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Sample records for thermosensitive nanoparticles based

  1. A dual-targeting strategy for enhanced drug delivery and synergistic therapy based on thermosensitive nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mingxin; You, Chaoqun; Gao, Zhiguo; Wu, Hongshuai; Sun, Baiwang; Zhu, Xiaoli; Chen, Renjie

    2018-08-01

    The functionalized nanoparticles have been widely studied and reported as carriers of drug transport recently. Furthermore, many groups have focused more on developing novel and efficient treatment methods, such as photodynamic therapy and photothermal therapy, since both therapies have shown inspiring potential in the application of antitumor. The mentioned treatments exhibited the superiority of cooperative manner and showed the ability to compensate for the adverse effects caused by conventional monotherapy in proposed strategies. In view of the above descriptions, we formulated a thermosensitive drug delivery system, which achieved the enhanced delivery of cisplatin and two photosensitizers (ICG and Ce6) by dual-targeting traction. Drawing on the thin film hydration method, cisplatin and photosensitizers were encapsulated inside nanoparticles. Meanwhile, the targeting peptide cRGD and targeting molecule folate can be modified on the surface of nanoparticles to realize the active identification of tumor cells. The measurements of dynamic light scattering showed that the prepared nanoparticles had an ideal dispersibility and uniform particle size of 102.6 nm. On the basis of the results observed from confocal laser scanning microscope, the modified nanoparticles were more efficient endocytosed by MCF-7 cells as a contrast to SGC-7901 cells. Photothermal conversion-triggered drug release and photo-therapies produced a significant apoptosis rate of 85.9% on MCF-7 cells. The distinguished results made it believed that the formulated delivery system had conducted great efforts and innovations for the realization of concise collaboration and provided a promising strategy for the treatment of breast cancer.

  2. Development of thermosensitive poly(n-isopropylacrylamide-co-((2-dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate))-based nanoparticles for controlled drug release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Cheng-Liang; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Lin, Wuu-Jyh [Isotope Application Division, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, PO Box 3-27, Longtan Taoyuan 325, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Han-Min; Yang, Shu-Jyuan; Lin, Chia-Fu; Shieh, Ming-Jium, E-mail: soloman@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, College of Medicine and College of Engineering, National Taiwan University, No 1, Section 1, Jen-Ai Road, Taipei 10051, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-01

    Thermosensitive nanoparticles based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-((2-dimethylamino)ethylmethacrylate)) (poly(NIPA-co-DMAEMA)) copolymers were successfully fabricated by free radical polymerization. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of the synthesized nanoparticles was 41 deg. C and a temperature above which would cause the nanoparticles to undergo a volume phase transition from 140 to 100 nm, which could result in the expulsion of encapsulated drugs. Therefore, we used the poly(NIPA-co-DMAEMA) nanoparticles as a carrier for the controlled release of a hydrophobic anticancer agent, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN-38). The encapsulation efficiency and loading content of SN-38-loaded nanoparticles at an SN-38/poly(NIPA-co-DMAEMA) ratio of 1/10 (D/P = 1/10) were about 80% and 6.293%, respectively. Moreover, the release profile of SN-38-loaded nanoparticles revealed that the release rate at 42 deg. C (above LCST) was higher than that at 37 deg. C (below LCST), which demonstrated that the release of SN-38 could be controlled by increasing the temperature. The cytotoxicity of the SN-38-loaded poly(NIPA-co-DMAEMA) nanoparticles was investigated in human colon cancer cells (HT-29) to compare with the treatment of an anticancer drug, Irinotecan (CPT-11). The antitumor efficacy evaluated in a C26 murine colon tumor model showed that the SN-38-loaded nanoparticles in combination with hyperthermia therapy efficiently suppressed tumor growth. The results indicate that these thermo-responsive nanoparticles are potential carriers for controlled drug delivery.

  3. Thermosensitive hydrogel based on chitosan and its derivatives containing medicated nanoparticles for transcorneal administration of 5-fluorouracil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano A

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Angela Fabiano,1 Ranieri Bizzarri,2 Ylenia Zambito1 1Department of Pharmacy, University of Pisa, 2NEST, Istituto Nanoscienze CNR (CNR-NANO and Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa, Italy Abstract: A thermosensitive ophthalmic hydrogel (TSOH – fluid at 4°C (instillation temperature, semisolid at 35°C (eye temperature, which coupled the dosing accuracy and administration ease of eyedrops with the increased ocular bioavailability of a hydrogel – was prepared by gelling a chitosan hydrochloride (ChHCl solution (27.8 mg/mL medicated with 1.25 mg/mL 5-fluorouracil (5-FU with β-glycerophosphate 0.8 mg/mL. Polymer mixtures, where Ch was partially (10%, 15%, or 20% replaced by quaternary ammonium–chitosan conjugates (QA-Ch or thiolated derivatives thereof, were also used to modulate 5-FU-release properties of TSOH. Also, Ch-based nanoparticles (NPs; size after lyophilization and redispersion 341.5±15.2 nm, polydispersity 0.315±0.45, ζ-potential 10.21 mV medicated with 1.25 mg/mL 5-FU prepared by ionotropic cross-linking of Ch with hyaluronan were introduced into TSOH. The 5-FU binding by TSOH polymers in the sol state was maximum with plain Ch (31.4% and tended to decrease with increasing QA presence in polymer mixture. 5-FU release from TSOH with or without NPs was diffusion-controlled and linear in √t. The different TSOH polymers were compared on a diffusivity basis by comparing the slopes of √t plots. These showed a general decrease with NP-containing TSOH, which was the most marked with the TSOH, where Ch was 20% replaced by the derivative QA-Ch50. This formulation and that not containing NP were instilled in rabbits and the 5-FU transcorneal penetration was measured by analyzing the aqueous humor. Both TSOH solutions increased the area under the curve (0–8 hours 3.5 times compared with the plain eyedrops, but maximum concentration for the NP-free TSOH was about 0.65 µg/mL, followed by a slow decline, while the NP-containing one showed a

  4. Thermosensitive liposomes entrapping iron oxide nanoparticles for controllable drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tai, L-A; Wang, Y-C; Wang, Y-J; Yang, C-S; Tsai, P-J; Lo, L-W

    2009-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles can serve as a heating source upon alternative magnetic field (AMF) exposure. Iron oxide nanoparticles can be mixed with thermosensitive nanovehicles for hyperthermia-induced drug release, yet such a design and mechanism may not be suitable for controllable drug release applications in which the tissues are susceptible to environmental temperature change such as brain tissue. In the present study, iron oxide nanoparticles were entrapped inside of thermosensitive liposomes for AMF-induced drug release while the environmental temperature was maintained at a constant level. Carboxyfluorescein was co-entrapped with the iron oxide nanoparticles in the liposomes as a model compound for monitoring drug release and environmental temperature was maintained with a water circulator jacket. These experiments have been successfully performed in solution, in phantom and in anesthetized animals. Furthermore, the thermosensitive liposomes were administered into rat forearm skeletal muscle, and the release of carboxylfluorescein triggered by the external alternative magnetic field was monitored by an implanted microdialysis perfusion probe with an on-line laser-induced fluorescence detector. In the future such a device could be applied to simultaneous magnetic resonance imaging and non-invasive drug release in temperature-sensitive applications.

  5. Antimicrobial activity and the mechanism of silver nanoparticle thermosensitive gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Meiwan Chen1,2,‡, Zhiwen Yang1,‡, Hongmei Wu1, Xin Pan1, Xiaobao Xie3, Chuanbin Wu11Research and Development Center of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China; 2State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Institute of Chinese Medical Sciences, University of Macau, Macau, China; 3Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangzhou, China ‡These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the antimicrobial activity and mechanism of silver nanoparticles incorporated into thermosensitive gel (S-T-Gel on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.Patients and methods: This study investigated the growth, permeability, and morphology of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells in order to observe the action of S-T-Gel on the membrane structure of these three bacteria. The cell morphology of normal and treated bacteria cells was assessed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and the effects of S-T-Gel on genome DNA of bacterial cells were evaluated by agarose gel electrophoresis.Results: S-T-Gel showed promising activity against Staphylococcus aureus and moderate activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The observation with TEM suggested that S-T-Gel may destroy the structure of bacterial cell membranes in order to enter the bacterial cell. S-T-Gel then condensed DNA and combined and coagulated with the cytoplasm of the damaged bacteria, resulting in the leakage of the cytoplasmic component and the eventual death of these three bacteria. In addition, the analysis of agarose gel electrophoresis demonstrated that S-T-Gel could increase the decomposability of genome DNA.Conclusion: These results about promising antimicrobial activity and mechanism of S-T-Gel may be useful for further research

  6. Thermosensitive polymer-grafted iron oxide nanoparticles studied by in situ dynamic light backscattering under magnetic hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemery, Gauvin; Garanger, Elisabeth; Lecommandoux, Sébastien; Wong, Andrew D.; Gillies, Elizabeth R.; Pedrono, Boris; Bayle, Thomas; Jacob, David; Sandre, Olivier

    2015-12-01

    Thermometry at the nanoscale is an emerging area fostered by intensive research on nanoparticles (NPs) that are capable of converting electromagnetic waves into heat. Recent results suggest that stationary gradients can be maintained between the surface of NPs and the bulk solvent, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as ‘cold hyperthermia’. However, the measurement of such highly localized temperatures is particularly challenging. We describe here a new approach to probing the temperature at the surface of iron oxide NPs and enhancing the understanding of this phenomenon. This approach involves the grafting of thermosensitive polymer chains to the NP surface followed by the measurement of macroscopic properties of the resulting NP suspension and comparison to a calibration curve built up by macroscopic heating. Superparamagnetic iron oxide NPs were prepared by the coprecipitation of ferrous and ferric salts and functionalized with amines, then azides using a sol-gel route followed by a dehydrative coupling reaction. Thermosensitive poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PDMAEMA) with an alkyne end-group was synthesized by controlled radical polymerization and was grafted using a copper assisted azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction. Measurement of the colloidal properties by dynamic light scattering (DLS) indicated that the thermosensitive NPs exhibited changes in their Zeta potential and hydrodynamic diameter as a function of pH and temperature due to the grafted PDMAEMA chains. These changes were accompanied by changes in the relaxivities of the NPs, suggesting application as thermosensitive contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, a new fibre-based backscattering setup enabled positioning of the DLS remote-head as close as possible to the coil of a magnetic heating inductor to afford in situ probing of the backscattered light intensity, hydrodynamic diameter, and temperature. This approach provides a promising platform for

  7. Novel thermo-sensitive core-shell nanoparticles for targeted paclitaxel delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yuanpei; Pan Shirong; Zhang Wei; Du Zhuo

    2009-01-01

    Novel thermo-sensitive nanoparticles self-assembled from poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide- co-acrylamide)-block-poly(γ-benzyl L-glutamate) were designed for targeted drug delivery in localized hyperthermia. The lower critical solution temperature (LCST) of nanoparticles was adjusted to a level between physiological body temperature (37 deg. C) and that used in local hyperthermia (about 43 deg. C). The temperature-dependent performances of the core-shell nanoparticles were systemically studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), and atom force microscopy (AFM). The mean diameter of the nanoparticles increased slightly from 110 to 129 nm when paclitaxel (PTX), a poorly water-soluble anti-tumor drug, was encapsulated. A stability study in bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution indicated that the PTX loaded nanoparticles may have a long circulation time under physiological environments as the LCST was above physiological body temperature and the shell remained hydrophilic at 37 deg.C. The PTX release profiles showed thermo-sensitive controlled behavior. The proliferation inhibiting activity of PTX loaded nanoparticles was evaluated against Hela cells in vitro, compared with Taxol (a formulation of paclitaxel dissolved in Cremophor EL and ethanol). The cytotoxicity of PTX loaded nanoparticles increased obviously when hyperthermia was performed. The nanoparticles synthesized here could be an ideal candidate for thermal triggered anti-tumor PTX delivery system.

  8. Catalysis by metallic nanoparticles in solution: Thermosensitive microgels as nanoreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Roa, Rafael; Angioletti-Uberti, Stefano; Lu, Yan; Dzubiella, Joachim; Piazza, Francesco; Ballauff, Matthias

    2018-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have been used as catalysts for various reactions, and the huge literature on the subject is hard to overlook. In many applications, the nanoparticles must be affixed to a colloidal carrier for easy handling during catalysis. These "passive carriers" (e.g., dendrimers) serve for a controlled synthesis of the nanoparticles and prevent coagulation during catalysis. Recently, hybrids from nanoparticles and polymers have been developed that allow us to change the catalytic ...

  9. A novel vehicle for local protein delivery to the inner ear: injectable and biodegradable thermosensitive hydrogel loaded with PLGA nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Juan; Long, Wei; Liang, Zhongping; Wen, Lu; Yang, Fan; Chen, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Delivery of biomacromolecular drugs into the inner ear is challenging, mainly because of their inherent instability as well as physiological and anatomical barriers. Therefore, protein-friendly, hydrogel-based delivery systems following local administration are being developed for inner ear therapy. Herein, biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) containing interferon α-2 b (IFN α-2 b) were loaded in chitosan/glycerophosphate (CS/GP)-based thermosensitive hydrogel for IFN delivery by intratympanic injection. The injectable hydrogel possessed a physiological pH and formed semi-solid gel at 37 °C, with good swelling and deswelling properties. The CS/GP hydrogel could slowly degrade as visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The presence of NPs in CS/GP gel largely influenced in vitro drug release. In the guinea pig cochlea, a 1.5- to 3-fold increase in the drug exposure time of NPs-CS/GP was found than those of the solution, NPs and IFN-loaded hydrogel. Most importantly, a prolonged residence time was attained without obvious histological changes in the inner ear. This biodegradable, injectable, and thermosensitive NPs-CS/GP system may allow longer delivery of protein drugs to the inner ear, thus may be a potential novel vehicle for inner ear therapy.

  10. Magnetic Nanoparticles Coated with a Thermosensitive Polymer with Hyperthermia Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felisa Reyes-Ortega

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have been widely used to increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutics, largely through passive accumulation provided by the enhanced permeability and retention effect. Their incorporation into biopolymer coatings enables the preparation of magnetic field-responsive, biocompatible nanoparticles that are well dispersed in aqueous media. Here we describe a synthetic route to prepare functionalized, stable magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs coated with a temperature-responsive polymer, by means of the hydrothermal method combined with an oil/water (o/w emulsion process. The effects of both pH and temperature on the electrophoretic mobility and surface charge of these MNPs are investigated. The magnetite/polymer composition of these systems is detected by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and quantified by thermogravimetric analysis. The therapeutic possibilities of the designed nanostructures as effective heating agents for magnetic hyperthermia are demonstrated, and specific absorption rates as high as 150 W/g, with 20 mT magnetic field and 205 kHz frequency, are obtained. This magnetic heating response could provide a promising nanoparticle system for combined diagnostics and cancer therapy.

  11. Thermo-sensitive nanoparticles for triggered release of siRNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng; Cheng, Qiang; Jiang, Qian; Deng, Liandong; Liang, Zicai; Dong, Anjie

    2015-01-01

    Efficient delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) is crucially required for cancer gene therapy. Herein, a thermo-sensitive copolymer with a simple structure, poly (ethylene glycol) methyl ether acrylate-b-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) (mPEG-b-PNIPAM) was developed. A novel kind of thermo-sensitive nanoparticles (DENPs) was constructed for the cold-shock triggered release of siRNA by double emulsion-solvent evaporation method using mPEG-b-PNIPAM and a cationic lipid, 3β [N-(N', N'-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] cholesterol [DC-Chol]. DENPs were observed by transmission electron microscopy and dynamical light scattering before and after 'cold shock' treatment. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of siRNA in DENPs, which was measured by fluorescence spectrophotometer was 96.8% while it was significantly reduced to be 23.2% when DC-Chol was absent. DENPs/siRNA NPs exhibited a thermo-sensitive siRNA release character that the cumulatively released amount of siRNA from cold shock was approximately 2.2 folds higher after 7 days. In vitro luciferase silencing experiments indicated that DENPs showed potent gene silencing efficacy in HeLa-Luc cells (HeLa cells steadily expressed luciferase), which was further enhanced by a cold shock. Furthermore, MTT assay showed that cell viability with DENPs/siRNA up to 200 nM remained above 80%. We also observed that most of siRNA was accumulated in kidney mediated by DENPs instead of liver and spleen in vivo experiments. Thus, DENPs as a cold shock responsive quick release model for siRNA or hydrophilic macromolecules delivery provide a new way to nanocarrier design and clinic therapy.

  12. Thermosensitive PLA based nanodispersion for targeting brain tumor via intranasal route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Darshana S.; Bajaj, Amrita N.; Athawale, Rajani B.; Shikhande, Shruti S.; Pandey, Abhijeet; Goel, Peeyush N.; Gude, Rajiv P.; Patil, Satish; Raut, Preeti

    2016-01-01

    Delivery of drugs to the brain via nasal route has been studied by many researchers. However, low residence time, mucociliary clearance and enzymatically active environment of nasal cavity pose many challenges to successful nasal delivery of drugs. We aim to deliver methotrexate by designing thermosensitive nanodispersion exhibiting enhanced residence time in nasal cavity and bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB). PLA nanoparticles were developed using solvent evaporation technique. The developed nanoparticles were further dispersed in prepared thermosensitive vehicle of poloxamer 188 and Carbopol 934 to impart the property of increased residence time. The formulated nanoparticles demonstrated no interaction with the simulated nasal fluids (SNF), mucin, serum proteins and erythrocytes which demonstrate the safety of developed formulation for nasal administration. The penetration property of nanoparticles though the nasal mucosa was higher than the pure drug due to low mucociliary clearance. The developed nanoparticles diffused though the membrane pores and rapidly distributed into the brain portions compared to the pure drug. There was detectable and quantifiable amount of drug seen in the brain as demonstrated by in vivo brain distribution studies with considerably low amount of drug deposition in the lungs. The pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated the enhancement in circulation half life, area under curve (AUC) and Cmax of the drug when administered intranasal in encapsulated form. Thus, the thermosensitive nanodispersions are surely promising delivery systems for delivering anticancer agents though the nasal route for potential treatment of brain tumors. - Highlights: • The present investigation explores intra-nasal route as potential route for targeting brain tumor. • Thermosensitive nanodispersion has been formulated for enhancing nasal residence time. • PLA nanoparticles enhance penetration into the brain owing to hydrophobic nature and small size

  13. Thermosensitive PLA based nanodispersion for targeting brain tumor via intranasal route

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Darshana S., E-mail: darshanaj_cup@yahoo.com [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Bajaj, Amrita N. [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Athawale, Rajani B., E-mail: rajani.athawale@gmail.com [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Shikhande, Shruti S. [C.U. Shah College of Pharmacy, S.N.D.T Women' s University, Juhu Tara Road, Santacruz (West), Mumbai 400 049 (India); Pandey, Abhijeet [H. R Patel Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Shirpur, Maharashtra (India); Goel, Peeyush N.; Gude, Rajiv P. [Gude Lab, Advanced Centre for Treatment, Research & Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Tata Memorial Centre, Kharghar, Navi Mumbai 410 210 (India); Patil, Satish; Raut, Preeti [Cipla Pvt. Ltd., Vikhroli (West), Mumbai (India)

    2016-06-01

    Delivery of drugs to the brain via nasal route has been studied by many researchers. However, low residence time, mucociliary clearance and enzymatically active environment of nasal cavity pose many challenges to successful nasal delivery of drugs. We aim to deliver methotrexate by designing thermosensitive nanodispersion exhibiting enhanced residence time in nasal cavity and bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB). PLA nanoparticles were developed using solvent evaporation technique. The developed nanoparticles were further dispersed in prepared thermosensitive vehicle of poloxamer 188 and Carbopol 934 to impart the property of increased residence time. The formulated nanoparticles demonstrated no interaction with the simulated nasal fluids (SNF), mucin, serum proteins and erythrocytes which demonstrate the safety of developed formulation for nasal administration. The penetration property of nanoparticles though the nasal mucosa was higher than the pure drug due to low mucociliary clearance. The developed nanoparticles diffused though the membrane pores and rapidly distributed into the brain portions compared to the pure drug. There was detectable and quantifiable amount of drug seen in the brain as demonstrated by in vivo brain distribution studies with considerably low amount of drug deposition in the lungs. The pharmacokinetic parameters demonstrated the enhancement in circulation half life, area under curve (AUC) and Cmax of the drug when administered intranasal in encapsulated form. Thus, the thermosensitive nanodispersions are surely promising delivery systems for delivering anticancer agents though the nasal route for potential treatment of brain tumors. - Highlights: • The present investigation explores intra-nasal route as potential route for targeting brain tumor. • Thermosensitive nanodispersion has been formulated for enhancing nasal residence time. • PLA nanoparticles enhance penetration into the brain owing to hydrophobic nature and small size

  14. Electrically conductive gold nanoparticle-chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels for cardiac tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baei, Payam [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Cardiovascular Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Sasan [Department of Biomedicine and Surgery, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Hebelstrasse 20, CH-4031 Basel (Switzerland); Department of Bioengineeringand IBB - Institute for Bioengineering and Biosciences, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Rajabi-Zeleti, Sareh [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad [Cardiovascular Engineering Laboratory, Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baharvand, Hossein, E-mail: Baharvand@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Developmental Biology, University of Science and Culture, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aghdami, Nasser, E-mail: Nasser.Aghdami@royaninstitute.org [Department of Stem Cells and Developmental Biology, Cell Science Research Center, Royan Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Technology, ACECR, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-06-01

    Injectable hydrogels that resemble electromechanical properties of the myocardium are crucial for cardiac tissue engineering prospects. We have developed a facile approach that uses chitosan (CS) to generate a thermosensitive conductive hydrogel with a highly porous network of interconnected pores. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were evenly dispersed throughout the CS matrix in order to provide electrical cues. The gelation response and electrical conductivity of the hydrogel were controlled by different concentrations of GNPs. The CS-GNP hydrogels were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cultivated for up to 14 days in the absence of electrical stimulations. CS-GNP scaffolds supported viability, metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs along with the development of uniform cellular constructs. Immunohistochemistry for early and mature cardiac markers showed enhanced cardiomyogenic differentiation of MSCs within the CS-GNP compared to the CS matrix alone. The results of this study demonstrate that incorporation of nanoscale electro-conductive GNPs into CS hydrogels enhances the properties of myocardial constructs. These constructs could find utilization for regeneration of other electroactive tissues. - Highlights: • Thermosensitive electro-conductive hydrogels were prepared from CS and GNPs. • Gelation time and conductivity were tuned by varying concentration of GNPs. • CS-2GNP with gelation time of 25.7 min and conductivity of 0.13 S·m{sup −1} was selected for in vitro studies. • CS-2GNP supported active metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs. • Expression of cardiac markers increased about two-fold in CS-2GNP compared to CS.

  15. Electrically conductive gold nanoparticle-chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels for cardiac tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baei, Payam; Jalili-Firoozinezhad, Sasan; Rajabi-Zeleti, Sareh; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Baharvand, Hossein; Aghdami, Nasser

    2016-01-01

    Injectable hydrogels that resemble electromechanical properties of the myocardium are crucial for cardiac tissue engineering prospects. We have developed a facile approach that uses chitosan (CS) to generate a thermosensitive conductive hydrogel with a highly porous network of interconnected pores. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were evenly dispersed throughout the CS matrix in order to provide electrical cues. The gelation response and electrical conductivity of the hydrogel were controlled by different concentrations of GNPs. The CS-GNP hydrogels were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and cultivated for up to 14 days in the absence of electrical stimulations. CS-GNP scaffolds supported viability, metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs along with the development of uniform cellular constructs. Immunohistochemistry for early and mature cardiac markers showed enhanced cardiomyogenic differentiation of MSCs within the CS-GNP compared to the CS matrix alone. The results of this study demonstrate that incorporation of nanoscale electro-conductive GNPs into CS hydrogels enhances the properties of myocardial constructs. These constructs could find utilization for regeneration of other electroactive tissues. - Highlights: • Thermosensitive electro-conductive hydrogels were prepared from CS and GNPs. • Gelation time and conductivity were tuned by varying concentration of GNPs. • CS-2GNP with gelation time of 25.7 min and conductivity of 0.13 S·m"−"1 was selected for in vitro studies. • CS-2GNP supported active metabolism, migration and proliferation of MSCs. • Expression of cardiac markers increased about two-fold in CS-2GNP compared to CS.

  16. Electrostatic Self-Assembly of Au Nanoparticles onto Thermosensitive Magnetic Core-Shell Microgels for Thermally Tunable and Magnetically Recyclable Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Wang, Daoai; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2015-06-01

    A facile route to fabricate a nanocomposite of Fe3O4@poly[N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-co-2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA)]@Au (Fe3O4@PND@Au) is developed for magnetically recyclable and thermally tunable catalysis. The negatively charged Au nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm are homogeneously loaded onto positively charged thermoresponsive magnetic core-shell microgels of Fe3O4@poly(NIPAM-co-DMAEMA) (Fe3O4@PND) through electrostatic self-assembly. This type of attachment offers perspectives for using charged polymeric shell on a broad variety of nanoparticles to immobilize the opposite-charged nanoparticles. The thermosensitive PND shell with swollen or collapsed properties can be as a retractable Au carrier, thereby tuning the aggregation or dispersion of Au nanoparticles, which leads to an increase or decrease of catalytic activity. Therefore, the catalytic activity of Fe3O4@PND@Au can be modulated by the volume transition of thermosensitive microgel shells. Importantly, the mode of tuning the aggregation or dispersion of Au nanoparticles using a thermosensitive carrier offers a novel strategy to adjust and control the catalytic activity, which is completely different with the traditional regulation mode of controlling the diffusion of reactants toward the catalytic Au core using the thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) network as a nanogate. Concurrent with the thermally tunable catalysis, the magnetic susceptibility of magnetic cores enables the Fe3O4@PND@Au nanocomposites to be capable of serving as smart nanoreactors for thermally tunable and magnetically recyclable catalysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Applications of chitosan-based thermo-sensitive copolymers for harvesting living cell sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.-P.; Yang, T.-F.

    2008-01-01

    A thermo-sensitive chitosan-based copolymer hydrogel was used for harvesting living cell sheets. The hydrogel was tested for harvesting 3T3 cells after carrying out cell culture at 37 deg. C and incubating the confluent cells at 20 deg. C for spontaneous detachment of cell sheets from hydrogel surface without enzyme treatment. Results from cell viability assay and microscopy observations demonstrated that cells could attach to the hydrogel surface and maintain high viability and proliferation ability. Cell detachment efficiency from the hydrogel was about 80%. The detached cell sheet retained high viability and could proliferate again after transferred to a new culture surface

  18. N-isopropylacrylamide-based fine-dispersed thermosensitive ferrogels obtained via in-situ technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotych, O; Samchenko, Yu; Boldeskul, I; Ulberg, Z; Zholobak, N; Sukhodub, L

    2013-03-01

    Thermosensitive hydrogels with magnetic properties (ferrogels) are very promising for medical application, first of all, for the design of targeted delivery systems with controlled release of drugs and for magnetic hyperthermia and chemotherapy treatment of cancer. These magnetic hydrogels could be obtained using diverse techniques: ex- and in-situ syntheses. The present work is devoted to the study of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) formation inside the nanoreactors of (co)polymeric hydrogels. Polymeric templates (hydrogel films and fine-dispersed hydrogels) used for obtaining ferrogels were based on acrylic monomers: thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide, and hydrophilic acrylamide. Covalent cross-linking was accomplished using bifunctional monomer N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. Influence of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance of polymeric templates and concentration of iron cations on the magnetite formation were investigated along with the development of ferrogel preparation technique. Cytotoxicity, physical and chemical properties of obtained magnetic hydrogels have been studied in this work. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Grafting of allylimidazole and n-vinylcaprolactam as a thermosensitive polymer onto magnetic nano-particles for the extraction and determination of celecoxib in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morovati, Atefeh; Ahmad Panahi, Homayon; Yazdani, Farzaneh

    2016-11-20

    In this research, a novel method is reported for the surface grafting of n-vinylcaprolactam as a thermosensitive agent and allylimidazole with affinity toward celecoxib onto magnetic nano-particles. The grafted nano-particles were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and thermogravimetric analysis. The surface morphology was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The resulting grafted nano-particles were used for the determination of trace celecoxib in biological human fluids and pharmaceutical samples. The profile of celecoxib uptake by the modified magnetic nano-particles indicated good accessibility of the active sites in the grafted copolymer. It was found that the adsorption behavior could be fitted by the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. Solid phase extraction for biological fluids such as urine and serum were investigated. In this study, urine extraction recovery of more than 95% was obtained. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Kinetic and theoretical studies of novel biodegradable thermo-sensitive xerogels based on PEG/PVP/silica for sustained release of enrofloxacin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Azra; Rafati, Amir Abbas; Bavafa, Sadeghali; Mohammadi, Masoumah

    2017-12-01

    This study involves the synthesis of a new silica-based colloidal hybrid system. In this new hybrid system, poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and thermo-sensitive amphiphilic biocompatible poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) were used to create suitable storage for hydrophobic drugs. The possibility of using variable PVP/PEG molar ratios to modulate drug release rate from silica nanoparticles was a primary goal of the current research. In addition, an investigation of the drug release kinetic was conducted. To achieve this, silica nanoparticles were synthesized in poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) solution incorporated with enrofloxacin (EFX) (as a model hydrophobic drug), using a simple synthetic strategy of hybrid materials which avoided waste and multi-step processes. The impacts of PVP/PEG molar ratios, temperature, and pH of the release medium on release kinetic were investigated. The physicochemical properties of the drug-loaded composites were studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). In vitro drug release studies demonstrated that the drug release rate, which was evaluated by analyzing the experimental data with seven kinetic models in a primarily non-Fickian diffusion-controlled process, aligned well with both Ritger-Peppas and Sahlin-Peppas equations.

  1. Gemcitabine treatment of rat soft tissue sarcoma with phosphatidyldiglycerol-based thermosensitive liposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, Simone; Hahn, Jasmin; Schmidt, Rebecca; Wachholz, Kirsten; Zengerle, Anja; Lechner, Katharina; Eibl, Hansjörg; Issels, Rolf D; Hossann, Martin; Lindner, Lars H

    2014-09-01

    The pyrimidine analogue gemcitabine (dFdC) is frequently used in the treatment of patients with solid tumors. However, after i.v. application dFdC is rapidly inactivated by metabolization. Here, the potential of thermosensitive liposomes based on 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphodiglycerol (DPPG2-TSL) were investigated as carrier and targeting system for delivery of dFdC in combination with local hyperthermia (HT). DPPG2-TSL were prepared by the lipid film hydration and extrusion method and characterized by dynamic light scattering, thin layer chromatography, phosphate assay and HPLC. In vivo experiments were performed in Brown Norway rats with a syngeneic soft tissue sarcoma. Local HT treatment was performed by light exposure. DPPG2-TSL were stable at 37°C in serum and showed a temperature dependent dFdC release >40°C. Plasma half-life of dFdC was strongly increased from 0.07 h (non-liposomal) to 0.53 h (liposomal, vesicle size 105 nm) or 2.59 h (liposomal, 129 nm). Therapy of BN175 tumors with dFdC encapsulated in DPPG2-TSL + HT showed significant improvement in tumor growth delay compared to non-liposomal dFdC without HT (p < 0.05), non-liposomal dFdC with HT (p < 0.01), and liposomal dFdC without HT (p < 0.05), respectively. Gemcitabine encapsulated in DPPG2-TSL in combination with local HT is a promising tool for the treatment of solid tumors. Therefore, these encouraging results ask for further investigation and evaluation.

  2. The comparative effect of wrapping solid gold nanoparticles and hollow gold nanoparticles with doxorubicin-loaded thermosensitive liposomes for cancer thermo-chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanan; He, Dongsheng; Tu, Jiasheng; Wang, Ru; Zu, Chang; Chen, You; Yang, Wenqian; Shi, Di; Webster, Thomas J; Shen, Yan

    2018-04-26

    Since conventional chemotherapy is a systemic treatment that affects the body globally and will not concentrate inside the tumor, it causes adverse side effects to patients. In this study, doxorubicin (DOX) together with solid gold nanoparticles (GNPs) or hollow gold nanoparticles (HGNPs), respectively, is loaded inside thermosensitive liposomes (GNPs&DOX-TLs and HGNPs&DOX-TLs), where the GNPs and HGNPs act as a "nanoswitch" for killing tumor cells directly by hyperthermia and triggering DOX release from TLs in the tumor quickly by near infrared laser (NIR) illumination. In addition, this study investigated the photothermal transformation ability, NIR triggered drug release behavior, and the intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity of breast tumor cells and the thermo-chemotherapy mediated by the co-delivery of GNPs&DOX-TLs and HGNPs&DOX-TLs. GNPs and HGNPs had very different light-to-heat transduction efficiencies, while the hollow HGNPs had the advantage of NIR surface plasmon tunability, resulting in the photothermal ablation of tumors with 800 nm light penetration in tissue. The prepared HGNPs&DOX-TLs exhibited a spherical shape with a diameter of 190 nm and a ξ potential of -29 mV, which were steadily dispersed for at least one month. The co-encapsulated DOX was released under hyperthermia caused by NIR-responsive HGNPs and the local drug concentration increased along with the disintegration of the liposomal membrane. This co-delivery of HGNPs&DOX-TLs produced a synergistic cytotoxicity response, thereby enhancing anticancer efficacy 8-fold and increasing the survival time compared to GNPs&DOX-TLs. This work suggested that the co-delivery of HGNPs&DOX-TLs followed by burst-release of DOX using NIR-responsive HGNPs sensitized cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic compound, which provided a novel concept for the combination strategy of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy. These results suggest that the markedly improved therapeutic efficacy and decreased systemic

  3. Novel dual-reverse thermosensitive solid lipid nanoparticle-loaded hydrogel for rectal administration of flurbiprofen with improved bioavailability and reduced initial burst effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Fakhar Ud; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Wuk; Rashid, Rehmana; Park, Jong Hyuck; Choi, Ju Yeon; Ku, Sae Kwang; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop novel solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN)-loaded dual-reverse thermosensitive hydrogel (DRTH) for rectal administration of flurbiprofen with improved bioavailability and reduced initial burst effect. The flurbiprofen-loaded SLNs were prepared by hot homogenisation technique, after optimising the amounts of lipid mixture (tricaprin and triethanolamine in 8:2 weight ratio), drug and surfactant. The flurbiprofen-loaded thermosensitive SLN composed of drug, lipid mixture and surfactant at a weight ratio of 10/15/1.3 was a solid at room temperature, and changed to liquid form at physiological temperature due to its melting point of about 32°C. This SLN gave the mean particle size of about 190nm and entrapment efficiency of around 90%. The DRTHs were prepared by adding this flurbiprofen-loaded thermosensitive SLN in various poloxamer solutions. Their rheological characterisation, release and stability were investigated while a morphological and pharmacokinetic study was performed after its rectal administration to rats compared with the drug and hydrogel. Poloxamer 188 and SLN decreased the gelation temperature and gelation time, but increased the viscosity at 25°C, gel strength and mucoadhesive force of DRTHs. In particular, the DRTH composed of [SLN/P 407/P 188 (10%/15%/25%)] with the gelation temperature of about 35°C existed as liquid at room temperature, but gelled at 30-36°C, leading to opposite reversible property of SLN. Thus, it was easy to administer rectally, and it gelled rapidly inside the body. This DRTH gave a significantly increased dissolution rate of the drug as compared to the flurbiprofen, but significantly retarded as compared to the hydrogel, including the initial dissolution rate. Moreover, this DRTH gave significantly higher plasma concentration and 7.5-fold AUC values compared to the drug, and lower initial plasma concentration and Cmax value compared to the hydrogel due to reduced initial burst effect. No

  4. Thermo-sensitive injectable glycol chitosan-based hydrogel for treatment of degenerative disc disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhengzheng; Shim, Hyeeun; Cho, Myeong Ok; Cho, Ik Sung; Lee, Jin Hyun; Kang, Sun-Woong; Kwon, Bosun; Huh, Kang Moo

    2018-03-15

    The use of injectable hydrogel formulations have been suggested as a promising strategy for the treatment of degenerative disc disease to both restore the biomechanical function and reduce low back pain. In this work, a new thermo-sensitive injectable hydrogels with tunable thermo-sensitivity and enhanced stability were developed with N-hexanoylation of glycol chitosan (GC) for treatment of degenerative disc disease, and their physico-chemical and biological properties were evaluated. The sol-gel transition temperature of the hydrogels was controlled in a range of 23-56 °С, depending on the degree of hexanoylation and the polymer concentration. In vitro and in vivo tests showed no cytotoxicity and no adverse effects in a rat model. The hydrogel filling of the defective IVD site in an ex vivo porcine model maintained its stability for longer than 28 days. These results suggest that the hydrogel can be used as an alternative material for treatment of disc herniation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The influence of low process temperature on the hydrodynamic radius of polyNIPAM-co-PEG thermosensitive nanoparticles presumed as drug carriers for bioactive proteins

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Musial, W.; Michálek, Jiří

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2015), s. 161-169 ISSN 0001-6837 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : nanogel * N-isopropylacrylamide * thermosensitivity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 0.877, year: 2015 http://www.ptfarm.pl/pub/File/Acta_Poloniae/2015/1/161.pdf

  6. Custom-designed Laser-based Heating Apparatus for Triggered Release of Cisplatin from Thermosensitive Liposomes with Magnetic Resonance Image Guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Yannan N; Weersink, Robert A; Foltz, Warren D; Zheng, Jinzi; Chaudary, Naz; Jaffray, David A; Allen, Christine

    2015-12-13

    Liposomes have been employed as drug delivery systems to target solid tumors through exploitation of the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect resulting in significant reductions in systemic toxicity. Nonetheless, insufficient release of encapsulated drug from liposomes has limited their clinical efficacy. Temperature-sensitive liposomes have been engineered to provide site-specific release of drug in order to overcome the problem of limited tumor drug bioavailability. Our lab has designed and developed a heat-activated thermosensitive liposome formulation of cisplatin (CDDP), known as HTLC, to provide triggered release of CDDP at solid tumors. Heat-activated delivery in vivo was achieved in murine models using a custom-built laser-based heating apparatus that provides a conformal heating pattern at the tumor site as confirmed by MR thermometry (MRT). A fiber optic temperature monitoring device was used to measure the temperature in real-time during the entire heating period with online adjustment of heat delivery by alternating the laser power. Drug delivery was optimized under magnetic resonance (MR) image guidance by co-encapsulation of an MR contrast agent (i.e., gadoteridol) along with CDDP into the thermosensitive liposomes as a means to validate the heating protocol and to assess tumor accumulation. The heating protocol consisted of a preheating period of 5 min prior to administration of HTLC and 20 min heating post-injection. This heating protocol resulted in effective release of the encapsulated agents with the highest MR signal change observed in the heated tumor in comparison to the unheated tumor and muscle. This study demonstrated the successful application of the laser-based heating apparatus for preclinical thermosensitive liposome development and the importance of MR-guided validation of the heating protocol for optimization of drug delivery.

  7. Hairy polyelectrolyte brushes-grafted thermosensitive microgels as artificial synovial fluid for simultaneous biomimetic lubrication and arthritis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guoqiang; Liu, Zhilu; Li, Na; Wang, Xiaolong; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2014-11-26

    We report the fabrication of poly(3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt) (PSPMK) brushes grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) microgels and their potential as artificial synovial fluid for biomimetic aqueous lubrication and arthritis treatment. The negatively charged PSPMK brushes and thermosensitive PNIPAAm microgels play water-based hydration lubrication and temperature-triggered drug release, respectively. Under soft friction pairs, an ultralow coefficient of friction was achieved, while the hairy thermosensitive microgels showed a desirable temperature-triggered drugs release performance. Such a soft charged hairy microgel offers great possibility for designing intelligent synovial fluid. What is more, the combination of lubrication and drug loading capabilities enables the large clinical potential of novel soft hairy nanoparticles as synthetic joint lubricant fluid in arthritis treatment.

  8. Microwave based synthesis and spectral characterization of thermo-sensitive poly(N,N-diethylacrylamide) grafted pectin copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işıklan, Nuran; Tokmak, Şeyma

    2018-07-01

    The functionalization of polysaccharides with synthetic polymers has attracted great attention owing to its application in many industrial fields. The aim of this work was to study the impact of pectin functionalization with N,N-diethylacrylamide (DEAAm). Pectin was modified via microwave-induced graft copolymerization of DEAAm using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN) and N,N,N',N'-tetramethylethylenediamine (TEMED). FTIR, 13 C NMR, DSC/TGA, XRD, and SEM techniques were used to verify the structure of graft copolymers. Various reaction conditions such as microwave irradiation time, temperature, microwave power, monomer, initiator, and TEMED concentrations were investigated to get a maximum grafting yield of 192%. Lower critical solution temperatures (LCST) of graft copolymers were determined by UV spectroscopy. Graft copolymers were found to be thermo-sensitive, with LCST of 31°C and high thermal resistance. Biocompatibility test of copolymers showed that copolymers were not cytotoxic to L929 fibroblasts cells and can be used as a biomaterial. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual-functional transdermal drug delivery system with controllable drug loading based on thermosensitive poloxamer hydrogel for atopic dermatitis treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenyi; Wat, Elaine; Hui, Patrick C. L.; Chan, Ben; Ng, Frency S. F.; Kan, Chi-Wai; Wang, Xiaowen; Hu, Huawen; Wong, Eric C. W.; Lau, Clara B. S.; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2016-04-01

    The treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD) has long been viewed as a problematic issue by the medical profession. Although a wide variety of complementary therapies have been introduced, they fail to combine the skin moisturizing and drug supply for AD patients. This study reports the development of a thermo-sensitive Poloxamer 407/Carboxymethyl cellulose sodium (P407/CMCs) composite hydrogel formulation with twin functions of moisture and drug supply for AD treatment. It was found that the presence of CMCs can appreciably improve the physical properties of P407 hydrogel, which makes it more suitable for tailored drug loading. The fabricated P407/CMCs composite hydrogel was also characterized in terms of surface morphology by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), rheological properties by a rheometer, release profile in vitro by dialysis method and cytotoxicity test. More importantly, the findings from transdermal drug delivery behavior revealed that P407/CMCs showed desirable percutaneous performance. Additionally, analysis of cytotoxicity test suggested that P407/CMCs composite hydrogel is a high-security therapy for clinical trials and thus exhibits a promising way to treat AD with skin moisturizing and medication.

  10. iTRAQ-Based Proteomics Analyses of Sterile/Fertile Anthers from a Thermo-Sensitive Cytoplasmic Male-Sterile Wheat with Aegilops kotschyi Cytoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoming Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available A “two-line hybrid system” was developed, previously based on thermo-sensitive cytoplasmic male sterility in Aegilops kotschyi (K-TCMS, which can be used in wheat breeding. The K-TCMS line exhibits complete male sterility and it can be used to produce hybrid wheat seeds during the normal wheat-growing season; it propagates via self-pollination at high temperatures. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification-based quantitative proteome and bioinformatics analyses of the TCMS line KTM3315A were conducted under different fertility conditions to understand the mechanisms of fertility conversion in the pollen development stages. In total, 4639 proteins were identified, the differentially abundant proteins that increased/decreased in plants with differences in fertility were mainly involved with energy metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, protein synthesis, translation, folding, and degradation. Compared with the sterile condition, many of the proteins that related to energy and phenylpropanoid metabolism increased during the anther development stage. Thus, we suggest that energy and phenylpropanoid metabolism pathways are important for fertility conversion in K-TCMS wheat. These findings provide valuable insights into the proteins involved with anther and pollen development, thereby, helping to further understand the mechanism of TCMS in wheat.

  11. Employment of modified Fe3 O4 nanoparticles using thermo-sensitive polymer for extraction and pre-concentration of cefexime in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghibi, Saman; Sahebi, Hamed

    2018-02-01

    Cefexime is a useful antibiotic that can be prescribed to treat bacterial infections. Nanoparticles have been widely marketed as a universal solution among scientists. Many studies have been performed to modify nanoparticles to make them functional as extraction and pre-concentration agents and drug carriers. Temperature-sensitive polymers belong to a group of substances that undergo a major change in their physical features in response to temperature. Recently developed polymers can be used in many different areas, including modification of nanoparticles. In order to modify this nanoparticle, grafting copolymerization of Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles was performed using poly (N-vinylcaprolactam) and 3-allyloxy-1,2-propanediol. The optimum conditions for pre-concentration of cefexime were studied. Under these optimum conditions, extraction recovery of biological samples in the range of 71-89% was obtained. The limit of detection and precision of proposed method were 4.5 × 10 -4  μg mL -1 and analysis of cefexime, in biological samples using the proposed method, the ability of this method to extract and pre-concentrate cefexime was confirmed. Also, satisfactory results from an in vitro study on drug release in simulated intestine media were obtained. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Heparin release from thermosensitive polymer coatings: in vivo studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutowska, Anna; Bae, You Han; Jacobs, Harvey; Mohammad, Fazal; Mix, Donald; Feijen, Jan; Kim, Sung Wan

    1995-01-01

    Biomer/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/[poly(NiPAAm)] thermosensitive polymer blends were prepared and their application as heparin-releasing polymer coatings for the prevention of surface-induced thrombosis was examined. The advantage of using poly(NiPAAm)-based coatings as heparin-releasing polymers

  13. Nanolubricant: magnetic nanoparticle based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Kinjal; Parekh, Kinnari; Upadhyay, Ramesh V.

    2017-11-01

    In the present study magnetic nanoparticles of Fe3O4 having average particle diameter, 11.7 nm were synthesized using chemical coprecipitation technique and dispersed in alpha olefin hydrocarbon synthetic lubricating oil. The solid weight fraction of magnetic nanoparticles in the lubricating oil was varied from 0 wt% to 10 wt%. The tribological properties were studied using four-ball tester. The results demonstrate that the coefficient of friction and wear scar diameter reduces by 45% and 30%, respectively at an optimal value, i.e. 4 wt% of magnetic nanoparticles concentration. The surface characterization of worn surface was carried out using a scanning electron microscope, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. These results implied that rolling mechanism is responsible to reduce coefficient of friction while magnetic nanoparticles act as the spacer between the asperities and reduces the wear scar diameter. The surface roughness of the worn surface studied using an atomic force microscope shows a reduction in surface roughness by a factor of four when magnetic nanoparticles are used as an additive. The positive response of magnetic nanoparticles in a lubricating oil, shows the potential replacement of conventional lubricating oil.

  14. [Securing the use of thermosensitive drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Camille; Saint-Lorant, Guillaume

    2015-10-01

    The safety of patient care entails complying with the temperature requirements for thermosensitive drugs. Field studies carried out at the CHU de Caen University Hospital have demonstrated that patients and caregivers do not understand the critical aspect of thermosensitive drugs. This observation has led to the development of tools designed to secure the cold chain for thermosensitive drugs and to increase awareness among healthcare professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. β-Cyclodextrin/thermosensitive containing polymer brushes grafted onto magnetite nano-particles for extraction and determination of venlafaxine in biological and pharmaceutical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Panahi, Homayon; Alaei, Haniyeh Sadat

    2014-12-10

    In this paper, a novel nano-sorbent is fabricated by the surface grafting of poly[β-CD/allylamine-co-N-isopropylacrylamide] onto modified magnetite nano-particles by 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane. The polymer grafted magnetite nano-particles was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The feasibility of employing this nano-sorbent for extraction of trace venlafaxine in pharmaceutical samples and human biological fluids are investigated. The effect of various parameters such as pH, reaction temperature, and contact time was evaluated. The result revealed that the best sorption of venlafaxine by the magnetite nano-sorbent occurred at 35 °C at an optimum pH of 5. The kinetics of the venlafaxine shows accessibility of active sites in the grafted polymer onto the drug. The equilibrium data of venlafaxine by grafted magnetite nano-sorbent are well represented by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. The adsorption capacity of venlafaxine is found 142.8 mg g(-1) and indicated the homogeneous sites onto polymer grafted magnetite nano-sorbent surface. Nearly 80% of venlafaxine was released in simulated intestinal fluid, pH 7.4, in 30 h and 90% in simulated gastric fluid, pH 1.2, in 1 h. The venlafaxine loaded-polymer grafted magnetite nano-particles were successfully applied for the extraction in urine and pharmaceutical samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrogel nanoparticle based immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liotta, Lance A; Luchini, Alessandra; Petricoin, Emanuel F; Espina, Virginia

    2015-04-21

    An immunoassay device incorporating porous polymeric capture nanoparticles within either the sample collection vessel or pre-impregnated into a porous substratum within fluid flow path of the analytical device is presented. This incorporation of capture particles within the immunoassay device improves sensitivity while removing the requirement for pre-processing of samples prior to loading the immunoassay device. A preferred embodiment is coreshell bait containing capture nanoparticles which perform three functions in one step, in solution: a) molecular size sieving, b) target analyte sequestration and concentration, and c) protection from degradation. The polymeric matrix of the capture particles may be made of co-polymeric materials having a structural monomer and an affinity monomer, the affinity monomer having properties that attract the analyte to the capture particle. This device is useful for point of care diagnostic assays for biomedical applications and as field deployable assays for environmental, pathogen and chemical or biological threat identification.

  17. Structural and biological properties of thermosensitive chitosan-graphene hybrid hydrogels for sustained drug delivery applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeednia, Leyla; Yao, Li; Berndt, Marcus; Cluff, Kim; Asmatulu, Ramazan

    2017-09-01

    Chitosan has the ability to make injectable thermosensitive hydrogels which has been highly investigated for drug delivery applications. The addition of nanoparticles is one way to increase the mechanical strength of thermosensitive chitosan hydrogel and subsequently and control the burst release of drug. Graphene nanoparticles have shown unique mechanical, optical and electrical properties which can be exploited for biomedical applications, especially in drug delivery. This study, have focused on the mechanical properties of a thermosensitive and injectable hybrid chitosan hydrogel incorporated with graphene nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) have been used for morphological and chemical characterization of graphene infused chitosan hydrogels. The cell viability and cytotoxicity of graphene-contained hydrogels were analyzed using the alamarBlue ® technique. In-vitro methotrexate (MTX) release was investigated from MTX-loaded hybrid hydrogels as well. As a last step, to evaluate their efficiency as a cancer treatment delivery system, an in vitro anti-tumor test was also carried out using MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines. Results confirmed that a thermosensitive chitosan-graphene hybrid hydrogel can be used as a potential breast cancer therapy system for controlled delivery of methotrexate. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 2381-2390, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Thermo-sensitive intelligent track membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pang Deling; Ren Lihua; Qian Zhilin; Huang Gang; Zhang Jinhua

    1999-01-01

    Using N-isopropylacryl-amide (NIP AAm) thermo-sensitive function material as monomer and nuclear track microporous membrane (NTMM) as baseline material, a thermo-sensitive intelligent track membrane (TsITM) has been prepared by the over-oxidization and pre-irradiation grafting techniques. The TsITM can be used to make a micro-switch controlled by temperature and to adjust particle screening and osmosis. To obtain sub-micron responsive grafted track pores only a very thin thermo-sensitive layer is needed. The TsITM pores are capable of swelling and shrinking rapidly and respond more sensitively to temperature

  19. Oxide nanomembrane hybrids with enhanced mechano- and thermo-sensitivity for semitransparent epidermal electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Minjoon; Do, Kyungsik; Kim, Jaemin; Son, Donghee; Koo, Ja Hoon; Park, Jinkyung; Song, Jun-Kyul; Kim, Ji Hoon; Lee, Minbaek; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Kim, Dae-Hyeong

    2015-05-01

    Oxide nanomembrane hybrids with enhanced mechano- and thermo-sensitivity for semitransparent epidermal electronics are developed. The use of nanomaterials (single wall nanotubes and silver nanoparticles) embedded in the oxide nanomembranes significantly enhances mechanical and thermal sensitivities. These mechanical and thermal sensors are utilized in wheelchair control and hypothermia detection, which are useful for patients with strokes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Chemoelectronic circuits based on metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yong; Warren, Scott C.; Fuller, Patrick; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2016-07-01

    To develop electronic devices with novel functionalities and applications, various non-silicon-based materials are currently being explored. Nanoparticles have unique characteristics due to their small size, which can impart functions that are distinct from those of their bulk counterparts. The use of semiconductor nanoparticles has already led to improvements in the efficiency of solar cells, the processability of transistors and the sensitivity of photodetectors, and the optical and catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles have led to similar advances in plasmonics and energy conversion. However, metals screen electric fields and this has, so far, prevented their use in the design of all-metal nanoparticle circuitry. Here, we show that simple electronic circuits can be made exclusively from metal nanoparticles functionalized with charged organic ligands. In these materials, electronic currents are controlled by the ionic gradients of mobile counterions surrounding the ‘jammed’ nanoparticles. The nanoparticle-based electronic elements of the circuitry can be interfaced with metal nanoparticles capable of sensing various environmental changes (humidity, gas, the presence of various cations), creating electronic devices in which metal nanoparticles sense, process and ultimately report chemical signals. Because the constituent nanoparticles combine electronic and chemical sensing functions, we term these systems ‘chemoelectronic’. The circuits have switching times comparable to those of polymer electronics, selectively transduce parts-per-trillion chemical changes into electrical signals, perform logic operations, consume little power (on the scale of microwatts), and are mechanically flexible. They are also ‘green’, in the sense that they comprise non-toxic nanoparticles cast at room temperature from alcohol solutions.

  1. Thermosensitive shutter for radioactive source housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullagar, H.

    1986-01-01

    A shutter apparatus for a radioactive source housing comprises a movable member and a thermosensitive releasing means operative normally to hold the movable member in an open position but to release the movable member to move to a position closing the housing to contain the source when the temperature exceeds a predetermined value, for example as a result of fire. (author)

  2. Characterization of gelation process and drug release profile of thermosensitive liquid lecithin/poloxamer 407 based gels as carriers for percutaneous delivery of ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djekic, Ljiljana; Krajisnik, Danina; Martinovic, Martina; Djordjevic, Dragana; Primorac, Marija

    2015-07-25

    Suitability of liquid lecithin (i.e., solution of lecithin in soy bean oil with ∼ 60% w/w of phospholipids) for formation of gels, upon addition of water solution of poloxamer 407, was investigated, and formulated systems were evaluated as carriers for percutaneous delivery of ibuprofen. Formulation study of pseudo-ternary system liquid lecithin/poloxamer 407/water at constant liquid lecithin/poloxamer 407 mass ratio (2.0) revealed that minimum concentrations of liquid lecithin and poloxamer 407 required for formation of gel like systems were 15.75% w/w and 13.13% w/w, respectively, while the maximum content of water was 60.62% w/w. The systems comprising water concentrations in a range from 55 to 60.62% w/w were soft semisolids suitable for topical application, and they were selected for physicochemical and biopharmaceutical evaluation. Analysis of conductivity results and light microscopy examination revealed that investigated systems were water dilutable dispersions of spherical oligolamellar associates of phospholipids and triglyceride molecules in the copolymer water solution. Rheological behavior evaluation results indicated that the investigated gels were thermosensitive shear thinning systems. Ibuprofen (5% w/w) was incorporated by dispersing into the previously prepared carriers. Drug-loaded systems were physically stable at storage temperature from 5 ± 3°C to 40 ± 2°C, for 30 days. In vitro ibuprofen release was in accordance with the Higuchi model (rH>0.95) and sustained for 12h. The obtained results implicated that formulated LLPBGs, optimized regarding drug release and organoleptic properties, represent promising carriers for sustained percutaneous drug delivery of poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermosensitive copolymeric hydrogels with the regulated temperature of a phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samchenko, Yu.M.; Konovalova, V.V.; Korotich, E.I.; Poltoratskaya, T.P.; Pobegaj, A.A.; Burban, A.F.; Ul'berg, Z.R.; Samchenko, Yu.M.; Konovalova, V.V.; Korotich, E.I.; Poltoratskaya, T.P.; Pobegaj, A.A.; Burban, A.F.; Ul'berg, Z.R.

    2011-01-01

    The work is devoted to the methods of obtaining the thermosensitive copolymeric hydrogels based on the NIPAAm with acrylic acid and its derivatives such as acrylamide, acrylonitrile, and methylacrylate. The mechanisms of thermoinitiated phase transitions in hydrogel matrices and the regularities of the thermoinitiated release of model compounds and drugs (aniline, novocaine, and sodium diclofenac) from copolymeric hydrogel are investigated.

  4. Irinotecan-encapsulated double-reverse thermosensitive nanocarrier system for rectal administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Fakhar Ud; Choi, Ju Yeon; Kim, Dong Wuk; Mustapha, Omer; Kim, Dong Shik; Thapa, Raj Kumar; Ku, Sae Kwang; Youn, Yu Seok; Oh, Kyung Taek; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh; Choi, Han-Gon

    2017-11-01

    Intravenously administered for the treatment of rectum cancer, irinotecan produces severe side effects due to very high plasma concentrations. A novel irinotecan-encapsulated double reverse thermosensitive nanocarrier system (DRTN) for rectal administration was developed as an alternative. The DRTN was fabricated by dispersing the thermosensitive irinotecan-encapsulated solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) in the thermosensitive poloxamer solution. Its gel properties, pharmacokinetics, morphology, anticancer activity and immunohistopathology were assessed after its rectal administration to rats and tumor-bearing mice. In the DRTN, the solid form of the SLN and the liquid form of the poloxamer solution persisted at 25 °C; the former melted to liquid, and the latter altered to gel at 36.5 °C. The DRTN was easily administered to the anus, gelling rapidly and strongly after rectal administration. Compared to the conventional hydrogel and intravenously administered solution, it retarded dissolution and initial plasma concentration. The DRTN gave sustained release and nearly constant plasma concentrations of irinotecan at 1-3 h in rats, resulting in improved anticancer activity. It induced no damage to the rat rectum and no body weight loss in tumor-bearing mice. Thus, this irinotecan-encapsulated DRTN associated with a reduced burst effect, lack of toxicity and excellent antitumor efficacy would be strongly recommended as a rectal pharmaceutical product alternative to commercial intravenous injection in the treatment of rectum and colon cancer.

  5. Synthesis of thermosensitive magnetic nanocarrier for controlled sorafenib delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidarinasab, Amir [Department of Chemical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahmad Panahi, Homayon [Department of Chemistry, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faramarzi, Mehdi, E-mail: faramarzi.iaug@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Farjadian, Fatemeh [Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-01

    Allyl glycidyl ether/N-isopropylacrylamide-grafted magnetic nanoparticles were prepared using silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles as a substrate for radical copolymerization of allyl glycidyl ether and N-isopropylacrylamide. Chitosan was coupled with the prepared nanoparticles by opening the epoxy ring of the allyl glycidyl ether. The thermosensitive magnetic nanocarrier (TSMNC) obtained can be applied as a potent drug carrier. The TSMNC structure was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, vibrating sample magnetometer, and elemental analysis. Its morphology and size were investigated using field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering. The feasibility of employing the TSMNC for adsorption and in vitro controlled release of the chemotherapeutic agent sorafenib was tested. The effect of the adsorption parameters of pH, temperature, and loading time of sorafenib onto TSMNC was evaluated. The adsorption data was fitted to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms and the relevant parameters derived. The drug release profile indicated that 88% of the adsorbed drug was released within 35 h at 45 °C and drug release was Fickian diffusion-controlled. The results confirmed that the TSMNC has a high adsorption capacity at low temperature and good controlled release in a slow rate at a high temperature and could be developed for further application as a drug nanocarrier. - Graphical abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with chitosan and N-isopropylacrylamide. It was evaluated for sorafenib (SFB) adsorption and tested as a controlled-release system in response to changes in temperature. The TSMNC showed superparamagnetic properties with a high adsorption capacity and desirable controlled release at below and above LCST. Display Omitted - Highlights: • A TSMNC was synthesized for controlled

  6. Experimental evidence of temperature gradients in cavitating microflows seeded with thermosensitive nanoprobes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayela, Frédéric; Medrano-Muñoz, Manuel; Amans, David; Dujardin, Christophe; Brichart, Thomas; Martini, Matteo; Tillement, Olivier; Ledoux, Gilles

    2013-10-01

    Thermosensitive fluorescent nanoparticles seeded in deionized water combined with confocal microscopy enables thermal mapping over three dimensions of the liquid phase flowing through a microchannel interrupted by a microdiaphragm. This experiment reveals the presence of a strong thermal gradient up to ˜105 K/m only when hydrodynamic cavitation is present. Here hydrodynamic cavitation is the consequence of high shear rates downstream in the diaphragm. This temperature gradient is located in vortical structures associated with eddies in the shear layers. We attribute such overheating to the dissipation involved by the cavitating flow regime. Accordingly, we demonstrate that the microsizes of the device enhance the intensity of the thermal gap.

  7. Nanoparticle-based therapy for respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA L. DA SILVA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is an emerging science with the potential to create new materials and strategies involving manipulation of matter at the nanometer scale (<100 nm. With size-dependent properties, nanoparticles have introduced a new paradigm in pharmacotherapy – the possibility of cell-targeted drug delivery with minimal systemic side effects and toxicity. The present review provides a summary of published findings, especially regarding to nanoparticle formulations for lung diseases. The available data have shown some benefits with nanoparticle-based therapy in the development of the disease and lung remodeling in respiratory diseases. However, there is a wide gap between the concepts of nanomedicine and the published experimental data and clinical reality. In addition, studies are still required to determine the potential of nanotherapy and the systemic toxicity of nanomaterials for future human use.

  8. Flocculation of flotation tailings using thermosensitive polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogacz Wojciech

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The key feature of thermosensitive polymers is the reversible transition between the hydrophilic and hydrophopic forms depending on the temperature. Although the main research efforts are focused on their application in different kinds of drug delivery systems, this phenomenon also allows one to precisely control the stability of solid-liquid dispersions. In this paper research on the application of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide copolymers in processing of minerals is presented. In the experiments tailings from flotation plant of one of the coal mines of Jastrzębska Spółka Węglowa S.A. (Poland were used. A laser particle sizer Fritsch Analysette 22 was used in order to determine the Particle Size Distribution (PSD. It was proved that there are some substantial issues associated with the application of thermosensitive polymers in industrial practice which may exclude them from the common application. High salinity of suspension altered the value of Lower Critical Solution Temperature (LCST. Moreover, the co-polymers used in research proved to be efficient flocculating agents without any temperature rise. Finally, the dosage needed to achieve steric stabilization of suspension was greatly beyond economic justification.

  9. A novel biomagnetic nanoparticle based on hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H-C; Wang, T-W; Sun, J-S; Wang, W-H; Lin, F-H

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, magnetic HAP was synthesized at different ratios of Fe:Ca (X Fe/Ca ) by the co-precipitation method. We have evaluated the present essential properties including the crystal structure and cell parameters by XRD, lattice arrangement by HR-TEM, composition analysis by ICP-MS, and functional groups by FTIR. The morphology and magnetization were investigated by SEM and AFM and SQUID, respectively. The in vitro biocompatibility was also investigated with a lactate dehydrogenase assay. The results showed that the crystal and molecular structure of the synthesized magnetic-HAP nanoparticle remained unaltered without collapse with the addition of iron ions. The lattice constants of m-HAP were similar to reference JCPDS card no. 9-432. The magnetization of m-HAP nanoparticles increased with increasing X Fe/Ca and possessed the superparamagnetic property with size distribution around 20 nm. The hydroxyapatite-based magnetic nanoparticles were also examined with good biocompatibility. With the appropriate physico-chemical and biological properties, the magnetic-HAP nanoparticles would have great potential to be applied in biomedical applications

  10. Biomedical nanotechnology using virus-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destito, G; Schneemann, A; Manchester, M

    2009-01-01

    A great challenge in biomedicine is the ability to target therapeutics to specific locations in the body in order to increase therapeutic benefit and minimize adverse effects. Virus-based nanotechnology takes advantage of the natural circulatory and targeting properties of viruses, in order to design therapeutics and vaccines that specifically target tissues of interest in vivo. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) and flock house virus (FHV) nanoparticle-based strategies hold great promise for the design of targeted therapeutics, as well as for structure-based vaccine approaches.

  11. Paper-based biodetection using luminescent nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Qiang; Noor, M Omair; Krull, Ulrich J

    2016-05-10

    Point-of-care and in-field technologies for rapid, sensitive and selective detection of molecular biomarkers have attracted much interest. Rugged bioassay technology capable of fast detection of markers for pathogens and genetic diseases would in particular impact the quality of health care in the developing world, but would also make possible more extensive screening in developed countries to tackle problems such as those associated with water and food quality, and tracking of infectious organisms in hospitals and clinics. Literature trends indicate an increasing interest in the use of nanomaterials, and in particular luminescent nanoparticles, for assay development. These materials may offer attributes for development of assays and sensors that could achieve improvements in analytical figures of merit, and provide practical advantages in sensitivity and stability. There is opportunity for cost-efficiency and technical simplicity by implementation of luminescent nanomaterials as the basis for transduction technology, when combined with the use of paper substrates, and the ubiquitous availability of cell phone cameras and associated infrastructure for optical detection and transmission of results. Luminescent nanoparticles have been described for a broad range of bioanalytical targets including small molecules, oligonucleotides, peptides, proteins, saccharides and whole cells (e.g., cancer diagnostics). The luminescent nanomaterials that are described herein for paper-based bioassays include metal nanoparticles, quantum dots and lanthanide-doped nanocrystals. These nanomaterials often have broad and strong absorption and narrow emission bands that improve opportunity for multiplexed analysis, and can be designed to provide emission at wavelengths that are efficiently processed by conventional digital cameras. Luminescent nanoparticles can be embedded in paper substrates that are designed to direct fluid flow, and the resulting combination of technologies can offer

  12. Antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles encapsulated in poly-N-isopropylacrylamide-based polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Muhammad; Udomluck, Nopphadol; Chang, Jihyun; Park, Hansoo; Kim, Kyobum

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the antimicrobial activities of poly- N -isopropylacrylamide (pNIPAM)-based polymeric nanoparticles encapsulating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Three sizes of AgNP-encapsulating pNIPAM- and pNIPAM-NH 2 -based polymeric nanoparticles were fabricated. Highly stable and uniformly distributed AgNPs were encapsulated within polymeric nanoparticles via in situ reduction of AgNO 3 using NaBH 4 as the reducing agent. The formation and distribution of AgNPs was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry, respectively. Both polymeric nanoparticles showed significant bacteriostatic activities against Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli ) and Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus ) bacteria depending on the nanoparticle size and amount of AgNO 3 used during fabrication.

  13. Thermo-sensitive polymer nanospheres as a smart plugging agent for shale gas drilling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ji; Qiu, Zheng-Song; Zhong, Han-Yi; Huang, Wei-An; Dai, Wen-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Emulsifier-free poly(methyl methacrylate-styrene) [P(MMA-St)] nanospheres with an average particle size of 100 nm were synthesized in an isopropyl alcohol-water medium by a solvothermal method. Then, through radical graft copolymerization of thermo-sensitive monomer N -isopropylacrylamide (NIPAm) and hydrophilic monomer acrylic acid (AA) onto the surface of P(MMA-St) nanospheres at 80 °C, a series of thermo-sensitive polymer nanospheres, named SD-SEAL with different lower critical solution temperatures (LCST), were prepared by adjusting the mole ratio of NIPAm to AA. The products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, particle size distribution, and specific surface area analysis. The temperature-sensitive behavior was studied by light transmittance tests, while the sealing performance was investigated by pressure transmission tests with Lungmachi Formation shales. The experimental results showed that the synthesized nanoparticles are sensitive to temperature and had apparent LCST values which increased with an increase in hydrophilic monomer AA. When the temperature was higher than its LCST value, SD-SEAL played a dual role of physical plugging and chemical inhibition, slowed down pressure transmission, and reduced shale permeability remarkably. The plugged layer of shale was changed to being hydrophobic, which greatly improved the shale stability.

