WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermophotovoltaic tpv systems

  1. Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) technology development. Final report, May 15, 1995--December 1, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This program information release (PIR) summarizes work performed under Task Order Contract SF17787, Task Order 18: Thermophotovoltaic Technology Development, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy. The period of performance was 15 May 1995 to 1 December 1995. Under this task order, a system model for a thermophotovoltaic (MV) converter was implemented and used to compare a conceptual design for an advanced quaternary III-V cell with integral filter with results previously published for a binary GaSb cell with a freestanding filter. Model results were used to assess the merits of TPV conversion for meeting various levels of space power requirements, including low to medium power isotope applications and high-power reactor applications. A TPV cell development program was initiated to determine the feasibility of fabricating quaternary III-V cells by molecular beam epitaxy. Lastly, a conceptual design was completed for a low-cost demonstration system to test the performance of TPV converters at a multi-cell, sub-system level. The results of these efforts are reported briefly in an executive summary, then in somewhat more detail as a final briefing section in which charts have been reproduced. Additional technical detail is provided in the appendices

  2. Combustion powered thermophotovoltaic emitter system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHenry, R.S. [Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States). Naval Architecture, Ocean and Marine Engineering

    1995-07-01

    The US Naval Academy (USNA) has recently completed an engineering design project for a high temperature thermophotovoltaic (TPV) photon emitter. The final apparatus was to be portable, completely self contained, and was to incorporate cycle efficiency optimization such as exhaust stream recuperation. Through computer modeling and prototype experimentation, a methane fueled emitter system was designed from structural ceramic materials to fulfill the high temperature requirements necessary for high system efficiency. This paper outlines the engineering design process, discusses obstacles and solutions encountered, and presents the final design.

  3. Thermophotovoltaic systems for civilian and industrial applications in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugami, Hiroo; Sasa, Hiromi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2003-01-01

    The potential market for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications has been studied for civilian and industrial sectors in Japan. Comparing the performance of gas engines or turbines, as well as the underdeveloped power generation technologies such as fuel cells or chemical batteries, we have discussed the feasible application field of TPV systems to compete with those power generators. From the point of view of applicability for TPV systems in Japan, portable generators, co-generation systems and solar power plants are selected for our system analysis. The cost and performance targets of TPV systems for co-generation are also discussed by assuming a typical daily profile of electricity and hot water demands in Japanese homes. A progress report on the recent TPV research activities is given as well as a feasibility study concerning such TPV systems in Japan. (Author)

  4. Development of a novel cascading TPV and TE power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu, K.; Hayden, A.C.S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A novel cascading thermophotovoltaic (TPV) and thermoelectric (TE) power generation system is proposed and developed. ► The used heat stream is taken from the TPV and applied to the input of a TE converter in the system. ► A prototype was built and tested where GaSb TPV cells and PbSnTe-based TE converter were used. ► The TPV cells generate 123.5 We whereas the TE converter generates 306.2 We in the prototype. ► It is shown the cascading power generation is feasible in fuel-fired furnaces and can be applied to micro-CHP. -- Abstract: Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells can convert infrared radiation into electricity. They open up possibilities for silent and stand-alone power production in fuel-fired heating equipment. Similarly, thermoelectric (TE) devices convert thermal energy directly into electricity with no moving parts. However, TE devices have relatively low efficiency for electric power generation. In this study, the concept of cascading TPV and TE power generation was developed where the used heat stream is taken from the TPV and applied to the input of a TE converter. A prototype cascading TPV and TE generation system was built and tested. GaSb TPV cells and an integrated semiconductor TE converter were used in the cascading power system. The electric output characteristics of the TPV cells and the TE converter have been investigated in the power generation system at various operating conditions. Experimental results show that the cascading power generation is feasible and has the potential for certain applications.

  5. Design and Optimization of Thermophotovoltaic System Cavity with Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Zhou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermophotovoltaic (TPV systems can convert radiant energy into electrical power. Here we explore the design of the TPV system cavity, which houses the emitter and the photovoltaic (PV cells. Mirrors are utilized in the cavity to modify the spatial and spectral distribution within. After discussing the basic concentric tubular design, two novel cavity configurations are put forward and parametrically studied. The investigated variables include the shape, number, and placement of the mirrors. The optimization objectives are the optimized efficiency and the extended range of application of the TPV system. Through numerical simulations, the relationship between the design parameters and the objectives are revealed. The results show that careful design of the cavity configuration can markedly enhance the performance of the TPV system.

  6. Selective emission multilayer coatings for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockeram, Brian Vern

    2004-01-27

    Multilayer coating designs have been developed to provide selective emission for a molybdenum thermophotovoltaic (TPV) radiator surface. These coatings increase the surface emissivity of a molybdenum TPV radiator substrate in the wavelength range that matches the bandgap of the TPV cells to increase the power density of the TPV system. Radiator emission at wavelengths greater than the bandgap energy of the TPV cells is greatly reduced through the use of these coatings, which significantly increases the efficiency of the TPV system. The use of this coating greatly improves the performance of a TPV system, and the coating can be tailored to match the bandgap of any practical TPV system.

  7. Toward high performance radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems using spectral control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiawa, E-mail: xiawaw@mit.edu [Electrical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Chan, Walker [Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Stelmakh, Veronika [Electrical Engineering Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Celanovic, Ivan [Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Fisher, Peter [Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States); Physics Department, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA02139 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This work describes RTPV-PhC-1, an initial prototype for a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) system using a two-dimensional photonic crystal emitter and low bandgap thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell to realize spectral control. We validated a system simulation using the measurements of RTPV-PhC-1 and its comparison setup RTPV-FlatTa-1 with the same configuration except a polished tantalum emitter. The emitter of RTPV-PhC-1 powered by an electric heater providing energy equivalent to one plutonia fuel pellet reached 950 °C with 52 W of thermal input power and produced 208 mW output power from 1 cm{sup 2} TPV cell. We compared the system performance using a photonic crystal emitter to a polished flat tantalum emitter and found that spectral control with the photonic crystal was four times more efficient. Based on the simulation, with more cell areas, better TPV cells, and improved insulation design, the system powered by a fuel pellet equivalent heat source is expected to reach an efficiency of 7.8%.

  8. Advanced Thermophotovoltaic Devices for Space Nuclear Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernsman, Bernard; Mahorter, Robert G.; Siergiej, Richard; Link, Samuel D.; Wehrer, Rebecca J.; Belanger, Sean J.; Fourspring, Patrick; Murray, Susan; Newman, Fred; Taylor, Dan; Rahmlow, Tom

    2005-01-01

    Advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) modules capable of producing > 0.3 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 22% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1228 K and 325 K, respectively, have been made. These advanced TPV modules are projected to produce > 0.9 W/cm2 at an efficiency > 24% while operating at a converter radiator and module temperature of 1373 K and 325 K, respectively. Radioisotope and nuclear (fission) powered space systems utilizing these advanced TPV modules have been evaluated. For a 100 We radioisotope TPV system, systems utilizing as low as 2 general purpose heat source (GPHS) units are feasible, where the specific power for the 2 and 3 GPHS unit systems operating in a 200 K environment is as large as ∼ 16 We/kg and ∼ 14 We/kg, respectively. For a 100 kWe nuclear powered (as was entertained for the thermoelectric SP-100 program) TPV system, the minimum system radiator area and mass is ∼ 640 m2 and ∼ 1150 kg, respectively, for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 435 K and 200 K, respectively. Also, for a converter radiator temperature of 1373 K, the converter volume and mass remains less than 0.36 m3 and 640 kg, respectively. Thus, the minimum system radiator + converter (reactor and shield not included) specific mass is ∼ 16 kg/kWe for a converter radiator, system radiator and environment temperature of 1373 K, 425 K and 200 K, respectively. Under this operating condition, the reactor thermal rating is ∼ 1110 kWt. Due to the large radiator area, the added complexity and mission risk needs to be weighed against reducing the reactor thermal rating to determine the feasibility of using TPV for space nuclear (fission) power systems

  9. Optimization of a near-field thermophotovoltaic system operating at low temperature and large vacuum gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mikyung; Song, Jaeman; Kim, Jihoon; Lee, Seung S.; Lee, Ikjin; Lee, Bong Jae

    2018-05-01

    The present work successfully achieves a strong enhancement in performance of a near-field thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system operating at low temperature and large-vacuum-gap width by introducing a hyperbolic-metamaterial (HMM) emitter, multilayered graphene, and an Au-backside reflector. Design variables for the HMM emitter and the multilayered-graphene-covered TPV cell are optimized for maximizing the power output of the near-field TPV system with the genetic algorithm. The near-field TPV system with the optimized configuration results in 24.2 times of enhancement in power output compared with that of the system with a bulk emitter and a bare TPV cell. Through the analysis of the radiative heat transfer together with surface-plasmon-polariton (SPP) dispersion curves, it is found that coupling of SPPs generated from both the HMM emitter and the multilayered-graphene-covered TPV cell plays a key role in a substantial increase in the heat transfer even at a 200-nm vacuum gap. Further, the backside reflector at the bottom of the TPV cell significantly increases not only the conversion efficiency, but also the power output by generating additional polariton modes which can be readily coupled with the existing SPPs of the HMM emitter and the multilayered-graphene-covered TPV cell.

  10. Fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Chubb, Donald L

    2007-01-01

    This is a text book presenting the fundamentals of thermophotovoltaic(TPV) energy conversion suitable for an upper undergraduate or first year graduate course. In addition it can serve as a reference or design aid for engineers developing TPV systems. Mathematica design programs for interference filters and a planar TPV system are included on a CD-Rom disk. Each chapter includes a summary and concludes with a set of problems. The first chapter presents the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory necessary to calculate the optical properties of the components in a TPV optical cavity. Using a simplified model, Chapter 2 develops expressions for the maximum efficiency and power density for an ideal TPV system. The next three chapters consider the three major components in a TPV system; the emitter, filter and photovoltaic(PV) array. Chapter 3 applies the electromagnetic theory and radiation transfer theory presented in Chapter 1 in the calculation of spectral emittance. From the spectral emittance t...

  11. Efficient Thermally Stable Spectral Control Filters for Thermophotovoltaics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The feasibility of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power systems has been shown. The best efficiencies reported to date for a TPV module test include front...

  12. Feasibility study of a Thermo-Photo-Voltaic system for CHP application in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Michele; Ferrari, Claudio; Melino, Francesco; Peretto, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The profitability of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generator systems for a single-family dwelling is analyzed. ► Heat and electricity load profiles depending on hour of the day are considered for an entire year. ► The effect of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generator size is evaluated for different household utilities. ► Results allow to identify the conditions for the energetic and economic convenience of Thermo-Photo-Voltaic system. -- Abstract: The growing demand of energy coupled with an increasing attention to the environmental impact have forced, in the last decades, toward the study and the development of new strategies in order to reduce primary energy consumptions. The cogeneration (CHP) and the on-site generation (also known as distributed generation) could be the key strategy to achieve this goal; CHP systems allow to reduce the fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (in particular the greenhouse gases) compared to separate generation; moreover on-site-generation contributes to the reduction of the energy which is lost in electricity transmission, and increases the security in the energy supply. In this scenario the Thermo-Photo-Voltaic generation (TPV) is obtaining an increasing attention; TPV is a system to convert into electrical energy the radiation emitted from an artificial heat source (i.e. the combustion of fuel) by the use of photovoltaic cells. A domestic gas furnace based on this technology can provide the entire thermal need of an apartment and can also contributes to satisfy the electrical demand. The aim of this study is the understanding of the behavior of a TPV in CHP application in case of residential buildings, under both the energetic and economical point of view; in particular a parametrical analysis is developed and discussed varying the TPV electrical efficiency, the thermal request and the apartment typology.

  13. Measurements of Conversion Efficiency for a Flat Plate Thermophotovoltaic System Using a Photonic Cavity Test System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, E.J.; Ballinger, C.T.; Burger, S.R.; Charache, G.W.; Danielson, L.R.; DePoy, D.M.; Donovan, T.J.; LoCascio, M.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a 1 cm 2 thermophotovoltaic (TPV) module was recently measured in a photonic cavity test system. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% was measured at a radiator temperature of 1076 C and a module temperature of 29.9 C. This experiment achieved the highest direct measurement of efficiency for an integrated TPV system. Efficiency was calculated from the ratio of the peak (load matched) electrical power output and the heat absorption rate. Measurements of these two parameters were made simultaneously to assure the validity of the measured efficiency value. This test was conducted in a photonic cavity which mimicked a typical flat-plate TPV system. The radiator was a large, flat graphite surface. The module was affixed to the top of a copper pedestal for heat absorption measurements. The heat absorption rate was proportional to the axial temperature gradient in the pedestal under steady-state conditions. The test was run in a vacuum to eliminate conductive and convective heat transfer mechanisms. The photonic cavity provides the optimal test environment for TPV efficiency measurements because it incorporates all important physical phenomena found in an integrated TPV system: high radiator emissivity and blackbody spectral shape, photon recycling, Lambertian distribution of incident radiation and complex geometric effects. Furthermore, the large aspect ratio between radiating surface area and radiator/module spacing produces a view factor approaching unity with minimal photon leakage

  14. Solar thermophotovoltaic system using nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungaro, Craig; Gray, Stephen K; Gupta, Mool C

    2015-09-21

    This paper presents results on a highly efficient experimental solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) system using simulated solar energy. An overall power conversion efficiency of 6.2% was recorded under solar simulation. This was matched with a thermodynamic model, and the losses within the system, as well as a path forward to mitigate these losses, have been investigated. The system consists of a planar, tungsten absorbing/emitting structure with an anti-reflection layer coated laser-microtextured absorbing surface and single-layer dielectric coated emitting surface. A GaSb PV cell was used to capture the emitted radiation and convert it into electrical energy. This simple structure is both easy to fabricate and temperature stable, and contains no moving parts or heat exchange fluids.

  15. Heat Transfer Modelling of Glass Media within TPV Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Thomas; Forbes, Ian; Penlington, Roger; Pearsall, Nicola

    2004-11-01

    Understanding and optimisation of heat transfer, and in particular radiative heat transfer in terms of spectral, angular and spatial radiation distributions is important to achieve high system efficiencies and high electrical power densities for thermophtovoltaics (TPV). This work reviews heat transfer models and uses the Discrete Ordinates method. Firstly one-dimensional heat transfer in fused silica (quartz glass) shields was examined for the common arrangement, radiator-air-glass-air-PV cell. It has been concluded that an alternative arrangement radiator-glass-air-PV cell with increased thickness of fused silica should have advantages in terms of improved transmission of convertible radiation and enhanced suppression of non-convertible radiation.

  16. The Potential of Thermophotovoltaic Heat Recovery for the Glass Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, T.; Forbes, I.; Penlington, R.; Pearsall, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims to provide an overview of heat recovery by thermophotovoltaics (TPV) from industrial high-temperature processes and uses the glass industry in the UK as an example. The work is part of a study of potential industrial applications of TPV in the UK being carried out by the Northumbria Photovoltaics Applications Centre. The paper reviews the relevant facts about TPV technology and the glass industry and identifies locations of use for TPV. These are assessed in terms of glass sector, furnace type, process temperature, impact on the existing process, power scale and development effort of TPV. Knowledge of these factors should contribute to the design of an optimum TPV system. The paper estimates possible energy savings and reductions of CO2 emissions using TPV in the glass industry.

