermal, mechanical, and degradation properties of the composites were studied. The actual amount of BaG in the composites was determined using combustion tests. A strong endothermic peak indicating melting at about 56 °C was observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. Thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition of SPCL started at 325 °C with the decomposition of starch and continued at 400 °C with the degradation of polycaprolactone (PCL). Initial mechanical properties of the reinforced composites were at least 50% better than the properties of the non-reinforced composites. However, the mechanical properties of the composites after two weeks of hydrolysis were comparable to those of the non-reinforced samples. During the six weeks' hydrolysis the mass of the composites had decreased only by about 5%. The amount of glass in the composites remained the same for the six-week period of hydrolysis. In conclusion, it is possible to enhance the initial mechanical properties of SPCL by reinforcing it with BaG fibers. However, the mechanical properties of the composites are only sufficient for use as filler material and they need to be further improved to allow long-lasting bone applications.

  12. Matrix-reinforcement reactivity in P/M titanium matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amigo, V.; Romero, F.; Salvador, M. D.; Busquets, D.

    2007-01-01

    The high reactivity of titanium and the facility of the same one to form intermetallics makes difficult obtaining composites with this material and brings the need in any case of covering the principal fibres used as reinforcement. To obtain composites of titanium reinforced with ceramic particles ins proposed in this paper, for this reason it turns out to be fundamental to evaluate the reactivity between the matrix and reinforcement. Both titanium nitride and carbide (TiN and TiC) are investigated as materials of low reactivity whereas titanium silicide (TiSi 2 ) is also studied as materials of major reactivity, already stated by the scientific community. This reactivity will be analysed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) there being obtained distribution maps of the elements that allow to establish the possible influence of the sintering temperature and time. Hereby the matrix-reinforcement interactions are optimized to obtain suitable mechanical properties. (Author) 39 refs

  13. Mechanical Property Evaluation of Palm/Glass Sandwiched Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite in Comparison with few natural composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja Dhas, J. Edwin; Pradeep, P.

    2017-10-01

    Natural fibers available plenty can be used as reinforcements in development of eco friendly polymer composites. The less utilized palm leaf stalk fibers sandwiched with artificial glass fibers was researched in this work to have a better reinforcement in preparing a green composite. The commercially available polyester resin blend with coconut shell filler in nano form was used as matrix to sandwich these composites. Naturally available Fibers of palm leaf stalk, coconut leaf stalk, raffia and oil palm were extracted and treated with potassium permanganate solution which enhances the properties. For experimentation four different plates were fabricated using these fibers adopting hand lay-up method. These sandwiched composite plates are further machined to obtain ASTM standards Specimens which are mechanically tested as per standards. Experimental results reveal that the alkali treated palm leaf stalk fiber based polymer composite shows appreciable results than the others. Hence the developed composite can be recommended for fabrication of automobile parts.

  14. Development of hemp fibre reinforced polypropylene composite - Journal Article

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hargitai, H

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available strong decrease in three point bending properties was noticed after immersing the composite samples in the distilled water for 19 days, while the impact strength increased. Double carding of raw materials resulted into decreased anisotropy in composite...

  15. Cracking and Strain Analysis of Beams Reinforced with Composite Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgaras Timinskas

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the results of experimental and numerical modelling using two beams reinforced with GFRP bars. One beam was made of plain concrete while the other contained short steel fibres. The influence of steel fibres on deflection and cracking behaviour was studied. A comparative analysis of experimental results has shown that steel fibres significantly reduce deflections and average crack width of the beam. Moreover, an addition of steel fibres to the concrete mix led to a more ductile failure mode of the beam. Numerical analysis employing nonlinear finite element software ATENA has revealed that a good agreement between calculated and experimental results regarding an ordinary concrete GFRP reinforced beam can be obtained.

  16. Graphite coated PVA fibers as the reinforcement for cementitious composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunhua; Zhang, Zhipeng; Liu, Zhichao

    2018-02-01

    A new preconditioning method was developed to PVA fibers as the reinforcement in cement-based materials. Virgin PVA fibers exhibits limited adhesion to graphite powders due to the presence of oil spots on the surface. Mixing PVA fibers with a moderately concentrated KMnO4-H2SO4 solution can efficiently remove the oil spots by oxidation without creating extra precipitate (MnO2) associated with the reduction reaction. This enhances the coating of graphite powders onto fiber surface and improves the mechanical properties of PVA fiber reinforced concrete (PVA-FRC). Graphite powders yields better fiber distribution in the matrix and reduces the fiber-matrix bonding, which is beneficial in uniformly distributing the stress among embedded fibers and creating steady generation and propagation of tight microcracks. This is evidenced by the significantly enhanced strain hardening behavior and improved flexural strength and toughness.

  17. Increased corrosion resistance of basalt reinforced cement compositions with nanosilica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    URKHANOVA Larisa Alekseevna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Disperse fiber reinforcement is used to improve deformation and shrinkage characteristics, flexural strength of concrete. Basalt roving and thin staple fiber are often used as mineral fibers. The paper considers the problems of using thin basalt fiber produced by centrifugal-blow method. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of basalt fiber as part of the cement matrix was performed. Nanodispersed silica produced by electron beam accelerator was used to increase corrosion resistance of basalt fiber.

  18. Increased corrosion resistance of basalt reinforced cement compositions with nanosilica

    OpenAIRE

    URKHANOVA Larisa Alekseevna; LKHASARANOV Solbon Aleksandrovich; ROZINA Victoria Yevgenievna; BUYANTUEV Sergey Lubsanovich; BARDAKHANOV Sergey Prokopievich

    2014-01-01

    Disperse fiber reinforcement is used to improve deformation and shrinkage characteristics, flexural strength of concrete. Basalt roving and thin staple fiber are often used as mineral fibers. The paper considers the problems of using thin basalt fiber produced by centrifugal-blow method. Evaluation of the corrosion resistance of basalt fiber as part of the cement matrix was performed. Nanodispersed silica produced by electron beam accelerator was used to increase corrosion resistance of ba...

  19. Development of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composites manufactured with gas pressure infiltration methods

    OpenAIRE

    W. Hufenbach; M. Gude; A. Czulak; J. Śleziona; A. Dolata-Grosz; M. Dyzia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of his paper is to show potential of textile-reinforced carbon fibre aluminium composite with advantage of the lightweight construction of structural components subjected to thermo-mechanical stress.Design/methodology/approach: The manufacture of specimens of the carbon fibre-reinforced aluminium was realised with the aid of an advanced differential gas pressure infiltration technique, which was developed at ILK, TU Dresden.Findings: The gas pressure infiltration technology e...

  20. THE USE OF SISAL FIBRE AS REINFORCEMENT IN CEMENT BASED COMPOSITES

    OpenAIRE

    Tolêdo Filho,Romildo Dias; Joseph,Kuruvilla; Ghavami,Khosrow; England,George Leslie

    1999-01-01

    ABSTRACT The inclusion of fibre reinforcement in concrete, mortar and cement paste can enhance many of the engineering properties of the basic materials, such as fracture toughness, flexural strength and resistance to fatigue, impact, thermal shock and spalling. In recent years, a great deal of interest has been created worldwide on the potential applications of natural fibre reinforced, cement based composites. Investigations have been carried out in many countries on various mechanical prop...

  1. Alumina reinforced tetragonal zirconia (TZP) composites. Final technical report, July 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shetty, D.K.

    1997-01-01

    This final technical report summarizes the significant research results obtained during the period July 1, 1993 through December 31, 1996 in the DOE-supported research project entitled, open-quotes Alumina Reinforced Tetragonal Zirconia (TZP) Compositesclose quotes. The objective of the research was to develop high-strength and high-toughness ceramic composites by combining mechanisms of platelet, whisker or fiber reinforcement with transformation toughening. The approach used included reinforcement of Celia- or yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia (Ce-TZP or Y-TZP) with particulates, platelets, or continuous filaments of alumina

  2. Tempering Behavior of TiC-Reinforced SKD11 Steel Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-In; Kim, Seong Hoon; Heo, Yoon-Uk; Kim, Dae Ha; Hwang, Keum-Cheol; Suh, Dong-Woo

    2018-03-01

    TiC-reinforced SKD11 steel matrix composite, fabricated by a pressure infiltration casting, undergoes monotonic decrease in hardness as tempering temperature increases. Element mappings by TEM-EDS and thermodynamic calculation indicate that remarkable redistribution of V between the reinforcement and the steel matrix occurs by partial dissolution and re-precipitation of MC carbides upon casting process. The absence of secondary hardening is led by the enrichment of V in the reinforcement that reduces the V content in the steel matrix; this reduction in V content makes the precipitation of fine VC sluggish during the tempering.

  3. Development of sugar palm yarn/glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester hybrid composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurazzi, N. Mohd; Khalina, A.; Sapuan, S. Mohd; Rahmah, M.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the effect of fibre hybridization for sugar palm yarn fibre with glass fibre reinforced with unsaturated polyester composites. In this work, unsaturated polyester resin are reinforced with fibre at a ratio of 70:30 wt% and 60:40 wt%. The hybrid composites were characterized in terms of physical (density and water absorption), mechanical (tensile, flexural and compression) and thermal properties through thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA). Density determination showed that density increased with higher wt% of glass fibre. The inherently higher density of glass fibre increased the density of hybrid composite. Resistance to water absorption is improved upon the incorporation of glass fibre and the hybrid composites were found to reach equilibrium absorption at days 4 and 5. As for mechanical performance, the highest tensile strength, tensile modulus, flexural strength, flexural modulus and compression strength were obtained from 40 wt% of fibres reinforcement with ratio of 50:50 wt% of sugar palm yarn fibre and glass fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. The increase of glass fibre loading had a synergistic effect on the mechanical properties to the composites structure due to its superior strength and modulus. The thermal stability of hybrid composites was improved by the increase of onset temperature and the reduction of residues upon increase in temperature.

  4. The Effect of Pre-Tension on Deformation Behaviour of Natural Fabric Reinforced Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulė BEKAMPIENĖ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the fiber-reinforced composites industry together with the promotion of environmental friendly production, synthetic materials are attempted to be replaced by renewable, biodegradable and recyclable materials. The most important challenge is to improve strength and durability of these materials. Matrix that supports the fiber-reinforcement in composite generally is brittle and deformation causes fragmentation of the matrix. Pre-tension of reinforcement is a well-known method to increase tensile strength of woven material. The current study develops the idea to use pre-tension of woven fabric in order to improve quality and strength properties of the obtained composite. Natural (cotton fiber and synthetic (glass fiber woven fabrics were investigated. The pressure forming operation was carried out in order to study clamping imposed strain variation across the surface of woven fabric. The uniaxial tension test of single-layer composite specimens with and without pre-tension was performed to study the effect of pre-tension on strength properties of composite. The results have shown that pre-tension imposed by clamping is an effective method to improve the quality of shaped composite parts (more smoothed contour is obtained and to increase the strength properties of composite reinforced by woven natural fabric. After pre-tension the tensile strength at break increased in 12 % in warp direction, in 58 % in weft direction and in 39 % in bias direction.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.1.250

  5. Resin Composites Reinforced by Nanoscaled Fibers or Tubes for Dental Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoming; Liu, Wei; Sun, Lianwen; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Yu, Bo; Fan, Yubo; Cui, Fuzhai; Watari, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    It has been stated clearly that nanofillers could make an enhancement on the mechanical performances of dental composites. In order to address current shortage of traditional dental composites, fillers in forms of nanofibers or nanotubes are broadly regarded as ideal candidates to greatly increase mechanical performances of dental composites with low content of fillers. In this review, the efforts using nanofibers and nanotubes to reinforce mechanical performances of dental composites, including polymeric nanofibers, metallic nanofibers or nanotubes, and inorganic nanofibers or nanotubes, as well as their researches related, are demonstrated in sequence. The first purpose of current paper was to confirm the enhancement of nanofibers or nanotubes' reinforcement on the mechanical performances of dental restorative composite. The second purpose was to make a general description about the reinforcement mechanism of nanofibers and nanotubes, especially, the impact of formation of interphase boundary interaction and nanofibers themselves on the advanced mechanical behaviors of the dental composites. By means of the formation of interface interaction and poststretching nanofibers, reinforced effect of dental composites by sorts of nanofibers/nanotubes has been successfully obtained. PMID:24982894

  6. Preparation and characterization of carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber to reinforce epoxy composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Feng; Lu, Chunxiang; Li, Yonghong; Guo, Jinhai; Lu, Xiaoxuan; Lu, Huibin; He, Shuqing; Yang, Yu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → CNTs were uniformly grown onto the carbon fibers. → No obvious mechanical properties of carbon fiber were observed after CNT growth. → The IFSS of multiscale epoxy composite was measured by single fiber pull-out tests. → Observing fractography of composite, the fracture modes of CNTs were discussed. -- Abstract: The multiscale carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber was prepared by a newly developed aerosol-assisted chemical vapour deposition. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope were carried out to characterize this multiscale material. Compared with the original carbon fibers, the fabrication of this hybrid fiber resulted in an almost threefold increase of BET surface area to reach 2.22 m 2 /g. Meanwhile, there was a slight degradation of fiber tensile strength within 10%, while the fiber modulus was not significantly affected. The interfacial shearing strength of a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer composite with carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber and an epoxy matrix was determined from the single fiber pull-out tests of microdroplet composite. Due to an efficient increase of load transfer at the fiber/matrix interfaces, the interracial shear strength of composite reinforced by carbon nanotube-hybridized carbon fiber is almost 94% higher than that of one reinforced by the original carbon fiber. Based on the fractured morphologies of the composites, the interfacial reinforcing mechanisms were discussed through proposing different types of carbon nanotube fracture modes along with fiber pulling out from epoxy composites.