  14. Formulation optimization and in vivo proof-of-concept study of thermosensitive liposomes balanced by phospholipid, elastin-like polypeptide, and cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Min Park

    Full Text Available One application of nanotechnology in medicine that is presently being developed involves a drug delivery system (DDS employing nanoparticles to deliver drugs to diseased sites in the body avoiding damage of healthy tissue. Recently, the mild hyperthermia-triggered drug delivery combined with anticancer agent-loaded thermosensitive liposomes was widely investigated. In this study, thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs, composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC, 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethyleneglycol-2000] (DSPE-PEG, cholesterol, and a fatty acid conjugated elastin-like polypeptide (ELP, were developed and optimized for triggered drug release, controlled by external heat stimuli. We introduced modified ELP, tunable for various biomedical purposes, to our thermosensitive liposome (e-TSL to convey a high thermoresponsive property. We modulated thermosensitivity and stability by varying the ratios of e-TSL components, such as phospholipid, ELP, and cholesterol. Experimental data obtained in this study corresponded to results from a simulation study that demonstrated, through the calculation of the lateral diffusion coefficient, increased permeation of the lipid bilayer with higher ELP concentrations, and decreased permeation in the presence of cholesterol. Finally, we identified effective drug accumulation in tumor tissues and antitumor efficacy with our optimized e-TSL, while adjusting lag-times for systemic accumulation.

  15. A study on the thermochemotherapy effect of nanosized As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes on experimental hepatoma in vitro and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhang, Jia; An, Yanli; Wang, Ziyu; Liu, Jing; Li, Yutao; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanosized, thermosensitive magnetoliposome encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles (MZFs) and antitumor drugs (As2O3). The nanoliposomes were spherical and mostly single volume, with an average diameter of 128.2 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed a liposome phase transition temperature of 42.71 °C. After that, we studied the liposomes' anti-hepatoma effect in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor effect of the nanoliposomes on human hepatoma cells, SMMC-7721, and changes in expression of apoptosis-related proteins were examined in vitro. The results show that As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes combined with hyperthermia had a great impact on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which increased to 1.914 and exhibited a rapid response to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. An in situ rabbit liver tumor model was established and used to evaluate the antitumor effect of combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy following transcatheter arterial embolization with As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes. The results demonstrated a strong anti-hepatoma effect, with a tumor volume inhibition rate of up to 85.22%. Thus, As2O3/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes may play a great role in the treatment of hepatocarcinoma.

  16. A study on the thermochemotherapy effect of nanosized As{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes on experimental hepatoma in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Li; Zhang Jia; Wang Ziyu; Liu Jing; Li Yutao; Zhang Dongsheng [School of Medicine, Southeast University, NO. 87 Ding jia qiao, Nanjing 210009 (China); An Yanli, E-mail: wangli040418@163.com, E-mail: zdszds1222@163.com [Affiliated Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2011-08-05

    In this paper, we describe the synthesis and characterization of a nanosized, thermosensitive magnetoliposome encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles (MZFs) and antitumor drugs (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The nanoliposomes were spherical and mostly single volume, with an average diameter of 128.2 nm. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) showed a liposome phase transition temperature of 42.71 deg. C. After that, we studied the liposomes' anti-hepatoma effect in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor effect of the nanoliposomes on human hepatoma cells, SMMC-7721, and changes in expression of apoptosis-related proteins were examined in vitro. The results show that As{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes combined with hyperthermia had a great impact on the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which increased to 1.914 and exhibited a rapid response to induce apoptosis of tumor cells. An in situ rabbit liver tumor model was established and used to evaluate the antitumor effect of combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy following transcatheter arterial embolization with As{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes. The results demonstrated a strong anti-hepatoma effect, with a tumor volume inhibition rate of up to 85.22%. Thus, As{sub 2}O{sub 3}/MZF thermosensitive magnetoliposomes may play a great role in the treatment of hepatocarcinoma.

  17. Smart thermosensitive liposomes for effective solid tumor therapy and in vivo imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Affram

    Full Text Available In numerous studies, liposomes have been used to deliver anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin to local heat-triggered tumor. Here, we investigate: (i the ability of thermosensitive liposomal nanoparticle (TSLnp as a delivery system to deliver poorly membrane-permeable anticancer drug, gemcitabine (Gem to solid pancreatic tumor with the aid of local mild hyperthermia and, (ii the possibility of using gadolinium (Magnevist® loaded-TSLnps (Gd-TSLnps to increase magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast in solid tumor. In this study, we developed and tested gemcitabine-loaded thermosensitive liposomal nanoparticles (Gem-TSLnps and gadolinium-loaded thermosensitive liposomal nanoparticles (Gd-TSLnps both in in-vitro and in-vivo. The TSLnps exhibited temperature-dependent release of Gem, at 40-42°C, 65% of Gem was released within 10 min, whereas < 23% Gem leakage occurred at 37°C after a period of 2 h. The pharmacokinetic parameters and tissue distribution of both Gem-TSLnps and Gd-TSLnps were significantly greater compared with free Gem and Gd, while Gem-TSLnps plasma clearance was reduced by 17-fold and that of Gd-TSLpns was decreased by 2-fold. Area under the plasma concentration time curve (AUC of Gem-TSLnps (35.17± 0.04 μghr/mL was significantly higher than that of free Gem (2.09 ± 0.01 μghr/mL whereas, AUC of Gd-TSLnps was higher than free Gd by 3.9 fold high. TSLnps showed significant Gem accumulation in heated tumor relative to free Gem. Similar trend of increased Gd-TSLnps accumulation was observed in non-heated tumor compared to that of free Gd; however, no significant difference in MRI contrast enhancement between free Gd and Gd-TSLnps ex-vivo tumor images was observed. Despite Gem-TSLnps dose being half of free Gem dose, antitumor efficacy of Gem-TSLnps was comparable to that of free Gem(Gem-TSLnps 10 mg Gem/kg compared with free Gem 20 mg/kg. Overall, the findings suggest that TSLnps may be used to improve Gem delivery and enhance

  18. Protein-Based Nanoparticle Preparation via Nanoprecipitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Tarhini

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles are nowadays largely investigated in the field of drug delivery. Among nanoparticles, protein-based particles are of paramount importance since they are natural, biodegradable, biocompatible, and nontoxic. There are several methods to prepare proteins containing nanoparticles, but only a few studies have been dedicated to the preparation of protein- based nanoparticles. Then, the aim of this work was to report on the preparation of bovine serum albumin (BSA-based nanoparticles using a well-defined nanoprecipitation process. Special attention has been dedicated to a systematic study in order to understand separately the effect of each operating parameter of the method (such as protein concentration, solvent/non-solvent volume ratio, non-solvent injection rate, ionic strength of the buffer solution, pH, and cross-linking on the colloidal properties of the obtained nanoparticles. In addition, the mixing processes (batch or drop-wise were also investigated. Using a well-defined formulation, submicron protein-based nanoparticles have been obtained. All prepared particles have been characterized in terms of size, size distribution, morphology, and electrokinetic properties. In addition, the stability of nanoparticles was investigated using Ultraviolet (UV scan and electrophoresis, and the optimal conditions for preparing BSA nanoparticles by the nanoprecipitation method were concluded.

  19. Silk Fibroin-Based Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Li, Yi; Xie, Mao-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Silk fibroin (SF) is a protein-based biomacromolecule with excellent biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. The development of SF-based nanoparticles for drug delivery have received considerable attention due to high binding capacity for various drugs, controlled drug release properties and mild preparation conditions. By adjusting the particle size, the chemical structure and properties, the modified or recombinant SF-based nanoparticles can be designed to improve the therapeutic efficiency of drugs encapsulated into these nanoparticles. Therefore, they can be used to deliver small molecule drugs (e.g., anti-cancer drugs), protein and growth factor drugs, gene drugs, etc. This paper reviews recent progress on SF-based nanoparticles, including chemical structure, properties, and preparation methods. In addition, the applications of SF-based nanoparticles as carriers for therapeutic drugs are also reviewed. PMID:25749470

  20. An environmentally benign antimicrobial nanoparticle based ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver nanoparticles have antibacterial properties but their use has been a cause for concern because they persist in the environment. Here we show that lignin nanoparticles infused with silver ions and coated with a cationic polyelectrolyte layer form a biodegradable and green alternative to silver nanoparticles. The polyelectrolyte layer promotes the adhesion of the particles to bacterial cell membranes and together with silver ions can kill a broad spectrum of bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and quaternary-amine-resistant Ralstonia sp. Ion depletion studies showed that the bioactivity of these nanoparticles is time-limited because of the desorption of silver ions. High-throughput bioactivity screening did not reveal increased toxicity of the particles when compared to an equivalent mass of metallic silver nanoparticles or silver nitrate solution. Our results demonstrate that the application of green chemistry principles may allow the synthesis of nanoparticles with biodegradable cores that have higher antimicrobial activity and smaller environmental impact than metallic silver nanoparticles. Our results demonstrate that the application of green chemistry principles may allow the synthesis of nanoparticles with biodegradable cores that have higher antimicrobial activity and smaller environmental impact than metallic silver nanoparticles

  1. Enzymatic biosensors based on the use of metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xinhao; Gu, Wei; Li, Bingyu; Chen, Ningning; Zhao, Kai; Xian, Yuezhong

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decades, various techniques have been developed to obtain materials at a nanoscale level to design biosensors with high sensitivity, selectivity and efficiency. Metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) are of particular interests and have received much attention because of their unique physical, chemical and catalytic properties. This review summarizes the progress made in enzymatic biosensors based on the use of MONPs. Synthetic methods, strategies for immobilization, and the functions of MONPs in enzymatic biosensing systems are reviewed and discussed. The article is subdivided into sections on enzymatic biosensors based on (a) zinc oxide nanoparticles, (b) titanium oxide nanoparticles, (c) iron oxide nanoparticles, and (d) other metal oxide nanoparticles. While substantial advances have been made in MONPs-based enzymatic biosensors, their applications to real samples still lie ahead because issues such as reproducibility and sensor stability have to be solved. (author)

  2. Promising iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles in biomedical engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh; Vo, Toi Van; Lee, Beom-Jin

    2012-12-01

    For the past few decades biomedical engineering has imprinted its significant impact on the map of science through its wide applications on many other fields. An important example obviously proving this fact is the versatile application of magnetic nanoparticles in theranostics. Due to preferable properties such as biocompatibility, non-toxicity compared to other metal derivations, iron oxide-based magnetic nanoparticles was chosen to be addressed in this review. Aim of this review is to give the readers a whole working window of these magnetic nanoparticles in the current context of science. Thus, preparation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with the so-far techniques, methods of characterizing the nanoparticles as well as their most recent biomedical applications will be stated.

  3. Investigation of particle accumulation, chemosensitivity and thermosensitivity for effective solid tumor therapy using thermosensitive liposomes and hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.J.M. Lokerse (Wouter); M. Bolkestein (Michiel); T.L.M. ten Hagen (Timo); M. de Jong (Marcel); A.M.M. Eggermont (Alexander); Grüll, H. (Holger); G.A. Koning (Gerben)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractDoxorubicin (Dox) loaded thermosensitive liposomes (TSLs) have shown promising results for hyperthermia-induced local drug delivery to solid tumors. Typically, the tumor is heated to hyperthermic temperatures (41-42 °C), which induced intravascular drug release from TSLs within the tumor

  4. Preparation of manganese-based perovskite nanoparticles using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Preparation of manganese-based perovskite nanoparticles using a reverse microemulsion method: ... ted much attention in various fields of medicine and pharma- cology such as .... In addition, the SAR value of sample was calculated through ...

  5. Nanoparticle separation based on size-dependent aggregation of nanoparticles due to the critical Casimir effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hongyu; Stan, Gheorghe; Liu, Yun

    2018-02-21

    Nanoparticles typically have an inherent wide size distribution that may affect the performance and reliability of many nanomaterials. Because the synthesis and purification of nanoparticles with desirable sizes are crucial to the applications of nanoparticles in various fields including medicine, biology, health care, and energy, there is a great need to search for more efficient and generic methods for size-selective nanoparticle purification/separation. Here we propose and conclusively demonstrate the effectiveness of a size-selective particle purification/separation method based on the critical Casimir force. The critical Casimir force is a generic interaction between colloidal particles near the solvent critical point and has been extensively studied in the past several decades due to its importance in reversibly controlling the aggregation and stability of colloidal particles. Combining multiple experimental techniques, we found that the critical Casimir force-induced aggregation depends on relative particle sizes in a system with larger ones aggregating first and the smaller ones remaining in solution. Based on this observation, a new size-dependent nanoparticle purification/separation method is proposed and demonstrated to be very efficient in purifying commercial silica nanoparticles in the lutidine/water binary solvent. Due to the ubiquity of the critical Casimir force for many colloidal particles in binary solvents, this method might be applicable to many types of colloidal particles.

  6. Protamine-based nanoparticles as new antigen delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Aramundiz, José Vicente; Peleteiro Olmedo, Mercedes; González-Fernández, África; Alonso Fernández, María José; Csaba, Noemi Stefánia

    2015-11-01

    The use of biodegradable nanoparticles as antigen delivery vehicles is an attractive approach to overcome the problems associated with the use of Alum-based classical adjuvants. Herein we report, the design and development of protamine-based nanoparticles as novel antigen delivery systems, using recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen as a model viral antigen. The nanoparticles, composed of protamine and a polysaccharide (hyaluronic acid or alginate), were obtained using a mild ionic cross-linking technique. The size and surface charge of the nanoparticles could be modulated by adjusting the ratio of the components. Prototypes with optimal physicochemical characteristics and satisfactory colloidal stability were selected for the assessment of their antigen loading capacity, antigen stability during storage and in vitro and in vivo proof-of-concept studies. In vitro studies showed that antigen-loaded nanoparticles induced the secretion of cytokines by macrophages more efficiently than the antigen in solution, thus indicating a potential adjuvant effect of the nanoparticles. Finally, in vivo studies showed the capacity of these systems to trigger efficient immune responses against the hepatitis B antigen following intramuscular administration, suggesting the potential interest of protamine-polysaccharide nanoparticles as antigen delivery systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation of thermosensitive magnetic liposome encapsulated recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for targeted thrombolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Hao-Lung [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chen, Jyh-Ping, E-mail: jpchen@mail.cgu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery and Craniofacial Research Center, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33305, Taiwan, ROC (China); Graduate Institute of Health Industry and Technology, Research Center for Industry of Human Ecology, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology, Kwei-San, Taoyuan 33302, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, Tai-Shan, New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) was encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML) prepared from 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, distearolyphosphatidyl ethanolamine-N-poly(ethylene glycol) 2000, cholesterol and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles by solvent evaporation/sonication and freeze-thaw cycles method. Response surface methodology was proved to be a powerful tool to predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release. Validation experiments verified the accuracy of the model that provides a simple and effective method for fabricating TML with controllable encapsulation efficiency and predictable temperature-sensitive drug release behavior. The prepared samples were characterized for physico-chemical properties by dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA could be confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. A thrombolytic drug delivery system using TML could be proposed for magnetic targeted delivery of rtPA to the site of thrombus followed by temperature-triggered controlled drug release in an alternating magnetic field. - Highlights: • rtPA and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} MNP were encapsulated in thermosensitive magnetic liposome (TML). • RSM could predict the drug encapsulation efficiency and temperature-sensitive drug release from TML. • Temperature-sensitive release of rtPA was confirmed from in vitro thrombolysis experiments. • TML-rtPA will be useful as a magnetic targeted nanodrug to improve clinical thrombolytic therapy.

  8. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-08-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated. (author)

  9. Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pingarron, Jose M.; Yanez-Sedeno, Paloma; Gonzalez-Cortes, Araceli

    2008-01-01

    The unique properties of gold nanoparticles to provide a suitable microenvironment for biomolecules immobilization retaining their biological activity, and to facilitate electron transfer between the immobilized proteins and electrode surfaces, have led to an intensive use of this nanomaterial for the construction of electrochemical biosensors with enhanced analytical performance with respect to other biosensor designs. Recent advances in this field are reviewed in this article. The advantageous operational characteristics of the biosensing devices designed making use of gold nanoparticles are highlighted with respect to non-nanostructured biosensors and some illustrative examples are commented. Electrochemical enzyme biosensors including those using hybrid materials with carbon nanotubes and polymers, sol-gel matrices, and layer-by-layer architectures are considered. Moreover, electrochemical immunosensors in which gold nanoparticles play a crucial role in the electrode transduction enhancement of the affinity reaction as well as in the efficiency of immunoreagents immobilization in a stable mode are reviewed. Similarly, recent advances in the development of DNA biosensors using gold nanoparticles to improve DNA immobilization on electrode surfaces and as suitable labels to improve detection of hybridization events are considered. Finally, other biosensors designed with gold nanoparticles oriented to electrically contact redox enzymes to electrodes by a reconstitution process and to the study of direct electron transfer between redox proteins and electrode surfaces have also been treated

  10. Food protein-based phytosterol nanoparticles: fabrication and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wen-Jun; Ou, Shi-Yi; Lin, Wei-Feng; Tang, Chuan-He

    2016-09-14

    The development of food-grade (nano)particles as a delivery system for poorly water soluble bioactives has recently attracted increasing attention. This work is an attempt to fabricate food protein-based nanoparticles as delivery systems for improving the water dispersion and bioaccessibility of phytosterols (PS) by an emulsification-evaporation method. The fabricated PS nanoparticles were characterized in terms of particle size, encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and loading amount (LA), and ξ-potential. Among all the test proteins, including soy protein isolate (SPI), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium caseinate (SC), SC was confirmed to be the most suitable protein for the PS nano-formulation. Besides the type of protein, the particle size, EE% and LA of PS in the nanoparticles varied with the applied protein concentration in the aqueous phase and organic volume fraction. The freeze-dried PS nanoparticles with SC exhibited good water re-dispersion behavior and low crystallinity of PS. The LA of PS in the nanoparticles decreased upon storage, especially at high temperatures (e.g., >25 °C). The PS in the fabricated nanoparticles exhibited much better bioaccessibility than free PS. The findings would be of relevance for the fabrication of food-grade colloidal phytosterols, with great potential to be applied in functional food formulations.

  11. Formation of uranium based nanoparticles via gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nenoff, Tina M., E-mail: tmnenof@sandia.gov [Nanoscale Sciences Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1415, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Ferriera, Summer R. [Nanoscale Sciences Department, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1415, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Huang, Jianyu [Center for Integrated Nanotechnology, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1315, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Hanson, Donald J. [Department of Hot Cells and Gamma Facilities, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, MS-1143, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM image of d-U nanoparticles formed in aqueous solution by gamma irradiation. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •d-U nanoparticles were grown in solution by gamma irradiation. •The reaction solution does not exceed 25 °C (room temperature). •Only after multiday exposure to air is there evidence of oxidation of the d-U nanoparticles. •Evidence of d-U alloy nanoparticle formation confirmed by TEM/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. -- Abstract: The ability to fabricate nuclear fuels at low temperatures allows for the production of complex Uranium metal and alloys with minimum volatility of alloy components in the process. Gamma irradiation is a valuable method for the synthesis of a wide range of metal-based nanoparticles. We report on the synthesis via room temperature radiolysis and characterization of uranium (depleted, d-U) metal and uranium–lathanide (d-ULn, Ln = lanthanide surrogates) alloy nanoparticles from aqueous acidic salt solutions. The lanthanide surrogates chosen include La and Eu due to their similarity in ionic size and charge in solution. Detailed characterization results including UV–vis, TEM/HR-TEM, and single particle EDX (elemental analyses) are presented for the room temperature formed nanoparticle products.

  12. Formation of uranium based nanoparticles via gamma-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nenoff, Tina M.; Ferriera, Summer R.; Huang, Jianyu; Hanson, Donald J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: TEM image of d-U nanoparticles formed in aqueous solution by gamma irradiation. Display Omitted -- Highlights: •d-U nanoparticles were grown in solution by gamma irradiation. •The reaction solution does not exceed 25 °C (room temperature). •Only after multiday exposure to air is there evidence of oxidation of the d-U nanoparticles. •Evidence of d-U alloy nanoparticle formation confirmed by TEM/energy-dispersive X-ray (EDS) analysis. -- Abstract: The ability to fabricate nuclear fuels at low temperatures allows for the production of complex Uranium metal and alloys with minimum volatility of alloy components in the process. Gamma irradiation is a valuable method for the synthesis of a wide range of metal-based nanoparticles. We report on the synthesis via room temperature radiolysis and characterization of uranium (depleted, d-U) metal and uranium–lathanide (d-ULn, Ln = lanthanide surrogates) alloy nanoparticles from aqueous acidic salt solutions. The lanthanide surrogates chosen include La and Eu due to their similarity in ionic size and charge in solution. Detailed characterization results including UV–vis, TEM/HR-TEM, and single particle EDX (elemental analyses) are presented for the room temperature formed nanoparticle products

  13. Task-based exposure assessment of nanoparticles in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Seunghon; Yoon, Chungsik; Lee, Euiseung; Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Donguk; Chung, Eunkyo; Kim, Pilje; Lee, Byoungcheun

    2012-01-01

    Although task-based sampling is, theoretically, a plausible approach to the assessment of nanoparticle exposure, few studies using this type of sampling have been published. This study characterized and compared task-based nanoparticle exposure profiles for engineered nanoparticle manufacturing workplaces (ENMW) and workplaces that generated welding fumes containing incidental nanoparticles. Two ENMW and two welding workplaces were selected for exposure assessments. Real-time devices were utilized to characterize the concentration profiles and size distributions of airborne nanoparticles. Filter-based sampling was performed to measure time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations, and off-line analysis was performed using an electron microscope. Workplace tasks were recorded by researchers to determine the concentration profiles associated with particular tasks/events. This study demonstrated that exposure profiles differ greatly in terms of concentrations and size distributions according to the task performed. The size distributions recorded during tasks were different from both those recorded during periods with no activity and from the background. The airborne concentration profiles of the nanoparticles varied according to not only the type of workplace but also the concentration metrics. The concentrations measured by surface area and the number concentrations measured by condensation particle counter, particulate matter 1.0, and TWA mass concentrations all showed a similar pattern, whereas the number concentrations measured by scanning mobility particle sizer indicated that the welding fume concentrations at one of the welding workplaces were unexpectedly higher than were those at workplaces that were engineering nanoparticles. This study suggests that a task-based exposure assessment can provide useful information regarding the exposure profiles of nanoparticles and can therefore be used as an exposure assessment tool.

  14. Plasma Antenna Based on Superparamagnetic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2017-12-01

    A novel plasma antenna for space or ground based generation and injection of whistler and Alfven waves is presented. The new antenna concept is based on recently manufactured, small (10-60 nm radius), single domain, non-interacting magnetic grains with uniaxial magnetic anisotropy, known as superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPN), dispersed in low viscosity, non-conducting media. SPNs can be described as ensembles of non-interacting magnetic moments μ with energy E=-μB when driven by a magnetic field B, similar to ordinary paramagnets, with exception that SPNs are composed by many thousands of magnetic atoms and as result have susceptibilities comparable to ferromagnets but with zero coercivity. The Langevin function accurately describes the dynamic behavior of the magnetization in the presence of low frequency AC fields since the characteristic mechanical (Brownian) and magnetic (Neel) relaxation times are shorter than 10msecs. For ground-based applications the grains are suspended in low viscosity carrier liquids, such as water or benzne and are known as ferrofluids. For space based applications, such as wave injection from CubeSats they can be dispersed as dust in vacuum containers. Agglomeration is avoided by coating the grains by coating their surface by an appropriate surfactant molecule. The ensemble of magnetic grains is driven to rotation at the desired VLF or ELF frequency by a pair of Helmholtz like coils surrounding the grain container. The near field electric field associated with rotating magnetic field then drives currents such as were observed in Rotating Magnetic Field experiments at the UCLA/LAPD chamber [Gigliotti et al., Phys. of Plasmas 16:092106; Karavaev et al., Phys. of Plasmas 17(1):012102,2010]. The magnetic moment of the AC coil is amplified by the susceptibility χ of the SPN ensemble that depending on the grain size and material can reach values of 104-105. Preliminary estimates indicate that less than 1 kg of SPN grains and power of

  15. nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu-Cabedo, Patricia; Mondragon, Rosa; Hernandez, Leonor; Martinez-Cuenca, Raul; Cabedo, Luis; Julia, J. Enrique

    2014-10-01

    Thermal energy storage (TES) is extremely important in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants since it represents the main difference and advantage of CSP plants with respect to other renewable energy sources such as wind, photovoltaic, etc. CSP represents a low-carbon emission renewable source of energy, and TES allows CSP plants to have energy availability and dispatchability using available industrial technologies. Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 500°C. Their main drawbacks are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve thermal properties of fluids is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. In this work, solar salt used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3) was doped with silica nanoparticles at different solid mass concentrations (from 0.5% to 2%). Specific heat was measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A maximum increase of 25.03% was found at an optimal concentration of 1 wt.% of nanoparticles. The size distribution of nanoparticle clusters present in the salt at each concentration was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image processing, as well as by means of dynamic light scattering (DLS). The cluster size and the specific surface available depended on the solid content, and a relationship between the specific heat increment and the available particle surface area was obtained. It was proved that the mechanism involved in the specific heat increment is based on a surface phenomenon. Stability of samples was tested for several thermal cycles and thermogravimetric analysis at high temperature was carried out, the samples being stable.

  16. Magnetic nanoparticle-based cancer nanodiagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousaf Muhammad Zubair; Yu Jing; Hou Yang-Long; Gao Song

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis facilitates the discovery of an impending disease. A complete and accurate treatment of cancer depends heavily on its early medical diagnosis. Cancer, one of the most fatal diseases world-wide, consistently affects a larger number of patients each year. Magnetism, a physical property arising from the motion of electrical charges, which causes attraction and repulsion between objects and does not involve radiation, has been under intense investigation for several years. Magnetic materials show great promise in the application of image contrast enhancement to accurately image and diagnose cancer. Chelating gadolinium (Gd III) and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have the prospect to pave the way for diagnosis, operative management, and adjuvant therapy of different kinds of cancers. The potential of MNP-based magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents (CAs) now makes it possible to image portions of a tumor in parts of the body that would be unclear with the conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Multiple functionalities like variety of targeting ligands and image contrast enhancement have recently been added to the MNPs. Keeping aside the additional complexities in synthetic steps, costs, more convoluted behavior, and effects in-vivo, multifunctional MNPs still face great regulatory hurdles before clinical availability for cancer patients. The trade-off between additional functionality and complexity is a subject of ongoing debate. The recent progress regarding the types, design, synthesis, morphology, characterization, modification, and the in-vivo and in-vitro uses of different MRI contrast agents, including MNPs, to diagnose cancer will be the focus of this review. As our knowledge of MNPs' characteristics and applications expands, their role in the future management of cancer patients will become very important. Current hurdles are also discussed, along with future prospects of MNPs as the savior of cancer victims. (topical review - magnetism

  17. Investigation of a new thermosensitive block copolymer micelle: hydrolysis, disruption, and release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Maxime; Babin, Jérôme; Tremblay, Luc; Zhao, Yue

    2008-11-04

    Thermosensitive polymer micelles are generally obtained with block copolymers in which one block exhibits a lower critical solution temperature in aqueous solution. We investigate a different design that is based on the use of one block bearing a thermally labile side group, whose hydrolysis upon heating shifts the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance toward the destabilization of block copolymer micelles. Atom transfer radical polymerization was utilized to synthesize a series of diblock copolymers composed of hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and hydrophobic poly(2-tetrahydropyranyl methacrylate) (PTHPMA). We show that micelles of PEO-b-PTHPMA in aqueous solution can be destabilized as a result of the thermosensitive hydrolytic cleavage of tetrahydropyranyl (THP) groups that transforms PTHPMA into hydrophilic poly(methacrylic acid). The three related processes occurring in aqueous solution, namely, hydrolytic cleavage of THP, destabilization of micelles, and release of loaded Nile Red (NR), were investigated simultaneously using 1H NMR, dynamic light scattering, and fluorescence spectroscopy, respectively. At 80 degrees C, the results suggest that the three events proceed with a similar kinetics. Although slower than at elevated temperatures, the disruption of PEO-b-PTHPMA micelles can take place at the body temperature (approximately 37 degrees C), and the release kinetics of NR can be adjusted by changing the relative lengths of the two blocks or the pH of the solution.

  18. Delimitation of the embryonic thermosensitive period for sex determination using an embryo growth model reveals a potential bias for sex ratio prediction in turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girondot, Marc; Monsinjon, Jonathan; Guillon, Jean-Michel

    2018-04-01

    The sexual phenotype of the gonad is dependent on incubation temperature in many turtles, all crocodilians, and some lepidosaurians. At hatching, identification of sexual phenotype is impossible without sacrificing the neonates. For this reason, a general method to infer sexual phenotype from incubation temperatures is needed. Temperature influences sex determination during a specific period of the embryonic development, starting when the gonad begins to form. At constant incubation temperatures, this thermosensitive period for sex determination (TSP) is located at the middle third of incubation duration (MTID). When temperature fluctuates, the position of the thermosensitive period for sex determination can be shifted from the MTID because embryo growth is affected by temperature. A method is proposed to locate the thermosensitive period for sex determination based on modelling the embryo growth, allowing its precise identification from a natural regime of temperatures. Results from natural nests and simulations show that the approximation of the thermosensitive period for sex determination to the middle third of incubation duration may create a quasi-systematic bias to lower temperatures when computing the average incubation temperature during this period and thus a male-bias for sex ratio estimate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanoparticle layer deposition for highly controlled multilayer formation based on high-coverage monolayers of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yue; Williams, Mackenzie G.; Miller, Timothy J.; Teplyakov, Andrew V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper establishes a strategy for chemical deposition of functionalized nanoparticles onto solid substrates in a layer-by-layer process based on self-limiting surface chemical reactions leading to complete monolayer formation within the multilayer system without any additional intermediate layers — nanoparticle layer deposition (NPLD). This approach is fundamentally different from previously established traditional layer-by-layer deposition techniques and is conceptually more similar to well-known atomic and molecular layer deposition processes. The NPLD approach uses efficient chemical functionalization of the solid substrate material and complementary functionalization of nanoparticles to produce a nearly 100% coverage of these nanoparticles with the use of “click chemistry”. Following this initial deposition, a second complete monolayer of nanoparticles is deposited using a copper-catalyzed “click reaction” with the azide-terminated silica nanoparticles of a different size. This layer-by-layer growth is demonstrated to produce stable covalently-bound multilayers of nearly perfect structure over macroscopic solid substrates. The formation of stable covalent bonds is confirmed spectroscopically and the stability of the multilayers produced is tested by sonication in a variety of common solvents. The 1-, 2- and 3-layer structures are interrogated by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy and the thickness of the multilayers formed is fully consistent with that expected for highly efficient monolayer formation with each cycle of growth. This approach can be extended to include a variety of materials deposited in a predesigned sequence on different substrates with a highly conformal filling. - Highlights: • We investigate the formation of high-coverage monolayers of nanoparticles. • We use “click chemistry” to form these monolayers. • We form multiple layers based on the same strategy. • We confirm the formation of covalent bonds

  20. The TRPM2 channel: A thermo-sensitive metabolic sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashio, Makiko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2017-09-03

    Living organisms continually experience changes in ambient temperature. To detect such temperature changes for adaptive behavioral responses, we evolved the ability to sense temperature. Thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, so-called thermo-TRPs, are involved in many physiologic functions in diverse organisms and constitute important temperature sensors. One of the important roles of thermo-TRPs is detecting ambient temperature in sensory neurons. Importantly, the functional expression of thermo-TRPs is observed not only in sensory neurons but also in tissues and cells that are not exposed to drastic temperature changes, indicating that thermo-TRPs are involved in many physiologic functions within the body's normal temperature range. Among such thermo-TRPs, this review focuses on one thermo-sensitive metabolic sensor in particular, TRPM2, and summarizes recent progress to clarify the regulatory mechanisms and physiologic functions of TRPM2 at body temperature under various metabolic states.

  1. Nanoparticles based on novel amphiphilic polyaspartamide copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craparo, Emanuela Fabiola; Teresi, Girolamo; Ognibene, Maria Chiara; Casaletto, Maria Pia; Bondi, Maria Luisa; Cavallaro, Gennara

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the synthesis of two amphiphilic polyaspartamide copolymers, useful to obtain polymeric nanoparticles without using surfactants or stabilizing agents, is described. These copolymers were obtained starting from α,β-poly-(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-dl-aspartamide (PHEA) by following a novel synthetic strategy. In particular, PHEA and its pegylated derivative (PHEA-PEG 2000 ) were functionalized with poly(lactic acid) (PLA) through 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) activation to obtain PHEA-PLA and PHEA-PEG 2000 -PLA graft copolymers, respectively. These copolymers were properly purified and characterized by 1 H-NMR, FT-IR, and Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) analyses, which confirmed that derivatization reactions occurred. Nanoparticles were obtained from PHEA-PLA and PHEA-PEG 2000 -PLA graft copolymers by using the high pressure homogenization-solvent evaporation method, avoiding the use of surfactants or stabilizing agents. Polymeric nanoparticles were characterized by dimensional analysis, before and after freeze-drying process, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Zeta potential measurements and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis demonstrated the presence of PEG and/or PHEA onto the PHEA-PEG 2000 -PLA and PHEA-PLA nanoparticle surface, respectively.

  2. Nanoparticles doped film sensing based on terahertz metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Fan, Fei; Chang, Shengjiang; Hou, Jiaqing; Chen, Meng; Wang, Xianghui; Bai, Jinjun

    2017-12-01

    A nanoparticles concentration sensor based on doped film and terahertz (THz) metamaterial has been proposed. By coating the nanoparticles doped polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film on the surface of THz metamaterial, the effects of nanoparticle concentration on the metamaterial resonances are investigated through experiments and numerical simulations. Results show that resonant frequency of the metamaterial linearly decreases with the increment of doping concentration. Furthermore, numerical simulations illustrate that the redshift of resonance results from the changes of refractive index of the doped film. The concentration sensitivity of this sensor is 3.12 GHz/0.1%, and the refractive index sensitivity reaches 53.33 GHz/RIU. This work provides a non-contact, nondestructive and sensitive method for the detection of nanoparticles concentration and brings out a new application on THz film metamaterial sensing.

  3. Thermosensitive liposomal drug delivery systems: state of the art review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kneidl B

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Barbara Kneidl,1,2 Michael Peller,3 Gerhard Winter,2 Lars H Lindner,1 Martin Hossann11Department of Internal Medicine III, University Hospital Munich, 2Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmaceutics, 3Institute for Clinical Radiology, University Hospital Munich, Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, GermanyAbstract: Thermosensitive liposomes are a promising tool for external targeting of drugs to solid tumors when used in combination with local hyperthermia or high intensity focused ultrasound. In vivo results have demonstrated strong evidence that external targeting is superior over passive targeting achieved by highly stable long-circulating drug formulations like PEGylated liposomal doxorubicin. Up to March 2014, the Web of Science listed 371 original papers in this field, with 45 in 2013 alone. Several formulations have been developed since 1978, with lysolipid-containing, low temperature-sensitive liposomes currently under clinical investigation. This review summarizes the historical development and effects of particular phospholipids and surfactants on the biophysical properties and in vivo efficacy of thermosensitive liposome formulations. Further, treatment strategies for solid tumors are discussed. Here we focus on temperature-triggered intravascular and interstitial drug release. Drug delivery guided by magnetic resonance imaging further adds the possibility of performing online monitoring of a heating focus to calculate locally released drug concentrations and to externally control drug release by steering the heating volume and power. The combination of external targeting with thermosensitive liposomes and magnetic resonance-guided drug delivery will be the unique characteristic of this nanotechnology approach in medicine.Keywords: thermosensitive liposomes, phosphatidyloligoglycerol, hyperthermia, high intensity focused ultrasound, drug delivery, drug targeting

  4. Study of complex thermosensitive amphiphilic polyoxazolines and their interaction with ionic surfactants. Are hydrophobic, thermosensitive, and hydrophilic moieties equally important?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bogomolova, Anna; Filippov, Sergey K.; Starovoytova, Larisa; Angelov, Borislav; Konarev, P.; Sedláček, Ondřej; Hrubý, Martin; Štěpánek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, č. 18 (2014), s. 4940-4950 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/1657; GA MPO FR-TI4/625 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200501201 Program:M Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : poly(2-alkyl-2-oxazoline) * thermosensitivity * ionic surfactant Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2014

  5. Colorimetric gold nanoparticles-based aptasensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezavn Yazdian-Robati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of different agents including chemical and biological plays important role in forensic, biomedical and environmentalfield.In recent decades, nanotechnology and nano materials had a high impact on development of sensors. Using  nanomaterials in construction of biosensors can effectively improve the Sensitivity and other features of biosensors. Different type of nanostructures including nanotubes, nanodiamonds, thin films ,nanorods, nanoparticles(NP, nanofibers andvarious clusters have been explored and applied in construction of biosensors. Among nanomaterials mentioned above, gold nanoparticle (GNPas a new class of unique fluorescence quenchers, is receiving significant attention in developing of optical biosensors because of their unique physical, chemical and biological properties. In this mini review, we discussed the use of GNPs in construction of colorimetric aptasensorsas a class of optical sensors for detection of antibiotics, toxins and infection diseases.

  6. Design and Optimization of PLGA-Based Diclofenac Loaded Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Dustin L.; Harirforoosh, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Drug based nanoparticle (NP) formulations have gained considerable attention over the past decade for their use in various drug formulations. NPs have been shown to increase bioavailability, decrease side effects of highly toxic drugs, and prolong drug release. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac block cyclooxygenase expression and reduce prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to several side effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding and renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize diclofenac entrapped poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) based nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were formulated using an emulsion-diffusion-evaporation technique with varying concentrations of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, or 1%) or didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB) (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1%) stabilizers centrifuged at 8,800 rpm or 12,000 rpm. The resultant nanoparticles were evaluated based on particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficacy. DMAB formulated NPs showed the lowest particle size (108±2.1 nm) and highest zeta potential (−27.71±0.6 mV) at 0.1 and 0.25% respectively, after centrifugation at 12,000 rpm. Results of the PVA based NP formulation showed the smallest particle size (92.4±7.6 nm) and highest zeta potential (−11.14±0.5 mV) at 0.25% and 1% w/v, respectively, after centrifugation at 12,000 rpm. Drug entrapment reached 77.3±3.5% and 80.2±1.2% efficiency with DMAB and PVA formulations, respectively. The results of our study indicate the use of DMAB for increased nanoparticle stability during formulation. Our study supports the effective utilization of PLGA based nanoparticle formulation for diclofenac. PMID:24489896

  7. Design and optimization of PLGA-based diclofenac loaded nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin L Cooper

    Full Text Available Drug based nanoparticle (NP formulations have gained considerable attention over the past decade for their use in various drug formulations. NPs have been shown to increase bioavailability, decrease side effects of highly toxic drugs, and prolong drug release. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as diclofenac block cyclooxygenase expression and reduce prostaglandin synthesis, which can lead to several side effects such as gastrointestinal bleeding and renal insufficiency. The aim of this study was to formulate and characterize diclofenac entrapped poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA based nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were formulated using an emulsion-diffusion-evaporation technique with varying concentrations of poly vinyl alcohol (PVA (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, or 1% or didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DMAB (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1% stabilizers centrifuged at 8,800 rpm or 12,000 rpm. The resultant nanoparticles were evaluated based on particle size, zeta potential, and entrapment efficacy. DMAB formulated NPs showed the lowest particle size (108 ± 2.1 nm and highest zeta potential (-27.71 ± 0.6 mV at 0.1 and 0.25% respectively, after centrifugation at 12,000 rpm. Results of the PVA based NP formulation showed the smallest particle size (92.4 ± 7.6 nm and highest zeta potential (-11.14 ± 0.5 mV at 0.25% and 1% w/v, respectively, after centrifugation at 12,000 rpm. Drug entrapment reached 77.3 ± 3.5% and 80.2 ± 1.2% efficiency with DMAB and PVA formulations, respectively. The results of our study indicate the use of DMAB for increased nanoparticle stability during formulation. Our study supports the effective utilization of PLGA based nanoparticle formulation for diclofenac.

  8. Epoxy based photoresist/carbon nanoparticle composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillemose, Michael; Gammelgaard, Lauge; Richter, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    We have fabricated composites of SU-8 polymer and three different types of carbon nanoparticles (NPs) using ultrasonic mixing. Structures of composite thin films have been patterned on a characterization chip with standard UV photolithography. Using a four-point bending probe, a well defined stress...... is applied to the composite thin film and we have demonstrated that the composites are piezoresistive. Stable gauge factors of 5-9 have been measured, but we have also observed piezoresistive responses with gauge factors as high as 50. As SU-8 is much softer than silicon and the gauge factor of the composite...

  9. Microheater based on magnetic nanoparticle embedded PDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Tai Hyun; Park, Hongsuk; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2010-01-01

    A microheater was established by embedding magnetic nanoparticles into PDMS (MNP-PDMS). MNP-PDMS generated heat under an AC magnetic field and the temperature was controlled by varying the magnetic particle content and the magnetic field intensity. In this study, the MNP-PDMS chip was demonstrated to amplify the target DNA (732 bp) with > 90% efficiency compared to the conventional PCR thermocycler, and exhibited good performance in regards to temperature control. This system holds great promise for reliably controlling the temperature of thermal processes on an integrated microchip platform for biochemical applications.

  10. Microheater based on magnetic nanoparticle embedded PDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Tai Hyun [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hongsuk [Interdisciplinary Program of Bioengineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo, E-mail: thpark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-23

    A microheater was established by embedding magnetic nanoparticles into PDMS (MNP-PDMS). MNP-PDMS generated heat under an AC magnetic field and the temperature was controlled by varying the magnetic particle content and the magnetic field intensity. In this study, the MNP-PDMS chip was demonstrated to amplify the target DNA (732 bp) with > 90% efficiency compared to the conventional PCR thermocycler, and exhibited good performance in regards to temperature control. This system holds great promise for reliably controlling the temperature of thermal processes on an integrated microchip platform for biochemical applications.

  11. Preparing Methods and Its Influencing Factors about Nanoparticles Based on Dendritic Polymer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Jianwei; Li Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Based on the properties, structure and application of dendritic polymer, this paper analysed the methods of the preparation of nanoparticles using dendritic polymer, detailed preparation process, technical parameters and application effect about a single metal nanoparticles, bimetallic nanoparticles, sulfide and halide nanoparticles. The influencing factors of the preparation about nanoparticles were discussed, including the molecular algebra, the molar ratio of the metal ions to the dendriti...

  12. Genes associated with thermosensitive genic male sterility in rice identified by comparative expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yufang; Li, Qiaofeng; Wang, Zhizheng; Wang, Yang; Ma, Rui; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun; Chen, Rongzhi

    2014-12-16

    Thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) lines and photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS) lines have been successfully used in hybridization to improve rice yields. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying male sterility transitions in most PGMS/TGMS rice lines are unclear. In the recently developed TGMS-Co27 line, the male sterility is based on co-suppression of a UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase gene (Ugp1), but further study is needed to fully elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling of TGMS-Co27 and wild-type Hejiang 19 (H1493) plants grown at high and low temperatures revealed that 15462 probe sets representing 8303 genes were differentially expressed in the two lines, under the two conditions, or both. Environmental factors strongly affected global gene expression. Some genes important for pollen development were strongly repressed in TGMS-Co27 at high temperature. More significantly, series-cluster analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between TGMS-Co27 plants grown under the two conditions showed that low temperature induced the expression of a gene cluster. This cluster was found to be essential for sterility transition. It includes many meiosis stage-related genes that are probably important for thermosensitive male sterility in TGMS-Co27, inter alia: Arg/Ser-rich domain (RS)-containing zinc finger proteins, polypyrimidine tract-binding proteins (PTBs), DEAD/DEAH box RNA helicases, ZOS (C2H2 zinc finger proteins of Oryza sativa), at least one polyadenylate-binding protein and some other RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain-containing proteins involved in post-transcriptional processes, eukaryotic initiation factor 5B (eIF5B), ribosomal proteins (L37, L1p/L10e, L27 and L24), aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs), eukaryotic elongation factor Tu (eEF-Tu) and a peptide chain release factor protein involved in translation. The differential expression of 12 DEGs that are important for pollen

  13. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranghar, Shweta; Sirohi, Parul [Department of Applied Mechanics, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India); Verma, Pritam; Agarwal, Vishnu [Department of Biotechnology, Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology, Allahabad (India)

    2014-03-15

    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  14. Nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems: promising approaches against infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranghar, Shweta; Sirohi, Parul; Verma, Pritam; Agarwal, Vishnu

    2014-01-01

    Despite the fact that many new drugs and technologies have been developed to combat the infectious diseases, these have continued to be global health challenges. The use of conventional antimicrobial agents against these infections is always associated with problems such as the development of multiple drug resistance and adverse side effects. In addition, the inefficient traditional drug delivery system results in inadequate therapeutic index, low bioavailability of drugs and many other limitations. In this regard, antimicrobial nanoparticles and nanosized drug delivery carriers have emerged as potent effective agents against the infections. Nanoparticles have unique properties owing to their ultra small and controllable size such as high surface area, enhanced reactivity, and functionalizable structure. This review focused on different classes of antimicrobial nanoparticles, including metal, metal oxide and others along with their mechanism of action and their potential use against the infections. The review also focused on the development of nanoparticle systems for antimicrobial drug delivery and use of these systems for delivery of various antimicrobial agents, giving an overview about modern nanoparticle based therapeutic strategies against the infections. (author)

  15. Radiation synthesized protein-based nanoparticles: A technique overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Perossi, Gabriela G.; Grasselli, Mariano; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2014-01-01

    Seeking for alternative routes for protein engineering a novel technique – radiation induced synthesis of protein nanoparticles – to achieve size controlled particles with preserved bioactivity has been recently reported. This work aimed to evaluate different process conditions to optimize and provide an overview of the technique using γ-irradiation. Papain was used as model protease and the samples were irradiated in a gamma cell irradiator in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0) containing ethanol (0–35%). The dose effect was evaluated by exposure to distinct γ-irradiation doses (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 kGy) and scale up experiments involving distinct protein concentrations (12.5–50 mg mL −1 ) were also performed. Characterization involved size monitoring using dynamic light scattering. Bityrosine detection was performed using fluorescence measurements in order to provide experimental evidence of the mechanism involved. Best dose effects were achieved at 10 kGy with regard to size and no relevant changes were observed as a function of papain concentration, highlighting very broad operational concentration range. Bityrosine changes were identified for the samples as a function of the process confirming that such linkages play an important role in the nanoparticle formation. - Highlights: • Synthesis of protein-based nanoparticles by γ-irradiation. • Optimization of the technique. • Overview of mechanism involved in the nanoparticle formation. • Engineered papain nanoparticles for biomedical applications

  16. Chemical sensors based on molecularly modified metallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haick, Hossam

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a concise, although admittedly non-exhaustive, didactic review of some of the main concepts and approaches related to the use of molecularly modified metal nanoparticles in or as chemical sensors. This paper attempts to pull together different views and terminologies used in sensors based on molecularly modified metal nanoparticles, including those established upon electrochemical, optical, surface Plasmon resonance, piezoelectric and electrical transduction approaches. Finally, this paper discusses briefly the main advantages and disadvantages of each of the presented class of sensors. (review article)

  17. Oligonucleotide-based theranostic nanoparticles in cancer therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Reza; Ozpolat, Bulent; Ulubayram, Kezban

    2016-01-01

    Theranostic approaches, combining the functionality of both therapy and imaging, have shown potential in cancer nanomedicine. Oligonucleotides such as small interfering RNA and microRNA, which are powerful therapeutic agents, have been effectively employed in theranostic systems against various cancers. Nanoparticles are used to deliver oligonucleotides into tumors by passive or active targeting while protecting the oligonucleotides from nucleases in the extracellular environment. The use of quantum dots, iron oxide nanoparticles and gold nanoparticles and tagging with contrast agents, like fluorescent dyes, optical or magnetic agents and various radioisotopes, has facilitated early detection of tumors and evaluation of therapeutic efficacy. In this article, we review the advantages of theranostic applications in cancer therapy and imaging, with special attention to oligonucleotide-based therapeutics. PMID:27102380

  18. Photonic Crystal Fibre SERS Sensors Based on Silver Nanoparticle Colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi-Guo, Xie; Yong-Hua, Lu; Pei, Wang; Kai-Qun, Lin; Jie, Yan; Hai, Ming

    2008-01-01

    A photonic crystal fibre (PCF) surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensor is developed based on silver nanoparticle colloid. Analyte solution and silver nanoparticles are injected into the air holes of PCF by a simple modified syringe to overcome mass-transport constraints, allowing more silver nanoparticles involved in SERS activity. This sensor offers significant benefit over the conventional SERS sensor with high flexibility, easy manufacture. We demonstrate the detection of 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) molecules with the injecting way and the common dipping measurement. The injecting way shows obviously better results than the dipping one. Theoretical analysis indicates that this PCF SERS substrate offers enhancement of about 7 orders of magnitude in SERS active area

  19. Gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensor for mercury detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2011-01-01

    The contamination of natural resources by human activity can have severe socio-economical impacts. Conventional methods of environmental analysis can be significantly improved by the development of portable microscale technologies for remote/field sensing. A gold nanoparticle-based lab...

  20. Nanoparticle based-immunotherapy against allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, Carlos; Gastaminza, Gabriel; Ferrer, Marta; Sanz, María L; Irache, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases are one of the most prevalent diseases, reaching epidemic proportions in developed countries. An allergic reaction occurs after contact with an environmental protein, such as inhalants allergens (pollen, animal dander, house dust mites), or food proteins. This response is known as part of the type 2 immunity that is counterbalanced by Type 1 immunity and Tregs. Widely used allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) is a long term treatment to induce such switch from Th2 to Th1 response. However, conventional IT requires multiple allergen injections over a long period of time and is not free of risk of producing allergic reactions. As a consequence, new safer and faster immunotherapeutic methods are required. This review deals with allergen IT using nanoparticles as allergen delivery system that will allow a different way of administration, reduce dose and diminish allergen exposure to IgE bound to mast cells or basophils.

  1. A thermo-sensitive purple leaf rice mutant--PLM12 and its genetical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guanting; Wang Xianyu; Jin Wei

    2001-01-01

    PLM12 was a thermo-sensitive purple leaf mutant selected from Indica rice variety Luqingzao 1 treated with pingyangmycin in combination with γ-rays, and for display of its mutant character, a relatively high temperature was required. Compared with its original parent, many major agronomic traits of PLM12 changed to varied extents. Based on spikelet cutting experiment, it was believed that significant decreases in number of filled grains per panicle, fertility, and 1000-grain weight in PLM12 resulted mainly from a great decline in photosynthetic capacity and serious lack of photosynthate in purple leaves. It was indicated by genetic analysis that expression of the mutant phenotype in PLM12 was conditioned by a single recessive major nuclear gene and modified by several minor genes

  2. Selective enrichment and separation of phosphotyrosine peptides by thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoqing; Xia, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Novel thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were successfully prepared using the epitope imprinting approach in the presence of the mimic template phenylphosphonic acid, the functional monomer vinylphosphonic acid-Ti(4+) , the temperature-sensitive monomer N-isopropylacrylamide and the crosslinker N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide. The ratio of the template/thermosensitive monomers/crosslinker was optimized, and when the ratio was 2:2:1, the prepared thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers had the highest imprinting factor. The synthetic thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to reveal the combination and elution processes of the template. Then, the adsorption capacity and thermosensitivity was measured. When the temperature was 28°C, the imprinting factor was the highest. The selectivity and adsorption capacity of the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers for phosphotyrosine peptides from a mixture of three tailor-made peptides were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the thermosensitive molecularly imprinted polymers have good selectivity for phosphotyrosine peptides. Finally, the imprinted hydrogels were applied to specifically adsorb phosphotyrosine peptides from a sample mixture containing phosphotyrosine and a tryptic digest of β-casein, which demonstrated high selectivity. After four rebinding cycles, 78.9% adsorption efficiency was still retained. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Biological evaluation of silver nanoparticles incorporated into chitosan-based membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, J.; Yu, N.; Kolwijck, E.; Wang, B.; Tan, K.W.; Jansen, J.A.; Walboomers, X.F.; Yang, F.

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the antibacterial potential and biological performance of silver nanoparticles in chitosan-based membranes. MATERIALS & METHODS: Electrospun chitosan/poly(ethylene oxide) membranes with different amounts of silver nanoparticles were evaluated for antibacterial properties and

  4. In-situ formation of nanoparticles within a silicon-based matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G [Albuquerque, NM; Wilcoxon, Jess P [Albuquerque, NM; Abrams, Billie L [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-06-10

    A method for encapsulating nanoparticles with an encapsulating matrix that minimizes aggregation and maintains favorable properties of the nanoparticles. The matrix comprises silicon-based network-forming compounds such as ormosils and polysiloxanes. The nanoparticles are synthesized from precursors directly within the silicon-based matrix.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of iron based nanoparticles for novel applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Hafsa

    The work in this thesis has been focused on the fabrication and characterization of iron based nanoparticles with controlled size and morphology with the aim: (i) to investigate their properties for potential applications in MICR toners and biomedical field and (ii) to study finite size effects on the magnetic properties of the nanoparticles. For the biomedical applications, core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide and hollow shell nanoparticles were synthesized by thermal decomposition of iron organometallic compounds [Fe(CO)5] at high temperature. Core/shell structured iron/iron-oxide nanoparticles have been prepared in the presence of oleic acid and oleylamine. Particle size and composition was controlled by varying the reaction parameters during synthesis. The as-made particles are hydrophobic and not dispersible in water. Water dispersibility was achieved by ligand exchange a with double hydrophilic diblock copolymer. Relaxometery measurements of the transverse relaxation time T2 of the nanoparticles solution at 3 Tesla confirm that the core/shell nanoparticles are an excellent MRI contrast agent using T2 weighted imaging sequences. In comparison to conventionally used iron oxide nanoparticles, iron/iron-oxide core/shell nanoparticles offer four times stronger T2 shortening effect at comparable core size due to their higher magnetization. The magnetic properties were studied as a function of particle size, composition and morphology. Hollow nanostructures are composed of randomly oriented grains arranged together to make a shell layer and make an interesting class of materials. The hollow morphology can be used as an extra degree of freedom to control the magnetic properties. Owing to their hollow morphology, they can be used for the targeted drug delivery applications by filling the drug inside their cavity. For the magnetic toners applications, particles were synthesized by chemically reducing iron salt using sodium borohydride and then coated with polyethylene

  6. Biosensing strategies based on enzymatic reactions and nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez-Buitrago, Beatriz; Briz, Nerea; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Pavlov, Valeri

    2018-04-16

    Enzymes are pivotal elements in bioanalysis due to their specificity and extremely high catalytic activity. The sensitivity of bioanalytical assays depends mainly on the capacity of an observer to detect the product(s) of a biocatalytic reaction. Both natural and artificial compounds have been traditionally used to evaluate enzymatic activities. The drawbacks of chromogenic and fluorogenic organic enzymatic substrates are their high cost and low stability, resulting in high background signals. We review here state of the art assays in the detection of enzymatic activities using recent advances in nanoscience. Novel methods based on the use of nanoparticles lead to increased sensitivity and decreased costs for bioanalysis based on enzymes as recognition elements and signal amplifiers in Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA). Novel approaches toward the detection of enzymatic activities are based on biocatalytic synthesis, modulation, etching, and aggregation of nanoparticles under physiological conditions.

  7. Polysaccharides-based polyelectrolyte nanoparticles as protein drugs delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu Shujun; Sun Lei; Zhang Xinge, E-mail: zhangxinge@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry (China); Wu Zhongming [Tianjin Medical University, Metabolic Diseases Hospital (China); Wang Zhen; Li Chaoxing, E-mail: lcx@nankai.edu.cn [Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Functional Polymer Materials Ministry of Education, Institute of Polymer Chemistry (China)

    2011-09-15

    Polysaccharides-based nanoparticles were prepared by synthesized quaternized chitosan and dextran sulfate through simple ionic-gelation self-assembled method. Introduction of quaternized groups was intended to increase water solubility of chitosan and make the nanoparticles have broader pH sensitive range which can remain more stable in physiological pH and decrease the loss of protein drugs caused by the gastric cavity. The load of BSA was affected by molecular parameter, i.e., degree of substitution, and average molecular weight of quaternized chitosan, as well as concentration of BSA. Fast release occurred in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) while the release was slow in hydrochloric acid (pH 1.4). The drug release mechanism is Fickian diffusion through release kinetics analysis. Cell uptake demonstrated nanoparicles can internalize into Caco-2 cells, which suggested that nanoparticles had good biocompatibility. No significant conformation change was noted for the released BSA in comparison with native BSA using circular dichroism spectroscopy. This kind of novel composite nanoparticles may be a promising delivery system for oral protein and peptide drugs.

  8. Nanoparticle-Based Receptors Mimic Protein-Ligand Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, Laura; Gabrielli, Luca; Sun, Xiaohuan; De Biasi, Federico; Rastrelli, Federico; Mancin, Fabrizio; De Vivo, Marco

    2017-07-13

    The self-assembly of a monolayer of ligands on the surface of noble-metal nanoparticles dictates the fundamental nanoparticle's behavior and its functionality. In this combined computational-experimental study, we analyze the structure, organization, and dynamics of functionalized coating thiols in monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We explain how functionalized coating thiols self-organize through a delicate and somehow counterintuitive balance of interactions within the monolayer itself and with the solvent. We further describe how the nature and plasticity of these interactions modulate nanoparticle-based chemosensing. Importantly, we found that self-organization of coating thiols can induce the formation of binding pockets in AuNPs. These transient cavities can accommodate small molecules, mimicking protein-ligand recognition, which could explain the selectivity and sensitivity observed for different organic analytes in NMR chemosensing experiments. Thus, our findings advocate for the rational design of tailored coating groups to form specific recognition binding sites on monolayer-protected AuNPs.

  9. Electron transport in gold colloidal nanoparticle-based strain gauges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Helena; Grisolia, Jérémie; Sangeetha, Neralagatta M.; Decorde, Nicolas; Farcau, Cosmin; Viallet, Benoit; Chen, Ke; Viau, Guillaume; Ressier, Laurence

    2013-03-01

    A systematic approach for understanding the electron transport mechanisms in resistive strain gauges based on assemblies of gold colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) protected by organic ligands is described. The strain gauges were fabricated from parallel micrometer wide wires made of 14 nm gold (Au) colloidal NPs on polyethylene terephthalate substrates, elaborated by convective self-assembly. Electron transport in such devices occurs by inter-particle electron tunneling through the tunnel barrier imposed by the organic ligands protecting the NPs. This tunnel barrier was varied by changing the nature of organic ligands coating the nanoparticles: citrate (CIT), phosphines (BSPP, TDSP) and thiols (MPA, MUDA). Electro-mechanical tests indicate that only the gold NPs protected by phosphine and thiol ligands yield high gauge sensitivity. Temperature-dependent resistance measurements are explained using the ‘regular island array model’ that extracts transport parameters, i.e., the tunneling decay constant β and the Coulomb charging energy EC. This reveals that the Au@CIT nanoparticle assemblies exhibit a behavior characteristic of a strong-coupling regime, whereas those of Au@BSPP, Au@TDSP, Au@MPA and Au@MUDA nanoparticles manifest a weak-coupling regime. A comparison of the parameters extracted from the two methods indicates that the most sensitive gauges in the weak-coupling regime feature the highest β. Moreover, the EC values of these 14 nm NPs cannot be neglected in determining the β values.

  10. Smart phone based bacterial detection using bio functionalized fluorescent nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Bakthavathsalam, Padmavathy; Ali, Baquir Mohammed Jaffar

    2014-01-01

    We are describing immunochromatographic test strips with smart phone-based fluorescence readout. They are intended for use in the detection of the foodborne bacterial pathogens Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) were doped with FITC and Ru(bpy), conjugated to the respective antibodies, and then used in a conventional lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA). Fluorescence was recorded by inserting the nitrocellulose strip into a smart phone-based fluorimeter consisting of a light weight (40 g) optical module containing an LED light source, a fluorescence filter set and a lens attached to the integrated camera of the cell phone in order to acquire high-resolution fluorescence images. The images were analysed by exploiting the quick image processing application of the cell phone and enable the detection of pathogens within few minutes. This LFIA is capable of detecting pathogens in concentrations as low as 10 5 cfu mL −1 directly from test samples without pre-enrichment. The detection is one order of magnitude better compared to gold nanoparticle-based LFIAs under similar condition. The successful combination of fluorescent nanoparticle-based pathogen detection by LFIAs with a smart phone-based detection platform has resulted in a portable device with improved diagnosis features and having potential application in diagnostics and environmental monitoring. (author)

  11. Synthesis of high generation thermo-sensitive dendrimers for extraction of rivaroxaban from human fluid and pharmaceutic samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Negin; Panahi, Homayon Ahmad; Feizbakhsh, Alireza; Moniri, Elham

    2018-04-13

    In this present study, poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) as a thermo-sensitive agent was grafted onto magnetic nanoparticles, then ethylenediamine and methylmethacrylate were used to synthesize the first generation of poly amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers successively and the process continued alternatively until the ten generations of dendrimers. The synthesized nanocomposite was investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, thermalgravimetry analysis, X-ray diffractometry, elemental analysis and vibrating-sample magnetometer. The particle size and morphology were characterized using dynamic light scattering, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters affecting adsorption and desorption of rivaroxaban by synthesized nanocomposite. The maximum sorption of rivaroxaban by the synthesized nanocomposite was obtained at pH of 8. The resulting grafted magnetic nanoparticle dendrimers were applied for extraction of rivaroxaban from biologic human liquids and medicinal samples. The specifications of rivaroxaban sorbed by a magnetic nanoparticle dendrimer showed good accessibility and high capacity of the active sites within the dendrimers. Urine and drug matrix extraction recoveries of more than 92.5 and 99.8 were obtained, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Composite Scaffolds Based on Silver Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenel Marian Patrascu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the synthesis, characterisation, and in vitro testing of homogenous and heterogeneous materials containing silver nanoparticles (nanoAg. Three types of antiseptic materials based on collagen (COLL, hydroxyapatite (HA, and collagen/hydroxyapatite (COLL/HA composite materials were obtained. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles was realized by chemical reaction as well as plasma sputtering deposition. The use of chemical reduction allows the synthesis of homogenous materials while the plasma sputtering deposition can be easily used for the synthesis of homogeneous and heterogeneous support. Based on the in vitro assays clear antiseptic activity against Escherichia coli was relieved even at low content of nanoAg (10 ppm.

  13. Polymer slab waveguides for the optical detection of nanoparticles in evanescent field based biosensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teigell Beneitez, N.; Missinne, J.; Schleipen, J.J.H.B.; Orsel, J.G.; Prins, M.W.J.; Steenberge, Van G.; Cartwright, A.N.; Nicolau, D.V.

    2010-01-01

    We present a polymer optical waveguide integration technology for the detection of nanoparticles in an evanescent field based biosensor. In the proposed biosensor concept, super-paramagnetic nanoparticles are used as optical contrast labels. The nanoparticles capture target molecules from a sample

  14. Thermosensitive gating effect and selective gas adsorption in a porous coordination nanocage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, D.; Yuan, D.; Krishna, R.; van Baten, J.M.; Zhou, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    A porous coordination nanocage functionalized with 24 triisopropylsilyl groups exhibits a remarkable thermosensitive gate opening phenomenon and demonstrates a molecular sieving effect at a certain temperature range, which can be used for gas separation purposes.

  15. MRI monitoring of nanocarrier accumulation and release using Gadolinium-SPIO co-labelled thermosensitive liposomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzato, Cyril; Oerlemans, Chris; van Elk, Merel; Geerts, Willie J C; Denis de Senneville, Baudouin; Moonen, Chrit; Bos, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation of anticancer drugs in triggerable nanocarriers can beneficially modify pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of chemotherapeutic drugs, and consequently increase tumor drug concentration and efficacy, while reducing side effects. Thermosensitive liposomes release their contents

  16. Composite proton exchange membrane based on sulfonated organic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitia, Emmanuel Sokiri

    exchange was characterized with solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, TGA, elemental analysis, and titration. The results indicate the extent of ion exchange was ~ 70-80%. Due to the mass of QAA, the remaining QAA reduced the IEC of the nanoparticles to < 2.2 meq/g. In fabricating the composite membranes, the nanoparticles and polystyrene were solution cast in a continuous process with and without electric field. The electric field had no effect on the water uptake. Based on the morphology and the proton conductivity, it appears orientation of the nanoparticles did not occur. We hypothesize the lack of orientation was caused by swelling of the particles with the solvent. The solvent inside the particle minimized polarizability, and thus prevented orientation. The composite membranes were limited to low proton conductivity of ~ 10-5 S/cm due to low IEC of the nanoparticles, but good dispersion of the nanoparticles was achieved. Future work should look into eliminating the QAA during synthesis and developing a rigid core for the nanoparticles.

  17. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard [Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377 München (Germany); Tang, Dianping [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, MOE & Fujian Province, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Knopp, Dietmar, E-mail: dietmar.knopp@ch.tum.de [Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377 München (Germany)

    2016-03-17

    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • Novel concepts and promising applications of nanoparticle-based immunological methods for the determination of aflatoxins. • Inclusion of most important nanomaterials and hybrid nanostructures. • Inclusion of electrochemical, optical and mass-sensitive biosensors as well as optical and immunochromatographic assays.

  18. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Therapeutic Effect of Cationic Thermosensitive Liposomal Doxorubicin Upon Mild Hyperthermia

    OpenAIRE

    Dicheva, Bilyana M.; Seynhaeve, Ann L. B.; Soulie, Thomas; Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; ten Hagen, Timo L. M.; Koning, Gerben A.

    2015-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To evaluate pharmacokinetic profile, biodistribution and therapeutic effect of cationic thermosensitive liposomes (CTSL) encapsulating doxorubicin (Dox) upon mild hyperthermia (HT). Methods: Non-targeted thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) and CTSL were developed, loaded with Dox and characterized. Blood kinetics and biodistribution of Dox-TSL and Dox-CTSL were followed in B16BL6 tumor bearing mice upon normothermia (NT) or initial hyperthermia conditions. Efficacy study in B...