  17. Front Surface Tandem Filters using Sapphire (Al2O3) Substrates for Spectral Control in thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T Rahmlow, Jr.; J Lazo-Wasem; E Gratrix; P Fourspring; D DePoy

    2005-01-01

    Front surface filters provide an effective means of improving thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system efficiency through spectral control of incident radiant energy. A front surface filter reflects the below band gap photons that can not be converted by the TPV cell back towards the high temperature radiator and allows convertible above band gap photons to pass through the filter into the TPV cell for conversion to electricity. The best spectral control efficiency to date has been demonstrated by front surface, tandem filters that combine an interference filter and an InPAs layer (plasma filter) in series. The InPAs material is a highly doped, epitaxially grown layer on an InP substrate. These tandem filter designs have been fabricated with energy and angle weighted spectral efficiencies of 76% for TPV cells with a 2.08(micro)m (0.6eV) band gap [1]. An alternative to the InPAs layer on an InP substrate is an Al 2 O 3 (sapphire) substrate. The use of Al 2 O 3 may increase transmission of above band gap photons, increase the mechanical strength of the tandem filter, and lower the cost of the tandem filter, all at the expense of lower spectral efficiency. This study presents design and fabrication results for front surface tandem filters that use an Al 2 O 3 substrate for 2.08(micro)m band gap TPV cells

  18. Experimental and theoretical analysis of cell module output performance for a thermophotovoltaic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Xiaojie; Ye, Hong; Xu, Yexin; Shen, Mingrong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Wu, Xi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An accurate theoretical model for thermophotovoltaic system is constructed. • Parallel connected module is superior if radiator temperature is uneven. • Series connected module is superior if cell temperature is uneven. • Short circuit current of series module rises when the shunt resistance decreases. • Fill factor is not always accurate to evaluate the module performance. - Abstract: An experimental thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with a cylindrical-geometry radiator was established to test the output performances of modules under different conditions. The results demonstrate that the output performance of a cell module decreases when the combustion power increases because of the uneven temperature of the radiator or cells. On this basis, a theoretical model for a TPV system was constructed to compare the performance under different conditions of the series-connected (SC) module and the parallel-connected (PC) module, and was verified by the experimental results. The influences of the temperature gradient of the radiator or the cell module, and the series and shunt resistance of the TPV cell on the module performance were analyzed in detail. The results demonstrate that the PC module can effectively reduce the mismatch loss of output power caused by the uneven radiator temperature. The PC module, for instance, has a maximum output power of 2.54 times higher than that of the SC module when the radiator temperature difference is 500 K. However, the output performance of the module connected in series is superior to the PC module while the cell temperature is non-uniform. The output power of the SC module is 9.93% higher than that of the PC module at the cell temperature difference of 125 K. The short circuit current of the SC module is sensitive to the series and shunt resistance if the radiator temperature distribution is non-uniform. As the shunt resistance falls from ∞ to 0.5 Ω, the current varies from 1.757 A to 4.488 A when the

  19. Development and characterization of a rare earth emitter for a thermophotovoltaic power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durisch, W; Panitz, J C [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Energy conversion based on thermophotovoltaic (TPV) methods has recently attracted renewed interest. Efforts at PSI are directed towards the development of a modular TPV system based on existing technology to demonstrate the feasibility of this method. Here, we report first results obtained with a prototype TPV generator based upon a modified rare earth emitter, a heat reflecting filter and commercial silicon solar cells. The preparation of the modified emitter is described, and first results of spectroscopic and electrical characterization of the TPV system are presented. The introduction of the modified emitter leads to an efficiency gain of 30-40%. (author) 3 figs., 4 refs.

  20. A review of recent advances in thermophotovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coutts, T.J.; Wanlass, M.W.; Ward, J.S.; Johnson, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generation of electricity is attracting attention because of advances in materials and devices and because of a widening appreciation of the large number of applications that may be addressed using TPV-based generators. The attractions include the wide range of fuel sources and the potentially high power density outputs. The two main approaches to TPV generators are (1) broadband radiators, coupled with converters with bandgaps in the range 0.4-0.7 eV, and (2) narrow-band emitters coupled with lower-cost silicon converters. The key issues in realizing a viable TPV system are the durability, efficiency, and properties of the radiant emitter; the recuperation of sub-bandgap photons; the optimization of the converter performance; and the recuperation of waste heat.

  1. Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion in Space Nuclear Reactor Power Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Presby, Andrew L

    2004-01-01

    .... This has potential benefits for space nuclear reactor power systems currently in development. The primary obstacle to space operation of thermophotovoltaic devices appears to be the low heat rejection temperatures which necessitate large radiator areas...

  2. Analysis of a Concentrated Solar Thermophotovoltaic System with Thermal Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyf, Hamid Reza; Henry, Asegun

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed a high temperature concentrated solar thermophotovoltaic (TPV) system with thermal energy storage (TES), which is enabled by the potential usage of liquid metal as a high temperature heat transfer fluid. The system concept combines the great advantages of TES with the potential for low cost and high performance derived from photovoltaic cells fabricated on reusable substrates, with a high reflectivity back reflector for photon recycling. The TES makes the electricity produced dispatchable, and thus the system studied should be compared to technologies such as concentrated solar power (CSP) with TES (e.g., using a turbine) or PV with electrochemical batteries, instead of direct and intermittent electricity generation from flat plate PV alone. Thus, the addition of TES places the system in a different class than has previously been considered and based on the model results, appears worthy of increased attention. The system level analysis presented identifies important cell level parameters that have the greatest impact on the overall system performance, and as a result can help to set the priorities for future TPV cell development.

  3. A three-dimensional computational model of H2–air premixed combustion in non-circular micro-channels for a thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, Saad; Kurnia, Jundika C.; Shamim, Tariq

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Flow and flame behavior in a micro-combustor are studied. • Predictive capabilities of turbulence and chemistry sub-models are evaluated. • Thermal & hydraulic performance is tested for different combustor geometries. • Excellent outer wall prediction by RSM turbulence and EDC chemistry sub-model. • Enhanced heat transfer for triangular and trapezoid combustor geometries. - Abstract: Wall temperature uniformity and enhancement in a micro combustor for thermo photovoltaic (TPV) applications have attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years because of their direct impact on efficiency and feasibility of desired energy conversion. In this regard, numerous experimental and numerical studies in micro-combustion application have been conducted and reported. However, most previous studies have been focused on geometrical configurations limited to planar and circular channels. It is therefore of interest to investigate the impact of different channel geometries on wall temperature distribution and energy conversion efficiency. This study addresses flow and flame behavior in a micro-combustor. By utilizing the well-established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach, the effect of geometrical parameters on the flow behavior and wall temperature is examined and evaluated. In order to improve the productive capability of the computational model, several steady state Reynolds Average Numerical Simulation (RANS) turbulence models alongside with different reaction rate formulations are evaluated. The results indicate that Reynolds Stress Model (RSM) with Eddy Dissipation Concept (EDC) provide the best quantitative prediction. The developed model is employed to investigate the effect of inlet velocity on flame structure and outer wall temperature. Furthermore, the effect of reactor cross sections, including circular, square, rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal, on the wall temperature is also evaluated. The results show that

  4. Recombination Processes on Low Bandgap Antimonides for Thermophotovoltaic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saroop, Sudesh [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Recombination processes in antimonide-based (TPV) devices have been investigated using a technique, in which a Nd-YAG pulsed laser is materials for thermophotovoltaic radio-frequency (RF) photoreflectance used to excite excess carriers and the short-pulse response and photoconductivity decay are monitored with an inductively-coupled non-contacting RF probe. The system has been used to characterize surface and bulk recombination mechanisms in Sb-based materials.

  5. Solid State Microchp Based On Thermophotovoltaic And Thermoelectric Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Worek, William M.; Brown, Christopher; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Butcher, Thomas; Horne, Edward

    2012-01-01

    MicroCHP involves the coproduction of both heat and electric power in (typically) residential heating systems. A range of different energy conversion technologies are currently receiving attention for this application including Stirling engines, internal combustion engines, fuel cells, and Rankine cycles with steam or organic compounds as working fluids. In this work the use of ThermoPhotoVoltaic (TPV) and ThermoElectric (TE) conversion devices either alone or in combination for power product...

  6. Design and fabrication of spectrally selective emitter for thermophotovoltaic system by using nano-imprint lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Moo; Park, Keum-Hwan; Kim, Da-Som; Hwang, Bo-yeon; Kim, Sun-Kyung; Chae, Hee-Man; Ju, Byeong-Kwon; Kim, Young-Seok

    2018-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems have attracted attention as promising power generation systems that can directly convert the radiant energy produced by the combustion of fuel into electrical energy. However, there is a fundamental limit of their conversion efficiency due to the broadband distribution of the radiant spectrum. To overcome this problem, several spectrally selective thermal emitter technologies have been investigated, including the fabrication of photonic crystal (PhC) structures. In this paper, we present some design rules based on finite-a difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation results for tungsten (W) PhC emitter. The W 2D PhC was fabricated by a simple nano-imprint lithography (NIL) process, and inductive coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE) with an isotropic etching process, the benefits and parameters of which are presented. The fabricated W PhC emitter showed spectrally selective emission near the infrared wavelength range, and the optical properties varied depending on the size of the nano-patterns. The measured results of the fabricated prototype structure correspond well to the simulated values. Finally, compared with the performance of a flat W emitter, the total thermal emitter efficiency was almost 3.25 times better with the 2D W PhC structure.

  7. Performance analysis of near-field thermophotovoltaic devices considering absorption distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.; Basu, S.; King, W.P.; Zhang, Z.M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates the energy transfer and conversion processes in near-field thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems, considering local radiation absorption and photocurrent generation in the TPV cell. Radiation heat transfer in a multilayered structure is modeled using the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, and the electric current generation is evaluated based on the photogeneration and recombination of electron-hole pairs in different regions of the TPV cell. The effects of near-field radiation on the photon penetration depth, photocurrent generation, and quantum efficiency are examined in the spectral region of interest. The detailed analysis performed in the present work demonstrates that, while the near-field operation can enhance the power throughput, the conversion efficiency is not much improved and may even be reduced. Subsequently, a modified design of near-field TPV systems is proposed to improve the efficiency

  8. 500 Watt Diesel Fueled TPV Portable Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. E.; Morgan, M. D.; Sundaram, V. S.; Butcher, T.

    2003-01-01

    A test-bed 500 watt diesel fueled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) portable power supply is described. The goal of the design is a compact, rugged field portable unit weighing less than 15 pounds without fuel. The conversion efficiency goal is set at 15% fuel energy to electric energy delivered to an external load at 24 volts. A burner/recuperator system has been developed to meet the objectives of high combustion air preheat temperatures with a compact heat exchanger, low excess air operation, and high convective heat transfer rates to the silicon carbide emitter surface. The burner incorporates a air blast atomizer with 100% of the combustion air passing through the nozzle. Designed firing rate of 2900 watts at 0.07 gallons of oil per hour. This incorporates a single air supply dc motor/fan set and avoids the need for a system air compressor. The recuperator consists of three annular, concentric laminar flow passages. Heat from the combustion of the diesel fuel is both radiantly and convectively coupled to the inside wall of a cylindrical silicon carbide emitter. The outer wall of the emitter then radiates blackbody energy at the design temperature of 1400°C. The cylindrical emitter is enclosed in a quartz envelope that separates it from the photovoltaic (PV) cells. Spectral control is accomplished by a resonant mesh IR band-pass filter placed between the emitter and the PV array. The narrow band of energy transmitted by the filter is intercepted and converted to electricity by an array of GaSb PV cells. The array consists of 216 1-cm × 1-cm GaSb cells arranged into series and parallel arrays. An array of heat pipes couple the PV cell arrays to a heat exchanger which is cooled by forced air convection. A brief status of the key TPV technologies is presented followed by data characterizing the performance of the 500 watt TPV system.

  9. Development of a portable thermophotovoltaic power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Frederick E.; Doyle, Edward F.; Shukla, Kailash

    1997-03-01

    A 150 Watt thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generator is being developed. The technical approach taken in the design focused on optimizing the integrated performance of the primary subsystems in order to yield high energy conversion efficiency and cost effectiveness. An important aspect of the approach is the use of a selective emitter radiating to a bandgap matched photovoltaic array to minimize thermal and optical recuperation requirements, as well as the non-recoverable heat losses. For the initial prototype system, fibrous ytterbia emitters radiating in a band centered at 980 nm are matched with high efficiency silicon photoconverters. The integrated system includes a dielectric stack filter for optical energy recovery and a ceramic recuperator for thermal energy recovery. The system has been operated with air preheat temperatures up to 1350K. The design of the system and development status are presented.

  10. Thermophotovoltaic Arrays for Electrical Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnoff Corporation

    2003-01-01

    Sarnoff has designed an integrated array of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells based on the In(Al)GaAsSb/GaSb materials system. These arrays will be used in a system to generate electrical power from a radioisotope heat source that radiates at temperatures from 700 to 1000 C. Two arrays sandwich the slab heat source and will be connected in series to build voltage. Between the arrays and the heat source is a spectral control filter that transmits above-bandgap radiation and reflects below-bandgap radiation. The goal is to generate 5 mW of electrical power at 3 V from a 700 C radiant source. Sarnoff is a leader in antimonide-based TPV cell development. InGaAsSb cells with a bandgap of 0.53 eV have operated at system conversion efficiencies greater than 17%. The system included a front-surface filter, and a 905 C radiation source. The cells were grown via organo-metallic vapor-phase epitaxy. Sarnoff will bring this experience to bear on the proposed project. The authors first describe array and cell architecture. They then present calculated results showing that about 80 mW of power can be obtained from a 700 C radiator. Using a conservative array design, a 5-V output is possible

  11. Hybrid Back Surface Reflector GaInAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RK Huang; CA Wang; MK Connors; GW Turner; M Dashiell

    2004-01-01

    Back surface reflectors have the potential to improve thermophotovoltaic (TPV) device performance though the recirculation of infrared photons. The ''hybrid'' back-surface reflector (BSR) TPV cell approach allows one to construct BSRs for TPV devices using conventional, high efficiency, GaInAsSb-based TPV material. The design, fabrication, and measurements of hybrid BSR-TPV cells are described. The BSR was shown to provide a 4 mV improvement in open-circuit voltage under a constant shortcircuit current, which is comparable to the 5 mV improvement theoretically predicted. Larger improvements in open-circuit voltage are expected in the future with materials improvements

  12. Ultra high temperature latent heat energy storage and thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Datas Medina, Alejandro; Ramos Cabal, Alba; Martí Vega, Antonio; Cañizo Nadal, Carlos del; Luque López, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    A conceptual energy storage system design that utilizes ultra high temperature phase change materials is presented. In this system, the energy is stored in the form of latent heat and converted to electricity upon demand by TPV (thermophotovoltaic) cells. Silicon is considered in this study as PCM (phase change material) due to its extremely high latent heat (1800 J/g or 500 Wh/kg), melting point (1410 C), thermal conductivity (~25 W/mK), low cost (less than $2/kg or $4/kWh) and a...

  13. Integration between a thermophotovoltaic generator and an Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Pascale, Andrea; Ferrari, Claudio; Melino, Francesco; Morini, Mirko; Pinelli, Michele

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new energy system comprising a Thermo-Photo-Voltaic and Organic Rankine Cycle. ► An analytical model to calculate the performance of the system is introduced. ► The system shows promising results in terms of CHP performance. -- Abstract: The constant increase in energy need and the growing attention to the related environmental impact have given a boost to the development of new strategies in order to reduce the primary energy consumption and to improve its utilization. One of the possible strategies for achieving this aim is Combined Heat and Power (CHP) specially if coupled with the concept of on-site generation (also known as distributed generation). These approaches allow the reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions and the increase of security in energy supply. This paper introduces the Thermophotovoltaic Organic Rankine Cycle Integrated System (TORCIS), an energy system integrating a ThermoPhotoVoltaic generator (TPV) and an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). This study represents the start-up of a research program which involves three research teams from IMEM – National Research Council, ENDIF – University of Ferrara and DIEM – University of Bologna. The aim of this research is the complete definition and the pre-prototyping characterization of this system covering all the unresolved issues in this field. More specifically, TPV is a system to convert the radiation emitted from an artificial heat source (i.e. the combustion of fuel) into electrical energy by the use of photovoltaic cells. In this system, the produced electrical power is strictly connected to the thermal one as their ratio is almost constant and cannot be changed without severe loss in performance. The coupling between TPV and ORC allows this limitation to be overcome by the realization of a CHP system which can be regulated with a large degree of freedom changing the ratio between the produced electrical and thermal power. In this study a thermodynamic

  14. Cost estimate of electricity produced by TPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palfinger, Günther; Bitnar, Bernd; Durisch, Wilhelm; Mayor, Jean-Claude; Grützmacher, Detlev; Gobrecht, Jens

    2003-05-01

    A crucial parameter for the market penetration of TPV is its electricity production cost. In this work a detailed cost estimate is performed for a Si photocell based TPV system, which was developed for electrically self-powered operation of a domestic heating system. The results are compared to a rough estimate of cost of electricity for a projected GaSb based system. For the calculation of the price of electricity, a lifetime of 20 years, an interest rate of 4.25% per year and maintenance costs of 1% of the investment are presumed. To determine the production cost of TPV systems with a power of 12-20 kW, the costs of the TPV components and 100 EUR kW-1el,peak for assembly and miscellaneous were estimated. Alternatively, the system cost for the GaSb system was derived from the cost of the photocells and from the assumption that they account for 35% of the total system cost. The calculation was done for four different TPV scenarios which include a Si based prototype system with existing technology (etasys = 1.0%), leading to 3000 EUR kW-1el,peak, an optimized Si based system using conventional, available technology (etasys = 1.5%), leading to 900 EUR kW-1el,peak, a further improved system with future technology (etasys = 5%), leading to 340 EUR kW-1el,peak and a GaSb based system (etasys = 12.3% with recuperator), leading to 1900 EUR kW-1el,peak. Thus, prices of electricity from 6 to 25 EURcents kWh-1el (including gas of about 3.5 EURcents kWh-1) were calculated and compared with those of fuel cells (31 EURcents kWh-1) and gas engines (23 EURcents kWh-1).