  7. Mechanical and wear behaviour of steel chips reinforced Zn27Al composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Kanayo ALANEME

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical and wear behaviour of Zn27Al alloy reinforced with steel machining chips (an industrial waste was investigated. Two step stir casting process was used to produce the Zn27Al based composites consisting of 5, 7.5 and 10 wt.% of the steel machining chips while unreinforced Zn27Al alloy and a composition consisting of 5 wt.% alumina were also prepared as control samples. Microstrutural analysis; mechanical and wear behaviour were assessed for these composites. The results show that the hardness and wear resistance of the composites increased with increase in weight percent of the steel chips from 5 to 10 wt.%. The UTS, strain to fracture, and the fracture toughness were however highest for the 5 wt.% steel chips reinforced composite grade; and decreased with increase in the weight percent of the steel chips from 5 to 10 wt.%. Generally the Zn27Al alloy based composites reinforced with steel machining chips, exhibited superior mechanical and wear properties in comparison to the unreinforced Zn27Al alloy and the 5 wt.% alumina reinforced Zn27Al alloy composite.

  8. Articularities of Analysis and Behaviour of Concrete Beams Reinforced with Fibrous Polymer Composite Bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ţăranu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional steel based reinforcement systems for concrete elements are facing with serious problems mainly caused by corrosion due to chemically aggressive environments and salts used in deicing procedures, especially in case of bridge steel reinforced concrete girders. Also in some cases special applications require structural members with magnetic transparency. An alternative to this major problem has recently become the use of fiber reinforced polymer (FPR composite bars as internal reinforcement for concrete beams. The particularities of their mechanical properties are making the design process a difficult task for engineers, numerous research centers being involved in correcting this situation. The general aspects concerning the conceiving of FR.P reinforced concrete beams are firstly analyzed, compared to those reinforced with steel bars. Some results of a Finite Element Analysis, as part of a complex program which also implies full scale testing of FRP reinforced beams subjected to bending, are given and discussed in the paper. The low elasticity modulus presented by glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP bars does not justify its use from structural point of view when deflection is the limiting condition but for corrosive resistance reasons and special electromagnetic properties this system can be promoted.

  9. Development of novel Mg–Ni60Nb40 amorphous particle reinforced composites with enhanced hardness and compressive response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayalakshmi, S.; Sahu, Shreyasi; Sankaranarayanan, S.; Gupta, Sujasha; Gupta, M.

    2014-01-01

    Development of amorphous alloy/glassy particle reinforced light metal composites is an emerging research field. In this investigation, we have synthesized and characterized Ni 60 Nb 40 amorphous alloy particle reinforced Mg-composites with varying volume fractions. Microwave-assisted two-directional rapid sintering technique followed by hot extrusion was used to produce these pure Mg-based composites. The structural and mechanical properties of the developed composites were investigated, and are discussed using structure–property relationship. Structural analysis indicated the retention of amorphous structure of the reinforcement in all the composites. It was found that the distribution of the reinforcement was strongly dependent on the volume fraction (V f ). The addition of Ni 60 Nb 40 amorphous alloy particles modified the preferred crystal orientation of Mg, as was observed from X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The composites showed significant improvement in hardness (increment up to 120%) and compressive strength (∼85% increase at 5% V f ). Comparison of mechanical properties of the developed composites with those of conventional Mg-composites having ceramic/metallic reinforcements, highlight the effectiveness of using amorphous particles as promising reinforcement materials. - Highlights: • Novel Mg-composites reinforced with Ni 60 Nb 40 amorphous particles were developed . • Microwave sintering and hot extrusion were used to synthesize the composites. • Reinforcements retained the amorphous structure, and changed Mg-crystal orientation. • Composites showed significant enhancement in hardness and compressive properties. • Performance of developed composites are superior/competitive to conventional MMCs

  10. Effect of filler geometry on coefficient of thermal expansion in carbon nanofiber reinforced epoxy composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, M; Jang, J; Suhr, J

    2011-02-01

    This study involves the investigation of the geometry effect of nano-fillers on thermally induced dimensional stability of epoxy composites by experimentally evaluating the linear coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). Carbon nanofibers (CNF) were chosen as the filler in epoxy matrix to investigate the effect of an aspect ratio on the CTE of the nanocomposites at three different volume fractions of 0.5, 1, and 2% of the nano-filler. The composites were fabricated using a mechanical mixing method. The CTE values were evaluated by measuring thermal strains of the composites and also compared with a micromechanics model. It was observed that the composites with short CNF (average L/d = 10) show better thermal stability than one of the composites with long CNF (average L/d = 70), and the thermal stability of the composites was proportional to the volume fraction of the filler in each composite. In addition, the CTE of mutliwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) reinforced epoxy composites was evaluated and compared with the CTE of the CNF reinforced composites. Interestingly, the MWNT reinforced composites show the greatest thermal stability with an 11.5% reduction in the CTE over the pure epoxy. The experimental data was compared with micromechanics model.

  11. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Bamboo Pulp Fiber Reinforced Polyethylene Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhan Ren

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical and thermal properties of high-density polyethylene (HDPE composites reinforced by bamboo pulp fibers (BPF. Using a twin-screw extruder, polymer composites were fabricated using BPF and bamboo flour (BF as the reinforcement and HDPE as the matrix. Tensile and flexural tests of the HDPE composites were performed to determine the mechanical properties under different conditions. The thermal properties of HDPE composites were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA. The results showed that BPF improved the mechanical and thermal properties of the polymer composites more than did BF. The tensile and flexural strength of composites with 30 wt% BPF were increased by 61.46% and 22.94%, respectively, while the tensile and flexural modulus were increased by 84.52% and 27.30%, respectively. Compared to composites with 50 wt% BF, the T5% of composites with 50 wt% BPF increased by 20.18 °C. As the BPF content increased, the storage modulus (E’ and loss modulus (E” initially increased, followed by a decrease. Compared to the BF/HDPE composites, BPF/HDPE composites reinforced at 30 wt% had a higher storage modulus (E’ and loss modulus (E” and lower damping parameter (tanδ.

  12. Chapter 13:Wood/Nonwood Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Roger M. Rowell; David Plackett; B. Kristoffer Segerholm

    2013-01-01

    Composites made from wood, other biomass resources and polymers have existed for a long time but the nature of many of these composites has changed in recent decades. Wood-thermoset composites date to the early 1900s. "Thermosets" or thermosetting polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins such as epoxies...

  13. Study on Electrical Properties of PALF Reinforced Bisphenol-A Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available These days, composite materials successfully substitute the traditional materials due to its various significant applications. This paper examines the influence of fiber orientation and fiber length on electrical properties of PALF reinforced Bisphenol-A composite and explores the potential of using PALF as reinforcing material for electrical applications such as terminals, connectors, motor body cover, industrial and household plugs and circuit boards. The resistance and inductance of resin material is increased by 24.19% and 24.13% respectively after reinforcement of PALF in different orientations and its value increased by 37.93% and 37.81% respectively after reinforcement of PALF in different lengths. Similarly, Capacitance and Dielectric constant of resin material decreased by 19.44% and 19.39% respectively after reinforcement of PALF in different orientations and its value decreased by 27.67% and 27.50% respectively after reinforcement of PALF in different lengths. It can be inferred from this study that the fiber orientations and fiber lengths greatly effects the electrical properties of PALF composite.

  14. Fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Yetkiner, Enver; Ozcan, Mutlu

    Objective: To analyze the fatigue resistance, debonding force, and failure type of fiber-reinforced composite, polyethylene ribbon-reinforced, and braided stainless steel wire lingual retainers in vitro. Methods: Roots of human mandibular central incisors were covered with silicone, mimicking the

  15. Numerical simulation of progressive debonding in fiber reinforced composite under transverse loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushch, V.; Shmegera, S.V.; Brøndsted, Povl

    2011-01-01

    . Then, the effect on debonding progress of local stress redistribution due to interaction between the fibers was studied in the framework of two-inclusion model. Simulation of progressive debonding in fiber reinforced composite using the many-fiber models of composite has been performed. It has been...... shown that the developed model provides detailed analysis of the progressive debonding phenomenon including the interface crack cluster formation, overall stiffness reduction and induced anisotropy of the effective elastic moduli of composite....

  16. Research on mechanical properties of carbon fiber /polyamide reinforced PP composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinghui; Yu, Qiang; Liu, Lixia; Ji, Wenhua; Yang, Li; Fan, Dongli

    2017-10-01

    The polyamide composites reinforced by carbon fiber/polypropylene are produced by injection molding processing. The flow abilities and mechanical properties of the CF/PA/PP composite materials are studied by the fusion index instrument and the universal testing machine. The results show that with the content of carbon fiber/polyamide increase, the impact breaking strength and the tensile property of the composite materials increase, which is instructive to the actual injection production of polypropylene products.

  17. An emerging alternative to thermal curing: Electron curing of fiber-reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, A.; Saunders, C.B.; Lopata, V.J.; Kremers, W.; Chung, M.

    1995-01-01

    Electron curing of fiber-reinforced composites to produce materials with good mechanical properties has been demonstrated by the authors' work, and by Aerospatiale. The attractions of this technology are the technical and processing advantages offered over thermal curing, and the projected cost benefits. Though the work so far has focused on the higher value composites for the aircraft and aerospace industries, the technology can also be used to produce composites for the higher volume industries, such as transportation and automotive

  18. Failure behavior / characteristics of fabric reinforced polymer matrix composite and aluminum6061 on dynamic tensile loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Hyejin; Cho, Chongdu

    2017-01-01

    Composite materials are composed of multiple types of materials as reinforcement and matrix. Among them, CFRP (Carbon fiber reinforced polymer) is widely used materials in automotive and defense industry. Carbon fibers are used as a reinforcement, of which Young's modulus is in a prepreg form. In automotive industry, especially, high strain rate test is needed to measure dynamic properties, used in dynamic analysis like high inertia included simulation as a car crash. In this paper, a SHTB (Split Hopkinson tensile bar) machine is employed for estimating stress-strain curve under dynamic load condition on aluminum 6061 and CFRP. The strain rate range is about from 100 /s to 1000 /s and the number of prepreg layers of composite specimen is total eight plies which are stacked symmetrically to structure CFRP. As a result, stress / strain point data are obtained and used for simulation into stacked composites.

  19. Failure behavior / characteristics of fabric reinforced polymer matrix composite and aluminum6061 on dynamic tensile loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Hyejin; Cho, Chongdu [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Composite materials are composed of multiple types of materials as reinforcement and matrix. Among them, CFRP (Carbon fiber reinforced polymer) is widely used materials in automotive and defense industry. Carbon fibers are used as a reinforcement, of which Young's modulus is in a prepreg form. In automotive industry, especially, high strain rate test is needed to measure dynamic properties, used in dynamic analysis like high inertia included simulation as a car crash. In this paper, a SHTB (Split Hopkinson tensile bar) machine is employed for estimating stress-strain curve under dynamic load condition on aluminum 6061 and CFRP. The strain rate range is about from 100 /s to 1000 /s and the number of prepreg layers of composite specimen is total eight plies which are stacked symmetrically to structure CFRP. As a result, stress / strain point data are obtained and used for simulation into stacked composites.

  20. Overall mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, J.H.; Bolt, H.

    2002-01-01

    The high-temperature strength and creep properties are among the crucial criteria for the structural materials of plasma facing components (PFC) of fusion reactors, as they will be subjected to severe thermal stresses. The fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites are a potential heat sink material for the PFC application, since the combination of different material properties can lead to versatile performances. In this article, the overall mechanical properties of two model composites based on theoretical predictions are presented. The matrix materials considered were a precipitation hardened CuCrZr alloy and reduced activation martensitic steel 'Eurofer'. Continuous SiC fibers were used for the reinforcement. The results demonstrate that yield stress, ultimate tensile strength, work hardening rate and creep resistance could be extensively improved by the fiber reinforcement up to fiber content of 40 vol.%. The influence of the residual stresses on the plastic behavior of the composites is also discussed

  1. Effect of Sodium bicarbonate on Fire behaviour of tilled E- Glass Reinforced Epoxy Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, S.; Devendra, K.; Bharath, K. N.