  19. Microfluidic magnetic switching valves based on aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles: Effects of aggregate length and nanoparticle sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiemsakul, Thanakorn [National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 111 Thailand Science Park, Thanon Phahonyothin, Tambon Khlong Nueng, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Manakasettharn, Supone, E-mail: supone@nanotec.or.th [National Nanotechnology Center (NANOTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 111 Thailand Science Park, Thanon Phahonyothin, Tambon Khlong Nueng, Amphoe Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120 (Thailand); Kanharattanachai, Sivakorn; Wanna, Yongyuth [College of Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Wangsuya, Sujint [College of Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand); Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, 272 Rama VI Road, Ratchathewi District, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Pratontep, Sirapat [College of Nanotechnology, King Mongkut' s Institute of Technology Ladkrabang, Chalongkrung Road, Bangkok 10520 (Thailand)

    2017-01-15

    We demonstrate microfluidic switching valves using magnetic nanoparticles blended within the working fluid as an alternative microfluidic flow control in microchannels. Y-shaped microchannels have been fabricated by using a CO{sub 2} laser cutter to pattern microchannels on transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheets covered with thermally bonded transparent polyvinyl chloride (PVC) sheets. To examine the performance of the microfluidic magnetic switching valves, an aqueous magnetic nanoparticle suspension was injected into the microchannels by a syringe pump. Neodymium magnets were then employed to attract magnetic nanoparticles and form an aggregate that blocked the microchannels at a required position. We have found that the maximum volumetric flow rate of the syringe pump that the magnetic nanoparticle aggregate can withstand scales with the square of the external magnetic flux density. The viscosity of the fluid exhibits dependent on the aggregate length and the size of the magnetic nanoparticles. This microfluidic switching valve based on aggregates of magnetic nanoparticles has strong potentials as an on-demand flow control, which may help simplifying microfluidic channel designs. - Highlights: • We demonstrate microfluidic switching valves based on aggregates of magnetic particles. • Maximum flow rate that the aggregate can withstand scales with the square of the external magnetic flux density. • Aggregates with smaller magnetic nanoparticle size can withstand higher flow rate. • Aggregate length exhibits a linear dependence with flow resistance of a viscous fluid.

  20. Metal nanoparticle film-based room temperature Coulomb transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Svenja; Lehmann, Hauke; Volkmann, Mirjam; Klinke, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Single-electron transistors would represent an approach to developing less power-consuming microelectronic devices if room temperature operation and industry-compatible fabrication were possible. We present a concept based on stripes of small, self-assembled, colloidal, metal nanoparticles on a back-gate device architecture, which leads to well-defined and well-controllable transistor characteristics. This Coulomb transistor has three main advantages. By using the scalable Langmuir-Blodgett method, we combine high-quality chemically synthesized metal nanoparticles with standard lithography techniques. The resulting transistors show on/off ratios above 90%, reliable and sinusoidal Coulomb oscillations, and room temperature operation. Furthermore, this concept allows for versatile tuning of the device properties such as Coulomb energy gap and threshold voltage, as well as period, position, and strength of the oscillations.

  1. Metal nanoparticle film–based room temperature Coulomb transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Svenja; Lehmann, Hauke; Volkmann, Mirjam; Klinke, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Single-electron transistors would represent an approach to developing less power–consuming microelectronic devices if room temperature operation and industry-compatible fabrication were possible. We present a concept based on stripes of small, self-assembled, colloidal, metal nanoparticles on a back-gate device architecture, which leads to well-defined and well-controllable transistor characteristics. This Coulomb transistor has three main advantages. By using the scalable Langmuir-Blodgett method, we combine high-quality chemically synthesized metal nanoparticles with standard lithography techniques. The resulting transistors show on/off ratios above 90%, reliable and sinusoidal Coulomb oscillations, and room temperature operation. Furthermore, this concept allows for versatile tuning of the device properties such as Coulomb energy gap and threshold voltage, as well as period, position, and strength of the oscillations. PMID:28740864

  2. Multimodal targeted high relaxivity thermosensitive liposome for in vivo imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijten, Maayke M. P.; Hannah Degeling, M.; Chen, John W.; Wojtkiewicz, Gregory; Waterman, Peter; Weissleder, Ralph; Azzi, Jamil; Nicolay, Klaas; Tannous, Bakhos A.

    2015-11-01

    Liposomes are spherical, self-closed structures formed by lipid bilayers that can encapsulate drugs and/or imaging agents in their hydrophilic core or within their membrane moiety, making them suitable delivery vehicles. We have synthesized a new liposome containing gadolinium-DOTA lipid bilayer, as a targeting multimodal molecular imaging agent for magnetic resonance and optical imaging. We showed that this liposome has a much higher molar relaxivities r1 and r2 compared to a more conventional liposome containing gadolinium-DTPA-BSA lipid. By incorporating both gadolinium and rhodamine in the lipid bilayer as well as biotin on its surface, we used this agent for multimodal imaging and targeting of tumors through the strong biotin-streptavidin interaction. Since this new liposome is thermosensitive, it can be used for ultrasound-mediated drug delivery at specific sites, such as tumors, and can be guided by magnetic resonance imaging.

  3. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) (1,2). These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) (2). A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) (3). Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles (1). Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust, versatile, and multi

  4. Multimodality Imaging with Silica-Based Targeted Nanoparticle Platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason S. Lewis

    2012-04-09

    Objectives: To synthesize and characterize a C-Dot silica-based nanoparticle containing 'clickable' groups for the subsequent attachment of targeting moieties (e.g., peptides) and multiple contrast agents (e.g., radionuclides with high specific activity) [1,2]. These new constructs will be tested in suitable tumor models in vitro and in vivo to ensure maintenance of target-specificity and high specific activity. Methods: Cy5 dye molecules are cross-linked to a silica precursor which is reacted to form a dye-rich core particle. This core is then encapsulated in a layer of pure silica to create the core-shell C-Dot (Figure 1) [2]. A 'click' chemistry approach has been used to functionalize the silica shell with radionuclides conferring high contrast and specific activity (e.g. 64Cu and 89Zr) and peptides for tumor targeting (e.g. cRGD and octreotate) [3]. Based on the selective Diels-Alder reaction between tetrazine and norbornene, the reaction is bioorthogonal, highyielding, rapid, and water-compatible. This radiolabeling approach has already been employed successfully with both short peptides (e.g. octreotate) and antibodies (e.g. trastuzumab) as model systems for the ultimate labeling of the nanoparticles [1]. Results: PEGylated C-Dots with a Cy5 core and labeled with tetrazine have been synthesized (d = 55 nm, zeta potential = -3 mV) reliably and reproducibly and have been shown to be stable under physiological conditions for up to 1 month. Characterization of the nanoparticles revealed that the immobilized Cy5 dye within the C-Dots exhibited fluorescence intensities over twice that of the fluorophore alone. The nanoparticles were successfully radiolabeled with Cu-64. Efforts toward the conjugation of targeting peptides (e.g. cRGD) are underway. In vitro stability, specificity, and uptake studies as well as in vivo imaging and biodistribution investigations will be presented. Conclusions: C-Dot silica-based nanoparticles offer a robust

  5. Colorimetric detection of cholesterol based on enzyme modified gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Narsingh R.; Saxena, Preeti S.; Srivastava, Anchal

    2018-02-01

    We develop a simple colorimetric method for determination of free cholesterol in aqueous solution based on functionalized gold nanoparticles with cholesterol oxidase. Functionalized gold nanoparticles interact with free cholesterol to produce H2O2 in proportion to the level of cholesterol visually is being detected. The quenching in optical properties and agglomeration of functionalized gold nanoparticles play a key role in cholesterol sensing due to the electron accepting property of H2O2. While the lower ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 0.2 mg/dL) can be effectively detected using fluorescence study, the absorption study attests evident visual color change which becomes effective for detection of higher ranges of cholesterol (lower detection limit i.e. 19 mg/dL). The shades of red gradually change to blue/purple as the level of cholesterol detected (as evident at 100 mg/dL) using unaided eye without the use of expensive instruments. The potential of the proposed method to be applied in the field is shown by the proposed cholesterol measuring color wheel.

  6. Polymer Nanoparticle-Based Chemotherapy for Spinal Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyun Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant spinal tumors, categorized into primary and metastatic ones, are one of the most serious diseases due to their high morbidity and mortality rates. Common primary spinal tumors include chordoma, chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and multiple myeloma. Spinal malignancies are not only locally invasive and destructive to adjacent structures, such as bone, neural, and vascular structures, but also disruptive to distant organs (e.g., lung. Current treatments for spinal malignancies, including wide resection, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, have made significant progress like improving patients’ quality of life. Among them, chemotherapy plays an important role, but its potential for clinical application is limited by severe side effects and drug resistance. To ameliorate the current situation, various polymer nanoparticles have been developed as promising excipients to facilitate the effective treatment of spinal malignancies by utilizing their potent advantages, for example, targeting, stimuli response, and synergetic effect. This review overviews the development of polymer nanoparticles for antineoplastic delivery in the treatment of spinal malignancies and discusses future prospects of polymer nanoparticle-based treatment methods.

  7. Laser assisted anticancer activity of benzimidazole based metal organic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, P A; Ramesh Babu, R; Balaji, P; Murugadas, A; Akbarsha, M A

    2018-03-01

    Recent studies showed that the photothermal therapy can be effectively used for the targeted cancerous cells destruction. Hence, in the present study, benzimidazole based metal organic complex nanoparticles, dichloro cobalt(II) bis-benzimidazole (Co-BMZ) and dichloro copper(II) bis-benzimidazole (Cu-BMZ), were synthesized by reprecipitation method and their anti-cancer activity by means of photothermal effect has been studied. Transmission electron microscopy analysis shows that the particle size of Cu-BMZ is ∼100 nm and Co-BMZ is in the range between 100 and 400 nm. Zeta potential analysis ensures the stability of the synthesized nanoparticles. It is found that the nonlinear absorption of the nanoparticles increases with increase in laser power intensity. Phototoxicity of human lung cancer (A549) and the normal mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH-3T3) cells was studied using a 650 nm laser. Even though both the cell lines were affected by laser irradiation, A549 cells show higher cell destruction and lower IC 50 values than the normal cells. Docking studies were used to analyse the interaction site and the results showed that the Cu-BMZ molecules have higher dock score than the Co-BMZ molecules. The obtained results indicate that Cu-BMZ samples have lesser particle size, higher nonlinear absorption and higher interaction energy than the Co-BMZ samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Radio-synthesized protein-based nanoparticles for biomedical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varca, Gustavo H.C.; Ferraz, Caroline C.; Lopes, Patricia S.; Mathor, Monica beatriz; Grasselli, Mariano; Lugão, Ademar B.

    2014-01-01

    Protein-crosslinking whether done by enzymatic or chemically induced pathways increases the overall stability of proteins. In the continuous search for alternative routes for protein stabilization we report a novel technique – radio-induced synthesis of protein nanoparticles – to achieve size controlled particles with preserved bioactivity. Papain was used as model enzyme and the samples were irradiated at 10 kGy in a gammacell irradiator in phosphate buffer (pH=7.0) and additives such as ethanol (0–40%) and sodium chloride (0–25%). The structural rearrangement caused by irradiation under defined conditions led to an increase in papain particle size as a function of the additive and its concentration. These changes occur due to intermolecular bindings, of covalent nature, possibly involving the aromatic amino acids. Ethanol held major effects over papain particle size and particle size distribution if compared to sodium chloride. The particles presented relative retained bioactivity and the physic-chemical characterization revealed similar fluorescence spectra indicating preserved conformation. Differences in fluorescence units were observed according to the additive and its concentration, as a result of protein content changes. Therefore, under optimized conditions, the developed technique may be applied for enzyme nanoparticles formation of controllable size and preserved bioactivity. Highlights: • Novel technique for the development of protein nanoparticles using γ-irradiation. • Size control of papain particles with preserved conformation and bioactivity. • Alternative method for controlled protein crosslinking. • Bioactive protein nanoparticles of biotechnological and clinical interest. • Protein-based drug carrier potential of biotechnological and clinical interest

  9. Thermo-sensitively and magnetically ordered mesoporous carbon nanospheres for targeted controlled drug release and hyperthermia application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Zhang, Huan; Zheng, Jing; Yu, Shiping; Du, Jinglei; Yang, Yongzhen; Liu, Xuguang

    2018-03-01

    A multifunctional nanoplatform based on thermo-sensitively and magnetically ordered mesoporous carbon nanospheres (TMOMCNs) is developed for effective targeted controlled release of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and hyperthermia in this work. The morphology, specific surface area, porosity, thermo-stability, thermo-sensitivity, as well as magnetism properties of TMOMCNs were verified by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, Brunauer-Emmeltt-Teller surface area analysis, dynamic light scattering and vibrating sample magnetometry measurement. The results indicate that TMOMCNs have an average diameter of ~146nm with a lower critical solution temperature at around 39.5°C. They are superparamagnetic with a magnetization of 10.15emu/g at 20kOe. They generate heat when inductive magnetic field is applied to them and have a normalized specific absorption rate of 30.23W/g at 230kHz and 290Oe, showing good potential for hyperthermia. The DOX loading and release results illustrate that the loading capacity is 135.10mg/g and release performance could be regulated by changing pH and temperature. The good targeting, DOX loading and release and hyperthermia properties of TMOMCNs offer new probabilities for high effectiveness and low toxicity of cancer chemotherapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Transport and retention of carbon-based engineered and natural nanoparticles through saturated porous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedayati, Maryeh [Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences (Sweden); Sharma, Prabhakar, E-mail: psharma@nalandauniv.com [Nalanda University, School of Ecology and Environment Studies (India); Katyal, Deeksha [Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, School of Environment Management (India); Fagerlund, Fritjof [Uppsala University, Department of Earth Sciences (Sweden)

    2016-03-15

    Carbon-based engineered nanoparticles have been widely used due to their small size and unique physical and chemical properties. At the same time, the toxic effects of these nanoparticles on human and fish cells have also been observed; therefore, their release and distribution into the surface and subsurface environment is a subject of concern. The aim of this research is to evaluate and compare the transports and retentions of two types of engineered nanoparticles (multiwalled carbon nanotubes and C{sub 60}) and the natural carbon nanoparticles collected from a fire accident. Several laboratory experiments were conducted to observe the transport behavior of nanoparticles through a column packed with silica sand. The column experiments were intended to monitor the effect of ionic strength on transport of nanoparticles as a function of their shapes. It was observed that the mobilities of both types of engineered nanoparticles were reduced with the increasing ionic strength from 1.34 to 60 mM. However, at ionic strengths up to 10.89 mM, spherical nanoparticles were more mobile than cylindrical nanoparticles, but the mobility of the cylindrical nanoparticles became significantly higher than spherical nanoparticles at the ionic strength of 60 mM. In comparison with natural fire-born nanoparticles, both types of engineered nanoparticles were much less mobile under the selected experimental condition in this study. Furthermore, inverse modeling was used to calculate parameters such as attachment efficiency, the longitudinal dispersivity, and capacity of the solid phase for the attachment of nanoparticles. The results indicate that the combination of the shape and the solution chemistry of the NPs are responsible for the transport and the retention of nanoparticles in natural environment; however, fire-burned nanoparticles can be highly mobile at the natural groundwater chemistry.

  11. Pore fabrication in various silica-based nanoparticles by controlled etching

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Lan

    2010-07-20

    A novel method based on controlled etching was developed to fabricate nanopores on preformed silica nanoparticles (<100 nm in diameter). The obtained monodisperse nanoporous particles could form highly stable homogeneous colloidal solution. Fluorescent silica nanoparticles and magnetic silica-coated γ-Fe 2O 3 nanoparticles were investigated as examples to illustrate that this strategy could be generally applied to various silica-based functional nanoparticles. The results indicated that this method was effective for generating pores on these nanoparticles without altering their original functionalities. The obtained multifunctional nanoparticles would be useful for many biological and biomedical applications. These porous nanoparticles could also serve as building blocks to fabricate three-dimensionally periodic structures that have the potential to be used as photonic crystals. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Experimental investigation of the influence of nanoparticles on water-based mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Paritosh; Cheng, Yaoze; Zhang, Yin; Patil, Shirish

    2018-03-01

    This study has investigated the influence of nanoparticles including nanoparticle concentration, size, and type on water-based mud (WBM) properties including rheology, filtration, and lubricity through experimental tests, while the influence of temperature and aging on these properties have been investigated. It has been found that adding SiO2 nanoparticles increase the plastic viscosity and decrease the yield points and gel strengths with the increase of nanoparticle concentration. At fixed 0.5 wt%, the plastic viscosity decreases with the increase of TiO2 nanoparticle size, but the influence of TiO2 nanoparticle size on yield points and gel strengths is not monotonous. In general, adding negative charged SiO2 nanoparticles reduce the yield points and gel strengths, while adding positively charged TiO2, Al2O3, and Fe3O4 nanoparticles increase yield points and gel strengths. Adding lower concentrations (mud filtration and lubricity properties, but higher concentrations are adverse to these properties and adding 0.5 wt% TiO2, Al2O3 and Fe3O4 nanoparticles impaired these properties. Besides, it is found that there is no consistent influence of aging on mud properties and adding nanoparticles cannot improve aging resistance of mud. Although adding nanoparticles can significantly affect WBM properties, their influences are not consistency, depending on the integrated impact of the nanoparticle properties, such as surface electrical property, specific surface area, concentration, and size.

  13. A framework for grouping nanoparticles based on their measurable characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayes, Christie M; Smith, P Alex; Ivanov, Ivan V

    2013-01-01

    There is a need to take a broader look at nanotoxicological studies. Eventually, the field will demand that some generalizations be made. To begin to address this issue, we posed a question: are metal colloids on the nanometer-size scale a homogeneous group? In general, most people can agree that the physicochemical properties of nanomaterials can be linked and related to their induced toxicological responses. The focus of this study was to determine how a set of selected physicochemical properties of five specific metal-based colloidal materials on the nanometer-size scale - silver, copper, nickel, iron, and zinc - could be used as nanodescriptors that facilitate the grouping of these metal-based colloids. The example of the framework pipeline processing provided in this paper shows the utility of specific statistical and pattern recognition techniques in grouping nanoparticles based on experimental data about their physicochemical properties. Interestingly, the results of the analyses suggest that a seemingly homogeneous group of nanoparticles could be separated into sub-groups depending on interdependencies observed in their nanodescriptors. These particles represent an important category of nanomaterials that are currently mass produced. Each has been reputed to induce toxicological and/or cytotoxicological effects. Here, we propose an experimental methodology coupled with mathematical and statistical modeling that can serve as a prototype for a rigorous framework that aids in the ability to group nanomaterials together and to facilitate the subsequent analysis of trends in data based on quantitative modeling of nanoparticle-specific structure-activity relationships. The computational part of the proposed framework is rather general and can be applied to other groups of nanomaterials as well.

  14. Synthesis, Structure, Stability and Redispersion of Gold-based Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiruvalam, Ram Chandra

    Nanoscale gold has been shown to possess an intriguing combination of unexpected optical, photochemical and catalytic properties. The ability to control the size, shape, morphology, composition and dispersion of gold-based nanostructures is key to optimizing their performance for nanotechnology applications. The advanced electron microscopy studies described in this thesis analyze three important aspects of gold and gold-palladium alloy nanoparticles: namely, (i) the ability to synthesize gold nanoparticles of controlled size and shape in an aqueous medium; (ii) the colloidal preparation of designer gold-palladium alloys for selective oxidation catalysis; and (iii) the ability to disperse gold as finely and homogeneously as possible on a metal oxide or carbon support. The ability to exploit the nanoscale properties of gold for various engineering applications often depends on our ability to control size and shape of the nanoscale entity by careful manipulation of the synthesis parameters. We have explored an aqueous based synthesis route, using oleylamine as both a reductant and surfactant, for preparing gold nanostructures. By systematically varying synthesis parameters such as oleylamine concentration, reaction temperature, and aging time it is possible to identify processing regimens that generate Au nanostructures having either pseudo-spherical, faceted polyhedral, nanostar or wire shaped morphologies. Furthermore, by quenching the reaction partway through it is possible to create a class of metastable Au-containing structures such as nanocubes, nanoboxes and nanowires. Possible formation mechanisms for these gold based nano-objects are discussed. There is a growing interest in using supported bimetallic AuPd alloy nanoparticles for selective oxidation reactions. In this study, a systematic series of size controlled AuPd bimetallic particles have been prepared by colloidal synthesis methods. Particles having random alloy structures, as well as `designer

  15. A phototactic micromotor based on platinum nanoparticle decorated carbon nitride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhenrong; Sun, Yunyu; Zhang, Hui; Song, Bo; Dong, Bin

    2017-11-30

    In this paper, we report a unique phototactic (both positive and negative) micromotor based on platinum nanoparticle decorated carbon nitride. The phototaxis relies on the self-diffusiophoretic mechanism and different surface modifications. The micromotor reported in the current study does not require the addition of any external fuels and shows versatile motion behaviour, i.e. start, stop, directional and programmable motion, which is controlled by light. In addition, since the actuation of the precipitated micromotors at the bottom of a solution using light results in the opacity changes from transparent to translucent, we anticipate that the current micromotor may have potential application in the field of smart windows.

  16. Environmental transformations and ecological effects of iron-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Cheng; Sun, Yuqing; Tsang, Daniel C W; Lin, Daohui

    2018-01-01

    The increasing application of iron-based nanoparticles (NPs), especially high concentrations of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (nZVI), has raised concerns regarding their environmental behavior and potential ecological effects. In the environment, iron-based NPs undergo physical, chemical, and/or biological transformations as influenced by environmental factors such as pH, ions, dissolved oxygen, natural organic matter (NOM), and biotas. This review presents recent research advances on environmental transformations of iron-based NPs, and articulates their relationships with the observed toxicities. The type and extent of physical, chemical, and biological transformations, including aggregation, oxidation, and bio-reduction, depend on the properties of NPs and the receiving environment. Toxicities of iron-based NPs to bacteria, algae, fish, and plants are increasingly observed, which are evaluated with a particular focus on the underlying mechanisms. The toxicity of iron-based NPs is a function of their properties, tolerance of test organisms, and environmental conditions. Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species is considered as the primary toxic mechanism of iron-based NPs. Factors influencing the toxicity of iron-based NPs are addressed and environmental transformations play a significant role, for example, surface oxidation or coating by NOM generally lowers the toxicity of nZVI. Research gaps and future directions are suggested with an aim to boost concerted research efforts on environmental transformations and toxicity of iron-based NPs, e.g., toxicity studies of transformed NPs in field, expansion of toxicity endpoints, and roles of laden contaminants and surface coating. This review will enhance our understanding of potential risks of iron-based NPs and proper uses of environmentally benign NPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. EIS immunosensor based on magnetic nanoparticles for ochratoxim A determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biraruti, Irina; Tudorache, Madalina; Rotariu, Lucian; Bala, Camelia; Jaffrezic-Renault, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. It occurs in a variety of foodstuff, including cereals, coffee, wine, grape juice and fruits juice. Maximum permitted levels have been established by the EU and several countries. Currently, there are several methods available for OTA monitoring in real samples, e.g. TLC, HPLC, ELISA immunosensors. Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD), coupled with immunoaffinity column or solid phase extraction as pretreatment method, has been validated and adopted as official standard for OTA determination. Also, an immunosensor based on electrochemical detection has been reported for rapid analysis of OTA in food and beverages. Our work proposes the development of a new sensitive immunosensor combining the use of magnetic nanoparticles and EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) detection principle. Anti-OTA antibody immobilised on magnetic nanoparticles were deposited on the EIS electrode surface by applying a magnetic field. Then, OTA sample solutions were added in the detection cell. Quantitative determination of OTA content was performed based on EIS detection. Experimental parameters of the immunosensor were set-up at the optimum values. Based on those values, the immunosensor allows to detect OTA in the range 1-10 ng/mL. The future perspective is to validate this immunochemical method using HPLC-FLD. (authors)

  18. Biodistribution of ultra small gadolinium-based nanoparticles as theranostic agent: application to brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi, Imen; Duc, Géraldine Le; Kryza, David; Berniard, Aurélie; Mowat, Pierre; Roux, Stéphane; Taleb, Jacqueline; Bonazza, Pauline; Perriat, Pascal; Lux, François; Tillement, Olivier; Billotey, Claire; Janier, Marc

    2013-09-01

    Gadolinium-based nanoparticles are novel objects with interesting physical properties, allowing their use for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Gadolinium-based nanoparticles were imaged following intravenous injection in healthy rats and rats grafted with 9L gliosarcoma tumors using magnetic resonance imaging and scintigraphic imaging. Quantitative biodistribution using gamma-counting of each sampled organ confirmed that these nanoparticles were rapidly cleared essentially by renal excretion. Accumulation of these nanoparticles in 9L gliosarcoma tumors implanted in the rat brain was quantitated. This passive and long-duration accumulation of gadolinium-based nanoparticles in tumor, which is related to disruption of the blood-brain barrier, is in good agreement with the use of these nanoparticles as radiosensitizers for brain tumors.

  19. Nanoparticle-Based Surface Modifications for Microtribology Control and Superhydrophobicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Kendall Matthew

    2010-11-01

    The emergence of miniaturization techniques for consumer electronics has brought forth the relatively new and exciting field of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). However, due to the inherent forces that exist between surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale, scientists and semiconductor manufacturers are still struggling to improve the lifetime and reliability of complex microdevices. Due to the extremely large surface area-to-volume ratio of typical MEMS and microstructured surfaces, dominant interfacial forces exist which can be detrimental to their operational lifetime. In particular, van der Waals, capillary, and electrostatic forces contribute to the permanent adhesion, or stiction , of microfabricated surfaces. This strong adhesion force also contributes to the friction and wear of these silicon-based systems. The scope of this work was to examine the effect of utilizing nanoparticles as the basis for roughening surfaces for the purpose of creating films with anti-adhesive and/or superhydrophobic properties. All of the studies presented in this work are focused around a gas-expanded liquid (GXL) process that promotes the deposition of colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) into conformal thin films. The GXL particle deposition process is finalized by a critical point drying step which is advantageous to the microelectromechanical systems and semiconductor (IC) industries. In fact, preliminary results illustrated that the GXL particle deposition process can easily be integrated into current MEMS microfabrication processes. Thin films of AuNPs deposited onto the surfaces of silicon-based MEMS and tribology test devices were shown to have a dramatic effect on the adhesion of microstructures. In the various investigations, the apparent work of adhesion between surfaces was reduced by 2-4 orders of magnitude. This effect is greatly attributed to the roughening of the typically smooth silicon oxide surfaces which, in turn, dramatically decreases the "real are of

  20. The influence of increased cross-linker chain length in thermosensitive microspheres on potential sun-protection activity

    OpenAIRE

    Musiał, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Vončina, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The sun protection should involve substances with protecting activity against both UVB and UVA radiation. In this research the evaluation of thermosensitive microspheres as potential molecules for sunscreen formulations was approached, using modified Boots star rating system. The microspheres, thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide derivatives, have potential protecting activity against UV radiation. The MX and DX microspheres, with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and diethylene glycol dimethac...

  1. Optical Fiber Sensors Based on Nanoparticle-Embedded Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Urrutia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of nanoparticles (NPs in scientific applications has attracted the attention of many researchers in the last few years. The use of NPs can help researchers to tune the physical characteristics of the sensing coating (thickness, roughness, specific area, refractive index, etc. leading to enhanced sensors with response time or sensitivity better than traditional sensing coatings. Additionally, NPs also offer other special properties that depend on their nanometric size, and this is also a source of new sensing applications. This review focuses on the current status of research in the use of NPs within coatings in optical fiber sensing. Most used sensing principles in fiber optics are briefly described and classified into several groups: absorbance-based sensors, interferometric sensors, fluorescence-based sensors, fiber grating sensors, and resonance-based sensors, among others. For each sensor group, specific examples of the utilization of NP-embedded coatings in their sensing structure are reported.

  2. Shape Effects in Nanoparticle-Based Imaging Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Kayla Shani Brook

    At the nanoscale, material properties become highly size and shape dependent. These properties can be manipulated and exploited for a variety of biomedical applications, including sensing, drug delivery, diagnostics, and imaging. In particular, nanoparticles of different materials, sizes and shapes have been developed as high-performance contrast agents for optical, electron, and medical imaging. In this thesis, I focus on gold nanoparticles because they are widely used as contrast agents in multiple types of imaging modalities. Additionally, the surface of gold can be readily functionalized with ligands and the structure of the particles can be manipulated to modulate their performance as imaging agents. The properties of nanoparticles can generate contrast directly. For example, the light scattering properties of gold particles can be visualized in optical microscopy, the high electron density of gold produces contrast in electron microscopy, and the x-ray absorption properties of gold can be detected in medical x-ray and computed tomography imaging. Alternatively, the properties of the nanomaterial can be exploited to modulate the signal produced by other molecules that are bound to the particle surface. The light emission of molecular fluorophores can be quenched or dramatically increased by coupling to the optical field enhancements of gold nanoparticles, and the performance of gadolinium (Gd(III))-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents can be increased by coupling to the rotational motion of nanoparticles. In this dissertation, I focus specifically on how the structure of star-shaped gold particles (nanostars) can be exploited as single-particle optical probes and to dramatically enhance the relaxivity of Gd(III) bound to the surface. Differential interference contrast (DIC) is a type of wide-field diffraction-limited optical microscopy that is commonly used by biologists to image cells without labels. Here, I demonstrate the DIC can be used

  3. Novel thermosensitive hydrogel for preventing formation of abdominal adhesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao X

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiang Gao,1,2 Xiaohui Deng,3 Xiawei Wei,2 Huashan Shi,2 Fengtian Wang,2 Tinghong Ye,2 Bin Shao,2 Wen Nie,2 Yuli Li,2 Min Luo,2 Changyang Gong,2 Ning Huang1 1Department of Pathophysiology, College of Preclinical and Forensic Medical Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 2State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy and Cancer Center, West China Hospital, West China Medical School, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 3Department of Human Anatomy, Xinxiang Medical University, Xinxiang, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Adhesions can form after almost any type of abdominal surgery. Postoperative adhesions can be prevented by improved surgical techniques, such as reducing surgical trauma, preventing ischemia, and avoiding exposure of the peritoneal cavity to foreign materials. Although improved surgical techniques can potentially reduce formation of adhesions, they cannot be eliminated completely. Therefore, finding more effective methods to prevent postoperative adhesions is imperative. Recently, we found that a novel thermosensitive hydrogel, ie, poly(ε-caprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ε-caprolactone (PCEC had the potential to prevent postoperative adhesions. Using the ring-opening polymerization method, we prepared a PCEC copolymer which could be dissolved and assembled at 55°C into PCEC micelles with mean size of 25 nm. At body temperature, a solution containing PCEC micelles could convert into a hydrogel. The PCEC copolymer was biodegradable and had low toxicity in vitro and in vivo. We found that most animals in a hydrogel-treated group (n = 10 did not develop adhesions. In contrast, 10 untreated animals developed adhesions that could only be separated by sharp dissection (P < 0.001. The hydrogel could adhere to peritoneal wounds and degraded gradually over 7–9 days, transforming into a viscous fluid that was completely absorbed within 12 days. The injured parietal and visceral peritoneum remesothelialized over about seven and nine days

  4. A centrifugation-based physicochemical characterization method for the interaction between proteins and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekdemir, Ahmet; Stellacci, Francesco

    2016-10-01

    Nanomedicine requires in-depth knowledge of nanoparticle-protein interactions. These interactions are studied with methods limited to large or fluorescently labelled nanoparticles as they rely on scattering or fluorescence-correlation signals. Here, we have developed a method based on analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) as an absorbance-based, label-free tool to determine dissociation constants (KD), stoichiometry (Nmax), and Hill coefficient (n), for the association of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with gold nanoparticles. Absorption at 520 nm in AUC renders the measurements insensitive to unbound and aggregated proteins. Measurements remain accurate and do not become more challenging for small (sub-10 nm) nanoparticles. In AUC, frictional ratio analysis allows for the qualitative assessment of the shape of the analyte. Data suggests that small-nanoparticles/protein complexes significantly deviate from a spherical shape even at maximum coverage. We believe that this method could become one of the established approaches for the characterization of the interaction of (small) nanoparticles with proteins.

  5. A local effect model-based interpolation framework for experimental nanoparticle radiosensitisation data

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Jeremy M. C.; Currell, Fred J.

    2017-01-01

    A local effect model (LEM)-based framework capable of interpolating nanoparticle-enhanced photon-irradiated clonogenic cell survival fraction measurements as a function of nanoparticle concentration was developed and experimentally benchmarked for gold nanoparticle (AuNP)-doped bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) under superficial kilovoltage X-ray irradiation. For three different superficial kilovoltage X-ray spectra, the BAEC survival fraction response was predicted for two different Au...

  6. Gold Nanoparticles-Based Barcode Analysis for Detection of Norepinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jeung Hee; Lee, Kwon-Jai; Choi, Jeong-Woo

    2016-02-01

    Nanotechnology-based bio-barcode amplification analysis offers an innovative approach for detecting neurotransmitters. We evaluated the efficacy of this method for detecting norepinephrine in normal and oxidative-stress damaged dopaminergic cells. Our approach use a combination of DNA barcodes and bead-based immunoassays for detecting neurotransmitters with surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and provides polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-like sensitivity. This method relies on magnetic Dynabeads containing antibodies and nanoparticles that are loaded both with DNA barcords and with antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the Dynabead-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from the solution and treated to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes are then identified by SERS and PCR analysis. The concentration of norepinephrine in dopaminergic cells can be readily detected using the bio-barcode assay, which is a rapid, high-throughput screening tool for detecting neurotransmitters.

  7. Nanoparticle-based assays in automated flow systems: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passos, Marieta L.C. [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Pinto, Paula C.A.G., E-mail: ppinto@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Santos, João L.M., E-mail: joaolms@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Saraiva, M. Lúcia M.F.S., E-mail: lsaraiva@ff.up.pt [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Araujo, André R.T.S. [LAQV, REQUIMTE, Departamento de Ciências Químicas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, n° 228, 4050-313 Porto (Portugal); Unidade de Investigação para o Desenvolvimento do Interior, Instituto Politécnico da Guarda, Av. Dr. Francisco de Sá Carneiro, n° 50, 6300-559 Guarda (Portugal)

    2015-08-19

    Nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a number of distinctive and entrancing properties that explain their ever increasing application in analytical chemistry, mainly as chemosensors, signaling tags, catalysts, analytical signal enhancers, reactive species generators, analyte recognition and scavenging/separation entities. The prospect of associating NPs with automated flow-based analytical is undoubtedly a challenging perspective as it would permit confined, cost-effective and reliable analysis, within a shorter timeframe, while exploiting the features of NPs. This article aims at examining state-of-the-art on continuous flow analysis and microfluidic approaches involving NPs such as noble metals (gold and silver), magnetic materials, carbon, silica or quantum dots. Emphasis is devoted to NP format, main practical achievements and fields of application. In this context, the functionalization of NPs with distinct chemical species and ligands is debated in what concerns the motivations and strengths of developed approaches. The utilization of NPs to improve detector's performance in electrochemical application is out of the scope of this review. The works discussed in this review were published in the period of time comprised between the years 2000 and 2013. - Highlights: • The state of the art of flowing stream systems comprising NPs was reviewed. • The use of different types of nanoparticles in each flow technique is discussed. • The most expressive and profitable applications are summarized. • The main conclusions and future perspectives were compiled in the final section.

  8. Nanoparticle-based assays in automated flow systems: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passos, Marieta L.C.; Pinto, Paula C.A.G.; Santos, João L.M.; Saraiva, M. Lúcia M.F.S.; Araujo, André R.T.S.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit a number of distinctive and entrancing properties that explain their ever increasing application in analytical chemistry, mainly as chemosensors, signaling tags, catalysts, analytical signal enhancers, reactive species generators, analyte recognition and scavenging/separation entities. The prospect of associating NPs with automated flow-based analytical is undoubtedly a challenging perspective as it would permit confined, cost-effective and reliable analysis, within a shorter timeframe, while exploiting the features of NPs. This article aims at examining state-of-the-art on continuous flow analysis and microfluidic approaches involving NPs such as noble metals (gold and silver), magnetic materials, carbon, silica or quantum dots. Emphasis is devoted to NP format, main practical achievements and fields of application. In this context, the functionalization of NPs with distinct chemical species and ligands is debated in what concerns the motivations and strengths of developed approaches. The utilization of NPs to improve detector's performance in electrochemical application is out of the scope of this review. The works discussed in this review were published in the period of time comprised between the years 2000 and 2013. - Highlights: • The state of the art of flowing stream systems comprising NPs was reviewed. • The use of different types of nanoparticles in each flow technique is discussed. • The most expressive and profitable applications are summarized. • The main conclusions and future perspectives were compiled in the final section

  9. Biomedical Probes Based on Inorganic Nanoparticles for Electrochemical and Optical Spectroscopy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoh, Abdulhadee; Pinyorospathum, Chanika; Siangproh, Weena; Chailapakul, Orawon

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic nanoparticles usually provide novel and unique physical properties as their size approaches nanometer scale dimensions. The unique physical and optical properties of nanoparticles may lead to applications in a variety of areas, including biomedical detection. Therefore, current research is now increasingly focused on the use of the high surface-to-volume ratios of nanoparticles to fabricate superb chemical- or biosensors for various detection applications. This article highlights various kinds of inorganic nanoparticles, including metal nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, nanocomposites, and semiconductor nanoparticles that can be perceived as useful materials for biomedical probes and points to the outstanding results arising from their use in such probes. The progress in the use of inorganic nanoparticle-based electrochemical, colorimetric and spectrophotometric detection in recent applications, especially bioanalysis, and the main functions of inorganic nanoparticles in detection are reviewed. The article begins with a conceptual discussion of nanoparticles according to types, followed by numerous applications to analytes including biomolecules, disease markers, and pharmaceutical substances. Most of the references cited herein, dating from 2010 to 2015, generally mention one or more of the following characteristics: a low detection limit, good signal amplification and simultaneous detection capabilities. PMID:26343676

  10. Development of Drug Loaded Nanoparticles Binding to Hydroxyapatite Based on a Bisphosphonate Modified Nonionic Surfactant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiabin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at development of drug loaded nanoparticles which could bind to hydroxyapatite (HA to construct drug or growth factor releasing bone graft substitutes. To this end, the terminal hydroxyl group of a nonionic surfactant Brij 78 (polyoxyethylene (20 stearyl ether was first modified with pamidronate (Pa. Using Pa-Brij 78 as both a surfactant and an affinity ligand to HA, three different Pa surface functionalized nanoparticles were prepared, named as solid lipid nanoparticles (Pa-SNPs, nanoemulsions (Pa-NEMs, and PLGA nanoparticles (Pa-PNPs. A model drug curcumin was successfully encapsulated in the three nanoparticles. The sizes of Pa-NEM and Pa-PNP were around 150 nm and the size of Pa-SNP was around 90 nm with polydispersity indexes (PDIs less than 0.20. Drug encapsulation efficiencies of the three nanoparticles were all greater than 85%. Furthermore, the order of binding affinity of the nanoparticles to HA was Pa-PNP>Pa-NEM=Pa-SNP. After lyophilization, the sizes of the three nanoparticles were increased about 0.5–2.0-fold but their binding affinities to HA were almost the same as the fresh prepared nanoparticles. In conclusion, a Pa-modified Brij 78 was synthesized and used for fabrication of a series of drug loaded nanoparticles to construct drug-eluting HA-based bone graft substitutes.

  11. Fabricating continuous electroconductive polyacrylonitrile fibers with thermosensitive property via wet-spinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wanwan; Jin, Yang; Wang, Yangyi; Ge, Mingqiao; Gao, Qiang

    2017-12-01

    In this work, conductive polyacrylonitrile (PAN) composite fiber with thermosensitive property was successfully prepared via wet-spinning. Thermochromic pigment (TCP) microsphere capsules were applied to manufacture color-changing fibers. Meanwhile, light-colored conductive whiskers (ATO@TiO2) were employed to endow polyacrylonitrile fibers with conductivity without prejudicing their thermosensitive property. Interestingly, unlike other conductive fibers in dark color, this kind of conductive composite fiber can be dyed by thermosensitive pigment. The obtained composite fiber containing 20 vol% ATO@TiO2 whiskers shows a resistivity of 105 Ω · cm and could generate heat by Joule heating when being applied under a certain voltage. The composite fiber shows a red color at room temperature, while the color of the composite fiber fades gradually and finally becomes white as temperature rise. This simple and cost-effective approach is expected to inspire more research into the applications of multifunctional conductive fibers.

  12. Mechanically Enhanced Liquid Interfaces at Human Body Temperature Using Thermosensitive Methylated Nanocrystalline Cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuble, N; Geue, T; Kuster, S; Adamcik, J; Mezzenga, R; Windhab, E J; Fischer, P

    2016-02-09

    The mechanical performance of materials at oil/water interfaces after consumption is a key factor affecting hydrophobic drug release. In this study, we methylated the surface of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by mercerization and dimethyl sulfate exposure to produce thermosensitive biopolymers. These methylated NCC (metNCC) were used to investigate interfacial thermogelation at air/water and medium-chain triglyceride (MCT)/water interfaces at body temperature. In contrast to bulk fluid dynamics, elastic layers were formed at room temperature, and elasticity increased significantly at body temperature, which was measured by interfacial shear and dilatational rheology in situ. This unique phenomenon depends on solvent quality, temperature, and polymer concentration at interfaces. Thus, by adjusting the degree of hydrophobicity of metNCC, the interfacial elasticity and thermogelation of the interfaces could be varied. In general, these new materials (metNCC) formed more brittle interfacial layers compared to commercial methylcellulose (MC A15). Thermogelation of methylcellulose promotes attractive intermolecular forces, which were reflected in a change in self-assembly of metNCC at the interface. As a consequence, layer thickness and density increased as a function of temperature. These effects were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of the displaced interface and confirmed by neutron reflection. The substantial structural and mechanical change of methylcellulose interfaces at body temperature represents a controllable encapsulation parameter allowing optimization of lipid-based drug formulations.

  13. Plasmonic characterization of photo-induced silver nanoparticles extracted from silver halide based TEM film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudheer,, E-mail: sudheer@rrcat.gov.in; Tiwari, P.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India); Varshney, G. K. [Laser Bio-medical Applications & Instrumentation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology Indore, Madhya Pradesh 452013 (India)

    2016-05-23

    The plasmonic responses of silver nanoparticles extracted from silver halide based electron microscope film are investigated. Photo-reduction process is carried out to convert the silver halide grains into the metallic silver. The centrifuge technique is used for separating the silver nanoparticles from the residual solution. Morphological study performed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) shows that all the nanoparticles have an average diameter of ~120 nm with a high degree of mono dispersion in size. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peak at ~537 nm confirms the presence of large size silver nanoparticles.

  14. Particle swarm optimization of the stable structure of tetrahexahedral Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Tun-Dong; Fan, Tian-E [Center for Cloud Computing and Big Data, Department of Automation, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Shao, Gui-Fang, E-mail: gfshao@xmu.edu.cn [Center for Cloud Computing and Big Data, Department of Automation, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zheng, Ji-Wen [Center for Cloud Computing and Big Data, Department of Automation, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Wen, Yu-Hua [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-08-14

    Bimetallic nanoparticles, enclosed by high-index facets, have great catalytic activity and selectivity owing to the synergy effects of high-index facets and the electronic structures of alloy. In this paper, a discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm was employed to systematically investigate the structural stability and features of tetrahexahedral Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles with high-index facets. Different Pt/Ag, Pt/Cu, Pt/Pd atom ratios and particle sizes were considered in this work. The simulation results reveal that these alloy nanoparticles exhibit considerably different structural characteristics. Pt–Ag nanoparticles tend to form Pt–Ag core–shell structure. Pt–Cu nanoparticles are preferred to take multi-shell structure with Cu on the outer surface while Pt–Pd nanoparticles present a mixing structure in the interior and Pd-dominated surface. Atomic distribution and bonding characteristics were applied to further characterize the structural features of Pt-based nanoparticles. This study provides an important insight into the structural stability and features of Pt-based nanoparticles with different alloys. - Highlights: • We explore the structural stability of Pt-based alloy NPs by a discrete PSO. • Our study discovers the different structural characteristics for Pt-based NPs. • Alloy composition and size have important effects on the surface segregation. • Our work shows strong phase separation for Pt–Ag NPs while weak for Pt–Pd NPs.

  15. Particle swarm optimization of the stable structure of tetrahexahedral Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Tun-Dong; Fan, Tian-E; Shao, Gui-Fang; Zheng, Ji-Wen; Wen, Yu-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles, enclosed by high-index facets, have great catalytic activity and selectivity owing to the synergy effects of high-index facets and the electronic structures of alloy. In this paper, a discrete particle swarm optimization algorithm was employed to systematically investigate the structural stability and features of tetrahexahedral Pt-based bimetallic nanoparticles with high-index facets. Different Pt/Ag, Pt/Cu, Pt/Pd atom ratios and particle sizes were considered in this work. The simulation results reveal that these alloy nanoparticles exhibit considerably different structural characteristics. Pt–Ag nanoparticles tend to form Pt–Ag core–shell structure. Pt–Cu nanoparticles are preferred to take multi-shell structure with Cu on the outer surface while Pt–Pd nanoparticles present a mixing structure in the interior and Pd-dominated surface. Atomic distribution and bonding characteristics were applied to further characterize the structural features of Pt-based nanoparticles. This study provides an important insight into the structural stability and features of Pt-based nanoparticles with different alloys. - Highlights: • We explore the structural stability of Pt-based alloy NPs by a discrete PSO. • Our study discovers the different structural characteristics for Pt-based NPs. • Alloy composition and size have important effects on the surface segregation. • Our work shows strong phase separation for Pt–Ag NPs while weak for Pt–Pd NPs

  16. Preparation of thermo-sensitive slow releasing material and its application in low tar tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available To solve some sensory defects such as fragrance deficiency,strong dry sense,poor satisfaction in the development of ultra-low tar tobacco products,we prepared a new thermo sensitive slow releasing composite material with tobacco aroma.The characterization results showed that the as-prepared thermosensitive particles have better aroma enhancing and slow releasing effects.Also,the aroma components of the tip stick containing thermosensitive particles were detected and its sensory quality was evaluated.The results showed that composite tip stick could enhance the aroma and improve the sensory quality of the cigarettes.

  17. Nanoparticle-based receptors mimic protein-ligand recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Riccardi, Laura; Gabrielli, Luca; Sun, Xiaohuan; Biasi, Federico De; Rastrelli, Federico; Mancin, Fabrizio; De Vivo, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Summary The self-assembly of a monolayer of ligands on the surface of noble-metal nanoparticles dictates the fundamental nanoparticle's behavior and its functionality. In this combined computational-experimental study, we analyze the structure, organization, and dynamics of functionalized coating thiols in monolayer-protected gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). We explain how functionalized coating thiols self-organize through a delicate and somehow counterintuitive balance of interactions within the...

  18. Simulation and characterization of silicon nanopillar-based nanoparticle sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Merzsch, Stephan; Huang, Kai; Stranz, Andrej; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2013-05-01

    Nanopillar-based structures hold promise as highly sensitive resonant mass sensors for a new generation of aerosol nanoparticle (NP) detecting devices because of their very small masses. In this work, the possible use of a silicon nanopillar (SiNPL) array as a nanoparticle sensor is investigated. The sensor structures are created and simulated using a finite element modeling (FEM) tool of COMSOL Multiphysics 4.3 to study the resonant characteristics and the sensitivity of the SiNPL for femtogram NP mass detection. Instead of using 2D plate models or simple single 3D cylindrical pillar models, FEM is performed with SiNPLs in 3D structures based on the real geometry of experimental SiNPL arrays employing a piezoelectric stack for resonant excitation. In order to achieve an optimal structure and investigate the etching effect on the fabricated resonators, SiNPLs with different designs of meshes, sidewall profiles, lengths, and diameters are simulated and analyzed. To validate the FEM results, fabricated SiNPLs with a high aspect ratio of ~60 are employed and characterized in resonant frequency measurements. SiNPLs are mounted onto a piezoactuator inside a scanning electron microscope (SEM) chamber which can excite SiNPLs into lateral vibration. The measured resonant frequencies of the SiNPLs with diameters about 650 nm and heights about 40 μm range from 434.63 kHz to 458.21 kHz, which agree well with those simulated by FEM. Furthermore, the deflection of a SiNPL can be enhanced by increasing the applied piezoactuator voltage. By depositing different NPs (i.e., carbon, TiO2, SiO2, Ag, and Au NPs) on the SiNPLs, the decrease of the resonant frequency is clearly shown confirming their potential to be used as airborne NP mass sensor with femtogram resolution level.

  19. Biphasic Equilibrium Dialysis of Poly(N-Isopropyl Acrylamide Nanogels Synthesized at Decreased Temperatures for Targeted Delivery of Thermosensitive Bioactives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witold Musial

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogel nanoparticles, referred to also as nanogels, are of special interest for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Due to small size in the range below the diameter of the capillaries, they are proposed as drug delivery carriers. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of composition and reaction conditions during synthesis of poly-N-isopropyl acrylamide cross-linked by polyethylene glycol diacrylate on the purification rates of the polymer. Six types of thermosensitive nanogels were prepared by surfactant-free dispersion polymerization and assessed in terms of process yield, composition, and size at temperatures below and over volume phase temperature. During the diffusion of impurities, in the course of dialysis, assessed by the conductometric method, the remarkable influence of temperature and initiator concentration on the process was revealed. The release rates varied in the range between 9.63 · 10−2 and 1.39 · 10−1 h−1 in the first stage of the process, whereas in the second stage they were between 2.09 · 10−2 and 6.28 · 10−2 h−1. The evaluated time to obtain acceptable purity of the preparation was estimated to be in the range of 18 days. More detailed research should be directed towards the influence of the structure of obtained material on the purification process.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of titania-based monodisperse fluorescent europium nanoparticles for biolabeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Mingqian; Wang Guilan; Ye Zhiqiang; Yuan Jingli

    2006-01-01

    Inorganic-organic hybrid titania-based nanoparticles covalently bound to a fluorescent Eu 3+ chelate of 4,4'-bis(1'',1'',1'',2'',2'',3'',3''-heptafluoro-4'',6''-hexanedion-6''-yl) chlorosulfo-o-terphenyl (BHHCT-Eu 3+ ) were synthesized by a sol-gel technique. A conjugate of BHHCT with 3-[2-(2-aminoethylamino) ethylamino]propyl-trimethoxysilane (APTS) was used as a precursor for the nanoparticle preparation and monodisperse nanoparticles consisting of titania network and silica sub-network covalently bound to the Eu 3+ chelate were prepared by the copolymerization of APTS-BHHCT conjugate, titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and free APTS in EuCl 3 water-alcohol solution. The effects of reaction conditions on size and fluorescence lifetime of the nanoparticles were investigated. The characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and fluorometric methods indicate that the nanoparticles are near spherical and strongly fluorescent having a fluorescence quantum yield of 11.6% and a long fluorescence lifetime of ∼0.4 ms. The direct-introduced amino groups on the nanoparticle's surface by using free APTS in nanoparticle preparation facilitated the biolabeling process of the nanoparticles. The nanoparticle-labeled streptavidin (SA) was prepared and used in a sandwich-type time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) of human prostate-specific antigen (PSA) by using a 96-well microtiter plate as the solid phase carrier. The method gives a detection limit of 66 pg/ml for the PSA assay

  1. Dielectrophoresis-magnetophoresis force driven magnetic nanoparticle movement in transformer oil based magnetic fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Chul; Lee, Sangyoup

    2013-09-01

    Magnetic fluid is a stable colloidal mixture contained magnetic nanoparticles coated with a surfactant. Recently, it was found that the fluid has properties to increase heat transfer and dielectric characteristics due to the added magnetic nanoparticles in transformer oils. The magnetic nanoparticles in the fluid experience an electrical force directed toward the place of maximum electric field strength when the electric field is applied. And when the external magnetic field is applied, the magnetic nanoparticles form long chains oriented along the direction of the field. The behaviors of magnetic nanoparticles in both the fields must play an important role in changing the heat transfer and dielectric characteristics of the fluids. In this study, we visualized the movement of magnetic nanoparticles influenced by both the fields applied in-situ. It was found that the magnetic nanoparticles travel in the region near the electrode by the electric field and form long chains along the field direction by the magnetic field. It can be inferred that the movement of magnetic nanoparticles appears by both the fields, and the breakdown voltage of transformer oil based magnetic fluids might be influenced according to the dispersion of magnetic nanoparticles.

  2. Effects of Metallic Nanoparticles on Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in Tin-Based Solders for Microelectronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Arafat, M. M.; Tay, S. L.; Leong, Y. M.

    2017-10-01

    Tin (Sn)-based solders have established themselves as the main alternative to the traditional lead (Pb)-based solders in many applications. However, the reliability of the Sn-based solders continues to be a concern. In order to make Sn-based solders microstructurally more stable and hence more reliable, researchers are showing great interest in investigating the effects of the incorporation of different nanoparticles into them. This paper gives an overview of the influence of metallic nanoparticles on the characteristics of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Sn-based solder joints on copper substrates during reflow and thermal aging. Nanocomposite solders were prepared by mechanically blending nanoparticles of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn) and titanium (Ti) with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-3.5Ag solder pastes. The composite solders were then reflowed and their wetting characteristics and interfacial microstructural evolution were investigated. Through the paste mixing route, Ni, Co, Zn and Mo nanoparticles alter the morphology and thickness of the IMCs in beneficial ways for the performance of solder joints. The thickness of Cu3Sn IMC is decreased with the addition of Ni, Co and Zn nanoparticles. The thickness of total IMC layer is decreased with the addition of Zn and Mo nanoparticles in the solder. The metallic nanoparticles can be divided into two groups. Ni, Co, and Zn nanoparticles undergo reactive dissolution during solder reflow, causing in situ alloying and therefore offering an alternative route of alloy additions to solders. Mo nanoparticles remain intact during reflow and impart their influence as discrete particles. Mechanisms of interactions between different types of metallic nanoparticles and solder are discussed.

  3. Advanced Therapeutic Strategies for Chronic Lung Disease Using Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Yhee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic lung diseases include a variety of obstinate and fatal diseases, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, cystic fibrosis (CF, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, and lung cancers. Pharmacotherapy is important for the treatment of chronic lung diseases, and current progress in nanoparticles offers great potential as an advanced strategy for drug delivery. Based on their biophysical properties, nanoparticles have shown improved pharmacokinetics of therapeutics and controlled drug delivery, gaining great attention. Herein, we will review the nanoparticle-based drug delivery system for the treatment of chronic lung diseases. Various types of nanoparticles will be introduced, and recent innovative efforts to utilize the nanoparticles as novel drug carriers for the effective treatment of chronic lung diseases will also be discussed.

  4. Lecithin-based wet chemical precipitation of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michał, Wojasiński; Ewa, Duszyńska; Tomasz, Ciach

    Hydroxyapatite Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by the wet chemical precipitation method at 60 °C in the presence of biocompatible natural surfactant-lecithin. The composition and morphology of nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite synthesized with lecithin (nHAp-PC) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Size distribution for nanoparticles was measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis in NanoSight system. We discuss in details influence of lecithin concentration in reaction system on nHAp-PC morphology, as well as on size distributions and suspendability of nanoparticles. Product exhibits crystalline structure and chemical composition of hydroxyapatite, with visible traces of lecithin. Difference in surfactant amounts results in changes in particles morphology and their average size.

  5. ZnO nanoparticles based fiber optic gas sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimman, S.; Sivacoumar, R.; Alex, Z. C. [MEMS and Sensor Division, School of Electronics Engineering, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India); Balakrishnan, L., E-mail: bslv85@gmail.com; Meher, S. R. [Materials Physics Division, School of Advanced Sciences, VIT University, Vellore 632 014 (India)

    2016-05-23

    In this work, ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by simple aqueous chemical route method. The synthesized ZnO nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope. The sensitivity of the nanoparticles was studied for different gases like acetone, ammonia and ethanol in terms of variation in spectral light intensity. The XRD and SEM analysis confirms the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure with the grain size of 11.2 nm. The small cladding region of the optical fiber was replaced with the synthesized nanoparticles. The light spectrum was recorded for different gas concentrations. The synthesized nanoparticles showed high sensitivity towards ammonia in low ppm level and acetone in high ppm level.

  6. Heparin-Based Nanoparticles: An Overview of Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Pilar Rodriguez-Torres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This review deals with nanoparticles synthesized using heparin. Such nanoparticles have been widely studied since a long time ago, obtaining satisfactory outcomes. An outstanding aspect of these nanoparticles is that they possess good biocompatible characteristics, and since heparin is produced in the human body within the mast cells, this makes these nanoparticles useful for future applications like imaging, disease and cancer treatment, and antibacterial activity. They can also be used for applications that are not oriented directly to the medical and biological areas such as in the case of analyte detection in aqueous solution, although such studies are very few. These nanoparticles synthesis is mainly through wet chemistry methods, using heparin that could have been modified or not.

  7. Development of New Lipid-Based Paclitaxel Nanoparticles Using Sequential Simplex Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiaowei; Mattingly, Cynthia A.; Tseng, Michael; Cho, Moo; Adams, Val R.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these studies was to develop Cremophor-free lipid-based paclitaxel (PX) nanoparticle formulations prepared from warm microemulsion precursors. To identify and optimize new nanoparticles, experimental design was performed combining Taguchi array and sequential simplex optimization. The combination of Taguchi array and sequential simplex optimization efficiently directed the design of paclitaxel nanoparticles. Two optimized paclitaxel nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained: G78 NPs composed of glyceryl tridodecanoate (GT) and polyoxyethylene 20-stearyl ether (Brij 78), and BTM NPs composed of Miglyol 812, Brij 78 and D-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS). Both nanoparticles successfully entrapped paclitaxel at a final concentration of 150 μg/ml (over 6% drug loading) with particle sizes less than 200 nm and over 85% of entrapment efficiency. These novel paclitaxel nanoparticles were stable at 4°C over three months and in PBS at 37°C over 102 hours as measured by physical stability. Release of paclitaxel was slow and sustained without initial burst release. Cytotoxicity studies in MDA-MB-231 cancer cells showed that both nanoparticles have similar anticancer activities compared to Taxol®. Interestingly, PX BTM nanocapsules could be lyophilized without cryoprotectants. The lyophilized powder comprised only of PX BTM NPs in water could be rapidly rehydrated with complete retention of original physicochemical properties, in-vitro release properties, and cytotoxicity profile. Sequential Simplex Optimization has been utilized to identify promising new lipid-based paclitaxel nanoparticles having useful attributes. PMID:19111929

  8. Strong Antibody Responses Induced by Protein Antigens Conjugated onto the Surface of Lecithin-Based Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloat, Brian R.; Sandoval, Michael A.; Hau, Andrew M.; He, Yongqun; Cui, Zhengrong

    2009-01-01

    An accumulation of research over the years has demonstrated the utility of nanoparticles as antigen carriers with adjuvant activity. Herein we defined the adjuvanticity of a novel lecithin-based nanoparticle engineered from emulsions. The nanoparticles were spheres of around 200 nm. Model protein antigens, bovine serum albumin (BSA) or Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) protein, were covalently conjugated onto the nanoparticles. Mice immunized with the BSA-conjugated nanoparticles developed strong anti-BSA antibody responses comparable to that induced by BSA adjuvanted with incomplete Freund's adjuvant and 6.5-fold stronger than that induced by BSA adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide. Immunization of mice with the PA-conjugated nanoparticles elicited a quick, strong, and durable anti-PA antibody response that afforded protection of the mice against a lethal dose of anthrax lethal toxin challenge. The potent adjuvanticity of the nanoparticles was likely due to their ability to move the antigens into local draining lymph nodes, to enhance the uptake of the antigens by antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and to activate APCs. This novel nanoparticle system has the potential to serve as a universal protein-based vaccine carrier capable of inducing strong immune responses. PMID:19729045

  9. Optical properties of ThO2–based nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, F.J.; Castro, M.A.; Vázquez, M.D.; Debán, L.; Aller, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Thoria nanomaterials show great interest in different fields other than nuclear technology. In this work, optical characteristics of four types of thoria-based nanoparticles were evaluated. The ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrum of the pure (undoped/uncapped) thoria nanoparticles was characterised by an intense peak at 222 nm, while the doped/capped thoria nanoparticles shown maximum absorption peaks at both 195/200 nm and 233 nm. Contrarily to the particle size, the band gap energy of the thoria nanoparticles decreased with the doping/capping process using arsenic (As (III) )/cysteine (Cyst). The room-temperature photoluminescence excitation spectra were featured by two bands located at 268 nm for both pure and As-doped thoria nanoparticles and at 352 nm for all thoria-based nanoparticles studied, recording the photoluminescence emission at 500 nm. The characteristic wavelengths of the photoluminescence emission spectra were at 325 and 385 nm for the pure and As-doped thoria nanoparticles, while only the band at 385/415 nm was noted for the Cyst-capped thoria nanoparticles, with slightly red shift depending on the excitation wavelength.

  10. Optical properties of ThO{sub 2}–based nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, F.J.; Castro, M.A. [Department of Applied Chemistry and Physics, Area of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of León, Campus de Vegazana, s/n, 24071 León (Spain); Vázquez, M.D.; Debán, L. [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Valladolid, C/Paseo de Belén, no. 7, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Aller, A.J., E-mail: aj.aller@unileon.es [Department of Applied Chemistry and Physics, Area of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of León, Campus de Vegazana, s/n, 24071 León (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Thoria nanomaterials show great interest in different fields other than nuclear technology. In this work, optical characteristics of four types of thoria-based nanoparticles were evaluated. The ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) absorption spectrum of the pure (undoped/uncapped) thoria nanoparticles was characterised by an intense peak at 222 nm, while the doped/capped thoria nanoparticles shown maximum absorption peaks at both 195/200 nm and 233 nm. Contrarily to the particle size, the band gap energy of the thoria nanoparticles decreased with the doping/capping process using arsenic (As{sup (III)})/cysteine (Cyst). The room-temperature photoluminescence excitation spectra were featured by two bands located at 268 nm for both pure and As-doped thoria nanoparticles and at 352 nm for all thoria-based nanoparticles studied, recording the photoluminescence emission at 500 nm. The characteristic wavelengths of the photoluminescence emission spectra were at 325 and 385 nm for the pure and As-doped thoria nanoparticles, while only the band at 385/415 nm was noted for the Cyst-capped thoria nanoparticles, with slightly red shift depending on the excitation wavelength.

  11. Glass transition and aging in dense suspensions of thermosensitive microgel particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purnomo, E.H; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Vanapalli Veera, V.S.A.R.; Vanapalli, Srinivas; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2008-01-01

    We report a thermosensitive microgel suspension that can be tuned reversibly between the glass state at low temperature and the liquid state at high temperature. Unlike hard spheres, we find that the glass transition for these suspensions is governed by both the volume fraction and the softness of

  12. Membrane distillation with porous metal hollow fibers for the concentration of thermo-sensitive solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shukla, Sushumna

    2014-01-01

    This thesis presents an original approach for the concentration of thermo-sensitive solutions: the Sweep Gas Membrane Distillation (SGMD) process. A new membrane contactor with metallic hollow fibers has been designed and allows the distillation process to be operational at low temperature. Heat is

  13. Preparation of alpha-elastin nanoparticles by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Mari [Department of Biological Science, Graduate school of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Okamoto, Kouji [Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Furuta, Masakazu [Department of Biological Science, Graduate school of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan)], E-mail: mfuruta@b.s.osakafu-u.ac.jp

    2009-12-15

    Nanoparticles were prepared by utilizing the thermosensitive aggregation of alpha-elastin and gamma ray crosslinking. Three different heating process, 'Slow heating', 'Fast heating', and 'Heat shock', were applied for the aggregation of the alpha-elastin and examined to yield nanoparticles by gamma rays crosslinking. As a result, only 'Slow heating' process yielded nanoparticles with diameters of about ca. 300 nm above cloud point (CP) and about ca. 100 nm below CP, and a narrow size distribution above 1.0 mg/ml concentration (exclude 1.0 mg/ml)

  14. Preparation of alpha-elastin nanoparticles by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Mari; Okamoto, Kouji; Furuta, Masakazu

    2009-01-01

    Nanoparticles were prepared by utilizing the thermosensitive aggregation of alpha-elastin and gamma ray crosslinking. Three different heating process, 'Slow heating', 'Fast heating', and 'Heat shock', were applied for the aggregation of the alpha-elastin and examined to yield nanoparticles by gamma rays crosslinking. As a result, only 'Slow heating' process yielded nanoparticles with diameters of about ca. 300 nm above cloud point (CP) and about ca. 100 nm below CP, and a narrow size distribution above 1.0 mg/ml concentration (exclude 1.0 mg/ml).

  15. Molten salt based nanofluids based on solar salt and alumina nanoparticles: An industrial approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Belén; Nieto-Maestre, Javier; Guerreiro, Luis; Julia, José Enrique; Collares-Pereira, Manuel; García-Romero, Ana

    2017-06-01

    Thermal Energy Storage (TES) and its associated dispatchability is extremely important in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants since it represents the main advantage of CSP technology in relation to other renewable energy sources like photovoltaic (PV). Molten salts are used in CSP plants as a TES material because of their high operational temperature and stability of up to 600°C. Their main problems are their relative poor thermal properties and energy storage density. A simple cost-effective way to improve the thermal properties of molten salts is to dope them with nanoparticles, thus obtaining the so-called salt-based nanofluids. Additionally, the use of molten salt based nanofluids as TES materials and Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) has been attracting great interest in recent years. The addition of tiny amounts of nanoparticles to the base salt can improve its specific heat as shown by different authors1-3. The application of these nano-enhanced materials can lead to important savings on the investment costs in new TES systems for CSP plants. However, there is still a long way to go in order to achieve a commercial product. In this sense, the improvement of the stability of the nanofluids is a key factor. The stability of nanofluids will depend on the nature and size of the nanoparticles, the base salt and the interactions between them. In this work, Solar Salt (SS) commonly used in CSP plants (60% NaNO3 + 40% KNO3 wt.) was doped with alumina nanoparticles (ANPs) at a solid mass concentration of 1% wt. at laboratory scale. The tendency of nanoparticles to agglomeration and sedimentation is tested in the molten state by analyzing their size and concentration through the time. The specific heat of the nanofluid at 396 °C (molten state) is measured at different times (30 min, 1 h, 5 h). Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms of agglomeration. A good understanding of the interactions between the nanoparticle surface and the ionic media would provide

  16. Superhydrophobic durable coating based on UV-photoreactive silica nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahum, T.; Dodiuk, H.; Dotan, A.; Kenig, S. [Department of Plastics Engineering, Shenkar College of Engineering and Design, 12 Anna Frank Street, Ramat Gan 52526 (Israel); Lellouche, J. P. [Department of Chemistry, Nanomaterials Research Center, Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Bar-Ilan University, Ramar-Gan, 52900 (Israel)

    2015-05-22

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with contact angle (CA) >150 and sliding angle (SA) <10 have been aroused curiosity over the years due to their various applications. Superhydrophobicity can be obtained tailoring the chemistry and the roughness of the surface, mimicking the Lotus flower. Most superhydrophobic surfaces based on secondary bonding lose their roughness in harsh conditions and are unsuitable for practical applications. Photoreactive SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (NPs) based on benzophenone (BP) can be a very effective tool for formation of reactive species that function as a molecular bridge by covalent bonding between the NP and any polymer matrix with C-C and C-H bonds. The present work focused on thermoset radiation curing urethane acrylate. Upon UV irradiation reactive excited nπ* triplet benzophenone species are formed and react through hydrogen abstraction to form ketyl radicals which interact with a radicals from the UV irradiated polymer matrix to yield covalent bonding. Roughness was achieved by dipping the substrate in SiO{sub 2}@BPs NPs dispersion followed by irradiation. Fluoroalkylsilane was used to obtain hydrophobic top layer. AFM nano manipulation was used to verify the immobilization of NPs. Evaluation of durability was made using air flow at 300 km/hr. Preliminary results indicate the formation of super hydrophobic surfaces (CA>150 and SA<10) with improved stability.