  15. Operating experience of a portable thermophotovoltaic power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Frederick E.; Doyle, Edward F.; Shukla, Kailash

    1999-03-01

    Two configurations of man-portable thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power supplies based on Thermo Power's supported continuous fiber emitter have been designed, built, and are being tested. The systems use narrow-band, fibrous, ytterbia emitters radiating to bandgap matched silicon photovoltaic arrays with dielectric stack filters for optical energy recovery and recuperators for thermal energy recovery. The systems have been designed for operation with propane and with combustion air preheat temperatures of up to 1250 K. To operate at air preheat temperatures above the auto-ignition temperature of the fuel, a unique fuel delivery system was devised which results in the micromixing and rapid combustion of the fuel and air right in the emitter fibers. This allows the ytterbia emitter fibers to run much hotter (˜2000 K) than any of the surrounding structure.

  16. Radiation Entropy and Near-Field Thermophotovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuomin M.

    2008-08-01

    Radiation entropy was key to the original derivation of Planck's law of blackbody radiation, in 1900. This discovery opened the door to quantum mechanical theory and Planck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1918. Thermal radiation plays an important role in incandescent lamps, solar energy utilization, temperature measurements, materials processing, remote sensing for astronomy and space exploration, combustion and furnace design, food processing, cryogenic engineering, as well as numerous agricultural, health, and military applications. While Planck's law has been fruitfully applied to a large number of engineering problems for over 100 years, questions have been raised about its limitation in micro/nano systems, especially at subwavelength distances or in the near field. When two objects are located closer than the characteristic wavelength, wave interference and photon tunneling occurs that can result in significant enhancement of the radiative transfer. Recent studies have shown that the near-field effects can realize emerging technologies, such as superlens, sub-wavelength light source, polariton-assisted nanolithography, thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems, scanning tunneling thermal microscopy, etc. The concept of entropy has also been applied to explain laser cooling of solids as well as the second law efficiency of devices that utilize thermal radiation to produce electricity. However, little is known as regards the nature of entropy in near-field radiation. Some history and recent advances are reviewed in this presentation with a call for research of radiation entropy in the near field, due to the important applications in the optimization of thermophotovoltaic converters and in the design of practical systems that can harvest photon energies efficiently.

  17. Power and hydrogen production from ammonia in a micro-thermophotovoltaic device integrated with a micro-reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Um, Dong Hyun; Kim, Tae Young; Kwon, Oh Chae

    2014-01-01

    Power and hydrogen (H 2 ) production by burning and reforming ammonia (NH 3 ) in a micro-TPV (microscale-thermophotovoltaic) device integrated with a micro-reformer is studied experimentally. A heat-recirculating micro-emitter with the cyclone and helical adapters that enhance the residence time of fed fuel-air mixtures and uniform burning burns H 2 -added NH 3 -air mixtures. A micro-reformer that converts NH 3 to H 2 using ruthenium as a catalyst surrounds the micro-emitter as a heat source. The micro-reformer is surrounded by a chamber, the inner and outer walls of which have installations of gallium antimonide photovoltaic cells and cooling fins. For the micro-reformer-integrated micro-TPV device the maximum overall efficiency of 8.1% with electrical power of 4.5 W and the maximum NH 3 conversion rate of 96.0% with the H 2 production rate of 22.6 W (based on lower heating value) are obtained, indicating that the overall efficiency is remarkably enhanced compared with 2.0% when the micro-TPV device operates alone. This supports the potential of improving the overall efficiency of a micro-TPV device through integrating it with a micro-reformer. Also, the feasibility of using NH 3 as a carbon-free fuel for both burning and reforming in practical micro power and H 2 generation devices has been demonstrated. - Highlights: • Performance of micro-TPV device integrated with micro-reformer is evaluated. • Feasibility of using NH 3 –H 2 blends in integrated system has been demonstrated. • Integration with micro-reformer improves performance of micro-TPV device. • Maximum overall efficiency of 8.1% is found compared with 2.0% without integration

  18. Parametric characteristics of a solar thermophotovoltaic system at the maximum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Xiaohang; Yang, Zhimin; Lin, Bihong; Chen, Jincan

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A model of the far-field TPVC driven by solar energy, which consists of an optical concentrator, an absorber, an emitter, and a PV cell and is simply referred as to the far-field STPVS. - Highlights: • A model of the far-field solar thermophotovoltaic system (STPVS) is established. • External and internal irreversible losses are considered. • The maximum efficiency of the STPVS is calculated. • Optimal values of key parameters at the maximum efficiency are determined. • Effects of the concentrator factor on the performance of the system are discussed. - Abstract: A model of the solar thermophotovoltaic system (STPVS) consisting of an optical concentrator, a thermal absorber, an emitter, and a photovoltaic (PV) cell is proposed, where the far-field thermal emission between the emitter and the PV cell, the radiation losses from the absorber and emitter to the environment, the reflected loss from the absorber, and the finite-rate heat exchange between the PV cell and the environment are taken into account. Analytical expressions for the power output of and overall efficiency of the STPVS are derived. By solving thermal equilibrium equations, the operating temperatures of the emitter and PV cell are determined and the maximum efficiency of the system is calculated numerically for given values of the output voltage of the PV cell and the ratio of the front surface area of the absorber to that of the emitter. For different bandgaps, the maximum efficiencies of the system are calculated and the corresponding optimum values of several operating parameters are obtained. The effects of the concentrator factor on the optimum performance of the system are also discussed.

  19. Advanced Radiative Emitters for Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic Power Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS performance,...

  20. Selection of emitter material for application on a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, D.P.; Frohlich, N.D.; Koehler, F.A.; Ruhkamp, J.D.; Miller, R.G.; McDougal, J.R.; Pugh, B.K.; Barklay, C.D.; Howell, E.I. [EGG Mound Applied Technologies Building 88, P.O. Box 3000 Miamisburg, Ohio45343 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic (RTPV) power systems are being considered for long duration space missions due to their predicted high thermal to electrical conversion efficiencies. One critical aspect of these power systems is the selection of an appropriate emitter material which will efficiently radiate the thermal energy generated by the heat source to the photovoltaics. The photovoltaics are {open_quotes}tuned{close_quotes} to convert the infrared wavelengths radiated by the emitter into electrical energy. The emphasis of this paper is on the selection and optimization of an appropriate emitter material which would meet all of the mission requirements. A Kepner Tregoe analysis was performed in order to rank the various candidate refractory materials in relationship to their physical and chemical properties. The results of the analysis and material recommendations are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Thermophotovoltaics, wood powder and fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, J [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Operational Efficiency; Broman, L; Jarefors, K [Solar Energy Research Center, Borlaenge (Sweden)

    1998-06-01

    PV cells can be used for electricity production based on other heat sources than the sun. If the temperature of the source is around 1500 K it is possible to get reasonably high conversion efficiency from heat radiation to electricity. This is due to recent advances in low-bandgap PV cells and selectively emitting fibrous emissive burners. There are some different biomass fuels capable of producing this temperature in the flame, especially gas and liquid fuels of different kinds. Wood powder is the only solid wood fuel with a sufficiently stable quality and properties for this high temperature combustion. A joint project between SERC, SLU and National Renewable Energy Laboratory NREL in Golden, Colorado, USA aims at building a wood powder fuelled thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator for cogeneration of heat and electricity. A stable flame temperature of 1500 K has been achieved in a prototype pilot-scale burner that includes feeder and combustion chamber. Furthermore, a setup for measuring TPV cell efficiency for a wide region of black body emitter temperatures and cell irradiation has been constructed and several 0.6 eV GaInAs TPV cells have been investigated. A setup for testing the chain IR emitter - selectively reflecting filter - TPV cell has been designed. In order to limit the region of filter incident angles, which will make the filter act more efficiently, a special geometry of the internally reflecting tube that transmits the radiation is considered 23 refs, 4 figs

  2. Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diode Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Dashiell; J Beausang; H Ehsani; G Nichols; D DePoy; L Danielson; P Talamo; K Rahner; E Brown; S Burger; P Fourspring; W Topper; P Baldasaro; C Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; Jizhong Li; R Martinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryl

    2005-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes fabricated from InGaAsSb alloys lattice-matched to GaSb substrates are grown by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE). 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diodes utilizing front-surface spectral control filters have been tested in a vacuum cavity and a TPV thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency (η TPV ) and a power density (PD) of η TPV = 19% and PD=0.58 W/cm 2 were measured for T radiator = 950 C and T diode = 27 C. Recombination coefficients deduced from minority carrier measurements and the theory reviewed in this article predict a practical limit to the maximum achievable conversion efficiency and power density for 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV. The limits for the above operating temperatures are projected to be η TPV = 26% and PD = 0.75 W/cm 2 . These limits are extended to η TPV = 30% and PD = 0.85W/cm 2 if the diode active region is bounded by a reflective back surface to enable photon recycling and a two-pass optical path length. The internal quantum efficiency of the InGaAsSb TPV diode is close to the theoretically predicted limits, with the exception of short wavelength absorption in GaSb contact layers. Experiments show that the open circuit voltage of the 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diodes is not strongly dependent on the device architectures studied in this work where both N/P and P/N double heterostructure diodes have been grown with various acceptor and donor doping levels, having GaSb and AlGaAsSb confinement, and also partial back surface reflectors. Lattice matched InGaAsSb TPV diodes were fabricated with bandgaps ranging from 0.6 to 0.5eV without significant degradation of the open circuit voltage factor, quantum efficiency, or fill factor as the composition approached the miscibility gap. The key diode performance parameter which is limiting efficiency and power density below the theoretical limits in InGaAsSb TPV devices is the open circuit voltage. The open circuit voltages of state-of-the-art 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV diode are ∼10

  3. Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MW Dashiell; JF Beausang; H Ehsani; GJ Nichols; DM Depoy; LR Danielson; P Talamo; KD Rahner; EJ Brown; SR Burger; PM Foruspring; WF Topper; PF Baldasaro; CA Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; J Li; R Martinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryi

    2006-01-01

    In x Ga 1-x As y Sb 1-y thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes were grown lattice-matched to GaSb substrates by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) in the bandgap range of E G = 0.5 to 0.6eV. InGaAsSb TPV diodes, utilizing front-surface spectral control filters, are measured with thermal-to-electric conversion efficiency and power density of η TPV = 19.7% and PD =0.58 W/cm 2 respectively for a radiator temperature of T radiator = 950 C, diode temperature of T diode = 27 C, and diode bandgap of E G = 0.53eV. Practical limits to TPV energy conversion efficiency are established using measured recombination coefficients and optical properties of front surface spectral control filters, which for 0.53eV InGaAsSb TPV energy conversion is η TPV = 28% and PD = 0.85W/cm 2 at the above operating temperatures. The most severe performance limits are imposed by (1) diode open-circuit voltage (VOC) limits due to intrinsic Auger recombination and (2) parasitic photon absorption in the inactive regions of the module. Experimentally, the diode V OC is 15% below the practical limit imposed by intrinsic Auger recombination processes. Analysis of InGaAsSb diode electrical performance vs. diode architecture indicate that the V OC and thus efficiency is limited by extrinsic recombination processes such as through bulk defects

  4. Metamaterial-based integrated plasmonic absorber/emitter for solar thermo-photovoltaic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Chihhui; Neuner III, Burton; Shvets, Gennady; John, Jeremy; Milder, Andrew; Zollars, Byron; Savoy, Steve

    2012-01-01

    We present the concept of a solar thermo-photovoltaic (STPV) collection system based on a large-area, nanoimprint-patterned film of plasmonic structures acting as an integrated solar absorber/narrow-band thermal emitter (SANTE). The SANTE film concept is based on integrating broad-band solar radiation absorption with selective narrow-band thermal IR radiation which can be efficiently coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) cell for power generation. By employing a low reflectivity refractory metal (e.g., tungsten) as a plasmonic material, we demonstrate that the absorption spectrum of the SANTE film can be designed to be broad-band in the visible range and narrow-band in the infrared range. A detailed balance calculation demonstrates that the total STPV system efficiency exceeds the Shockley–Queisser limit for emitter temperatures above T e = 1200 K, and achieves an efficiency as high as 41% for T e = 2300 K. Emitter temperatures in this range are shown to be achievable under modest sun concentrations (less than 1000 suns) due to the thermal insulation provided by the SANTE film. An experimental demonstration of the wide-angle, frequency-selective absorptivity is presented

  5. Lapped substrate for enhanced backsurface reflectivity in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasaro, Paul F; Brown, Edward J; Charache, Greg W; DePoy, David M

    2000-01-01

    A method for fabricating a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell including a thin semiconductor wafer substrate (10) having a thickness (.beta.) calculated to decrease the free carrier absorption on a heavily doped substrate; wherein the top surface of the semiconductor wafer substrate is provided with a thermophotovoltaic device (11), a metallized grid (12) and optionally an antireflective (AR) overcoating; and, the bottom surface (10') of the semiconductor wafer substrate (10) is provided with a highly reflecting coating which may comprise a metal coating (14) or a combined dielectric/metal coating (17).

  6. Bulk single crystal ternary substrates for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charache, Greg W.; Baldasaro, Paul F.; Nichols, Greg J.

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic energy conversion device and a method for making the device. The device includes a substrate formed from a bulk single crystal material having a bandgap (E.sub.g) of 0.4 eVternary or quaternary III-V semiconductor active layers.

  7. Radiative heat transfer enhancement using geometric and spectral control for achieving high-efficiency solar-thermophotovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohiyama, Asaka; Shimizu, Makoto; Yugami, Hiroo

    2018-04-01

    We numerically investigate radiative heat transfer enhancement using spectral and geometric control of the absorber/emitter. A high extraction of the radiative heat transfer from the emitter as well as minimization of the optical losses from the absorber leads to high extraction and solar thermophotovoltaic (STPV) system efficiency. The important points for high-efficiency STPV design are discussed for the low and high area ratio of the absorber/emitter. The obtained general guideline will support the design of various types of STPV systems.

  8. Photonic Crystal Emitters for Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelmakh, Veronika; Chan, Walker R; Joannopoulos, John D; Celanovic, Ivan; Ghebrebrhan, Michael; Soljacic, Marin

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication, and characterization of 2D photonic crystal (PhC) thermal emitters for a millimeter-scale hydrocarbon TPV microgenerator as a possible replacement for batteries in portable microelectronics, robotics, etc. In our TPV system, combustion heats a PhC emitter to incandescence and the resulting radiation is converted by a low-bandgap TPV cell. The PhC tailors the photonic density of states to produce spectrally confined thermal emission that matches the bandgap of the TPV cell, enabling high heat-to-electricity conversion efficiency. The work builds on a previously developed fabrication process to produce a square array of cylindrical cavities in a metal substrate. We will present ongoing incremental improvements in the optical and thermo-mechanical properties, the fabrication process, and the system integration, as recently combined with fabrication using novel materials, such as sputtered coatings, to enable a monolithic system. (paper)

  9. Performance evaluation and parametric optimum design of a molten carbonate fuel cell-thermophotovoltaic cell hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhimin; Liao, Tianjun; Zhou, Yinghui; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A molten carbonate fuel cell-thermophotovoltaic cell hybrid system is established. • The performance characteristics of the hybrid system are systematically evaluated. • The optimal regions of the power output density and efficiency are determined. • The values of key parameters at the maximum power output density are calculated. • The proposed system is proved to have advantages over other hybrid systems. - Abstract: A new model of the hybrid system composed of a molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) and a thermophotovoltaic cell (TPVC) is proposed to recovery the waste heat produced by the MCFC. Expressions for the power output and the efficiency of the hybrid system are analytically derived. The performance characteristics of the hybrid system are evaluated. It is found that when the current density of the MCFC, voltage output of the TPVC, electrode area ratio of the MCFC to the TPVC, and energy gap of the material in the photovoltaic cell are optimally chosen, the maximum power output density of the hybrid system is obviously larger than that of the single MCFC. Moreover, the improved percentages of the maximum power output density of the proposed model relative to that of the single MCFC are calculated for differently operating temperatures of the MCFC and are compared with those of some MCFC-based hybrid systems reported in the literature, and consequently, the advantages of the MCFC-TPVC hybrid system are revealed.