    2016-09-01

    Composites such as fibre reinforced polymers give us the good mechanical properties, but their fire behaviour is not appreciable and needs to be improved. In this work, E- glass fiber is used as a reinforcement material and Epoxy resin is used as a matrix with particulate sodium bi-carbonate (NaHCO3) is used as additive. The hand lay-up technique is adopted for the development of composites by varying percentage of additive. All the tests were conducted according to ASTM standards to study the Fire behaviour of the developed composites. The different fire properties like Ignition time, mass loss rate and flame propagation rate of Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRP) with NaHCO3 are compared with neat FRPs. It is found that the ignition time increases as the percentage of additive is increased.

  2. Nanoscaled Mechanical Properties of Cement Composites Reinforced with Carbon Nanofibers

    OpenAIRE

    Barbhuiya, Salim; Chow, PengLoy

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) on nanoscaled mechanical properties of cement composites. CNFs were added to cement composites at the filler loading of 0.2 wt % (by wt. of cement). Micrographs based on scanning electron microscopy (SEM) show that CNFs are capable of forming strong interfacial bonding with cement matrices. Experimental results using nanoindentation reveal that the addition of CNFs in cement composites increases the proportions of high-density calcium...

  3. Synthesis and characterization of polymeric composites reinforced natural fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartini, Ratni; Darmasetiawan, H.; Karo Karo, Aloma; Sudirman

    2002-01-01

    Synthesis of composites between the polymeric matrixes i.e. epoxy and polyester with the natural fibers i.e. banana and straw fibers have been done, which combined each other into four kinds of composites i.e. epoxy-banana, epoxy-straw, polyester-banana, and polyester-straw composites. For each kind of composites, the effect of fibers layers addition into the polymeric matrixes on its mechanical and its microstructure, were learned. It is found that, for all composites except for epoxy-straw, this effect made their tensile strength to be decrease. Epoxy -3-layers straw fibers composite has the highest value that is 45.44 MPa while epoxy -3-layers banana fibers composite has 30.47 MPa for its tensile strength. The lowest tensile strength was belong to polyester -3-layers banana fibers composite, and if it was filled with 3-layers of straw fibers that value become increase to reach 22.18 MPa. Unfortunately, the effect of fibers layer addition is also made their hardness become decrease. It was showed from their microstructures that there were weak bonds between fibers and matrixes. Besides that reason, it also known that fibers distribution in matrixes influences both the tensile strength and the hardness of composite

  4. Tough and Reinforced Polypropylene/Kaolin Composites using Modified Kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J. L.; Zhu, H. X.; Qi, Y. B.; Guo, M. J.; Hu, Q.; Gao, L.

    2018-05-01

    Polypropylene (PP)/kaolin composites have been prepared by filling modified kaolin with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) into the PP matrix. The surface modification of kaolin particles effectively improves the compatibility between kaolin and PP matrix. It is conducive for uniform dispersion of inorganic particles in the matrix, and enhances the mechanical performance of the composites. Compared with plain kaolin, the mechanical properties of the modified composites exhibit higher tensile strength, bending strength, impact strength and melt index simultaneously. The DTPA modification of kaolin overall enhances the mechanical properties of PP composites. It meets the requirements in various applications, and makes the modified experiment interesting in modern teaching.

  5. Enhancing the Hardness and Compressive Response of Magnesium Using Complex Composition Alloy Reinforcement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Sandar Tun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the development of new magnesium composites containing complex composition alloy (CCA particles. Materials were synthesized using a powder metallurgy route incorporating hybrid microwave sintering and hot extrusion. The presence and variation in the amount of ball-milled CCA particles (2.5 wt %, 5 wt %, and 7.5 wt % in a magnesium matrix and their effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg-CCA composites were investigated. The use of CCA particle reinforcement effectively led to a significant matrix grain refinement. Uniformly distributed CCA particles were observed in the microstructure of the composites. The refined microstructure coupled with the intrinsically high hardness of CCA particles (406 HV contributed to the superior mechanical properties of the Mg-CCA composites. A microhardness of 80 HV was achieved in a Mg-7.5HEA (high entropy alloy composite, which is 1.7 times higher than that of pure Mg. A significant improvement in compressive yield strength (63% and ultimate compressive strength (79% in the Mg-7.5CCA composite was achieved when compared to that of pure Mg while maintaining the same ductility level. When compared to ball-milled amorphous particle-reinforced and ceramic-particle-reinforced Mg composites, higher yield and compressive strengths in Mg-CCA composites were achieved at a similar ductility level.

  6. Mechanical properties of kenaf bast and core fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishak, M R; Leman, Z; Sapuan, S M [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Edeerozey, A M M; Othman, I S, E-mail: zleman@eng.upm.edu.my [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, 76109 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    Kenaf fibre has high potential to be used for composite reinforcement in biocomposite material. It is made up of an inner woody core and an outer fibrous bark surrounding the core. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of short kenaf bast and core fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites with varying fibre weight fraction i.e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The compression moulding technique was used to prepare the composite specimens for tensile, flexural and impact tests in accordance to the ASTM D5083, ASTM D790 and ASTM D256 respectively. The overall results showed that the composites reinforced with kenaf bast fibre had higher mechanical properties than kenaf core fibre composites. The results also showed that the optimum fibre content for achieving highest tensile strength for both bast and core fibre composites was 20%wt. It was also observed that the elongation at break for both composites decreased as the fibre content increased. For the flexural strength, the optimum fibre content for both composites was 10%wt while for impact strength, it was at 10%wt and 5%wt for bast and core fibre composites respectively.

  7. Kenaf Fibre Reinforced Polypropylene Composites: Effect of Cyclic Immersion on Tensile Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Haniffah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research studied the degradation of tensile properties of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites due to cyclic immersion into two different solutions, as well as comparison of the developed composites’ tensile properties under continuous and cyclic immersion. Composites with 40% and 60% fibre loadings were immersed in tap water and bleach for 4 cycles. Each cycle consisted of 3 days of immersion and 4 days of conditioning in room temperature (28°C and 55% humidity. The tensile strength and modulus of composites were affected by fibre composition, type of liquid of immersion, and number of cycles. The number of immersion cycles and conditioning caused degradation to tensile strength and modulus of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. Continuous and cyclic immersion in bleach caused tensile strength of the composites to differ significantly whereas, for tensile modulus, the difference was insignificant in any immersion and fibre loadings. However, continuous immersion in the bleach reduced the tensile strength of composites more compared to cyclic immersion. These preliminary results suggest further evaluation of the suitability of kenaf fibre reinforced polypropylene composites for potential bathroom application where the composites will be exposed to water/liquid in cyclic manner due to discontinuous usage of bathroom.

  8. Mechanical properties of kenaf bast and core fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishak, M R; Leman, Z; Sapuan, S M; Edeerozey, A M M; Othman, I S

    2010-01-01

    Kenaf fibre has high potential to be used for composite reinforcement in biocomposite material. It is made up of an inner woody core and an outer fibrous bark surrounding the core. The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of short kenaf bast and core fibre reinforced unsaturated polyester composites with varying fibre weight fraction i.e. 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 40%. The compression moulding technique was used to prepare the composite specimens for tensile, flexural and impact tests in accordance to the ASTM D5083, ASTM D790 and ASTM D256 respectively. The overall results showed that the composites reinforced with kenaf bast fibre had higher mechanical properties than kenaf core fibre composites. The results also showed that the optimum fibre content for achieving highest tensile strength for both bast and core fibre composites was 20%wt. It was also observed that the elongation at break for both composites decreased as the fibre content increased. For the flexural strength, the optimum fibre content for both composites was 10%wt while for impact strength, it was at 10%wt and 5%wt for bast and core fibre composites respectively.

  9. Jordanian silica sand and cement as a reinforcement material for polystyrene matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalham, S. I.

    1999-01-01

    The behaviour of polystyrene matrix composites with different percentages of Jordaanian Silica Sand as a Reinforcement Materials (0, 5, 25, 50, and 75 wt%) and different mean grain sizes of sand particles (60, 75, 85, and 300μ m) and with cement as a boning materials in the amount fo 1/6 wt% of the wt% of silica sand were manufactured and tested under compression loading in the Industrial Engineering Department as the Uninersity of Jordan as a part of large study on local materials. The main conclusions of this investigation are: a long-term, durable structure of the polystyrene composite reinforced by silica sand and cement was achieved by mixing the constituents with water; the higher the volume fraction of the reinforcement, the higher the volume fraction of reinforcement, the higher the strength while for 75% of reinforcement, the strength dropped to an amount less than that of the matrix; the higher the grain size, the higher the strength; longitudinal brittle fracture was observed for the composites, and a homogeneous distribution of the sand particles helped in increasing the strength of the composite by playing an important role in distributing the applied load. (author). 11 refs., 6 tabs, 2 figs

  10. Strengthening mechanism in graphene nanoplatelets reinforced aluminum composite fabricated through spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisht, Ankita [Biomaterials and Multiscale Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Srivastava, Mukul [Biomaterials and Multiscale Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Nanomaterials and Applications Laboratory, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Kumar, R. Manoj [Biomaterials and Multiscale Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Lahiri, Indranil [Nanomaterials and Applications Laboratory, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India); Lahiri, Debrupa, E-mail: dlahifmt@iitr.ac.in [Biomaterials and Multiscale Mechanics Laboratory, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2017-05-17

    Graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) reinforced aluminum matrix composites, with ≤5 wt% GNP content, were synthesized by spark plasma sintering (SPS). GNPs were found to withstand severe conditions of high pressure and temperature during processing. Strength of composite was observed to be depending on the content and uniform dispersion of GNP in aluminum matrix, as verified by scanning electron micrographs. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that no reaction products exist at Al-GNP interface in significant amount. Instrumented indentation studies revealed improvement in hardness by 21.4% with 1 wt% GNP. This is due to the presence of stronger reinforcement, which provides high resistance to matrix against deformation. Improvement in yield strength and tensile strength was 84.5% and 54.8%, respectively, with 1 wt% GNP reinforcement. Properties deteriorated at higher concentration due to agglomeration of GNP. Reinforcing effect of GNPs, in terms of strengthening of composite, is found to be dominated by Orowan strengthening mechanism. Pinning of grains boundaries by GNPs led to uniform grain size distribution in the composites structure. Overall, graphene reinforcement has offered 86% improvement in specific strength of aluminum matrix.

  11. Effect of Different Fillers on Adhesive Wear Properties of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Feyzullahoğlu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric composites are used for different aims as substitute of traditional materials such as metals; due to their improved strength at small specific weight. The fiber reinforced polymer (FRP composite material consists of polymeric matrix and reinforcing material. Polymeric materials are commonly reinforced with synthetic fibers such as glass and carbon. The glass fiber reinforced polyester (GFRP composites are used with different filler materials. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different filler materials on adhesive wear behavior of GFRP. In this experimental study; polymetilmetacrilat (PMMA, Glass beads (GB and Glass sand (GS were used as filling material in GFRP composite samples. The adhesive wear behaviors of samples were carried out using ball on disc type tribometer. The friction force and coefficient of friction were measured during the test. The volume loss and wear rate values of samples were calculated according to test results. Barcol hardness values of samples were measured. The densities of samples were measured. Results show that the wear resistance of GB filled GFRP composite samples was much more than non-filled and PMMA filled GFRP composite samples.

  12. Mechanical properties of ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite for socket prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tresna Soemardi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation into the application of natural fiber composite especially ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite for socket prosthesis. The research focuses on the tensile and shear strength from ramie fiber reinforced epoxy lamina composite which will be applied as alternative material for socket prosthesis. The research based on American Society for Testing Material (ASTM standard D 3039/D 3039M for tensile strength and ASTM D 4255/D 4255M-83 for shear strength. The ramie fiber applied is a fiber continue 100 % Ne14'S with Epoxy Resin Bakelite EPR 174 as matrix and Epoxy Hardener V-140 as hardener. The sample composite test made by hand lay up method. Multiaxial characteristic from ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite will be compared with ISO standard for plastic/polymer for health application and refers strength of material application at Prosthetics and Orthotics. The analysis was completed with the mode of the failure and the failure criterion observation by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Based on results of the research could be concluded that ramie fiber reinforced epoxy composite could be developed further as the alternative material for socket prosthesis on Vf 40-50%. Results of the research will be discussed in more detail in this paper.