  17. Virus-inspired design principles of nanoparticle-based bioagents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Yuan

    Full Text Available The highly effectiveness and robustness of receptor-mediated viral invasion of living cells shed lights on the biomimetic design of nanoparticle(NP-based therapeutics. Through thermodynamic analysis, we elucidate that the mechanisms governing both the endocytic time of a single NP and the cellular uptake can be unified into a general energy-balance framework of NP-membrane adhesion and membrane deformation. Yet the NP-membrane adhesion strength is a globally variable quantity that effectively regulates the NP uptake rate. Our analysis shows that the uptake rate interrelatedly depends on the particle size and ligand density, in contrast to the widely reported size effect. Our model predicts that the optimal radius of NPs for maximal uptake rate falls in the range of 25-30 nm, and optimally several tens of ligands should be coated onto NPs. These findings are supported by both recent experiments and typical viral structures, and serve as fundamental principles for the rational design of NP-based nanomedicine.

  18. Superhydrophobic durable coating based on UV-photoreactive silica nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahum, T.; Dodiuk, H.; Dotan, A.; Kenig, S.; Lellouche, J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with contact angle (CA) >150 and sliding angle (SA) <10 have been aroused curiosity over the years due to their various applications. Superhydrophobicity can be obtained tailoring the chemistry and the roughness of the surface, mimicking the Lotus flower. Most superhydrophobic surfaces based on secondary bonding lose their roughness in harsh conditions and are unsuitable for practical applications. Photoreactive SiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on benzophenone (BP) can be a very effective tool for formation of reactive species that function as a molecular bridge by covalent bonding between the NP and any polymer matrix with C-C and C-H bonds. The present work focused on thermoset radiation curing urethane acrylate. Upon UV irradiation reactive excited nπ* triplet benzophenone species are formed and react through hydrogen abstraction to form ketyl radicals which interact with a radicals from the UV irradiated polymer matrix to yield covalent bonding. Roughness was achieved by dipping the substrate in SiO 2 @BPs NPs dispersion followed by irradiation. Fluoroalkylsilane was used to obtain hydrophobic top layer. AFM nano manipulation was used to verify the immobilization of NPs. Evaluation of durability was made using air flow at 300 km/hr. Preliminary results indicate the formation of super hydrophobic surfaces (CA>150 and SA<10) with improved stability

  19. Thermosensitive Nanostructured Media for imaging and Hyperthermia Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martirosyan, Karen

    2011-03-01

    Hyperthermia has been used for many years to treat a wide variety of tumors in patients. The most commonly applied method of hyperthermia is capacitive heating by using microwave. Magnetic fluids based on iron oxide (Fe3O4), stabilized by biocompatible surfactants are typically used as heating agent. However, significant limitations of using commercial available magnetic particles are non-selectivity and overheating of surrounding normal tissues. To improve the efficacy of hyperthermia treatment we intend to develop Curie temperature (Tc)-tuned nanostructured media having T2 relaxation response on MRI for selective and self-controlled hyperthermia cancer treatment. As an active part of this media we fabricated superparamagnetic, biocompatible and dextran coated ferrite nanoparticles Mg1+xTixFe2(1-x)O4 at 0.3 x connected to a hydrocarbon chain, such as glycine, hydrazine, or urea. Our experiments revealed that ferrite with formula Mg1.35Ti0.35Fe1.3O4 appears with Curie temperature within 46-50rC. NSF, grant # 0933140.

  20. Photocatalytic composites based on titania nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Bich Ha; Nguyen, Van Hieu; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present a review on recent experimental works toward the formation of visible light responsive composite photocatalysts on the basis of titania nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterials of different types. The research results achieved in last years has shown that the nanocomposite photocatalysts comprising titania nanoparticles and graphene or graphene oxide sheets, and also nanoparticles of noble metals and metallic oxides, exhibited the evident priority compared to the others. Therefore our review emphasizes the research on these promising visible light responsive nanophotocatalysts. (review)

  1. Nanoparticle/nanotube-based nanoelectronic devices and chemically-directed assembly thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Howard K [Cypress, TX

    2011-02-22

    According to some embodiments, the present invention provides a nanoelectronic device based on a nanostructure that may include a nanotube with first and second ends, a metallic nanoparticle attached to the first end, and an insulating nanoparticle attached to the second end. The nanoelectronic device may include additional nanostructures so a to form a plurality of nanostructures comprising the first nanostructure and the additional nanostructures. The plurality of nanostructures may arranged in a network comprising a plurality of edges and a plurality of vertices, wherein each edge comprises a nanotube and each vertex comprises at least one insulating nanoparticle and at least one metallic nanoparticle adjacent the insulating nanoparticle. The combination of at least one edge and at least one vertex comprises a diode. The device may be an optical rectenna.

  2. Development and Antibacterial Activity of Cashew Gum-Based Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José dos S. Soares

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the development of a green synthesis of silver nanoparticles reduced and stabilized by exuded gum from Anacardium occidentale L. and evaluates in vitro their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Characterization of cashew gum-based silver nanoparticles (AgNPs was carried out based on UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering analysis which revealed that the synthesized silver nanoparticles were spherical in shape, measuring about 4 nm in size with a uniform dispersal. AgNPs presented antibacterial activity, especially against Gram-negative bacteria, in concentrations where no significant cytotoxicity was observed.

  3. Metallic nanoparticle-based strain sensors elaborated by atomic layer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyoo, E.; Malhaire, C.; Thomas, D.; Rafaël, R.; R'Mili, M.; Malchère, A.; Roiban, L.; Koneti, S.; Bugnet, M.; Sabac, A.; Le Berre, M.

    2017-03-01

    Platinum nanoparticle-based strain gauges are elaborated by means of atomic layer deposition on flexible polyimide substrates. Their electro-mechanical response is tested under mechanical bending in both buckling and conformational contact configurations. A maximum gauge factor of 70 is reached at a strain level of 0.5%. Although the exponential dependence of the gauge resistance on strain is attributed to the tunneling effect, it is shown that the majority of the junctions between adjacent Pt nanoparticles are in a short circuit state. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of an all-plastic pressure sensor integrating Pt nanoparticle-based strain gauges in a Wheatstone bridge configuration.

  4. Chitosan-based nanoparticles for improving immunization against hepatitis B infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prego, Cecilia; Paolicelli, Patrizia; Díaz, Belen; Vicente, Sara; Sánchez, Alejandro; González-Fernández, Africa; Alonso, María José

    2010-03-19

    The design of effective vaccine delivery vehicles is opening up new possibilities for making immunization more equitable, safe and efficient. In this work, we purpose polysaccharidic-based nanoparticles as delivery structures for virus-like particle antigens, using recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (rHBsAg) as a model. Polysaccharidic-based nanoparticles were prepared using a very mild ionic gelation technique, by cross-linking the polysaccharide chitosan (CS) with a counter ion. The resulting nanoparticles could be easily isolated with a size in the nanometric range (160-200 nm) and positive surface charge (+6 to +10 mV). More importantly, CS-based nanoparticles allowed the efficient association of the antigen (>60%) while maintaining the antigenic epitope intact, as determined by ELISA and Western blot. The entrapped antigen was further released in vitro from the nanoparticles in a sustained manner without compromising its antigenicity. In addition, loaded CS-based nanoparticles were stable, and protected the associated antigen during storage, either as an aqueous suspension under different temperature conditions (+4 degrees C and -20 degrees C), or as a dried form after freeze-drying the nanoparticles. Finally, immunization studies showed the induction of important seroprotection rates after intramuscular administration of the nanoparticles, indicating their adjuvant capacity. In fact, CS-based nanoparticles were able to induce anti-HBsAg IgG levels up to 5500 mIU/ml, values 9-fold the conventional alum-adsorbed vaccine. In conclusion, we report here a polysaccharidic nanocarrier which exhibits a number of in vitro and in vivo features that make it a promising adjuvant for vaccine delivery of subunit antigens. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Simulations of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticle-based ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing; Chremos, Alexandros; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.

    2012-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations over microsecond time scales to study the structure and dynamics of coarse-grained models for nanoparticle-based ionic liquids. The systems of interest consist of particles with charged surface groups and linear

  6. Biodegradable Oxamide-Phenylene-Based Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles with Unprecedented Drug Payloads for Delivery in Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Croissant, Jonas; Fatieiev, Yevhen; Julfakyan, Khachatur; Lu, Jie; Emwas, Abdelhamid; Anjum, Dalaver; Omar, Haneen; Tamanoi, Fuyuhiko; Zink, Jeffrey; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe biodegradable mesoporous hybrid NPs in the presence of proteins, and its application for drug delivery. We synthesized oxamide-phenylene-based mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MON) in the absence of silica source which had a

  7. Amino-functionalized poloxamer 407 with both mucoadhesive and thermosensitive properties: preparation, characterization and application in a vaginal drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqian Ci

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Lack of mucoadhesive properties is the major drawback to poloxamer 407 (F127-based in situ hydrogels for mucosal administration. The objective of the present study was to construct a novel mucoadhesive and thermosensitive in situ hydrogel drug delivery system based on an amino-functionalized poloxamer for vaginal administration. First, amino-functionalized poloxamer 407 (F127-NH2 was synthesized and characterized with respect to its micellization behavior and interaction with mucin. Then using acetate gossypol (AG as model drug, AG-loaded F127-NH2-based in situ hydrogels (NFGs were evaluated with respect to rheology, drug release, ex vivo vaginal mucosal adhesion, in vivo intravaginal retention and local irritation after vaginal administration to healthy female mice. The results show that F127-NH2 is capable of forming a thermosensitive in situ hydrogel with sustained drug release properties. An interaction between positively charged F127-NH2 and negatively charged mucin was revealed by changes in the particle size and zeta potential of mucin particles as well as an increase in the complex modulus of NFG caused by mucin. Ex vivo and in vivo fluorescence imaging and quantitative analysis of the amount of AG remaining in mouse vaginal lavage all demonstrated greater intravaginal retention of NFG than that of an unmodified F127-based in situ hydrogel. In conclusion, amino group functionalization confers valuable mucoadhesive properties on poloxamer 407.

  8. Pseudo-template synthesis of gold nanoparticles based on polyhydrosilanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacarescu, Liviu; Simionescu, Mihaela; Sacarescu, Gabriela

    2011-01-01

    Highly stable colloidal gold nanoparticles are obtained in a pseudo-template system using a specific polyhydrosilane copolymeric structure. This process takes place in situ by microwaves activation of the polymer solution in a non-polar solvent followed by stirring with solid HAuCl 4 in natural light. The experimental procedure is very simple and the resulted colloidal gold solution is indefinitely stable. The specific surface plasmon resonance absorption band of the gold nanoparticles is strongly red shifted and is strictly related to their size. AFM correlated with DLS analysis showed flattened round shaped colloidal polymer-gold nanoparticles with large diameters. SEM-EDX combined analysis reveals that the polysilane-gold nanoparticles show a natural tendency to auto-assemble in close packed structures which form large areas over the polymer film surface.

  9. Towards a versatile platform based on magnetic nanoparticles for in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted wide attention because of their usefulness as contrast agents for .... selective extracellular distribution before their excretion .... antibodies (~ 20 nm), which cause particles to diffuse poorly.

  10. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidelli, Éder José; Kinoshita, Angela; Ramos, Ana Paula; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2013-01-01

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV–Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane (∼0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.Graphical AbstractThe AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules remain in the NRL matrix and only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules (NRL serum fraction) are released. The released AgNP are sterically

  11. Silver nanoparticles delivery system based on natural rubber latex membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guidelli, Eder Jose, E-mail: ederguidelli@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DF (Brazil); Kinoshita, Angela [Universidade do Sagrado Coracao (Brazil); Ramos, Ana Paula [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DQ (Brazil); Baffa, Oswaldo [Universidade de Sao Paulo/FFCLRP-DF (Brazil)

    2013-04-15

    The search for new materials for biomedical applications is extremely important. Here, we present results on the performance of a silver nanoparticles delivery system using natural rubber latex (NRL) as the polymeric matrix. Our aim was to obtain an optimized wound dressing by combining materials with potential healing action. The synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by UV-Vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, zeta potential, dynamic light scattering, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) are depicted. The NRL membranes are good matrix for silver nanoparticles and allow for their gradual release. The release of 30 nm silver nanoparticles by the NRL membranes depends on their mass percentage in NRL membranes. The total concentration of AgNP released by the NRL membranes was calculated. The AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules in the NRL matrix remain attached to the membrane ({approx}0.1 % w/w). So, only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules are released. FTIR spectra suggest that non-rubber molecules, like aminoacids and proteins, associated with the serum fraction of the NRL may be attached to the surfaces of the released nanoparticles, thereby increasing the release of such molecules. The released silver nanoparticles are sterically stabilized, more stable and well dispersed. Because the serum fraction of the NRL is responsible for the angiogenic properties of the matrix, the silver nanoparticles could increment the angiogenic properties of NRL. This biomaterial has desirable properties for the fabrication of a wound dressing with potential healing action, since it combines the angiogenic and antibacterial properties of the silver nanoparticles with the increased angiogenic properties of the NRL.Graphical AbstractThe AgNP attached to the cis-isoprene molecules remain in the NRL matrix and only the AgNP bound to the non-rubber molecules (NRL serum fraction) are released. The released AgNP are

  12. Durable PROX catalyst based on gold nanoparticles and hydrophobic silica

    KAUST Repository

    Laveille, Paco; Guillois, Kevin; Tuel, Alain; Petit, Corine; Basset, Jean-Marie; Caps, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    3 nm gold nanoparticles (Au NP) obtained by direct chemical reduction of AuPPh3Cl in the presence of methyl-terminated silica exhibit superior durability for low temperature CO oxidation in the presence of hydrogen (PROX). The activity of hydrophobic Au/SiO2-R972 indeed appears much more stable with time-on-stream than those of the OH-terminated, hydrophilic Au/TiO2 and Au/Al2O3 catalysts, with similar Au NP size. This enhanced stability is attributed to the peculiar catalyst surface of Au/SiO2-R972. Not only may the support hydrophobicity concentrate and facilitate reactant adsorption and product desorption over Au NP, but methyl-terminated SiO2-R972 likely also inhibits carbonatation of the Au/support interface. Hence, at a temperature at which H2/H2O “cleaning” of the carbonate-contaminated Au/Al2O3 and Au/TiO2 surface is inefficient (< 100°C), passivated Au/SiO2-R972 displays much more stable PROX activity. Besides, the virtual absence of surface hydroxyl groups, which provide sites for water formation in H2/O2 atmospheres, can also account for the improved PROX selectivity (>85%) observed over Au/SiO2-R972. This new example, of CO oxidation activity of gold nanoparticles dispersed over a hydrophobic, “inert” support, clearly emphasizes the role of hydrogen as a promoter for the gold-catalyzed oxidation of CO at low temperature. Unlike support-mediated oxygen activation, hydrogen-only mediated oxygen activation takes full advantage of the hydrophobic surface, which is much more resistant against CO2 and thus remains free of poisonous carbonate species, as compared with hydroxyl-terminated catalysts. Hence, although the absence of surface hydroxyl groups prevents the hydrophobic Au/SiO2-R972 catalyst to reach the state-of-the-art activities initially displayed by Au/TiO2 and Au/Al2O3, it brings long-term stability with time-on-stream and superior selectivity, which opens up promising perspectives in the development of viable PROX catalysts based on gold.

  13. Durable PROX catalyst based on gold nanoparticles and hydrophobic silica

    KAUST Repository

    Laveille, Paco

    2016-01-20

    3 nm gold nanoparticles (Au NP) obtained by direct chemical reduction of AuPPh3Cl in the presence of methyl-terminated silica exhibit superior durability for low temperature CO oxidation in the presence of hydrogen (PROX). The activity of hydrophobic Au/SiO2-R972 indeed appears much more stable with time-on-stream than those of the OH-terminated, hydrophilic Au/TiO2 and Au/Al2O3 catalysts, with similar Au NP size. This enhanced stability is attributed to the peculiar catalyst surface of Au/SiO2-R972. Not only may the support hydrophobicity concentrate and facilitate reactant adsorption and product desorption over Au NP, but methyl-terminated SiO2-R972 likely also inhibits carbonatation of the Au/support interface. Hence, at a temperature at which H2/H2O “cleaning” of the carbonate-contaminated Au/Al2O3 and Au/TiO2 surface is inefficient (< 100°C), passivated Au/SiO2-R972 displays much more stable PROX activity. Besides, the virtual absence of surface hydroxyl groups, which provide sites for water formation in H2/O2 atmospheres, can also account for the improved PROX selectivity (>85%) observed over Au/SiO2-R972. This new example, of CO oxidation activity of gold nanoparticles dispersed over a hydrophobic, “inert” support, clearly emphasizes the role of hydrogen as a promoter for the gold-catalyzed oxidation of CO at low temperature. Unlike support-mediated oxygen activation, hydrogen-only mediated oxygen activation takes full advantage of the hydrophobic surface, which is much more resistant against CO2 and thus remains free of poisonous carbonate species, as compared with hydroxyl-terminated catalysts. Hence, although the absence of surface hydroxyl groups prevents the hydrophobic Au/SiO2-R972 catalyst to reach the state-of-the-art activities initially displayed by Au/TiO2 and Au/Al2O3, it brings long-term stability with time-on-stream and superior selectivity, which opens up promising perspectives in the development of viable PROX catalysts based on gold.

  14. Integration of capillary electrophoresis with gold nanoparticle-based colorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wu, Zhenglong; Qin, Weidong

    2017-12-01

    A method integrating capillary electrophoresis (CE) and gold nanoparticle aggregation-based colorimetry (AuNP-ABC) was described. By using a dual-sheath interface, the running buffer was isolated from the colorimetric reaction solution so that CE and AuNP-ABC would not interfere with each other. The proof-of-concept was validated by assay of polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers that were fortified in human urine samples. The factors influencing the CE-AuNP-ABC performances were investigated and optimized. Under the optimal conditions, the dendrimers were separated within 8 min, with detection limits of 0.5, 1.2 and 2.6 μg mL -1 for PAMAM G1.0, G2.0 and G3.0, respectively. The sensitivity of CE-AuNP-ABC was comparable to or even better than those of liquid chromatography-fluorimetry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results suggested that the proposed strategy can be applied to facile and quick determination of analytes of similar properties in complex matrices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Drug loading to lipid-based cationic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavalcanti, Leide P.; Konovalov, Oleg; Torriani, Iris L.; Haas, Heinrich

    2005-01-01

    Lipid-based cationic nanoparticles are a new promising option for tumor therapy, because they display enhanced binding and uptake at the neo-angiogenic endothelial cells, which a tumor needs for its nutrition and growth. By loading suitable cytotoxic compounds to the cationic carrier, the tumor endothelial and consequently also the tumor itself can be destroyed. For the development of such novel anti-tumor agents, the control of drug loading and drug release from the carrier matrix is essential. We have studied the incorporation of the hydrophobic anti-cancer agent Paclitaxel (PXL) into a variety of lipid matrices by X-Ray reflectivity measurements. Liposome suspensions from cationic and zwitterionic lipids, comprising different molar fractions of Paclitaxel, were deposited on planar glass substrates. After drying at controlled humidity, well ordered, oriented multilayer stacks were obtained, as proven by the presence of bilayer Bragg peaks to several orders in the reflectivity curves. The presence of the drug induced a decrease of the lipid bilayer spacing, and with an excess of drug, also Bragg peaks of drug crystals could be observed. From the results, insight into the solubility of Paclitaxel in the model membranes was obtained and a structural model of the organization of the drug in the membrane was derived. Results from subsequent pressure/area-isotherm and grazing incidence diffraction (GID) measurements performed with drug/lipid Langmuir monolayers were in accordance with these conjectures

  16. Milling of Nanoparticles Reinforced Al-Based Metal Matrix Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alokesh Pramanik

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the face milling of nanoparticles reinforced Al-based metal matrix composites (nano-MMCs using a single insert milling tool. The effects of feed and speed on machined surfaces in terms of surface roughness, surface profile, surface appearance, chip surface, chip ratio, machining forces, and force signals were analyzed. It was found that surface roughness of machined surfaces increased with the increase of feed up to the speed of 60 mm/min. However, at the higher speed (100–140 mm/min, the variation of surface roughness was minor with the increase of feed. The machined surfaces contained the marks of cutting tools, lobes of material flow in layers, pits and craters. The chip ratio increased with the increase of feed at all speeds. The top chip surfaces were full of wrinkles in all cases, though the bottom surfaces carried the evidence of friction, adhesion, and deformed material layers. The effect of feed on machining forces was evident at all speeds. The machining speed was found not to affect machining forces noticeably at a lower feed, but those decreased with the increase of speed for the high feed scenario.

  17. Gold nanoparticles-based colorimetric and visual creatinine assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yi; Zhang, Xianhui; Yu, Haili

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a selective and sensitive method for determination of creatinine using citrate-stabilized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a colorimetric probe. It is based on a direct cross-linking reaction that occurs between creatinine and AuNPs that causes aggregation of AuNPs and results in a color change from wine red to blue. The absorption peak is shifted from 520 to 670 nm. Under the optimized conditions, the shift in the absorption peak is related the logarithm of the creatinine concentration in the 0.1 to 20 mM range, and the instrumental detection limit (LOD) is 80 μM. This LOD is about one order of magnitude better than that that of the Jaffé method (720 μM). The assay displays good selectivity over interfering substances including various inorganic ions, organic small compounds, proteins, and biothiols. It was successfully employed to the determination of creatinine in spiked human urine. (author)

  18. Immunomagnetic nanoparticle based quantitative PCR for rapid detection of Salmonella

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakthavathsalam, Padmavathy; Rajendran, Vinoth Kumar; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro; Ali, Baquir Mohammed Jaffar

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a rapid and sensitive method for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) of Salmonella along with their real time detection via PCR. Silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles were functionalized with carboxy groups to which anti-Salmonella antibody raised against heat-inactivated whole cells of Salmonella were covalently attached. The immuno-captured target cells were detected in beverages like milk and lemon juice by multiplex PCR and real time PCR with a detection limit of 10 4 cfu.mL −1 and 10 3 cfu.mL −1 , respectively. We demonstrate that IMS can be used for selective concentration of target bacteria from beverages for subsequent use in PCR detection. PCR also enables differentiation of Salmonella typhi and Salmonella paratyphi A using a set of four specific primers. In addition, IMS—PCR can be used as a screening tool in the food and beverage industry for the detection of Salmonella within 3–4 h which compares favorably to the time of several days that is needed in case of conventional detection based on culture and biochemical methods. (author)

  19. Fabrication and characterization of size-controlled starch-based nanoparticles as hydrophobic drug carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fei; Gao, Chunmei; Liu, Mingzhu

    2013-10-01

    Acetylated corn starch was successfully synthesized and optimized by the reaction of native corn starch with acetic anhydride and acetic acid in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. The optimal degree of substitution of 2.85 was obtained. Starch-based nanoparticles were fabricated by a simple and novel nanoprecipitation procedure, by the dropwise addition of water to acetone solution of acetylated starch under stirring. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry showed that acetylated starch had some new bands at 1750, 1375 and 1240 cm(-1) while acetylated starch nanoparticles presented the identical peaks as the drug-loaded acetylated starch nanoparticles and the acetylated starch. Wide angle X-ray diffraction indicated that A-type pattern of native starch was completely transformed into the V-type pattern of Acetylated starch and starch-based nanoparticles show the similar type pattern with the acetylated starch. The scanning electron microscopy showed that the different sizes of pores formed on the acetylated starch granules were utterly converted into the uniform-sized spherical nanoparticles after the nanoprecipitation. The encapsulation efficiency and diameter of nanoparticle can be adjusted by the degree of substitution, the volume ratio of nonsolvent to solvent and the weight ratio of acetylated starch to drug. It was also depicted that the release behaviors of drug-loaded nanoparticles depend on the size of nanoparticles and the degree of substitution of the acetylated starch. Release studies prove that the starch-based nanoparticles with uniform size can be used for the encapsulation of hydrophobic drug and attained the sustained and controllable drug release carriers.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of arsenic-doped cysteine-capped thoria-based nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, F. J.; Díez, M. T.; Aller, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Thoria materials have been largely used in the nuclear industry. Nonetheless, fluorescent thoria-based nanoparticles provide additional properties to be applied in other fields. Thoria-based nanoparticles, with and without arsenic and cysteine, were prepared in 1,2-ethanediol aqueous solutions by a simple precipitation procedure. The synthesized thoria-based nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (ED-XRS), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The presence of arsenic and cysteine, as well as the use of a thermal treatment facilitated fluorescence emission of the thoria-based nanoparticles. Arsenic-doped and cysteine-capped thoria-based nanoparticles prepared in 2.5 M 1,2-ethanediol solutions and treated at 348 K showed small crystallite sizes and strong fluorescence. However, thoria nanoparticles subjected to a thermal treatment at 873 K also produced strong fluorescence with a very narrow size distribution and much smaller crystallite sizes, 5 nm being the average size as shown by XRD and TEM. The XRD data indicated that, even after doping of arsenic in the crystal lattice of ThO 2 , the samples treated at 873 K were phase pure with the fluorite cubic structure. The Raman and FT-IR spectra shown the most characteristics vibrational peaks of cysteine together with other peaks related to the bonds of this molecule to thoria and arsenic when present

  1. Cyclodextrin-grafted barium titanate nanoparticles for improved dispersion and stabilization in water-based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra-Gómez, R. [Universidad de Navarra, Departamento de Química y Edafología (Spain); Martinez-Tarifa, J. M. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Ingeniería Eléctrica (Spain); González-Benito, J. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Departamento de Ciencia e Ingeniería de Materiales e Ingeniería Química, IQMAAB (Spain); González-Gaitano, G., E-mail: gaitano@unav.es [Universidad de Navarra, Departamento de Química y Edafología (Spain)

    2016-01-15

    Ceramic nanoparticles with piezoelectric properties, such as BaTiO{sub 3} (BT), constitute a promising approach in the fields of nanocomposite materials and biomaterials. In the latter case, to be successful in their preparation, the drawback of their fast aggregation and practically null stability in water has to be overcome. The objective of this investigation has been the surface functionalization of BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles with cyclodextrins (CDs) as a way to break the aggregation and improve the stability of the nanoparticles in water solution, preventing and minimizing their fast precipitation. As a secondary goal, we have achieved extra-functionality of the nanoparticles, bestowed from the hydrophobic cavity of the macrocycle, which is able to lodge guest molecules that can form inclusion complexes with the oligosaccharide. The nanoparticle functionalization has been fully tracked and characterized, and the cytotoxicity of the modified nanoparticles with fibroblasts and pre-osteoblasts cell lines has been assessed with excellent results in a wide range of concentrations. The modified nanoparticles were found to be suitable for the easy preparation of nanocomposite hydrogels, via dispersion in hydrophilic polymers of typical use in biomedical applications (PEG, Pluronics, and PEO), and further processed in the form of films via water casting, showing very good results in terms of homogeneity in the dispersion of the filler. Likewise, as examples of application and with the aim of exploring a different range of nanocomposites, rhodamine B was included in the macrocycles as a model molecule, and films prepared from a thermoplastic matrix (EVA) via high-energy ball milling have been tested by impedance spectroscopy to discuss their dielectric properties, which indicated that even small modifications in the surface of the nanoparticles generate a different kind of interaction with the polymeric matrix. The CD-modified nanoparticles are thus suitable for easy

  2. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al2O3 and Fe3O4, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  3. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al 2 O 3 and Fe 3 O 4 , on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  4. Facile preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces based on metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Xue-Mei; Cui, Jin-Feng; Sun, Han-Xue; Liang, Wei-Dong; Zhu, Zhao-Qi; An, Jin; Yang, Bao-Ping; La, Pei-Qing; Li, An, E-mail: lian2010@lut.cn

    2014-06-01

    A novel method for fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces was developed by facile coating various metal oxide nanoparticles, including ZnO, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, on various substrates followed by treatment with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using ZnO nanoparticles as a model, the changes in the surface chemical composition and crystalline structures of the metal oxide nanoparticles by PDMS treatment were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis. The results show that the combination of the improved surface roughness generated from of the nanoparticles aggregation with the low surface-energy of silicon-coating originated from the thermal pyrolysis of PDMS would be responsible for the surface superhydrophobicity. By a simple dip-coating method, we show that the metal oxide nanoparticles can be easily coated onto the surfaces of various textural and dimensional substrates, including glass slide, paper, fabric or sponge, for preparation of superhydrophobic surfaces for different purpose. The present strategy may provide an inexpensive and new route to surperhydrophobic surfaces, which would be of technological significance for various practical applications especially for separation of oils or organic contaminates from water.

  5. Innovative molecular-based fluorescent nanoparticles for multicolor single particle tracking in cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, Jonathan; Blanchard-Desce, Mireille; Godin, Antoine G; Palayret, Matthieu; Lounis, Brahim; Cognet, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Based on an original molecular-based design, we present bright and photostable fluorescent organic nanoparticles (FONs) showing excellent colloidal stability in various aqueous environments. Complementary near-infrared emitting and green emitting FONs were prepared using a simple, fast and robust protocol. Both types of FONs could be simultaneously imaged at the single-particle level in solution as well as in biological environments using a monochromatic excitation and a dual-color fluorescence microscope. No evidence of acute cytotoxicity was found upon incubation of live cells with mixed solutions of FONs, and both types of nanoparticles were found internalized in the cells where their motion could be simultaneously tracked at video-rate up to minutes. These fluorescent organic nanoparticles open a novel non-toxic alternative to existing nanoparticles for imaging biological structures, compatible with live-cell experiments and specially fitted for multicolor single particle tracking. (paper)

  6. Quantitative Evaluation of the Total Magnetic Moments of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Kinetics-based Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiyi; Sun, Jianfei; Wang, Haoyao; Wang, Peng; Song, Lina; Li, Yang; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2015-06-08

    A kinetics-based method is proposed to quantitatively characterize the collective magnetization of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles. The method is based on the relationship between the magnetic force on a colloidal droplet and the movement of the droplet under a gradient magnetic field. Through computational analysis of the kinetic parameters, such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration, the magnetization of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles can be calculated. In our experiments, the values measured by using our method exhibited a better linear correlation with magnetothermal heating, than those obtained by using a vibrating sample magnetometer and magnetic balance. This finding indicates that this method may be more suitable to evaluate the collective magnetism of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles under low magnetic fields than the commonly used methods. Accurate evaluation of the magnetic properties of colloidal nanoparticles is of great importance for the standardization of magnetic nanomaterials and for their practical application in biomedicine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Magneto-reactance based detection of MnO nanoparticle-embedded Lewis lung carcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, J.; Howell, M.; Mukherjee, P.; Srikanth, H.; Mohapatra, S.; Phan, M. H.

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate the capacity of detecting magnetically weak manganese oxide (MnO) nanoparticles and the Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cancer cells that have taken up these nanoparticles using a novel biosensor based on the magneto-reactance (MX) effect of a soft ferromagnetic amorphous ribbon with a microhole-patterned surface. While the magnetic moment of the MnO nanoparticles is relatively small, and a magneto-impedance based sensor fails to detect them in solution (0.05 mg/ml manganese oxide lipid micellar nanoparticles) and inside cells at low concentrations (8.25 × 104 cells/ml), the detection of these nanoparticles and the LLC cells containing them is achieved with the MX-based sensor, which, respectively, reaches the detection sensitivity of ˜3.6% and 2.8% as compared to the blank cells. Since the MnO nanoparticles are a promising contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of lung cells, the MX-based biosensing technique can be developed as a pre-detection method for MRI of lung cancer cells.

  8. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulation of coupling between nanoparticles and base-fluid in a nanofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hongbo; Zhang, Yuwen; Yang, Mo; Li, Ling

    2012-01-01

    The intent of this study is to examine nonequilibrium heat transfer in a copper–argon nanofluid by molecular dynamics simulation. Two different methods, the physical definition method and the curve fitting method, are introduced to calculate the coupling factor between nanoparticles and base fluid. The results show that the coupling factors obtained by these two methods are consistent. The coupling factor is proportional to the volume fraction of the nanoparticle and inversely proportional to nanoparticle diameter. In the temperature range of 90–200 K, the coupling factor is not affected by temperature. The nanoparticle aggregation results in a decrease of the coupling factor. -- Highlights: ► Nonequilibrium heat transfer in a copper–argon nanofluid is investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. ► The coupling factor is proportion to the volume fraction of the nanoparticle and inverse proportion to nanoparticle diameter. ► In the temperature range of 90–200 K, there is no temperature effect on the coupling factor. ► The nanoparticle aggregation results in a decrease of the coupling factor.

  9. Biomolecule Analogues 2-Hydroxypyridine and 2-Pyridone Base Pairing on Ice Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubovič, Peter; Pysanenko, Andriy; Lengyel, Jozef; Nachtigallová, Dana; Fárník, Michal

    2016-07-14

    Ice nanoparticles (H2O)N, N ≈ 450 generated in a molecular beam experiment pick up individual gas phase molecules of 2-hydroxypyridine and 2-pyridone (HP) evaporated in a pickup cell at temperatures between 298 and 343 K. The mass spectra of the doped nanoparticles show evidence for generation of clusters of adsorbed molecules (HP)n up to n = 8. The clusters are ionized either by 70 eV electrons or by two photons at 315 nm (3.94 eV). The two ionization methods yield different spectra, and their comparison provides an insight into the neutral cluster composition, ionization and intracluster ion-molecule reactions, and cluster fragmentation. Quite a few molecules were reported not to coagulate on ice nanoparticles previously. The (HP)n cluster generation on ice nanoparticles represents the first evidence for coagulating of molecules and cluster formation on free ice nanoparticles. For comparison, we investigate the coagulation of HP molecules picked up on large clusters ArN, N ≈ 205, and also (HP)n clusters generated in supersonic expansions with Ar buffer gas. This comparison points to a propensity for the (HP)2 dimer generation on ice nanoparticles. This shows the feasibility of base pairing for model of biological molecules on free ice nanoparticles. This result is important for hypotheses of the biomolecule synthesis on ice grains in the space. We support our findings by theoretical calculations that show, among others, the HP dimer structures on water clusters.

  10. Cyclodextrin-insulin complex encapsulated polymethacrylic acid based nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajeesh, S; Sharma, Chandra P

    2006-11-15

    Present investigation was aimed at developing an oral insulin delivery system based on hydroxypropyl beta cyclodextrin-insulin (HPbetaCD-I) complex encapsulated polymethacrylic acid-chitosan-polyether (polyethylene glycol-polypropylene glycol copolymer) (PMCP) nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were prepared by the free radical polymerization of methacrylic acid in presence of chitosan and polyether in a solvent/surfactant free medium. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) experiment was conducted with particles dispersed in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4) and size distribution curve was observed in the range of 500-800 nm. HPbetaCD was used to prepare non-covalent inclusion complex with insulin and complex was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. HPbetaCD complexed insulin was encapsulated into PMCP nanoparticles by diffusion filling method and their in vitro release profile was evaluated at acidic/alkaline pH. PMCP nanoparticles displayed good insulin encapsulation efficiency and release profile was largely dependent on the pH of the medium. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) study demonstrated that insulin encapsulated inside the particles was biologically active. Trypsin inhibitory effect of PMCP nanoparticles was evaluated using N-alpha-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE) and casein as substrates. Mucoadhesive studies of PMCP nanoparticles were conducted using freshly excised rat intestinal mucosa and the particles were found fairly adhesive. From the preliminary studies, cyclodextrin complexed insulin encapsulated mucoadhesive nanoparticles appear to be a good candidate for oral insulin delivery.

  11. Thermosensitive polymers as promising new materials for nuclear medicine

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubý, Martin; Kučka, J.; Kozempel, J.; Lebeda, Ondřej; Ulbrich, Karel

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 11 (2004), s. 1014 ISSN 0009-2770. [Conference on Advances in Organic, Bioorganic and Pharmaceutical Chemistry/39./. 26.11.2004-28.11.2004, Liblice] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB4048302; GA AV ČR KJB4050408 Keywords : PEG * silver * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CH - Nuclear ; Quantum Chemistry

  12. Electrochemical DNA biosensors based on platinum nanoparticles combined carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ningning; Chang Zhu; He Pingang; Fang Yuzhi

    2005-01-01

    Platinum nanoparticles were used in combination with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) for fabricating sensitivity-enhanced electrochemical DNA biosensor. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes and platinum nanoparticles were dispersed in Nafion, which were used to fabricate the modification of the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface. Oligonucleotides with amino groups at the 5' end were covalently linked onto carboxylic groups of MWCNTs on the electrode. The hybridization events were monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) measurement of the intercalated daunomycin. Due to the ability of carbon nanotubes to promote electron-transfer reactions, the high catalytic activities of platinum nanoparticles for chemical reactions, the sensitivity of presented electrochemical DNA biosensors was remarkably improved. The detection limit of the method for target DNA was 1.0 x 10 -11 mol l -1

  13. Synthesis, characterization and functionalization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials for photovoltaic and biological applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zejing

    Silicon nanoparticles are attractive candidates for biological, photovoltaic and energy storage applications due to their size dependent optoelectronic properties. These include tunable light emission, high brightness, and stability against photo-bleaching relative to organic dyes (see Chapter 1). The preparation and characterization of silicon nanoparticle based hybrid nanomaterials and their relevance to photovoltaic and biological applications are described. The surface-passivated silicon nanoparticles were produced in one step from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with various organic ligands. The surface structure and optical properties of the passivated silicon nanoparticles were systematically characterized. Fast approaches for purifying and at the same time size separating the silicon nanoparticles using a gravity GPC column were developed. The hydrodynamic diameter and size distribution of these size-separated silicon nanoparticles were determined using GPC and Diffusion Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) as fast, reliable alternative approaches to TEM. Water soluble silicon nanoparticles were synthesized by grafting PEG polymers onto functionalized silicon nanoparticles with distal alkyne or azide moieties. The surface-functionalized silicon nanoparticles were produced from the reactive high-energy ball milling (RHEBM) of silicon wafers with a mixture of either 5-chloro-1-pentyne in 1-pentyne or 1,7 octadiyne in 1-hexyne to afford air and water stable chloroalkyl or alkynyl terminated nanoparticles, respectively. Nanoparticles with the ω-chloroalkyl substituents were easily converted to ω-azidoalkyl groups through the reaction of the silicon nanoparticles with sodium azide in DMF. The azido terminated nanoparticles were then grafted with monoalkynyl-PEG polymers using a copper catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction to afford core-shell silicon nanoparticles with a covalently attached PEG shell. Covalently

  14. Highly luminescent material based on Alq3:Ag nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Numan; Habib, Sami S; Khan, Zishan H

    2013-09-01

    Tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) is an organic semiconductor molecule, widely used as an electron transport layer, light emitting layer in organic light-emitting diodes and a host for fluorescent and phosphorescent dyes. In this work thin films of pure and silver (Ag), cupper (Cu), terbium (Tb) doped Alq3 nanoparticles were synthesized using the physical vapor condensation method. They were fabricated on glass substrates and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscope (AFM), UV-visible absorption spectra and studied for their photoluminescence (PL) properties. SEM and AFM results show spherical nanoparticles with size around 70-80 nm. These nanoparticles have almost equal sizes and a homogeneous size distribution. The maximum absorption of Alq3 nanoparticles is observed at 300 nm, while the surface plasmon resonant band of Ag doped sample appears at 450 nm. The PL emission spectra of Tb, Cu and Ag doped Alq3 nanoparticles show a single broad band at around 515 nm, which is similar to that of the pure one, but with enhanced PL intensity. The sample doped with Ag at a concentration ratio of Alq3:Ag = 1:0.8 is found to have the highest PL intensity, which is around 2 times stronger than that of the pure one. This enhancement could be attributed to the surface plasmon resonance of Ag ions that might have increased the absorption and then the quantum yield. These remarkable result suggest that Alq3 nanoparticles incorporated with Ag ions might be quite useful for future nano-optoelectronic devices.

  15. Biosensing Based on Nanoparticles for Food Allergens Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Nazaret Gómez-Arribas

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is one of the major health threats for sensitized individuals all over the world and, over the years, the food industry has made significant efforts and investments to offer safe foods for allergic consumers. The analysis of the concentration of food allergen residues in processing equipment, in raw materials or in the final product, provides analytical information that can be used for risk assessment as well as to ensure that food-allergic consumers get accurate and useful information to make their food choices and purchasing decisions. The development of biosensors based on nanomaterials for applications in food analysis is a challenging area of growing interest in the last years. Research in this field requires the combined efforts of experts in very different areas including food chemistry, biotechnology or materials science. However, the outcome of such collaboration can be of significant impact on the food industry as well as for consumer’s safety. These nanobiosensing devices allow the rapid, selective, sensitive, cost-effective and, in some cases, in-field, online and real-time detection of a wide range of compounds, even in complex matrices. Moreover, they can also enable the design of novel allergen detection strategies. Herein we review the main advances in the use of nanoparticles for the development of biosensors and bioassays for allergen detection, in food samples, over the past few years. Research in this area is still in its infancy in comparison, for instance, to the application of nanobiosensors for clinical analysis. However, it will be of interest for the development of new technologies that reduce the gap between laboratory research and industrial applications.

  16. Supercapacitor electrodes based on polyaniline-silicon nanoparticle composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Qiang; Yau, Siu-Tung [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cleveland State University, 2121 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44115 (United States); Nayfeh, Munir H. [Department of Physics, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2010-06-15

    A composite material formed by dispersing ultrasmall silicon nanoparticles in polyaniline has been used as the electrode material for supercapacitors. Electrochemical characterization of the composite indicates that the nanoparticles give rise to double-layer capacitance while polyaniline produces pseudocapacitance. The composite shows significantly improved capacitance compared to that of polyaniline. The enhanced capacitance results in high power (220 kW kg{sup -1}) and energy-storage (30 Wh kg{sup -1}) capabilities of the composite material. A prototype supercapacitor using the composite as the charge storage material has been constructed. The capacitor showed the enhanced capacitance and good device stability during 1000 charging/discharging cycles. (author)

  17. Heterocyclic aramid nanoparticle-assisted graphene exfoliation for fabrication of pristine graphene-based composite paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mo, Yao; Liu, Qi; Fan, Jinchen, E-mail: Jinchen.fan@shiep.edu.cn; Shi, Penghui; Min, Yulin, E-mail: ahaqmylin@126.com; Xu, Qunjie [Shanghai University of Electric Power, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Materials Protection and Advanced Materials in Electric Power, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering (China)

    2015-07-15

    Mechanically strong, electrically conductive, and flexible pristine graphene-based composite paper was prepared based on heterocyclic aramid nanoparticle-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. The macroscopic heterocyclic aramid yarns were split and assembled into heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles with the size of ∼30 nm by deprotonation in dimethylsulfoxide in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The obtained heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles dimethylsulfoxide dispersion was used as good medium solvent for highly efficiency liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. The results demonstrated that the concentration of exfoliated graphene can facile reaches ∼2.72 mg/mL after direct sonication of 7 h with assist of heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles. After exfoliation, the self-assembled pristine graphene-based composite paper was fabricated by vacuum-assisted filtration. Due to the introduction of heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles, the self-assembled pristine graphene/heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles composite paper exhibited good mechanical property with tensile strength of ∼129.7 MPa, meantime, has a high electrical conductivity of ∼1.42 × 10{sup 4} S/m.

  18. Structure of nanoparticles in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids, anisotropy of acoustic attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef; Bury, Peter; Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The anisotropy of acoustic attenuation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the external magnetic field was studied to discover the structure of nanoparticles. When a magnetic field is increased, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles leads to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and following clusters formation. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids and the concentration of nanoparticles also have very important influence on the structural changes. The measurement of the dependence of the acoustic attenuation on the angle between the magnetic field direction and acoustic wave vector (anisotropy) can give the useful information about the structure of magnetic nanoparticles formations. In the present, the results of anisotropy measurements of the transformer oil-based magnetic fluids are described and using appropriate theory the basic parameters of clusters are calculated. On the basis of the performed calculations, the proportion of the acoustic wave energy used for excitation of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom was also established. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles formation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids was investigated. • The anisotropy acoustic spectroscopy as the method of investigation was used. • The external conditions on the structure of magnetic fluids were studied. • The structure parameters using suitable theoretical model were determined

  19. Heterocyclic aramid nanoparticle-assisted graphene exfoliation for fabrication of pristine graphene-based composite paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo, Yao; Liu, Qi; Fan, Jinchen; Shi, Penghui; Min, Yulin; Xu, Qunjie

    2015-01-01

    Mechanically strong, electrically conductive, and flexible pristine graphene-based composite paper was prepared based on heterocyclic aramid nanoparticle-assisted liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. The macroscopic heterocyclic aramid yarns were split and assembled into heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles with the size of ∼30 nm by deprotonation in dimethylsulfoxide in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The obtained heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles dimethylsulfoxide dispersion was used as good medium solvent for highly efficiency liquid-phase exfoliation of graphite. The results demonstrated that the concentration of exfoliated graphene can facile reaches ∼2.72 mg/mL after direct sonication of 7 h with assist of heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles. After exfoliation, the self-assembled pristine graphene-based composite paper was fabricated by vacuum-assisted filtration. Due to the introduction of heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles, the self-assembled pristine graphene/heterocyclic aramid nanoparticles composite paper exhibited good mechanical property with tensile strength of ∼129.7 MPa, meantime, has a high electrical conductivity of ∼1.42 × 10 4  S/m.

  20. Structure of nanoparticles in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids, anisotropy of acoustic attenuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kúdelčík, Jozef, E-mail: kudelcik@fyzika.uniza.sk [Department of Physics, University of Žilina, Univerzitná 1, 010 01 Žilina (Slovakia); Bury, Peter [Department of Physics, University of Žilina, Univerzitná 1, 010 01 Žilina (Slovakia); Kopčanský, Peter; Timko, Milan [Department of Magnetism, IEP SAS, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)

    2015-08-15

    The anisotropy of acoustic attenuation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids upon the external magnetic field was studied to discover the structure of nanoparticles. When a magnetic field is increased, the interaction between the external magnetic field and the magnetic moments of the nanoparticles leads to the aggregation of magnetic nanoparticles and following clusters formation. However, the temperature of magnetic fluids and the concentration of nanoparticles also have very important influence on the structural changes. The measurement of the dependence of the acoustic attenuation on the angle between the magnetic field direction and acoustic wave vector (anisotropy) can give the useful information about the structure of magnetic nanoparticles formations. In the present, the results of anisotropy measurements of the transformer oil-based magnetic fluids are described and using appropriate theory the basic parameters of clusters are calculated. On the basis of the performed calculations, the proportion of the acoustic wave energy used for excitation of the translational and rotational degrees of freedom was also established. - Highlights: • Nanoparticles formation in transformer oil-based magnetic fluids was investigated. • The anisotropy acoustic spectroscopy as the method of investigation was used. • The external conditions on the structure of magnetic fluids were studied. • The structure parameters using suitable theoretical model were determined.

  1. Nanoparticle-based photodynamic therapy on non-melanoma skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J. L.

    2018-02-01

    There are several advantages of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for nonmelanoma skin cancer treatment compared to conventional treatment techniques such as surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy. Among these advantages its noninvasive nature, the use of non ionizing radiation and its high selectivity can be mentioned. Despite all these advantages, the therapeutic efficiency of the current clinical protocol is not complete in all the patients and depends on the type of pathology. An adequate dosimetry is needed in order to personalize the protocol. There are strategies that try to overcome the current PDT shortcomings, such as the improvement of the photosensitizer accumulation in the target tissue, optical radiation distribution optimization or photochemical reactions maximization. These strategies can be further complemented by the use of nanostructures with conventional PDT. Customized dosimetry for nanoparticle-based PDT requires models in order to adjust parameters of different nature to get an optimal tumor removal. In this work, a predictive model of nanoparticle-based PDT is proposed and analyzed. Dosimetry in nanoparticle-based PDT is going to be influenced by photosensitizer-nanoparticle distribution in the malignant tissue, its influence in the optical radiation distribution and the subsequent photochemical reactions. Nanoparticles are considered as photosensitizer carriers on several types of non-melanoma skin cancer. Shielding effects are taken into account. The results allow to compare the estimated treatment outcome with and without nanoparticles.

  2. Silver distribution and release from an antimicrobial denture base resin containing silver colloidal nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Gorup, Luiz Fernando; Takamiya, Aline Satie; de Camargo, Emerson Rodrigues; Filho, Adhemar Colla Ruvolo; Barbosa, Debora Barros

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a denture base resin containing silver colloidal nanoparticles through morphological analysis to check the distribution and dispersion of these particles in the polymer and by testing the silver release in deionized water at different time periods. A Lucitone 550 denture resin was used, and silver nanoparticles were synthesized by reduction of silver nitrate with sodium citrate. The acrylic resin was prepared in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions, and silver nanoparticle suspension was added to the acrylic resin monomer in different concentrations (0.05, 0.5, and 5 vol% silver colloidal). Controls devoid of silver nanoparticles were included. The specimens were stored in deionized water at 37°C for 7, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days, and each solution was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Silver was not detected in deionized water regardless of the silver nanoparticles added to the resin and of the storage period. Micrographs showed that with lower concentrations, the distribution of silver nanoparticles was reduced, whereas their dispersion was improved in the polymer. Moreover, after 120 days of storage, nanoparticles were mainly located on the surface of the nanocomposite specimens. Incorporation of silver nanoparticles in the acrylic resin was evidenced. Moreover, silver was not detected by the detection limit of the atomic absorption spectrophotometer used in this study, even after 120 days of storage in deionized water. Silver nanoparticles are incorporated in the PMMA denture resin to attain an effective antimicrobial material to help control common infections involving oral mucosal tissues in complete denture wearers. © 2011 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Analysis of the cytotoxicity of carbon-based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, in human glioblastoma and hepatoma cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakrzewska, Karolina Ewa; Samluk, Anna; Wierzbicki, Mateusz

    2015-01-01

    carbon based nanoparticles, diamond and graphite, on glioblastoma and hepatoma cells were compared. First, we confirmed previous results that diamond nanoparticles are practically nontoxic. Second, graphite nanoparticles exhibited a negative impact on glioblastoma, but not on hepatoma cells. The studied...... carbon nanoparticles could be a potentially useful tool for therapeutics delivery to the brain tissue with minimal side effects on the hepatocytes. Furthermore, we showed the influence of the nanoparticles on the stable, fluorescently labeled tumor cell lines and concluded that the labeled cells...

  4. A new green chemistry method based on plant extracts to synthesize gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Castillo, Milka Odemariz

    Extraordinary chemical and physical properties exhibited by nanomaterials, as compared to their bulk counterparts, have made the area of nanotechnology a growing realm in the past three decades. It is the nanoscale size (from 1 to 100 nm) and the morphologies of nanomaterials that provide several properties and applications not possible for the same material in the bulk. Magnetic and optical properties, as well as surface reactivity are highly dependent on the size and morphology of the nanomaterial. Diverse nanomaterials are being widely used in molecular diagnostics as well as in medicine, electronic and optical devices. Among the most studied nanomaterials, gold nanoparticles are of special interest due to their multifunctional capabilities. For instance, spherical gold nanoparticles measuring 15-20 nm in diameter have been studied due to their insulin binding properties. Also, thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles between 5 and 30 nm are used in the detection of DNA. Thus, harnessing the shape and size of gold nanoparticles plays an important role in science and technology. The synthesis of gold nanoparticles via the reduction of gold salts, using citrate or other reducing agents, has been widely studied. In recent years, algae, fungi, bacteria, and living plants have been used to reduce trivalent gold (Au3+) to its zero oxidation state (Au 0) forming gold nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. In addition, plant biomasses have also been studied for their gold-reducing power and nanoparticle formation. Although there is information about the synthesis of the gold nanoparticles by biologically based materials; to our knowledge, the study of the use of alfalfa extracts has not been reported. This innovation represents a significant improvement; that is an environmentally friendly method that does not use toxic chemicals. Also, the problem of extracting the formed gold nanoparticles from biomaterials is addressed in this research but still remains to be

  5. Novel Polysaccharide Based Polymers and Nanoparticles for Controlled Drug Delivery and Biomedical Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalviri, Alireza

    The use of polysaccharides as building blocks in the development of drugs and contrast agents delivery systems is rapidly growing. This can be attributed to the outstanding virtues of polysaccharides such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, upgradability, multiple reacting groups and low cost. The focus of this thesis was to develop and characterize novel starch based hydrogels and nanoparticles for delivery of drugs and imaging agents. To this end, two different systems were developed. The first system includes polymer and nanoparticles prepared by graft polymerization of polymethacrylic acid and polysorbate 80 onto starch. This starch based platform nanotechnology was developed using the design principles based on the pathophysiology of breast cancer, with applications in both medical imaging and breast cancer chemotherapy. The nanoparticles exhibited a high degree of doxorubicin loading as well as sustained pH dependent release of the drug. The drug loaded nanoparticles were significantly more effective against multidrug resistant human breast cancer cells compared to free doxorubicin. Systemic administration of the starch based nanoparticles co-loaded with doxorubicin and a near infrared fluorescent probe allowed for non-invasive real time monitoring of the nanoparticles biodistribution, tumor accumulation, and clearance. Systemic administration of the clinically relevant doses of the drug loaded particles to a mouse model of breast cancer significantly enhanced therapeutic efficacy while minimizing side effects compared to free doxorubicin. A novel, starch based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent with good in vitro and in vivo tolerability was formulated which exhibited superior signal enhancement in tumor and vasculature. The second system is a co-polymeric hydrogel of starch and xanthan gum with adjustable swelling and permeation properties. The hydrogels exhibited excellent film forming capability, and appeared to be particularly useful in

  6. Preparation of manganese-based perovskite nanoparticles using a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In addition, the heating ability of the LSMTO nanoparticles was evaluated under a safe alternating magnetic field used in magnetic hyperthermia therapy. The results showed the fast magneto-temperature response of the prepared samplewith sufficient heat loss at the therapeutic temperature range, indicating the LSMTO ...

  7. Upconverting nanoparticles for optimizing scintillator based detection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kross, Brian; McKisson, John E; McKisson, John; Weisenberger, Andrew; Xi, Wenze; Zom, Carl

    2013-09-17

    An upconverting device for a scintillation detection system is provided. The detection system comprises a scintillator material, a sensor, a light transmission path between the scintillator material and the sensor, and a plurality of upconverting nanoparticles particles positioned in the light transmission path.

  8. Chitosan Based Self-Assembled Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Pérez Quiñones

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide that is usually obtained by alkaline deacetylation of chitin poly(N-acetylglucosamine. It is biocompatible, biodegradable, mucoadhesive, and non-toxic. These excellent biological properties make chitosan a good candidate for a platform in developing drug delivery systems having improved biodistribution, increased specificity and sensitivity, and reduced pharmacological toxicity. In particular, chitosan nanoparticles are found to be appropriate for non-invasive routes of drug administration: oral, nasal, pulmonary and ocular routes. These applications are facilitated by the absorption-enhancing effect of chitosan. Many procedures for obtaining chitosan nanoparticles have been proposed. Particularly, the introduction of hydrophobic moieties into chitosan molecules by grafting to generate a hydrophobic-hydrophilic balance promoting self-assembly is a current and appealing approach. The grafting agent can be a hydrophobic moiety forming micelles that can entrap lipophilic drugs or it can be the drug itself. Another suitable way to generate self-assembled chitosan nanoparticles is through the formation of polyelectrolyte complexes with polyanions. This paper reviews the main approaches for preparing chitosan nanoparticles by self-assembly through both procedures, and illustrates the state of the art of their application in drug delivery.

  9. Investigating Created Properties of Nanoparticles Based Drilling Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Nahid; Mirzaee, Mojtaba; Aghayari, Reza; Maddah, Heydar

    2018-05-01

    The success of drilling operations is heavily dependent on the drilling fluid. Drilling fluids cool down and lubricate the drill bit, remove cuttings, prevent formation damage, suspend cuttings and also cake off the permeable formation, thus retarding the passage of fluid into the formation. Typical micro or macro sized loss circulation materials (LCM) show limited success, especially in formations dominated by micropores, due to their relatively large sizes. Due to unique characteristics of nanoparticles such as their size and high surface area to volume ratio, they play an effective role in solving problems associated with the drilling fluid. In this study, we investigate the effect of adding Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles into the drilling mud. Al2O3 and TiO2 nanoparticles were used in 20 and 60 nm of size and 0.05 wt% in concentration. Investigating the effects of temperature and pressure has shown that an increase in temperature can reduce the drilling mud rheological properties such as plastic viscosity, while an increase in pressure can enhance these properties. Also, the effects of pressure in high temperatures were less than those in low temperatures. Studying the effects of adding nanoparticles has shown that they can reduce the drilling mud rheological properties. Moreover, they can increase gel strength, reduce capillary suction time and decrease formation damage.

  10. Artificial neural network based particle size prediction of polymeric nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youshia, John; Ali, Mohamed Ehab; Lamprecht, Alf

    2017-10-01

    Particle size of nanoparticles and the respective polydispersity are key factors influencing their biopharmaceutical behavior in a large variety of therapeutic applications. Predicting these attributes would skip many preliminary studies usually required to optimize formulations. The aim was to build a mathematical model capable of predicting the particle size of polymeric nanoparticles produced by a pharmaceutical polymer of choice. Polymer properties controlling the particle size were identified as molecular weight, hydrophobicity and surface activity, and were quantified by measuring polymer viscosity, contact angle and interfacial tension, respectively. A model was built using artificial neural network including these properties as input with particle size and polydispersity index as output. The established model successfully predicted particle size of nanoparticles covering a range of 70-400nm prepared from other polymers. The percentage bias for particle prediction was 2%, 4% and 6%, for the training, validation and testing data, respectively. Polymer surface activity was found to have the highest impact on the particle size followed by viscosity and finally hydrophobicity. Results of this study successfully highlighted polymer properties affecting particle size and confirmed the usefulness of artificial neural networks in predicting the particle size and polydispersity of polymeric nanoparticles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Towards a versatile platform based on magnetic nanoparticles for in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic nanoparticles have attracted wide attention because of their usefulness as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or colloidal mediators for cancer magnetic hyperthermia. This paper examines these in vivo applications through an understanding of the problems involved and the current and future ...

  12. A review on marine based nanoparticles and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increasing demands on nanoparticles have wide pertinent in almost all the fields. Marine ecosystem has variety of living resources, which includes prokaryotes like microorganism to eukaryotic organism like higher plants and animals. The present review dealt with the application of marine organisms in nanotechnology ...

  13. A review on marine based nanoparticles and their potential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infonet

    2015-05-06

    May 6, 2015 ... potential applications (Table 1) and current information about research on ... easily available source for nanoparticle synthesis with broad variability of ... of marine ecosystem and characterization of marine plants are extremely different ... to develop non-toxic and environment friendly methods to synthesize ...

  14. Multifunctional membranes based on spinning technologies: the synergy of nanofibers and nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roso, Martina; Modesti, Michele; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Pliszka, Damian; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2008-01-01

    A multicomponent membrane based on polysulfone nanofibers and titanium dioxide nanoparticles is produced by the coupling of electrospinning and electrospraying techniques. The manufactured product can satisfy a number of conflicting requirements begetting its technical and functional versatility as well as the reliability of the process. As nanoparticle dispersion is a critical issue in nanoparticle technology, their distribution and morphology have been extensively studied before and after electrospraying, and process optimization has been carried out to obtain nanoparticles uniformly spread over electrospun nanofibers. These membranes have been proved to be a good candidate for supported catalysis due to the photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 , tested for degradation of CEPS, a mustard agent simulant. At the same time, an effective improvement in filtering properties in terms of pressure drop has also been studied

  15. Hybrid Organometallic-Inorganic Nanomaterial: Acetyl Ferrocene Schiff base Immobilized on Silica Coated Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Masteri-Farahani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In  this  work,  a  new  hybrid  organometallic-inorganic  hybrid nanomaterial was prepared by immobilization of acetyl ferrocene on the  surface  of magnetite  nanoparticles. Covalent  grafting of silica coated magnetite nanoparticles (SCMNPs with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane gave aminopropyl-modified magnetite nanoparticles (AmpSCMNPs. Then, Schiff base condensation  of AmpSCMNPs with acetyl  ferrocene resulted in the preparation of acferro-SCMNPs hybrid nanomaterial. Characterization of the prepared nanomaterial was performed with different physicochemical methods such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD, vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. VSM analysis showed superparamagnetic properties of the prepared nanomaterial and TEM and SEM analyses indicated the relatively spherical nanoparticles with 15 nm average size.

  16. Comparison of different cationized proteins as biomaterials for nanoparticle-based ocular gene delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Giovanni K; Párraga, Jenny E; Seijo, Begoña; Sanchez, Alejandro

    2015-11-01

    Cationized polymers have been proposed as transfection agents for gene therapy. The present work aims to improve the understanding of the potential use of different cationized proteins (atelocollagen, albumin and gelatin) as nanoparticle components and to investigate the possibility of modulating the physicochemical properties of the resulting nanoparticle carriers by selecting specific protein characteristics in an attempt to improve current ocular gene-delivery approaches. The toxicity profiles, as well as internalization and transfection efficiency, of the developed nanoparticles can be modulated by modifying the molecular weight of the selected protein and the amine used for cationization. The most promising systems are nanoparticles based on intermediate molecular weight gelatin cationized with the endogenous amine spermine, which exhibit an adequate toxicological profile, as well as effective association and protection of pDNA or siRNA molecules, thereby resulting in higher transfection efficiency and gene silencing than the other studied formulations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. An Enhanced Soft Vibrotactile Actuator Based on ePVC Gel with Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Hyeong; Shin, Eun-Jae; Yun, Sungryul; Kim, Sang-Youn

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a soft vibrotactile actuator made by mixing silicon dioxide nanoparticles and plasticized PVC gel. The effect of the silicon dioxide nanoparticles in the plasticized PVC gel for the haptic performance is investigated in terms of electric, dielectric, and mechanical properties. Furthermore, eight soft vibrotactile actuators are prepared as a function of the content. Experiments are conducted to examine the haptic performance of the prepared eight soft vibrotactile actuators and to find the best weight ratio of the plasticized PVC gel to the nanoparticles. The experiments should show that the plasticized PVC gel with silicon dioxide nanoparticles improves the haptic performance of the plasticized PVC gel-based vibrotactile actuator, and the proposed vibrotactile actuator can create a variety of haptic sensations in a wide frequency range.

  18. [Preparation of Oenothera biennis Oil Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Based on Microemulsion Technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Lin-mei; Jin, Yong; Cui, Yan-lin; Yin, Shou-yu

    2015-06-01

    To study the preparation of Oenothera biennis oil solid lipid nanoparticles and its quality evaluation. The solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by microemulsion technique. The optimum condition was performed based on the orthogonal design to examine the entrapment efficiency, the mean diameter of the particles and so on. The optimal preparation of Oenothera biennis oil solid lipid nanoparticles was as follows: Oenothera biennis dosage 300 mg, glycerol monostearate-Oenothera biennis (2: 3), Oenothera biennis -RH/40/PEG-400 (1: 2), RH-40/PEG-400 (1: 2). The resulting nanoparticles average encapsulation efficiency was (89.89 ± 0.71)%, the average particle size was 44.43 ± 0.08 nm, and the Zeta potential was 64.72 ± 1.24 mV. The preparation process is simple, stable and feasible.

  19. Characterization of Electret Based on Inorganic-organic Nanocomposite Using Fluoropolymer and Silica Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, M; Shimokizaki, M; Takahashi, T; Aoyagi, S; Yoshikawa, Y

    2015-01-01

    An A novel electret based on inorganic-organic nano composite using fluoropolymer and silica nanoparticles was developed in this study. CYTOP® is used to fabricate the nanocomposite electret, which is one of fluoropolymer. Three kinds of silica nanoparticles dispersed in methyl ethyl ketone were employed. Each type of nanoparticles was mixed in the CYTOP or stuck between three layers of CYTOP. Then, negative charge was implanted by corona discharge method. The initial surface potential of the nanocomposite electret was higher than that of a control electret made of pure CYTOP. Additionally, time stability of those was also better than that of control electret. However, above mentioned properties of the mix-typed electret was worse than that of stuck-typed electret, because of discharging through aggregates composed of the nanoparticles. (paper)

  20. Memory effects in MIS structures based on silicon and polymethylmethacrylate with nanoparticle charge-storage elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mabrook, M.F. [School of Engineering and Centre for Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.f.mabrook@durham.ac.uk; Jombert, A.S. [School of Engineering and Centre for Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Machin, S.E.; Pearson, C.; Kolb, D. [School of Engineering and Centre for Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Coleman, K.S. [Department of Chemistry, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Zeze, D.A.; Petty, M.C. [School of Engineering and Centre for Molecular and Nanoscale Electronics, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    We report on the electrical behaviour of metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structures fabricated on p-type silicon substrates and using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) as the dielectric. Gold nanoparticles, single-wall carbon nanotubes and C{sub 60}, deposited at room temperature, were used as charge-storage elements. In all cases, the MIS devices containing the nanoparticles exhibited hysteresis in their capacitance versus voltage characteristics, with a memory window depending on the range of the voltage sweep. This hysteresis was attributed to the charging and discharging of the nanoparticles from the gate electrode. A relatively large memory window of about 2.2 V was achieved by scanning the applied voltage of an Al/PMMA/C{sub 60}/SiO{sub 2}/Si structure between 4 and -4 V. Gold nanoparticle-based memory devices produced the best charge retention behaviour compared to the other MIS structures investigated.

  1. Enhanced gelation of chitosan/β-sodium glycerophosphate thermosensitive hydrogel with sodium bicarbonate and biocompatibility evaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Aipeng; Kang, Xi; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Yang; Yang, Shulin

    2017-09-01

    The application of chitosan/β-sodium glycerophosphate (β-GP) thermosensitive hydrogel has been limited by the relatively slow gelation, weak mechanical resistance and poor cytocompatibility. In this study, sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO 3 ) was applied with β-GP as gel agents to produce high-strength hydrogel. The hydrogels prepared with high NaHCO 3 concentration or more gel agents showed shorter gelation time, better thermostability, drastically enhanced resistance in compression. Meanwhile, the hydrogels presented obvious porous structures and excellent biocompatibility to HUVEC and NIH 3T3 cultured in vitro with higher NaHCO 3 concentration and moderate concentration of β-GP. Overall, appropriate concentration of β-GP combined with NaHCO 3 can be a good gel regent to improve properties of chitosan thermosensitive hydrogels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles: II. Application in bio-based plastics for active packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woranuch, Sarekha; Yoksan, Rangrong

    2013-07-25

    The aim of the present research was to study the possibility of using eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as antioxidants for active bio-based packaging material. Eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were incorporated into thermoplastic flour (TPF) - a model bio-based plastic - through an extrusion process at temperatures above 150°C. The influences of eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles on crystallinity, morphology, thermal properties, radical scavenging activity, reducing power, tensile properties and barrier properties of TPF were investigated. Although the incorporation of 3% (w/w) of eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles significantly reduced the extensibility and the oxygen barrier property of TPF, it provided antioxidant activity and improved the water vapor barrier property. In addition, TPF containing eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibited superior radical scavenging activity and stronger reducing power compared with TPF containing naked eugenol. The results suggest the applicability of TPF containing eugenol-loaded chitosan nanoparticles as an antioxidant active packaging material. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental analysis to improving thermosyphon (TPCT) thermal efficiency using nanoparticles/based fluids (water)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoseinzadeh, S.; Sahebi, S. A. R.; Ghasemiasl, R.; Majidian, A. R.