  10. Micro combustion in sub-millimeter channels for novel modular thermophotovoltaic power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, J F; Tang, A K; Duan, L; Li, X C; Yang, W M; Chou, S K; Xue, H

    2010-01-01

    The performance of micro combustion-driven power systems is strongly influenced by the combustor structure. A novel modular thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power generator is presented, which is based on the sub-millimeter parallel plate combustor. It has the potential to achieve a high power density because of the high radiation energy per unit volume due to the high surface-to-volume ratio of the micro-combustor. The work experimentally investigated the ignition limitation for two micro-combustors. It also studied the effects of three major parameters on a sub-millimeter combustor, namely hydrogen to oxygen mixing ratio, hydrogen volumetric flow rate and nozzle geometry. The results show that the combustion efficiency decreases with the increase of the hydrogen flow rate, which is caused by reduced residence time. The average wall temperature with the rectangular nozzle is 25 K higher than that with the circle nozzle. The output electrical power and power density of the modular TPV power generator are projected to be 0.175 W and 0.0722 W cm −3 respectively. We experimentally achieve 0.166 W of electrical power, which is in good agreement with the model prediction

  11. Super-Planckian Thermophotovoltaics Without Vacuum Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmoosa, M. S.; Biehs, S.-A.; Simovski, C. R.

    2017-11-01

    We introduce the concept of a thermophotovoltaic system whose emitter is separated from the photovoltaic cell by an intermediate thick slab of gallium arsenide. Owing to the engineered structure of the emitter (a multilayer structure of negative- and positive-ɛ layers) together with a high refractiveindex and transparency of the intermediate slab, we achieve a super-Planckian and frequency-selective spectrum of radiative heat transfer which is desirable for the efficient performance of thermophotovoltaic systems.

  12. An integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal emitter for thermophotovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Walker R.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Allmon, William R.; Waits, Christopher M.; Soljacic, Marin; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion is appealing for portable millimeter- scale generators because of its simplicity, but it relies on a high temperatures. The performance and reliability of the high-temperature components, a microcombustor and a photonic crystal emitter, has proven challenging because they are subjected to 1000-1200°C and stresses arising from thermal expansion mismatches. In this paper, we adopt the industrial process of diffusion brazing to fabricate an integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal by bonding stacked metal layers. Diffusion brazing is simpler and faster than previous approaches of silicon MEMS and welded metal, and the end result is more robust.

  13. An integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal emitter for thermophotovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Walker R.; Stelmakh, Veronika; Joannopoulos, John D.; Celanovic, Ivan; Allmon, William R.; Waits, Christopher M.; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion is appealing for portable millimeter- scale generators because of its simplicity, but it relies on a high temperatures. The performance and reliability of the high-temperature components, a microcombustor and a photonic crystal emitter, has proven challenging because they are subjected to 1000-1200°C and stresses arising from thermal expansion mismatches. In this paper, we adopt the industrial process of diffusion brazing to fabricate an integrated microcombustor and photonic crystal by bonding stacked metal layers. Diffusion brazing is simpler and faster than previous approaches of silicon MEMS and welded metal, and the end result is more robust. (paper)

  14. Heat transfer modelling in thermophotovoltaic cavities using glass media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, T.; Forbes, I.; Penlington, R.; Pearsall, N. [Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom). School of Engineering and Technology

    2005-08-15

    Optimisation of heat transfer, and in particular radiative heat transfer in terms of the spectral, angular and spatial radiation distributions, is required to achieve high efficiencies and high electrical power densities for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion. This work examines heat transfer from the radiator to the PV cell in an infinite plate arrangement using three different arrangements of participating dielectric media. The modelling applies the Discrete Ordinates method and assumes fused silica (quartz glass) as the dielectric medium. The arrangement radiator-glass-PV cell (also termed dielectric photon concentration) was found to be superior in terms of efficiency and power density. (author)

  15. The Status of Thermophotovoltaic Energy Conversion Technology at Lockheed Martin Corporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EJ Brown; PF Baldasaro; SR Burger; LR Danielson; DM DePoy; JM Dolatowski; PM Fourspring; GJ Nichols; WF Topper; TD Rahmlow

    2004-07-29

    In a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system, a heated surface radiates in the mid-infrared range onto photocells which are sensitive at these energies. Part of the absorbed energy is converted into electric output. Conversion efficiency is maximized by reducing the absorption of non-convertible energy with some form of spectral control. In a TPV system, many technology options exist. Our development efforts have concentrated on flat-plate geometries with greybody radiators, front surface tandem filters and a multi-chip module (MCM) approach that allows selective fabrication processes to match cell performance. Recently, we discontinued development of GaInAsSb quaternary cell semiconductor material in favor of ternary GaInAs material. In our last publication (Ref. 1), the authors reported conversion efficiencies of about 20% (radiator 950 C, cells 22 C) for small modules (1-4 cm{sup 2}) tested in a prototypic cavity test environment. Recently, we have achieved measured conversion efficiencies of about 12.5% in larger ({approx}100 cm{sup 2}) test arrays. The efficiency reduction in the larger arrays was probably due to quality and variation of the cells as well as non-uniform illumination from the hot radiator to the cold plate. Modules in these tests used GaInAsSb cells with 0.52 eV bandgap and front surface filters for spectral control. This paper provides details of the individual system components and the rationale for our technical decisions. It also describes the measurement techniques used to record these efficiencies.

  16. The design and numerical analysis of tandem thermophotovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Hao-Yu; Liu Ren-Jun; Wang Lian-Kai; Lü You; Li Tian-Tian; Li Guo-Xing; Zhang Yuan-Tao; Zhang Bao-Lin

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, numerical analysis of GaSb =(E g = 0.72 eV)/Ga 0.84 In 0.16 As 0.14 Sb 0.86 (E g = 0.53 eV) tandem thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells is carried out by using Silvaco/Atlas software. In the tandem cells, a GaSb p-n homojunction is used for the top cell and a GaInAsSb p-n homojunction for the bottom cell. A heavily doped GaSb tunnel junction connects the two sub-cells together. The simulations are carried out at a radiator temperature of 2000 K and a cell temperature of 300 K. The radiation photons are injected from the top of the tandem cells. Key properties of the single- and dual-junction TPV cells, including I–V characteristic, maximum output power (P max ), open-circuit voltage (V oc ), short-circuit current (I sc ), etc. are presented. The effects of the sub-cell thickness and carrier concentration on the key properties of tandem cells are investigated. A comparison of the dual-TPV cells with GaSb and GaInAsSb single junction cells shows that the P max of tandem cells is almost twice as great as that of the single-junction cells. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  17. Parametric investigation of nano-gap thermophotovoltaic energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Japheth Z.-J.; Bong, Victor N.-S.; Wong, Basil T.

    2016-03-01

    Nano-gap thermophotovoltaic energy converters have the potential to be excellent generators of electrical power due to the near-field radiative effect which enhances the transfer of energy from one medium to another. However, there is still much to learn about this new form of energy converter. This paper seeks to investigate three parameters that affect the performance of nano-gap thermophotovoltaic devices: the emitter material, the thermophotovoltaic cell material, and the cell thickness. Furthermore, the temperature profiles in insulated thin films (cells exposed to below-band gap near-field radiation) are analysed. It was discovered that an effective emitter material is one that has a high generalised emissivity value and is also able to couple with the TPV cell material through surface polaritons while a cell material's electrical properties and its thickness has heavy bearing on its internal quantum efficiency. In regards to the temperature profile, the heat-flux absorbed causes a rise in temperature across the thin film, but is insufficient to generate a temperature gradient across the film.

  18. Photocell modelling for thermophotovoltaic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayor, J -C; Durisch, W; Grob, B; Panitz, J -C [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Goal of the modelling described here is the extrapolation of the performance characteristics of solar photocells to TPV working conditions. The model accounts for higher flux of radiation and for the higher temperatures reached in TPV converters. (author) 4 figs., 1 tab., 2 refs.

  19. Minority-carrier transport in InGaAsSb thermophotovoltaic diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charache, G.; Martinelli, R.U.; Garbuzov, D.Z.; Lee, H.; Morris, N.; Odubanjo, T.; Connolly, J.C.

    1997-05-01

    Uncoated InGaAsSb/GaSb thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes with 0.56 eV (2.2 microm) bandgaps exhibit external quantum efficiencies of 59% at 2 microm. The devices have electron diffusion lengths as long as 29 microm in 8-microm-wide p-InGaAsSb layers and hole diffusion lengths of 3 microm in 6-microm-wide n-InGaAsSb layers. The electron and hole diffusion lengths appear to increase with increasing p- and n-layer widths. At 632.8 nm the internal quantum efficiencies of diodes with 1- to 8-microm-wide p-layers are above 89% and are independent of the p-layer width, indicating long electron diffusion lengths. InGaAsSb has, therefore, excellent minority carrier transport properties that are well suited to efficient TPV diode operation. The structures were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

  20. Quantum-Well Thermophotovoltaic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudlich, Alex; Ignatiev, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic cells containing multiple quantum wells have been invented as improved means of conversion of thermal to electrical energy. The semiconductor bandgaps of the quantum wells can be tailored to be narrower than those of prior thermophotovoltaic cells, thereby enabling the cells to convert energy from longer-wavelength photons that dominate the infrared-rich spectra of typical thermal sources with which these cells would be used. Moreover, in comparison with a conventional single-junction thermophotovoltaic cell, a cell containing multiple narrow-bandgap quantum wells according to the invention can convert energy from a wider range of wavelengths. Hence, the invention increases the achievable thermal-to-electrical energy-conversion efficiency. These thermophotovoltaic cells are expected to be especially useful for extracting electrical energy from combustion, waste-heat, and nuclear sources having temperatures in the approximate range from 1,000 to 1,500 C.

  1. InGaAs/InP Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIM) for Thermophotovoltaic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilt, David M.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Weizer, Victor G.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Scheiman, David A.; Murray, Christopher S.; Riley, David R.

    2004-01-01

    There has been a traditional trade-off in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion development between systems efficiency and power density. This trade-off originates from the use of front surface spectral controls such as selective emitters and various types of filters. A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed which allows for both high power densities and high system efficiencies. The MIM device consists of many individual indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) devices series -connected on a single semi-insulating indium phosphide (InP) substrate. The MIMs are exposed to the entire emitter output, thereby maximizing output power density. An infrared (IR) reflector placed on the rear surface of the substrate returns the unused portion of the emitter output spectrum back to the emitter for recycling, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Initial MIM development has focused on a 1 sq cm device consisting of eight series interconnected cells. MIM devices, produced from 0,74 eV InGAAs, have demonstrated V(sub infinity) = 3.23 volts, J(sub sc) = 70 mA/sq cm and a fill factor of 66% under flashlamp testing. Infrared (IR) reflectance measurement (less than 2 microns) of these devices indicate a reflectivity of less than 82%. MIM devices produced from 0.55 eV InGaAs have also been den=monstrated. In addition, conventional p/n InGaAs devices with record efficiencies (11.7% AM1) have been demonstrated.

  2. Impacts of propagating, frustrated and surface modes on radiative, electrical and thermal losses in nanoscale-gap thermophotovoltaic power generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Michael P.; Dupré, Olivier; Blandre, Etienne; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Vaillon, Rodolphe; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The impacts of radiative, electrical and thermal losses on the performances of nanoscale-gap thermophotovoltaic (nano-TPV) power generators consisting of a gallium antimonide cell paired with a broadband tungsten and a radiatively-optimized Drude radiator are analyzed. Results reveal that surface mode mediated nano-TPV power generation with the Drude radiator outperforms the tungsten radiator, dominated by frustrated modes, only for a vacuum gap thickness of 10 nm and if both electrical and thermal losses are neglected. The key limiting factors for the Drude- and tungsten-based devices are respectively the recombination of electron-hole pairs at the cell surface and thermalization of radiation with energy larger than the cell absorption bandgap. A design guideline is also proposed where a high energy cutoff above which radiation has a net negative effect on nano-TPV power output due to thermal losses is determined. It is shown that the power output of a tungsten-based device increases by 6.5% while the cell temperature decreases by 30 K when applying a high energy cutoff at 1.45 eV. This work demonstrates that design and optimization of nano-TPV devices must account for radiative, electrical and thermal losses. PMID:26112658

  3. Nonlinear viscoelastic characterization of molten thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) through large amplitude harmonic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leblanc, Jean L. [University P. and M. Curie-Paris 6, Polymer Rheology and Processing, Vitry-sur-Seine (France)

    2007-10-15

    The so-called thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPV) are essentially blends of a crystalline thermoplastic polymer (e.g., polypropylene) and a vulcanizable rubber composition, prepared through a special process called dynamic vulcanization, which yields a fine dispersion of micron-size crosslinked rubber particles in a thermoplastic matrix. Such materials are by nature complex polymer systems, i.e., multiphase, heterogeneous, typically disordered materials for which structure is as important as composition. Correctly assessing their rheological properties is a challenging task for several reasons: first, even if the uniformity of their composition is taken for granted, TPV are indeed very complicated materials, not only heterogeneous but also with a morphology related to their composition; second, their morphology can be affected by the flow field used; third, the migration of small labile ingredients (e.g., oil, curative residue, etc.) can in the meantime significantly change the boundary flow conditions, for instance through self-lubrication due to phase separation of the oil, or wall slip, or both. The aims of the work reported were to investigate a series of commercial TPV through the so-called Fourier transform rheometry, a testing technique especially developed to accurately investigate the nonlinear viscoelastic domain. Results are tentatively interpreted in terms of material composition and structure. (orig.)

  4. Effect of addition of organo clay on mechanical properties and dynamic-mechanical based TPV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honorato, Luciana R.; Silva, Adriana A.; Soares, Bluma G.; Soares, Ketly P.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of organophilic clay on the mechanical and dynamical-mechanical properties of thermoplastic elastomers based on polypropylene (PP) and nitrile rubber (NBR) was investigated. The addition of clay was performed from a master batch prepared by a solution intercalation of NBR inside the clay galleries. Since the PP/NBR blend is highly incompatible, PP functionalized with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) and carboxylated NBR (XNBR) were employed as compatibilizing system together with triethylene-tetramine (TETA) used as coupling agent. The addition of Clay inside the elastomeric phase of the TPV resulted in a significant decrease of the elongation at break without changes on the tensile strength. The presence of clay also promoted a slight increase of the storage modulus and the glass transition temperature. The small angle X ray scattering confirmed the high dispersion of clay inside the TPV. Analysis of light scattering small angle (SAXS) confirmed the high dispersion of clay in the matrix of the TPV. (author)

  5. Triple and Quadruple Junctions Thermophotovoltaic Devices Lattice Matched to InP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhusal, L.; Freundlich, A.