  13. Tensile and Compressive Responses of Ceramic and Metallic Nanoparticle Reinforced Mg Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quy Bau Nguyen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, room temperature mechanical properties of pure magnesium, Mg/ZrO2 and Mg/(ZrO2 + Cu composites with various compositions are investigated. Results revealed that the use of hybrid (ZrO2 + Cu reinforcements in Mg led to enhanced mechanical properties when compared to that of single reinforcement (ZrO2. Marginal reduction in mechanical properties of Mg/ZrO2 composites were observed mainly due to clustering of ZrO2 particles in Mg matrix and lack of matrix grain refinement. Addition of hybrid reinforcements led to grain size reduction and uniform distribution of hybrid reinforcements, globally and locally, in the hybrid composites. Macro- and micro- hardness, tensile strengths and compressive strengths were all significantly increased in the hybrid composites. With respect to unreinforced magnesium, failure strain was almost unchanged under tensile loading while it was reduced under compressive loading for both Mg/ZrO2 and Mg/(ZrO2 + Cu composites.

  14. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite reinforcement in mechanically alloyed NiTi composites for biomedical implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akmal, Muhammad; Raza, Ahmad; Khan, Muhammad Mudasser; Khan, M. Imran; Hussain, Muhammad Asif

    2016-01-01

    Equi-atomic NiTi alloy composites reinforced with 0, 2, 4 and 6 vol.% nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) were successfully synthesized using pressureless sintering. Pure Ni and Ti elements were ball milled for 10 h in order to produce a mechanically alloyed equi-atomic NiTi alloy (MA-NiTi). Mechanically alloyed NiTi and HA powders were blended, compacted and then sintered for 3 h at 1325 K. The sintered density varied inversely with volume percent of HA reinforcement. The X-Ray diffraction spectra and SEM images showed the formation of multiple phases like NiTi, NiTi 2 , Ni 3 Ti, and Ni 4 Ti 3 . The back scattered-SEM image analysis confirmed the presence of Ni-rich and Ti-rich phases with increasing HA content. The 6 vol.% HA reinforced composite showed Ni 3 Ti as the major phase having the highest hardness value which can be attributed to the presence of relatively harder phases along with higher HA content as a reinforcement. The composite of MA-NiTi with 2 vol.% HA manifested the most desirable results in the form of better sintering density mainly due to the minute decomposition of NiTi into other phases. Therefore, the 2 vol.% reinforced MA-NiTi composite can be exploited as a novel material for manufacturing biomedical implants. - Highlights: • NiTi-HA composites were synthesized using powder metallurgy route. • New phases such as NiTi 2 , Ni 3 Ti and Ni 4 Ti 3 were observed for sintered composites. • Mechanical properties enhanced with the increasing content of HA and new phases. • No martensitic transformation was observed for all composites by DSC analysis. • 2 vol.% HA composite is a novel candidate for biomedical implants.

  15. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite reinforcement in mechanically alloyed NiTi composites for biomedical implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akmal, Muhammad, E-mail: muhammad.akmal@giki.edu.pk [Faculty of Materials and Chemical Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640 (Pakistan); Raza, Ahmad, E-mail: ahmadrazac@yahoo.com [Faculty of Materials and Chemical Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640 (Pakistan); Khan, Muhammad Mudasser; Khan, M. Imran [Faculty of Materials and Chemical Engineering, GIK Institute of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Topi 23640 (Pakistan); Hussain, Muhammad Asif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kangwon National University, Samcheok, 25913 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Equi-atomic NiTi alloy composites reinforced with 0, 2, 4 and 6 vol.% nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) were successfully synthesized using pressureless sintering. Pure Ni and Ti elements were ball milled for 10 h in order to produce a mechanically alloyed equi-atomic NiTi alloy (MA-NiTi). Mechanically alloyed NiTi and HA powders were blended, compacted and then sintered for 3 h at 1325 K. The sintered density varied inversely with volume percent of HA reinforcement. The X-Ray diffraction spectra and SEM images showed the formation of multiple phases like NiTi, NiTi{sub 2}, Ni{sub 3}Ti, and Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}. The back scattered-SEM image analysis confirmed the presence of Ni-rich and Ti-rich phases with increasing HA content. The 6 vol.% HA reinforced composite showed Ni{sub 3}Ti as the major phase having the highest hardness value which can be attributed to the presence of relatively harder phases along with higher HA content as a reinforcement. The composite of MA-NiTi with 2 vol.% HA manifested the most desirable results in the form of better sintering density mainly due to the minute decomposition of NiTi into other phases. Therefore, the 2 vol.% reinforced MA-NiTi composite can be exploited as a novel material for manufacturing biomedical implants. - Highlights: • NiTi-HA composites were synthesized using powder metallurgy route. • New phases such as NiTi{sub 2}, Ni{sub 3}Ti and Ni{sub 4}Ti{sub 3} were observed for sintered composites. • Mechanical properties enhanced with the increasing content of HA and new phases. • No martensitic transformation was observed for all composites by DSC analysis. • 2 vol.% HA composite is a novel candidate for biomedical implants.

  16. Conifer fibers as reinforcing materials for polypropylene-based composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plackett, David; Chengzhi, Chuai; Almdal, Kristoffer

    2001-01-01

    in improved processing, as well as improvements in the thermal and mechanical properties of the resultant composites compared with the composites filled with untreated conifer fibers. Moreover, MAPP grafting and MAPP treating displayed more obvious benefits than EPDM treating in terms of thermal properties...

  17. Investigation into ramie whisker reinforced arylated soy protein composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available isolate (SPI). Thiodiglycol was used as a plasticizer for the preparation of SW composites. The SW composites were arylated with 2,2-diphenyl-2-hydroxyethanoic acid through the process of “dip-coating” and coded as SW-B. In this paper, the characterization...

  18. Graphite-Reinforced Polycyanate Composites for Space and Missile Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    ground experiment (pp. E-61). ACTEX I (Advanced Control Technology Experiment) is scheduled for the STEP-3 flight in July 1994. It is fabricated in an...Marietta 3:30 Clementine Panels, etc. G. Krumweide, Composite Optics 3:50 ACTEX , etc. R. Lewis, TRW 4:10 All-Composite Spacecraft, etc. H. Dursch

  19. Determination of moisture in fiber reinforced composites using pulsed NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzkanin, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals from hydrogen atoms in two organic matrix composite systems subjected to environmental conditioning at 51.6 C (125 F) and 95% relative humidity were examined. The composites were 8 ply, + or - 45 deg laminates fabricated from SP 250 resin/S2 glass fiber and Reliabond 9350 resin/Kevlar 49 fiber. Free induction decay NMR signals from the composite specimens consisted of a large amplitude, fast decaying component associated with hydrogen in rigid polymer molecules and a lower amplitude, slower decaying component associated with hydrogen in the mobile absorbed moisture molecules. The absorbed moisture NMR signals consists of distinct multiple components which were attributed to moisture in various states of molecular binding. Particularly complex free induction decay signals were observed from Kevlar composite as well as from Kevlar fiber. Good correlation was obtained between the NMR signal amplitude and the dry weight moisture percentage for both composite systems. Results of destructive tensile tests were examined

  20. Research Progress on Carbon Nanotubes Reinforced Cu-matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAO Jing-mei

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The critical issues of CNTs/Cu composites were reviewed. The preparation techniques of the composites were classified, and the research progress on powder metallurgic methods, electrochemical methods and other methods was summarized, with an emphasis on the relationship between preparation methods and properties. The interfacial characteristic of the CNTs/Cu composites was analyzed, and the research progress and existing problems of mechanical properties, electrical properties, thermal properties and wear and friction properties of the composites were also summarized. It was pointed out that the key to increase the comprehensive properties of the composites is to obtain the homogeneous distribution of CNTs and good interfacial bonding between CNTs and the Cu matrix by improving the preparation methods.

  1. Development of Composite Made of HDPE and Fiber Reinforced Polymer Dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamad Noor Izwan Ishak; Ismail Mustapha; Mohd Reusmazran Yusof; Yusof Abdullah; Nor Pai'za Mohamad Hasan; Mohamad Ridzuan Ahamad; Md Fakarudin Ab Rahman; Hafizal Yazid; Ainul Mardhiah Terry; Airwan Affandi Mahmood; Nurliyana Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Composite of High Density Polyethylene and Fiber Reinforced Polymer Dust (HDPE/ FRPD) were prepared by melt mixing technique. The blend was mixed and compression molded by hydraulic press at 150 degree Celsius. Effect of blend ratio on mechanical properties of the developed composite was determined. Tensile properties of the blends found to show decreasing trend with addition of FRPD. While impact strength and hardness properties showed promising result. Reuse of ' Fiber Reinforced Polymer ' dust can be improved by the present invention. (author)

  2. Composite material reinforced with atomized quasicrystalline particles and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biner, S.B.; Sordelet, D.J.; Lograsso, B.K.; Anderson, I.E.

    1998-12-22

    A composite material comprises an aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix having generally spherical, atomized quasicrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy reinforcement particles disposed in the matrix to improve mechanical properties. A composite article can be made by consolidating generally spherical, atomized quasicrystalline aluminum-transition metal alloy particles and aluminum or aluminum alloy particles to form a body that is cold and/or hot reduced to form composite products, such as composite plate or sheet, with interfacial bonding between the quasicrystalline particles and the aluminum or aluminum alloy matrix without damage (e.g. cracking or shape change) of the reinforcement particles. The cold and/or hot worked composite exhibits substantially improved yield strength, tensile strength, Young`s modulus (stiffness). 3 figs.

  3. Sorption of diesel oil from polyurethane composite reinforced with palm fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, I.R.; Cipriano, J.P.; Costa, I.L.M.; Mulinari, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    One of the methods to contain the diesel oil spill is the application of materials polymeric sorbents and the polyurethane is an option of porous sorbents. In this way, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of polyurethane composites derivative of castor oil reinforced with palm fibers to sorption of diesel oil and compare with pure polyurethane. The composites were reinforced with 5 to 20% w/w of fibers. Subsequently, the sorption capacity of the composite in function of inserted fiber content in the matrix was analyzed. The physical and morphological characteristics were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM) and diffraction X-ray (XRD) and the contact angle. The results showed that the composite with 20% w /w showed higher sorption capacity oil diesel compared to pure PU and other composites this fact was due to the heterogeneity of the pores and dispersion of fiber in the matrix. (author)

  4. Development of inorganic composites with radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasamatsu, Tomomichi

    1974-01-01

    The applications of radiation to fiber reinforced plastics, concrete polymer composites, and other resin composites are reviewed. The radiation method for hardening glass fiber and unsaturated polyester composite has been studied in place of conventional catalytic thermosetting method. In the catalytic thermosetting method, operation cycle time is 2 to 3 minutes, but the radiation method requires only a few seconds with a 100 mA electron accelerator. A pilot plant was equipped with an accelerator of 3 MeV, and the dimensions were 60 cm in width and 2 m in irradiation part length. The manufacturing cost by the radiation method may be one third or a half of that of catalytic thermosetting method. The degree of reaction of the product hardened by the radiation method was almost 100%, and its weight reduction was notable to be recognized, so that the radiation method can eliminate the step of heating at 100 0 C for 2 hours required for the catalytic thermosetting method. The visible light transparency of the product by radiation method is excellent. Its bending strength is higher than that of thermosetting products. With the lapse of time after irradiation, the bending strength improves as much as 10%. This improvement is a special feature of the radiation method, and seems to be caused by the life of radicals of solid. Concrete polymer composites are produced by drying basic materials, deairing in vacuum, impregnating a monomer, packaging and irradiating the impregnated material. The bending and compression strength of the product are twice as high as those of the product by conventional method. Coral-resin MMA composite shows pretty striae and color contrast. Red mud - modified polyethylene composite gives bending strength of 350 kg/cm 2 . (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. Friction Stir Processing of Copper-Coated SiC Particulate-Reinforced Aluminum Matrix Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Wei Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we proposed a novel friction stir processing (FSP to produce a locally reinforced aluminum matrix composite (AMC by stirring copper-coated SiC particulate reinforcement into Al6061 alloy matrix. Electroless-plating process was applied to deposit the copper surface coating on the SiC particulate reinforcement for the purpose of improving the interfacial adhesion between SiC particles and Al matrix. The core-shell SiC structure provides a layer for the atomic diffusion between aluminum and copper to enhance the cohesion between reinforcing particles and matrix on one hand, the dispersion of fine copper in the Al matrix during FSP provides further dispersive strengthening and solid solution strengthening, on the other hand. Hardness distribution and tensile results across the stir zone validated the novel concept in improving the mechanical properties of AMC that was realized via FSP. Optical microscope (OM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM investigations were conducted to investigate the microstructure. Energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS, electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD were explored to analyze the atomic inter-diffusion and the formation of intermetallic at interface. The possible strengthening mechanisms of the AMC containing Cu-coated SiC particulate reinforcement were interpreted. The concept of strengthening developed in this work may open a new way of fabricating of particulate reinforced metal matrix composites.