    2017-05-01

    In the present study an experimental set-up is used to investigate the effect of a nanofluid as a working fluid to increase thermosyphon efficiency. Nanofluids are a new form of heat transfer media prepared by suspending metallic and nonmetallic nanoparticles in a base fluid. The nanoparticles added to the fluid enhance the thermal characteristics of the base fluid. The nanofluid used in this experiment was a mixture of water and nanoparticles prepared with 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, or 2% (v) concentration of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles and 1%, 2% and 3% (v) concentration of aluminum oxide (Al2O3) in an ultrasonic homogenizer. The results indicate that the SiC/water and Al2O3/water nanofluids increase the thermosyphon performance. The efficiency of the thermosyphon using the 2% (v) (SiC) nanoparticles nanofluid was 1.11 times that of pure water and the highest efficiency occurs for the 3% (Al2O3) nanoparticle concentration with input power of 300 W. The decrease in the temperature difference between the condenser and evaporator confirms these enhancements.

  4. Extraction of americium (III) by thermosensitive polymer gel copolymerized with acidic phosphorus compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji; Nakano, Yoshio; Matsumura, Tatsuro

    2001-01-01

    A new gel-liquid extraction using a thermosensitive gel was proposed. The thermosensitive gel shows the conformational change of polymer network with temperature, which is known as the phase transition phenomena of gel. The extraction rate and equilibrium of Am(III) in an aqueous solution containing nitrate ion were measured batchwise by using a thermosensitive gel, N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPA) copolymerized with 2-methacryloyloxy- ethylacidphosphate (MR). The effects of the conformational change of polymer network on the extraction rate and equilibrium were discussed. The distribution ratio of Am(III) showed a large value at higher than LCST (low critical solution temperature; 34degC) and was decreased by the phase transition of gel from shrinking to swelling with decreasing temperature. The extraction of Am(III) in the aqueous solution and the release of Am(III) extracted in the gel were repeated stably by the temperature swing operation between 40 and 3degC. The extraction mechanism of Am(III) was described simply as Am 3+ + 3R - OH=(R-O) 3 Am + 3H + (R-OH: MR). The equilibrium constant at the shrinking state (40degC) was more than 3 times of that at swelling state (3degC). The gel-phase diffusivity of Eu(III) used as a substitute of Am(III) was evaluated as the order of 10 -12 m 2 /s at either of 3 or 40degC, which was similar to those for practical extraction chromatographic resins. The temperature-response of gel for the extraction of Eu(III) was very excellent without delay even for the rapid temperature change at 10degC/min. These results suggest that the extraction and release of Am(III) in an aqueous solution can be controlled by the conformational change of polymer network of thermosensitive gel. (author)

  5. Zielgerichtete Chemotherapie solider Tumoren durch thermosensitive Liposomen in Kombination mit Doxorubicin, Gemcitabin und Mitomycin C

    OpenAIRE

    Limmer, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Auf DPPG2 basierende thermosensitive Liposomen (TSL) mit Hyperthermie (HT) induzierter zielgerichteter Wirkstofffreisetzung sind eine viel-versprechende Behandlungsstrategie in der Krebstherapie. TSL können als Wirkstoffträgersysteme die Zirkulationszeit und Anreicherung von Wirkstoffen im Zielgewebe erhöhen. Die vielfältigen Krebserkrankungen zeigen unterschiedliches Tumoransprechen auf die routinemäßig eingesetzten Zytostatika. Daher wäre es vorteilhaft, verschiedene Wirkstoffe in TSL e...

  6. Cu and Cu-Based Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Applications in Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawande, Manoj B; Goswami, Anandarup; Felpin, François-Xavier; Asefa, Tewodros; Huang, Xiaoxi; Silva, Rafael; Zou, Xiaoxin; Zboril, Radek; Varma, Rajender S

    2016-03-23

    The applications of copper (Cu) and Cu-based nanoparticles, which are based on the earth-abundant and inexpensive copper metal, have generated a great deal of interest in recent years, especially in the field of catalysis. The possible modification of the chemical and physical properties of these nanoparticles using different synthetic strategies and conditions and/or via postsynthetic chemical treatments has been largely responsible for the rapid growth of interest in these nanomaterials and their applications in catalysis. In addition, the design and development of novel support and/or multimetallic systems (e.g., alloys, etc.) has also made significant contributions to the field. In this comprehensive review, we report different synthetic approaches to Cu and Cu-based nanoparticles (metallic copper, copper oxides, and hybrid copper nanostructures) and copper nanoparticles immobilized into or supported on various support materials (SiO2, magnetic support materials, etc.), along with their applications in catalysis. The synthesis part discusses numerous preparative protocols for Cu and Cu-based nanoparticles, whereas the application sections describe their utility as catalysts, including electrocatalysis, photocatalysis, and gas-phase catalysis. We believe this critical appraisal will provide necessary background information to further advance the applications of Cu-based nanostructured materials in catalysis.

  7. Synthesis and Thermosensitive Behavior of Polyacrylamide Copolymers and Their Applications in Smart Textiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We tuned the lower critical solution temperature (LCST of amphiphilic poly(N-isopropylacrylamide (PNIPAAm via copolymerization with a hydrophilic comonomer of N-hydroxymethyl acrylamide (NHMAAm. A series of copolymers P(NIPAAm-co-NHMAAm were synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP using CuBr/(N,N,N',N',N''-Pentamethyldiethylenetriamine (PMDETA as a catalyst system and 2-bromo ethyl isobutyrate (EBiB as an initiator. The copolymers were well characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, 1H Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The copolymers followed a simple rule in their thermosensitive behaviors and have a linear increase in the LCST as a function of NHMAAm mol%. The thermosensitive properties of the copolymer films were investigated and demonstrated hydrophilic-hydrophobic transitions. Finally, the copolymer was grafted onto cotton fabrics using citric acid (CA as a crosslinking agent and sodium hypophosphite (SHP as a catalyst following a two dipping, two padding process. The large number of hydroxyl groups in the copolymer makes grafting convenient and firm. The grafted cotton fabrics show obvious thermosensitive behaviors. The results demonstrate that the cotton fabrics become more hydrophobic when the temperature is higher than the LCST. This study presents a valuable route towards temperature-responsive smart textiles and their potential applications.

  8. Fabrication and evaluation of thermosensitive chitosan/collagen/α, β-glycerophosphate hydrogels for tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qifeng; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Chengsheng; Liu, Xi; Xin, Ying; Cheng, Xiaoyu; Xu, Tao; Cha, Dongsu; Fan, Bing

    2017-07-01

    Thermosensitive hydrogels whose physiological properties are similar to extracellular matrix have been extensively used for tissue regeneration. Polysaccharides and proteins, as biocompatible substrates similar to bio-macromolecules that could be recognized by human body, are two preferred polymers for fabrication of such hydrogels. A series of novel thermosensitive hydrogels (CS-ASC-HGs) containing chitosan (CS) and acid-soluble collagen (ASC) were thus prepared, in the presence of α, β-glycerophosphate, to mimic extracellular microenvironment for tissue regeneration. Rheological measurements demonstrated excellent thermosensitivity. FT-IR and SEM indicated CS-ASC-HGs possessed 3D porous architectures with fibrous ASC, and the molecular structure of ASC was well-maintained in hydrogels. Hemolysis, acute toxicity, and cytotoxicity tests suggested CS-ASC-HGs were of good biocompatibility. CS-ASC-HGs were able to support the survival and proliferation of L929 cells encapsulated in them. Moreover, CS-ASC-HGs had better pH stability and biocompatibility than pure CS hydrogel. These results suggested that CS-ASC-HGs could serve as promising scaffolds for tissue regeneration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nanoparticle-based optical biosensors for the direct detection of organophosphate chemical warfare agents and pesticides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonian, A.L.; Good, T.A.; Wang, S.-S.; Wild, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Neurotoxic organophosphates (OP) have found widespread use in the environment for insect control. In addition, there is the increasing threat of use of OP based chemical warfare agents in both ground based warfare and terrorist attacks. Together, these trends necessitate the development of simple and specific methods for discriminative detection of ultra low quantities of OP neurotoxins. In our previous investigations a new biosensor for the direct detection of organophosphorus neurotoxins was pioneered. In this system, the enzymatic hydrolysis of OP neurotoxins by organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) generated two protons in each hydrolytic turnover through reactions in which P-X bonds are cleaved. The sensitivity of this biosensor was limited due to the potentiometric method of detection. Recently, it was reported that a change in fluorescence properties of a fluorophore in the vicinity of gold nanoparticles might be used for detection of nanomolar concentrations of DNA oligonucleotides. The detection strategy was based on the fact that an enhancement or quenching of fluorescence intensity is a function of the distances between the gold nanoparticle and fluorophore. While these reports have demonstrated the use of nanoparticle-based sensors for the detection of target DNA, we observed that the specificity of enzyme-substrate interactions could be exploited in similar systems. To test the feasibility of this approach, OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were prepared, then incubated with a fluorescent enzyme inhibitor or decoy. The fluorescence intensity of the decoy was sensitive to the proximity of the gold nanoparticle, and thus could be used to indicate that the decoy was bound to the OPH. Then different paraoxon concentrations were introduced to the OPH-nanoparticle-conjugate-decoy mixtures, and normalized ratio of fluorescence intensities were measured. The greatest sensitivity to paraoxon was obtained when decoys and OPH-gold nanoparticle conjugates were present at

  10. Influence of Heat Treatment on the Morphologies of Copper Nanoparticles Based Films by a Spin Coating Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the influence of heat treatment on the morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides by a spin coating method. The experiments show that heat treatment can modify the sizes and morphologies of copper nanoparticles based films on glass slides. We suggest that through changing the parameters of heat treatment process may be helpful to vary the scattering and absorbing intensity of copper nanoparticles when used in energy harvesting/conversion and optical devices.

  11. Iron Oxide Nanoparticle-Based Magnetic Ink Development for Fully Printed Tunable Radio-Frequency Devices

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad

    2018-01-30

    The field of printed electronics is still in its infancy and most of the reported work is based on commercially available nanoparticle-based metallic inks. Although fully printed devices that employ dielectric/semiconductor inks have recently been reported, there is a dearth of functional inks that can demonstrate controllable devices. The lack of availability of functional inks is a barrier to the widespread use of fully printed devices. For radio-frequency electronics, magnetic materials have many uses in reconfigurable components but rely on expensive and rigid ferrite materials. A suitable magnetic ink can facilitate the realization of fully printed, magnetically controlled, tunable devices. This report presents the development of an iron oxide nanoparticle-based magnetic ink. First, a tunable inductor is fully printed using iron oxide nanoparticle-based magnetic ink. Furthermore, iron oxide nanoparticles are functionalized with oleic acid to make them compatible with a UV-curable SU8 solution. Functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles are successfully embedded in the SU8 matrix to make a magnetic substrate. The as-fabricated substrate is characterized for its magnetostatic and microwave properties. A frequency tunable printed patch antenna is demonstrated using the magnetic and in-house silver-organo-complex inks. This is a step toward low-cost, fully printed, controllable electronic components.

  12. Assessment of Carbon- and Metal-Based Nanoparticle DNA Damage with Microfluidic Electrophoretic Separation Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrand, Amanda M; Powell, Thomas; Robertson, Tiffany; Hussain, Saber M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we examined the feasibility of extracting DNA from whole cell lysates exposed to nanoparticles using two different methodologies for evaluation of fragmentation with microfluidic electrophoretic separation. Human lung macrophages were exposed to five different carbon- and metal-based nanoparticles at two different time points (2 h, 24 h) and two different doses (5 µg/ml, 100 µg/ml). The primary difference in the banding patterns after 2 h of nanoparticle exposure is more DNA fragmentation at the higher NP concentration when examining cells exposed to nanoparticles of the same composition. However, higher doses of carbon and silver nanoparticles at both short and long dosing periods can contribute to erroneous or incomplete data with this technique. Also comparing DNA isolation methodologies, we recommend the centrifugation extraction technique, which provides more consistent banding patterns in the control samples compared to the spooling technique. Here we demonstrate that multi-walled carbon nanotubes, 15 nm silver nanoparticles and the positive control cadmium oxide cause similar DNA fragmentation at the short time point of 2 h with the centrifugation extraction technique. Therefore, the results of these studies contribute to elucidating the relationship between nanoparticle physicochemical properties and DNA fragmentation results while providing the pros and cons of altering the DNA isolation methodology. Overall, this technique provides a high throughput way to analyze subcellular alterations in DNA profiles of cells exposed to nanomaterials to aid in understanding the consequences of exposure and mechanistic effects. Future studies in microfluidic electrophoretic separation technologies should be investigated to determine the utility of protein or other assays applicable to cellular systems exposed to nanoparticles.

  13. Highly Sensitive Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensor for Trinitrotoluene Based on the Inner Filter Effect between Gold Nanoparticles and Fluorescent Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongzhi; Quan, Shuai; Xu, Shoufang

    2017-11-08

    In this work, we developed a simple and sensitive ratiometric fluorescent assay for sensing trinitrotoluene (TNT) based on the inner filter effect (IFE) between gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and ratiometric fluorescent nanoparticles (RFNs), which was designed by hybridizing green emissive carbon dots (CDs) and red emissive quantum dots (QDs) into a silica sphere as a fluorophore pair. AuNPs in their dispersion state can be a powerful absorber to quench CDs, while the aggregated AuNPs can quench QDs in the IFE-based fluorescent assays as a result of complementary overlap between the absorption spectrum of AuNPs and emission spectrum of RFNs. As a result of the fact that TNT can induce the aggregation of AuNPs, with the addition of TNT, the fluorescent of QDs can be quenched, while the fluorescent of CDs would be recovered. Then, ratiometric fluorescent detection of TNT is feasible. The present IFE-based ratiometric fluorescent sensor can detect TNT ranging from 0.1 to 270 nM, with a detection limit of 0.029 nM. In addition, the developed method was successfully applied to investigate TNT in water and soil samples with satisfactory recoveries ranging from 95 to 103%, with precision below 4.5%. The simple sensing approach proposed here could improve the sensitivity of colorimetric analysis by changing the ultraviolet analysis to ratiometric fluorescent analysis and promote the development of a dual-mode detection system.

  14. Nanoparticle array based optical frequency selective surfaces: theory and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeidi, Chiya; van der Weide, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    We demonstrate a synthesis procedure for designing a bandstop optical frequency selective surface (FSS) composed of nanoparticle (NP) elements. The proposed FSS uses two-dimensional (2-D) periodic arrays of NPs with subwavelength unit-cell dimensions. We derive equivalent circuit for a nanoparticle array (NPA) using the closed-form solution for a 2-D NPA excited by a plane wave in the limit of the dipole approximation, which includes contribution from both individual and collective plasmon modes. Using the extracted equivalent circuit, we demonstrate synthesis of an optical FSS using cascaded NPA layers as coupled resonators, which we validate with both circuit model and full-wave simulation for a third-order Butterworth bandstop prototype.

  15. Paper-based tuberculosis diagnostic devices with colorimetric gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Shen, Shu-Wei; Chen, Chien-Fu; Cheng, Chao-Min

    2013-01-01

    A colorimetric sensing strategy employing gold nanoparticles and a paper assay platform has been developed for tuberculosis diagnosis. Unmodified gold nanoparticles and single-stranded detection oligonucleotides are used to achieve rapid diagnosis without complicated and time-consuming thiolated or other surface-modified probe preparation processes. To eliminate the use of sophisticated equipment for data analysis, the color variance for multiple detection results was simultaneously collected and concentrated on cellulose paper with the data readout transmitted for cloud computing via a smartphone. The results show that the 2.6 nM tuberculosis mycobacterium target sequences extracted from patients can easily be detected, and the turnaround time after the human DNA is extracted from clinical samples was approximately 1 h. (paper)

  16. Gamma-Free Neutron Detector Based upon Lithium Phosphate Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steven Wallace

    2007-01-01

    A gamma-free neutron-sensitive scintillator is needed to enhance radiation sensing and detection for nonproliferation applications. Such a scintillator would allow very large detectors to be placed at the perimeter of spent-fuel storage facilities at commercial nuclear power plants, so that any movement of spontaneously emitted neutrons from spent nuclear fuel or weapons grade plutonium would be noted in real-time. This task is to demonstrate that the technology for manufacturing large panels of fluor-doped plastic containing lithium-6 phosphate nanoparticles can be achieved. In order to detect neutrons, the nanoparticles must be sufficiently small so that the plastic remains transparent. In this way, the triton and alpha particles generated by the capture of the neutron will result in a photon burst that can be coupled to a wavelength shifting fiber (WLS) producing an optical signal of about ten nanoseconds duration signaling the presence of a neutron emitting source

  17. Gold and silver nanoparticles based superquenching of fluorescence: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debanjana; Chattopadhyay, Nitin, E-mail: nitin.chattopadhyay@yahoo.com

    2015-04-15

    The short review highlights the recent advances on the gold and silver nanoparticles induced efficient quenching of fluorescence from various fluorophores looking at their promising use as optical rulers and chemo-/bio- sensors. The fluorescence quenching often leads to the increase in the Stern–Volmer constant (K{sub SV}~10{sup 7}–10{sup 10} mol{sup −1} dm{sup 3}) several orders of magnitude higher than the values observed for the normal photochemical quenching processes (~10{sup 2} mol{sup −1} dm{sup 3}). This amplified quenching has been termed as “super-quenching” or “hyper-quenching”. Energy transfer (ET) is established from the donor to the metal nanoparticles rationalizing these fast quenching processes. Considering the distance dependence of the ET process, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) are ascribed to take place. These sensitive distance dependent phenomena serve as the spectroscopic ruler to measure the intra- or intermolecular distances between the interacting partners. In this account focus has been laid on the size dependent energy transfer and super- and hyper- quenching of the fluorescence of the donor moieties by the nanometals and their probable applications in sensing. Rationalization has been made for the nanoparticle induced huge enhancement in the quenching efficiency. The impact of this review lies in the possible application of these amplified quenching processes in designing high sensitive chemical and biological sensors. - Highlights: • Super efficient quenching of fluorescence of probes by gold and silver nanoparticles is highlighted. • The amplified fluorescence quenching of dyes and polymers is rationalized. • Energy transfer is assigned to be responsible for the efficient quenching process. • Amplified quenching has its potential use in designing sensitive chemical/biological sensors.

  18. Gold and silver nanoparticles based superquenching of fluorescence: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Debanjana; Chattopadhyay, Nitin

    2015-01-01

    The short review highlights the recent advances on the gold and silver nanoparticles induced efficient quenching of fluorescence from various fluorophores looking at their promising use as optical rulers and chemo-/bio- sensors. The fluorescence quenching often leads to the increase in the Stern–Volmer constant (K SV ~10 7 –10 10 mol −1 dm 3 ) several orders of magnitude higher than the values observed for the normal photochemical quenching processes (~10 2 mol −1 dm 3 ). This amplified quenching has been termed as “super-quenching” or “hyper-quenching”. Energy transfer (ET) is established from the donor to the metal nanoparticles rationalizing these fast quenching processes. Considering the distance dependence of the ET process, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) and nanometal surface energy transfer (NSET) are ascribed to take place. These sensitive distance dependent phenomena serve as the spectroscopic ruler to measure the intra- or intermolecular distances between the interacting partners. In this account focus has been laid on the size dependent energy transfer and super- and hyper- quenching of the fluorescence of the donor moieties by the nanometals and their probable applications in sensing. Rationalization has been made for the nanoparticle induced huge enhancement in the quenching efficiency. The impact of this review lies in the possible application of these amplified quenching processes in designing high sensitive chemical and biological sensors. - Highlights: • Super efficient quenching of fluorescence of probes by gold and silver nanoparticles is highlighted. • The amplified fluorescence quenching of dyes and polymers is rationalized. • Energy transfer is assigned to be responsible for the efficient quenching process. • Amplified quenching has its potential use in designing sensitive chemical/biological sensors

  19. Chitosan-Based Nanoparticles for Mucosal Delivery of RNAi Therapeutics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martirosyan, Alina; Olesen, Morten Jarlstad; Howard, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    of the polysaccharide chitosan have been used to facilitate delivery of siRNA across mucosal surfaces following local administration. This chapter describes the mucosal barriers that need to be addressed in order to design an effective mucosal delivery strategy and the utilization of the mucoadhesive properties...... of chitosan. Focus is given to preparation methods and the preclinical application of chitosan nanoparticles for respiratory and oral delivery of siRNA....

  20. New Dendrimer-Based Nanoparticles Enhance Curcumin Solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconieri, Maria Cristina; Adamo, Mauro; Monasterolo, Claudio; Bergonzi, Maria Camilla; Coronnello, Marcella; Bilia, Anna Rita

    2017-03-01

    Curcumin, the main curcuminoid of the popular Indian spice turmeric, is a potent chemopreventive agent and useful in many different diseases. A major limitation of applicability of curcumin as a health promoting and medicinal agent is its extremely low bioavailability due to efficient first pass metabolism, poor gastrointestinal absorption, rapid elimination, and poor aqueous solubility. In the present study, nanotechnology was selected as a choice approach to enhance the bioavailability of the curcuminis. A new polyamidoamine dendrimer (G0.5) was synthesized, characterized, and tested for cytotoxicity in human breast cancer cells (MCF-7). No cytotoxicity of G0.5 was found in the range between 10 -3 and 3 × 10 -8  M. Consequently, G0.5 was used to prepare spherical nanoparticles of ca. 150 nm, which were loaded with curcumin [molar ratio G0.5/curcumin 1 : 1 (formulation 1) and 1 : 0.5 (formulation 2)]. Remarkably, the occurrence of a single population of nanoparticles having an excellent polydispersity index (solubility of curcumin was increased ca. 415 and 150 times with respect to the unformulated drug, respectively, for formulation 1 and formulation 2. The release of curcumin from the nanoparticles showed an interesting prolonged and sustained release profile. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Activated polyaniline-based carbon nanoparticles for high performance supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Jin; Zhu, Tingting; Xing, Wei; Li, Zhaohui; Shen, Honglong; Zhuo, Shuping

    2015-01-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) nanoparticles have been prepared by disperse polymerization of aniline in the presence of poly(4-styrenesulfonate). The PANI nanoparticles are further subjected to pyrolysis treatment and chemical-activation to prepare the activated nitrogen-doped carbon nanoparticles (APCNs). The porosity, structure and nitrogen-doped surface chemistry are analyzed by a varies of means, such as scanning electron microscopy, transition electron microscopy, N 2 sorption, X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The capacitive performance of the APCNs materials are test in 6 M KOH electrolyte. Benefitting from the abundant micropores with short length, large specific surface area, hierarchical porosity and heteroatom-doped polar pore surface, the APCNs materials exhibit v exhibit very high specific capacitance up to 341 F g −1 , remarkable power capability and excellent long-term cyclic stability (96.6% after 10 000 cycles). At 40 A g −1 , APCN-2 carbon shows a capacitance of 164 F g −1 , responding to a high energy and power densities of 5.7 Wh kg −1 and 10 000 W kg −1

  2. Development of Protective Clothing against Nanoparticle Based on Electrospun Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Faccini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the development of efficient protective clothing against nanoparticulate aerosols is presented. Nanofibrous mats of polyamide 6 (PA6 were deposited onto a nonwoven viscose substrate by electrospinning technique. The influence of electrospinning parameters, including solution concentration, viscosity, and conductivity, was studied for the production of nonwovens with controlled fiber diameter showing a size distribution ranging from 66 to 195 nm. By varying several process parameters, textiles with different thickness of the nanofiber layer and thus air permeability were obtained. A hot-press lamination process using a thermoplastic resin as glue was applied to improve the adhesion of the nanofiber layer onto the textile support. After 1500 cycles of repeated compression and torsion, the nanofiber layer was still firmly attached to the support, while mechanical damage is visible in some areas. The penetration of NaCl particles with diameter ranging from 15 to 300 nm through the electrospun textiles was found to be strongly dependent on nanofiber layer thickness. A really thin nanofiber coating provides up to 80% retention of 20 nm size particles and over 50% retention of 200 nm size nanoparticles. Increasing the thickness of the nanofiber mat, the filtration efficiency was increased to over 99% along the whole nanoparticle range. The results obtained highlight the potential of nanofibers in the development of efficient personal protective equipments against nanoparticles.

  3. Beyond the Compositional Threshold of Nanoparticle-Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portehault, David; Delacroix, Simon; Gouget, Guillaume; Grosjean, Rémi; Chan-Chang, Tsou-Hsi-Camille

    2018-04-17

    The design of inorganic nanoparticles relies strongly on the knowledge from solid-state chemistry not only for characterization techniques, but also and primarily for choosing the systems that will yield the desired properties. The range of inorganic solids reported and studied as nanoparticles is however strikingly narrow when compared to the solid-state chemistry portfolio of bulk materials. Efforts to enlarge the collection of inorganic particles are becoming increasingly important for three reasons. First, they can yield materials more performing than current ones for a range of fields including biomedicine, optics, catalysis, and energy. Second, looking outside the box of common compositions is a way to target original properties or to discover genuinely new behaviors. The third reason lies in the path followed to reach these novel nano-objects: exploration and setup of new synthetic approaches. Indeed, willingness to access original nanoparticles faces a synthetic challenge: how to reach nanoparticles of solids that originally belong to the realm of solid-state chemistry and its typical protocols at high temperature? To answer this question, alternative reaction pathways must be sought, which may in turn provide tracks for new, untargeted materials. The corresponding strategies require limiting particle growth by confinement at high temperatures or by decreasing the synthesis temperature. Both approaches, especially the latter, provide a nice playground to discover metastable solids never reported before. The aim of this Account is to raise attention to the topic of the design of new inorganic nanoparticles. To do so, we take the perspective of our own work in the field, by first describing synthetic challenges and how they are addressed by current protocols. We then use our achievements to highlight the possibilities offered by new nanomaterials and to introduce synthetic approaches that are not in the focus of recent literature but hold, in our opinion

  4. PGMA-Based Cationic Nanoparticles with Polyhydric Iodine Units for Advanced Gene Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Hu, Hao; Yu, Bingran; Xu, Fu-Jian

    2016-11-16

    It is crucial for successful gene delivery to develop safe, effective, and multifunctional polycations. Iodine-based small molecules are widely used as contrast agents for CT imaging. Herein, a series of star-like poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA)-based cationic vectors (II-PGEA/II) with abundant flanking polyhydric iodine units are prepared for multifunctional gene delivery systems. The proposed II-PGEA/II star vector is composed of one iohexol intermediate (II) core and five ethanolamine (EA) and II-difunctionalized PGMA arms. The amphipathic II-PGEA/II vectors readily self-assemble into well-defined cationic nanoparticles, where massive hydroxyl groups can establish a hydration shell to stabilize the nanoparticles. The II introduction improves cell viabilities of polycations. Moreover, by controlling the suitable amount of introduced II units, the resultant II-PGEA/II nanoparticles can produce fairly good transfection performances in different cell lines. Particularly, the II-PGEA/II nanoparticles induce much better in vitro CT imaging abilities in tumor cells than iohexol (one commonly used commercial CT contrast agent). The present design of amphipathic PGMA-based nanoparticles with CT contrast agents would provide useful information for the development of new multifunctional gene delivery systems.

  5. The effect of nanoparticle surfactant polarization on trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jian, E-mail: lijian@cqu.edu.cn; Du, Bin; Wang, Feipeng; Yao, Wei; Yao, Shuhan

    2016-02-05

    Nanoparticles can generate charge carrier trapping and reduce the velocity of streamer development in insulating oils ultimately leading to an enhancement of the breakdown voltage of insulating oils. Vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids with three sizes of monodispersed Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared and their trapping depths were measured by thermally stimulated method (TSC). It is found that the nanoparticle surfactant polarization can significantly influence the trapping depth of vegetable insulating oil-based nanofluids. A nanoparticle polarization model considering surfactant polarization was proposed to calculate the trapping depth of the nanofluids at different nanoparticle sizes and surfactant thicknesses. The results show the calculated values of the model are in a fairly good agreement with the experimental values. - Highlights: • Three different sized Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} vegetable-oil based nanofluids was successfully prepared. • The trapping depth of the Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanofluids was investigated. • A new model considering surfactant polarization was proposed to calculate the trapping depth of the nanofluids.

  6. Dynamic culture of a thermosensitive collagen hydrogel as an extracellular matrix improves the construction of tissue-engineered peripheral nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lanfeng; Li, Rui; Liu, Wanguo; Dai, Jin; Du, Zhenwu; Wang, Xiaonan; Ma, Jianchao; Zhao, Jinsong

    2014-07-15

    Tissue engineering technologies offer new treatment strategies for the repair of peripheral nerve injury, but cell loss between seeding and adhesion to the scaffold remains inevitable. A thermosensitive collagen hydrogel was used as an extracellular matrix in this study and combined with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells to construct tissue-engineered peripheral nerve composites in vitro. Dynamic culture was performed at an oscillating frequency of 0.5 Hz and 35° swing angle above and below the horizontal plane. The results demonstrated that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells formed membrane-like structures around the poly-L-lactic acid scaffolds and exhibited regular alignment on the composite surface. Collagen was used to fill in the pores, and seeded cells adhered onto the poly-L-lactic acid fibers. The DNA content of the bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells was higher in the composites constructed with a thermosensitive collagen hydrogel compared with that in collagen I scaffold controls. The cellular DNA content was also higher in the thermosensitive collagen hydrogel composites constructed with the thermosensitive collagen hydrogel in dynamic culture than that in static culture. These results indicate that tissue-engineered composites formed with thermosensitive collagen hydrogel in dynamic culture can maintain larger numbers of seeded cells by avoiding cell loss during the initial adhesion stage. Moreover, seeded cells were distributed throughout the material.

  7. Surrogate MRI markers for hyperthermia-induced release of doxorubicin from thermosensitive liposomes in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Michael; Willerding, Linus; Limmer, Simone; Hossann, Martin; Dietrich, Olaf; Ingrisch, Michael; Sroka, Ronald; Lindner, Lars H

    2016-09-10

    The efficacy of systemically applied, classical anti-cancer drugs is limited by insufficient selectivity to the tumor and the applicable dose is limited by side effects. Efficacy could be further improved by targeting of the drug to the tumor. Using thermosensitive liposomes (TSL) as a drug carrier, targeting is achieved by control of temperature in the target volume. In such an approach, effective local hyperthermia (40-43°C) (HT) of the tumor is considered essential but technically challenging. Thus, visualization of local heating and drug release using TSL is considered an important tool for further improvement. Visualization and feasibility of chemodosimetry by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has previously been demonstrated using TSL encapsulating both, contrast agent (CA) and doxorubicin (DOX) simultaneously in the same TSL. Dosimetry has been facilitated using T1-relaxation time change as a surrogate marker for DOX deposition in the tumor. To allow higher loading of the TSL and to simplify clinical development of new TSL formulations a new approach using a mixture of TSL either loaded with DOX or MRI-CA is suggested. This was successfully tested using phosphatidyldiglycerol-based TSL (DPPG2-TSL) in Brown Norway rats with syngeneic soft tissue sarcomas (BN175) implanted at both hind legs. After intravenous application of DOX-TSL and CA-TSL, heating of one tumor above 40°C for 1h using laser light resulted in highly selective DOX uptake. The DOX-concentration in the heated tumor tissue compared to the non-heated tumor showed an almost 10-fold increase. T1 and additional MRI surrogate parameters such as signal phase change were correlated to intratumoral DOX concentration. Visualization of DOX delivery in the sense of a chemodosimetry was demonstrated. Although phase-based MR-thermometry was affected by CA-TSL, phase information was found suitable for DOX concentration assessment. Local differences of DOX concentration in the tumors indicated the need for

  8. Role of noble metal nanoparticles in DNA base damage and catalysis: a radiation chemical investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Geeta K.

    2011-01-01

    In the emerging field of nanoscience and nanotechnology, tremendous focus has been made by researcher to explore the applications of nanomaterials for human welfare by converting the findings into technology. Some of the examples have been the use of nanoparticles in the field of opto-electronic, fuel cells, medicine and catalysis. These wide applications and significance lies in the fact that nanoparticles possess unique physical and chemical properties very different from their bulk precursors. Numerous methods for the synthesis of noble nanoparticles with tunable shape and size have been reported in literature. The goal of our group is to use different methods of synthesis of noble metal nanoparticles (Au, Ag, Pt and Pd) and test their protective/damaging role towards DNA base damage induced by ionizing radiation (Au and Ag) and to test the catalytic activity of nanoparticles (Pt and Pd) in certain known organic synthesis/electron transfer reactions. Using radiation chemical techniques such as pulse radiolysis and steady state radiolysis complemented by the product analysis using HPLC/LC-MS, a detailed mechanism for the formation of transient species, kinetics leading to the formation of stable end products is studied in the DNA base damage induced by ionizing radiation in presence and absence of Au and Ag nanoparticles. Unraveling the complex interaction between catalysts and reactants under operando conditions is a key step towards gaining fundamental insight in catalysis. The catalytic activity of Pt and Pd nanoparticles in electron transfer and Suzuki coupling reactions has been determined. Investigations are currently underway to gain insight into the interaction between catalysts and reactants using time resolved spectroscopic measurements. These studies will be detailed during the presentation. (author)

  9. Optimal energy for cell radiosensitivity enhancement by gold nanoparticles using synchrotron-based monoenergetic photon beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Wan Nordiana; Corde, Stéphanie; Yagi, Naoto; Abdul Aziz, Siti Aishah; Annabell, Nathan; Geso, Moshi

    2014-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have been shown to enhance radiation doses delivered to biological targets due to the high absorption coefficient of gold atoms, stemming from their high atomic number (Z) and physical density. These properties significantly increase the likelihood of photoelectric effects and Compton scattering interactions. Gold nanoparticles are a novel radiosensitizing agent that can potentially be used to increase the effectiveness of current radiation therapy techniques and improve the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. However, the optimum radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles is strongly dependent on photon energy, which theoretically is predicted to occur in the kilovoltage range of energy. In this research, synchrotron-generated monoenergetic X-rays in the 30-100 keV range were used to investigate the energy dependence of radiosensitization by gold nanoparticles and also to determine the photon energy that produces optimum effects. This investigation was conducted using cells in culture to measure dose enhancement. Bovine aortic endothelial cells with and without gold nanoparticles were irradiated with X-rays at energies of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 81, and 100 keV. Trypan blue exclusion assays were performed after irradiation to determine cell viability. Cell radiosensitivity enhancement was indicated by the dose enhancement factor which was found to be maximum at 40 keV with a value of 3.47. The dose enhancement factor obtained at other energy levels followed the same direction as the theoretical calculations based on the ratio of the mass energy absorption coefficients of gold and water. This experimental evidence shows that the radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles varies with photon energy as predicted from theoretical calculations. However, prediction based on theoretical assumptions is sometimes difficult due to the complexity of biological systems, so further study at the cellular level is required to fully characterize the effects

  10. Relating Structure to Efficiency in Surfactant-Free Polymer/Fullerene Nanoparticle-Based Organic Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gärtner, Stefan; Clulow, Andrew J; Howard, Ian A; Gilbert, Elliot P; Burn, Paul L; Gentle, Ian R; Colsmann, Alexander

    2017-12-13

    Nanoparticle dispersions open up an ecofriendly route toward printable organic solar cells. They can be formed from a variety of organic semiconductors by using miniemulsions that employ surfactants to stabilize the nanoparticles in dispersion and to prevent aggregation. However, whenever surfactant-based nanoparticle dispersions have been used to fabricate solar cells, the reported performances remain moderate. In contrast, solar cells from nanoparticle dispersions formed by precipitation (without surfactants) can exhibit power conversion efficiencies close to those of state-of-the-art solar cells processed from blend solutions using chlorinated solvents. In this work, we use small-angle neutron scattering measurements and transient absorption spectroscopy to investigate why surfactant-free nanoparticles give rise to efficient organic solar cells. We show that surfactant-free nanoparticles comprise a uniform distribution of small semiconductor domains, similar to that of bulk-heterojunction films formed using traditional solvent processing. This observation differs from surfactant-based miniemulsion nanoparticles that typically exhibit core-shell structures. Hence, the surfactant-free nanoparticles already possess the optimum morphology for efficient energy conversion before they are assembled into the photoactive layer of a solar cell. This structural property underpins the superior performance of the solar cells containing surfactant-free nanoparticles and is an important design criterion for future nanoparticle inks.

  11. Improving scattering layer through mixture of nanoporous spheres and nanoparticles in ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chohui; Choi, Hongsik; Kim, Jae Ik; Lee, Sangheon; Kim, Jinhyun; Lee, Woojin; Hwang, Taehyun; Kang, Suji; Moon, Taeho; Park, Byungwoo

    2014-01-01

    A scattering layer is utilized by mixing nanoporous spheres and nanoparticles in ZnO-based dye-sensitized solar cells. Hundred-nanometer-sized ZnO spheres consisting of approximately 35-nm-sized nanoparticles provide not only effective light scattering but also a large surface area. Furthermore, ZnO nanoparticles are added to the scattering layer to facilitate charge transport and increase the surface area as filling up large voids. The mixed scattering layer of nanoparticles and nanoporous spheres on top of the nanoparticle-based electrode (bilayer geometry) improves solar cell efficiency by enhancing both the short-circuit current (J sc) and fill factor (FF), compared to the layer consisting of only nanoparticles or nanoporous spheres.

  12. Nanoparticle discrimination based on wavelength and lifetime-multiplexed cathodoluminescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garming, Mathijs W H; Weppelman, I Gerward C; de Boer, Pascal; Martínez, Felipe Perona; Schirhagl, Romana; Hoogenboom, Jacob P; Moerland, Robert J

    2017-08-31

    Nanomaterials can be identified in high-resolution electron microscopy images using spectrally-selective cathodoluminescence. Capabilities for multiplex detection can however be limited, e.g., due to spectral overlap or availability of filters. Also, the available photon flux may be limited due to degradation under electron irradiation. Here, we demonstrate single-pass cathodoluminescence-lifetime based discrimination of different nanoparticles, using a pulsed electron beam. We also show that cathodoluminescence lifetime is a robust parameter even when the nanoparticle cathodoluminescence intensity decays over an order of magnitude. We create lifetime maps, where the lifetime of the cathodoluminescence emission is correlated with the emission intensity and secondary-electron images. The consistency of lifetime-based discrimination is verified by also correlating the emission wavelength and the lifetime of nanoparticles. Our results show how cathodoluminescence lifetime provides an additional channel of information in electron microscopy.

  13. Gold nanoparticle-based optical microfluidic sensors for analysis of environmental pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafleur, Josiane P.; Senkbeil, Silja; Jensen, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional methods of environmental analysis can be significantly improved by the development of portable microscale technologies for direct in-field sensing at remote locations. This report demonstrates the vast potential of gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensors for the rapid, in......-field, detection of two important classes of environmental contaminants – heavy metals and pesticides. Using gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensors linked to a simple digital camera as the detector, detection limits as low as 0.6 μg L−1 and 16 μg L−1 could be obtained for the heavy metal mercury...... and the dithiocarbamate pesticide ziram, respectively. These results demonstrate that the attractive optical properties of gold nanoparticle probes combine synergistically with the inherent qualities of microfluidic platforms to offer simple, portable and sensitive sensors for environmental contaminants....

  14. Detection of dopamine in dopaminergic cell using nanoparticles-based barcode DNA analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jeung Hee; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong Woo

    2012-01-01

    Nanotechnology-based bio-barcode-amplification analysis may be an innovative approach to dopamine detection. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of this bio-barcode DNA method in detecting dopamine from dopaminergic cells. Herein, a combination DNA barcode and bead-based immunoassay for neurotransmitter detection with PCR-like sensitivity is described. This method relies on magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies and nanoparticles that are encoded with DNA, and antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the nanoparticle-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from solution, and treated in order to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes were then identified via PCR analysis. The dopamine concentration in dopaminergic cells can be readily and rapidly detected via the bio-barcode assay method. The bio-barcode assay method is, therefore, a rapid and high-throughput screening tool for the detection of neurotransmitters such as dopamine.

  15. Label-free DNA biosensor based on resistance change of platinum nanoparticles assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotadis, Evangelos; Voutyras, Konstantinos; Chatzipetrou, Marianneza; Tsekenis, Georgios; Patsiouras, Lampros; Madianos, Leonidas; Chatzandroulis, Stavros; Zergioti, Ioanna; Tsoukalas, Dimitris

    2016-07-15

    A novel nanoparticle based biosensor for the fast and simple detection of DNA hybridization events is presented. The sensor utilizes hybridized DNA's charge transport properties, combining them with metallic nanoparticle networks that act as nano-gapped electrodes. The DNA hybridization events can be detected by a significant reduction in the sensor's resistance due to the conductive bridging offered by hybridized DNA. By modifying the nanoparticle surface coverage, which can be controlled experimentally being a function of deposition time, and the structural properties of the electrodes, an optimized biosensor for the in situ detection of DNA hybridization events is ultimately fabricated. The fabricated biosensor exhibits a wide response range, covering four orders of magnitude, a limit of detection of 1nM and can detect a single base pair mismatch between probe and complementary DNA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasmonic colorimetric sensors based on etching and growth of noble metal nanoparticles: Strategies and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyang; Wang, Han; Chen, Zhaopeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Choo, Jaebum; Chen, Lingxin

    2018-08-30

    Plasmonic colorimetric sensors have emerged as a powerful tool in chemical and biological sensing applications due to the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction in the visible range. Among the plasmonic sensors, the most famous sensing mode is the "aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensor which is based on plasmon coupling due to nanoparticle aggregation. Herein, this review focuses on the newly-developing plasmonic colorimetric sensing mode - the etching or the growth of metal nanoparticles induces plasmon changes, namely, "non-aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensor. This type of sensors has attracted increasing interest because of their exciting properties of high sensitivity, multi-color changes, and applicability to make a test strip. Of particular interest, the test strip by immobilization of nanoparticles on the substrate can avoid the influence of nanoparticle auto-aggregation and increase the simplicity in storage and use. Although there are many excellent reviews available that describe the advance of plasmonic sensors, limited attention has been paid to the plasmonic colorimetric sensors based on etching or growth of metal nanoparticles. This review highlights recent progress on strategies and application of "non-aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensors. We also provide some personal insights into current challenges associated with "non-aggregation" plasmonic colorimetric sensors and propose future research directions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of clay nanoparticles as reinforcement on mechanical properties of bioplastic base on cassava starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harunsyah; Sariadi; Raudah

    2018-01-01

    Plastics have been used widely for packaging material since long time ago. However, environmentally friendly plastics or plastics whose raw materials come from natural polymers are still very low in development. Efforts have been conducted to develop environmental friendly plastic from renewable resources such as biopolymer. The aim of this paper is to study the influence of clay nanoparticles as reinforcment on the mechanical properties of bioplastic were prepared by solution-casting method. The content of clay nanoparticles in the bioplastic was varied from 0.2%, 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8% and 1.0% (w/w) by weight of starch. Structural characterization was done by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Surface morphologies of the plastic film were examined by scanning electron microscope.The result showed that the Tensile strength was improved significantly with the addition of clay nanoparticles. The maximum tensile strength obtained was 24.18 M.Pa on the additional of clay nanoparticles by 0.6% and plasticizer by 25%. Based on data of FTIR, the produced bioplastic did not change the group function and it can be concluded that the interaction in bioplastic produced was only a physical interaction. The bioplastic based on cassava starch-clay nanoparticles and plasticizer glycerin showed that interesting mechanical properties being transparent, clear, homogeneous, flexible and easy to be handled.

  18. Chitosan nanoparticle-based neuronal membrane sealing and neuroprotection following acrolein-induced cell injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Riyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The highly reactive aldehyde acrolein is a very potent endogenous toxin with a long half-life. Acrolein is produced within cells after insult, and is a central player in slow and progressive "secondary injury" cascades. Indeed, acrolein-biomolecule complexes formed by cross-linking with proteins and DNA are associated with a number of pathologies, especially central nervous system (CNS trauma and neurodegenerative diseases. Hydralazine is capable of inhibiting or reducing acrolein-induced damage. However, since hydralazine's principle activity is to reduce blood pressure as a common anti-hypertension drug, the possible problems encountered when applied to hypotensive trauma victims have led us to explore alternative approaches. This study aims to evaluate such an alternative - a chitosan nanoparticle-based therapeutic system. Results Hydralazine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared using different types of polyanions and characterized for particle size, morphology, zeta potential value, and the efficiency of hydralazine entrapment and release. Hydralazine-loaded chitosan nanoparticles ranged in size from 300 nm to 350 nm in diameter, and with a tunable, or adjustable, surface charge. Conclusions We evaluated the utility of chitosan nanoparticles with an in-vitro model of acrolein-mediated cell injury using PC -12 cells. The particles effectively, and statistically, reduced damage to membrane integrity, secondary oxidative stress, and lipid peroxidation. This study suggests that a chitosan nanoparticle-based therapy to interfere with "secondary" injury may be possible.

  19. Photochemically synthesized heparin-based silver nanoparticles: an antimicrobial activity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Torres, Maria del Pilar; Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Díaz-Torres, Luis Armando

    2017-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles has been extensively studied in the last years. Such nanoparticles constitute a potential and promising approach for the development of new antimicrobial systems especially due to the fact that several microorganisms are developing resistance to some already existing antimicrobial agents, therefore making antibacterial and antimicrobial studies on alternative materials necessary to overcome this issue. Silver nanoparticle concentration and size are determining factors on the antimicrobial activity of these nano systems. Heparin is a polysaccharide that belongs to the glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) family, molecules formed by a base disaccharide whose components are joined by a glycosidic linkage that is a repeating unit along their structure. It is highly sulfated making it a negatively charged material that is also widely used as an anticoagulant in Medicine because its biocompatibility besides it is also produced within the human body, specifically in the mast cells. Heparin alone possesses antimicrobial activity although it has not been studied very much in detail, it only has been demonstrated that it inhibits E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and S. epidermidis, so taking this into account, this study is dedicated to assess UV photochemically-synthesized (λ=254 nm) heparin-based silver nanoparticles antimicrobial activity using the agar disk diffusion method complemented by the broth microdilution method to estimate de minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), that is the lowest concentration at which an antimicrobial will inhibit visible growth of a microorganism. The strains used were the ones aforementioned to assess the antimicrobial activity degree these heparinbased nanoparticles exhibit.

  20. 61Ni synchrotron radiation-based Mössbauer spectroscopy of nickel-based nanoparticles with hexagonal structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Ryo; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Kitao, Shinji; Kurokuzu, Masayuki; Saito, Makina; Yoda, Yoshitaka; Mitsui, Takaya; Hosoi, Kohei; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Seto, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    We measured the synchrotron-radiation (SR)-based Mössbauer spectra of Ni-based nanoparticles with a hexagonal structure that were synthesised by chemical reduction. To obtain Mössbauer spectra of the nanoparticles without 61Ni enrichment, we developed a measurement system for 61Ni SR-based Mössbauer absorption spectroscopy without X-ray windows between the 61Ni84V16 standard energy alloy and detector. The counting rate of the 61Ni nuclear resonant scattering in the system was enhanced by the detection of internal conversion electrons and the close proximity between the energy standard and the detector. The spectrum measured at 4 K revealed the internal magnetic field of the nanoparticles was 3.4 ± 0.9 T, corresponding to a Ni atomic magnetic moment of 0.3 Bohr magneton. This differs from the value of Ni3C and the theoretically predicted value of hexagonal-close-packed (hcp)-Ni and suggested the nanoparticle possessed intermediate carbon content between hcp-Ni and Ni3C of approximately 10 atomic % of Ni. The improved 61Ni Mössbauer absorption measurement system is also applicable to various Ni materials without 61Ni enrichment, such as Ni hydride nanoparticles. PMID:26883185

  1. Glucose biosensor based on a platinum electrode modified with rhodium nanoparticles and with glucose oxidase immobilized on gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xishan; Jian, Jinming; Liang, Bo; Ye, Xuesong; Zhang, Yelei

    2014-01-01

    We have developed an enzymatic glucose biosensor that is based on a flat platinum electrode which was covered with electrophoretically deposited rhodium (Rh) nanoparticles and then sintered to form a large surface area. The biosensor was obtained by depositing glucose oxidase (GOx), Nafion, and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on the Rh electrode. The electrical potential and the fractions of Nafion and GOx were optimized. The resulting biosensor has a very high sensitivity (68.1 μA mM −1 cm −2 ) and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 15 mM (r = 0.989). The limit of detection is as low as 0.03 mM (at an SNR of 3). The glucose biosensor also is quite selective and is not interfered by electroactive substances including ascorbic acid, uric acid and acetaminophen. The lifespan is up to 90 days. It was applied to the determination of glucose in blood serum, and the results compare very well with those obtained with a clinical analyzer. (author)

  2. Mannosylated Chitosan Nanoparticles Based Macrophage-Targeting Gene Delivery System Enhanced Cellular Uptake and Improved Transfection Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yixing; Yao, Wenjun; Wang, Bo; Zong, Li

    2015-04-01

    Gene transfer mediated by mannosylated chitosan (MCS) is a safe and promising approach for gene and vaccine delivery. MCS nanoparticles based gene delivery system showed high in vivo delivery efficiency and elicited strong immune responses in mice. However, little knowledge about the cell binding, transfection efficiency and intracellular trafficking of MCS nanoparticles had been acquired. In this study, using gastrin-releasing peptide as a model plasmid (pGRP), the binding of MCS/pGRP nanoparticles to macrophages and the intracellular trafficking of MCS/pGRP nanoparticles in macrophages were investigated. MCS-mediated transfection efficiency in macrophages was also evaluated using pGL-3 as a reporter gene. The results showed that the binding and transfection efficiency of MCS nanoparticles in macrophages was higher than that of CS, which was attributed to the interaction between mannose ligands in MCS and mannose receptors on the surface of macrophages. Observation with a confocal laser scanning microscope indicated the cellular uptake of MCS/pGRP nanoparticles were more than that of CS/pGRP nanoparticles in macrophages. MCS/pGRP nanoparticles were taken up by macrophages and most of them were entrapped in endosomal/lysosomal compartments. After the nanoparticles escaping from endosomal/lysosomal compartments, naked pGRP entered the nucleus, and a few MCS might enter the nucleus in terms of nanoparticles. Overall, MCS has the potential to be an excellent macrophage-targeting gene delivery carrier.

  3. Synthesis, Characterization, and In Vitro Drug Delivery Capabilities of (Zn, Al-Based Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay J. Nagaraj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for the development of alternative strategies for effective drug delivery to improve the outcome of patients suffering from deadly diseases such as cancer. Nanoparticles, in particular layered double hydroxide (LDH nanoparticles, have great potential as nanocarriers of chemotherapeutic molecules. In this study, we synthesized (Zn, Al-LDH nanoparticles and report their enhanced pH-dependent stability in comparison to the commonly used (Mg, Al-LDH nanoparticles. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC and valproate (VP were intercalated into (Zn, Al-LDH nanoparticles to study cellular uptake, biocompatibility, and drug delivery capabilities using cultured pancreatic adenocarcinoma BxPC3 cells. Fluorescence measurements indicated that FITC-intercalated LDH nanoparticles showed a greater degree of energy-dependent uptake rather than passive uptake by BxPC3 cells, especially at high concentrations of nanoparticles. Tetrazolium-based colorimetric assays indicated that BxPC3 cells treated with VP-intercalated LDH nanoparticles showed a significant reduction in cell viability along with about 30-fold reduction in IC50 compared to the drug alone. In contrast, the non-drug-intercalated LDH nanoparticles did not affect the cell viability indicating very low innate cytotoxicity. Our research indicates that the superior properties of (Zn, Al-LDH nanoparticles make them ideal candidates for further development as in vivo chemotherapy drug delivery agents.

  4. Nanoparticle-Based Drug Delivery for Therapy of Lung Cancer: Progress and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Babu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed enormous advances in the development and application of nanotechnology in cancer detection, diagnosis, and therapy culminating in the development of the nascent field of “cancer nanomedicine.” A nanoparticle as per the National Institutes of Health (NIH guidelines is any material that is used in the formulation of a drug resulting in a final product smaller than 1 micron in size. Nanoparticle-based therapeutic systems have gained immense popularity due to their ability to overcome biological barriers, effectively deliver hydrophobic therapies, and preferentially target disease sites. Currently, many formulations of nanocarriers are utilized including lipid-based, polymeric and branched polymeric, metal-based, magnetic, and mesoporous silica. Innovative strategies have been employed to exploit the multicomponent, three-dimensional constructs imparting multifunctional capabilities. Engineering such designs allows simultaneous drug delivery of chemotherapeutics and anticancer gene therapies to site-specific targets. In lung cancer, nanoparticle-based therapeutics is paving the way in the diagnosis, imaging, screening, and treatment of primary and metastatic tumors. However, translating such advances from the bench to the bedside has been severely hampered by challenges encountered in the areas of pharmacology, toxicology, immunology, large-scale manufacturing, and regulatory issues. This review summarizes current progress and challenges in nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems, citing recent examples targeted at lung cancer treatment.

  5. Thermogelling chitosan–collagen–bioactive glass nanoparticle hybrids as potential injectable systems for tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Cheisy D.F.; Carvalho, Sandhra M.; Mansur, Herman S., E-mail: hmansur@demet.ufmg.br; Pereira, Marivalda M., E-mail: mpereira@demet.ufmg.br

    2016-01-01

    Recently, stimuli-responsive nanocomposite-derived hydrogels have gained prominence in tissue engineering because they can be applied as injectable scaffolds in bone and cartilage repair. Due to the great potential of these systems, this study aimed to synthesize and characterize novel thermosensitive chitosan-based composites, chemically modified with collagen and reinforced by bioactive glass nanoparticles (BG) on the development of injectable nanohybrids for regenerative medicine applications. Thus, the composite hydrogels were extensively characterized by structural, morphological, rheological, and biological testing. The composites showed thermosensitive response with the gelation temperature at approximately 37 °C, which is compatible with the human body temperature. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis indicated that the chitosan hydrogels exhibited 3D-porous structures, and the incorporation of collagen in the system caused increase on the average pore size. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis indicated the main functional groups of each component of the composite system and their chemical interactions forming the scaffold. Moreover, rheological measurements were employed to assess the viscoelastic behavior of the hydrogels as a function of the temperature. The results demonstrated that the addition of collagen and bioactive glass increases the mechanical properties after the gelation process. The addition of 2 wt.% of BG nanoparticles caused an increase of approximately 39% on stiffness compared to pure chitosan and the addition of 30 wt.% collagen caused a further increase on the stiffness by 95%. The cytotoxicity and cell viability of the hydrogels were assessed by MTT and LIVE/DEAD® assays, where the results demonstrated no toxic effect of the composites on the human osteosarcoma cell culture (SAOS) and kidney cells line of human embryo (HEK 293T). Hence, it can be stated that innovative composites were

  6. Radiation induced variations in photoperiod-sensitivity, thermo-sensitivity and the number of days to heading in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation induced semi-dwarf mutants derived from five japonica type varieties of rice were studied with regard to their photoperiod-sensitivity, thermo-sensitivity and the number of days to heading. The experiment was carried out under the natural conditions at Taipei. The coefficient of photoperiod-sensitivity and thermo-sensitivity as developed by Oka (1954) were estimated for the mutants in comparison with their original varieties. It was observed that these various physiological characters could be altered easily by mutations. Mutants showed wider ranges in both positive and negative directions than their original varieties in all physiological characters studied. Even though heading date depends on both photoperiod-sensitivity and thermo-sensitivity, it was estimated which of the two contributed more to the induced earliness in each mutant. This offers a basis for selecting early maturing lines of rice

  7. The influence of increased cross-linker chain length in thermosensitive microspheres on potential sun-protection activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musiał, Witold; Kokol, Vanja; Voncina, Bojana

    2010-01-01

    The sun protection should involve substances with protecting activity against both UVB and UVA radiation. In this research the evaluation of thermosensitive microspheres as potential molecules for sunscreen formulations was approached, using modified Boots star rating system. The microspheres, thermosensitive N-isopropylacrylamide derivatives, have potential protecting activity against UV radiation. The MX and DX microspheres, with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate and diethylene glycol dimethacrylate crosslinker respectively, due to theirs thermosensitivity exhibit increase in protecting activity against UV radiation when heated to 45 degrees C. The MX microspheres have higher increase in terms of UV absorbance, comparing to DX microspheres, when heated in the 25 degrees C to 45 degrees C range. Studied microspheres have high potential for application as components of sun-screens used in elevated temperatures.

  8. Stealth Biocompatible Si-Based Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Arnaud; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Angeletti, Bernard; Masion, Armand; Da Silva, Afitz; Daurat, Morgane; Lichon, Laure; Garcia, Marcel; Morère, Alain; El Cheikh, Khaled; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Cunin, Frédérique; Auffan, Mélanie

    2017-01-01

    A challenge regarding the design of nanocarriers for drug delivery is to prevent their recognition by the immune system. To improve the blood residence time and prevent their capture by organs, nanoparticles can be designed with stealth properties using polymeric coating. In this study, we focused on the influence of surface modification with polyethylene glycol and/or mannose on the stealth behavior of porous silicon nanoparticles (pSiNP, ~200 nm). In vivo biodistribution of pSiNPs formulations were evaluated in mice 5 h after intravenous injection. Results indicated that the distribution in the organs was surface functionalization-dependent. Pristine pSiNPs and PEGylated pSiNPs were distributed mainly in the liver and spleen, while mannose-functionalized pSiNPs escaped capture by the spleen, and had higher blood retention. The most efficient stealth behavior was observed with PEGylated pSiNPs anchored with mannose that were the most excreted in urine at 5 h. The biodegradation kinetics evaluated in vitro were in agreement with these in vivo observations. The biocompatibility of the pristine and functionalized pSiNPs was confirmed in vitro on human cell lines and in vivo by cytotoxic and systemic inflammation investigations, respectively. With their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and stealth properties, the pSiNPs functionalized with mannose and PEG show promising potential for biomedical applications. PMID:28946628

  9. Magnetic liposomes based on nickel ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana Rita O; Gomes, I T; Almeida, Bernardo G; Araújo, J P; Castanheira, Elisabete M S; Coutinho, Paulo J G

    2015-07-21

    Nickel ferrite nanoparticles with superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature were synthesized using a coprecipitation method. These magnetic nanoparticles were either covered with a lipid bilayer, forming dry magnetic liposomes (DMLs), or entrapped in liposomes, originating aqueous magnetoliposomes (AMLs). A new and promising method for the synthesis of DMLs is described. The presence of the lipid bilayer in DMLs was confirmed by FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) measurements between the fluorescent-labeled lipids NBD-C12-HPC (NBD acting as a donor) included in the second lipid layer and rhodamine B-DOPE (acceptor) in the first lipid layer. An average donor-acceptor distance of 3 nm was estimated. Assays of the non-specific interactions of magnetoliposomes with biological membranes (modeled using giant unilamellar vesicles, GUVs) were performed. Membrane fusion between both aqueous and dry magnetoliposomes and GUVs was confirmed by FRET, which is an important result regarding applications of these systems both as hyperthermia agents and antitumor drug nanocarriers.

  10. Trophic transfer of metal-based nanoparticles in aquatic environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangaa, Stine Rosendal; Selck, Henriette; Winther-Nielsen, Margrethe

    2016-01-01

    Metal-containing engineered nanoparticles (Me-ENPs) are used in a wide range of products including inks, plastics, personal care products, clothing and electronic devices. The release of Me-ENPs has been demonstrated from some products, and thus, particles are likely to enter the aquatic environm......Metal-containing engineered nanoparticles (Me-ENPs) are used in a wide range of products including inks, plastics, personal care products, clothing and electronic devices. The release of Me-ENPs has been demonstrated from some products, and thus, particles are likely to enter the aquatic...... environment where they have been shown to be taken up by a variety of species. Therefore, there is a possibility that Me-ENPs will enter and pass through aquatic food webs, but research on this topic is limited. In this tutorial review, we discuss the factors contributing to trophic transfer of Me......-ENPs, and where this information is scarce, we utilize the existing literature on aqueous metal trophic transfer as a potential starting point for greater mechanistic insight and for setting directions for future studies. We identify four key factors affecting trophic transfer of Me-ENPs: (1) environmental...

  11. Biopolymer-Based Nanoparticles for Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Sachiko Kaihara; Numata, Keiji

    2013-01-01

    There has been a great interest in application of nanoparticles as biomaterials for delivery of therapeutic molecules such as drugs and genes, and for tissue engineering. In particular, biopolymers are suitable materials as nanoparticles for clinical application due to their versatile traits, including biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. Biopolymers are polymers that are produced from living organisms, which are classified in three groups: polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. It is important to control particle size, charge, morphology of surface and release rate of loaded molecules to use biopolymer-based nanoparticles as drug/gene delivery carriers. To obtain a nano-carrier for therapeutic purposes, a variety of materials and preparation process has been attempted. This review focuses on fabrication of biocompatible nanoparticles consisting of biopolymers such as protein (silk, collagen, gelatin, β-casein, zein and albumin), protein-mimicked polypeptides and polysaccharides (chitosan, alginate, pullulan, starch and heparin). The effects of the nature of the materials and the fabrication process on the characteristics of the nanoparticles are described. In addition, their application as delivery carriers of therapeutic drugs and genes and biomaterials for tissue engineering are also reviewed. PMID:23344060

  12. Biopolymer-Based Nanoparticles for Drug/Gene Delivery and Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Numata

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great interest in application of nanoparticles as biomaterials for delivery of therapeutic molecules such as drugs and genes, and for tissue engineering. In particular, biopolymers are suitable materials as nanoparticles for clinical application due to their versatile traits, including biocompatibility, biodegradability and low immunogenicity. Biopolymers are polymers that are produced from living organisms, which are classified in three groups: polysaccharides, proteins and nucleic acids. It is important to control particle size, charge, morphology of surface and release rate of loaded molecules to use biopolymer-based nanoparticles as drug/gene delivery carriers. To obtain a nano-carrier for therapeutic purposes, a variety of materials and preparation process has been attempted. This review focuses on fabrication of biocompatible nanoparticles consisting of biopolymers such as protein (silk, collagen, gelatin, β-casein, zein and albumin, protein-mimicked polypeptides and polysaccharides (chitosan, alginate, pullulan, starch and heparin. The effects of the nature of the materials and the fabrication process on the characteristics of the nanoparticles are described. In addition, their application as delivery carriers of therapeutic drugs and genes and biomaterials for tissue engineering are also reviewed.

  13. Nitrophenol chemi-sensor and active solar photocatalyst based on spinel hetaerolite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sher Bahadar; Rahman, Mohammed M; Akhtar, Kalsoom; Asiri, Abdullah M; Rub, Malik Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In this contribution, a significant catalyst based on spinel ZnMn2O4 composite nanoparticles has been developed for electro-catalysis of nitrophenol and photo-catalysis of brilliant cresyl blue. ZnMn2O4 composite (hetaerolite) nanoparticles were prepared by easy low temperature hydrothermal procedure and structurally characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and UV-visible spectroscopy which illustrate that the prepared material is optical active and composed of well crystalline body-centered tetragonal nanoparticles with average size of ∼ 38 ± 10 nm. Hetaerolite nanoparticles were applied for the advancement of a nitrophenol sensor which exhibited high sensitivity (1.500 µAcm(-2) mM(-1)), stability, repeatability and lower limit of detection (20.0 µM) in short response time (10 sec). Moreover, hetaerolite nanoparticles executed high solar photo-catalytic degradation when applied to brilliant cresyl blue under visible light.

  14. Green production of microalgae-based silver chloride nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Ferreira, Veronica; ConzFerreira, Mateus Eugenio; Lima, Luís Maurício T R; Frasés, Susana; de Souza, Wanderley; Sant'Anna, Celso

    2017-02-01

    Silver nanoparticles are powerful antimicrobial agents. Here, the synthesis of silver chloride nanoparticles (AgCl-NPs) was consistently evidenced from a commercially valuable microalgae species, Chlorella vulgaris. Incubation of C. vulgaris conditioned medium with AgNO 3 resulted in a medium color change to yellow/brown (with UV-vis absorbance at 415nm), indicative of silver nanoparticle formation. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) of purified nanoparticles confirmed the presence of both silver and chlorine atoms, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the typical pattern of cubic crystalline AgCl-NPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that most particles (65%) were spherical, with average diameter of 9.8±5.7nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of purified nanoparticle fractions suggested that proteins are the main molecular entities involved in AgCl-NP formation and stabilization. AgCl-NPs (from 10μg/mL) decreased by 98% the growth of Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterial pathogens, and had a dose-dependent effect on cell viability, which was measured by automated image-based high content screening (HCS). Ultrastructural analysis of treated bacteria by TEM revealed the abnormal arrangement of the chromosomal DNA. Our findings strongly indicated that the AgCl-NPs from C. vulgaris conditioned medium is a promising 'green' alternative for biomedical application as antimicrobials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. in vivo EFFECTS OF RARE-EARTH BASED NANOPARTICLES ON OXIDATIVE BALANCE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Klochkov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research was to find the influence of rare-earth based nanoparticles (CeO2, GdVO2: Eu3+ on the oxidative balance in rats. We analyzed biochemical markers of oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation level, nitric oxide metabolites, sulfhydryl groups content and enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase in tissues of rats. It has been found that administration of both types of the nanoparticles increased nitric oxide metabolites and products of lipid peroxidation in liver and spleen within 5 days. At injections of GdVO2: Eu3+ lipid peroxidation products, nitric oxide metabolites in serum at 5, 10 and 15 days of the experiment was also increased whereas the level of sulfhydryl groups decreased compared to the intact state and the control. In contrast, under the influence of nanoparticle CeO2 level diene conjugates were not significantly changed and the level of nitric oxide metabolites within 15 day even decreased. During this period, under the influence of both types of nanoparticles the activity of superoxide dismutase was increased, catalase activity was not changed. Oxidative stress coefficient showed the less pronounced CeO2 prooxidant effect (2.04 in comparison to GdVO2: Eu3+ (6.89. However, after-effect of both types of nanoparticles showed complete restoration of oxidative balance values.

  16. Poly(n-isopropylacrylamide)-based hydrogel coatings on magnetite nanoparticles via atom transfer radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frimpong, Reynolds A; Hilt, J Zach [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)], E-mail: hilt@engr.uky.edu

    2008-04-30

    Core magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles have been functionalized with a model intelligent hydrogel system based on the temperature responsive polymer poly(n-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) to obtain magnetically responsive core-shell nanocomposites. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles were obtained from a one-pot co-precipitation method which provided either oleic acid (hydrophobic) or citric acid (hydrophilic) coated nanoparticles. Subsequent ligand exchange of these coatings with various bromine alkyl halides and a bromo silane provided initiating sites for functionalization with NIPAAm using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The bromine alkyl halides that were used were 2-bromo-2-methyl propionic acid (BMPA) and 2-bromopropionyl bromide (BPB). The bromo silane that was used was 3-bromopropyl trimethoxysilane (BPTS). The intelligent polymeric shell consists of NIPAAm crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol) 400 dimethacrylate (PEG400DMA). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to confirm the presence of the polymeric shell. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to characterize the nanocomposites for particle size changes with temperature. Their magnetic and temperature responsiveness show great promise for further biomedical applications. This platform for functionalizing magnetic nanoparticles with intelligent hydrogels promises to impact a wide range of medical and biological applications of magnetic nanoparticles.