    2007-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conversion of IR radiation emanating from a radioisotope heat source is under consideration for deep space exploration. Ideally, for radiator temperatures of interest, the TPV cell must convert efficiently photons in the 0.4-0.7 eV spectral range. Best experimental data for single junction cells are obtained for lattice-mismatched 0.55 eV InGaAs based devices. It was suggested, that a tandem InGaAs based TPV cell made by monolithically combining two or more lattice mismatched InGaAs subcells on InP would result in a sizeable efficiency improvement. However, from a practical standpoint the implementation of more than two subcells with lattice mismatch systems will require extremely thick graded layers (defect filtering systems) to accommodate the lattice mismatch between the sub-cells and could detrimentally affect the recycling of the unused IR energy to the emitter. A buffer structure, consisting of various InPAs layers, is incorporated to accommodate the lattice mismatch between the high and low bandgap subcells. There are evidences that the presence of the buffer structure may generate defects, which could extend down to the underlying InGaAs layer. The unusual large band gap lowering observed in GaAs(1-x)N(x) with low nitrogen fraction [1] has sparked a new interest in the development of dilute nitrogen containing III-V semiconductors for long-wavelength optoelectronic devices (e.g. IR lasers, detector, solar cells) [2-7]. Lattice matched Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x on InP has recently been investigated for the potential use in the mid-infrared device applications [8], and it could be a strong candidate for the applications in TPV devices. This novel quaternary alloy allows the tuning of the band gap from 1.42 eV to below 1 eV on GaAs and band gap as low as 0.6eV when strained to InP, but it has its own limitations. To achieve such a low band gap using the quaternary Ga1-yInyNxAs1-x, either it needs to be strained on InP, which creates further

  6. A Germanium Back Contact Type Thermophotovoltaic Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Tomonori; Okumura, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Masafumi

    2007-01-01

    A Ge back contact type photovoltaic cell has been proposed to reduce resistance loss for high current densities in thermophotovoltaic systems. The back contact structure requires less surface recombination velocities than conventional structures with front grid contacts. A SiO2/SiNx double anti-reflection coating including a high refractive index SiNx layer was studied. The SiNx layer has an enough passivation effect to obtain high efficiency. The quantum efficiency of the Ge cell was around 0.8 in the 800-1600 nm wavelength range. The conversion efficiency for infrared lights was estimated at 18% for a blackbody surface and 25% for a selective emitter by using the quantum efficiency and a simulation analysis

  7. A nanophotonic solar thermophotovoltaic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenert, Andrej; Bierman, David M; Nam, Youngsuk; Chan, Walker R; Celanović, Ivan; Soljačić, Marin; Wang, Evelyn N

    2014-02-01

    The most common approaches to generating power from sunlight are either photovoltaic, in which sunlight directly excites electron-hole pairs in a semiconductor, or solar-thermal, in which sunlight drives a mechanical heat engine. Photovoltaic power generation is intermittent and typically only exploits a portion of the solar spectrum efficiently, whereas the intrinsic irreversibilities of small heat engines make the solar-thermal approach best suited for utility-scale power plants. There is, therefore, an increasing need for hybrid technologies for solar power generation. By converting sunlight into thermal emission tuned to energies directly above the photovoltaic bandgap using a hot absorber-emitter, solar thermophotovoltaics promise to leverage the benefits of both approaches: high efficiency, by harnessing the entire solar spectrum; scalability and compactness, because of their solid-state nature; and dispatchablility, owing to the ability to store energy using thermal or chemical means. However, efficient collection of sunlight in the absorber and spectral control in the emitter are particularly challenging at high operating temperatures. This drawback has limited previous experimental demonstrations of this approach to conversion efficiencies around or below 1% (refs 9, 10, 11). Here, we report on a full solar thermophotovoltaic device, which, thanks to the nanophotonic properties of the absorber-emitter surface, reaches experimental efficiencies of 3.2%. The device integrates a multiwalled carbon nanotube absorber and a one-dimensional Si/SiO2 photonic-crystal emitter on the same substrate, with the absorber-emitter areas optimized to tune the energy balance of the device. Our device is planar and compact and could become a viable option for high-performance solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion.

  8. Sunlight absorption engineering for thermophotovoltaics: contributions from the optical design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Míguez, Hernán

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, solar thermophotovoltaic systems constitute a platform in which sophisticated optical material designs are put into practice with the aim of achieving the long sought after dream of developing an efficient energy conversion device based on this concept. Recent advances demonstrate that higher efficiencies are at reach using photonic nanostructures amenable to mass production and scale-up. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Appropriate materials and preparation techniques for polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    1997-03-01

    Polycrystalline-thin-film thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells have excellent potential for reducing the cost of TPV generators so as to address the hitherto inaccessible and highly competitive markets such as self-powered gas-fired residential warm air furnaces and energy-efficient electric cars, etc. Recent progress in polycrystalline-thin-film solar cells have made it possible to satisfy the diffusion length and intrinsic junction rectification criteria for TPV cells operating at high fluences. Continuous ranges of direct bandgaps of the ternary and pseudoternary compounds such as Hg1-xCdxTe, Pb1-xCdxTe, Hg1-xZnxTe, and Pb1-xZnxS cover the region of interest of 0.50-0.75 eV for efficient TPV conversion. Other ternary and pseudoternary compounds which show direct bandgaps in most of or all of the 0.50-0.75 eV range are Pb1-xZnxTe, Sn1-xCd2xTe2, Pb1-xCdxSe, Pb1-xZnxSe, and Pb1-xCdxS. Hg1-xCdxTe (with x~0.21) has been studied extensively for infrared detectors. PbTe and Pb1-xSnxTe have also been studied for infrared detectors. Not much work has been carried out on Hg1-xZnxTe thin films. Hg1-xCdxTe and Pb1-xCdxTe alloys cover a wide range of cut-off wavelengths from the far infrared to the near visible. Acceptors and donors are introduced in these materials by excess non-metal (Te) and excess metal (Hg and Pb) respectively. Extrinsic acceptor impurities are Cu, Au, and As while and In and Al are donor impurities. Hg1-xCdxTe thin films have been deposited by isothermal vapor-phase epitaxy (VPE), liquid phase epitaxy (LPE), hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), electrodeposition, sputtering, molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), laser-assisted evaporation, and vacuum evaporation with or without hot-wall enclosure. The challenge in the preparation of Hg1-xCdxTe is to provide excess mercury incidence rate, to optimize the deposition parameters for enhanced mercury incorporation, and to achieve the requisite stoichiometry, grain size, and doping. MBE and MOCVD

  10. Effect of addition of organo clay on mechanical properties and dynamic-mechanical based TPV; Preparacao de termoplasticos vulcanizados dinamicamente (TPV) de NBR/PP com nanocargas de argila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honorato, Luciana R.; Silva, Adriana A.; Soares, Bluma G. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro - UFRJ, Instituto de Macromoleculas Professora Eloisa Mano, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Soares, Ketly P. [Centro Universitario do Leste de Minas Gerais (UNILESTEMG) - Coronel Fabriciano, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    The effect of organophilic clay on the mechanical and dynamical-mechanical properties of thermoplastic elastomers based on polypropylene (PP) and nitrile rubber (NBR) was investigated. The addition of clay was performed from a master batch prepared by a solution intercalation of NBR inside the clay galleries. Since the PP/NBR blend is highly incompatible, PP functionalized with maleic anhydride (PP-g-MA) and carboxylated NBR (XNBR) were employed as compatibilizing system together with triethylene-tetramine (TETA) used as coupling agent. The addition of Clay inside the elastomeric phase of the TPV resulted in a significant decrease of the elongation at break without changes on the tensile strength. The presence of clay also promoted a slight increase of the storage modulus and the glass transition temperature. The small angle X ray scattering confirmed the high dispersion of clay inside the TPV. Analysis of light scattering small angle (SAXS) confirmed the high dispersion of clay in the matrix of the TPV. (author)

  11. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology (Survey of peripheral element technologies - Survey of novel voltaic cell structure solar cell development); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - shinhatsuden soshi kozo taiyo denchi kaitaku no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The present state and trend are surveyed of organic ferroelectric thin films, new carbon materials, fullerene compounds, and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power. In the study of organic ferroelectric thin-film solar cells, the effort still remains at the basic stage, with the conversion rate as low as 3% in Europe and 2% in Japan. The progress of basic studies, however, is worth attention. It is deemed that 15% is the photoconversion rate to be currently expected from new carbon material solar cells. Fullerene compounds include some semiconductors whose bandgap values may be controlled across a 0.75-1.95eV range, and they may find their place in thin-film solar cells. However, their physical properties are not fully known, and their development into devices such as solar cells is scarcely reported. The research and development of TPV in the U.S. is led by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory), with their efforts concentrated on the development of portable power sources utilizing combustion heat. In Europe, TPV application to small-scale residential cogeneration systems is under study. (NEDO)

  12. Thermal Fluid Analysis of the Heat Sink and Chip Carrier Assembly for a US Army Research Laboratory Liquid-Fueled Thermophotovoltaic Power Source Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    temperatures above 500 °C.1 Figure 1 describes the primary components of a TPV system : a heat source, an emitter, and a photovoltaic converter. The heat...carrier surface not covered by the photovoltaic cell. 4. Mesh The mesh was set to level 3 with the minimum gap size manually set to 0.01 inch. A...heat sink to control the temperature of the photovoltaic cell while exposed to radiation from the emitter. 15. SUBJECT TERMS TPV

  13. 0.52eV Quaternary InGaAsSb Thermophotovoltaic Diode Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MW Dashiell; JF Beausang; G Nichols; DM Depoy; LR Danielson; H Ehsani; KD Rahner; J Azarkevich; P Talamo; E Brown; S Burger; P Fourspring; W Topper; PF Baldasaro; CA Wang; R Huang; M Connors; G Turner; Z Shellenbarger; G Taylor; Jizhong Li; R Marinelli; D Donetski; S Anikeev; G Belenky; S Luryi; DR Taylor; J Hazel

    2004-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes fabricated from 0.52eV lattice-matched InGaAsSb alloys are grown by Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (MOVPE) on GaSb substrates. 4cm 2 multi-chip diode modules with front-surface spectral filters were tested in a vacuum cavity and attained measured efficiency and power density of 19% and 0.58 W/cm 2 respectively at operating at temperatures of T radiator = 950 C and T diode = 27 C. Device modeling and minority carrier lifetime measurements of double heterostructure lifetime specimens indicate that diode conversion efficiency is limited predominantly by interface recombination and photon energy loss to the GaSb substrate and back ohmic contact. Recent improvements to the diode include lattice-matched p-type AlGaAsSb passivating layers with interface recombination velocities less than 100 cm/s and new processing techniques enabling thinned substrates and back surface reflectors. Modeling predictions of these improvements to the diode architecture indicate that conversion efficiencies from 27-30% and ∼0.85 W/cm 2 could be attained under the above operating temperatures

  14. Analysis of solar thermophotovoltaic test data from experiments performed at McDonnell Douglas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, K.W.; Kusek, S.M.; Drubka, R.E. [McDonnell Douglas, 5301 Bolsa Avenue, Huntington Beach, California 92647 (United States); Fay, T.D. [21911 Bacalar, Mission Viejo, California 92692 (United States)

    1995-01-05

    Solar thermophotovoltaic power systems offer potentially high system efficiency for solar energy to electrical energy conversion and attractive system advantages. McDonnell Douglas Corporation (MDC) has been investigating this technology for both space and terrestrial applications for several years. A testbed prototype was designed, built, and tested on a 90 kW{sub t} dish concentrator at the MDA solar test facility. Twelve experiments were conducted with absorber temperatures in excess of 1300 {degree}C being achieved using only a fraction of the reflected power from the 90 kW{sub t} dish concentrator. This paper discusses the solar thermophotovoltaic testbed prototype unit, test data, and presents an analysis of the unit`s performance. A combination of analytical analysis and test data is used to obtain an understanding of the system and subsystem performance. The preliminary results of these tests and analysis indicate a solar thermophotovoltaic power system can achieve high system performance. Furthermore, system demonstrations are possible utilizing a combination of current off-the-shelf hardware components and components currently being tested in laboratories. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  15. Performance characteristics and parametric choices of a solar thermophotovoltaic cell at the maximum efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Qingchun; Liao, Tianjun; Yang, Zhimin; Chen, Xiaohang; Chen, Jincan

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The overall model of the solar thermophotovoltaic cell (STPVC) composed of an optical lens, an absorber, an emitter, and a photovoltaic (PV) cell with an integrated back-side reflector is updated to include various irreversible losses. - Highlights: • A new model of the irreversible solar thermophotovoltaic system is proposed. • The material and structure parameters of the system are considered. • The performance characteristics at the maximum efficiency are revealed. • The optimal values of key parameters are determined. • The system can obtain a large efficiency under a relative low concentration ratio. - Abstract: The overall model of the solar thermophotovoltaic cell (STPVC) composed of an optical lens, an absorber, an emitter, and a photovoltaic (PV) cell with an integrated back-side reflector is updated to include various irreversible losses. The power output and efficiency of the cell are analytically derived. The performance characteristics of the STPVC at the maximum efficiency are revealed. The optimum values of several important parameters, such as the voltage output of the PV cell, the area ratio of the absorber to the emitter, and the band-gap of the semiconductor material, are determined. It is found that under the condition of a relative low concentration ratio, the optimally designed STPVC can obtain a relative large efficiency.

  16. Fiscal 1998 New Sunshine Program achievement report. Development for practical application of photovoltaic system - Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology - Research and survey of peripheral element technologies (Research and survey for development of solar cell of new power generation device structure); 1998 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu / shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu (shinhatsuden soshi kozo taiyo denchi kaitaku no chosa kenkyu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Attention is paid to behavior at the molecular level with reference taken to the photosynthetic mechanism, and a behavioral mechanism is proposed, which incorporates, in place of the conventional band model, a concept of a molecular structure based on electron transfer, excitation energy transfer, and reactions of oxidation and reduction. Discussion is then made on elements of technology development for the embodiment of high-efficiency organic ferroelectric thin-film solar cells. The elements taken up include the feasibility of organic ferroelectric thin-film cells, photoelctric conversion systems of plants and photosynthetic bacteria, solar cells using donor-acceptor type dyes, organic thin-film solar cells using conductive polymers, and efficient photoexcitation of organic dyes. Fullerene compounds are semiconductive and their band gaps may be controlled to stay within the range of 0.75-1.9eV, and this justifies a hope that they will serve as solar cells. As for TPV (thermophotovoltaic) conversion, it is under development mainly at NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) as a transportable power source based on heat of combustion. Efforts are also being exerted since 1990 in five European countries to develop TPV systems for small-scale cogeneration. (NEDO)

  17. Performance evaluation of thermophotovoltaic GaSb cell technology in high temperature waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utlu, Z.; Önal, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, waste heat was evaluated and examined by means of thermophotovoltaic systems with the application of energy production potential GaSb cells. The aim of our study is to examine GaSb cell technology at high temperature waste heat. The evaluation of the waste heat to be used in the system is designed to be used in the electricity, industry and iron and steel industry. Our work is research. Graphic analysis is done with Matlab program. The high temperature waste heat graphs applied on the GaSb cell are in the results section. Our study aims to provide a source for future studies.

  18. Examination of thermophotovoltaic GaSb cell technology in low and medium temperatures waste heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utlu, Z.; Önal, B. S.

    2018-02-01

    In this study, waste heat was evaluated and examined by means of thermophotovoltaic systems with the application of energy production potential GaSb cells. The aim of our study is to examine GaSb cell technology at low and medium temperature waste heat. The evaluation of the waste heat to be used in the system is designed to be used in the electricity, industry and iron and steel industry. Our work is research. Graphic analysis is done with Matlab program. The low and medium temperature waste heat graphs applied on the GaSb cell are in the results section. Our study aims to provide a source for future studies.