  6. Fire-retardant Polyester Composites from Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Wastes Reinforced with Coconut Fibre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Munirah Abdullah; Ishak Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Coconut fibre reinforced composite was prepared by blending unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) from waste PET with 0.3 v % of coconut fibre. The coconut fibres were pre-treated with sodium hydroxide followed by silane prior to inclusion into the UPR. The untreated coconut fibres reinforced composite were used as a control. DriconR as a phosphate type of flame retardant was then added to the composite to reduce the flammability of the composite. The amount of DriconR was varied from 0 to 10 wt % of the overall mass of resin. The burning properties and limiting oxygen index (LOI) of the treated and untreated composites increased with the addition of Dricon. The tensile strength and modulus of both composites were also increased with the addition of DriconR. The treated fibre composite with 5 wt % DriconR showed the highest burning time and LOI with the values of 101.5 s and 34 s, respectively. The optimum tensile strength and modulus for treated fibre composite was at 5 wt % DriconR whereas the untreated fibre composite was at 2.5 wt % loading of DriconR. Thermogravimetry (TGA) analysis indicated that the degradation temperature increased with the addition of DriconR up to 5 wt % into UPR/ coconut fibre composites. Morphological observations indicated better distribution of DriconR for treated fibre composite resulted in enhancement of the tensile properties of the treated fibre composite. (author)

  7. Mechanical and thermal properties of date palm leaf fiber reinforced recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehghani, Alireza; Madadi Ardekani, Sara; Al-Maadeed, Mariam A.; Hassan, Azman; Wahit, Mat Uzir

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel natural fiber reinforced recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) composite was prepared. • Mechanical performance and thermal behavior of the composites were investigated. • Composites with improved toughness and strength were achieved. - Abstract: Development of a recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PETr) reinforced with surface treated date palm leaf fiber (DPLF) composites with enhanced mechanical properties have been studied. Surface modified date palm leaf fiber reinforced PETr composites were prepared using twin-screw extruder followed by injection molding and the influence of the DPLF content on the mechanical and thermal behavior of the PETr matrix was evaluated. Upon the addition of fibers, remarkable enhancements in the mechanical properties of the composites were observed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images taken from DPLF fibers showed significant enhancements in the fiber’s surface topography after the surface treatment process. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that the addition of DPLF to PETr matrix increased the composites toughness. The crystallization behavior of the samples, analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) indicated an increase in the onset crystallization temperature and showed a higher degree of crystallinity of the composites as compared to PETr, demonstrating that DPLF particles could act as nucleating agents. The results point to the composite’s potential in wider indoor applications

  8. Evaluation of mechanical properties of hybrid fiber (hemp, jute, kevlar) reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresha, K. V.; Shivanand, H. K.; Amith, A.; Vidyasagar, H. N.

    2018-04-01

    In today's world composites play wide role in all the engineering fields. The reinforcement of composites decides the properties of the material. Natural fiber composites compared to synthetic fiber possesses poor mechanical properties. The solution for this problem is to use combination of natural fiber and synthetic fiber. Hybridization helps to improve the overall mechanical properties of the material. In this study, hybrid reinforced composites of Hemp fabric/Kevlar fabric/Epoxy and Jute fabric/ Kevlar fabric/Epoxy composites are fabricated using Simple hand layup technique followed by Vacuum bagging process. Appropriate test methods as per standards and guidelines are followed to analyze mechanical behavior of the composites. The mechanical characteristics like tensile, compression and flexural properties of the hybrid reinforced composites are tested as per the ASTM standards by series of tensile test; compression test and three point bending tests were conducted on the hybrid composites. A quantitative relationship between the Hemp fabric/Kevlar fabric/Epoxy and Jute/ Kevlar fabric/Epoxy has been established with constant thickness.

  9. Structural Analysis of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane Coated SiC Nanoparticles and Their Applications in Thermoset Polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza-E-Rabby, M.; Jeelani, Sh.; Rangari, V. K.

    2015-01-01

    The SiC nanoparticles (NPs) were sonochemically coated with Octa Isobutyl (OI) polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) to create a compatible interface between particle and thermoset polymer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used to analyze the structure of OI-POSS coated SiC nanoparticles. These results revealed the formation of a covalent bonding between SiC and OI-POSS. The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of OI-POSS coated SiC nanoparticles has also shown the indication of attachment between these two nanoparticles. The OI-POSS coated SiC nanoparticles were further reinforced into a thermoset resin system in order to evaluate mechanical and thermal properties of nano composites. The flexural strength, modulus, and glass transition temperature were found to be enhanced while SiC and OI-POSS coated SiC were infused into epoxy system compared to those properties of neat epoxy resin

  10. Structural reinforcement of a {theta}16 inches tee made during operation with composite material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beim, Andre [Tresca Engenharia Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vilani, Eduardo Cesar [Rust Engenharia Ltda., Diadema, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    An industrial installation went through a turnaround to increase capacity. A tie-in line had to be made for this, and a 16 inches diameter branch was required to be made on an existing 16 inches pipe. The joining of these elements resulted in a 'tee' that was supposed to receive a reinforcement plate. This reinforcement plate was not installed before the plant start-up. Code calculations and a finite element stress analysis showed that reinforcement was necessary. The only viable solution was the application of a composite material reinforcement, designed to substitute the missing reinforcement plate, and reduce the stresses to allowable levels. A new finite element stress analysis was made to determine the required thickness of this reinforcement. The first part of this work shows the results of the finite element stress analysis. Figures with stress contours of the analyses show the results. The second part shows the details of the installation of the reinforcement, which was made during normal operation of the plant. Pictures illustrate the main steps of the installation procedure. (author)

  11. Mechanical Reinforcement of Epoxy Composites with Carbon Fibers and HDPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, R.; Chang, Q.; Huang, X.; Li, J.

    2018-01-01

    Silanized carbon fibers (CFs) and a high-density polyethylene with amino terminal groups (HDPE) were introduced into epoxy resins to fabricate high-performance composites. A. mechanical characterization of the composites was performed to investigate the effect of CFs in cured epoxy/HDPE systems. The composites revealed a noticeable improvement in the tensile strength, elongation at break, flexural strength, and impact strength in comparison with those of neat epoxy and cured epoxy/HDPE systems. SEM micrographs showed that the toughening effect could be explained by yield deformations, phase separation, and microcracking.

  12. Mechanical, Spectroscopic and Micro-structural Characterization of Banana Particulate Reinforced PVC Composite as Piping Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Dan-asabe

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A banana particulate reinforced polyvinyl chloride (PVC composite was developed with considerabley low cost materials having an overall light-weight and good mechanical properties for potential application as piping material. The specimen composite material was produced with the banana (stem particulate as reinforcement using compression molding. Results showed that density and elastic Modulus of the composite decreases and increases respectively with increasing weight fraction of the particulate reinforcement. The tensile strength increased to a maximum of 42 MPa and then decreased steadily. The composition with optimum mechanical property (42 MPa was determined at 8, 62 and 30 % formulation of banana stem particulates (reinforcement, PVC (matrix and Kankara clay (filler respectively with corresponding percentage water absorption of 0.79 %, Young’s Modulus of 1.3 GPa, flexural strength of 92 MPa and density of 1.24 g/cm3. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR analysis of the constituents showed identical bands within the range 4000–1000 cm-1 with renown research work. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM result showed fairly uniform distribution of constituents’ phases. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF confirms the X-ray diffraction (XRD result of the presence of minerals of kaolinite, quartz, rutile and illite in the kaolin clay. Comparison with conventional piping materials showed the composite offered a price savings per meter length of 84 % and 25 % when compared with carbon steel and PVC material.

  13. Modelling the development of defects during composite reinforcements and prepreg forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamila, N.; Madeo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Defects in composite materials are created during manufacture to a large extent. To avoid them as much as possible, it is important that process simulations model the onset and the development of these defects. It is then possible to determine the manufacturing conditions that lead to the absence or to the controlled presence of such defects. Three types of defects that may appear during textile composite reinforcement or prepreg forming are analysed and modelled in this paper. Wrinkling is one of the most common flaws that occur during textile composite reinforcement forming processes. The influence of the different rigidities of the textile reinforcement is studied. The concept of ‘locking angle’ is questioned. A second type of unusual behaviour of fibrous composite reinforcements that can be seen as a flaw during their forming process is the onset of peculiar ‘transition zones’ that are directly related to the bending stiffness of the fibres. The ‘transition zones’ are due to the bending stiffness of fibres. The standard continuum mechanics of Cauchy is not sufficient to model these defects. A second gradient approach is presented that allows one to account for such unusual behaviours and to master their onset and development during forming process simulations. Finally, the large slippages that may occur during a preform forming are discussed and simulated with meso finite-element models used for macroscopic forming. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Multiscale modelling of the structural integrity of composite materials’. PMID:27242300

  14. Impact strength on fiber-reinforced hybrid composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firdaus, S M; Nurdina; Ariff, M Azmil

    2013-01-01

    Acrylonitrile-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS) has been well known composite in automotive players to have light weight with high impact strength material compared to sheet metal material which has high impact strength but heavy in weight. In this project, the impact strength properties of fabricated pure ABS were compared to the eight samples of hybrid ABS composite with different weight percentages of short fibers and particle sizes of ground rubber. The objective was to improve the impact strength in addition of short fibers and ground rubber particles. These samples were then characterized using an un-notched Izod impact test. Results show that the increasing of filler percentage yielded an adverse effect on the impact strength of the hybrid composite. The effect of the ground rubber particulate sizes however are deemed to be marginal than the effect of varying filler percentage based on the collected impact strength data from all physically tested hybrid composites

  15. Drilling analysis of coir–fibre-reinforced polyester composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    ... in a large variety of products, ranging from clothes to roofing of houses. Today, these fibre composites are appraised as eco- friendly materials owing to their biodegradability and ... method and the artificial neural network techniques. The.

  16. Constructive applications of composite gypsum reinforced with Typha Latifolia fibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Santos, A.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The present research analyses the possibility to reinforce gypsum using enea fibres (Typha Latifolia creating a compound material in wich the fibres contribute to increase mechanical resistance, producing as well a reduction of the weight and a possible regulation of the set time.

    La investigación presente analiza la posibilidad de reforzar los morteros de escayola mediante la utilización dé fibras de Typha Latifolia, creando un material compuesto en el que las fibras contribuyen al aumento de resistencia mecánica, a la vez que se produce una reducción del peso y una regulación de los tiempos de fraguado. Las propiedades de estos materiales hacen que, en determinadas aplicaciones, su utilización resulte ventajosa con respecto a materiales tradicionales.

  17. Robotic inspection of fiber reinforced composites using phased array UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Jeffrey T.; De Odorico, Walter

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasound is the current NDE method of choice to inspect large fiber reinforced airframe structures. Over the last 15 years Cartesian based scanning machines using conventional ultrasound techniques have been employed by all airframe OEMs and their top tier suppliers to perform these inspections. Technical advances in both computing power and commercially available, multi-axis robots now facilitate a new generation of scanning machines. These machines use multiple end effector tools taking full advantage of phased array ultrasound technologies yielding substantial improvements in inspection quality and productivity. This paper outlines the general architecture for these new robotic scanning systems as well as details the variety of ultrasonic techniques available for use with them including advances such as wide area phased array scanning and sound field adaptation for non-flat, non-parallel surfaces.

  18. Review on preparation techniques of particle reinforced metal matrix composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAO Bin

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the investigation status of the techniques for preparation of metal matrix composites and the research outcomes achieved recently. The mechanisms, characteristics, application ranges and levels of development of these preparation techniques are analyzed. The advantages and the disadvantages of each technique are synthetically evaluated. Lastly, the future directions of research and the prospects for the preparation techniques of metal matrix composites are forecasted.

  19. Metallic-fibre-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevost, F.; Schnedecker, G.; Boncoeur, M.

    1994-01-01

    A refractory metal wire cloth is embedded in an oxide ceramic matrix, using a plasma spraying technology, in order to elaborate composite plates. When mechanically tested, the composite fails with a pseudo-ductile fracture mode whereas the ceramic alone is originally brittle. It exhibits a higher fracture strength, and remains in the form of a single piece even when straining is important. No further heat treatment is needed after the original processing to reach these characteristics. (authors). 2 figs., 2 refs

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Pine Needles Reinforced RF Matrix Based Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Singha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis and characterization of pine needles reinforced thermosetting resin (Resorcinol-Formaldehyde which is most suitable as composite matrix has been reported. The polycondensation reaction between resorcinol and formaldehyde (RF in different molar ratios has been applied to the synthesis of RF polymer matrix. A thermosetting resin based composite, containing approximately 10, 20, 30 and 40% of natural fiber by weight, has been obtained by adding pine needles to the Resorcinol-Formaldehyde (RF resin. The mechanical properties of randomly oriented intimately mixed particle reinforced (Pine needles composites were determined. Effect of fiber loading in terms of weight % on mechanical properties such as tensile, compressive, and flexural and wear properties have also been evaluated. The reinforcing of the resin with Pine needles was accomplished in particle size of 200 micron by employing optimized resin. Present work reveals that mechanical properties of the RF resin increases to extensive extent when reinforced with Pine needles. Thermal (TGA/DTA and morphological studies (SEM of the resin, fiber and polymer composites thus synthesized have also been carried out.