  17. Poly(n-isopropylacrylamide)-based hydrogel coatings on magnetite nanoparticles via atom transfer radical polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, Reynolds A; Hilt, J Zach

    2008-01-01

    Core magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles have been functionalized with a model intelligent hydrogel system based on the temperature responsive polymer poly(n-isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAAm) to obtain magnetically responsive core-shell nanocomposites. Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles were obtained from a one-pot co-precipitation method which provided either oleic acid (hydrophobic) or citric acid (hydrophilic) coated nanoparticles. Subsequent ligand exchange of these coatings with various bromine alkyl halides and a bromo silane provided initiating sites for functionalization with NIPAAm using atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). The bromine alkyl halides that were used were 2-bromo-2-methyl propionic acid (BMPA) and 2-bromopropionyl bromide (BPB). The bromo silane that was used was 3-bromopropyl trimethoxysilane (BPTS). The intelligent polymeric shell consists of NIPAAm crosslinked with poly(ethylene glycol) 400 dimethacrylate (PEG400DMA). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to confirm the presence of the polymeric shell. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to characterize the nanocomposites for particle size changes with temperature. Their magnetic and temperature responsiveness show great promise for further biomedical applications. This platform for functionalizing magnetic nanoparticles with intelligent hydrogels promises to impact a wide range of medical and biological applications of magnetic nanoparticles

  18. High performance hybrid silicon micropillar solar cell based on light trapping characteristics of Cu nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulong Zhang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available High performance silicon combined structure (micropillar with Cu nanoparticles solar cell has been synthesized from N-type silicon substrates based on the micropillar array. The combined structure solar cell exhibited higher short circuit current rather than the silicon miropillar solar cell, which the parameters of micropillar array are the same. Due to the Cu nanoparticles were decorated on the surface of silicon micropillar array, the photovoltaic properties of cells have been improved. In addition, the optimal efficiency of 11.5% was measured for the combined structure solar cell, which is better than the silicon micropillar cell.

  19. High performance hybrid silicon micropillar solar cell based on light trapping characteristics of Cu nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Fan, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Weijia; Ma, Qiang; Jiang, Zhaoyi; Ma, Denghao

    2018-05-01

    High performance silicon combined structure (micropillar with Cu nanoparticles) solar cell has been synthesized from N-type silicon substrates based on the micropillar array. The combined structure solar cell exhibited higher short circuit current rather than the silicon miropillar solar cell, which the parameters of micropillar array are the same. Due to the Cu nanoparticles were decorated on the surface of silicon micropillar array, the photovoltaic properties of cells have been improved. In addition, the optimal efficiency of 11.5% was measured for the combined structure solar cell, which is better than the silicon micropillar cell.

  20. Gold nanoparticle-based fluorescent sensor for the analysis of dithiocarbamate pesticides in water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Senkbeil, Silja; Lafleur, Josiane P.; Jensen, Thomas Glasdam

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides play a key role in the high yields achieved in modern agricultural food production. Besides their positive effect on increasing productivity they are intentionally toxic, often towards non-target organisms and contaminated food products can have a serious impact on human...... and environmental health. This paper demonstrates the potential of a gold nanoparticle-based microfluidic sensor for in field detection of dithiocarbamate pesticides at remote locations. Combining the attractive optical properties of gold nanoparticles with on chip mixing and detection, using a simple digital...

  1. Formulation and evaluation of sublingual delivery of piroxicam using thermosensitive polymer with an inverted Franz diffusion cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaraman, Arunprasad; Banga, Ajay K

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prepare a sublingual formulation for piroxicam using a thermosensitive polymer and to evaluate its permeation through porcine sublingual mucosa. Formulation technique utilized the transition property of poloxamer from solution state at room temperature to gel state at oromucosal temperature (37 °C). The permeation of the drug was evaluated using an inverted Franz diffusion cell technique that allowed the dosage form to be directly applied onto the substrate with required volume of saliva. The formulation was characterized for microscopy of the piroxicam crystals, sol-gel transition property and in-vitro diffusion study. Poloxamer-based formulation enhanced solubility and increased permeability of the piroxicam. Poloxamer formulation with 0.1% w/w piroxicam delivered a cumulative amount of 11.99 ± 7.82 and 11.23 ± 1.79 μg/cm(2), while non-poloxamer formulation delivered 3.57 ± 2.20 and 4.60 ± 6.90 μg/cm(2) with 0.1 and 0.5 ml artificial saliva, respectively, through porcine sublingual tissue in 6 h. A similar delivery profile was observed for 0.05% w/w piroxicam formulation as well. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  2. Co-micellized Pluronic mixture with thermo-sensitivity and residence stability as an injectable tissue adhesion barrier hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Se Heang; Kang, Jun Goo; Lee, Jin Ho

    2018-01-01

    Although the tissue adhesion which leads to various complications frequently occurs after surgery, the development of an ideal tissue adhesion barrier is still a challenge. In this study, a thermo-sensitive hydrogel, which can fulfill the essential requirements of tissue adhesion barrier (that is, ease of handling for surgeon, flowing down prevention after application, stable residence on the injury during wound healing, and no use of toxic additives), was developed using biocompatible polyethylene glycol-polypropylene glycol copolymers (Pluronic F127/F68/P123 mixture). From the in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal study, it was observed that the Pluronic mixtures showed sol-gel transition at approximately body temperature (for easy injection or coating on the injury site and flowing down prevention after application) and prolonged residence stability in aqueous environment (> ∼7 days for stable protection of injury tissues/organs during wound healing), and thus was highly effective for the prevention of tissue adhesion without adverse tissue responses. Based on these results, the Pluronic F127/F68/P123 mixture itself (without any additives) can be a good candidate as an injectable or coatable tissue adhesion barrier hydrogel applicable to various injury tissues in terms of ease of use, effectiveness, and safety. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 106B: 172-182, 2018. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based vaccine increases protection against S. pneumoniae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mott, Brittney; Thamake, Sanjay; Vishwanatha, Jamboor; Jones, Harlan P.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) technologies are becoming commonplace in the development of vaccine delivery systems to protect against various diseases. The current study determined the efficacy of intranasal delivery of a 234 ± 87.5 nm poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticle vaccine construct in establishing protection against experimental respiratory pneumococcal infection. Nanoparticles encapsulating heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (NP-HKSP) were retained in the lungs 11 days following nasal administration compared to empty NP. Immunization with NP-HKSP produced significant resistance against S. pneumoniae infection compared to administration of HKSP alone. Increased protection correlated with a significant increase in antigen-specific Th1-associated IFN-γ cytokine response by pulmonary lymphocytes. This study establishes the efficacy of NP-based technology as a non-invasive and targeted approach for nasal-pulmonary immunization against pulmonary infections.

  4. Intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based vaccine increases protection against S. pneumoniae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mott, Brittney; Thamake, Sanjay; Vishwanatha, Jamboor; Jones, Harlan P.

    2013-05-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) technologies are becoming commonplace in the development of vaccine delivery systems to protect against various diseases. The current study determined the efficacy of intranasal delivery of a 234 ± 87.5 nm poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticle vaccine construct in establishing protection against experimental respiratory pneumococcal infection. Nanoparticles encapsulating heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (NP-HKSP) were retained in the lungs 11 days following nasal administration compared to empty NP. Immunization with NP-HKSP produced significant resistance against S. pneumoniae infection compared to administration of HKSP alone. Increased protection correlated with a significant increase in antigen-specific Th1-associated IFN-γ cytokine response by pulmonary lymphocytes. This study establishes the efficacy of NP-based technology as a non-invasive and targeted approach for nasal-pulmonary immunization against pulmonary infections.

  5. Intranasal delivery of nanoparticle-based vaccine increases protection against S. pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mott, Brittney [University of North Texas Health Science Center, Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology (United States); Thamake, Sanjay [Radio-Isotope Therapy of America Foundation (United States); Vishwanatha, Jamboor; Jones, Harlan P., E-mail: harlan.jones@unthsc.edu [University of North Texas Health Science Center, Department of Molecular Biology and Immunology (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Nanoparticle (NP) technologies are becoming commonplace in the development of vaccine delivery systems to protect against various diseases. The current study determined the efficacy of intranasal delivery of a 234 {+-} 87.5 nm poly lactic-co-glycolic acid nanoparticle vaccine construct in establishing protection against experimental respiratory pneumococcal infection. Nanoparticles encapsulating heat-killed Streptococcus pneumoniae (NP-HKSP) were retained in the lungs 11 days following nasal administration compared to empty NP. Immunization with NP-HKSP produced significant resistance against S. pneumoniae infection compared to administration of HKSP alone. Increased protection correlated with a significant increase in antigen-specific Th1-associated IFN-{gamma} cytokine response by pulmonary lymphocytes. This study establishes the efficacy of NP-based technology as a non-invasive and targeted approach for nasal-pulmonary immunization against pulmonary infections.

  6. Development of iron-based nanoparticles for Cr(VI removal from drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vourlias G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A great deal of research over recent decades has been motivated by the requirement to lower the concentration of chromium in drinking water. This study has been conducted to determine the feasibility of iron-based nanoparticles for chromium removal from contaminated water. Single Fe, Fe3O4 and binary Fe/Fe3O4 nanoparticles were grown at the 45-80 nm size range using the solar physical vapor deposition technique and tested as potential hexavalent chromium removing agents from aqueous solutions. Due to their higher electron donation ability compared to the Fe3O4 ones, single Fe nanoparticles exhibited the highest Cr(VI removal capacity of more than 3 µg/mg while maintaining a residual concentration 50 µg/L, equal to the regulation limit for drinking water. In combination to their facile and fast magnetic separation, the applicability of the studied particles in water treatment facilities should be considered.

  7. Synthesis and functionalization of dextran-based single-chain nanoparticles in aqueous media

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia R.; Marradi M.; Cossío U.; Benito A.; Pérez-San Vicente A.; Gómez-Vallejo V.; Grande H.-J.; Llop J.; and Loinaz I.

    2017-01-01

    Water-dispersible dextran-based single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCPNs) were prepared in aqueous media and under mild conditions. Radiolabeling of the resulting biocompatible materials allowed the study of lung deposition of aqueous aerosols after intratracheal nebulization by means of single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), demonstrating their potential use as imaging contrast agents.

  8. Design and synthesis study of the thermo-sensitive poly (N-vinylpyrrolidone-b- N, N-diethylacrylamide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiayun; Yang, Zhongduo; Xie, Dengmin; Liu, Donglei; Chen, Zhenbin; Li, Ke; Li, Zhizhong; Tichnell, Brandon; Liu, Zhen

    2018-01-01

    The reversible addition fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization method was adopted here to prepare a series of thermo-sensitive copolymers, poly (N,N-diethyl- acrylamide-b-N-vinylpyrrolidone). Their structures, molecular weight distribution and temperature sensitivity performances were characterized by the nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1 HNMR), the gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and the fluorescence spectrophotometer, respectively. It has been identified that the synthesis reaction of the block copolymer was living polymerization. The thermo-sensitivity study suggested that N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP), played a key role on the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) performance.

  9. Influence of metal nanoparticle decorated CNTs on polyurethane based electro active shape memory nanocomposite actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, Mohan; Shanmugharaj, A.M.; Ryu, Sung Hun; Subha, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Polyurethane based on pristine and metal (Ag and Cu) nanoparticle decorated CNTs nanocomposites are prepared through melt blending process. → The electrical, mechanical, dynamic mechanical, thermal conductivity and electro active shape memory properties of the PU nanocomposites were investigated. → The influence of metal nanoparticle decorated CNTs showed significant improvement in their all properties to compare to pristine CNTs. → Electro active shape memory studies of the PU/M-CNTs nanocomposites reveal extraordinary recoverability of its shape at lower applied dc voltages. - Abstract: Polymer nanocomposites based on thermoplastic polyurethane (PU) elastomer and metal nanoparticle (Ag and Cu) decorated multiwall carbon nanotubes (M-CNTs) were prepared through melt mixing process and investigated for its mechanical, dynamic mechanical and electro active shape memory properties. Structural characterization and morphological characterization of the PU nanocomposites were done using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Morphological characterization revealed better dispersion of M-CNTs in the polyurethane, which is attributed to the improved interaction between the M-CNTs and polyurethane. Loading of the metal nanoparticle coated carbon nanotubes resulted in the significant improvement on the mechanical properties such as tensile strength of the PU composites in comparison to the pristine carbon nanotubes (P-CNTs). Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the polyurethane increases slightly with increasing loading of both pristine and metal nanoparticle functionalized carbon nanotubes. The metal nanoparticles decorated carbon nanotubes also showed significant improvement in the thermal and electrical conductivity of the PU/M-CNTs nanocomposites. Shape memory studies of the PU/M-CNTs nanocomposites exhibit remarkable recoverability of its shape at lower applied dc voltages.

  10. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.

    2010-01-01

    Totally porous lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles were used as pseudostationary phase for capillary electroseparation with LIF detection of proteins at physiological conditions using unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer capillaries (Topas (R), 6.7 cm effective length). In the absence of n...... at protein friendly conditions. The developed capillary-based method facilitates future electrochromatography of proteins on polymer-based microchips under physiological conditions and enables the initial optimization of separation conditions in parallel to the chip development....

  11. Cyclodextrin-Based [1]Rotaxanes on Gold Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Zhao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Transformation of mechanically interlocked molecules (e.g., rotaxanes and catenanes into nanoscale materials or devices is an important step towards their real applications. In our current work, an azobenzene-modified β-cyclodextrin (β-CD derivative that can form a self-inclusion complex in aqueous solution was prepared. The self-included β-CD derivative was then functionalized onto a gold nanoparticle (AuNP surface via a ligand-exchange reaction in aqueous solution, leading to the formation of AuNP-[1]rotaxane hybrids. Corresponding non-self-included β-CD derivative functionalized AuNPs were also developed in a DMF/H2O mixture solution for control experiments. These hybrids were fully characterized by UV-vis and circular dichroism spectroscopies, together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The competitive binding behavior of the hybrids with an adamantane dimer was investigated.

  12. Povidone-Iodine-Based Polymeric Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Tianyi; Fan, Hongbo; Wang, Xinjie; Gao, Yangyang; Liu, Wenxin; Chen, Wanjun; Dong, Alideertu; Wang, Yan-Jie

    2017-08-09

    As microbial contamination is becoming more and more serious, antibacterial agents play an important role in preventing and removing bacterial pathogens from microbial pollution in our daily life. To solve the issues with water solubility and antibacterial stability of PVP-I 2 (povidone-iodine) as a strong antibacterial agent, we successfully obtain hydrophobic povidone-iodine nanoparticles (povidone-iodine NPs) by a two-step method related to the advantage of nanotechnology. First, the synthesis of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone-co-methyl methacrylate) nanoparticles, i.e., P(NVP-MMA) NPs, was controlled by tuning a feed ratio of NVP to MMA. Then, the products P(NVP-MMA) NPs were allowed to undergo a complexation reaction with iodine, resulting in the formation of a water-insoluble antibacterial material, povidone-iodine NPs. It is found that the feed ratio of NVP to MMA has an active effect on morphology, chemical composition, molecular weight, and hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties of the P(NVP-MMA) copolymer after some technologies, such as SEM, DLS, elemental analysis, 1 H NMR, GPC, and the contact angle test, were used in the characterizations. The antibacterial property of povidone-iodine NPs was investigated by using Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) as model bacteria with the colony count method. Interestingly, three products, such as glue, ink, and dye, after the incorporation of povidone-iodine NPs, show significant antibacterial properties. It is believed that, with the advantage of nanoscale morphology, the final povidone-iodine NPs should have great potential for utilization in various fields where antifouling and antibacterial properties are highly required.

  13. Increasing dwell time of mitomycin C in the upper tract with a reverse thermosensitive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Agnes J; Goldsmith, Zachariah G; Neisius, Andreas; Astroza, Gaston M; Oredein-McCoy, Olugbemisola; Iqbal, Muhammad W; Simmons, W Neal; Madden, John F; Preminger, Glenn M; Inman, Brant A; Lipkin, Michael E; Ferrandino, Michael N

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Background and Purpose: Topical chemotherapy for urothelial cancer is dependent on adequate contact time of the chemotherapeutic agent with the urothelium. To date, there has not been a reliable method of maintaining this contact for renal or ureteral urothelial carcinoma. We evaluated the safety and feasibility of using a reverse thermosensitive polymer to improve dwell times of mitomycin C (MMC) in the upper tract. Using a porcine model, four animals were treated ureteroscopically with both upper urinary tracts receiving MMC mixed with iodinated contrast. One additional animal received MMC percutaneously. The treatment side had ureteral outflow blocked with a reverse thermosensitive polymer plug. MMC dwell time was monitored fluoroscopically and intrarenal pressures measured. Two animals were euthanized immediately, and three animals were euthanized 5 days afterward. In control kidneys, drainage occurred at a mean of 5.3±0.58 minutes. Intrarenal pressures stayed fairly stable: 9.7±14.0 cm H20. In treatment kidneys, dwell time was extended to 60 minutes, when the polymer was washed out. Intrarenal pressures in the treatment kidneys peaked at 75.0±14.7 cm H20 and reached steady state at 60 cm H20. Pressures normalized after washout of the polymer with cool saline. Average washout time was 11.8±9.6 minutes. No histopathologic differences were seen between the control and treatment kidneys, or with immediate compared with delayed euthanasia. A reverse thermosensitive polymer can retain MMC in the upper urinary tract and appears to be safe from our examination of intrarenal pressures and histopathology. This technique may improve the efficacy of topical chemotherapy in the management of upper tract urothelial carcinoma.

  14. Integration of Nanoparticle-Based Paper Sensors into the Classroom: An Example of Application for Rapid Colorimetric Analysis of Antioxidants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Erica; Andreescu, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    We describe a laboratory experiment that employs the Nanoceria Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (or NanoCerac) Assay to introduce students to portable nanoparticle-based paper sensors for rapid analysis and field detection of polyphenol antioxidants. The experiment gives students a hands-on opportunity to utilize nanoparticle chemistry to develop…

  15. Preparation and Optimization OF Palm-Based Lipid Nanoparticles Loaded with Griseofulvin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huei Lim, Wen; Jean Tan, Yann; Sin Lee, Choy; Meng Er, Hui; Fung Wong, Shew

    2017-01-01

    Palm-based lipid nanoparticle formulation loaded with griseofulvin was prepared by solvent-free hot homogenization method. The griseofulvin loaded lipid nanoparticles were prepared via stages of optimisation, by altering the high pressure homogenisation (HPH) parameters, screening on palm-based lipids and Tween series surfactants and selection of lipid to surfactant ratios. A HPLC method has been validated for the drug loading capacity study. The optimum HPH parameter was determined to be 1500 bar with 5 cycles and among the palm-based lipid materials; Lipid C (triglycerides) was selected for the preparation of lipid nanoparticles. Tween 80 was chosen from the Tween series surfactants for its highest saturated solubility of griseofulvin at 53.1 ± 2.16 µg/mL. The optimum formulation of the griseofulvin loaded lipid nanoparticles demonstrated nano-range of particle size (179.8 nm) with intermediate distribution index (PDI) of 0.306, zeta potential of -27.9 mV and drug loading of 0.77%. The formulation was stable upon storage for 1 month at room temperature (25 ° C) and 45 ° C with consistent drug loading capacity.

  16. A novel reflectance-based aptasensor using gold nanoparticles for the detection of oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ho Bin; Kwon, Young Seop; Lee, Ji-eun; Cullen, David; Noh, Hongseok Moses; Gu, Man Bock

    2015-10-07

    We present a novel reflectance-based colorimetric aptasensor using gold nanoparticles for the detection of oxytetracycline for the first time. It was found that the reflectance-based measurement at two wavelengths (650 and 520 nm) can generate more stable and sensitive signals than absorbance-based sensors to determine the aggregation of AuNPs, even at high AuNP concentrations. One of the most common antibacterial agents, oxytetracycline (OTC), was detected at concentrations as low as 1 nM in both buffer solution and tap water, which was 25-fold more sensitive, compared to the previous absorbance-based colorimetric aptasensors. This reflectance-based colorimetric aptasensor using gold nanoparticles is considered to be a better platform for portable sensing of small molecules using aptamers.

  17. Membrane-based assay for iodide ions based on anti-leaching of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yu-Wei; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Unnikrishnan, Binesh; Li, Yu-Jia; Huang, Chih-Ching

    2014-02-26

    We report a label-free colorimetric strategy for the highly selective and sensitive detection of iodide (I(-)) ions in human urine sample, seawater and edible salt. A poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone)-stabilized Au nanoparticle (34.2-nm) was prepared to detect I(-) ions using silver (Ag(+)) and cyanide (CN(-)) ions as leaching agents in a glycine-NaOH (pH 9.0) solution. For the visual detection of the I(-) ions by naked eye, and for long time stability of the probe, Au nanoparticles (NPs) decorated mixed cellulose ester membrane (MCEM) was prepared (Au NPs/MCEM). The Au NPs-based probe (CN(-)/Ag(+)-Au NPs/MCEM) operates on the principle that Ag(+) ions form a monolyar silver atoms/ions by aurophilic/argentophilic interactions on the Au NPs and it accelerates the leaching rate of Au atoms in presence of CN(-) ions. However, when I(-) is introduced into this system, it inhibits the leaching of Au atoms because of the strong interactions between Ag/Au ions and I(-) ions. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry were used to characterize the surface properties of the Au NPs in the presence of Ag(+) and I(-). Under optimal solution conditions, the CN(-)/Ag(+)-Au NPs/MCEM probe enabled the detection of I(-) by the naked eye at nanomolar concentrations with high selectivity (at least 1000-fold over other anions). In addition, this cost-effective probe allowed the determination of I(-) ions in complex samples, such as urine, seawater, and edible salt samples.

  18. Optimal energy for cell radiosensitivity enhancement by gold nanoparticles using synchrotron-based monoenergetic photon beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman WN

    2014-05-01

    .47. The dose enhancement factor obtained at other energy levels followed the same direction as the theoretical calculations based on the ratio of the mass energy absorption coefficients of gold and water. This experimental evidence shows that the radiosensitization effect of gold nanoparticles varies with photon energy as predicted from theoretical calculations. However, prediction based on theoretical assumptions is sometimes difficult due to the complexity of biological systems, so further study at the cellular level is required to fully characterize the effects of gold nanoparticles with ionizing radiation.Keywords: gold nanoparticles, radiotherapy, monoenergetic synchrotron radiation, radiosensitizers, in vitro

  19. Smart polyaniline nanoparticles with thermal and photothermal sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiovanni Abel, Silvestre; Molina, María A.; Rivarola, Claudia R.; Kogan, Marcelo J.; Barbero, Cesar A.

    2014-12-01

    Conductive polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI NPs) are synthesized by oxidation of aniline with persulfate in acid media, in the presence of polymeric stabilizers: polyvinilpyrrolidone (PVP), poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM), and hydroxylpropylcellulose (HPC). It is observed that the size of the nanoparticles obtained depends on the polymeric stabilizer used, suggesting a mechanism where the aggregation of polyaniline molecules is arrested by adsorption of the polymeric stabilizer. Indeed, polymerization in the presence of a mixture of two polymers having different stabilizing capacity (PVP and PNIPAM) allows tuning of the size of the nanoparticles. Stabilization with biocompatible PVP, HPC and PNIPAM allows use of the nanoparticle dispersions in biological applications. The nanoparticles stabilized by thermosensitive polymers (PNIPAM and HPC) aggregate when the temperature exceeds the phase transition (coil to globule) temperature of each stabilizer (Tpt = 32 °C for PNIPAM or Tpt = 42 °C for HPC). This result suggests that an extended coil form of the polymeric stabilizer is necessary to avoid aggregation. The dispersions are reversibly restored when the temperature is lowered below Tpt. In that way, the effect could be used to separate the nanoparticles from soluble contaminants. On the other hand, the PANI NPs stabilized with PVP are unaffected by the temperature change. UV-visible spectroscopy measurements show that the nanoparticle dispersion changes their spectra with the pH of the external solution, suggesting that small molecules can easily penetrate the stabilizer shell. Near infrared radiation is absorbed by PANI NPs causing an increase of their temperature which induces the collapse of the thermosensitive polymer shell and aggregation of the NPs. The effect reveals that it is possible to locally heat the nanoparticles, a phenomenon that can be used to destroy tumor cells in cancer therapy or to dissolve protein aggregates of neurodegenerative diseases

  20. Porous Porphyrin-Based Organosilica Nanoparticles for NIR Two-Photon Photodynamic Therapy and Gene Delivery in Zebrafish

    KAUST Repository

    Mauriello Jimenez, Chiara

    2018-03-30

    Periodic mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles emerge as promising vectors for nanomedicine applications. Their properties are very different from those of well-known mesoporous silica nanoparticles as there is no silica source for their synthesis. So far, they have only been synthesized from small bis-silylated organic precursors. However, no studies employing large stimuli-responsive precursors have been reported on such hybrid systems yet. Here, the synthesis of porphyrin-based organosilica nanoparticles from a large octasilylated metalated porphyrin precursor is described for applications in near-infrared two-photon-triggered spatiotemporal theranostics. The nanoparticles display unique interconnected large cavities of 10-80 nm. The framework of the nanoparticles is constituted with J-aggregates of porphyrins, which endows them with two-photon sensitivity. The nanoparticle efficiency for intracellular tracking is first demonstrated by the in vitro near-infrared imaging of breast cancer cells. After functionalization of the nanoparticles with aminopropyltriethoxysilane, two-photon-excited photodynamic therapy in zebrafish is successfully achieved. Two-photon photochemical internalization in cancer cells of the nanoparticles loaded with siRNA is also performed for the first time. Furthermore, siRNA targeting green fluorescent protein complexed with the nanoparticles is delivered in vivo in zebrafish embryos, which demonstrates the versatility of the nanovectors for biomedical applications.

  1. Silver nanoparticle-loaded chitosan-starch based films: Fabrication and evaluation of tensile, barrier and antimicrobial properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoksan, Rangrong; Chirachanchai, Suwabun

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication of silver nanoparticles was accomplished by γ-ray irradiation reduction of silver nitrate in a chitosan solution. The obtained nanoparticles were stable in the solution for more than six months, and showed the characteristic surface plasmon band at 411 nm as well as a positively charged surface with 40.4 ± 2.0 mV. The silver nanoparticles presented a spherical shape with an average size of 20-25 nm, as observed by TEM. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against E. coli, S. aureus and B. cereus of the silver nanoparticles dispersed in the γ-ray irradiated chitosan solution was 5.64 μg/mL. The silver nanoparticle-loaded chitosan-starch based films were prepared by a solution casting method. The incorporation of silver nanoparticles led to a slight improvement of the tensile and oxygen gas barrier properties of the polysaccharide-based films, with diminished water vapor/moisture barrier properties. In addition, silver nanoparticle-loaded films exhibited enhanced antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus and B. cereus. The results suggest that silver nanoparticle-loaded chitosan-starch based films can be feasibly used as antimicrobial materials for food packaging and/or biomedical applications.

  2. Use of dextran nanoparticle: A paradigm shift in bacterial exopolysaccharide based biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparna; Bandopadhyay, Rajib

    2016-06-01

    This review is a concise compilation of all the major researches on dextran nanoparticle based biomedical applications. Dextran is a highly biocompatible and biodegradable neutral bacterial exopolysaccharide with simple repeating glucose subunits. It's simple yet unique biopolymeric nature made it highly suitable as nanomedicine, nanodrug carrier, and cell imaging system or nanobiosensor. Most importantly, it is extremely water soluble and shows no post drug delivery cellular toxicity. Complete metabolism of dextran is possible inside body thus possibility of renal failure is minimum. Dextran based nanoparticles have superior aqueous solubility, high cargo capacity and intrinsic viscosity, and short storage period. The main focus area of this review is- past and present of major biomedical applications of dextran based nanomaterials thus showing a paradigm shift in bacterial exopolysaccharide based nanobiotechnology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF POLYMERIC NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON POLYAMIDE 12 MODIFIED BY Cr2O3 NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Shapoval

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In situ polymerization method is used for obtaining polymeric composites based on polyamide12 matrix (PA 12, filled with Cr2O3 nanoparticles. The carried out researches result in synthesis method development for polymeric nanocomposites based on PA 12 matrix filled with nano-sized Cr2O3magnetic particles providing uniform embedding of the filler into polymeric matrix without formation of nanoparticles agglomerates. Mechanical tests on samples compression are carried out. It is shown that mechanical properties of polymeric composites (Young’s modulus, durability limit are decreased for 20-30 % as compared with not modified PA 12 synthesized by means of the chosen method. The influence of the filler on crystallization morphology and kinetics of polymeric nanocomposites is determined by electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The values of crystallization degree, crystallization rate constant for different supercooling intervals and parameters of Avrami equation are obtained. The initial nucleation is shown to be going on according to non-thermal mechanism, and nanoparticles are not the germs of crystallization. It is stated that nanoparticles are embedded into polymeric matrix and uniformly allocated in crystallites. Research results can find their application at creation of electric and magnetic fields, micro-sized mechanical devices, and at development of new materials for 3D printers.

  4. Towards Environmentally-benign Nanoengineering: Antimicrobial Nanoparticles Based on Silver-infused Lignin Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Alexander Philipp

    Engineered nanomaterials are capable of solving challenges in industries important to society such as energy, agriculture, and health care. Antimicrobial silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most widely used nanoparticles by number of commercial products in commerce today. However, the increased introduction of AgNPs in industrial applications may lead to discharge of persistent nanoparticles in the environment and undesired impacts on living organisms. This dissertation will present a new class of antimicrobial environmentallybenign nanoparticles (EbNPs) designed with green chemistry principles, which can serve as highly efficient microbicide substitutes of the AgNPs. The EbNP core is made of biodegradable lignin, and is infused with an optimal amount of silver ions. We report on the fabrication of environmentally benign nanoparticles (EbNPs) using two types of lignin precursors with simple, inexpensive, and non-toxic processes, (i) by employing a solvent exchange precipitation method at room temperature and (ii) by applying an environmentally friendly water-based acid precipitation method. The synthesis of Organosolv (High Purity Lignin) nanoparticles via antisolvent flash precipitation method in water resulted in particles in the size range of 45 to 250 nm in diameter. We investigate the synthesis parameters of Kraft (Indulin AT) lignin nanoparticles by flash precipitation induced by pH drop in ethylene glycol. Furthermore, we evaluate the ionic strength and pH stability of both lignin nanoparticle suspensions and highlight differences in the systems. After silver ion infusion of Indulin AT nanoparticles followed by surface modification, we show that the EbNPs exhibit higher antimicrobial activity towards Gram-negative human pathogens Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive human pathogens Staphylococcus epidermidis in direct comparison with silver nanoparticles and silver nitrate solution, and that the particles are effective against

  5. UV-Visible Spectroscopy-Based Quantification of Unlabeled DNA Bound to Gold Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldock, Brandi L; Hutchison, James E

    2016-12-20

    DNA-functionalized gold nanoparticles have been increasingly applied as sensitive and selective analytical probes and biosensors. The DNA ligands bound to a nanoparticle dictate its reactivity, making it essential to know the type and number of DNA strands bound to the nanoparticle surface. Existing methods used to determine the number of DNA strands per gold nanoparticle (AuNP) require that the sequences be fluorophore-labeled, which may affect the DNA surface coverage and reactivity of the nanoparticle and/or require specialized equipment and other fluorophore-containing reagents. We report a UV-visible-based method to conveniently and inexpensively determine the number of DNA strands attached to AuNPs of different core sizes. When this method is used in tandem with a fluorescence dye assay, it is possible to determine the ratio of two unlabeled sequences of different lengths bound to AuNPs. Two sizes of citrate-stabilized AuNPs (5 and 12 nm) were functionalized with mixtures of short (5 base) and long (32 base) disulfide-terminated DNA sequences, and the ratios of sequences bound to the AuNPs were determined using the new method. The long DNA sequence was present as a lower proportion of the ligand shell than in the ligand exchange mixture, suggesting it had a lower propensity to bind the AuNPs than the short DNA sequence. The ratio of DNA sequences bound to the AuNPs was not the same for the large and small AuNPs, which suggests that the radius of curvature had a significant influence on the assembly of DNA strands onto the AuNPs.

  6. Permanganate-based synthesis of manganese oxide nanoparticles in ferritin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cameron R.; Smith, Trevor J.; Embley, Jacob S.; Maxfield, Jake H.; Hansen, Kameron R.; Peterson, J. Ryan; Henrichsen, Andrew M.; Erickson, Stephen D.; Buck, David C.; Colton, John S.; Watt, Richard K.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates the comproportionation reaction of MnII with {{{{MnO}}}4}- as a route for manganese oxide nanoparticle synthesis in the protein ferritin. We report that {{{{MnO}}}4}- serves as the electron acceptor and reacts with MnII in the presence of apoferritin to form manganese oxide cores inside the protein shell. Manganese loading into ferritin was studied under acidic, neutral, and basic conditions and the ratios of MnII and permanganate were varied at each pH. The manganese-containing ferritin samples were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV/Vis absorption, and by measuring the band gap energies for each sample. Manganese cores were deposited inside ferritin under both the acidic and basic conditions. All resulting manganese ferritin samples were found to be indirect band gap materials with band gap energies ranging from 1.01 to 1.34 eV. An increased UV/Vis absorption around 370 nm was observed for samples formed under acidic conditions, suggestive of MnO2 formation inside ferritin.

  7. Calcium fluoride based multifunctional nanoparticles for multimodal imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Straßer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available New multifunctional nanoparticles (NPs that can be used as contrast agents (CA in different imaging techniques, such as photoluminescence (PL microscopy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, open new possibilities for medical imaging, e.g., in the fields of diagnostics or tissue characterization in regenerative medicine. The focus of this study is on the synthesis and characterization of CaF2:(Tb3+,Gd3+ NPs. Fabricated in a wet-chemical procedure, the spherical NPs with a diameter of 5–10 nm show a crystalline structure. Simultaneous doping of the NPs with different lanthanide ions, leading to paramagnetism and fluorescence, makes them suitable for MR and PL imaging. Owing to the Gd3+ ions on the surface, the NPs reduce the MR T1 relaxation time constant as a function of their concentration. Thus, the NPs can be used as a MRI CA with a mean relaxivity of about r = 0.471 mL·mg−1·s−1. Repeated MRI examinations of four different batches prove the reproducibility of the NP synthesis and determine the long-term stability of the CAs. No cytotoxicity of NP concentrations between 0.5 and 1 mg·mL−1 was observed after exposure to human dermal fibroblasts over 24 h. Overall this study shows, that the CaF2:(Tb3+,Gd3+ NPs are suitable for medical imaging.

  8. Nanoparticle-Based Strategies to Treat Neuro-Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémy Poupot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuro-inflammation is a pivotal physio-pathological feature of brain disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases. As such, it is a relevant therapeutic target against which drugs have to be proposed. Targeting neuro-inflammation implies crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB to reach the Central Nervous System (CNS. Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs are promising candidates to carry and deliver drugs to the CNS by crossing the BBB. There are several strategies to design ENPs intended for crossing through the BBB. Herein, we first put nanotechnologies back in their historical context and introduce neuro-inflammation and its consequences in terms of public health. In a second part, we explain how ENPs can get access to the brain and review this area by highlighting recent papers in the field. Finally, after pointing out potential guidelines for preclinical studies involving ENPs, we conclude by opening the debate on the questions of nanosafety and toxicity of these ENPs and in particular on ecotoxicity related to regulatory issues and public concerns.

  9. Development of electrochemical folic acid sensor based on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchana, P.; Sekar, C.

    2015-02-01

    We report the synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles (NPs) by a simple microwave irradiation method and its application as sensing element for the precise determination of folic acid (FA) by electrochemical method. The structure and composition of the HA NPs characterized using XRD, FTIR, Raman and XPS. SEM and EDX studies confirmed the formation of elongated spherical shaped HA NPs with an average particle size of about 34 nm. The HA NPs thin film on glassy carbon electrode (GCE) were deposited by drop casting method. Electrocatalytic behavior of FA in the physiological pH 7.0 was investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) and chronoamperometry. The fabricated HA/GCE exhibited a linear calibration plot over a wide FA concentration ranging from 1.0 × 10-7 to 3.5 × 10-4 M with the detection limit of 75 nM. In addition, the HA NPs modified GCE showed good selectivity toward the determination of FA even in the presence of a 100-fold excess of ascorbic acid (AA) and 1000-fold excess of other common interferents. The fabricated biosensor exhibits good sensitivity and stability, and was successfully applied for the determination of FA in pharmaceutical samples.

  10. Biosensors based on inorganic nanoparticles with biomimetic properties: Biomedical applications and in vivo cytotoxicity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispas, Cristina R.

    The rapid progress of nanotechnology and advanced nanomaterials production offer significant opportunities for designing powerful biosensing devices with enhanced performances. This thesis introduces ceria (CeO 2) nanoparticles and its congeners as a new class of materials with huge potential in bioanalytical and biosensing applications. Unique redox, catalytic and oxygen storage/release properties of ceria nanoparticles, originating from their dual oxidation state are used to design biomedical sensors with high sensitivity and low oxygen dependency. This thesis describes a new approach for fabrication of implantable microbiosensors designed for monitoring neurological activity in physiological conditions. Understanding the mechanisms involved in neurological signaling and functioning is of great physiological importance. In this respect, the development of effective methods that allow accurate detection and quantification of biological analytes (i.e. L-glutamate and glucose) associated with neurological processes is of paramount importance. The performance of most analytical techniques currently used to monitor L-glutamate and glucose is suboptimal and only a limited number of approaches address the problem of operation in oxygen-restricted conditions, such as ischemic brain injury. Over the past couple of years, enzyme based biosensors have been used to investigate processes related to L-glutamate release/uptake and the glucose cycle within the brain. However, most of these sensors, based on oxidoreductase enzymes, do not work in conditions of limited oxygen availability. This thesis presents the development of a novel sensing technology for the detection of L-glutamate and glucose in conditions of oxygen deprivation. This technology provides real-time assessment of the concentrations of these analytes with high sensitivity, wide linear range, and low oxygen dependence. The fabrication, characterization and optimization of enzyme microbiosensors are discussed

  11. Super-Hydrophobic/Icephobic Coatings Based on Silica Nanoparticles Modified by Self-Assembled Monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junpeng Liu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A super-hydrophobic surface has been obtained from nanocomposite materials based on silica nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (POTS using spin coating and chemical vapor deposition methods. Scanning electron microscope images reveal the porous structure of the silica nanoparticles, which can trap small-scale air pockets. An average water contact angle of 163° and bouncing off of incoming water droplets suggest that a super-hydrophobic surface has been obtained based on the silica nanoparticles and POTS coating. The monitored water droplet icing test results show that icing is significantly delayed by silica-based nano-coatings compared with bare substrates and commercial icephobic products. Ice adhesion test results show that the ice adhesion strength is reduced remarkably by silica-based nano-coatings. The bouncing phenomenon of water droplets, the icing delay performance and the lower ice adhesion strength suggest that the super-hydrophobic coatings based on a combination of silica and POTS also show icephobicity. An erosion test rig based on pressurized pneumatic water impinging impact was used to evaluate the durability of the super-hydrophobic/icephobic coatings. The results show that durable coatings have been obtained, although improvement will be needed in future work aiming for applications in aerospace.

  12. Poly (N-isopropylacrylamide)-functionalized dendrimer as a thermosensitive nanoplatform for delivering malloapelta B against HepG2 cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngan Le, Phung; Chuong Pham, Dinh; Hai Nguyen, Dai; Quyen Tran, Ngoc; Dimitrov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Petko; Nguyen Xuan, Cuong; Nguyen, Hoai Nam; Khoa Nguyen, Cuu

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, nanocarriers have emerged as effective platforms for delivering several kinds of herbal medicine and naturally bioactive compounds. In this study we developed an outstanding thermosensitive dendritic nanocarrier to efficiently deliver malloapelta B (Mall B), which is a water insoluble bioactive compound isolated from leaves of Mallotus apelta—Vietnamese medicinal plant. The thermosensitive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) polymer-conjugated polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer copolymer was prepared via Michael reaction. The copolymer structures were confirmed by proton nuclear magnectic resonance (1H NMR). Morphology of the nanocarrier was observered around 70-120 nm by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Size distributions were measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) of the nanocarrier and its Mall B-loaded performed at 146.8 nm and 194.5 nm, respectively. The PNIPAM-g-PAMAM-based nanocarrier exhibited higher Mall B loading efficiency (DL  =  59.93  ±  0.19%) and entrapment efficiency (EE  =  89.98  ±  2.06%) as compared to PNIPAM (DL  =  52.54  ±  0.45% and EE  =  66.45  ±  2.78%). In vitro release indicated that approximately 30% amount of the loaded Mall B released at pH 5.5 after 54 h tracking. At the same time, 12.5% amount of the molecules released at pH 7.4.Cytotoxicity assay results showed that the Mall B-loaded nanocarrier significantly inhibited HepG2 cancer cell proliferation. These obtained results indicated that the nanocarrier could solve hydrophobic property of Mall B for further medicine applications.

  13. Highly sensitive wearable strain sensor based on silver nanowires and nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengbo, Sang; Lihua, Liu; Aoqun, Jian; Qianqian, Duan; Jianlong, Ji; Qiang, Zhang; Wendong, Zhang

    2018-06-01

    Here, we propose a highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensor based on silver nanoparticles and nanowires (Ag NPs and NWs), advancing the rapid development of electronic skin. To improve the sensitivity of strain sensors based on silver nanowires (Ag NWs), Ag NPs and NWs were added to polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as an aid filler. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) increase the conductive paths for electrons, leading to the low resistance of the resulting sensor (14.9 Ω). The strain sensor based on Ag NPs and NWs showed strong piezoresistivity with a tunable gauge factor (GF) at 3766, and a change in resistance as the strain linearly increased from 0% to 28.1%. The high GF demonstrates the irreplaceable role of Ag NPs in the sensor. Moreover, the applicability of our high-performance strain sensor has been demonstrated by its ability to sense movements caused by human talking, finger bending, wrist raising and walking.

  14. Colorimetric detection of trace copper ions based on catalytic leaching of silver-coated gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Tingting; Chen, Lingxin; Chen, Zhaopeng; Wang, Yunqing; Chen, Ling; Li, Jinhua

    2011-11-01

    A colorimetric, label-free, and nonaggregation-based silver coated gold nanoparticles (Ag/Au NPs) probe has been developed for detection of trace Cu(2+) in aqueous solution, based on the fact that Cu(2+) can accelerate the leaching rate of Ag/Au NPs by thiosulfate (S(2)O(3)(2-)). The leaching of Ag/Au NPs would lead to dramatic decrease in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) absorption as the size of Ag/Au NPs decreased. This colorimetric strategy based on size-dependence of nanoparticles during their leaching process provided a highly sensitive (1.0 nM) and selective detection toward Cu(2+), with a wide linear detection range (5-800 nM) over nearly 3 orders of magnitude. The cost-effective probe allows rapid and sensitive detection of trace Cu(2+) ions in water samples, indicating its potential applicability for the determination of copper in real samples.

  15. A sight on protein-based nanoparticles as drug/gene delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salatin, Sara; Jelvehgari, Mitra; Maleki-Dizaj, Solmaz; Adibkia, Khosro

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric nanomaterials have extensively been applied for the preparation of targeted and controlled release drug/gene delivery systems. However, problems involved in the formulation of synthetic polymers such as using of the toxic solvents and surfactants have limited their desirable applications. In this regard, natural biomolecules including proteins and polysaccharide are suitable alternatives due to their safety. According to literature, protein-based nanoparticles possess many advantages for drug and gene delivery such as biocompatibility, biodegradability and ability to functionalize with targeting ligands. This review provides a general sight on the application of biodegradable protein-based nanoparticles in drug/gene delivery based on their origins. Their unique physicochemical properties that help them to be formulated as pharmaceutical carriers are also discussed.

  16. Enhancing Antidepressant Effect of Poloxamer/Chitosan Thermosensitive Gel Containing Curcumin-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor solubility and bioavailability are limiting factors for the clinical application of curcumin. This study seeks to develop poloxamer/chitosan thermosensitive gel containing curcumin-cyclodextrin inclusion complex with enhanced brain bioavailability and antidepressant effect. The optimized gel had shorter gelation time and produced sustained release in vitro characterized with non-Fickian diffusion. Pharmacokinetics of gel were evaluated using male Sprague-Dawley rats receiving 240 μg/kg of curcumin and curcumin-cyclodextrin inclusion complex through intranasal administration, compared against a control group receiving intravenous curcumin (240 μg/kg. The intranasal administration of gel provided sustained release by maintaining plasma concentrations of curcumin above 21.27 ± 3.26 ng/mL for up to 8 h. Compared to intranasal administration of the inclusion complex, AUC0–8 h of curcumin from thermoreversible gel in plasma and hippocampus was increased 1.62- and 1.28-fold, respectively. The gel exhibited superior antidepressant activity in mice. The findings reported here suggested that the clinical application of curcumin can be better exploited through an intranasal administration of the thermosensitive gel.

  17. Thermotolerance and thermosensitization in CHO and R1H cells: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikomey, E.; Eickhoff, J.; Jung, H.

    1984-01-01

    In CHO and R1H cells thermotolerance was induced by a pre-incubation at 40 0 C, by an acute heat shock at 43 0 C followed by a time interval at 37 0 C, and during continuous heating at 42 0 C. Thermotolerance, which was tested at 43 0 , primarily causes an increase in D 0 of the heat-response curve. The degree of maximum thermotolerance was found to be generally more pronounced in CHO than in R1H cells, but the time interval at 37 0 C, as well as at 40 0 C, to reach this maximum level was the same in both cell lines. CHO and R1H cells could be sensitized to 40 0 C by a pre-treatment at 43 0 C. When compared for the same survival rate after pre-treatment at 43 0 C alone the degree of thermosensitization was about the same in both cell lines. In either cell line thermosensitization was found to be suppressed when cells were made thermotolerant by a previous incubation at 40 0 C for 16 hours. (author)

  18. In situ delivery of thermosensitive gel-mediated 5-fluorouracil microemulsion for the treatment of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Huang, Shuai; Guo, Hui-Hui; Han, Yan-Xing; Zheng, Wen-Sheng; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2016-01-01

    In situ administration of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) “thermosensitive” gel effectively reduced systemic side effects in treating colon rectal cancer; however, the penetration efficacy of the formulation was considerably low due to the poor lipid solubility of 5FU. The aim of this study was to develop thermosensitive gel-mediated 5FU water-in-oil microemulsion (TG-5FU-ME) for improving the infiltration of 5FU. An in vitro release test showed that TG-5FU-ME sustained the drug’s release up to 10 hours. TG-5FU-ME exhibited good stability, and the microemulsion entrapped did not show any change in morphology and 5FU content during the 4-month storage. Transportation test in the Caco-2 cell monolayer showed that TG-5FU-ME had a permeability 6.3 times higher than that of 5FU thermosensitive gel, and the intracellular uptake of 5FU increased by 5.4-fold compared to that of 5FU thermosensitive gel. In vivo tissue distribution analysis exhibited that the TG-5FU-ME group had drug levels in rectal tissue and mesenteric lymph nodes, which were significantly higher than those of 5FU thermosensitive gel group, with very low blood levels of 5FU in both groups. Furthermore, TG-5FU-ME was not associated with detectable morphological damage to the rectal tissue. Conclusively, TG-5FU-ME might be an efficient rectal delivery system to treat colorectal cancer. PMID:27660416

  19. Highly Sensitive DNA Sensor Based on Upconversion Nanoparticles and Graphene Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Cristobal, P; Vilela, P; El-Sagheer, A; Lopez-Cabarcos, E; Brown, T; Muskens, O L; Rubio-Retama, J; Kanaras, A G

    2015-06-17

    In this work we demonstrate a DNA biosensor based on fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles and graphene oxide (GO). Monodisperse NaYF4:Yb,Er nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 29.1 ± 2.2 nm were synthesized and coated with a SiO2 shell of 11 nm, which allowed the attachment of single strands of DNA. When these DNA-functionalized NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 nanoparticles were in the proximity of the GO surface, the π-π stacking interaction between the nucleobases of the DNA and the sp(2) carbons of the GO induced a FRET fluorescence quenching due to the overlap of the fluorescence emission of the NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 and the absorption spectrum of GO. By contrast, in the presence of the complementary DNA strands, the hybridization leads to double-stranded DNA that does not interact with the GO surface, and thus the NaYF4:Yb,Er@SiO2 nanoparticles remain unquenched and fluorescent. The high sensitivity and specificity of this sensor introduces a new method for the detection of DNA with a detection limit of 5 pM.

  20. Interaction of aluminum oxide nanoparticles with flow of polyvinyl alcohol solutions base nanofluids over a wedge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohsan; Faisal, Abrar; Bhatti, Muhammad Mubashir

    2018-02-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is an important industrial chemical, which is used in numerous chemical engineering applications. It is important to study and predict the flow behavior of PVA solutions and the role of nanoparticles in heat transfer applications to be used in chemical processes on industrial scale. Therefore, the present study deals with the PVA solution-based non-Newtonian Al2O3-nanofluid flow along with heat transfer over wedge. The power-law model is used for this non-Newtonian nanofluid which exhibited shear-thinning behavior. The influences of PVA and nanoparticles concentrations on the characteristics of velocity and temperature profiles are examined graphically. The impacts of these parameters on wall shear stress and convective heat transfer coefficient are also studied through tabular form. During the numerical computations, the impacts of these parameters on flow index and consistency index along with other physical properties of nanofluid are also considered. In this study, we found an improvement in heat transfer and temperature profile of fluid by distribution of Al2O3 nanoparticles. It is also noticed that resistance between adjacent layers of moving fluid is enhanced due to these nanoparticles which leads to decline in velocity profile and increases in shear stress at wall.

  1. Magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Julian Fernandez, C. E-mail: dejulian@padova.infm.it; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Battaglin, G.; Gonella, F.; Lascialfari, A.; Lo Russo, S.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.; Gonzalez, J.M.; D' Acapito, F

    2001-04-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles (Ni-Co, Ni-Cu and Co-Cu) formed in a silica matrix by ion implantation is presented. Different ion doses and implantation sequences were realized in order to obtain different nanostructures. The structural and magnetic properties observed for the Cu{sub 50}Ni{sub 50} nanoparticles are similar to those of the Cu{sub 60}Ni{sub 40} bulk alloy. The crystal structure of Co{sub x}Ni{sub 1-x} (0{<=}x{<=}1) nanoparticles is similar to that of the corresponding bulk alloy. The magnetic properties depend on the ion-implanted dose and on the alloy composition. The samples prepared by implanting a 15x10{sup 16} ions/cm{sup 2} total dose contain nanoparticles, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature and their magnetic behavior is influenced by dipolar interparticle interactions. The magnetization of the CoNi samples at high magnetic field is larger than that of the corresponding bulk alloy and follows the same composition dependence of that quantity measured in the alloy.

  2. Magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles dispersed in a silica matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Julian Fernandez, C.; Sangregorio, C.; Mattei, G.; Maurizio, C.; Battaglin, G.; Gonella, F.; Lascialfari, A.; Lo Russo, S.; Gatteschi, D.; Mazzoldi, P.; Gonzalez, J.M.; D'Acapito, F.

    2001-01-01

    A comparative study of the magnetic properties of Co and Ni based alloy nanoparticles (Ni-Co, Ni-Cu and Co-Cu) formed in a silica matrix by ion implantation is presented. Different ion doses and implantation sequences were realized in order to obtain different nanostructures. The structural and magnetic properties observed for the Cu 50 Ni 50 nanoparticles are similar to those of the Cu 60 Ni 40 bulk alloy. The crystal structure of Co x Ni 1-x (0≤x≤1) nanoparticles is similar to that of the corresponding bulk alloy. The magnetic properties depend on the ion-implanted dose and on the alloy composition. The samples prepared by implanting a 15x10 16 ions/cm 2 total dose contain nanoparticles, which are superparamagnetic at room temperature and their magnetic behavior is influenced by dipolar interparticle interactions. The magnetization of the CoNi samples at high magnetic field is larger than that of the corresponding bulk alloy and follows the same composition dependence of that quantity measured in the alloy

  3. Nanofluid bioconvection in water-based suspensions containing nanoparticles and oxytactic microorganisms: oscillatory instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsov Andrey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this article is to propose a novel type of a nanofluid that contains both nanoparticles and motile (oxytactic microorganisms. The benefits of adding motile microorganisms to the suspension include enhanced mass transfer, microscale mixing, and anticipated improved stability of the nanofluid. In order to understand the behavior of such a suspension at the fundamental level, this article investigates its stability when it occupies a shallow horizontal layer. The oscillatory mode of nanofluid bioconvection may be induced by the interaction of three competing agencies: oxytactic microorganisms, heating or cooling from the bottom, and top or bottom-heavy nanoparticle distribution. The model includes equations expressing conservation of total mass, momentum, thermal energy, nanoparticles, microorganisms, and oxygen. Physical mechanisms responsible for the slip velocity between the nanoparticles and the base fluid, such as Brownian motion and thermophoresis, are accounted for in the model. An approximate analytical solution of the eigenvalue problem is obtained using the Galerkin method. The obtained solution provides important physical insights into the behavior of this system; it also explains when the oscillatory mode of instability is possible in such system.

  4. DNA base pair resolution measurements using resonance energy transfer efficiency in lanthanide doped nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Delplanque

    Full Text Available Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are of considerable interest for biodetection and bioimaging techniques thanks to their unique chemical and optical properties. As a sensitive luminescence material, they can be used as (bio probes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET where trivalent lanthanide ions (La3+ act as energy donors. In this paper we present an efficient method to transfer ultrasmall (ca. 8 nm NaYF4 nanoparticles dispersed in organic solvent to an aqueous solution via oxidation of the oleic acid ligand. Nanoparticles were then functionalized with single strand DNA oligomers (ssDNA by inducing covalent bonds between surface carboxylic groups and a 5' amine modified-ssDNA. Hybridization with the 5' fluorophore (Cy5 modified complementary ssDNA strand demonstrated the specificity of binding and allowed the fine control over the distance between Eu3+ ions doped nanoparticle and the fluorophore by varying the number of the dsDNA base pairs. First, our results confirmed nonradiative resonance energy transfer and demonstrate the dependence of its efficiency on the distance between the donor (Eu3+ and the acceptor (Cy5 with sensitivity at a nanometre scale.

  5. DNA base pair resolution measurements using resonance energy transfer efficiency in lanthanide doped nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delplanque, Aleksandra; Wawrzynczyk, Dominika; Jaworski, Pawel; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Pawlik, Krzysztof; Buckle, Malcolm; Nyk, Marcin; Nogues, Claude; Samoc, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Lanthanide-doped nanoparticles are of considerable interest for biodetection and bioimaging techniques thanks to their unique chemical and optical properties. As a sensitive luminescence material, they can be used as (bio) probes in Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) where trivalent lanthanide ions (La3+) act as energy donors. In this paper we present an efficient method to transfer ultrasmall (ca. 8 nm) NaYF4 nanoparticles dispersed in organic solvent to an aqueous solution via oxidation of the oleic acid ligand. Nanoparticles were then functionalized with single strand DNA oligomers (ssDNA) by inducing covalent bonds between surface carboxylic groups and a 5' amine modified-ssDNA. Hybridization with the 5' fluorophore (Cy5) modified complementary ssDNA strand demonstrated the specificity of binding and allowed the fine control over the distance between Eu3+ ions doped nanoparticle and the fluorophore by varying the number of the dsDNA base pairs. First, our results confirmed nonradiative resonance energy transfer and demonstrate the dependence of its efficiency on the distance between the donor (Eu3+) and the acceptor (Cy5) with sensitivity at a nanometre scale.

  6. CT/FMT dual-model imaging of breast cancer based on peptide-lipid nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoqiang; Lin, Qiaoya; Lian, Lichao; Qian, Yuan; Lu, Lisen; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most harmful cancers in human. Its early diagnosis is expected to improve the patients' survival rate. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in tumor detection for obtaining three-dimentional information. Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT) imaging combined with near-infrared fluorescent dyes provides a powerful tool for the acquisition of molecular biodistribution information in deep tissues. Thus, the combination of CT and FMT imaging modalities allows us to better differentiate diseased tissues from normal tissues. Here we developed a tumor-targeting nanoparticle for dual-modality imaging based on a biocompatible HDL-mimicking peptide-phospholipid scaffold (HPPS) nanocarrier. By incorporation of CT contrast agents (iodinated oil) and far-infrared fluorescent dyes (DiR-BOA) into the hydrophobic core of HPPS, we obtained the FMT and CT signals simultaneously. Increased accumulation of the nanoparticles in the tumor lesions was achieved through the effect of the tumor-targeting peptide on the surface of nanoparticle. It resulted in excellent contrast between lesions and normal tissues. Together, the abilities to sensitively separate the lesions from adjacent normal tissues with the aid of a FMT/CT dual-model imaging approach make the targeting nanoparticles a useful tool for the diagnostics of breast cancer.

  7. Tunable Semiconducting Polymer Nanoparticles with INDT-Based Conjugated Polymers for Photoacoustic Molecular Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Thomas; Bofinger, Robin; Lam, Ivan; Fallon, Kealan J; Johnson, Peter; Ogunlade, Olumide; Vassileva, Vessela; Pedley, R Barbara; Beard, Paul C; Hailes, Helen C; Bronstein, Hugo; Tabor, Alethea B

    2017-06-21

    Photoacoustic imaging combines both excellent spatial resolution with high contrast and specificity, without the need for patients to be exposed to ionizing radiation. This makes it ideal for the study of physiological changes occurring during tumorigenesis and cardiovascular disease. In order to fully exploit the potential of this technique, new exogenous contrast agents with strong absorbance in the near-infrared range, good stability and biocompatibility, are required. In this paper, we report the formulation and characterization of a novel series of endogenous contrast agents for photoacoustic imaging in vivo. These contrast agents are based on a recently reported series of indigoid π-conjugated organic semiconductors, coformulated with 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, to give semiconducting polymer nanoparticles of about 150 nm diameter. These nanoparticles exhibited excellent absorption in the near-infrared region, with good photoacoustic signal generation efficiencies, high photostability, and extinction coefficients of up to three times higher than those previously reported. The absorption maximum is conveniently located in the spectral region of low absorption of chromophores within human tissue. Using the most promising semiconducting polymer nanoparticle, we have demonstrated wavelength-dependent differential contrast between vasculature and the nanoparticles, which can be used to unambiguously discriminate the presence of the contrast agent in vivo.

  8. Design of a temperature measurement and feedback control system based on an improved magnetic nanoparticle thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhongzhou; Sun, Yi; Liu, Jie; Su, Rijian; Yang, Ming; Li, Nana; Gan, Yong; Ye, Na

    2018-04-01

    Magnetic fluid hyperthermia, as a novel cancer treatment, requires precise temperature control at 315 K-319 K (42 °C-46 °C). However, the traditional temperature measurement method cannot obtain the real-time temperature in vivo, resulting in a lack of temperature feedback during the heating process. In this study, the feasibility of temperature measurement and feedback control using magnetic nanoparticles is proposed and demonstrated. This technique could be applied in hyperthermia. Specifically, the triangular-wave temperature measurement method is improved by reconstructing the original magnetization response of magnetic nanoparticles based on a digital phase-sensitive detection algorithm. The standard deviation of the temperature in the magnetic nanoparticle thermometer is about 0.1256 K. In experiments, the temperature fluctuation of the temperature measurement and feedback control system using magnetic nanoparticles is less than 0.5 K at the expected temperature of 315 K. This shows the feasibility of the temperature measurement method for temperature control. The method provides a new solution for temperature measurement and feedback control in hyperthermia.

  9. Photo-synthesis of protein-based nanoparticles and the application in drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Jinbing; Wang, Hongyang; Cao, Yi; Qin, Meng; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Recently, protein-based nanoparticles as drug delivery systems have attracted great interests due to the excellent behavior of high biocompatibility and biodegradability, and low toxicity. However, the synthesis techniques are generally costly, chemical reagents introduced, and especially present difficulties in producing homogeneous monodispersed nanoparticles. Here, we introduce a novel physical method to synthesize protein nanoparticles which can be accomplished under physiological condition only through ultraviolet (UV) illumination. By accurately adjusting the intensity and illumination time of UV light, disulfide bonds in proteins can be selectively reduced and the subsequent self-assembly process can be well controlled. Importantly, the co-assembly can also be dominated when the proteins mixed with either anti-cancer drugs, siRNA, or active targeting molecules. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that our synthesized protein–drug nanoparticles (drug-loading content and encapsulation efficiency being ca. 8.2% and 70%, respectively) not only possess the capability of traditional drug delivery systems (DDS), but also have a greater drug delivery efficiency to the tumor sites and a better inhibition of tumor growth (only 35% of volume comparing to the natural growing state), indicating it being a novel drug delivery system in tumor therapy

  10. Polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant suitable for endovascular applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morral-Ruíz, Genoveva; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; García, María Luísa; Solans, Conxita; García-Celma, María José

    2014-01-30

    The design of new, safe and effective nanotherapeutic systems is an important challenge for the researchers in the nanotechnology area. This study describes the formation of biocompatible polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles based on polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactant formed from O/W nano-emulsions by polymerization at the droplet interfaces in systems composed by aqueous solution/Kolliphor(®) ELP/medium chain triglyceride suitable for intravenous administration. Initial nano-emulsions incorporating highly hydrophilic materials were prepared by the phase inversion composition (PIC) method. After polymerization, nanoparticles with a small particle diameter (25-55 nm) and low polydispersity index were obtained. Parameters such as concentration of monomer, O/S weight ratio as well as the polymerization temperature were crucial to achieve a correct formation of these nanoparticles. Moreover, FT-IR studies showed the full conversion of the monomer to polyurethane and polyurea polymers. Likewise the involvement of the surfactant in the polymerization process through their nucleophilic groups to form the polymeric matrix was demonstrated. This could mean a first step in the development of biocompatible systems formulated with polyoxyethylene castor oil derivative surfactants. In addition, haemolysis and cell viability assays evidenced the good biocompatibility of KELP polyurethane and polyurea nanoparticles thus indicating the potential of these nanosystems as promising drug carriers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of gamma irradiation dose on the fabrication of α-elastin nanoparticles by gamma-ray crosslinking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Mari; Takeda, Mayuko; Okamoto, Kouji; Furuta, Masakazu

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles were prepared utilizing the thermosensitive aggregation of α-elastin and gamma-ray crosslinking. We investigated the effect of the α-elastin irradiation doses to verify the yield of crosslinked nanoparticles. Aqueous solution of α-elastin (10 mg/ml) was used for the aggregation on raising temperature above its cloudy point (CP), followed by gamma-ray crosslinking. A slow heating process (1.9 o C/min) effectively led to aggregation of polypeptide and irradiation with more than 15 kGy yielded stable crosslinked nanoparticles with diameters less than ca. 200 nm and a narrow size distribution.

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation dose on the fabrication of {alpha}-elastin nanoparticles by gamma-ray crosslinking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Mari; Takeda, Mayuko [Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan); Okamoto, Kouji [Department of Bioscience and Bioinformatics, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Iizuka, Fukuoka 820-8502 (Japan); Furuta, Masakazu, E-mail: mfuruta@b.s.osakafu-u.ac.j [Department of Biological Science, Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-2 Gakuen-cho, Naka-ku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8570 (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    Nanoparticles were prepared utilizing the thermosensitive aggregation of {alpha}-elastin and gamma-ray crosslinking. We investigated the effect of the {alpha}-elastin irradiation doses to verify the yield of crosslinked nanoparticles. Aqueous solution of {alpha}-elastin (10 mg/ml) was used for the aggregation on raising temperature above its cloudy point (CP), followed by gamma-ray crosslinking. A slow heating process (1.9 {sup o}C/min) effectively led to aggregation of polypeptide and irradiation with more than 15 kGy yielded stable crosslinked nanoparticles with diameters less than ca. 200 nm and a narrow size distribution.

  13. Analytical model based on cohesive energy to indicate the edge and corner effects on melting temperature of metallic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shidpour, Reza; Hamid, Delavari H.; Vossoughi, M.

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The effect of edge and corner atoms of nanoparticle (solid line) cause melting temperature drops more compared to considering them as same as only surface atoms (dash line). This reduction is significant especially when the size of nanoparticle is below 10 nm. - Abstract: An analytical model based on cohesive energy has been conducted to study the effects of edge, corner, and inward surface relaxation as varying parameters on melting temperature of nanoparticles. It is shown that taking into account the edge and corner (EC) atoms of nanoparticle, causes to drop melting temperature more, when compared to consider them the same as only surface atoms. This reduction is significant especially when the size of nanoparticle is below 10 nm. The results are supported by available experimental results of tin, lead and gold melting temperature (T m ). Finally, it is shown that inward relaxation increases melting temperature slightly.

  14. Influence of Temperature on the Colloidal Stability of Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Cell Culture Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyuzin, Mikhail V; Honold, Tobias; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Kantner, Karsten; Karg, Matthias; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2016-04-06

    The temperature-dependence of the hydrodynamic diameter and colloidal stability of gold-polymer core-shell particles with temperature-sensitive (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)) and temperature-insensitive shells (polyallylaminine hydrochloride/polystyrensulfonate, poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride)-graft-dodecyl) are investigated in various aqueous media. The data demonstrate that for all nanoparticle agglomeration, i.e., increase in effective nanoparticle size, the presence of salts or proteins in the dispersion media has to be taken into account. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) coated nanoparticles show a reversible temperature-dependent increase in size above the volume phase transition of the polymer shell when they are dispersed in phosphate buffered saline or in media containing protein. In contrast, the nanoparticles coated with temperature-insensitive polymers show a time-dependent increase in size in phosphate buffered saline or in medium containing protein. This is due to time-dependent agglomeration, which is particularly strong in phosphate buffered saline, and induces a time-dependent, irreversible increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoparticles. This demonstrates that one has to distinguish between temperature- and time-induced agglomerations. Since the size of nanoparticles regulates their uptake by cells, temperature-dependent uptake of thermosensitive and non-thermosensitive nanoparticles by cells lines is compared. No temperature-specific difference between both types of nanoparticles could be observed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Enhanced bioavailability of nerve growth factor with phytantriol lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles in cochlea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bu M

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meng Bu,1,2 Jingling Tang,3 Yinghui Wei,4 Yanhui Sun,1 Xinyu Wang,1 Linhua Wu,2 Hongzhuo Liu1 1School of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital, 3School of Pharmacy, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, People’s Republic of China; 4College of Pharmaceutical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou, People’s Republic of China Purpose: Supplementation of exogenous nerve growth factor (NGF into the cochlea of deafened animals rescues spiral ganglion cells from degeneration. However, a safe and potent delivery of therapeutic proteins, such as NGF, to spiral ganglion cells remains one of the greatest challenges. This study presents the development of self-assembled cubic lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles to enhance inner ear bioavailability of bioactive NGF via a round window membrane route.Methods: A novel nanocarrier-entrapped NGF was developed based on phytantriol by a liquid precursor dilution, with Pluronic® F127 and propylene glycol as the surfactant and solubilizer, respectively. Upon dilution of the liquid lipid precursors, monodispersed submicron-sized particles with a slight negative charge formed spontaneously.Results: Biological activity of entrapped NGF was assessed using pheochromocytoma cells with NGF-loaded reservoirs to induce significant neuronal outgrowth, similar to that seen in free NGF-treated controls. Finally, a 3.28-fold increase in inner ear bioavailability was observed after administration of phytantriol lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles as compared to free drug, contributing to an enhanced drug permeability of the round window membrane. Conclusion: Data presented here demonstrate the potential of lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles to improve the outcomes of patients bearing cochlear implants. Keywords: nerve growth factor, lipid-based crystalline nanoparticles, PC12 cells, inner ear drug

  16. Salts-based size-selective precipitation: toward mass precipitation of aqueous nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Lei; Fang, Min; Xu, Shu-Hong; Cui, Yi-Ping

    2010-01-19

    Purification is a necessary step before the application of nanocrystals (NCs), since the excess matter in nanoparticles solution usually causes a disadvantage to their subsequent coupling or assembling with other materials. In this work, a novel salts-based precipitation technique is originally developed for the precipitation and size-selective precipitation of aqueous NCs. Simply by addition of salts, NCs can be precipitated from the solution. After decantation of the supernatant solution, the precipitates can be dispersed in water again. By means of adjusting the addition amount of salt, size-selective precipitation of aqueous NCs can be achieved. Namely, the NCs with large size are precipitated preferentially, leaving small NCs in solution. Compared with the traditional nonsolvents-based precipitation technique, the current one is simpler and more rapid due to the avoidance of condensation and heating manipulations used in the traditional precipitation process. Moreover, the salts-based precipitation technique was generally available for the precipitation of aqueous nanoparticles, no matter if there were semiconductor NCs or metal nanoparticles. Simultaneously, the cost of the current method is also much lower than that of the traditional nonsolvents-based precipitation technique, making it applicable for mass purification of aqueous NCs.