  19. Triple-axis X-ray reciprocal space mapping of In{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}As thermophotovoltaic diodes grown on (1 0 0) InP substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dashiell, M.W.; Ehsani, H.; Sander, P.C. [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Schenectady, NY 12301-1072 (United States); Newman, F.D. [Emcore Corporation, Albuquerque, NM 87123 (United States); Wang, C.A. [MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, MA 02420 (United States); Shellenbarger, Z.A. [Sarnoff Corporation, Princeton NJ, 08543-5300 (United States); Donetski, D.; Gu, N.; Anikeev, S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, State University of New York, Stony Brook, NY 11794-2350 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Analysis of the composition, strain-relaxation, layer-tilt, and the crystalline quality of In{sub y}Ga{sub 1-y}As/InP{sub 1-x}As{sub x} thermophotovoltaic (TPV) diodes grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) is demonstrated using triple-axis X-ray reciprocal space mapping techniques. In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (E{sub gap}=0.74 eV) n/p junction diodes are grown lattice matched (LM) to InP substrates and lattice-mismatched (LMM) In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As (E{sub gap}=0.6 eV) TPV diodes are grown on three-step InP{sub 1-x}As{sub x} (0TPV active layer and underlying InP{sub 1-x}As{sub x} buffers. Triple-axis X-ray rocking curves about the LMM In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As RELP show an order of magnitude increase of its full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) compared to that from the LM In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (250 vs. 30 arcsec). Despite the significant RELP broadening, the photovoltaic figure of merits show that the electronic quality of the LMM In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As approaches that of the LM diode material. This indicates that misfit-related crystalline imperfections are not dominating the photovoltaic response of the optimized LMM In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As material compared with the intrinsic recombination processes and/or recombination through native point defects, which would be present in both LMM and LM diode material. However, additional RELP broadening in non-optimized LMM In{sub 0.67}Ga{sub 0.33}As n/p junction diodes does correspond to significant degradation of TPV diode open-circuit voltage and minority carrier lifetime demonstrating that there is correlation between X-ray FWHM and the electronic performance of the LMM TPV diodes. (author)

  20. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLOR ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byard D. Wood

    2004-04-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports solar light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of solar lighting and electric lighting. A benchmark prototype system has been developed to evaluate the HSL system. Sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. A secondary mirror consisting of eight planar-segmented mirrors directs the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic (TPV) array to produce electricity. During this reporting period, the project team made advancements in the design of the second generation (Alpha) system. For the Alpha system, the eight individual 12 mm fibers have been replaced with a centralized bundle of 3 mm fibers. The TRNSYS Full-Spectrum Solar Energy System model has been updated and new components have been added. The TPV array and nonimaging device have been tested and progress has been made in the fiber transmission models. A test plan was developed for both the high-lumen tests and the study to determine the non-energy benefits of daylighting. The photobioreactor team also made major advancements in the testing of model scale and bench top lab-scale systems.

  1. Graphene-on-Silicon Near-Field Thermophotovoltaic Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svetovoy, V. B.; Palasantzas, G.

    2014-01-01

    A graphene layer on top of a dielectric can dramatically influence the ability of the material for radiative heat transfer. This property of graphene is used to improve the performance and reduce costs of near-field thermophotovoltaic cells. Instead of low-band-gap semiconductors it is proposed to

  2. Performance of ultra high efficiency thin germanium p-n junction solar cells intended for solar thermophotovoltaic application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vera, E S; Loferski, J J; Spitzer, M; Schewchun, J

    1981-01-01

    The theoretical upper limit conversion efficiency as a function of cell thickness and junction position is calculated for a germanium p-n junction solar cell intended for solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion which incorporates minority carrier mirrors and optical mirrors on both the front and back boundaries of the active part of the device. The optical mirrors provide light confinement reducing the thickness required for optimum performance while minority carrier mirrors diminish surface recombination of carriers which seriously reduce short circuit current and limit open circuit voltage. The role of non-ideal optical and minority carrier mirrors and the effect of resistivity variations are studied. The calculations are conducted under conditions of high incident power (2-25 W/cm/sup 2/) which are encountered in solar thermophotovoltaic energy conversion systems. 14 refs.

  3. Modeling of InGaSb thermophotovoltaic cells and materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zierak, M.; Borrego, J.M.; Bhat, I.; Gutmann, R.J. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States); Charache, G. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

    1997-05-01

    A closed form computer program has been developed for the simulation and optimization of In{sub x}Ga{sub 1{minus}x}Sb thermophotovoltaic cells operating at room temperature. The program includes material parameter models of the energy bandgap, optical absorption constant, electron and hole mobility, intrinsic carrier concentration and index of refraction for any composition of GaInSb alloys.

  4. High-Performance, 0.6-eV, GA0.32In0.68As/In0.32P0.68 Thermophotovoltaic Converters and Monolithically Interconnected Modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duda, A.; Murray, C.S.

    1998-01-01

    Recent progress in the development of high-performance, 0.6-eV Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters and monolithically interconnected modules (MIMs) is described. The converter structure design is based on using a lattice-matched InAs0.32P0.68/Ga0.32In0.68As/InAs0.32P0.68 double-heterostructure (DH) device, which is grown lattice-mismatched on an InP substrate, with an intervening compositionally step-graded region of InAsyP1-y. The Ga0.32In0.68As alloy has a room-temperature band gap of 0.6 eV and contains a p/n junction. The InAs0.32P0.68 layers have a room-temperature band gap of 0.96 eV and serve as passivation/confinement layers for the Ga0.32In0.68As p/n junction. InAsyP1-y step grades have yielded DH converters with superior electronic quality and performance characteristics. Details of the microstructure of the converters are presented. Converters prepared for this work were grown by atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy (APMOVPE) and were processed using a combination of photolithography, wet-chemical etching, and conventional metal and insulator deposition techniques. Excellent performance characteristics have been demonstrated for the 0.6-eV TPV converters. Additionally, the implementation of MIM technology in these converters has been highly successful

  5. Solar-Powered, Micron-Gap Thermophotovoltaics for MEO Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is an InGaAs-based, radiation-tolerant, micron-gap thermophotovoltaic (MTPV) technology. The use of a micron wide gap between the radiation...

  6. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology (Survey of peripheral element technologies - Survey of environmental adaptation of next-generation solar cell development); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsuden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (shuhen yoso gijutsu ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - jisedai taiyo denchi kaihatsu kankyo tekioka chosa)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Surveys are conducted of photovoltaic power system development projects and their utilization in Japan and overseas, and a discussion is made on the progress, technical challenges, effects, and implementation systems relating to the solar cell application technology development project under the New Sunshine Program. Compiled in the report are the results of surveys of the research and development of photovoltaic power systems and their diffusion in the U.S. and European nations, and the research and development strategies for and the trends of the development of various types of solar cells in these countries. The trends of research and development of non-conventional type solar cells are also collected, which include 3 cases of TPV (thermophotovoltaic) devices, 5 cases of new inorganic materials, 1 case of new organic materials, and 4 cases of dye-sensitized solar cells. In relation to the status of resources of crystalline compound-based solar cell materials, raw materials for solar cells other than silicon are taken up, and their reserves, manufacturing methods, quantities yielded and consumed, costs, etc., are surveyed. These are all taken into consideration in discussing the basic approach to the study of future research and development as it ought to be. (NEDO)

  7. High efficiency thermal to electric energy conversion using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1992-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1500 K. Depending on the nature of parasitic losses, overall thermal-to-electric conversion efficiencies greater than 20 percent are feasible.

  8. Effect of updated data base and improved analysis on performance of radioisotope thermophotovoltaic converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.T.

    1996-01-01

    Previous analyses of RTPV space power systems published by the authors were based on a number of approximations employed to permit early dissemination of preliminary results pending availability of fuller experimental data need3d to conduct more rigorous analyses. Among those approximations were: (1) the use of limited test data and optimistic projections of the spectral transmissivity of the RTPV's selective IR filters and of the spectral quantum efficiency of the GaSb PV cells; (2) the use of theoretical formulas instead of experimental measurements of the PV cell's open-circuit voltage, fill factor, and optimum voltage instead of its measured current-voltage characteristics; (3) rough estimates of the TPV converter's active-area fraction instead of computed values based on detailed designs; (4) inadequate accounting for the effect of radiation reflected by the IR filter and absorbed by the emitter in reducing the generator's required heat input; and (5) omission of the shadowing effect and ohmic losses caused by the PV cell's grid lines. The above-listed shortcomings of the previously published analyses are addressed in the present paper, which describes revised analyses based on recently obtained experimental data of IR filter reflectivities and PV cell quantum efficiencies and current-voltage characteristic, measured by EDTEK under an OSC-initiated subcontract to its ongoing DOE contract. Their test results show that EDTEK has been eminently successful in improving the reflectivities of the IR filters and in reproducing the quantum efficiencies of Boeing's best PV cells, but their initial (Dec-95) PV cell fell far short of matching the open-circuit voltages and fill factors predicted by theory

  9. Development of solar thermophotovoltaic systems = Desarrollo de sistemas termofotovoltaicos solares

    OpenAIRE

    Datas Medina, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Esta tesis aborda el análisis, tanto teórico como experimental, de los sitemas termofotovoltaicos solares. En estos sistemas, un material (emisor) se calienta hasta la incandescencia mediante radiaci ón solar. La radiación térmica emitida por dicho material se dirige hacia una célula fotovoltaica, que convierte dicha radiación en electricidad. En esta configuración, se pueden emplear elementos de control espectral para lograr que los fotones no útiles para el proceso de conversión fotovoltáic...

  10. Near-Field Thermal Radiation for Solar Thermophotovoltaics and High Temperature Thermal Logic and Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzouka, Mahmoud

    This dissertation investigates Near-Field Thermal Radiation (NFTR) applied to MEMS-based concentrated solar thermophotovoltaics (STPV) energy conversion and thermal memory and logics. NFTR is the exchange of thermal radiation energy at nano/microscale; when separation between the hot and cold objects is less than dominant radiation wavelength (˜1 mum). NFTR is particularly of interest to the above applications due to its high rate of energy transfer, exceeding the blackbody limit by orders of magnitude, and its strong dependence on separation gap size, surface nano/microstructure and material properties. Concentrated STPV system converts solar radiation to electricity using heat as an intermediary through a thermally coupled absorber/emitter, which causes STPV to have one of the highest solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency limits (85.4%). Modeling of a near-field concentrated STPV microsystem is carried out to investigate the use of STPV based solid-state energy conversion as high power density MEMS power generator. Numerical results for In 0.18Ga0.82Sb PV cell illuminated with tungsten emitter showed significant enhancement in energy transfer, resulting in output power densities as high as 60 W/cm2; 30 times higher than the equivalent far-field power density. On thermal computing, this dissertation demonstrates near-field heat transfer enabled high temperature NanoThermoMechanical memory and logics. Unlike electronics, NanoThermoMechanical memory and logic devices use heat instead of electricity to record and process data; hence they can operate in harsh environments where electronics typically fail. NanoThermoMechanical devices achieve memory and thermal rectification functions through the coupling of near-field thermal radiation and thermal expansion in microstructures, resulting in nonlinear heat transfer between two temperature terminals. Numerical modeling of a conceptual NanoThermoMechanical is carried out; results include the dynamic response under

  11. Solid State Energy Conversion for Deep Space Power

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) devices employed in static radioisotope generators show great promise for highly efficient, reliable, and resilient power generation for...

  12. High efficiency direct thermal to electric energy conversion from radioisotope decay using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, Donald L.; Flood, Dennis J.; Lowe, Roland A.

    1993-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1200K. Both selective emitter and filter system TPV systems are feasible. However, requirements on the filter system are severe in order to attain high efficiency. A thin-film of a rare-earth oxide is one method for producing an efficient, rugged selective emitter. An efficiency of 0.14 and power density of 9.2 W/KG at 1200K is calculated for a hypothetical thin-film neodymia (Nd2O3) selective emitter TPV system that uses radioisotope decay as the thermal energy source.

  13. High efficiency direct thermal to electric energy conversion from radioisotope decay using selective emitters and spectrally tuned solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, D.L.; Flood, D.J.; Lowe, R.A.

    1993-08-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems are attractive possibilities for direct thermal-to-electric energy conversion, but have typically required the use of black body radiators operating at high temperatures. Recent advances in both the understanding and performance of solid rare-earth oxide selective emitters make possible the use of TPV at temperatures as low as 1200K. Both selective emitter and filter system TPV systems are feasible. However, requirements on the filter system are severe in order to attain high efficiency. A thin-film of a rare-earth oxide is one method for producing an efficient, rugged selective emitter. An efficiency of 0.14 and power density of 9.2 W/KG at 1200K is calculated for a hypothetical thin-film neodymia (Nd2O3) selective emitter TPV system that uses radioisotope decay as the thermal energy source

  14. Design of broadband absorber using 2-D materials for thermo-photovoltaic cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sajal; Prajapati, Y. K.

    2018-04-01

    Present study is done to analyze a nano absorber for thermo-photovoltaic cell application. Optical absorbance of two-dimensional materials is exploited to achieve high absorbance. It is found that few alternating layers of graphene/transition metal dichalcogenide provide high absorbance of electromagnetic wave in visible as well as near infrared region. Four transition metal dichalcogenides are considered and found that most of these provide perfect absorbance for almost full considered wavelength range i.e. 200-1000 nm. Demonstrated results confirm the extended operating region and improved absorbance of the proposed absorber in comparison to the existing absorbers made of different materials. Further, absorber performance is improved by using thin layers of gold and chromium. Simple geometry of the proposed absorber also ensures easy fabrication.

  15. Development of a small air-cooled ``midnight sun'' thermophotovoltaic electric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Lewis M.; Xiang, Huang Han; Hui, She; Ferguson, Luke; Samaras, John; Ballantyne, Russ; Seal, Michael; West, Ed

    1996-02-01

    A natural gas fired thermophotovoltaic generator using infrared-sensitive GaSb cells and a silicon carbide emitter is described. The emitter is designed to operate at 1400 °C. Twelve GaSb receivers surround the emitter. Each receiver contains a string of series connected cells. Special infrared filters are bonded to each cell. These filters transmit short wavelength useful IR to the cells while reflecting longer wavelength IR back to the emitter. Combustion air is supplied to the burner through a counterflow heat exchanger where the air is preheated by the exhaust from the burner. The unit is air cooled and designed to produce approximately 100 Watts of electric power.

  16. Thermophotovoltaic cells based on In0.53Ga0.47As/InP heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlina, L. B.; Vlasov, A. S.; Kulagina, M. M.; Timoshina, N. Kh.

    2006-01-01

    Reflection of infrared radiation from n-InP substrates with a rear MgF 2 /Au mirror is investigated in the wavelength range 1000-2200 nm. It is found that the reflectance weakly depends on substrate thickness and free-carrier concentration in the (0.1-6) x 10 18 cm -3 range. Thermophotovoltaic cells based on the InP/In 0.53 Ga 0.47 As lattice-matched heterostructure of p-n and n-p are fabricated by liquid-phase epitaxy and Zn and P diffusion from a gas phase. The characteristics of p-n and n-p thermophotovoltaic cells with an identical configuration of the contacts of 1 cm 2 area are determined. These characteristics are the open-circuit voltage U oc = 0.465 V, the filling factor FF = 64% at the current density of 1 A/cm 2 , and the reflectance R = 76-80% for wavelengths longer than 1.86 μm

  17. Conjunction of Photovoltaic and Thermophotovoltaic Power Production in Spacecraft Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    solar energy, having been converted by plants through photosynthesis to carbohydrates and cellulose, sometimes by animals into more carbohydrates and...the properties of materials specified in the device model that are either drawn from databases built into the software, databases that are closely...linked to the software—such as optical parameters drawn from the Sopra database —or that are specified by the user within the model itself [23]. When

  18. Bridgman growth and characterization of bulk single crystals of Ga1-xInxSb for thermophotovoltaic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, J.R.; Haines, W.T.

    1997-12-01

    Thermophotovoltaic generation of electricity is attracting renewed attention due to recent advances in low bandgap (0.5--0.7 eV) III-V semiconductors. The use of mixed pseudo-binary compounds allows for the tailoring of the lattice parameter and the bandgap of the material. Conventional deposition techniques (i.e., epitaxy) for producing such ternary or quaternary materials are typically slow and expensive. Production of bulk single crystals of ternary materials, for example Ga 1-x In x Sb, is expected to dramatically reduce such material costs. Bulk single crystals of Ga 1-x In x Sb have been prepared using a Bridgman technique in a two-zone furnace. These crystals are 19 mm in diameter by approximately 50 mm long and were produced using seeds of the same diameter. The effects of growth rate and starting materials on the composition and quality of these crystals will be discussed and compared with other attempts to produce single crystals of this material

  19. Comportamento sob fluência em elastômeros termoplásticos vulcanizados baseados em poliamida 6 e borracha nitrílica Creep behavior of polyamide 6/nitrylic rubber TPV's blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. O. Gomes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os materiais testados neste trabalho são o resultado de um estudo do uso de aditivos e compatibilizantes na mistura de poliamida 6 (PA6 e borracha nitrílica (NBR, realizado com o objetivo de melhorar suas propriedades mecânicas e facilitar o processamento da mistura. Fluência ("creep" é um teste mecânico importante ao simular a aplicação final do material de engenharia, possibilitando a previsão do desempenho de modo comparativo. Entretanto, é um teste pouco explorado na caracterização de TPV's. A melhora nas propriedades com a adição de aditivos e a eficiência do processo de compatibilização pode ser observada através da variação na compliância das amostras analisadas. Os resultados são correlacionados usando testes de densidade, teor de gel, resistência à tração e microscopia eletrônica de varredura. O presente trabalho mostra que é possível avaliar um material em condições semelhantes à aplicação final em um teste rápido e com gasto mínimo de material.The materials tested in this work are the result of a study involving the use of additives and compatibilization in blends of PA6 and NBR, which was aimed at enhancing the mechanical properties and processability of the blend. Creep is an important mechanical test since it simulates the final application of the material, allowing a prediction of material performance, in a comparative way. However, this is a test seldom explored in the characterization of TPV's. The enhancement of the properties induced by additives and the efficiency of compatibilization process can be observed through the analysis of changes in the compliance of the samples. The results are correlated using measurements of density, gel content, tension strength and scanning electron microscopy. The present work shows it to be possible to evaluate a material under conditions similar to those in the final applications, in a fast test and with minimal material waste.