  1. Influence of carbon nanotubes on the properties of epoxy based composites reinforced with a semicrystalline thermoplastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Pascual, A.; Shuttleworth, P.; Gónzalez-Castillo, E.; Marco, C.; Gómez-Fatou, M.; Ellis, G.

    2014-08-01

    Novel ternary nanocomposites based on a thermoset (TS) system composed of triglycidyl p-aminophenol (TGAP) epoxy resin and 4,4'-diaminodiphenylsulfone (DDS) curing agent incorporating 5 wt% of a semicrystalline thermoplastic (TP), an ethylene/1-octene copolymer, and 0.5 or 1.0 wt% multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) have been prepared via physical blending and curing. The influence of the TP and the MWCNTs on the curing process, morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of the hybrid nanocomposites has been analyzed. Different morphologies evolved depending on the CNT content: the material with 0.5 wt% MWCNTs showed a matrix-dispersed droplet-like morphology with well-dispersed nanofiller that selectively located at the TS/TP interphase, while that with 1.0 wt% MWCNTs exhibited coarse dendritic TP areas containing agglomerated MWCNTs. Although the cure reaction was accelerated in its early stage by the nanofillers, curing occurred at a lower rate since these obstructed chain crosslinking. The nanocomposite with lower nanotube content displayed two crystallization peaks at lower temperature than that of pure TP, while a single peak appearing at similar temperature to that of TP was observed for the blend with higher nanotube loading. The highest thermal stability was found for TS/TP (5.0 wt%)/MWCNTs (0.5 wt%), due to a synergistic barrier effect of both TP and the nanofiller. Moreover, this nanocomposite displayed the best mechanical properties, with an optimal combination of stiffness, strength and toughness. However, poorer performance was found for TS/TP (5.0 wt%)/MWCNTs (1.0 wt%) due to the less effective reinforcement of the agglomerated nanotubes and the coalescence of the TP particles into large areas. Therefore, finely tuned morphologies and properties can be obtained by adjusting the nanotube content in the TS/TP blends, leading to high-performance hybrid nanocomposites suitable for structural and high-temperature applications.

  2. Thermal Aging of Unsaturated Polyester Composite Reinforced with E-Glass Nonwoven Mat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain Milon

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out using glass fiber (GF as reinforcing materials with unsaturated polyester matrix to fabricate composite by hand layup technique. Four layers of GF were impregnated by polyester resin and pressed under a load of 5 kg for 20 hours. The prepared composite samples were treated by prolonged exposure to heat for 1 hour at 60-150°C and compared with untreated GF-polyester composite. Different mechanical test of the fabricated composite were investigated. The experiment depicted significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the fabricated composite resulted from the heat treatment. The maximum tensile strength of 200.6 MPa is found for 90°C heat-treated sample. The mechanical properties of the composite do seem to be very affected negatively above 100°C. Water uptake of the composite was carried out and thermal stability of the composite was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and it was found that the composite is stable up to 600°C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy shows the characteristic bond in the composite. Finally, the excellent elevated heat resistant capacity of glass-fiber-reinforced polymeric composite shows the suitability of its application to heat exposure areas such as kitchen furniture materials, marine, and electric board.

  3. Fabrication of magnesium based composites reinforced with carbon nanotubes having superior mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, Hiroyuki, E-mail: fukkun-fukuda@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kondoh, Katsuyoshi; Umeda, Junko [Joining and Welding Research Institution, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Fugetsu, Bunshi [Hokkaido University, Niow5, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Using the IPA based solution, the oxide-free pure Mg/CNTs composite powders could be prepared. {yields} The mechanical strength of the pure Mg composite reinforced with CNTs was not improved though the elongation was enhanced due to the elimination of MgO and less residual strain in the composite. {yields} The mechanical strength of the AZ61Mg alloy composite reinforced with CNTs was improved with maintaining adequate ductility due to the interfacial strengthening of Al{sub 2}MgC{sub 2} ternary carbide. {yields} The CNT addition was not influenced on the microstructure and grain orientations of the AZ61 Mg alloy matrix. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) composite reinforced with carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having superior mechanical properties was fabricated using both pure Mg and AZ61 Mg alloy matrix in this study. The composites were produced via powder metallurgy route containing wet process using isopropyl alcohol (IPA) based zwitterionic surfactant solution with unbundled CNTs. The produced composites were evaluated with tensile test and Vickers hardness test and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD). As a result, only with AZ61 Mg alloy matrix, tensile strength of the composite was improved. In situ formed Al{sub 2}MgC{sub 2} compounds at the interface between Mg matrix and CNTs effectively reinforced the interfacial bonding and enabled tensile loading transfer from the Mg matrix to nanotubes. Furthermore, it was clarified that the microstructures and grain orientations of the composite matrix were not significantly influenced by CNT addition.

  4. Mechanical, degradation and cytocompatibility properties of magnesium coated phosphate glass fibre reinforced polycaprolactone composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoling; Hasan, Muhammad S; Grant, David M; Harper, Lee T; Parsons, Andrew J; Palmer, Graham; Rudd, Chris D; Ahmed, Ifty

    2014-11-01

    Retention of mechanical properties of phosphate glass fibre reinforced degradable polyesters such as polycaprolactone and polylactic acid in aqueous media has been shown to be strongly influenced by the integrity of the fibre/polymer interface. A previous study utilising 'single fibre' fragmentation tests found that coating with magnesium improved the fibre and matrix interfacial shear strength. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a magnesium coating on the manufacture and characterisation of a random chopped fibre reinforced polycaprolactone composite. Short chopped strand non-woven phosphate glass fibre mats were sputter coated with degradable magnesium to manufacture phosphate glass fibre/polycaprolactone composites. The degradation behaviour (water uptake, mass loss and pH change of the media) of these polycaprolactone composites as well as of pure polycaprolactone was investigated in phosphate buffered saline. The Mg coated fibre reinforced composites revealed less water uptake and mass loss during degradation compared to the non-coated composites. The cations released were also explored and a lower ion release profile for all three cations investigated (namely Na(+), Mg(2+) and Ca(2+)) was seen for the Mg coated composite samples. An increase of 17% in tensile strength and 47% in tensile modulus was obtained for the Mg coated composite samples. Both flexural and tensile properties were investigated and a higher retention of mechanical properties was obtained for the Mg coated fibre reinforced composite samples up to 10 days immersion in PBS. Cytocompatibility study showed both composite samples (coated and non-coated) had good cytocompatibility with human osteosarcoma cell line. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  5. Nanofiber reinforcement of a geopolymer matrix for improved composite materials mechanical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, AKM Samsur

    Geopolymers have the potential to cross the process performance gap between polymer matrix and ceramic matrix composites (CMC), enabling high temperature capable composites that are manufactured at relatively low temperatures. Unfortunately, the inherently low toughness of these geopolymers limits the performance of the resulting fiber reinforced geopolymer matrix composites. Toughness improvements in composites can be addressed through the adjustments in the fiber/matrix interfacial strength and through the improvements in the inherent toughness of the constituent materials. This study investigates the potential to improve the inherent toughness of the geopolymer matrix material through the addition of nanofillers, by considering physical dimensions, mechanical properties, reinforcing capability and interfacial bond strength effects. A process optimization study was first undertaken to develop the ability to produce consistent, neat geopolymer samples, a critical precursor to producing nano-filled geopolymer for toughness evaluation. After that, single edge notched bend beam fracture toughness and un-notched beam flexural strength were evaluated for silicon carbide, alumina and carbon nanofillers reinforced geopolymer samples treated at various temperatures in reactive and inert environments. Toughness results of silicon carbide and carbon nanofillers reinforced geopolymers suggested that with the improved baseline properties, high aspect ratio nanofillers with high interfacial bond strength are the most capable in further improving the toughness of geopolymers. Among the high aspect ratio nanofillers i.e. nanofibers, 2vol% silicon carbide whicker (SCW) showed the highest improvement in fracture toughness and flexural strength of ~164% & ~185%, respectively. After heat treatment at 650 °C, SCW reinforcement was found to be effective, with little reduction in the performance, while the performance of alumina nanofiber (ANF) reinforced geopolymer significantly

  6. Microstructure and hardness of WC-Co particle reinforced iron matrix surface composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a high Cr cast iron surface composite material reinforced with WC-Co particles 2-6 mm in size was prepared using a pressureless sand mold infiltration casting technique. The composition, microstructure and hardness were determined by means of energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA, scanning electron microscope (SEM and Rockwell hardness measurements. It is determined that the obtained composite layer is about 15 mm thick with a WC-Co particle volumetric fraction of ~38%. During solidification, interface reaction takes place between WC-Co particles and high chromium cast iron. Melting and dissolving of prefabricated particles are also found, suggesting that local Co melting and diffusion play an important role in promoting interface metallurgical bonding. The composite layer is composed of ferrite and a series of carbides, such as (Cr, W, Fe23C6, WC, W2C, M6C and M12C. The inhomogeneous hardness in the obtained composite material shows a gradient decrease from the particle reinforced metal matrix composite layer to the matrix layer. The maximum hardness of 86.3 HRA (69.5 HRC is obtained on the particle reinforced surface, strongly indicating that the composite can be used as wear resistant material.

  7. Studying impact damage on carbon-fiber reinforced aircraft composite panels with sonicir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Xiaoyan; Zhang Ding; He Qi; Song Yuyang; Lubowicki, Anthony; Zhao Xinyue; Newaz, Golam.; Favro, Lawrence D.; Thomas, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    Composites are becoming more important materials in commercial aircraft structures such as the fuselage and wings with the new B787 Dreamliner from Boeing which has the target to utilize 50% by weight of composite materials. Carbon-fiber reinforced composites are the material of choice in aircraft structures. This is due to their light weight and high strength (high strength-to-weight ratio), high specific stiffness, tailorability of properties, design flexibility etc. Especially, by reducing the aircraft's body weight by using such lighter structures, the cost of fuel can be greatly reduced with the high jet fuel price for commercial airlines. However, these composites are prone to impact damage and the damage may occur without any observable sign on the surface, yet resulting in delaminations and disbonds that may occur well within the layers. We are studying the impact problem with carbon-fiber reinforced composite panels and developing SonicIR for this application as a fast and wide-area NDE technology. In this paper, we present our results in studying composite structures including carbon-fiber reinforced composite materials, and preliminary quantitative studies on delamination type defect depth identification in the panels.

  8. Mechanical properties of fiber reinforced restorative composite with two distinguished fiber length distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassila, Lippo; Garoushi, Sufyan; Vallittu, Pekka K; Säilynoja, Eija

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reinforcing effect of discontinuous glass fiber fillers with different length scales on fracture toughness and flexural properties of dental composite. Experimental fiber reinforced composite (Exp-FRC) was prepared by mixing 27wt% of discontinuous E-glass fibers having two different length scales (micrometer and millimeter) with various weight ratios (1:1, 2:1, 1:0 respectively) to the 23wt% of dimethacrylate based resin matrix and then 50wt% of silane treated silica filler were added gradually using high speed mixing machine. As control, commercial FRC and conventional posterior composites were used (everX Posterior, Alert, and Filtek Superme). Fracture toughness, work of fracture, flexural strength, and flexural modulus were determined for each composite material following ISO standards. The specimens (n=6) were dry stored (37°C for 2 days) before they were tested. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the microstructure of the experimental FRC composites. The results were statistically analyzed using ANOVA followed by post-hoc Tukey׳s test. Level of significance was set at 0.05. ANOVA revealed that experimental composites reinforced with different fiber length scales (hybrid Exp-FRC) had statistically significantly higher mechanical performance of fracture toughness (4.7MPam(1/2)) and flexural strength (155MPa) (plength scales of discontinues fiber fillers (hybrid) with polymer matrix yielded improved mechanical performance compared to commercial FRC and conventional posterior composites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Niobium Carbide-Reinforced Al Matrix Composites Produced by High-Energy Ball Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travessa, Dilermando Nagle; Silva, Marina Judice; Cardoso, Kátia Regina

    2017-06-01

    Aluminum and its alloys are key materials for the transportation industry as they contribute to the development of lightweight structures. The dispersion of hard ceramic particles in the Al soft matrix can lead to a substantial strengthening effect, resulting in composite materials exhibiting interesting mechanical properties and inspiring their technological use in sectors like the automotive and aerospace industries. Powder metallurgy techniques are attractive to design metal matrix composites, achieving a homogeneous distribution of the reinforcement into the metal matrix. In this work, pure aluminum has been reinforced with particles of niobium carbide (NbC), an extremely hard and stable refractory ceramic. Its use as a reinforcing phase in metal matrix composites has not been deeply explored. Composite powders produced after different milling times, with 10 and 20 vol pct of NbC were produced by high-energy ball milling and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and by X-ray diffraction to establish a relationship between the milling time and size, morphology, and distribution of the particles in the composite powder. Subsequently, an Al/10 pct NbC composite powder was hot extruded into cylindrical bars. The strength of the obtained composite bars is comparable to the commercial high-strength, aeronautical-grade aluminum alloys.