  17. Palladium and platinum-based nanoparticle functional sensor layers for selective H2 sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Baltrus, John P.; Brown, Thomas D.

    2017-07-04

    The disclosure relates to a plasmon resonance-based method for H.sub.2 sensing in a gas stream utilizing a hydrogen sensing material. The hydrogen sensing material is comprises Pd-based or Pt-based nanoparticles having an average nanoparticle diameter of less than about 100 nanometers dispersed in an inert matrix having a bandgap greater than or equal to 5 eV, and an oxygen ion conductivity less than approximately 10.sup.-7 S/cm at a temperature of 700.degree. C. Exemplary inert matrix materials include SiO.sub.2, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, and Si.sub.3N.sub.4 as well as modifications to modify the effective refractive indices through combinations and/or doping of such materials. The hydrogen sensing material utilized in the method of this disclosure may be prepared using means known in the art for the production of nanoparticles dispersed within a supporting matrix including sol-gel based wet chemistry techniques, impregnation techniques, implantation techniques, sputtering techniques, and others.

  18. Modeling of various contact theories for the manipulation of different biological micro/nanoparticles based on AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, M. H.; Taheri, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the modeling of various contact theories to be applied in the biomanipulation of different micro/nanoparticles based on the atomic force microscope has been studied, and the effect of adhesion force in different contact models on indentation depth and contact angle between tip and substrate has been explored for the target biological micro/nanoparticle. The contact models used in this research include the Hertz, JKR, DMT, BCP, COS, PT, and the SUN models. Also, the target particles comprise the biological micro/nanoparticles of DNA, yeast, platelet, and nanobacterium. Previous research works have investigated the contact models for the manipulation of non-biological gold micro/nanoparticles in the air environment. Since in a real biomanipulation situation, the biological micro/nanoparticles are displaced in biological environments; in this article, various contact theories for the biomanipulation of biological micro/nanoparticles in different biological environments have been modeled and compared for the first time. The results of modeling indicate that the use of Hertz contact model in analyzing the biomanipulation of biological nanoparticles is not appropriate, because it does not take the adhesion force into consideration and thus produces a significant error. Also, all the six contact models developed in this article show larger deformations for studied bionanoparticles in comparison to the gold nanoparticles, which can be justified with regards to the mechanical properties of gold.

  19. Self-assembled lipoprotein based gold nanoparticles for detection and photothermal disaggregation of β-amyloid aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Martins, P. A. T.; Alsaiari, Shahad K.; Julfakyan, Khachatur; Nie, Z.; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2017-01-01

    We present a reconstituted lipoprotein-based nanoparticle platform comprising a curcumin fluorescent motif and an NIR responsive gold core. This multifunctional nanosystem is successfully used for aggregation-dependent fluorescence detection and photothermal disassembly of insoluble amyloid aggregates.

  20. Self-assembled lipoprotein based gold nanoparticles for detection and photothermal disaggregation of β-amyloid aggregates

    KAUST Repository

    Martins, P. A. T.

    2017-01-10

    We present a reconstituted lipoprotein-based nanoparticle platform comprising a curcumin fluorescent motif and an NIR responsive gold core. This multifunctional nanosystem is successfully used for aggregation-dependent fluorescence detection and photothermal disassembly of insoluble amyloid aggregates.

  1. Recent Advances of Graphene-based Hybrids with Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegret, Nuria; Criado, Alejandro; Prato, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of graphene-based nanomaterials combined with magnetic nanoparticles offers key benefits in the modern biomedicine. In this minireview, we focus on the most recent advances in hybrids of magnetic graphene derivatives for biomedical applications. We initially analyze the several methodologies employed for the preparation of graphene-based composites with magnetic nanoparticles, more specifically the kind of linkage between the two components. In the last section, we focus on the biomedical applications where these magnetic-graphene hybrids are essential and pay special attention on how the addition of graphene improves the resulting devices in magnetic resonance imaging, controlled drug delivery, magnetic photothermal therapy and cellular separation and isolation. Finally, we highlight the use of these magnetic hybrids as multifunctional material that will lead to a next generation of theranostics. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Bulk and Thin film Properties of Nanoparticle-based Ionic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jason

    2008-03-01

    Nanoparticle-based ionic materials (NIMS) offer exciting opportunities for research at the forefront of science and engineering. NIMS are hybrid particles comprised of a charged oligomeric corona attached to hard, inorganic nanoparticle cores. Because of their hybrid nature, physical properties --rheological, optical, electrical, thermal - of NIMS can be tailored over an unusually wide range by varying geometric and chemical characteristics of the core and canopy and thermodynamic variables such as temperature and volume fraction. On one end of the spectrum are materials with a high core content, which display properties similar to crystalline solids, stiff waxes, and gels. At the opposite extreme are systems that spontaneously form particle-based fluids characterized by transport properties remarkably similar to simple liquids. In this poster I will present our efforts to synthesize NIMS and discuss their bulk and surface properties. In particular I will discuss our work on preparing smart surfaces using NIMS.

  3. Schiff Base Ligand Coated Gold Nanoparticles for the Chemical Sensing of Fe(III Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abiola Azeez Jimoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available New Schiff base-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs of type AuNP@L (where L: thiolated Schiff base ligand have been synthesized and characterized using various spectroscopic techniques. The AuNPs and AuNP@L were imaged by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and were confirmed to be well-dispersed, uniformly distributed, spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 8–10 nm. Their potential applications for chemosensing were investigated in UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The AuNP@L exhibited selectivity for Fe3+ in an ethanol/water mixture (ratio 9 : 1 v/v. The absorption and emission spectral studies revealed a 1 : 1 binding mode for Fe3+, with binding constants of 8.5×105 and 2.9×105 M−1, respectively.

  4. A sight on the current nanoparticle-based gene delivery vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dizaj, Solmaz Maleki; Jafari, Samira; Khosroushahi, Ahmad Yari

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, gene delivery for therapeutic objects is considered one of the most promising strategies to cure both the genetic and acquired diseases of human. The design of efficient gene delivery vectors possessing the high transfection efficiencies and low cytotoxicity is considered the major challenge for delivering a target gene to specific tissues or cells. On this base, the investigations on non-viral gene vectors with the ability to overcome physiological barriers are increasing. Among the non-viral vectors, nanoparticles showed remarkable properties regarding gene delivery such as the ability to target the specific tissue or cells, protect target gene against nuclease degradation, improve DNA stability, and increase the transformation efficiency or safety. This review attempts to represent a current nanoparticle based on its lipid, polymer, hybrid, and inorganic properties. Among them, hybrids, as efficient vectors, are utilized in gene delivery in terms of materials (synthetic or natural), design, and in vitro/ in vivo transformation efficiency.

  5. Potential exposure and treatment efficiency of nanoparticles in water supplies based on wastewater reclamation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Peter; Hansen, Steffen Foss; Rygaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity brings an increased focus on wastewater reclamation for drinking water supply. Meanwhile, the production volume of nanoparticles (NPs) is rapidly increasing, but to date there has been little attention given to the fate of NPs in water systems based on wastewater reclamation. We have...... investigated the possible concentrations of silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in tap water for water supplies based on reclaimed wastewater. Tap water concentrations of the NPs were assessed by mass flow analyses of two typical wastewater reclamation concepts: 1) advanced...... studies are available on the removal efficiencies of NPs by advanced water treatment processes with a majority of the identified studies focusing on removal efficiencies in wastewater treatment plants and fate in surface waters. The NP removal efficiency of several treatment processes is unknown...

  6. Cell membrane-based nanoparticles: a new biomimetic platform for tumor diagnosis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixiang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking inspiration from nature, the biomimetic concept has been integrated into drug delivery systems in cancer therapy. Disguised with cell membranes, the nanoparticles can acquire various functions of natural cells. The cell membrane-coating technology has pushed the limits of common nano-systems (fast elimination in circulation to more effectively navigate within the body. Moreover, because of the various functional molecules on the surface, cell membrane-based nanoparticles (CMBNPs are capable of interacting with the complex biological microenvironment of the tumor. Various sources of cell membranes have been explored to camouflage CMBNPs and different tumor-targeting strategies have been developed to enhance the anti-tumor drug delivery therapy. In this review article we highlight the most recent advances in CMBNP-based cancer targeting systems and address the challenges and opportunities in this field.

  7. The use of gold nanoparticle aggregation for DNA computing and logic-based biomolecular detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, In-Hee; Yang, Kyung-Ae; Zhang, Byoung-Tak; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Park, Ji-Yoon; Chai, Young Gyu; Lee, Jae-Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The use of DNA molecules as a physical computational material has attracted much interest, especially in the area of DNA computing. DNAs are also useful for logical control and analysis of biological systems if efficient visualization methods are available. Here we present a quick and simple visualization technique that displays the results of the DNA computing process based on a colorimetric change induced by gold nanoparticle aggregation, and we apply it to the logic-based detection of biomolecules. Our results demonstrate its effectiveness in both DNA-based logical computation and logic-based biomolecular detection

  8. Novel resveratrol nanodelivery systems based on lipid nanoparticles to enhance its oral bioavailability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves AR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ana Rute Neves,1 Marlene Lúcio,1 Susana Martins,2,3 José Luís Costa Lima,1 Salette Reis11REQUIMTE, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 2Laboratory for Pharmaceutical Technology/Research Centre in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 3Institute of Biomedical Engineering, University of Porto, PortugalIntroduction: Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grapes and red wines. Interest in this polyphenol has increased due to its pharmacological cardio- and neuroprotective, chemopreventive, and antiaging effects, among others. Nevertheless, its pharmacokinetic properties are less favorable, since the compound has poor bioavailability, low water solubility, and is chemically unstable. To overcome these problems, we developed two novel resveratrol nanodelivery systems based on lipid nanoparticles to enhance resveratrol's oral bioavailability for further use in medicines, supplements, and nutraceuticals.Methods and materials: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs loaded with resveratrol were successfully produced by a modified hot homogenization technique. These were completely characterized to evaluate the quality of the developed resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles.Results: Cryo-scanning electron microscopy morphology studies showed spherical and uniform nanoparticles with a smooth surface. An average resveratrol entrapment efficiency of ~70% was obtained for both SLNs and NLCs. Dynamic light scattering measurements gave a Z-average of 150–250 nm, polydispersity index of ~0.2, and a highly negative zeta potential of around −30 mV with no statistically significant differences in the presence of resveratrol. These characteristics remained unchanged for at least 2 months, suggesting good stability. Differential scanning calorimetry studies confirmed the solid state of the SLNs and NLCs at both room and body temperatures. The NLCs had a less ordered crystalline

  9. Physical, chemical and biological studies of gelatin/chitosan based transdermal fims with embedded silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Paul

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the physical, chemical and biological properties of composite chitosangelatin transdermal film along with silver nanoparticles as binding agent and determine the compatibility of the prepared amalgamation towards wound management. Methods: Transdermal film preparations were done by solvent casting method containing different concentrations of biological synthesized silver nanoparticles. The films were characterized by using scanning electron microscope for their morphology and the determination of silver metal was done by using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. Then a quantity of silver nanoparticles was further proceeded by physiochemical parameters (weight, thickness, temperature, solubility, absorption, tensile strength, in vitro drug release and skin permeation and biological parameters studies (anti-microbial, cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species. Results: The film prepared by utilizing 2 g of gelatin and 0.5 g of chitosan exhibited better results. The physiochemical parameters studies revealed higher concentration of silver nanoparticles would give better results. In vitro drug release studies through dialysis and skin permeation showed the release of drug versus time (h. These films had shown excellent inhibition against Streptococcus and Escherichia coli species. Cytotoxicity study by MTT indicated the mild toxicity existed as the concentration of silver nanoparticles increased. Reactive oxygen species generation studies of transdermal film by using 2'7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay demonstrated that the fluorescent cells were found in the higher concentration, which indicated cell damage (reactive oxygen species generated. Conclusions: Based on these observations, in vitro performances against various characteristics of transdermal film, would be utilized as a distinct dressing material and patches accessible in market.

  10. Water-Based Assembly and Purification of Plasmon-Coupled Gold Nanoparticle Dimers and Trimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bidault

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a simple one-pot water-based scheme to produce gold nanoparticle groupings with short interparticle spacings. This approach combines a cross-linking molecule and a hydrophilic passivation layer to control the level of induced aggregation. Suspensions of dimers and trimers are readily obtained using a single electrophoretic purification step. The final interparticle spacings allow efficient coupling of the particle plasmon modes as verified in extinction spectroscopy.

  11. Effect of rare-earth-based nanoparticles on the erythrocyte osmotic adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    О. К. Пакулова; В. К. Kлочков; Н. С. Кавок; И. А. Костина; А. С. Сопотова; В. А. Бондаренко

    2017-01-01

    Rare-earth-based nanoparticles (REB NPs) have been employed in molecular and cell biology due to their unique features. However, their interaction with biosystems and the influence on cell functioning are poorly understood. In this study effect of REB NPs (composed of dielectric nanocrystalls of cerium dioxide and orthovanadates of gadolinium and yttrium) with different form-factor as well as REB NPs-cholesterol complexes on the adaptation of human erythrocytes to hypertonic lysis (4 M NaCl) ...

  12. Viscometric characterization of cobalt nanoparticle-based magnetorheological fluids using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, Anirban; Wereley, Norman M.; Kotha, Sanjay; Radhakrishnan, Ramachandran; Sudarshan, Tirumalai S.

    2005-01-01

    The rheological flow curves (shear stress vs. shear rate) of a nanoparticle cobalt-based magnetorheological fluid can be modeled using Bingham-plastic and Herschel-Bulkley constitutive models. Steady-state rheological flow curves were measured using a parallel disk rheometer for constant shear rates as a function of applied magnetic field. Genetic algorithms were used to identify constitutive model parameters from the flow curve data

  13. Artificial tongue based on metal-biomolecule coordination polymer nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Fang; Ran, Xiang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang

    2016-02-25

    We construct an array-based recognition system (the so-called artificial tongue) through the self-assembly of nucleotides, dyes and lanthanide ions. Metal ions are selected as model analytes for verifying its discrimination ability. The work provides valuable insights into the application and development of biomolecule-based materials.

  14. An upconversion nanoparticle - Zinc phthalocyanine based nanophotosensitizer for photodynamic therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xia, L.; Kong, X.; Liu, X.; Tu, L.; Zhang, Y.; Chang, Y.; Liu, K.; Shen, D.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in NIR triggering upconversion-based photodynamic therapy have led to substantial improvements in upconversion-based nanophotosensitizers. How to obtain the high efficiency of singlet oxygen generation under low 980 nm radiation dosage still remains a challenge. A highly efficient

  15. Targeting experimental orthotopic glioblastoma with chitosan-based superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (CS-DX-SPIONs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevtsov, Maxim; Nikolaev, Boris; Marchenko, Yaroslav; Yakovleva, Ludmila; Skvortsov, Nikita; Mazur, Anton; Tolstoy, Peter; Ryzhov, Vyacheslav; Multhoff, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most devastating primary brain tumor of the central nervous system in adults. Magnetic nanocarriers may help not only for a targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic agents into the tumor site but also provide contrast enhancing properties for diagnostics using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Synthesized hybrid chitosan-dextran superparamagnetic nanoparticles (CS-DX-SPIONs) were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and relaxometry studies. Nonlinear magnetic response measurements were employed for confirming the superparamagnetic state of particles. Following in vitro analysis of nanoparticles cellular uptake tumor targeting was assessed in the model of the orthotopic glioma in rodents. CS-DX-SPIONs nanoparticles showed a uniform diameter of 55 nm under TEM and superparamagentic characteristics as determined by T 1 (spin-lattice relaxation time) and T 2 (spin-spin relaxation time) proton relaxation times. Application of the chitosan increased the charge from +8.9 to +19.3 mV of the dextran-based SPIONs. The nonlinear magnetic response at second harmonic of CS-DX-SPIONs following the slow change of stationary magnetic fields with very low hysteresis evidenced superparamagnetic state of particles at ambient temperatures. Confocal microscopy and flow cytometry studies showed an enhanced internalization of the chitosan-based nanoparticles in U87, C6 glioma and HeLa cells as compared to dextran-coated particles. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated acceptable toxicity profile of the synthesized nanoparticles up to a concentration of 10 μg/ml. Intravenously administered CS-DX-SPIONs in orthotopic C6 gliomas in rats accumulated in the tumor site as shown by high-resolution MRI (11.0 T). Retention of nanoparticles resulted in a significant contrast enhancement of the tumor image that was accompanied with a dramatic drop in T 2 values ( P chitosan-dextran magnetic particles demonstrated high MR contrast enhancing properties for the

  16. Synthesis of ferrofluids based on cobalt ferrite nanoparticles: Influence of reaction time on structural, morphological and magnetic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amirabadizadeh, Ahmad; Salighe, Zohre; Sarhaddi, Reza, E-mail: reza.sarhaddi@birjand.ac.ir; Lotfollahi, Zahra

    2017-07-15

    Highlights: • Ferrofluids based on cobalt ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation method. • The crystallite and particle size of cobalt ferrite can be controlled effectively by reaction time. • The ferrofluids have lower values of saturation magnetization and coercivity as compared to nanoparticles. • By increasing the size of nanoparticles, the narrower and sharper spikes of ferrofluids are formed. - Abstract: In this work, for first time the ferrofluids based on the cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) nanoparticles were prepared by the co-precipitation method at different reaction times (0.5–6.5 h). Crystal structure, morphology and magnetic properties of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles and the ferrofluids based on the nanoparticles were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD patterns of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles synthesized at different reaction times indicated that all samples are single phase in accordance with inverse cubic spinel structure with space group Fd-3m, and no impurity phase was observed. By increasing the reaction time to 3.5 h, the lattice parameter and the average crystallites size increased and then afterwards decreased by increasing the reaction time. The microscopic studies indicated the formation of nanosized particles with nearly spherical in shape, whereas the average particle size for all samples is found to be less than 50 nm. The results of VSM also showed that the saturation magnetization and coercivity field of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles and the ferrofluids were influenced by reaction time, whereas the ferrofluids have lower values of magnetic parameters than that of nanoparticles.

  17. Preparation of gold nanoparticles in the presence of citric acid-based dendrimers containing periphery hydroxyl groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namazi, Hassan; Fard, Ahmad Mohammad Pour

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The most advantage of citric acid-based dendrimers is their novelty from monomeric point of view and their simple preparation method. → The size and also size distribution of Au nanoparticles can be controlled through the choice of the dendrimer generation. → Here, we report the preparation of the stable, isolated and uniform Au nanoparticles with using a simple method in water media.→ It was observed that the size of Au nanoparticles is increased with increasing the generation of dendrimer. - Abstract: In this work, Au nanoparticles were produced with reduction of HAuCl 4 using NaBH 4 in the presence of different generations of citric acid-based dendrimers. The greater water solubility of the newly prepared dendrimers motivated us for the preparation of Au nanoparticles in water media. Therefore, the stable, isolated and uniform type Au nanoparticles were prepared through simple process in water. UV-Vis absorption, high-resolution transmission electronic microscopy (HRTEM), electron diffraction (ED) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) methods were used to investigate the morphology and structure determination of the obtained gold nanoparticles.

  18. Successful in vivo hyperthermal therapy toward breast cancer by Chinese medicine shikonin-loaded thermosensitive micelle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Y

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Yonghua Su,1,* Nian Huang,1,* Di Chen,2,* Li Zhang,2,* Xia Dong,2 Yun Sun,2 Xiandi Zhu,2 Fulei Zhang,2 Jie Gao,2 Ying Wang,2 Kexing Fan,2 Puichi Lo,3 Wei Li,2 Changquan Ling1 1Department of Integrative Oncology, Changhai Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 2International Joint Cancer Institute, The Second Military Medical University, Shanghai, 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong, China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The Chinese traditional medicine Shikonin is an ideal drug due to its multiple targets to tumor cells. But in clinics, improving its aqueous solubility and tumor accumulation is still a challenge. Herein, a copolymer with tunable poly(N-isopropylacrymaide and polylactic acid block lengths is designed, synthesized, and characterized in nuclear magnetic resonance. The corresponding thermosensitive nanomicelle (TN with well-defined core-shell structure is then assembled in an aqueous solution. For promoting the therapeutic index, the physical-chemistry properties of TNs including narrow size, low critical micellar concentration, high serum stability, tunable volume phase transition temperature (VPTT, high drug-loading capacity, and temperature-controlled drug release are systematically investigated and regulated through the fine self-assembly. The shikonin is then entrapped in a degradable inner core resulting in a shikonin-loaded thermosensitive nanomicelle (STN with a VPTT of ~40°C. Compared with small-molecular shikonin, the in vitro cellular internalization and cytotoxicity of STN against breast cancer cells (Michigan Cancer Foundation-7 are obviously enhanced. In addition, the therapeutic effect is further enhanced by the programmed cell death (PCD specifically evoked by shikonin. Interestingly, both the proliferation inhibition and PCD are synergistically promoted as T > VPTT, namely the temperature-regulated passive targeting. Consequently, as

  19. Magnetic and elastic anisotropy in magnetorheological elastomers using nickel-based nanoparticles and nanochains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landa, Romina A.; Soledad Antonel, Paula; Ruiz, Mariano M.; Negri, R. Martín, E-mail: rmn@qi.fcen.uba.ar [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Analítica y Química Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Instituto de Química Física de Materiales, Ambiente y Energía (INQUIMAE), Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellón II, C1428EGA Buenos Aires (Argentina); Perez, Oscar E. [Departamento de Industrias, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Butera, Alejandro [Centro Atómico Bariloche (Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica. Argentina) and Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza (Argentina); Jorge, Guillermo [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional de General Sarmiento, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Oliveira, Cristiano L. P. [Grupo de Fluidos Complexos, Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-12-07

    Nickel (Ni) based nanoparticles and nanochains were incorporated as fillers in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers and then these mixtures were thermally cured in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. In this way, macroscopically structured-anisotropic PDMS-Ni based magnetorheological composites were obtained with the formation of pseudo-chains-like structures (referred as needles) oriented in the direction of the applied magnetic field when curing. Nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature, under air ambient atmosphere (open air, atmospheric pressure) and then calcined at 400 °C (in air atmosphere also). The size distribution was obtained by fitting Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) experiments with a polydisperse hard spheres model and a Schulz-Zimm distribution, obtaining a size distribution centered at (10.0 ± 0.6) nm with polydispersivity given by σ = (8.0 ± 0.2) nm. The SAXS, X-ray powder diffraction, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) experiments are consistent with single crystal nanoparticles of spherical shape (average particle diameter obtained by TEM: (12 ± 1) nm). Nickel-based nanochains (average diameter: 360 nm; average length: 3 μm, obtained by Scanning Electron Microscopy; aspect ratio = length/diameter ∼ 10) were obtained at 85 °C and ambient atmosphere (open air, atmospheric pressure). The magnetic properties of Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains at room temperature are compared and discussed in terms of surface and size effects. Both Ni-based nanoparticles and nanochains were used as fillers for obtaining the PDMS structured magnetorheological composites, observing the presence of oriented needles. Magnetization curves, ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectra, and strain-stress curves of low filler's loading composites (2% w/w of fillers) were determined as functions of the relative orientation with respect to the needles. The results indicate that even at low loadings it is

  20. Quantum computer based on activated dielectric nanoparticles selectively interacting with short optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomskii, Oleg N; Kharitonov, Yu Ya

    2004-01-01

    The operation principle of a quantum computer is proposed based on a system of dielectric nanoparticles activated with two-level atoms - cubits, in which electric dipole transitions are excited by short intense optical pulses. It is proved that the logical operation (logical operator) CNOT (controlled NOT) is performed by means of time-dependent transfer of quantum information over 'long' (of the order of 10 4 nm) distances between spherical nanoparticles owing to the delayed interaction between them in the optical radiation field. It is shown that one-cubit and two-cubit logical operators required for quantum calculations can be realised by selectively exciting dielectric particles with short optical pulses. (quantum calculations)

  1. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles.

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis; Mangal, Rahul; Agrawal, Akanksha; Archer, Lynden A

    2015-01-01

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries.

  2. Modified gold electrodes based on thiocytosine/guanine-gold nanoparticles for uric and ascorbic acid determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulcu, Adriana; Grosan, Camelia; Muresan, Liana Maria; Pruneanu, Stela; Olenic, Liliana

    2013-01-01

    The present paper describes the preparation of new modified surfaces for electrodes based on guanine/thiocytosine and gold nanoparticles. The gold nanoparticles were analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and it was found that they have diameters between 30 and 40 nm. The layers were characterized by specular reflectance infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-RAS) and by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The thickness of layers was found to be approximately 30 nm for TC layers and 300 nm for GU layers. Every layer was characterized as electrochemical sensor (by cyclic voltammetry) both for uric acid and ascorbic acid determinations, separately and in their mixture. The modified sensors have good calibration functions with good sensitivity (between 1.145 and 1.406 mA cm −2 /decade), reproducibility ( t hiocytosine (Au T C) and gold g uanine (Au G U) layers

  3. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles with versatile surface functions based on dopamine anchors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Mykola; Barras, Alexandre; Kuncser, Victor; Galatanu, Andrei; Zaitzev, Vladimir; Turcheniuk, Kostiantyn V.; Woisel, Patrice; Lyskawa, Joel; Laure, William; Siriwardena, Aloysius; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2013-03-01

    The synthesis of multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles (MF-MPs) is one of the most active research areas in advanced materials as their multifunctional surfaces allow conjugation of biological and chemical molecules, thus making it possible to achieve target-specific diagnostic in parallel to therapeutics. We report here a simple strategy to integrate in a one-step reaction several reactive sites onto the particles. The preparation of MF-MPs is based on their simultaneous modification with differently functionalized dopamine derivatives using simple solution chemistry. The formed MF-MPs show comparable magnetic properties to those of naked nanoparticles with almost unaltered particle size of around 25 nm. The different termini, amine, azide and maleimide functions, enable further functionalization of MF-MPs by the grafting-on approach. Michael addition, Cu(i) catalyzed « click » chemistry and amidation reactions are performed on the MF-MPs integrating subsequently 6-(ferrocenyl)-hexanethiol, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and mannose.

  4. A highly reversible room-temperature lithium metal battery based on crosslinked hairy nanoparticles.

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-12-04

    Rough electrodeposition, uncontrolled parasitic side-reactions with electrolytes and dendrite-induced short-circuits have hindered development of advanced energy storage technologies based on metallic lithium, sodium and aluminium electrodes. Solid polymer electrolytes and nanoparticle-polymer composites have shown promise as candidates to suppress lithium dendrite growth, but the challenge of simultaneously maintaining high mechanical strength and high ionic conductivity at room temperature has so far been unmet in these materials. Here we report a facile and scalable method of fabricating tough, freestanding membranes that combine the best attributes of solid polymers, nanocomposites and gel-polymer electrolytes. Hairy nanoparticles are employed as multifunctional nodes for polymer crosslinking, which produces mechanically robust membranes that are exceptionally effective in inhibiting dendrite growth in a lithium metal battery. The membranes are also reported to enable stable cycling of lithium batteries paired with conventional intercalating cathodes. Our findings appear to provide an important step towards room-temperature dendrite-free batteries.

  5. Synthesis of novel cellulose- based antibacterial composites of Ag nanoparticles@ metal-organic frameworks@ carboxymethylated fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Chao; Meng, Jingru; Wang, Xinqi; Meng, Xin; Sun, Xiaole; Xu, Yongjian; Zhao, Wei; Ni, Yonghao

    2018-08-01

    A novel cellulose-based antibacterial material, namely silver nanoparticles@ metal-organic frameworks@ carboxymethylated fibers composites (Ag NPs@ HKUST-1@ CFs), was synthesized. The results showed that the metal-organic frameworks (HKUST-1) were uniformly anchored on the fiber's surfaces by virtue of complexation between copper ions in HKUST-1 and carboxyl groups on the carboxymethylated fibers (CFs). The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were immobilized and well-dispersed into the pores and/or onto the surfaces of HKUST-1 via in situ microwave reduction, resulting in the formation of novel Ag NPs@ HKUST-1@ CFs composites. The antibacterial assays showed that the as-prepared composites exhibited a much higher antibacterial activity than Ag NPs@ CFs or HKUST-1@ CFs samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simulations of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticle-based ionic liquids

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Bingbing

    2012-01-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations over microsecond time scales to study the structure and dynamics of coarse-grained models for nanoparticle-based ionic liquids. The systems of interest consist of particles with charged surface groups and linear or three-arm counterions, which also act as the solvent. A comparable uncharged model of nanoparticles with tethered chains is also studied. The pair correlation functions display a rich structure resulting from the packing of cores and chains, as well as electrostatic effects. Even though electrostatic interactions between oppositely charged ions at contact are much greater than the thermal energy, we find that chain dynamics at intermediate time scales are dominated by chain hopping between core particles. The uncharged core particles with tethered chains diffuse faster than the ionic core particles. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  7. Optimization and Application of Reflective LSPR Optical Fiber Biosensors Based on Silver Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiangping Chen

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we developed a reflective localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR optical fiber sensor, based on silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs. To enhance the sensitivity of the LSPR optical sensor, two key parameters were optimized, the length of the sensing area and the coating time of the Ag NPs. A sensing length of 1.5 cm and a 1-h coating time proved to be suitable conditions to produce highly sensitive sensors for biosensing. The optimized sensor has a high refractive index sensitivity of 387 nm/RIU, which is much higher than that of other reported individual silver nanoparticles in solutions. Moreover, the sensor was further modified with antigen to act as a biosensor. Distinctive wavelength shifts were found after each surface modification step. In addition, the reflective LSPR optical fiber sensor has high reproducibility and stability.

  8. Lipid nanoparticles based on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vitro UVA blocking effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niculae, G; Lacatusu, I; Badea, N; Meghea, A

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain efficient lipid nanoparticles loaded with butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in order to develop cosmetic formulations with enhanced UVA blocking effect. For this purpose, two adequate liquid lipids (medium chain triglycerides and squalene) have been used in combination with two solid lipids (cetyl palmitate and glyceryl stearate) in order to create appropriate nanostructured carriers with a disordered lipid network able to accommodate up to 1.5% BMDBM. The lipid nanoparticles (LNs) were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro UVA blocking effect. The efficiency of lipid nanoparticles in developing some cosmetic formulations has been evaluated by determining the in vitro erythemal UVA protection factor. In order to quantify the photoprotective effect, some selected cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs and a conventional emulsion were exposed to photochemical UV irradiation at a low energy to simulate the solar energy during the midday. The results obtained demonstrated the high ability of cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs to absorb more than 96% of UVA radiation. Moreover, the developed cosmetic formulations manifest an enhanced UVA blocking effect, the erythemal UVA protection factor being four times higher than those specific to conventional emulsions. (paper)

  9. Lipid nanoparticles based on butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane: in vitro UVA blocking effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niculae, G.; Lacatusu, I.; Badea, N.; Meghea, A.

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain efficient lipid nanoparticles loaded with butyl-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in order to develop cosmetic formulations with enhanced UVA blocking effect. For this purpose, two adequate liquid lipids (medium chain triglycerides and squalene) have been used in combination with two solid lipids (cetyl palmitate and glyceryl stearate) in order to create appropriate nanostructured carriers with a disordered lipid network able to accommodate up to 1.5% BMDBM. The lipid nanoparticles (LNs) were characterized in terms of particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency, loading capacity and in vitro UVA blocking effect. The efficiency of lipid nanoparticles in developing some cosmetic formulations has been evaluated by determining the in vitro erythemal UVA protection factor. In order to quantify the photoprotective effect, some selected cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs and a conventional emulsion were exposed to photochemical UV irradiation at a low energy to simulate the solar energy during the midday. The results obtained demonstrated the high ability of cream formulations based on BMDBM-LNs to absorb more than 96% of UVA radiation. Moreover, the developed cosmetic formulations manifest an enhanced UVA blocking effect, the erythemal UVA protection factor being four times higher than those specific to conventional emulsions.

  10. Simulations of Interdigitated Electrode Interactions with Gold Nanoparticles for Impedance-Based Biosensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott MacKay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a point-of-care biosensor design. The uniqueness of our design is in its capability for detecting a wide variety of target biomolecules and the simplicity of nanoparticle enhanced electrical detection. The electrical properties of interdigitated electrodes (IDEs and the mechanism for gold nanoparticle-enhanced impedance-based biosensor systems based on these electrodes are simulated using COMSOL Multiphysics software. Understanding these properties and how they can be affected is vital in designing effective biosensor devices. Simulations were used to show electrical screening develop over time for IDEs in a salt solution, as well as the electric field between individual digits of electrodes. Using these simulations, it was observed that gold nanoparticles bound closely to IDEs can lower the electric field magnitude between the digits of the electrode. The simulations are also shown to be a useful design tool in optimizing sensor function. Various different conditions, such as electrode dimensions and background ion concentrations, are shown to have a significant impact on the simulations.

  11. Exceptionally strong, stiff and hard hybrid material based on an elastomer and isotropically shaped ceramic nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopanos, Prokopios; Schneider, Gerold A; Dreyer, Axel; Handge, Ulrich A; Filiz, Volkan; Feld, Artur; Yilmaz, Ezgi D; Krekeler, Tobias; Ritter, Martin; Weller, Horst; Abetz, Volker

    2017-08-04

    In this work the fabrication of hard, stiff and strong nanocomposites based on polybutadiene and iron oxide nanoparticles is presented. The nanocomposites are fabricated via a general concept for mechanically superior nanocomposites not based on the brick and mortar structure, thus on globular nanoparticles with nanosized organic shells. For the fabrication of the composites oleic acid functionalized iron oxide nanoparticles are decorated via ligand exchange with an α,ω-polybutadiene dicarboxylic acid. The functionalized particles were processed at 145 °C. Since polybutadiene contains double bonds the nanocomposites obtained a crosslinked structure which was enhanced by the presence of oxygen or sulfur. It was found that the crosslinking and filler percolation yields high elastic moduli of approximately 12-20 GPa and hardness of 15-18 GPa, although the polymer volume fraction is up to 40%. We attribute our results to a catalytically enhanced crosslinking reaction of the polymer chains induced by oxygen or sulfur and to the microstructure of the nanocomposite.

  12. Fabrication and characterization of sol-gel based nanoparticles for drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Reeta

    Nanogels are cross linked polymeric sol-gel based nanoparticles that offer an interior network for incorporation and protection of biomolecules, exhibiting unique advantages for polymer based delivery systems. We have successfully synthesized stable sol-gel nanoparticles by means of [a] silicification reactions using cationic peptides like polylysine as gelating agents, and [b] lyophilization of sol-gels. Macromolecules such as Hemoglobin and Glucose Oxidase and small molecules such as Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP) and antibiotics were encapsulated within the nanogels. We have used transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analysis, and spectroscopy to perform a physicochemical characterization of the nanogels resulting from the two approaches. Our studies have indicated that the nanogel encapsulated proteins and small molecules remain intact, stable and functional. A Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) and Nitric Oxide (NO) generating drug carrier was synthesized using these nanogels and the effect of generation of H2O2 from Glucose Oxidase encapsulated nanogels and NO from SNP encapsulated nanogels was tested on E.coli. The results show that the nanoparticles exert antimicrobial activity against E.Coli, in addition NO generating nanogels potentiated H2O2 generating nanogels induced killing. These data suggest that these NO and H2O2 releasing nanogels have the potential to serve as a novel class of antimicrobials for the treatment of multidrug resistant bacteria. The unique properties of these protein/drug incorporated nanogels raise the prospect of fine tailoring to specific applications such as drug delivery and bio imaging.

  13. Nanoparticle-based strategy for personalized B-cell lymphoma therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Nicola M; Migliaccio, Nunzia; Ruggiero, Immacolata; Albano, Francesco; Calì, Gaetano; Romano, Simona; Terracciano, Monica; Rea, Ilaria; Arcari, Paolo; Lamberti, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    B-cell lymphoma is associated with incomplete response to treatment, and the development of effective strategies targeting this disease remains challenging. A new personalized B-cell lymphoma therapy, based on a site-specific receptor-mediated drug delivery system, was developed in this study. Specifically, natural silica-based nanoparticles (diatomite) were modified to actively target the antiapoptotic factor B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 2 (Bcl2) with small interfering RNA (siRNA). An idiotype-specific peptide (Id-peptide) specifically recognized by the hypervariable region of surface immunoglobulin B-cell receptor was exploited as a homing device to ensure specific targeting of lymphoma cells. Specific nanoparticle uptake, driven by the Id-peptide, was evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy and was increased by approximately threefold in target cells compared with nonspecific myeloma cells and when a random control peptide was used instead of Id-peptide. The specific internalization efficiency was increased by fourfold when siRNA was also added to the modified nanoparticles. The modified diatomite particles were not cytotoxic and their effectiveness in downregulation of gene expression was explored using siRNA targeting Bcl2 and evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. The resulting gene silencing observed is of significant biological importance and opens new possibilities for the personalized treatment of lymphomas. PMID:27895482

  14. Effects of Au nanoparticle addition to hole transfer layer in organic solar cells based on copper naphthalocyanine and fullerene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akihiko Nagata; Takeo Okun; Tsuyoshi Akiyaman; Atsushi Suzuki

    2014-01-01

    Organic solar cells based on copper naphthalocyanine (CuNc) and fullerene (C60) were fabricated, and their photovoltaic properties were investigated. C60 and CuNc were used as n-type and p-type semiconductors, respectively. In addition, the effect of Au nanoparticle addition on a hole transfer layer was investigated, and the power conversion efficiency of the devices was improved after blending the Au nanoparticles into the hole transport layer. Nanostructures of Au nanoparticles were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Energy levels of molecules were calculated by molecular orbital calculations, and the nanostructure and electronic properties were discussed.

  15. Determination of dextrose in peritoneal dialysis solution by localized surface plasmon resonance technique based on silver nanoparticles formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masrournia, Mahboube; Montazarolmahdi, Maliheh; Sani, Faramarz Aliasghari

    2017-07-01

    Determination of dextrose in peritoneal dialysis with a method based on silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) formation was investigated. In a green chemistry method, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in the natural polymeric matrix of gelatin. The nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Absorbance signal of AgNPs could be applied to determine the various concentrations of dextrose solutions. Drop wise and ultrasonic methods were used and compared with each other. The dynamic range of methods with limit of detection and relative standard deviations were obtained. Results for real sample (peritoneal dialysis) were satisfied.

  16. Evaluation of a novel biodegradable thermosensitive keto-hydrogel for improving postoperative pain in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meng-Huang; Shih, Ming-Hung; Hsu, Wei-Bin; Dubey, Navneet Kumar; Lee, Wen-Fu; Lin, Tsai-Yu; Hsieh, Meng-Yow; Chen, Chin-Fu; Peng, Kuo-Ti; Huang, Tsung-Jen; Shi, Chung-Sheng; Guo, Ren-Shyang; Cai, Chang-Jhih; Chung, Chiu-Yen; Wong, Chung-Hang

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the sustained analgesic effect of ketorolac-eluting thermosensitive biodegradable hydrogel in the plantar incisional pain model of the rat hind-paw. A ketorolac-embedded 2, 2'-Bis (2-oxazolin) (BOX) linking methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (mPEG-PLGA) diblock copolymer (BOX copolymer) was synthesized as keto-hydrogel based on optimal sol-gel phase transition and in vitro drug release profile. The effect of keto-hydrogel on postoperative pain (POP) was assessed using the established plantar incisional pain model in hind-paw of rats and compared to that of ketorolac solution. Pain and sensory threshold, as well as pain scoring, were evaluated with behavioral tests by means of anesthesiometer and incapacitance apparatus, respectively. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6, VEGF, and IL-1β) around incisional wounds were measured by ELISA. Tissue histology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. Ten mg/mL (25 wt%) keto-hydrogel showed a sol-gel transition at 26.4°C with a 10-day sustained drug release profile in vitro. Compared to ketorolac solution group, the concentration of ketorolac in tissue fluid was higher in the keto-hydrogel group during the first 18 h of application. Keto-hydrogel elevated pain and sensory threshold, increased weight-bearing capacity, and significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β while enhanced VEGF in tissue fluid. Histologic analysis reveals greater epithelialization and collagen deposition around wound treated with keto-hydrogel. In conclusion, our study suggests that keto-hydrogel is an ideal compound to treat POP with a secondary gain of improved incisional wound healing.

  17. Evaluation of a novel biodegradable thermosensitive keto-hydrogel for improving postoperative pain in a rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Huang Wu

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the sustained analgesic effect of ketorolac-eluting thermosensitive biodegradable hydrogel in the plantar incisional pain model of the rat hind-paw. A ketorolac-embedded 2, 2'-Bis (2-oxazolin (BOX linking methoxy-poly(ethylene glycol and poly(lactide-co-glycolide (mPEG-PLGA diblock copolymer (BOX copolymer was synthesized as keto-hydrogel based on optimal sol-gel phase transition and in vitro drug release profile. The effect of keto-hydrogel on postoperative pain (POP was assessed using the established plantar incisional pain model in hind-paw of rats and compared to that of ketorolac solution. Pain and sensory threshold, as well as pain scoring, were evaluated with behavioral tests by means of anesthesiometer and incapacitance apparatus, respectively. Pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6, VEGF, and IL-1β around incisional wounds were measured by ELISA. Tissue histology was assessed using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining. Ten mg/mL (25 wt% keto-hydrogel showed a sol-gel transition at 26.4°C with a 10-day sustained drug release profile in vitro. Compared to ketorolac solution group, the concentration of ketorolac in tissue fluid was higher in the keto-hydrogel group during the first 18 h of application. Keto-hydrogel elevated pain and sensory threshold, increased weight-bearing capacity, and significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β while enhanced VEGF in tissue fluid. Histologic analysis reveals greater epithelialization and collagen deposition around wound treated with keto-hydrogel. In conclusion, our study suggests that keto-hydrogel is an ideal compound to treat POP with a secondary gain of improved incisional wound healing.

  18. A new strategy based on SmRho protein loaded chitosan nanoparticles as a candidate oral vaccine against schistosomiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina R Oliveira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases and an effective control is unlikely in the absence of improved sanitation and vaccination. A new approach of oral vaccination with alginate coated chitosan nanoparticles appears interesting because their great stability and the ease of target accessibility, besides of chitosan and alginate immunostimulatory properties. Here we propose a candidate vaccine based on the combination of chitosan-based nanoparticles containing the antigen SmRho and coated with sodium alginate. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Our results showed an efficient performance of protein loading of nanoparticles before and after coating with alginate. Characterization of the resulting nanoparticles reported a size around 430 nm and a negative zeta potential. In vitro release studies of protein showed great stability of coated nanoparticles in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF. Further in vivo studies was performed with different formulations of chitosan nanoparticles and it showed that oral immunization was not able to induce high levels of antibodies, otherwise intramuscular immunization induced high levels of both subtypes IgG1 and IgG2a SmRho specific antibodies. Mice immunized with nanoparticles associated to CpG showed significant modulation of granuloma reaction. Mice from all groups immunized orally with nanoparticles presented significant levels of protection against infection challenge with S. mansoni worms, suggesting an important role of chitosan in inducing a protective immune response. Finally, mice immunized with nanoparticles associated with the antigen SmRho plus CpG had 38% of the granuloma area reduced and also presented 48% of protection against of S. mansoni infection. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this results support this new strategy as an efficient delivery system and a potential vaccine against schistosomiasis.

  19. Nanoparticle-based delivery of small interfering RNA: challenges for cancer therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miele E

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Evelina Miele,1,* Gian Paolo Spinelli,2,* Ermanno Miele,3 Enzo Di Fabrizio,3,6 Elisabetta Ferretti,4 Silverio Tomao,2 Alberto Gulino,1,5 1Department of Molecular Medicine, 2Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 3Nanostructures, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, via Morego, 30, 16163 Genova, 4Department of Experimental Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, 5Center for Life Nanoscience, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, Italy, 6BIONEM lab, University of Magna Graecia, Campus S. Venuta, Viale Europa 88100 Catanzaro, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: During recent decades there have been remarkable advances and profound changes in cancer therapy. Many therapeutic strategies learned at the bench, including monoclonal antibodies and small molecule inhibitors, have been used at the bedside, leading to important successes. One of the most important advances in biology has been the discovery that small interfering RNA (siRNA is able to regulate the expression of genes, by a phenomenon known as RNA interference (RNAi. RNAi is one of the most rapidly growing fields of research in biology and therapeutics. Much research effort has gone into the application of this new discovery in the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. However, even though these molecules may have potential and strong utility, some limitations make their clinical application difficult, including delivery problems, side effects due to off-target actions, disturbance of physiological functions of the cellular machinery involved in gene silencing, and induction of the innate immune response. Many researchers have attempted to overcome these limitations and to improve the safety of potential RNAi-based therapeutics. Nanoparticles, which are nanostructured entities with tunable size, shape, and surface, as well as biological behavior, provide an ideal opportunity to modify current

  20. Preparation and Tribological Properties of Dual-Coated TiO2 Nanoparticles as Water-Based Lubricant Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 were synthesized and then dual-coated with silane coupling agent (KH-570 and OP-10 in sequence in order to be dispersed stably in water as lubricant additives. The tribological properties and the application performance in Q235 steel machining of the nanoparticles as water-based lubricant additives were investigated on an MSR-10D four-ball tribotester and on a bench drilling machine, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM were used to analyze the worn surface. The results show that the surface-modified TiO2 nanoparticles can remarkably improve the load-carrying capacity, the friction reducing, and anti wear abilities of pure water. The wear scar diameter and the coefficient of friction of the water-based lubricating fluids with TiO2 nanoparticles decreased, and the thick deep furrows on the surface of wear scar also decreased obviously with the increase of TiO2 concentration. The power consumption in drilling process was lower and the cutting surface was smoother using the water-based lubricating fluids added TiO2 nanoparticles compared to the fluid without addition. The reason for nanoparticles improving tribological properties of water based lubricating fluid might be the formation of a dynamic deposition film during rubbing process according to analysis of the worn surface.

  1. Electrospun fibre colorimetric probe based on gold nanoparticles for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-20

    Nov 20, 2014 ... pump operated at a flow rate of 0.300 mℓ/h and a high-voltage power supply with a ..... Y (2012) A simple colorimetric sensor based on anti-aggregation of ... inside polystyrene domains dispersed in an epoxy matrix. Eur.

  2. Polymeric Nanoparticles as a Metolachlor Carrier: Water-Based Formulation for Hydrophobic Pesticides and Absorption by Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yujia; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Caiyan; Xu, Yong; Lu, Jianqing; Xiang, Sheng; Zong, Fulin; Wu, Xuemin

    2017-08-30

    Pesticide formulation is highly desirable for effective utilization of pesticide and environmental pollution reduction. Studies of pesticide delivery system such as microcapsules are developing prosperously. In this work, we chose polymeric nanoparticles as a pesticide delivery system and metolachlor was used as a hydrophobic pesticide model to study water-based mPEG-PLGA nanoparticle formulation. Preparation, characterization results showed that the resulting nanoparticles enhanced "water solubility" of hydrophobic metolachlor and contained no organic solvent or surfactant, which represent one of the most important sources of pesticide pollution. After the release study, absorption of Cy5-labeled nanoparticles into rice roots suggested a possible transmitting pathway of this metolachlor formulation and increased utilization of metolachlor. Furthermore, the bioassay test demonstrated that this nanoparticle showed higher effect than non-nano forms under relatively low concentrations on Oryza sativa, Digitaria sanguinalis. In addition, a simple cytotoxicity test involving metolachlor and metolachlor-loaded nanoparticles was performed, indicating toxicity reduction of the latter to the preosteoblast cell line. All of these results showed that those polymeric nanoparticles could serve as a pesticide carrier with lower environmental impact, comparable effect, and effective delivery.

  3. Nanoparticle-based B-cell targeting vaccines: Tailoring of humoral immune responses by functionalization with different TLR-ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilker, Claudia; Kozlova, Diana; Sokolova, Viktoriya; Yan, Huimin; Epple, Matthias; Überla, Klaus; Temchura, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Induction of an appropriate type of humoral immune response during vaccination is essential for protection against viral and bacterial infections. We recently observed that biodegradable calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles coated with proteins efficiently targeted and activated naïve antigen-specific B-cells in vitro. We now compared different administration routes for CaP-nanoparticles and demonstrated that intramuscular immunization with such CaP-nanoparticles induced stronger immune responses than immunization with monovalent antigen. Additional functionalization of the CaP-nanoparticles with TRL-ligands allowed modulating the IgG subtype response and the level of mucosal IgA antibodies. CpG-containing CaP-nanoparticles were as immunogenic as a virus-like particle vaccine. Functionalization of CaP-nanoparticles with T-helper cell epitopes or CpG also allowed overcoming lack of T-cell help. Thus, our results indicate that CaP-nanoparticle-based B-cell targeting vaccines functionalized with TLR-ligands can serve as a versatile platform for efficient induction and modulation of humoral immune responses in vivo. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Synthesis of environmentally friendly highly dispersed magnetite nanoparticles based on rosin cationic surfactants as thin film coatings of steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; El-Mahdy, Gamal A; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Al-Hussain, Sami A

    2014-04-22

    This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy) propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA) as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to characterize the nanoparticles chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopies (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) were used to examine the morphology of the modified magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite dispersed aqueous acid solution was evaluated as an effective anticorrosion behavior of a hydrophobic surface on steel. The inhibition effect of magnetite nanoparticles on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results obtained from both potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS measurements reveal that the magnetite nanoparticle is an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. Polarization data show that magnetite nanoparticles behave as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS methods are in good agreement.

  5. Synthesis of Environmentally Friendly Highly Dispersed Magnetite Nanoparticles Based on Rosin Cationic Surfactants as Thin Film Coatings of Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a new method to prepare monodisperse magnetite nanoparticles capping with new cationic surfactants based on rosin. Core/shell type magnetite nanoparticles were synthesized using bis-N-(3-levopimaric maleic acid adduct-2-hydroxy propyl-triethyl ammonium chloride (LPMQA as capping agent. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR was employed to characterize the nanoparticles chemical structure. Transmittance electron microscopies (TEM and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD were used to examine the morphology of the modified magnetite nanoparticles. The magnetite dispersed aqueous acid solution was evaluated as an effective anticorrosion behavior of a hydrophobic surface on steel. The inhibition effect of magnetite nanoparticles on steel corrosion in 1 M HCl solution was investigated using potentiodynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS. Results obtained from both potentiodynamic polarisation and EIS measurements reveal that the magnetite nanoparticle is an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in 1.0 M HCl solution. Polarization data show that magnetite nanoparticles behave as a mixed type inhibitor. The inhibition efficiencies obtained from potentiodynamic polarization and EIS methods are in good agreement.

  6. Clampless anastomosis with an intraluminal thermosensitive gel: first application in reconstructive microsurgery and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessler, G A; Fischborn, G T; Schmidt, A B

    2012-01-01

    Microvascular clamps of various designs provide a bloodless field for a safe anastomosis but can cause intimal lesions, occupy space in confined sites and have a risk of backwalling due to vessel flattening. They are often insufficient in their haemostatic effect in plaque-filled atherosclerotic vessels. A new, CE-certified thermosensitive gel (LeGoo™) clinically proven in cardiovascular surgery allows a clampless microanastomosis technique. We operated on a series of five consecutive patients aged 24-71 years with six flaps for lower-extremity reconstruction using a clampless anastomosis technique with LeGoo™. We transplanted one fabricated chimaeric fibula plus gracilis, three gracilis muscle and one anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. Pre- and postoperative protocols were similar to a 'standard' procedure with micro-clamps. All flaps survived completely except for a small area on fibula skin island, which was unrelated to gel use. The gel-assisted technique has a quick learning curve, according to this case series. The veins should be sutured first to prevent stasis in the flap. The gel provides circular stenting and gentle distension of the vessels for a safe and blood-free anastomotic site. It is completely dissolved after completion of the anastomosis with cold saline irrigation. Repolymerisation in the periphery will not occur, making it safe for microvascular flap surgery. From the experiences from this series and other specialities, the use of the thermosensitive gel LeGoo™ permits a safe clampless microanastomosis technique minimising mechanical vessel manipulation and compression. This makes it an attractive alternative to micro-clamps, especially for atherosclerotic arteries and confined anastomosis sites. Copyright © 2011 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Preparation and Evaluation of Oxaliplatin Thermosensitive Liposomes with Rapid Release and High Stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunying Zeng

    Full Text Available Oxaliplatin (OXP was reported to show low anti-tumor activity when used alone and to display side effects; this low activity was attributed to high partitioning to erythrocytes and low accumulation in tumors. Thermosensitive liposomes (TSL were considered able to specifically deliver drugs to heated tumors and to resolve the OXP distribution problem. Regretfully, TSL encapsulating doxorubicin did not demonstrate significant improvement in progression-free survival. Drug release below 41°C and significant leakage were considered major reasons for the failure. The purpose of this study was to acquire OXP TSL with rapid release at the triggered temperature and high stability at body temperature and at storage temperatures. A small quantity of poloxamer 188 was introduced into the TSL formulation to stabilize the encapsulated drug. It was shown that the addition of poloxamer 188 had no influence on the TSL characteristics. More than 90% of OXP was released within 10 min at 42°C, and less than 15% was released within 60 min at temperatures below 39°C. TSL were stable at 37°C for 96 h and at 4°C for 6 months. The anti-tumor activity of TSL at the dose of 2.5 mg/kg was certified to be equal to those of OXP injection and non-thermosensitive liposomes (NTSL at the dose of 5 mg/kg, and significant improvement of tumor inhibition was observed in TSL compared with injection and NTSL at the same dose. It was also shown from the histological transmutation of tumors that TSL had stronger anti-tumor activity. Therefore, it could be concluded that TSL composed of a proper amount of poloxamer had rapid release and high stability, and OXP TSL would be anticipated to exert prominent anti-tumor activity in the clinic.

  8. Indirect hand and forearm vasomotion: Regional variations in cutaneous thermosensitivity during normothermia and mild hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdon, Catriona A; Tagami, Kyoko; Park, Joonhee; Caldwell, Joanne N; Taylor, Nigel A S

    2017-04-01

    In this experiment, hand and forearm vasomotor activity was investigated during localised, but stable heating and cooling of the face, hand and thigh, under open-loop (clamped) conditions. It was hypothesised that facial stimulation would provoke the most potent vascular changes. Nine individuals participated in two normothermic trials (mean body temperature clamp: 36.6°C; water-perfused suit and climate chamber) and two mildly hyperthermic trials (37.9°C). Localised heating (+5°C) and cooling (-5°C) stimuli were applied to equal surface areas of the face, hand and thigh (perfusion patches: 15min), while contralateral forearm or hand blood flows (venous-occlusion plethysmography) were measured (separate trials). Thermal sensation and discomfort votes were recorded before and during each thermal stimulation. When hyperthermic, local heating induced more sensitive vascular responses, with the combined thermosensitivity of both limb segments averaging 0.011mL·100mL -1 ·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ·°C -1 , and 0.005mL·100mL -1 ·min -1 ·mmHg -1 ·°C -1 during localised cooling (P0.05). Therefore, regional differences in vasomotor and sensory sensitivity appeared not to exist. When combined with previous observations of sudomotor sensitivity, it seems that, during mild heating and cooling, regional representations within the somatosensory cortex may not translate into meaningful differences in thermal sensation or the central integration of thermoafferent signals. It was concluded that inter-site variations in the cutaneous thermosensitivity of these thermolytic effectors have minimal physiological significance over the ranges investigated thus far. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Ketamine nano-delivery based on poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Sota; Bovi, Michele; Romeo, Alessandro; Guzzo, Flavia; Chiamulera, Cristiano; Perduca, Massimiliano

    2018-04-01

    This work describes a novel method for the generation of a ketamine nano-delivery, to improve brain blood barrier permeability and increase drug therapeutic window as anaesthetic, analgesic and potential antidepressant. The approach herein described is based on ketamine-loaded poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles coupled to an apolipoprotein E (ApoE) peptide for delivery to the central nervous system. PLGA particles were synthesized with amount of drug, coupled with the ApoE peptide on the surface, and validated by physical characterization. The produced nanodevice showed a good colloidal stability in water, confirmed by zeta potential measurements, with a diameter in the range of 185-205 nm. The ketamine encapsulation was verified by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses obtaining an encapsulation efficiency up to 21.2 ± 3.54%. Once the occurrence of ApoE peptide functionalization was confirmed with fluorescence spectroscopy, the thermal stability and morphological information were obtained by differential scanning calorimetry and further dynamic light scattering measurements. The spherical shape and a rough nanoparticles surface were observed by atomic force microscopy. The reliability of this approach may be further developed as a protocol to be used to generate PLGA nanoparticles greater than 100 nm able to better penetrate blood brain barrier and release a neuroactive molecule at lower doses.

  10. Method for assessing the reliability of molecular diagnostics based on multiplexed SERS-coded nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Y Leigh

    Full Text Available Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS nanoparticles have been engineered to generate unique fingerprint spectra and are potentially useful as bright contrast agents for molecular diagnostics. One promising strategy for biomedical diagnostics and imaging is to functionalize various particle types ("flavors", each emitting a unique spectral signature, to target a large multiplexed panel of molecular biomarkers. While SERS particles emit narrow spectral features that allow them to be easily separable under ideal conditions, the presence of competing noise sources and background signals such as detector noise, laser background, and autofluorescence confounds the reliability of demultiplexing algorithms. Results obtained during time-constrained in vivo imaging experiments may not be reproducible or accurate. Therefore, our goal is to provide experimentalists with a metric that may be monitored to enforce a desired bound on accuracy within a user-defined confidence level. We have defined a spectral reliability index (SRI, based on the output of a direct classical least-squares (DCLS demultiplexing routine, which provides a measure of the reliability of the computed nanoparticle concentrations and ratios. We present simulations and experiments to demonstrate the feasibility of this strategy, which can potentially be utilized for a range of instruments and biomedical applications involving multiplexed SERS nanoparticles.

  11. Developing upconversion nanoparticle-based smart substrates for remote temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Zachary; Marble, Kassie; Alkahtani, Masfer; Hemmer, Philip; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2018-02-01

    Recent developments in understanding of nanomaterial behaviors and synthesis have led to their application across a wide range of commercial and scientific applications. Recent investigations span from applications in nanomedicine and the development of novel drug delivery systems to nanoelectronics and biosensors. In this study, we propose the application of a newly engineered temperature sensitive water-based bio-compatible core/shell up-conversion nanoparticle (UCNP) in the development of a smart substrate for remote temperature sensing. We developed this smart substrate by dispersing functionalized nanoparticles into a polymer solution and then spin-coating the solution onto one side of a microscope slide to form a thin film substrate layer of evenly dispersed nanoparticles. By using spin-coating to deposit the particle solution we both create a uniform surface for the substrate while simultaneously avoid undesired particle agglomeration. Through this investigation, we have determined the sensitivity and capabilities of this smart substrate and conclude that further development can lead to a greater range of applications for this type smart substrate and use in remote temperature sensing in conjunction with other microscopy and spectroscopy investigations.

  12. Nanoparticle-based immunosensor with apoferritin templated metallic phosphate label for quantification of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Dan; Chen, Aiqiong; Xie, Yunying; Zhang, Aidong; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-01-01

    A new sandwich-like electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for quantification of organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP-AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were anchored on a screen printed electrode (SPE) to preferably capture OP-AChE adducts by metal chelation with phospho-moieties, which was selectively recognized by lead phosphate-apoferritin labeled anti-AChE antibody (LPA-anti-AChE). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among ZrO2 NPs, OP-AChE and LPA-anti-AChE to form ZrO2/OP-AChE/LPA-anti-AChE complex and the released lead ions were detected on a disposable SPE. The binding affinity was investigated by both square wave voltammetry (SWV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The proposed immunosensor yielded a linear response current over a broad OP-AChE concentrations range from 0.05 nM to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.02 nM, which has enough sensitivity for monitoring of low-dose exposure to OPs. This method avoids the drawback of unavailability of commercial OP-specific antibody as well as amplifies detection signal by using apoferritin encoded metallic phosphate nanoparticle tags. This nanoparticle-based immunosensor offers a new method for rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts for monitoring of OP pesticides and nerve agents exposures.

  13. Enhanced Plasmonic Biosensors of Hybrid Gold Nanoparticle-Graphene Oxide-Based Label-Free Immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Nan-Fu; Chen, Chi-Chu; Yang, Cheng-Du; Kao, Yu-Sheng; Wu, Wei-Ren

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we propose a modified gold nanoparticle-graphene oxide sheet (AuNP-GO) nanocomposite to detect two different interactions between proteins and hybrid nanocomposites for use in biomedical applications. GO sheets have high bioaffinity, which facilitates the attachment of biomolecules to carboxyl groups and has led to its use in the development of sensing mechanisms. When GO sheets are decorated with AuNPs, they introduce localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the resonance energy transfer of spectral changes. Our results suggest a promising future for AuNP-GO-based label-free immunoassays to detect disease biomarkers and rapidly diagnose infectious diseases. The results showed the detection of antiBSA in 10 ng/ml of hCG non-specific interfering protein with dynamic responses ranging from 1.45 nM to 145 fM, and a LOD of 145 fM. Considering the wide range of potential applications of GO sheets as a host material for a variety of nanoparticles, the approach developed here may be beneficial for the future integration of nanoparticles with GO nanosheets for blood sensing. The excellent anti-interference characteristics allow for the use of the biosensor in clinical analysis and point-of-care testing (POCT) diagnostics of rapid immunoassay products, and it may also be a potential tool for the measurement of biomarkers in human serum.

  14. Nonenzymatic glucose sensing based on deposited palladium nanoparticles on epoxy-silver electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutes, Albert; Carraro, Carlo; Maboudian, Roya

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → New nonenzymatic glucose sensor material. → Modified epoxy-silver electrodes with palladium nanoparticles. → Simple electroless surface modification. → Wide linear response range. → Easy implementation. - Abstract: A new approach for nonenzymatic glucose sensing, based on a simple modification of epoxy-silver surfaces deposited on the tip of commercial copper electric wires, is presented. Palladium was galvanically displaced on the surface of the epoxy-silver surface in order to obtain metal nanoparticles that act as catalyst for the direct oxidation of glucose. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of the metal nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the metallic nature of the formed nanostructures on the surface. Electrochemical characterization and calibration of the palladium-modified epoxy-silver electrode is reported, obtaining a linear range of 1-20 mM for the detection of glucose with low interference of ascorbic acid and uric acid. A simple 3-step coulometry was used as the detection technique. The developed sensing material is believed to be a great candidate for integration in small devices for clinical essays, due to the simplicity and cost effectiveness of the presented approach, compared to the state-of-the-art devices reported recently in the literature. Simplicity in the coulometry determinations makes these Pd-modified epoxy-silver sensors a good candidate for easy glucose determinations.

  15. New potentiometric sensor based on molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for cocaine detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolinska-Kempisty, K; Ahmad, O Sheej; Guerreiro, A; Karim, K; Piletska, E; Piletsky, S

    2017-10-15

    Here we present a potentiometric sensor for cocaine detection based on molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) produced by the solid-phase imprinting method. The composition of polymers with high affinity for cocaine was optimised using molecular modelling. Four compositions were selected and polymers prepared using two protocols: chemical polymerisation in water and UV-initiated polymerisation in organic solvent. All synthesised nanoparticles had very good affinity to cocaine with dissociation constants between 0.6nM and 5.3nM. Imprinted polymers produced in organic solvent using acrylamide as a functional monomer demonstrated the highest yield and affinity, and so were selected for further sensor development. For this, nanoparticles were incorporated within a PVC matrix which was then used to prepare an ion-selective membrane integrated with a potentiometric transducer. It was demonstrated that the sensor was able to quantify cocaine in blood serum samples in the range of concentrations between 1nM and 1mM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanoparticle-based immunosensor with apoferritin templated metallic phosphate label for quantification of phosphorylated acetylcholinesterase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Chen, Aiqiong; Xie, Yunying; Zhang, Aidong; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-05-15

    A new sandwich-like electrochemical immunosensor has been developed for quantification of organophosphorylated acetylcholinesterase (OP-AChE), an exposure biomarker of organophosphate pesticides and nerve agents. Zirconia nanoparticles (ZrO2 NPs) were anchored on a screen printed electrode (SPE) to preferably capture OP-AChE adducts by metal chelation with phospho-moieties, which was selectively recognized by lead phosphate-apoferritin labeled anti-AChE antibody (LPA-anti-AChE). The sandwich-like immunoreactions were performed among ZrO2 NPs, OP-AChE and LPA-anti-AChE to form ZrO2/OP-AChE/LPA-anti-AChE complex and the released lead ions were detected on a disposable SPE. The binding affinity was investigated by both square wave voltammetry (SWV) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements. The proposed immunosensor yielded a linear response current over a broad OP-AChE concentrations range from 0.05 nM to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.02 nM, which has enough sensitivity for monitoring of low-dose exposure to OPs. This method avoids the drawback of unavailability of commercial OP-specific antibody as well as amplifies detection signal by using apoferritin encoded metallic phosphate nanoparticle tags. This nanoparticle-based immunosensor offers a new method for rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive quantification of phosphorylated adducts for monitoring of OP pesticides and nerve agents exposures.

  17. Detection of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic neuron cell using gold nanoparticles-based barcode DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jeung Hee; Oh, Byung-Keun; Choi, Jeong Woo

    2013-04-01

    Tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme of catecholamine biosysthesis, is predominantly expressed in several cell groups within the brain, including the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. We evaluated the efficacy of this protein-detection method in detecting tyrosine hydroxylase in normal and oxidative stress damaged dopaminergic cells. In this study, a coupling of DNA barcode and bead-based immnunoassay for detecting tyrosine hydroxylaser with PCR-like sensitivity is reported. The method relies on magnetic nanoparticles with antibodies and nanoparticles that are encoded with DNA and antibodies that can sandwich the target protein captured by the nanoparticle-bound antibodies. The aggregate sandwich structures are magnetically separated from solution, and treated to remove the conjugated barcode DNA. The DNA barcodes were identified by PCR analysis. The concentration of tyrosine hydroxylase in dopaminergic cell can be easily and rapidly detected using bio-barcode assay. The bio-barcode assay is a rapid and high-throughput screening tool to detect of neurotransmitter such as dopamine.