  20. Fiscal 1999 research and development of technologies for practical application of photovoltaic power generation systems. Development of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cell manufacturing technology (Survey and research on practical application - Volume 1); 1999 nendo taiyoko hatsauden system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Chokokoritsu kessho kagobutsu taiyo denchi no seizo gijutsu kaihatsu (jitsuyoka kaiseki ni kansuru chosa kenkyu - 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    A 'Sub-committee for investigation of crystalline compound semiconductor solar cells' was established with the participation of experts from the industrial, bureaucratic, and academic circles to support the manufacture of ultrahigh-efficiency crystalline compound solar cells, and a survey was conducted about technical trends relating to III-V group compound solar cells. In the study of the trends and tasks of the state of the art technology, it is stated that the III-V group compound semiconductor multi-junction solar cell was steadily improving in efficiency, that the InGaP/GaAs 2-junction cell on a Ge substrate and InGaP/GaAs/Ge 3-junction cell in particular were moving toward mass production, and that the target for the 4-junction cell to achieve was 40% or higher in efficiency. For cost reduction, investigations were made into the heteroepitaxial technology, dimensional enlargement, mass production, raw material cost reduction, feasibility of the polycrystalline thin-film technology, light concentration, etc. For efficiency improvement, boundary layer control, structure designs, etc., were studied. Investigations were also conducted into nitride semiconductors, superlattice construction, etc., which related to new materials for thin films. TPV (thermophotovoltaic) power, etc., were reviewed for their practical application. (NEDO)

  1. Finite element analysis of ARPS structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhkamp, J.D.; McDougal, J.R.; Kramer, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    Algor finite element software was used to determine the stresses and deflections in the metallic walls of Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (ARPS) designs. The preliminary design review of these systems often neglects the structural integrity of the design which can effect fabrication and the end use of the design. Before finite element analysis (FEA) was run on the canister walls of the thermophotovoltaic (TPV) generator, hand calculations were used to approximate the stresses and deflections in a flat plate. These results compared favorably to the FEA results of a similar size flat plate. The AMTEC (Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Conversion) cells were analyzed by FEA and the results compared to two cells that were mechanically tested. The mechanically tested cells buckled in the thin sections, one at the top and one in the lower section. The FEA predicted similar stress and shape results but the critical buckling load was found to be very shape dependent

  2. Vpliv kaizna na proizvodno linijo podjetja TPV d.d.

    OpenAIRE

    Gramc, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Domnevamo lahko, da je filozofija Kaizen eden od vzrokov in hkrati motivator za dolgoročno konkurenčno prednost podjetja. Koncept je definiran kot obsežen organizacijski proces, osredotočen na kontinuiteto izboljšav in načrtno vključevanje vsakega posameznika v organizaciji v iskanje izboljšav. Zato je lahko prav Kaizen eden ključnih pokazateljev, ki loči med uspehom enih in odpovedjo oziroma propadom drugih podjetij. Razmere, ki jih dandanes srečujemo v podjetju (razne napake, strojelomi...

  3. A Monolithic Interconnected module with a tunnel Junction for Enhanced Electrical and Optical Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Christopher Sean; Wilt, David Morgan

    1999-06-30

    An improved thermophotovoltaic (TPV) n/p/n device is provided. Monolithic Interconnected Modules (MIMs), semiconductor devices converting infrared radiation to electricity, have been developed with improved electrical and optical performance. The structure is an n-type emitter on a p-type base with an n-type lateral conduction layer. The incorporation of a tunnel junction and the reduction in the amount of p-type material used results in negligible parasitic absorption, decreased series resistance, increased voltage and increased active area. The novel use of a tunnel junction results in the potential for a TPV device with efficiency greater than 24%.

  4. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    OpenAIRE

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drevillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the r...

  5. Development of a cloud-based system for remote monitoring of a PVT panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Luis; Alcaso, Adérito; Vieira, Paulo; Ramos, Carlos Figueiredo; Cardoso, Antonio Marques

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a monitoring system developed for an energy conversion system based on the sun and known as thermophotovoltaic panel (PVT). The project was implemented using two embedded microcontrollers platforms (arduino Leonardo and arduino yún), wireless transmission systems (WI-FI and XBEE) and net computing ,commonly known as cloud (Google cloud). The main objective of the project is to provide remote access and real-time data monitoring (like: electrical current, electrical voltage, input fluid temperature, output fluid temperature, backward fluid temperature, up PV glass temperature, down PV glass temperature, ambient temperature, solar radiation, wind speed, wind direction and fluid mass flow). This project demonstrates the feasibility of using inexpensive microcontroller's platforms and free internet service in theWeb, to support the remote study of renewable energy systems, eliminating the acquisition of dedicated systems typically more expensive and limited in the kind of processing proposed.

  6. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  7. Rare Earth Garnet Selective Emitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald L.; Farmer, Serene C.; Good, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Thin film Ho-YAG and Er-YAG emitters with a platinum substrate exhibit high spectral emittance in the emission band (epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.75, sup 4)|(sub 15/2) - (sup 4)|(sub 13/2),for Er-YAG and epsilon(sub lambda) approx. = 0.65, (sup 5)|(sub 7) - (sup 5)|(sub 8) for Ho-YAG) at 1500 K. In addition, low out-of-band spectral emittance, epsilon(sub lambda) less than 0.2, suggest these materials would be excellent candidates for high efficiency selective emitters in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) systems operating at moderate temperatures (1200-1500 K). Spectral emittance measurements of the thin films were made (1.2 less than lambda less than 3.0 microns) and compared to the theoretical emittances calculated using measured values of the spectral extinction coefficient. In this paper we present the results for a new class of rare earth ion selective emitters. These emitters are thin sections (less than 1 mm) of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) single crystal with a rare earth substitutional impurity. Selective emitters in the near IR are of special interest for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion. The most promising solid selective emitters for use in a TPV system are rare earth oxides. Early spectral emittance work on rare earth oxides showed strong emission bands in the infrared (0.9 - 3 microns). However, the emittance outside the emission band was also significant and the efficiency of these emitters was low. Recent improvements in efficiency have been made with emitters fabricated from fine (5 - 10 microns) rare earth oxide fibers similar to the Welsbach mantle used in gas lanterns. However, the rare earth garnet emitters are more rugged than the mantle type emitters. A thin film selective emitter on a low emissivity substrate such as gold, platinum etc., is rugged and easily adapted to a wide variety of thermal sources. The garnet structure and its many subgroups have been successfully used as hosts for rare earth ions, introduced as substitutional

  8. Hybrid thermionic-photovoltaic converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datas, A. [Instituto de Energía Solar, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2016-04-04

    A conceptual device for the direct conversion of heat into electricity is presented. This concept hybridizes thermionic (TI) and thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion in a single thermionic-photovoltaic (TIPV) solid-state device. This device transforms into electricity both the electron and photon fluxes emitted by an incandescent surface. This letter presents an idealized analysis of this device in order to determine its theoretical potential. According to this analysis, the key advantage of this converter, with respect to either TPV or TI, is the higher power density in an extended temperature range. For low temperatures, TIPV performs like TPV due to the negligible electron flux. On the contrary, for high temperatures, TIPV performs like TI due to the great enhancement of the electron flux, which overshadows the photon flux contribution. At the intermediate temperatures, ∼1650 K in the case of this particular study, I show that the power density potential of TIPV converter is twice as great as that of TPV and TI. The greatest impact concerns applications in which the temperature varies in a relatively wide range, for which averaged power density enhancement above 500% is attainable.

  9. Extended exergy concept to facilitate designing and optimization of frequency-dependent direct energy conversion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijewardane, S.; Goswami, Yogi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Proved exergy method is not adequate to optimize frequency-dependent energy conversion. • Exergy concept is modified to facilitate the thermoeconomic optimization of photocell. • The exergy of arbitrary radiation is used for a practical purpose. • The utility of the concept is illustrated using pragmatic examples. - Abstract: Providing the radiation within the acceptable (responsive) frequency range(s) is a common method to increase the efficiency of the frequency-dependent energy conversion systems, such as photovoltaic and nano-scale rectenna. Appropriately designed auxiliary items such as spectrally selective thermal emitters, optical filters, and lenses are used for this purpose. However any energy conversion method that utilizes auxiliary components to increase the efficiency of a system has to justify the potential cost incurred by those auxiliary components through the economic gain emerging from the increased system efficiency. Therefore much effort should be devoted to design innovative systems, effectively integrating the auxiliary items and to optimize the system with economic considerations. Exergy is the widely used method to design and optimize conventional energy conversion systems. Although the exergy concept is used to analyze photovoltaic systems, it has not been used effectively to design and optimize such systems. In this manuscript, we present a modified exergy method in order to effectively design and economically optimize frequency-dependent energy conversion systems. Also, we illustrate the utility of this concept using examples of thermophotovoltaic, Photovoltaic/Thermal and concentrated solar photovoltaic

  10. Logistical concepts associated with international shipments using the USA/9904/B(U)F RTG Transportation System (RTGTS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklay, Chadwick D.; Miller, Roger G.; Pugh, Barry K.; Howell, Edwin I.

    1997-01-01

    Over the last 30 years, radioisotopes have provided heat from which electrical power is generated. For space missions, the isotope of choice has generally been 238 PuO 2 , its long half-life making it ideal for supplying power to remote satellites and spacecraft like the Voyager, Pioneer, and Viking missions, as well as the recently launched Galileo and Ulysses missions, and the presently planned Cassini mission. Electric power for future space missions will be provided by either radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTG), radioisotope thermophotovoltaic systems (RTPV), alkali metal thermal to electrical conversion (AMTEC) systems, radioisotope Stirling systems, or a combination of these. The type of electrical power system has yet to be specified for the 'Pluto Express' mission. However, the current plan does incorporate the use of Russian launch platforms for the spacecraft. The implied tasks associated with this plan require obtaining international certification for the transport of the radioisotopic power system, and resolving any logistical issues associated with the actual shipment of the selected radioisotopic power system. This paper presents a conceptual summary of the logistical considerations associated with shipping the selected radioisotopic power system using the USA/9904/B(U)F-85, Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS)

  11. Dynamic Simulation of a CPV/T System Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Renno

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is the determination of a concentrating thermo-photovoltaic (CPV/T system dynamic model by means of the finite element method (FEM. The system consist of triple-junction InGaP/InGaAs/Ge (indium-gallium phosphide/indium-gallium-arsenide/germanium solar cells connected to a metal core printed circuit board (MCPCB placed on a coil circuit used for the thermal energy recovery. In particular, the main aim is to determine the fluid outlet temperature. It is evaluated corresponding both to a constant cell temperature equal to 120 °C, generally representing the maximum operating temperature, and to cell temperature values instantly variable with the direct normal irradiation (DNI. Hence, an accurate DNI analysis is realized adopting the Gordon-Reddy statistical model. Using an accurate electric model, the cell temperature and efficiency are determined together with the CPV/T module electric and thermal powers. Generally, the CPV system size is realized according to the user electric load demand and, then, it is important to evaluate the necessary minimum concentration ratio (Cmin, the limit of CPV system applicability, in order to determine the energy convenience profile. The fluid outlet temperature can be then obtained by the FEM analysis to verify if a CPV/T system can be used in solar heating and cooling applications.

  12. Limits to solar power conversion efficiency with applications to quantum and thermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.; Smith, B. T.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical framework is presented that permits examination of the limit to the efficiency of various solar power conversion devices. Thermodynamic limits to solar power efficiency are determined for both quantum and thermal systems, and the results are applied to a variety of devices currently considered for use in space systems. The power conversion efficiency for single-threshold energy quantum systems receiving unconcentrated air mass zero solar radiation is limited to 31 percent. This limit applies to photovoltaic cells directly converting solar radiation, or indirectly, as in the case of a thermophotovoltaic system. Photoelectrochemical cells rely on an additional chemical reaction at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, which introduces additional second-law demands and a reduction of the solar conversion efficiency. Photochemical systems exhibit even lower possible efficiencies because of their relatively narrow absorption bands. Solar-powered thermal engines in contact with an ambient reservoir at 300 K and operating at maximum power have a peak conversion efficiency of 64 percent, and this occurs for a thermal reservoir at a temperature of 2900 K. The power conversion efficiency of a solar-powered liquid metal magnetohydrodydnamic generator, a solar-powered steam turbine electric generator, and an alkali metal thermoelectric converter is discussed.

  13. Combustion and direct energy conversion inside a micro-combustor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei, Yafeng; Chen, Wei; Lei, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The flammability range of micro-combustor was broadened with heat recirculation. • The quenching diameter decreased with heat recirculation compared to without recirculation. • The surface areas to volume ratio was the most important parameter affecting the energy conversion efficiency. • The maximum conversion efficiency (3.15%) was achieved with 1 mm inner diameter. - Abstract: Electrical energy can be generated by employing a micro-thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cell which absorbs thermal radiation from combustion taking place in a micro-combustor. The stability of combustion in a micro-combustor is essential for operating a micro-power system using hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels as energy source. To understand the mechanism of sustaining combustion within the quenching distance of fuel, this study proposed an annular micro combustion tube with recirculation of exhaust heat. To explore the feasibility of combustion in the micro annular tube, the parameters influencing the combustion namely, quenching diameter, and flammability were studied through numerical simulation. The results indicated that combustion could be realized in micro- combustor using heat recirculation. Following results were obtained from simulation. The quenching diameter reduced from 1.3 mm to 0.9 mm for heat recirculation at equivalence ratio of 1; the lean flammability was 2.5%–5% lower than that of without heat recirculation for quenching diameters between 2 mm and 5 mm. The overall energy conversion efficiency varied at different inner diameters. A maximum efficiency of 3.15% was achieved at an inner diameter of 1 mm. The studies indicated that heat recirculation is an effective strategy to maintain combustion and to improve combustion limits in micro-scale system.

  14. ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS CROSS-CUTTING R&D ON ADAPTIVE FULL-SPECTRUM SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS FOR MORE EFFICIENT AND AFFORDABLE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY IN BUILDINGS AND HYBRID PHOTOBIOREACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byard D. Wood; Jeff D. Muhs

    2002-09-01

    This RD&D project is a three year team effort to develop a hybrid solar lighting (HSL) system that transports day light from a paraboloidal dish concentrator to a luminaire via a large core polymer fiber optic. The luminaire can be a device to distribute sunlight into a space for the production of algae or it can be a device that is a combination of day lighting and fluorescent lighting for office lighting. In this project, the sunlight is collected using a one-meter paraboloidal concentrator dish with two-axis tracking. The secondary mirror consists of eight planar-segmented mirrors that direct the visible part of the spectrum to eight fibers (receiver) and subsequently to eight luminaires. This results in about 8,200 lumens incident at each fiber tip. Each fiber can illuminate about 16.7 m{sup 2} (180 ft{sup 2}) of office space. The IR spectrum is directed to a thermophotovoltaic array to produce electricity. This report describes eleven investigations on various aspects of the system. Taken as a whole, they confirm the technical feasibility of this technology.