  10. Water Absorption Behaviour and Its Effect on the Mechanical Properties of Flax Fibre Reinforced Bioepoxy Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Muñoz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the context of sustainable development, considerable interest is being shown in the use of natural fibres like as reinforcement in polymer composites and in the development of resins from renewable resources. This paper focuses on eco-friendly and sustainable green composites manufacturing using resin transfer moulding (RTM process. Flax fibre reinforced bioepoxy composites at different weight fractions (40 and 55 wt% were prepared in order to study the effect of water absorption on their mechanical properties. Water absorption test was carried out by immersion specimens in water bath at room temperature for a time duration. The process of water absorption of these composites was found to approach Fickian diffusion behavior. Diffusion coefficients and maximum water uptake values were evaluated; the results showed that both increased with an increase in fibre content. Tensile and flexural properties of water immersed specimens were evaluated and compared to dry composite specimens. The results suggest that swelling of flax fibres due to water absorption can have positive effects on mechanical properties of the composite material. The results of this study showed that RTM process could be used to manufacture natural fibre reinforced composites with good mechanical properties even for potential applications in a humid environment.

  11. Reaction synthesis and microstructure of Al-Ti preform for composite reinforcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Naplocha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Production method of intermetallic porous perform for reinforcing of composite materials were clabontcd. Mixterc of aluminum andtitanium powder was cold isostaticalIy prcsscd (ClPed and such produced cylindrical pill was ignited in microwave field. Obtainedstructures usually have open porosity what making thcm enables for pressure infil [rat ion with mctltcn mctal. Thc investigations of ~hcstructure revealed uniform morphology and globular structure of AI-Ti compound which achieved much higher microhardness thansubstrates. Obtained perform can be widcly used as the reinforcement to produce hybrid composite materials by the infiltration method.Aluminum casting alloys can be locally reinforced to improve hardness and resistance 10 oxidization at high tcrnpcraturc.

  12. Bioinspired, Graphene/Al2O3 Doubly Reinforced Aluminum Composites with High Strength and Toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunya; Li, Xiaodong

    2017-11-08

    Nacre, commonly referred to as nature's armor, has served as a blueprint for engineering stronger and tougher bioinspired materials. Nature organizes a brick-and-mortar-like architecture in nacre, with hard bricks of aragonite sandwiched with soft biopolymer layers. However, cloning nacre's entire reinforcing mechanisms in engineered materials remains a challenge. In this study, we employed hybrid graphene/Al 2 O 3 platelets with surface nanointerlocks as hard bricks for primary load bearer and mechanical interlocking, along with aluminum laminates as soft mortar for load distribution and energy dissipation, to replicate nacre's architecture and reinforcing effects in aluminum composites. Compared with aluminum, the bioinspired, graphene/Al 2 O 3 doubly reinforced aluminum composite demonstrated an exceptional, joint improvement in hardness (210%), strength (223%), stiffness (78%), and toughness (30%), which are even superior over nacre. This design strategy and model material system should guide the synthesis of bioinspired materials to achieve exceptionally high strength and toughness.

  13. Effect of sintering temperatures on titanium matrix composites reinforced by ceramic particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, F.; Amigo, V.; Busquets, D.; Klyatskina, E. [Mechanical and Materials Engineering Department. Polytechnical University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain)

    2005-07-01

    Titanium and titanium composites have a potential use in aerospace and biotechnology industries, and nowadays in others like sports and fashion ones. In this work composite materials, based on titanium matrix reinforced with ceramic particles, have been developed. PM route is used to obtain compact and sintered samples. TiN and TiAl powders, are milled with Ti powder in different volumetric percentages in a ball mill. These mixtures are pressed in a uniaxial press and sintered in a vacuum furnace at different temperatures between 1180 to 1220 deg. C. Porosity of samples is analysed, before and after the sintering process, by Archimedes technique and by image analysis. Mechanical properties and the reinforcement particles influence in the titanium matrix are studied by flexion test in green and sintered states, and by hardness and microhardness tests. Complimentarily, a microstructural analysis is carried out by optical and electron microscopy, and the reactivity between the reinforce particles and titanium matrix are studied. (authors)

  14. Flexural Behavior of High-Volume Steel Fiber Cementitious Composite Externally Reinforced with Basalt FRP Sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seungwon Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-performance fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (HPFRCCs are characterized by unique tensile strain hardening and multiple microcracking behaviors. The HPFRCC, which demonstrates remarkable properties such as strength, ductility, toughness, durability, stiffness, and thermal resistance, is a class of fiber cement composite with fine aggregates. It can withstand tensile stresses by forming distributed microcracks owing to the embedded fibers in the concrete, which improve the energy absorption capacity and apparent ductility. This high energy absorbing capacity can be enhanced further by an external stiff fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP. Basalt fabric is externally bonded as a sheet on concrete materials to enhance the durability and resistance to fire and other environmental attacks. This study investigates the flexural performance of an HPFRCC that is externally reinforced with multiple layers of basalt FRP. The HPFRCC considered in the study contains steel fibers at a volume fraction of 8%.

  15. Silicon carbide whisker reinforced composites and method for making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, G.C.

    1984-02-09

    The present invention is directed to the fabrication of ceramic composites which possess improved mechanical properties, especially increased fracture toughness. In the formation of these ceramic composites, the single-crystal SiC whiskers are mixed with fine ceramic powders of a ceramic material such as Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, mullite, or B/sub 4/C. The mixtures which contain a homogeneous dispersion of the SiC whiskers are hot pressed at pressures in a range of about 28 to 70 MPa and temperatures in the range of about 1600 to 1950/sup 0/C with pressing times varying from about 0.75 to 2.5 hours. The resulting ceramic composites show an increase in fracture toughness of up to about 9 MPa.m/sup 1/2/ which represents as much as a two-fold increase over that of the matrix material.

  16. Carbon fibre reinforced copper matrix composites: processing routes and properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Petitcorps, Y. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Pessac (France). ICMCB; Poueylaud, J.M. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Pessac (France). ICMCB; Albingre, L. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Pessac (France). ICMCB; Berdeu, B. [L`Electrolyse, 33 - Latresne (France); Lobstein, P. [L`Electrolyse, 33 - Latresne (France); Silvain, J.F. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Pessac (France). ICMCB

    1997-06-01

    Copper matrix composites are of interest for applications in the electronic field which requires materials with high thermal conductivity properties. The use of carbon fibres can (1) decrease the density and the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material and (2) increase the stiffness and strength to rupture of the resulting composite. In order to produce cheap materials, chemical plating and uniaxial hot pressing processing routes were chosen. 1D-C{sub (P55Thornel)} / Cu prepregs were hot pressed in an argon atmosphere at 750 C during 30 min. The volume fraction of the fibres within the composite was in the range of 10-35%. Physical (density and thermal expansion coefficient) and thermal conductivity properties of the composite were in good agreement with the predictions. However this material exhibits very poor mechanical properties (Young`s modulus and tensile strength). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations of the surfaces of ruptures have shown that (1) a very weak bonding between the graphite fibres and the copper matrix was formed and (2) the rupture of the composite was initiated in the matrix at the copper grain boundaries. In order to overcome these two difficulties, the carbon fibres were pre-coated with a thin layer (100 nm) of cobalt. The aim of the cobalt was to react with the carbon to form carbide compounds and as a consequence to increase the bonding between the metal and the fibre. The tensile properties ({sigma}{sub c}{sup R} and E{sub c}) of this composite were then increased by 50% in comparison with the former material; however the strain to rupture was still too weak ({epsilon}{sub c}{sup R} = 0.5%). In order to explain the role of each constituents, X-ray profiles and TEM analyses were done at the fibre/matrix interface and at the grain boundaries. Some modifications of the chemical plating steps were done to improve the purity of the copper. (orig.)

  17. Wear Response of Aluminium 6061 Composite Reinforced with Red Mud at Elevated Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dabral

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work is focused on the investigations on dry sliding wear behaviour of aluminium metal matrix composite at room and elevated temperature. Aluminium metal matrix composites reinforced with red mud are prepared by stir casting method. The experiments are planned using Taguchi technique. An orthogonal array, analysis of variance and signal to noise ratio are used to check the influence of wear parameters like temperature, percentage of reinforcement, mesh size, load, sliding distance and sliding speed on dry sliding wear of composites. The optimal testing parameters are found and their values are calculated which are then compared with predicted values. A reasonable agreement is found between predicted and actual values. The model prepared in the present work can be effectively used to predict the specific wear rate of the composites.

  18. Investigation of mechanical properties of kenaf, hemp and E-glass fiber reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinesh, Veena; Shivanand, H. K.; Vidyasagar, H. N.; Chari, V. Srinivasa

    2018-04-01

    Recently the use of fiber reinforced polymer composite in the automobile, aerospace overwhelming designing sectors has increased tremendously due to the ecological issues and health hazard possessed by the synthetic fiber during disposal and manufacturing. The paper presents tensile strength, flexural strength and hardness of kenaf-E glass-kenaf, hemp-E glass-hemp and kenaf-E glass-hemp fiber reinforced polyester composites. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses of each combination. In addition to the physical and mechanical properties, processing methods and application of kenaf and hemp fiber composites is also discussed.

  19. High-temperature mechanical properties of a uniaxially reinforced zircon-silicon carbide composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that mechanical properties of a monolithic zircon ceramic and zircon-matrix composites uniaxially reinforced with either uncoated or BN-coated silicon carbide monofilaments were measured in flexure between 25 degrees and 1477 degrees C. Monolithic zircon ceramics were weak and exhibited a brittle failure up to abut 1300 degrees C. An increasing amount of the plastic deformation was observed before failure above about 1300 degrees C. In contrast, composites reinforced with either uncoated or BN-coated Sic filaments were stronger and tougher than the monolithic zircon at all test temperatures between 25 degrees and 1477 degrees. The ultimate strength and work-of-fracture of composite samples decreased with increasing temperature. A transgranular matrix fracture was shown by the monolithic and composite samples tested up to about 1200 degrees C, whereas an increasing amount of the intergranular matrix fracture was displayed above 1200 degrees C

  20. Development and study of mechanical behaviour reinforcing composites by waste BTP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kanzaoui M.El

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials are used in many industrial applications for their excellent mechanical and electric properties and their low density compared to metal structures. Most countries are extremely rich waste materials such as white ceramic breakages which represents a potential to be developed. Ceramic breakages have exceptional properties and could be effectively exploited in the manufacture of composite materials for a wide variety of applications. The composite materials reinforced by construction waste materials, such as ceramic breaks which offer significant benefits and gains in strength and stiffness properties (Young's modulus E : a material whose modulus Young is very high is said rigid.This article covers the benefits of breakages as ceramic filler used for reinforcement in composites, as well as improve the mechanical response of these structural elements (test compression.

  1. UV curing silicon-containing epoxy resin and its glass cloth reinforced composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Guang; Tang Zhuo; Huang Pengcheng

    2007-01-01

    A UV-curable cationic silicon-containing epoxy resin formulation was developed. The gel conversion of the cured resin after 10-min UV irradiation reached 80% in the presence of 5% diaryliodonium salt photoinitiator and 5.5% polyol chain transfer agent by cationic ring-opening polymerization. The glass cloth-reinforced composites were fabricated with the silicon-containing epoxy resin using the wet lay-up technique and UV irradiation. The mechanical properties of the composites were evaluated. Compared with glass cloth reinforced bisphenol A epoxy resin matrix composites, the silicon-containing epoxy resin matrix composites possessed higher tensile strength and interlayer shear strength which was 158.5MPa and 9.9MPa respectively while other mechanical properties such as flexural property and tensile modulus were similar. (authors)

  2. Analysis of the Behaviour of Composite Steel and Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Petkevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There was a pending influence of steel fiber on the strength and stiffness of composite steel–concrete slabs under statical short–time load. Steel profiled sheeting and steel fiber reinforced concrete were used for specimens. Four composite slabs were made. Experimental investigations into the behaviour and influence of steel fiber reinforced concrete in composite slabs were conducted. Transverse, longitudinal, shear deformation and deflection of the slab were measured. The results indicated that the use of steel fiber in composite slabs was effective: strength was 20–24 % higher and the meanings of deflections under the action of the bending moment were 0,6MR (where MR is the bending moment at failure of the slabs and were 16–18 % lower for slabs with usual concrete. Article in Lithuanian

  3. FLEXURAL PROPERTIES OF ALKALINE TREATED SUGAR PALM FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bachtiar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of the effect of alkaline treatment on the flexural properties of sugar palm fibre reinforced epoxy composites is presented in this paper. The composites were reinforced with 10% weight fraction of the fibres. The fibres were treated using sodium hydroxide (NaOH with 0.25 M and 0.5 M concentration solution for 1 hour, 4 hours and 8 hours soaking time. The purpose of treating fibres with alkali was to enhance the interfacial bonding between matrix and fibre surfaces. The maximum flexural strength occurred at 0.25 M NaOH solution with 1 hour of soaking time, i.e 96.71 MPa, improving by 24.41% from untreated fibre composite. But, the maximum flexural modulus took place at 0.5 M NaOH solution with 4 hours soaking time, i.e. 6948 MPa, improving by 148% from untreated composite.