  18. Flow and heat transfer in water based liquid film fluids dispensed with graphene nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samina Zuhra

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The unsteady flow and heat transfer characteristics of electrically conducting water based thin liquid film non-Newtonian (Casson and Williamson nanofluids dispensed with graphene nanoparticles past a stretching sheet are considered in the presence of transverse magnetic field and non-uniform heat source/sink. Embedding the graphene nanoparticles effectively amplifies the thermal conductivity of Casson and Williamson nanofluids. Ordinary differential equations together with the boundary conditions are obtained through similarity variables from the governing equations of the problem, which are solved by the HAM (Homotopy Analysis Method. The solution is expressed through graphs and illustrated which show the influences of all the parameters. The convergence of the HAM solution for the linear operators is obtained. Favorable comparison with previously published research paper is performed to show the correlation for the present work. Skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are presented through Tables and graphs which show the validation for the achieved results demonstrating that the thin liquid films results from this study are in close agreement with the results reported in the literature. Results achieved by HAM and residual errors are evaluated numerically, given in Tables and also depicted graphically which show the accuracy of the present work. Keywords: Graphene nanoparticles, MHD, Casson and Williamson nanofluids, Stretching sheet, Skin friction coefficient, Nusselt number, Residual errors, Homotopy Analysis Method

  19. WE-G-303-01: Physical Bases for Gold Nanoparticle Applications in Radiation Oncology and X-Ray Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, S. [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in applying nanotechnology to cancer detection, treatment, and treatment monitoring. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the fabrication of nanoparticles from various materials with different shapes and sizes. Nanoparticles can be accumulated preferentially within tumors by either “passive targeting” through a phenomenon typically known as “enhanced permeability and retention” or “active targeting” in which nanoparticles are conjugated with antibodies or peptides directed against tumor and/or stromal markers. The tumor specificity of nanoparticles in conjunction with their unique physicochemical properties offers many novel strategies for cancer treatment and detection. For example, notable approaches in the radiation oncology setting include the use of gold nanoparticles for radiation response modulation of tumor or normal tissue and thermal ablation or hyperthermia treatment of tumors. Some of these approaches are currently being tested either on humans or on animals and, very likely, will become the clinical reality in the near future. Various computational and experimental techniques have also been applied to address unique research issues associated with nanoparticles and may become the standard tools for future investigations and clinical translations. Therefore, both clinicians and researchers may need to be properly educated about the basic principles as well as the promise of nanoparticle-based applications with regard to the future of cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. This symposium will familiarize the audience with the potential applications of nanoparticles in oncologic imaging and therapy using specific illustrative examples. The audience will be properly oriented by these illustrative examples to the multiple avenues for collaborative research amongst interdisciplinary teams of physicists, clinicians, engineers, chemists, and biologists in industry and academia. Learning

  20. WE-G-303-01: Physical Bases for Gold Nanoparticle Applications in Radiation Oncology and X-Ray Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in applying nanotechnology to cancer detection, treatment, and treatment monitoring. Advances in nanotechnology have enabled the fabrication of nanoparticles from various materials with different shapes and sizes. Nanoparticles can be accumulated preferentially within tumors by either “passive targeting” through a phenomenon typically known as “enhanced permeability and retention” or “active targeting” in which nanoparticles are conjugated with antibodies or peptides directed against tumor and/or stromal markers. The tumor specificity of nanoparticles in conjunction with their unique physicochemical properties offers many novel strategies for cancer treatment and detection. For example, notable approaches in the radiation oncology setting include the use of gold nanoparticles for radiation response modulation of tumor or normal tissue and thermal ablation or hyperthermia treatment of tumors. Some of these approaches are currently being tested either on humans or on animals and, very likely, will become the clinical reality in the near future. Various computational and experimental techniques have also been applied to address unique research issues associated with nanoparticles and may become the standard tools for future investigations and clinical translations. Therefore, both clinicians and researchers may need to be properly educated about the basic principles as well as the promise of nanoparticle-based applications with regard to the future of cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. This symposium will familiarize the audience with the potential applications of nanoparticles in oncologic imaging and therapy using specific illustrative examples. The audience will be properly oriented by these illustrative examples to the multiple avenues for collaborative research amongst interdisciplinary teams of physicists, clinicians, engineers, chemists, and biologists in industry and academia. Learning

  1. Antioxidant properties of biohybrids based on liposomes and sage silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbinta-Patrascu, Marcela Elisabeta; Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Iordache, Stefan Marian; Badea, Nicoleta; Fierascu, Radu-Claudiu; Ion, Rodica Mariana

    2013-03-01

    This paper is aimed to describe a simple and rapid eco-friendly bottom-up approach for the preparation of antioxidant silver bionanostructures using a leaf extract from sage (Salvia officinalis L.). The bioreduction property of sage in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles was investigated by UV-VIS and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. During their preparation, the particle size analysis was performed by using Dynamic Light Scattering technique. Ultrasonic irradiation was used to obtain sage silver nanoparticles. The morphology (size and shape) of the herbal silver nanoparticles was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy that revealed the formation of spherical phytonanoparticles with size less than 80 nm. In order to increase their stability and their biocompatibility, the sage silver nanoparticles were introduced in two types of liposomes: soybean lecithin- and Chla-DPPC-lipid vesicles which were prepared by thin film hydration method. X-Ray Fluorescence analysis confirmed the silver presence in liposomes/sage-AgNPs biohybrids. The stability of liposomes/herbal AgNPs bioconstructs was checked by zeta potential measurements. The most stable biohybrids: Chla-DPPC/sage-AgNPs with zeta potential value of -34.2 mV, were characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy revealing the spherical and quasi-spherical shaped profiles of these nanobiohybrids with size less than 96 nm. The antioxidant activity of the silver bionanostructures was evaluated using chemiluminescence assay. The developed eco-friendly silver phytonanostructures based on lipid membranes, nanosilver and sage extract, manifest strong antioxidant properties (between 86.5% and 98.6%).

  2. Porphyrin-based polysilsesquioxane nanoparticles to improve photodynamic therapy for cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; DeCillis, Daniel; Fritts, Laura; Vega, Daniel L.

    2014-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has emerged as an alternative approach to chemotherapy and radiotherapy for cancer treatment. The photosensitizer (PS) is perhaps the most critical component of PDT, and continues to be an area of intense scientific research. Traditionally, PS molecules (e.g. porphyrins) have dominated the field. Nevertheless, these PS agents have several disadvantages, with low water solubility, poor light absorption and reduced selectivity for targeted tissues being some of the main drawbacks. Polysilsesquioxane (PSilQ) nanoparticles are crosslinked homopolymers formed by the condensation of functionalized trialkoxysilanes or bis(trialkoxysilanes). We believe that PSilQ particles provide an interesting platform for developing PS nanocarriers. Several advantages can be foreseen by using this platform such as carrying a large payload of PS molecules; their surface and composition can be tailored to develop multifunctional systems (e.g. target-specific); and due to their small size, nanoparticles can penetrate deep into tissues and be readily internalized by cells. In this work, PSilQ nanoparticles with a high payload of photosensitizers were synthesized, characterized, and applied in vitro. The network of this nanomaterial is formed by protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) molecules chemically connected via a redox-responsive linker. Under reducing environment such as the one found in cancer cells the nanoparticles can be degraded to efficiently release single photosensitizers in the cytoplasm. The phototoxicity of this porphyrin-based PSilQ nanomaterial was successfully demonstrated in vitro using human cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. We envision that this platform can be further functionalized with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and targeting ligands to improve its biocompatibility and target specificity.

  3. Influence of Conductive and Semi-Conductive Nanoparticles on the Dielectric Response of Natural Ester-Based Nanofluid Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z. H. Makmud

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, studies of alternative liquid insulation in high voltage apparatus have become increasingly important due to higher concerns regarding safety, sustainable resources and environmentally friendly issues. To fulfil this demand, natural ester has been extensively studied and it can become a potential product to replace mineral oil in power transformers. In addition, the incorporation of nanoparticles has been remarkable in producing improved characteristics of insulating oil. Although much extensive research has been carried out, there is no general agreement on the influence on the dielectric response of base oil due to the addition of different amounts and conductivity types of nanoparticle concentrations. Therefore, in this work, a natural ester-based nanofluid was prepared by a two-step method using iron oxide (Fe2O3 and titanium dioxide (TiO2 as the conductive and semi-conductive nanoparticles, respectively. The concentration amount of each nanoparticle types was varied at 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 g/L. The nanofluid samples were characterised by visual inspection, morphology and the dynamic light scattering (DLS method before the dielectric response measurement was carried out for frequency-dependent spectroscopy (FDS, current-voltage (I-V, and dielectric breakdown (BD strength. The results show that the dielectric spectra and I-V curves of nanofluid-based iron oxide increases with the increase of iron oxide nanoparticle loading, while for titanium dioxide, it exhibits a decreasing response. The dielectric BD strength is enhanced for both types of nanoparticles at 0.01 g/L concentration. However, the increasing amount of nanoparticles at 0.1 and 1.0 g/L led to a contrary dielectric BD response. Thus, the results indicate that the augmentation of conductive nanoparticles in the suspension can lead to overlapping mechanisms. Consequently, this reduces the BD strength compared to pristine materials during electron injection in high electric

  4. Effect of island shape on dielectrophoretic assembly of metal nanoparticle chains in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Haitao; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Liu, Weiyu; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Zhou, Yaopei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conductive island shape influences the dynamic process occurring in DEP assembly of 10 nm gold nanoparticles in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system. • The DEP-assembled nanoparticle wires form a straighter conduction path with the increase in the geometric angle of conductive island tip. • The different island shapes distort the DEP force distribution and increase the local electrothermally induced fluid flow to different extents, which is important for the morphology and electrical conductance quality of the DEP-assembled metal nanoparticle chains. - Abstract: The electrical conduction quality of an electric circuit connection formed by dielectrophoretic (DEP)-assembled metal nanoparticle wires between small conductive elements plays a significant role in electronic devices. One of the major challenges for improving the electrical conductance of nanowires is optimizing their geometric morphology. So far, the electrical conduction quality has been enhanced by optimizing the AC frequency and conductivity of nanoparticle suspensions. Herein, the effect of the conductive island shapes on the dynamic process occurring in a DEP assembly of 10 nm gold nanoparticles was investigated in a conductive-island-based microelectrode system. The nanoparticle wires between the microelectrodes were assembled in situ from colloidal suspensions. The wires were grown in a much straighter route by increasing the geometric angle of the conductive-island tip. To validate the experiments, the effects of mutual DEP interactions and electrothermally induced fluid flow on the dynamic behavior of particle motion for different island geometric configurations in the conductive-island-based microelectrode system were determined by numerical simulations. The simulation results are consistent with those of experiments. This indicates that different conductive island shapes change the distribution of DEP force and increase the electrothermally induced fluid flow to

  5. Manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles induce ex vivo, but not in vivo, cardiovascular effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes ADC

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Allancer DC Nunes,1 Laylla S Ramalho,2 Álvaro PS Souza,1 Elizabeth P Mendes,1,3 Diego B Colugnati,1 Nícholas Zufelato,2 Marcelo H Sousa,4 Andris F Bakuzis,2 Carlos H Castro1,3 1Department of Physiological Sciences, 2Physics Institute, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil; 3National Institute of Science and Technology in Nanobiopharmaceutics, Belo Horizonte, Brazil; 4Faculty of Ceilândia, University of Brasília, Brasília-DF, Brazil Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have been used for various biomedical applications. Importantly, manganese ferrite-based nanoparticles have useful magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and potential for hyperthermia treatment, but their effects in the cardiovascular system are poorly reported. Thus, the objectives of this study were to determine the cardiovascular effects of three different types of manganese ferrite-based magnetic nanoparticles: citrate-coated (CiMNPs; tripolyphosphate-coated (PhMNPs; and bare magnetic nanoparticles (BaMNPs. The samples were characterized by vibrating sample magnetometer, X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering, and transmission electron microscopy. The direct effects of the MNPs on cardiac contractility were evaluated in isolated perfused rat hearts. The CiMNPs, but not PhMNPs and BaMNPs, induced a transient decrease in the left ventricular end-systolic pressure. The PhMNPs and BaMNPs, but not CiMNPs, induced an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, which resulted in a decrease in a left ventricular end developed pressure. Indeed, PhMNPs and BaMNPs also caused a decrease in the maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise (+dP/dt and maximal rate of left ventricular pressure decline (–dP/dt. The three MNPs studied induced an increase in the perfusion pressure of isolated hearts. BaMNPs, but not PhMNPs or CiMNPs, induced a slight vasorelaxant effect in the isolated aortic rings. None of the MNPs were able to change heart

  6. Room Temperature Co-Precipitation Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles in a Large pH Window with Different Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascolo, Maria Cristina; Pei, Yongbing; Ring, Terry A

    2013-11-28

    Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄) represent the most promising materials in medical applications. To favor high-drug or enzyme loading on the nanoparticles, they are incorporated into mesoporous materials to form a hybrid support with the consequent reduction of magnetization saturation. The direct synthesis of mesoporous structures appears to be of interest. To this end, magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized using a one pot co-precipitation reaction at room temperature in the presence of different bases, such as NaOH, KOH or (C₂H₅)₄NOH. Magnetite shows characteristics of superparamagnetism at room temperature and a saturation magnetization (Ms) value depending on both the crystal size and the degree of agglomeration of individual nanoparticles. Such agglomeration appears to be responsible for the formation of mesoporous structures, which are affected by the pH, the nature of alkali, the slow or fast addition of alkaline solution and the drying modality of synthesized powders.

  7. Effect of Ag nanoparticles on resistive switching of polyfluorene-based organic non-volatile memory devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Wook; Oh, Seung-Hwan; Choi, Hye-Jung; Wang, Gun-Uk; Kim, Dong-Yu; Hwang, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Tak-Hee

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Ag nanoparticles on the switching behavior of polyfluorene-based organic nonvolatile memory devices were investigated. Polyfluorene-derivatives (WPF-oxy-F) with and without Ag nanoparticles were synthesized, and the presence of Ag nanoparticles in Ag-WPF-oxy-F was identified by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses. The Ag-nanoparticles did not significantly affect the basic switching performances, such as the current-voltage characteristics, the distribution of on/off resistance, and the retention. The pulse switching time of Ag-WPF-oxy-F was faster than that of WPF-oxy-F. Ag-WPF-oxy-F memory devices showed an area dependence in the high resistance state, implying that formation of a Ag metallic channel for current conduction.

  8. Room Temperature Co-Precipitation Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles in a Large pH Window with Different Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Mascolo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4 represent the most promising materials in medical applications. To favor high-drug or enzyme loading on the nanoparticles, they are incorporated into mesoporous materials to form a hybrid support with the consequent reduction of magnetization saturation. The direct synthesis of mesoporous structures appears to be of interest. To this end, magnetite nanoparticles have been synthesized using a one pot co-precipitation reaction at room temperature in the presence of different bases, such as NaOH, KOH or (C2H54NOH. Magnetite shows characteristics of superparamagnetism at room temperature and a saturation magnetization (Ms value depending on both the crystal size and the degree of agglomeration of individual nanoparticles. Such agglomeration appears to be responsible for the formation of mesoporous structures, which are affected by the pH, the nature of alkali, the slow or fast addition of alkaline solution and the drying modality of synthesized powders.

  9. Thermosensitive membranes by radiation-induced graft polymerization of N-isopropyl acrylamide/acrylic acid on polypropylene nonwoven fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikram, Saiqa; Kumari, Mamta; Gupta, Bhuvanesh

    2011-01-01

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylic acid (AA) mixture was investigated on polypropylene nonwoven fabric to develop a thermosensitive material. The grafting was carried out using methanol, acetone and butanone as homopolymerization inhibitor in the reaction medium. Butanone was observed to give the maximum grafting. It was observed that the grafting is significantly influenced by the reaction conditions, such as radiation dose, monomer concentration, monomer ratio, solvent composition and reaction temperature. The degree of grafting increased as the AA and NIPAAm concentration in the reaction medium increased. The degree of grafting increased as the AA fraction in the NIPAAm/AA mixture increased. The temperature dependence of the grafting process is very much governed by the thermosensitive nature of the grafted chains right from the stage when initial grafting has taken place.

  10. Thermosensitive membranes by radiation-induced graft polymerization of N-isopropyl acrylamide/acrylic acid on polypropylene nonwoven fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikram, Saiqa; Kumari, Mamta [Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia (Central University), New Delhi-110025 (India); Gupta, Bhuvanesh, E-mail: bgupta@textile.iitd.ernet.i [Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi-110016 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Radiation-induced graft copolymerization of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAm) and acrylic acid (AA) mixture was investigated on polypropylene nonwoven fabric to develop a thermosensitive material. The grafting was carried out using methanol, acetone and butanone as homopolymerization inhibitor in the reaction medium. Butanone was observed to give the maximum grafting. It was observed that the grafting is significantly influenced by the reaction conditions, such as radiation dose, monomer concentration, monomer ratio, solvent composition and reaction temperature. The degree of grafting increased as the AA and NIPAAm concentration in the reaction medium increased. The degree of grafting increased as the AA fraction in the NIPAAm/AA mixture increased. The temperature dependence of the grafting process is very much governed by the thermosensitive nature of the grafted chains right from the stage when initial grafting has taken place.

  11. Development of chitosan-nanoparticle film based materials for controlled quality of minced beef during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdawati

    2010-10-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared based on the ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions. The physicochemical properties of the chitosan nanoparticles were determined by FTIR analysis, XRD pattern and TEM. The effects of chitosan nanoparticles treatment on the shelf-life extension of minced beef stored at 20±1° C were studied, including chemical and microbiological,. Results indicated that chitosan nanoparticle treatment reduced the total microbial load of fresh minced beef about 10-fold (from 3.2×104 CFU/g to 5.4×102 CFU/g) before storage and the microbial flora was different with that of raw samples. The wide-spectrum antibacterial property of chitosan against bacteria isolated from minced beef was confirmed, and chitosan concentration of 400 ppm was eventually determined for application in minced beef. Based on microbiological analysis, biochemical indices determination and sensory evaluation, shelf-lives of 2-3 days for control, 4-5 days for nanoparticle chitosan treatment samples, were observed, indicating that chitosan nanoparticle have a great potential for minced beef preservation.

  12. Investigation of physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of prepared films containing nanoparticles of titanium oxide based on soy flour polysaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Salarbashi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The natural derived biopolymers are highly interested in recent years. These polymers are considering as the alternative for un-biodegradable plastic films. This is due to the low cost and their availability from biodegradable and renewable sources. In this study, the effect of different concentrations of Tio2 nanoparticles on physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of prepared edible films based on soy flour soluble polysaccharide was investigated. MethodS: The nanocomposite films were prepared by adding the Tio2 nanoparticles (5, 10 and 15%/ db to the soy flour. In order to investigate the physicochemical and microbiological properties, the resulted nanocomposite films were synthetized based on the casting method. Results: When the content of nanoparticles increased, the moisture content and solubility of the film specimens were significantly decreased, whereas the mechanical resistance was significantly increased. Tio2 nanoparticle was highly effective against basillus cereus, staphylococus ureus and staphylococuss epidermidis. Meanwhile, MIC and MBC of molds were not affected by these films. MIC for penicilium expansum was significantly affected when the Tio2 nanoparticles increased. Conclusion: the results indicated that Tio2 nanoparticles are applicable into the polysaccharide soy films. The nanocomposite film developed in the current study could be used in food applications and as a biodegradable film.

  13. Monitoring the Environmental Impact of TiO2 Nanoparticles Using a Plant-Based Sensor Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaghan, Scott C.; Li, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hao; Burris, Jason N.; Stewart, C. Neal; Parker, Lynne E.; Zhang, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    The increased manufacturing of nanoparticles for use in cosmetics, foods, and clothing necessitates the need for an effective system to monitor and evaluate the potential environmental impact of these nanoparticles. The goal of this research was to develop a plant-based sensor network for characterizing, monitoring, and understanding the environmental impact of TiO2 nanoparticles. The network consisted of potted Arabidopsis thaliana with a surrounding water supply, which was monitored by cameras attached to a laptop computer running a machine learning algorithm. Using the proposed plant sensor network, we were able to examine the toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles in two systems: algae and terrestrial plants. Increased terrestrial plant growth was observed upon introduction of the nanoparticles, whereas algal growth decreased significantly. The proposed system can be further automated for high-throughput screening of nanoparticle toxicity in the environment at multiple trophic levels. The proposed plant-based sensor network could be used for more accurate characterization of the environmental impact of nanomaterials. PMID:28458617

  14. Detection of neurotransmitters by a light scattering technique based on seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shang Li; Dong Shaojun

    2008-01-01

    A simple light scattering detection method for neurotransmitters has been developed, based on the growth of gold nanoparticles. Neurotransmitters (dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline) can effectively function as active reducing agents for generating gold nanoparticles, which result in enhanced light scattering signals. The strong light scattering of gold nanoparticles then allows the quantitative detection of the neurotransmitters simply by using a common spectrofluorometer. In particular, Au-nanoparticle seeds were added to facilitate the growth of nanoparticles, which was found to enhance the sensing performance greatly. Using this light scattering technique based on the seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles, detection limits of 4.4 x 10 -7 M, 3.5 x 10 -7 M, 4.1 x 10 -7 M, and 7.7 x 10 -7 M were achieved for dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively. The present strategy can be extended to detect other biologically important molecules in a very fast, simple and sensitive way, and may have potential applications in a wide range of fields

  15. Detection of neurotransmitters by a light scattering technique based on seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shang Li; Dong Shaojun [State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)], E-mail: dongsj@ciac.jl.cn

    2008-03-05

    A simple light scattering detection method for neurotransmitters has been developed, based on the growth of gold nanoparticles. Neurotransmitters (dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline) can effectively function as active reducing agents for generating gold nanoparticles, which result in enhanced light scattering signals. The strong light scattering of gold nanoparticles then allows the quantitative detection of the neurotransmitters simply by using a common spectrofluorometer. In particular, Au-nanoparticle seeds were added to facilitate the growth of nanoparticles, which was found to enhance the sensing performance greatly. Using this light scattering technique based on the seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles, detection limits of 4.4 x 10{sup -7} M, 3.5 x 10{sup -7} M, 4.1 x 10{sup -7} M, and 7.7 x 10{sup -7} M were achieved for dopamine, L-dopa, noradrenaline and adrenaline, respectively. The present strategy can be extended to detect other biologically important molecules in a very fast, simple and sensitive way, and may have potential applications in a wide range of fields.

  16. A novel gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer-based plasmonic chip for rapid and sensitive detection of bacterial pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yi; Phuoc Long, Truong; Wolff, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-based biosensors are emerging technologies for rapid detection of pathogens. However, it is very challenging to develop chip-based AuNP-biosensors for whole cells. This paper describes a novel AuNPs-DNA aptamer-based plasmonic assay which allows DNA aptamers...

  17. Screen-Printed Photochromic Textiles through New Inks Based on SiO2@naphthopyran Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Tânia V; Costa, Paula; Sousa, Céu M; Sousa, Carlos A D; Pereira, Clara; Silva, Carla J S M; Pereira, Manuel Fernando R; Coelho, Paulo J; Freire, Cristina

    2016-10-26

    Photochromic silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 @NPT), fabricated through the covalent immobilization of silylated naphthopyrans (NPTs) based on 2H-naphtho[1,2-b]pyran (S1, S2) and 3H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran (S3, S4) or through the direct adsorption of the parent naphthopyrans (1, 3) onto silica nanoparticles (SiO 2 NPs), were successfully incorporated onto cotton fabrics by a screen-printing process. Two aqueous acrylic- (AC-) and polyurethane- (PU-) based inks were used as dispersing media. All textiles exhibited reversible photochromism under UV and solar irradiation, developing fast responses and intense coloration. The fabrics coated with SiO 2 @S1 and SiO 2 @S2 showed rapid color changes and high contrasts (ΔE* ab = 39-52), despite presenting slower bleaching kinetics (2-3 h to fade to the original color), whereas the textiles coated with SiO 2 @S3 and SiO 2 @S4 exhibited excellent engagement between coloration and decoloration rates (coloration and fading times of 1 and 2 min, respectively; ΔE* ab = 27-53). The PU-based fabrics showed excellent results during the washing fastness tests, whereas the AC-based textiles evidenced good results only when a protective transfer film was applied over the printed design.

  18. Gold nanoparticle-based probes for the colorimetric detection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganareal, Thenor Aristotile Charles S; Balbin, Michelle M; Monserate, Juvy J; Salazar, Joel R; Mingala, Claro N

    2018-02-12

    Gold nanoparticle (AuNP) is considered to be the most stable metal nanoparticle having the ability to be functionalized with biomolecules. Recently, AuNP-based DNA detection methods captured the interest of researchers worldwide. Paratuberculosis or Johne's disease, a chronic gastroenteritis in ruminants caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), was found to have negative effect in the livestock industry. In this study, AuNP-based probes were evaluated for the specific and sensitive detection of MAP DNA. AuNP-based probe was produced by functionalization of AuNPs with thiol-modified oligonucleotide and was confirmed by Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. UV-Vis spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize AuNPs. DNA detection was done by hybridization of 10 μL of DNA with 5 μL of probe at 63 °C for 10 min and addition of 3 μL salt solution. The method was specific to MAP with detection limit of 103 ng. UV-Vis and SEM showed dispersion and aggregation of the AuNPs for the positive and negative results, respectively, with no observed particle growth. This study therefore reports an AuNP-based probes which can be used for the specific and sensitive detection of MAP DNA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Flexible solid-state supercapacitors based on carbon nanoparticles/MnO2 nanorods hybrid structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Longyan; Lu, Xi-Hong; Xiao, Xu; Zhai, Teng; Dai, Junjie; Zhang, Fengchao; Hu, Bin; Wang, Xue; Gong, Li; Chen, Jian; Hu, Chenguo; Tong, Yexiang; Zhou, Jun; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-01-24

    A highly flexible solid-state supercapacitor was fabricated through a simple flame synthesis method and electrochemical deposition process based on a carbon nanoparticles/MnO(2) nanorods hybrid structure using polyvinyl alcohol/H(3)PO(4) electrolyte. Carbon fabric is used as a current collector and electrode (mechanical support), leading to a simplified, highly flexible, and lightweight architecture. The device exhibited good electrochemical performance with an energy density of 4.8 Wh/kg at a power density of 14 kW/kg, and a demonstration of a practical device is also presented, highlighting the path for its enormous potential in energy management. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  20. A size selective nanoparticle collection device based on diffusion and thermophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyyraenen, Jussi; Backman, Ulrika; Tapper, Unto; Auvinen, Ari; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing industry fabricating products that are based on nanoparticles (particle diameter d p ≤100 nm). The production of these particles requires detection, classification and characterisation of even smaller particles because of, e.g. preventing unwanted particle emissions from the processes and health issues. Monitoring of the processes is needed on one hand for product quality determinations, on the other hand to ensure safe and particle-free working conditions. Thus simple, fast and reliable measurement devices are needed for particle characterisation.

  1. Compact solar autoclave based on steam generation using broadband light-harvesting nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Oara; Feronti, Curtis; Neumann, Albert D; Dong, Anjie; Schell, Kevin; Lu, Benjamin; Kim, Eric; Quinn, Mary; Thompson, Shea; Grady, Nathaniel; Nordlander, Peter; Oden, Maria; Halas, Naomi J

    2013-07-16

    The lack of readily available sterilization processes for medicine and dentistry practices in the developing world is a major risk factor for the propagation of disease. Modern medical facilities in the developed world often use autoclave systems to sterilize medical instruments and equipment and process waste that could contain harmful contagions. Here, we show the use of broadband light-absorbing nanoparticles as solar photothermal heaters, which generate high-temperature steam for a standalone, efficient solar autoclave useful for sanitation of instruments or materials in resource-limited, remote locations. Sterilization was verified using a standard Geobacillus stearothermophilus-based biological indicator.

  2. Compact solar autoclave based on steam generation using broadband light-harvesting nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Oara; Feronti, Curtis; Neumann, Albert D.; Dong, Anjie; Schell, Kevin; Lu, Benjamin; Kim, Eric; Quinn, Mary; Thompson, Shea; Grady, Nathaniel; Nordlander, Peter; Oden, Maria; Halas, Naomi J.

    2013-01-01

    The lack of readily available sterilization processes for medicine and dentistry practices in the developing world is a major risk factor for the propagation of disease. Modern medical facilities in the developed world often use autoclave systems to sterilize medical instruments and equipment and process waste that could contain harmful contagions. Here, we show the use of broadband light-absorbing nanoparticles as solar photothermal heaters, which generate high-temperature steam for a standalone, efficient solar autoclave useful for sanitation of instruments or materials in resource-limited, remote locations. Sterilization was verified using a standard Geobacillus stearothermophilus-based biological indicator. PMID:23836642

  3. Supercapacitors Based on Metal Electrodes Prepared from Nanoparticle Mixtures at Room Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Hideyuki [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Grzybowski, Bartosz A. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Films comprising Au and Ag nanoparticles are transformed into porous metal electrodes by desorption of weak organic ligands followed by wet chemical etching of silver. Thus prepared electrodes provide the basis for supercapacitors whose specific capacitances approach 70 F/g. Cyclic voltammetry measurement yield “rectangular” I-V curves even at high scan rates, indicating that the supercapacitors have low internal resistance. Owing to this property, the supercapacitors have a high power density ~12 kW/kg, comparable with that of the state-of-the-art carbon-based devices. The entire assembly protocol does not require high-temperature processing or the use of organic binders.

  4. Biodegradable Oxamide-Phenylene-Based Mesoporous Organosilica Nanoparticles with Unprecedented Drug Payloads for Delivery in Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Croissant, Jonas

    2016-06-03

    We describe biodegradable mesoporous hybrid NPs in the presence of proteins, and its application for drug delivery. We synthesized oxamide-phenylene-based mesoporous organosilica nanoparticles (MON) in the absence of silica source which had a remarkably high organic content with a high surface area. Oxamide functions provided biodegradability in the presence of trypsin model proteins. MON displayed exceptionally high payloads of hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs (up to 84 wt%), and a unique zero premature leakage without the pore capping, unlike mesoporous silica. MON were biocompatible and internalized into cancer cells for drug delivery.

  5. Magnetic nanoparticle-based approaches to locally target therapy and enhance tissue regeneration in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensenig, Richard; Sapir, Yulia; MacDonald, Cristin; Cohen, Smadar; Polyak, Boris

    2012-09-01

    Magnetic-based systems utilizing superparamagnetic nanoparticles and a magnetic field gradient to exert a force on these particles have been used in a wide range of biomedical applications. This review is focused on drug targeting applications that require penetration of a cellular barrier as well as strategies to improve the efficacy of targeting in these biomedical applications. Another focus of this review is regenerative applications utilizing tissue engineered scaffolds prepared with the aid of magnetic particles, the use of remote actuation for release of bioactive molecules and magneto-mechanical cell stimulation, cell seeding and cell patterning.

  6. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) chaperone complex. A molecular target for enhancement of thermosensitivity and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Tetsuo; Nonaka, Tetsuo; Kitamoto, Yoshizumi; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2002-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a highly conserved heat shock protein in animal and plants, and exists abundantly in the cytoplasm in unstressed condition, accounting for 1-2% in cytoplasmic proteins. Main difference of Hsp90 from other Hsps are its substrate that Hsp90 binds to. These substrates include various signal transduction proteins, kinase, steroid receptors and transcription factors, therefore, Hsp90 plays a key role in maintaining cellular signal transduction networks. Many chaperoned proteins (client proteins) of Hsp90 are associated with cellular proliferation or malignant transformation, thus Hsp90 chaperone complex has been focused as targets for cancer therapy. Among the client proteins, there are several molecules that have been defined as targets or factors for determination or enhancement of radiosensitivity or thermosensitivity. Thus, it is easily speculated that Hsp90 chaperone complex inhibitors that disrupt association of Hsp90 and client protein in combination with radiation or/and heat has potential effect on enhancement of radiosensitivity or thermosensitivity. In this paper, possible mechanisms in enhancing radiosensitivity or thermosensitivity according to the client proteins will be summarized. (author)

  7. Array-based sensing using nanoparticles: an alternative approach for cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Ngoc D B; Yazdani, Mahdieh; Rotello, Vincent M

    2014-07-01

    Array-based sensing using nanoparticles (NPs) provides an attractive alternative to specific biomarker-focused strategies for cancer diagnosis. The physical and chemical properties of NPs provide both the recognition and transduction capabilities required for biosensing. Array-based sensors utilize a combined response from the interactions between sensors and analytes to generate a distinct pattern (fingerprint) for each analyte. These interactions can be the result of either the combination of multiple specific biomarker recognition (specific binding) or multiple selective binding responses, known as chemical nose sensing. The versatility of the latter array-based sensing using NPs can facilitate the development of new personalized diagnostic methodologies in cancer diagnostics, a necessary evolution in the current healthcare system to better provide personalized treatments. This review will describe the basic principle of array-based sensors, along with providing examples of both invasive and noninvasive samples used in cancer diagnosis.

  8. Detection of triglyceride using an iridium nano-particle catalyst based amperometric biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Yin; Liu, Chung-Chiun; Chou, Tse-Chuan

    2008-12-01

    The detection and quantification of triglyceride (TG) using an iridium nano-particle modified carbon based biosensor was successfully carried out in this study. The detection procedures were based on the electrochemical detection of enzymatically produced NADH. TG was hydrolyzed by lipase and the glycerol produced was catalytically oxidized by NAD-dependent glycerol dehydrogenase producing NADH in a solution containing NAD(+). Glyceryl tributyrate, a short chain triglyceride, was chosen as the substrate for the evaluation of this TG biosensor in bovine serum and human serum. A linear response to glyceryl tributyrate in the concentration range of 0 to 10 mM and a sensitivity of 7.5 nA mM(-1) in bovine serum and 7.0 nA mM(-1) in human serum were observed experimentally. The potential interference of species such as uric acid (UA) and ascorbic acid (AA) was assessed. The incorporation of a selected surfactant and an increase in the incubation temperature appeared to enhance the performance of this biosensor. The conditions for the determination of TG levels in bovine serum using this biosensor were optimized, with sunflower seed oil being used as an analyte to simulate the detection of TG in blood. The experimental results demonstrated that this iridium nano-particle modified working electrode based biosensor provided a relatively simple means for the accurate determination of TG in serum.

  9. Ether gas-sensor based on Au nanoparticles-decorated ZnO microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto López

    Full Text Available An ether gas-sensor was fabricated based on gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs decorated zinc oxide microstructures (ZnO-MS. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM measurements were performed to study morphological and structural properties, respectively, of the ZnO-MS. The gas sensing response was evaluated in a relatively low temperature regime, which ranged between 150 and 250 °C. Compared with a sensor fabricated from pure ZnO-MS, the sensor based on Au-NPs decorated ZnO-MS showed much better ether gas response at the highest working temperature. In fact, pure ZnO-MS based sensor only showed a weak sensitivity of about 25%. The improvement of the ether gas response for sensor fabricated with Au-NPs decorated ZnO-MS was attributed to the catalytic activity of the Au-NPs. Keywords: ZnO microstructures, Au nanoparticles, Ether, Gas sensor

  10. Highly Conductive, Transparent Flexible Films Based on Metal Nanoparticle-Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yin Ko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Metallic nanoparticles decorated on MWCNTs based transparent conducting thin films (TCFs show a cheap and efficient option for the applications in touch screens and the replacement of the ITO film because of their interesting properties of electrical conductivity, mechanical property, chemical inertness, and other unique properties, which may not be accessible by their individual components. However, a great challenge that always remains is to develop effective ways to prepare junctions between metallic nanoparticles and MWCNTs for the improvement of high-energy barriers, high contact resistances, and weak interactions which could lead to the formation of poor conducting pathways and result in the CNT-based devices with low mechanical flexibility. Herein, we not only discuss recent progress in the preparation of MNP-CNT flexible TCFs but also describe our research studies in the relevant areas. Our result demonstrated that the MNP-CNT flexible TCFs we prepared could achieve a highly electrical conductivity with the sheet resistance of ~100 ohm/sq with ~80% transmittance at 550 nm even after being bent 500 times. This electrical conductivity is much superior to the performances of other MWCNT-based transparent flexible films, making it favorable for next-generation flexible touch screens and optoelectronic devices.

  11. Respiratory nanoparticle-based vaccines and challenges associated with animal models and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Narasimhan, Balaji; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2015-12-10

    Vaccine development has had a huge impact on human health. However, there is a significant need to develop efficacious vaccines for several existing as well as emerging respiratory infectious diseases. Several challenges need to be overcome to develop efficacious vaccines with translational potential. This review focuses on two aspects to overcome some barriers - 1) the development of nanoparticle-based vaccines, and 2) the choice of suitable animal models for respiratory infectious diseases that will allow for translation. Nanoparticle-based vaccines, including subunit vaccines involving synthetic and/or natural polymeric adjuvants and carriers, as well as those based on virus-like particles offer several key advantages to help overcome the barriers to effective vaccine development. These include the ability to deliver combinations of antigens, target the vaccine formulation to specific immune cells, enable cross-protection against divergent strains, act as adjuvants or immunomodulators, allow for sustained release of antigen, enable single dose delivery, and potentially obviate the cold chain. While mouse models have provided several important insights into the mechanisms of infectious diseases, they are often a limiting step in translation of new vaccines to the clinic. An overview of different animal models involved in vaccine research for respiratory infections, with advantages and disadvantages of each model, is discussed. Taken together, advances in nanotechnology, combined with the right animal models for evaluating vaccine efficacy, has the potential to revolutionize vaccine development for respiratory infections. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Estimation of sensing characteristics for refractory nitrides based gain assisted core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishodia, Manmohan Singh; Pathania, Pankaj

    2018-04-01

    Refractory transition metal nitrides such as zirconium nitride (ZrN), hafnium nitride (HfN) and titanium nitride (TiN) have emerged as viable alternatives to coinage metals based plasmonic materials, e.g., gold (Au) and silver (Ag). The present work assesses the suitability of gain assisted ZrN-, HfN- and TiN-based conventional core-shell nanoparticles (CCSNPs) and multilayered core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNPs) for refractive index sensing. We report that the optical gain incorporation in the dielectric layer leads to multifold enhancement of the scattering efficiency (Qsca), substantial reduction of the spectral full width at half maximum, and a higher figure of merit (FOM). In comparison with CCSNPs, the MCSNP system exhibits superior sensing characteristics such as higher FOM, ˜ 45% reduction in the critical optical gain, response shift towards the biological window, and higher degree of tunability. Inherent biocompatibility, growth compatibility, chemical stability and flexible spectral tuning of refractory nitrides augmented by superior sensing properties in the present work may pave the way for refractory nitrides based low cost sensing.

  13. Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay based on magnetic nanoparticles for detection of hepatocellular carcinoma marker glypican-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian-Yun Zhang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Glypican-3 (GPC3 is reported as a great promising tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC diagnosis. Highly sensitive and accurate analysis of serum GPC3 (sGPC3, in combination with or instead of traditional HCC marker alpha-fetoprotein (AFP, is essential for early diagnosis of HCC. Biomaterial-functionalized magnetic particles have been utilized as solid supports with good biological compatibility for sensitive immunoassay. Here, the magnetic nanoparticles (MnPs and magnetic microparticles (MmPs with carboxyl groups were further modified with streptavidin, and applied for the development of chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay (CLEIA. After comparing between MnPs- and MmPs-based CLEIA, MnPs-based CLEIA was proved to be a better method with less assay time, greater sensitivity, better linearity and longer chemiluminescence platform. MnPs-based CLEIA was applied for detection of sGPC3 in normal liver, hepatocirrhosis, secondary liver cancer and HCC serum samples. The results indicated that sGPC3 was effective in diagnosis of HCC with high performance. Keywords: Magnetic nanoparticle, Magnetic microparticle, Chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay, Glypican-3, Hepatocellular carcinoma

  14. Physicochemical and antifungal properties of bio-nanocomposite film based on gelatin-chitin nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraee, Samar; Milani, Jafar M; Ghanbarzadeh, Babak; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2017-04-01

    The gelatin-based nanocomposite films containing chitin nanoparticles (N-chitin) with concentrations of 0, 3, 5 and 10% were prepared and their physical, thermal and anti-microbial properties were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs showed that N-chitin size distribution was around 60-70nm which dispersed appropriately at low concentration in gelatin matrix. The results showed that incorporation of N-chitin significantly influenced apparent color and transparency of the gelatin films. The reduced water vapor permeability (WVP) and solubility and higher surface hydrophobicity of the nanocomposite films were obtained by enhancing N-chitin concentration in film formulation. The use of N-chitin up to 5% concentration in the gelatin based nanocomposite film led to improved mechanical properties. Also, the results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirmed improved stability of nanocomposite films against melting and degradation at high temperatures in comparison to neat gelatin film. The well compatibility of chitin nanoparticles with gelatin polymer was concluded from Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and X-ray diffraction (XRD) plots. Finally, the gelatin based nanocomposite films had anti-fungal properties against Aspergillus niger in the contact surface zone. Increasing the concentration of N-chitin up to 5% enlarged inhibition zone diameter, but the nanocomposite film containing 10% N-chitin showed smaller inhibition zone. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An amphiphilic graft copolymer-based nanoparticle platform for reduction-responsive anticancer and antimalarial drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najer, Adrian; Wu, Dalin; Nussbaumer, Martin G.; Schwertz, Geoffrey; Schwab, Anatol; Witschel, Matthias C.; Schäfer, Anja; Diederich, François; Rottmann, Matthias; Palivan, Cornelia G.; Beck, Hans-Peter; Meier, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Medical applications of anticancer and antimalarial drugs often suffer from low aqueous solubility, high systemic toxicity, and metabolic instability. Smart nanocarrier-based drug delivery systems provide means of solving these problems at once. Herein, we present such a smart nanoparticle platform based on self-assembled, reduction-responsive amphiphilic graft copolymers, which were successfully synthesized through thiol-disulfide exchange reaction between thiolated hydrophilic block and pyridyl disulfide functionalized hydrophobic block. These amphiphilic graft copolymers self-assembled into nanoparticles with mean diameters of about 30-50 nm and readily incorporated hydrophobic guest molecules. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) was used to study nanoparticle stability and triggered release of a model compound in detail. Long-term colloidal stability and model compound retention within the nanoparticles was found when analyzed in cell media at body temperature. In contrast, rapid, complete reduction-triggered disassembly and model compound release was achieved within a physiological reducing environment. The synthesized copolymers revealed no intrinsic cellular toxicity up to 1 mg mL-1. Drug-loaded reduction-sensitive nanoparticles delivered a hydrophobic model anticancer drug (doxorubicin, DOX) to cancer cells (HeLa cells) and an experimental, metabolically unstable antimalarial drug (the serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) inhibitor (+/-)-1) to Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBCs), with higher efficacy compared to similar, non-sensitive drug-loaded nanoparticles. These responsive copolymer-based nanoparticles represent a promising candidate as smart nanocarrier platform for various drugs to be applied to different diseases, due to the biocompatibility and biodegradability of the hydrophobic block, and the protein-repellent hydrophilic block.Medical applications of anticancer and antimalarial drugs often suffer from low aqueous

  16. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence detection for deoxyribonucleic acid hybridization based on gold nanoparticles carrying multiple probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hui; Zhang Chengxiao; Li Yan; Qi Honglan

    2006-01-01

    A novel sensitive electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) method for the detection deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) hybridization based on gold nanoparticles carrying multiple probes was developed. Ruthenium bis(2,2'-bipyridine)(2,2'-bipyridine-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid)-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (Ru(bpy) 2 (dcbpy)NHS) was used as a ECL label and gold nanoparticle as a carrier. Probe single strand DNA (ss-DNA) was self-assembled at the 3'-terminal with a thiol group to the surface of gold nanoparticle and covalently labeled at the 5'-terminal of a phosphate group with Ru(bpy) 2 (dcbpy)NHS and the resulting conjugate (Ru(bpy) 2 (dcbpy)NHS)-ss-DNA-Au, was taken as a ECL probe. When target analyte ss-DNA was immobilized on a gold electrode by self-assembled monolayer technique and then hybridized with the ECL probe to form a double-stranded DNA (ds-DNA), a strong ECL response was electrochemically generated. The ECL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of the complementary sequence (target ss-DNA) in the range from 1.0 x 10 -11 to 1.0 x 10 -8 mol L -1 , and the linear regression equation was S = 57301 + 4579.6 lg C (unit of C is mol L -1 ). A detection limit of 5.0 x 10 -12 mol L -1 for target ss-DNA was achieved. The ECL signal generated from many reporters of ECL probe prepared is greatly amplified, compared to the convention scheme which is based on one reporter per hybridization event

  17. Design challenges in nanoparticle-based platforms: Implications for targeted drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullen, Douglas Gurnett

    Characterization and control of heterogeneous distributions of nanoparticle-ligand components are major design challenges for nanoparticle-based platforms. This dissertation begins with an examination of poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer-based targeted delivery platform. A folic acid targeted modular platform was developed to target human epithelial cancer cells. Although active targeting was observed in vitro, active targeting was not found in vivo using a mouse tumor model. A major flaw of this platform design was that it did not provide for characterization or control of the component distribution. Motivated by the problems experienced with the modular design, the actual composition of nanoparticle-ligand distributions were examined using a model dendrimer-ligand system. High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) resolved the distribution of components in samples with mean ligand/dendrimer ratios ranging from 0.4 to 13. A peak fitting analysis enabled the quantification of the component distribution. Quantified distributions were found to be significantly more heterogeneous than commonly expected and standard analytical parameters, namely the mean ligand/nanoparticle ratio, failed to adequately represent the component heterogeneity. The distribution of components was also found to be sensitive to particle modifications that preceded the ligand conjugation. With the knowledge gained from this detailed distribution analysis, a new platform design was developed to provide a system with dramatically improved control over the number of components and with improved batch reproducibility. Using semi-preparative HPLC, individual dendrimer-ligand components were isolated. The isolated dendrimer with precise numbers of ligands were characterized by NMR and analytical HPLC. In total, nine different dendrimer-ligand components were obtained with degrees of purity ≥80%. This system has the potential to serve as a platform to which a precise number of functional molecules

  18. Cutaneous biocompatible rutin-loaded gelatin-based nanoparticles increase the SPF of the association of UVA and UVB filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Camila Areias de; Peres, Daniela D'Almeida; Graziola, Fabiana; Chacra, Nádia Araci Bou; Araújo, Gabriel Lima Barros de; Flórido, Ana Catarina; Mota, Joana; Rosado, Catarina; Velasco, Maria Valéria Robles; Rodrigues, Luís Monteiro; Fernandes, Ana Sofia; Baby, André Rolim

    2016-01-01

    The encapsulation of natural ingredients, such as rutin, can offer improvements in sun protection effectiveness. This strategy can provide enhanced flavonoid content and produces an improved bioactive compound with new physical and functional characteristics. As an alternative to common synthetic-based sunscreens, rutin-entrapped gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were designed and associated with ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA (EHDP), ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) in sunscreen formulations. The purpose of this study was to develop rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles and characterize their physicochemical, thermal, functional and safety properties. Rutin-loaded gelatin nanoparticles increased antioxidant activity by 74% relative to free-rutin (FR) solution. Also, this new ingredient upgraded the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) by 48%, indicating its potential as a raw material for bioactive sunscreens. The safety profile indicated that GNPs and glutaraldehyde (GTA) decreased HaCaT cell viability in a concentration/time-dependent manner. However, both blank nanoparticles (B-NC) and rutin-loaded nanoparticles (R-NC) had good performance on skin compatibility tests. These results functionally characterized rutin-loaded nanoparticles as a safe SPF enhancer in sunscreens, especially in association with UV filters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced specific heat capacity of molten salt-based nanomaterials: Effects of nanoparticle dispersion and solvent material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Byeongnam; Banerjee, Debjyoti

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of nanoparticle dispersion on the specific heat capacity for carbonate salt mixtures doped with graphite nanoparticles. The effect of the solvent material was also examined. Binary carbonate salt mixtures consisting of lithium carbonate and potassium carbonate were used as the base material for the graphite nanomaterial. The different dispersion uniformity of the nanoparticles was created by employing two distinct synthesis protocols for the nanomaterial. Different scanning calorimetry was employed to measure the specific heat capacity in both solid and liquid phases. The results showed that doping the molten salt mixture with the graphite nanoparticles significantly raised the specific heat capacity, even in minute concentrations of graphite nanoparticles. Moreover, greater enhancement in the specific heat capacity was observed from the nanomaterial samples with more homogeneous dispersion of the nanoparticles. A molecular dynamics simulation was also performed for the nanomaterials used in the specific heat capacity measurements to explain the possible mechanisms for the enhanced specific heat capacity, including the compressed layering and the species concentration of liquid solvent molecules

  20. Progress on Numerical Modeling of the Dispersion of Ceramic Nanoparticles During Ultrasonic Processing and Solidification of Al-Based Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Daojie; Nastac, Laurentiu

    2016-12-01

    In present study, 6061- and A356-based nano-composites are fabricated by using the ultrasonic stirring technology (UST) in a coreless induction furnace. SiC nanoparticles are used as the reinforcement. Nanoparticles are added into the molten metal and then dispersed by ultrasonic cavitation and acoustic streaming assisted by electromagnetic stirring. The applied UST parameters in the current experiments are used to validate a recently developed magneto-hydro-dynamics (MHD) model, which is capable of modeling the cavitation and nanoparticle dispersion during UST processing. The MHD model accounts for turbulent fluid flow, heat transfer and solidification, and electromagnetic field, as well as the complex interaction between the nanoparticles and both the molten and solidified alloys by using ANSYS Maxwell and ANSYS Fluent. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are conducted to analyze the complex interactions between the nanoparticle and the liquid/solid interface. The current modeling results demonstrate that a strong flow can disperse the nanoparticles relatively well during molten metal and solidification processes. MD simulation results prove that ultrafine particles (10 nm) will be engulfed by the solidification front instead of being pushed, which is beneficial for nano-dispersion.

  1. Electrospun Polyaniline-Based Composite Nanofibers: Tuning the Electrical Conductivity by Tailoring the Structure of Thiol-Protected Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Pierini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite nanofibers made of a polyaniline-based polymer blend and different thiol-capped metal nanoparticles were prepared using ex situ synthesis and electrospinning technique. The effects of the nanoparticle composition and chemical structure on the electrical properties of the nanocomposites were investigated. This study confirmed that Brust’s procedure is an effective method for the synthesis of sub-10 nm silver, gold, and silver-gold alloy nanoparticles protected with different types of thiols. Electron microscopy results demonstrated that electrospinning is a valuable technique for the production of composite nanofibers with similar morphology and revealed that nanofillers are well-dispersed into the polymer matrix. X-ray diffraction tests proved the lack of a significant influence of the nanoparticle chemical structure on the polyaniline chain arrangement. However, the introduction of conductive nanofillers in the polymer matrix influences the charge transport noticeably improving electrical conductivity. The enhancement of electrical properties is mediated by the nanoparticle capping layer structure. The metal nanoparticle core composition is a key parameter, which exerted a significant influence on the conductivity of the nanocomposites. These results prove that the proposed method can be used to tune the electrical properties of nanocomposites.

  2. Polycaprolactone Based Nanoparticles Loaded with Indomethacin for Anti-Inflammatory Therapy: From Preparation to Ex Vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badri, Waisudin; Miladi, Karim; Robin, Sophie; Viennet, Céline; Nazari, Qand Agha; Agusti, Géraldine; Fessi, Hatem; Elaissari, Abdelhamid

    2017-09-01

    This work focused on the preparation of polycaprolactone based nanoparticles containing indomethacin to provide topical analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect for symptomatic treatment of inflammatory diseases. Indomethacin loaded nanoparticles are prepared for topical application to decrease indomethacin side effects and administration frequency. Oppositely to already reported works, in this research non-invasive method has been used for the enhancement of indomethacin dermal drug penetration. Ex-vivo skin penetration study was carried out on fresh human skin. Nanoprecipitation was used to prepare nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized using numerous techniques; dynamic light scattering, SEM, TEM, DSC and FTIR. Regarding ex-vivo skin penetration of nanoparticles, confocal laser scanning microscopy has been used. The results showed that NPs hydrodynamic size was between 220 to 245 nm and the zeta potential value ranges from -19 to -13 mV at pH 5 and 1 mM NaCl. The encapsulation efficiency was around 70% and the drug loading was about 14 to 17%. SEM and TEM images confirmed that the obtained nanoparticles were spherical with smooth surface. The prepared nanoparticles dispersions were stable for a period of 30 days under three temperatures of 4°C, 25°C and 40°C. In addition, CLSM images proved that obtained NPs can penetrate the skin as well. The prepared nanoparticles are submicron in nature, with good colloidal stability and penetrate the stratum corneum layer of the skin. This formulation potentiates IND skin penetration and as a promising strategy would be able to decline the side effects of IND.

  3. Synthesis and bioconjugation of gold nanoparticles as potential molecular probes for light-based imaging techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rayavarapu, Raja Gopal; Petersen, Wilma; Ungureanu, Constantin; Post, Janine N.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Manohar, Srirang

    2007-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized gold nanoparticles (spheres and rods) with optical extinction bands within the "optical imaging window." The intense plasmon resonant driven absorption and scattering peaks of these nanoparticles make them suitable as contrast agents for optical imaging

  4. TTC- Based Test as an Efficient Method to Determine Antibiofilm Activity of Silver Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Chojniak Joanna; Biedroń Izabela; Płaza Grażyna

    2017-01-01

    Among metal nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles are a widely used in various life sectors such as in biomedical applications, air and water purification, food production, cosmetics, garments and in various household products. There are several methods for production of silver nanoparticles. Generally, silver nanoparticles can be prepared by chemical methods such as chemical reduction and electrochemical techniques, physical methods, and biological methods such as the use of microorganisms. Th...

  5. Numerical modeling of the dispersion of ceramic nanoparticles during ultrasonic processing of aluminum-based nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daojie Zhang

    2014-10-01

    The modeling parametric study includes the effects of the fluid flow, the ultrasonic probe location, nanoparticle size distribution, and initial location where the nanoparticles are released into the molten alloy. It was determined that the nanoparticles can be distributed quickly and uniformly into the molten 6061 alloy.

  6. A plasmonic nanosensor for lipase activity based on enzyme-controlled gold nanoparticles growth in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jia; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Wei; Huo, Fengwei; Tian, Danbi

    2015-03-01

    A plasmonic nanosensor for lipase activity was developed based on one-pot nanoparticle growth. Tween 80 was selected not only as the substrate for lipase recognition but also as the reducing and stabilizing agent for the sensor fabrication. The different molecular groups in Tween 80 could have different roles in the fabrication procedure; the H2O2 produced by the autoxidation of the ethylene oxide subunits in Tween 80 could reduce the AuCl4- ions to Au atoms, meanwhile, the lipase could hydrolyze its carboxyl ester bond, which could, in turn, control the rate of nucleation of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and tailor the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the AuNP transducers. The color changes, which depend on the absence or presence of the lipase, could be used to sense the lipase activity. A linear response ranging from 0.025 to 4 mg mL-1 and a detection limit of the lipase as low as 3.47 μg mL-1 were achieved. This strategy circumvents the problems encountered by general enzyme assays that require sophisticated instruments and complicated assembling steps. The methodology can benefit the assays of heterogeneous-catalyzed enzymes.A plasmonic nanosensor for lipase activity was developed based on one-pot nanoparticle growth. Tween 80 was selected not only as the substrate for lipase recognition but also as the reducing and stabilizing agent for the sensor fabrication. The different molecular groups in Tween 80 could have different roles in the fabrication procedure; the H2O2 produced by the autoxidation of the ethylene oxide subunits in Tween 80 could reduce the AuCl4- ions to Au atoms, meanwhile, the lipase could hydrolyze its carboxyl ester bond, which could, in turn, control the rate of nucleation of the gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and tailor the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of the AuNP transducers. The color changes, which depend on the absence or presence of the lipase, could be used to sense the lipase activity. A linear response

  7. Selective killing of hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells by three-dimensional nanographene nanoparticles based on triptycene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiaoqin; Gan, Lu; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Chun; Yong, Tuying; Wang, Ziyi; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2015-03-01

    Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702 cells. NG nanoparticle-induced ROS result in apoptosis induction and the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential in HepG2 cells. Moreover, IKK/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling is found to be activated by NG nanoparticle-induced ROS and serves to antagonize NG nanoparticle-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells. Our studies show that the distinct behaviors of cellular uptake and ROS-mediated cytotoxicity are responsible for the selective killing of HepG2 cells. This study provides a foundation for understanding the mechanism of selective induction of apoptosis in cancer cells by NG nanoparticles and designing more effective chemotherapeutical agents.Carbon-based materials have been widely used in the biomedical fields including drug delivery and cancer therapies. In this paper, a recently synthesized three-dimensional nanographene (NG) based on triptycene self-assembles into nanoparticles which selectively kill human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells as compared to human normal liver HL7702 cells. Obvious differences in cellular accumulation, the endocytic pathway and intracellular trafficking of NG nanoparticles are observed in HepG2 cells and HL7702 cells. Further studies reveal that NG nanoparticles significantly increase the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HepG2 cells, but not in HL7702

  8. The effect of functionalized silver nanoparticles over the thermal conductivity of base fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyhan, Merve; Altan, Cem Levent; Gurten, Berna; Bucak, Seyda

    2017-04-01

    Thermal conductivities of nanofluids are expected to be higher than common heat transfer fluids. The use of metal nanoparticles has not been intensely investigated for heat transfer applications due to lack of stability. Here we present an experimental study on the effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) which are stabilized with surfactants, on the thermal conductivity of water, ethylene glycol and hexane. Hydrophilic Ag NPs were synthesized in aqueous medium with using gum arabic as surfactant and oleic acid/oleylamine were used to stabilize Ag NPs in the organic phase. The enhancement up to 10 per cent in effective thermal conductivity of hexane and ethylene glycol was achieved with addition of Ag NPs at considerably low concentrations (i.e. 2 and 1 per cent, by weight, for hexane and ethylene glycol respectively). However, almost 10 per cent of deterioration was recorded at effective thermal conductivity of water when Ag NPs were added at 1 per cent (by wt). Considerable amount of Gum Arabic in the medium is shown to be the major contributor to this fall, causing lowering of thermal conductivity of water. Same particles performed much better in ethylene glycol where the stabilizer does not lower the thermal conductivity of the base fluid. Also thermal conductivity of nanofluids was found to be temperature independent except water based Ag nanofluids above a threshold concentration. This temperature dependency is suggested to be due to inhibition of hydrogen bonding among water molecules in the presence of high amounts of gum arabic.

  9. Fabrication and Characterization of Magnetoresponsive Electrospun Nanocomposite Membranes Based on Methacrylic Random Copolymers and Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Savva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetoresponsive polymer-based fibrous nanocomposites belonging to the broad category of stimuli-responsive materials, is a relatively new class of “soft” composite materials, consisting of magnetic nanoparticles embedded within a polymeric fibrous matrix. The presence of an externally applied magnetic field influences the properties of these materials rendering them useful in numerous technological and biomedical applications including sensing, magnetic separation, catalysis and magnetic drug delivery. This study deals with the fabrication and characterization of magnetoresponsive nanocomposite fibrous membranes consisting of methacrylic random copolymers based on methyl methacrylate (MMA and 2-(acetoacetoxyethyl methacrylate (AEMA (MMA-co-AEMA and oleic acid-coated magnetite (OA·Fe3O4 nanoparticles. The AEMA moieties containing β-ketoester side-chain functionalities were introduced for the first time in this type of materials, because of their inherent ability to bind effectively onto inorganic surfaces providing an improved stabilization. For membrane fabrication the electrospinning technique was employed and a series of nanocomposite membranes was prepared in which the polymer content was kept constant and only the inorganic (OA·Fe3O4 content varied. Further to the characterization of these materials in regards to their morphology, composition and thermal properties, assessment of their magnetic characteristics disclosed tunable superparamagnetic behaviour at ambient temperature.

  10. Gas Sensors Based on Locally Heated Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Decorated with Metal Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Savu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the design and fabrication of microreactors and sensors based on metal nanoparticle-decorated carbon nanotubes. Titanium adhesion layers and gold films were sputtered onto Si/SiO2 substrates for obtaining the electrical contacts. The gold layers were electrochemically thickened until 1 μm and the electrodes were patterned using photolithography and wet chemical etching. Before the dielectrophoretic deposition of the nanotubes, a gap 1 μm wide and 5 μm deep was milled in the middle of the metallic line by focused ion beam, allowing the fabrication of sensors based on suspended nanotubes bridging the electrodes. Subsequently, the sputtering technique was used for decorating the nanotubes with metallic nanoparticles. In order to test the as-obtained sensors, microreactors (100 μL volume were machined from a single Kovar piece, being equipped with electrical connections and 1/4′′ Swagelok-compatible gas inlet and outlets for controlling the atmosphere in the testing chamber. The sensors, electrically connected to the contact pins by wire-bonding, were tested in the 10−5 to 10−2 W working power interval using oxygen as target gas. The small chamber volume allowed the measurement of fast characteristic times (response/recovery, with the sensors showing good sensitivity.

  11. Detection of mercury(II) ions using colorimetric gold nanoparticles on paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guan-Hua; Chen, Wei-Yu; Yen, Yu-Chun; Wang, Chia-Wei; Chang, Huan-Tsung; Chen, Chien-Fu

    2014-07-15

    An on-field colorimetric sensing strategy employing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a paper-based analytical platform was investigated for mercury ion (Hg(2+)) detection at water sources. By utilizing thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) coordination chemistry, label-free detection oligonucleotide sequences were attached to unmodified gold nanoparticles to provide rapid mercury ion sensing without complicated and time-consuming thiolated or other costly labeled probe preparation processes. Not only is this strategy's sensing mechanism specific toward Hg(2+), rather than other metal ions, but also the conformational change in the detection oligonucleotide sequences introduces different degrees of AuNP aggregation that causes the color of AuNPs to exhibit a mixture variance. To eliminate the use of sophisticated equipment and minimize the power requirement for data analysis and transmission, the color variance of multiple detection results were transferred and concentrated on cellulose-based paper analytical devices, and the data were subsequently transmitted for the readout and storage of results using cloud computing via a smartphone. As a result, a detection limit of 50 nM for Hg(2+) spiked pond and river water could be achieved. Furthermore, multiple tests could be performed simultaneously with a 40 min turnaround time. These results suggest that the proposed platform possesses the capability for sensitive and high-throughput on-site mercury pollution monitoring in resource-constrained settings.

  12. An ultrasensitive chemiluminescence immunoassay of chloramphenicol based on gold nanoparticles and magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong

    2013-05-01

    A competitive, direct, chemiluminescent immunoassay based on a magnetic beads (MBs) separation and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) labelling technique to detect chloramphenicol (CAP) has been developed. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labelled anti-CAP monoclonal antibody conjugated with AuNPs and antigen-immobilized MBs were prepared. After optimization parameters of immunocomplex MBs, the IC50 values of chemiluminescence magnetic nanoparticles immunoassay (CL-MBs-nano-immunoassay) were 0.017 µg L(-1) for extract method I and 0.17 µg L(-1) for extract method II. The immunoassay with two extract methods was applied to detect CAP in milk. Comparison of these two extract methods showed that extract method I was advantageous in better sensitivity, in which the sensitivity was 10 times compared to that of extract method II, while extract method II was superior in simple operation, suitable for high throughout screen. The recoveries were 86.7-98.0% (extract method I) and 80.0-103.0% (extract method II), and the coefficients of variation (CVs) were all recovery with both extract methods and high correlation with traditional ELISA kit in milk system confirmed that the immunomagnetic assay based on AuNPs exhibited promising potential in rapid field screening for trace CAP analysis. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Characterization of nanoparticle-based contrast agents for molecular magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan, Liang; Chopra, Arvind; Leung, Kam; Eckelman, William C.; Menkens, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    The development of molecular imaging agents is currently undergoing a dramatic expansion. As of October 2011, ∼4,800 newly developed agents have been synthesized and characterized in vitro and in animal models of human disease. Despite this rapid progress, the transfer of these agents to clinical practice is rather slow. To address this issue, the National Institutes of Health launched the Molecular Imaging and Contrast Agents Database (MICAD) in 2005 to provide freely accessible online information regarding molecular imaging probes and contrast agents for the imaging community. While compiling information regarding imaging agents published in peer-reviewed journals, the MICAD editors have observed that some important information regarding the characterization of a contrast agent is not consistently reported. This makes it difficult for investigators to evaluate and meta-analyze data generated from different studies of imaging agents, especially for the agents based on nanoparticles. This article is intended to serve as a guideline for new investigators for the characterization of preclinical studies performed with nanoparticle-based MRI contrast agents. The common characterization parameters are summarized into seven categories: contrast agent designation, physicochemical properties, magnetic properties, in vitro studies, animal studies, MRI studies, and toxicity. Although no single set of parameters is suitable to define the properties of the various types of contrast agents, it is essential to ensure that these agents meet certain quality control parameters at the preclinical stage, so that they can be used without delay for clinical studies.

  14. Fluorescent Biosensor for Phosphate Determination Based on Immobilized Polyfluorene-Liposomal Nanoparticles Coupled with Alkaline Phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahveci, Zehra; Martínez-Tomé, Maria José; Mallavia, Ricardo; Mateo, C Reyes

    2017-01-11

    This work describes the development of a novel fluorescent biosensor based on the inhibition of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The biosensor is composed of the enzyme ALP and the conjugated cationic polyfluorene HTMA-PFP. The working principle of the biosensor is based on the fluorescence quenching of this polyelectrolyte by p-nitrophenol (PNP), a product of the hydrolysis reaction of p-nitrophenyl phosphate (PNPP) catalyzed by ALP. Because HTMA-PFP forms unstable aggregates in buffer, with low fluorescence efficiency, previous stabilization of the polyelectrolyte was required before the development of the biosensor. HTMA-PFP was stabilized through its interaction with lipid vesicles to obtain stable blue-emitting nanoparticles (NPs). Fluorescent NPs were characterized, and the ability to be quenched by PNP was evaluated. These nanoparticles were coupled to ALP and entrapped in a sol-gel matrix to produce a biosensor that can serve as a screening platform to identify ALP inhibitors. The components of the biosensor were examined before and after sol-gel entrapment, and the biosensor was optimized to allow the determination of phosphate ion in aqueous medium.

  15. Amino acid-substituted gemini surfactant-based nanoparticles as safe and versatile gene delivery agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagbir; Yang, Peng; Michel, Deborah; Verrall, Ronald E; Foldvari, Marianna; Badea, Ildiko

    2011-05-01

    Gene based therapy represents an important advance in the treatment of diseases that heretofore have had either no treatment or cure. To capitalize on the true potential of gene therapy, there is a need to develop better delivery systems that can protect these therapeutic biomolecules and deliver them safely to the target sites. Recently, we have designed and developed a series of novel amino acid-substituted gemini surfactants with the general chemical formula C(12)H(25) (CH(3))(2)N(+)-(CH(2))(3)-N(AA)-(CH(2))(3)-N(+) (CH(3))(2)-C(12)H(25) (AA= glycine, lysine, glycyl-lysine and, lysyl-lysine). These compounds were synthesized and tested in rabbit epithelial cells using a model plasmid and a helper lipid. Plasmid/gemini/lipid (P/G/L) nanoparticles formulated using these novel compounds achieved higher gene expression than the nanoparticles containing the parent unsubstituted compound. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity of P/G/L nanoparticles and explored the relationship between transfection efficiency/toxicity and their physicochemical characteristics (such as size, binding properties, etc.). An overall low toxicity is observed for all complexes with no significant difference among substituted and unsubstituted compounds. An interesting result revealed by the dye exclusion assay suggests a more balanced protection of the DNA by the glycine and glycyl-lysine substituted compounds. Thus, the higher transfection efficiency is attributed to the greater biocompatibility and flexibility of the amino acid/peptide-substituted gemini surfactants and demonstrates the feasibility of using amino acid-substituted gemini surfactants as gene carriers for the treatment of diseases affecting epithelial tissue.

  16. Water Based Inkjet Material Deposition Of Donor-Acceptor Nanoparticles For Usage In Organic Photovoltaics