  4. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawaid, M. [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abdul Khalil, H.P.S., E-mail: akhalilhps@gmail.com [School of Industrial Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia); Abu Bakar, A. [School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. {yields} Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. {yields} Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. {yields} Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  5. Mechanical performance of oil palm empty fruit bunches/jute fibres reinforced epoxy hybrid composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawaid, M.; Abdul Khalil, H.P.S.; Abu Bakar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Hybrid composites constituents of natural fibres show good mechanical performances. → Hybridization with 20% jute fibre gives rise to sufficient modulus to composites. → Outer or core material affect mechanical performance of hybrid composites. → Impact strength of pure EFB composite is higher than hybrid composites. - Abstract: Oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB)/jute fibre reinforced epoxy hybrid composites with different sequence of fibre mat arrangement such as EFB/jute/EFB and jute/EFB/jute were fabricated by hand lay-up method. The effect of layering patterns on the mechanical performance of the composites was studied. The hybrid composites are intended for engineering applications as an alternative to synthetic fibre composites. Mechanical performance of hybrid composites were evaluated and compared with the pure EFB, pure jute composites and neat epoxy using flexural and impact testing. The flexural properties of hybrid composite is higher than that of pure EFB composite with respect to the weight fraction of fibre, where as the impact strength of pure EFB composite is much higher than those of hybrid composites. The flexural results were interpreted using sandwich theory. The fracture surface morphology of the impact testing samples of the hybrid composites was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  6. Physical and thermal behavior of cement composites reinforced with recycled waste paper fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hospodarova, Viola; Stevulova, Nadezda; Vaclavik, Vojtech; Dvorsky, Tomas

    2017-07-01

    In this study, three types of recycled waste paper fibers were used to manufacture cement composites reinforced with recycled cellulosic fibers. Waste cellulosic fibers in quantity of 0.2, 0.3, and 0.5 wt.% were added to cement mixtures. Physical properties such as density, water capillarity, water absorbability and thermal conductivity of fiber cement composites were studied after 28 days of hardening. However, durability of composites was tested after their water storage up to 90 days. Final results of tested properties of fiber cement composites were compared with cement reference sample without cellulosic fibers.

  7. Study of dielectric and piezoelectric properties of CNT reinforced PZT-PVA 0-3 composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Prince; Prajapat, Rampratap; Manmeeta, Saxena, Dhiraj

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric ceramic/polymer composites have the compliance of polymers which overcome the problems of brittleness in ceramics. By imbedding piezoelectric ceramic powder into a polymer matrix, 0-3 composites with good mechanical properties and high dielectric breakdown strength can be developed. The obtained composites of 0-3 connectivity exhibit the piezoelectric properties of ceramics and flexibility, strength and lightness of polymer. These composites can be used in vibration sensing and transducer applications specially as piezoelectric sensors. A potential way to improve piezoelectric& dielectric properties of theses composites is by inclusion of another conductive phase in these composites as reported in the literature. In present work, we prepared PZT-PVA 0-3 composites with 60% ceramic volume fraction reinforced with CNTs with volume ranging from 0 to 1.5 vol%. These CNT reinforced composites were obtained using hot press method with thickness of 200 µm having 0-3 conductivity. These composites were poled applying DC voltage. Dielectric properties of these samples were obtained in a wide frequency range (100 Hz to 1 Mhz) at room temperature. The piezoelectric properties of these composites were analyzed by measuring piezoelectric charge constants (d33). The dielectric and piezoelectric properties of these composites were studied as a function of CNT volume content. In these reinforced composites, CNTs act as a conductive filler dispersed in the matrix which in turn facilitates poling and results in an increase of the piezoelectric properties of the composite due to formation of percolation path through the composites. With a CNT content of 0.3 vol.% in PZT/PVA/CNTs, an increase of 61.3 % was observed in piezoelectric strain factors (d33). In these CNT reinforced composites, a substantial increase (approx. 67%) was also observed in dielectric constant and approximately 89% increase was observed in dielectric loss factor. Results so obtained are in the good

  8. Conditions for pseudo strain-hardening in fiber reinforced brittle matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, V.C.; Wu, H.W.

    1992-01-01

    Apart from imparting increased fracture toughness, one of the useful purposes of reinforcing brittle matrices with fibers is to create enhanced composite strain capacity. This paper reviews the conditions underwhich such a composite will exhibit the pseudo strain-hardening phenomenon. The presentation is given in a unified manner for both continuous aligned and discontinuous random fiber composites. It is demonstrated that pseudo strain hardening can be practically designed for both gills of composites by proper tailoring of material structures. 18 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Evaluation of residual strength in the basalt fiber reinforced composites under impact damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Hae; Lee, Jin-Woo; Moon, Kyung-Man; Yoon, Sung-Won; Baek, Tae-Sil; Hwang, Kwang-Il

    2015-03-01

    Composites are vulnerable to the impact damage by the collision as to the thickness direction, because composites are being manufactured by laminating the fiber. The understanding about the retained strength after the impact damage of the material is essential in order to secure the reliability of the structure design using the composites. In this paper, we have tried to evaluate the motion of the material according to the kinetic energy and potential energy and the retained strength after impact damage by testing the free fall test of the basalt fiber reinforced composite in the limelight as the environment friendly characteristic.

  10. Zirconia toughened SiC whisker reinforced alumina composites small business innovation research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutfy, R. O.; Stuffle, K. L.; Withers, J. C.; Lee, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this phase 1 project was to develop a ceramic composite with superior fracture toughness and high strength, based on combining two toughness inducing materials: zirconia for transformation toughening and SiC whiskers for reinforcement, in a controlled microstructure alumina matrix. The controlled matrix microstructure is obtained by controlling the nucleation frequency of the alumina gel with seeds (submicron alpha-alumina). The results demonstrate the technical feasibility of producing superior binary composites (Al2O3-ZrO2) and tertiary composites (Al2O3-ZrO2-SiC). Thirty-two composites were prepared, consolidated, and fracture toughness tested. Statistical analysis of the results showed that: (1) the SiC type is the key statistically significant factor for increased toughness; (2) sol-gel processing with a-alumina seed had a statistically significant effect on increasing toughness of the binary and tertiary composites compared to the corresponding mixed powder processing; and (3) ZrO2 content within the range investigated had a minor effect. Binary composites with an average critical fracture toughness of 6.6MPam sup 1/2, were obtained. Tertiary composites with critical fracture toughness in the range of 9.3 to 10.1 MPam sup 1/2 were obtained. Results indicate that these composites are superior to zirconia toughened alumina and SiC whisker reinforced alumina ceramic composites produced by conventional techniques with similar composition from published data.

  11. Experimental characterisation of recycled (glass/tpu woven fabric) flake reinforced thermoplastic composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdul Rasheed, Mohammed Iqbal; Rietman, Bert; Visser, Roy; Akkerman, Remko; Hoa, S.V.; Hubert, P.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling of continuously reinforced thermoplastic composites (TPC) has a substantial prospect at present and in future due to its increasing availability and rapidly growing application regime. This study focusses on the first steps in using TPC process scrap on a scale in which its maximum

  12. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) as a reinforcing fibre in polypropylene composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oever, van den M.J.A.; Elbersen, H.W.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Klerk-Engels, de B.

    2003-01-01

    In this study the switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), a biomass crop being developed in North America and Europe, was tested as a stiffening and reinforcing agent in polypropylene (PP) composites with and without maleic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) as a compatibiliser and to evaluate the effect of

  13. Phenomenological interpretation of the shear behavior of reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composite beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paegle, Ieva; Fischer, Gregor

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the shear behavior of beams consisting of steel Reinforced Engineered Cementitious Composites (R/ECC). This study investigates and quantifies the effect of ECC's strain hardening and multiple cracking behavior on the shear capacity of beams...

  14. In vitro fracture resistance of fiber reinforced cusp-replacing composite restorations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fennis, W.M.M.; Tezvergil, A.; Kuijs, R.H.; Lassila, L.V.; Kreulen, C.M.; Creugers, N.H.J.; Vallittu, P.K.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the fracture resistance and failure mode of fiber reinforced composite (FRC) cusp-replacing restorations in premolars. METHODS: Forty-five extracted sound upper premolars were randomly divided into three groups. Identical MOD cavities with simulated buccal cusp fracture and

  15. Decay resistance of wood-plastic composites reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach; Yao Chen; Nicole M. Stark; Mandla A. Tshabalala; Yongming Fan; Jianmin Gao

    2014-01-01

    The moisture and decay resistance of wood-plastic composites (WPCs) reinforced with extracted or delignified wood flour (WF) was investigated. Three different extractions were preformed: toluene/ethanol (TE), acetone/water (AW), and hot water (HW). Delignification (DL) was performed using a sodium chlorite/acetic acid solution. All WPCs specimens were made with 50% by...

  16. Selected mechanical properties of aluminum composite materials reinforced with SiC particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kurzawa

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of research concerning influence of ceramic particles’ content of silicon carbide on selected mechanical properties of type AW-AlCu4Mg2Mn - SiC composite materials. Composites produced of SiC particles with pressure infiltration method of porous preform and subject to hot plastic forming in the form of open die forging were investigated. The experimental samples contained from 5% up to 45% of reinforcing SiC particles of 8÷10μm diameter. Studies of strength properties demonstrated that the best results, in case of tensile strength as well as offset yield strength, might be obtained while applying reinforcement in the amount of 20-25% vol. of SiC. Application of higher than 25% vol. contents of reinforcing particles leads to gradual strength loss. The investigated composites were characterized by very high functional properties, such as hardness and abrasive wear resistance, whose values increase strongly with the increase of reinforcement amount. The presented results of the experiments shall allow for a more precise component selection of composite materials at the stage of planning and design of their properties.

  17. Ceramic fiber-reinforced monoclinic celsian phase glass-ceramic matrix composite material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Narottam P. (Inventor); Dicarlo, James A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A hyridopolysilazane-derived ceramic fiber reinforced monoclinic celsian phase barium aluminum silicate glass-ceramic matrix composite material is prepared by ball-milling an aqueous slurry of BAS glass powder and fine monoclinic celsian seeds. The fibers improve the mechanical strength and fracture toughness and with the matrix provide superior dielectric properties.

  18. Flexural properties of polyethylene, glass and carbon fiber-reinforced resin composites for prosthetic frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruo, Yukinori; Nishigawa, Goro; Irie, Masao; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Minagi, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    High flexural properties are needed for fixed partial denture or implant prosthesis to resist susceptibility to failures caused by occlusal overload. The aim of this investigation was to clarify the effects of four different kinds of fibers on the flexural properties of fiber-reinforced composites. Polyethylene fiber, glass fiber and two types of carbon fibers were used for reinforcement. Seven groups of specimens, 2 × 2 × 25 mm, were prepared (n = 10 per group). Four groups of resin composite specimens were reinforced with polyethylene, glass or one type of carbon fiber. The remaining three groups served as controls, with each group comprising one brand of resin composite without any fiber. After 24-h water storage in 37°C distilled water, the flexural properties of each specimen were examined with static three-point flexural test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Compared to the control without any fiber, glass and carbon fibers significantly increased the flexural strength (p glass fiber (p glass fibers (p > 0.05). Fibers could, therefore, improve the flexural properties of resin composite and carbon fibers in longitudinal form yielded the better effects for reinforcement.

  19. Adhesive Properties of Bonded Orthodontic Retainers to Enamel : Stainless Steel Wire vs Fiber-reinforced Composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foek, Dave Lie Sam; Krebs, Eliza; Sandham, John; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objectives of this study were to compare the bond strength of a stainless steel orthodontic wire vs various fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) used as orthodontic retainers on enamel, analyze the failure types after debonding, and investigate the influence of different application

  20. Fabrication and mechanical properties of self-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Self-reinforced poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET composites prepared by using a modified film-stacking technique were examined in this study. The starting materials included a high tenacity PET yarn (reinforcement and a low melting temperature biodegradable polyester resin (matrix, both of which differ in their melting temperatures with a value of 56°C. This experiment produced composite sheets at three consolidation temperatures (Tc: 215, 225, and 235°C at a constant holding time (th: 6.5 min, and three holding times (3, 6.5 and 10 min at a constant consolidation temperature of 225°C. This study observed a significant improvement in the mechanical properties obtained in self-reinforced PET composites compared to the pure polyester resin. The results of tensile, flexural, and Izod impact tests proved that optimal conditions are low consolidation temperature and short holding time. The absorbed impact energy of the best self-reinforced PET composite material was 854.0 J/m, which is 63 times that of pure polyester resin.