  15. Operations of a Radioisotope-based Propulsion System Enabling CubeSat Exploration of the Outer Planets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Steven Howe; Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru

    2014-05-01

    Exploration to the outer planets is an ongoing endeavor but in the current economical environment, cost reduction is the forefront of all concern. The success of small satellites such as CubeSats launched to Near-Earth Orbit has lead to examine their potential use to achieve cheaper science for deep space applications. However, to achieve lower cost missions; hardware, launch and operations costs must be minimized. Additionally, as we push towards smaller exploration beds with relative limited power sources, allowing for adequate communication back to Earth is imperative. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research are developing the potential of utilizing an advanced, radioisotope-based system. This system will be capable of providing both the propulsion power needed to reach the destination and the additional requirements needed to maintain communication while at location. Presented here are a basic trajectory analysis, communication link budget and concept of operations of a dual-mode (thermal and electric) radioisotope-based propulsion system, for a proposed mission to Enceladus (Saturnian icy moon) using a 6U CubeSat payload. The radioisotope system being proposed will be the integration of three sub-systems working together to achieve the overall mission. At the core of the system, stored thermal energy from radioisotope decay is transferred to a passing propellant to achieve high thrust – useful for quick orbital maneuvering. An auxiliary closed-loop Brayton cycle can be operated in parallel to the thrusting mode to provide short bursts of high power for high data-rate communications back to Earth. Additionally, a thermal photovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion system will use radiation heat losses from the core. This in turn can provide the electrical energy needed to utilize the efficiency of ion propulsion to achieve quick interplanetary transit times. The intelligent operation to handle all functions of this system under optimized conditions adds

  16. Design of RTPV generators integrated with new millennium spacecraft for outer solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.; Or, C.; Kumar, V.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's recently inaugurated New Millennium program, with its emphasis on miniaturized spacecraft, has generated interest in a low-power (10- to 30-watt), low-mass, high-efficiency RTPV (Radioisotope Thermophotovoltaic) power system. This led to a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored design study of such a system. A 75-watt design employed two 250-watt General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules that DOE had previously developed and safety-qualified for various space missions. These modules were too large for the small RTPVs described in this paper. To minimize the need for new development and safety verification studies, derivative designs for 125-watt and 62.5-watt heat source modules containing identical fuel pellets, clads, impact shell, and thermal insulation were generated along with a novel heat source support scheme to reduce the heat losses through the structural supports, and a new and much simpler radiator structure, employing no honeycombs or heat pipes. Previous RTPV study had been based on the use of GaSb PV cells and spectrally selective IR filters. Because of the very encouraging results of system design studies, in the fall of 1994 an experimental program was initiated to develop improved filters and cells, to demonstrate how much improvement can actually be achieved. First priority was given to filter improvements, because our system studies indicated that improved filters would have a much greater effect on system performance than cell improvements. By September 1995 about 94% of the filter performance improvement projected in 1993 had been achieved. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Papers in this session describe the concept of mined geologic disposal system and methods for ensuring that the system, when developed, will meet all technical requirements. Also presented in the session are analyses of system parameters, such as cost and nuclear criticality potential, as well as a technical analysis of a requirement that the system permit retrieval of the waste for some period of time. The final paper discusses studies under way to investigate technical alternatives or complements to the mined geologic disposal system. Titles of the presented papers are: (1) Waste Isolation System; (2) Waste Isolation Economics; (3) BWIP Technical Baseline; (4) Criticality Considerations in Geologic Disposal of High-Level Waste; (5) Retrieving Nuclear Wastes from Repository; (6) NWTS Programs for the Evaluation of Technical Alternatives or Complements to Mined Geologic Repositories - Purpose and Objectives

  18. systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Leonessa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear robust control-system design framework predicated on a hierarchical switching controller architecture parameterized over a set of moving nominal system equilibria is developed. Specifically, using equilibria-dependent Lyapunov functions, a hierarchical nonlinear robust control strategy is developed that robustly stabilizes a given nonlinear system over a prescribed range of system uncertainty by robustly stabilizing a collection of nonlinear controlled uncertain subsystems. The robust switching nonlinear controller architecture is designed based on a generalized (lower semicontinuous Lyapunov function obtained by minimizing a potential function over a given switching set induced by the parameterized nominal system equilibria. The proposed framework robustly stabilizes a compact positively invariant set of a given nonlinear uncertain dynamical system with structured parametric uncertainty. Finally, the efficacy of the proposed approach is demonstrated on a jet engine propulsion control problem with uncertain pressure-flow map data.

  19. Radioisotope electric propulsion of sciencecraft to the outer Solar System and near-interstellar space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Radioisotopes have been used successfully for more than 25 years to supply the heat for thermoelectric generators on various deep-space probes. Radioisotope electric propulsion (REP) systems have been proposed as low-thrust ion propulsion units based on radioisotope electric generators and ion thrusters. The perceived liability of radioisotope electric generators for ion propulsion is their high mass. Conventional radioisotope thermoelectric generators have a specific mass of about 200 kg/kW of electric power. Many development efforts have been undertaken with the aim of reducing the specific mass of radioisotope electric systems. Recent performance estimates suggest that specific masses of 50 kg/kW may be achievable with thermophotovoltaic and alkali metal thermal-to-electric conversion generators. Powerplants constructed from these near-term radioisotope electric generators and long-life ion thrusters will likely have specific masses in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW of thrust power if development continues over the next decade. In earlier studies, it was concluded that flight times within the Solar System are indeed insensitive to reductions in the powerplant specific mass, and that a timely scientific program of robotic planetary rendezvous and near-interstellar space missions is enabled by primary electric propulsion once the powerplant specific mass is in the range of 100 to 200 kg/kW. Flight times can be substantially reduced by using hybrid propulsion schemes that combine chemical propulsion, gravity assist, and electric propulsion. Hybrid schemes are further explored in this article to illustrate how the performance of REP is enhanced for Pluto rendezvous, heliopause orbiter, and gravitational lens missions

  20. Device design of GaSb/CdS thin film thermal photovoltaic solar cells%基于GaSb/CdS薄膜热光伏电池的器件设计∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴限量; 张德贤; 蔡宏琨; 周严; 倪牮; 张建军

    2015-01-01

    基于GaSb薄膜热光伏器件是降低热光伏系统成本的有效途径之一,本文主要针对GaSb/CdS薄膜热光伏器件结构进行理论分析.采用AFORS-HET软件进行模拟仿真,分析GaSb和CdS两种材料各自的缺陷态密度、界面态对电池性能的影响.根据软件模拟可以得知,吸收层GaSb的缺陷态密度以及GaSb与CdS之间的界面态密度是影响电池性能的重要因素.当GaSb缺陷态增加时,主要影响电池的填充因子,电池效率明显下降.而作为窗口层的CdS缺陷态密度对电池性能影响不明显,当CdS缺陷态密度上升4个数量级时,电池效率仅下降0.11%.%Enthusiasm in the research of thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) cells has been aroused because the low bandwidth semi-conductors of III-V family are coming into use. GaSb, as a member of III-V family, has many merits such as high absorption coeffcient, and low band gap of 0.725 eV at 300 K etc.. At present thermo-photovoltaic cells are usually based on GaSb wafer, and it can be manufactured by the vertical Bridgeman method. Thermo-photovoltaic cell based on GaSb films is one of the effective ways to reduce the cost of the thermo-photovoltaic system. GaSb polycrystalline films can be grown by physical vapor deposition (PVD) which has advantages in using fewer materials and energy, and also in doing little harm to the environment. Because of residual acceptor defects VGaGaSb, GaSb thin film is usually of p-type semiconductor. So we should find n-type semiconductor material to form pn junction. We choose CdS as the emission layer of a cell structure. CdS belongs to n-type semiconductor with a narrow band gap of 2.4 eV and high light transmissivity. CdS thin film grown by chemical bath deposition (CBD) has passivation properties for GaSb. CdS layers can remove native oxides from GaSb surface and reduce the surface recombination velocity of GaSb. This paper focuses on theoretical analysis of GaSb/CdS thin film photovoltaic

  1. Maximal near-field radiative heat transfer between two plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nefzaoui, Elyes; Ezzahri, Younès; Drévillon, Jérémie; Joulain, Karl

    2013-09-01

    Near-field radiative transfer is a promising way to significantly and simultaneously enhance both thermo-photovoltaic (TPV) devices power densities and efficiencies. A parametric study of Drude and Lorentz models performances in maximizing near-field radiative heat transfer between two semi-infinite planes separated by nanometric distances at room temperature is presented in this paper. Optimal parameters of these models that provide optical properties maximizing the radiative heat flux are reported and compared to real materials usually considered in similar studies, silicon carbide and heavily doped silicon in this case. Results are obtained by exact and approximate (in the extreme near-field regime and the electrostatic limit hypothesis) calculations. The two methods are compared in terms of accuracy and CPU resources consumption. Their differences are explained according to a mesoscopic description of nearfield radiative heat transfer. Finally, the frequently assumed hypothesis which states a maximal radiative heat transfer when the two semi-infinite planes are of identical materials is numerically confirmed. Its subsequent practical constraints are then discussed. Presented results enlighten relevant paths to follow in order to choose or design materials maximizing nano-TPV devices performances.

  2. Advanced radioisotope power source options for Pluto Express

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    In the drive to reduce mass and cost, Pluto Express is investigating using an advanced power conversion technology in a small Radioisotope Power Source (RPS) to deliver the required mission power of 74 W(electric) at end of mission. Until this year the baseline power source under consideration has been a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). This RTG would be a scaled down GPHS RTG with an inventory of 6 General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) and a mass of 17.8 kg. High efficiency, advanced technology conversion options are being examined to lower the power source mass and to reduce the amount of radioisotope needed. Three technologies are being considered as the advanced converter technology: the Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric Converter (AMTEC), Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) converters, and Stirling Engines. Conceptual designs for each of these options have been prepared. Each converter would require only 2 GPHSs to provide the mission power and would have a mass of 6.1, 7.2, and 12.4 kg for AMTEC, TPV, and Stirling Engines respectively. This paper reviews the status of each technology and the projected performance of an advanced RPS based on each technology. Based on the projected performance and spacecraft integration issues, Pluto Express would prefer to use the AMTEC based RPS. However, in addition to technical performance, selection of a power technology will be based on many other factors

  3. SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Swarnalatha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk analysis of urban aquatic systems due to heavy metals turns significant due to their peculiar properties viz. persis tence, non-degradab ility, toxicity, and accumulation. Akkulam Veli (AV, an urba n tropical lake in south India is subjected to various environmental stresses due to multiple waste discharge, sand mining, developmental activities, tour ism related activitie s etc. Hence, a comprehensive approach is adopted for risk assessment using modified degree of contamination factor, toxicity units based on numerical sediment quality guidelines (SQGs, and potentialecological risk indices. The study revealed the presence of toxic metals such as Cr, C d, Pb and As and the lake is rated under ‘low ecological risk’ category.

  4. Heat Recuperator Engineering for an ARL Liquid-Fueled Thermophotovoltaic Power Source Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    fabrication, such as direct metal laser sintering ( DMLS ), were considered. DMLS does not provide the tolerance control required, making post-machining...necessary prior to welding. In addition, parts designed for DMLS require material to be added in certain places to support the part during fabrication

  5. High Efficiency Quantum Dot III-V Thermophotovoltaic Cell for Space Power, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quantum dots are nanoscale materials that have already improved the performance of optical sensors, lasers, light emitting diodes and solar cells. The unique...

  6. Large-Area Ultrabroadband Absorber for Solar Thermophotovoltaics Based on 3D Titanium Nitride Nanopillars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chirumamilla, Manohar; Chirumamilla, Anisha; Yang, Yuanqing

    2017-01-01

    absorptivities of 0.94, over a wide range of oblique angles between 0° and 75°. The effect of geometrical parameters of the TiN nanopillars on broadband absorption is investigated. By combining the flexibility of nanopillar design and lossy TiN films, ultrabroadband absorption in the visible and nearinfrared...

  7. Carbon stock, chemical and physical properties of soils under management systems with different deployment times in western region of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Sérgio Rosset

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the organic carbon stock and chemical and physical properties of soils in management systems with different deployment times under clayey Red Latosol in western region of Paraná, Brazil. Five managed areas and a reference area (native forest without anthropic action were analyzed in completely randomized design with five repetitions. Management systems include three areas with different time of first adoption of no-till: 6 years – NT6 (transition phase, 14 years – NT14 (consolidation phase and 22 years – NT22 (maintenance phase; 16 years of no-till, and in the last four years with integration of maize and ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis – (NT+B and an area of permanent and continuous extensive cattle pasture of coast-cross (Cynodon dactylon – (P. Physical and chemical properties, total soil organic carbon (TOC stock and carbon stratification index (SI of soils were evaluated in depths of 0-0.05; 0.05-0.10; 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.40 m. The macroporosity (MA was higher in the area of native forest, ranging from 0.23 to 0.30 m3 m-3 and the microporosity (MI was higher in cultivated areas. The areas of NT+B and P presented lower ratio macroporosity/total pore volume (MA/TPV. For soil bulk density (BD and soil penetration resistance (SPR, the managed areas show higher values, suggesting the occurrence of compacted subsurface layers. Native forest area showed the highest TOC levels in the depths of 0-0.05 and 0.05-0.10 m, reaching 30.5 g kg-1 in the 0–0.05 m soil layer. There was negative change on TOC stocks in the managed areas in relation to forest area, being more evident in the more superficial soil layers. The SI was greater than one, however there is a reduction in function of adoption time of no-till. There was higher soil compaction in the managed areas, and the NT in soybean/maize succession system does not contribute effectively to the increase of TOC stocks.

  8. Advanced conversion technology review panel report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazier, T.A.

    1998-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) established a DOE lead management team and an Advanced Conversion Technology Review Panel. The panel was tasked with providing the management team with an assessment and ranking of the three advanced conversion technologies. The three advanced conversion technologies were alkali metal thermal to electric converter (AMTEC), Stirling engine converter (SEC), and thermophotovoltaic (TPV). To rate and rank these three technologies, five criteria were developed: (1) Performance, (2) Development and Cost/Production and Cost/Schedule Risk, (3) Spacecraft Interface and Operations, (4) Ability to Scale Conversion, and (5) Safety. Discussed are the relative importance of each of these criteria and the rankings of the three advanced conversion technologies. It was the conclusion of the panel that the technology decision should be based on the risk that DOE and NASA are willing to accept. SEC is the most mature technology and would provide the lowest risk option. However, if more risk is acceptable, AMTEC not only provides benefits in the spacecraft interface but is also predicted to outperform the SEC. It was proposed that if AMTEC were selected, funding should be provided at a reasonable level to support back-up technology to be developed in a parallel fashion until AMTEC has proven its capability. The panel report and conclusion were provided to DOE in February 1997

  9. Metallic layer-by-layer photonic crystals for linearly-polarized thermal emission and thermophotovoltaic device including same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hwang; Ho, Kai-Ming; Constant, Kristen P.

    2016-07-26

    Metallic thermal emitters consisting of two layers of differently structured nickel gratings on a homogeneous nickel layer are fabricated by soft lithography and studied for polarized thermal radiation. A thermal emitter in combination with a sub-wavelength grating shows a high extinction ratio, with a maximum value close to 5, in a wide mid-infrared range from 3.2 to 7.8 .mu.m, as well as high emissivity up to 0.65 at a wavelength of 3.7 .mu.m. All measurements show good agreement with theoretical predictions. Numerical simulations reveal that a high electric field exists within the localized air space surrounded by the gratings and the intensified electric-field is only observed for the polarizations perpendicular to the top sub-wavelength grating. This result suggests how the emissivity of a metal can be selectively enhanced at a certain range of wavelengths for a given polarization.

  10. Cutaneous C-polymodal fibers lacking TRPV1 are sensitized to heat following inflammation, but fail to drive heat hyperalgesia in the absence of TPV1 containing C-heat fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koerber H Richard

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have shown that the TRPV1 ion channel plays a critical role in the development of heat hyperalgesia after inflammation, as inflamed TRPV1-/- mice develop mechanical allodynia but fail to develop thermal hyperalgesia. In order to further investigate the role of TRPV1, we have used an ex vivo skin/nerve/DRG preparation to examine the effects of CFA-induced-inflammation on the response properties of TRPV1-positive and TRPV1-negative cutaneous nociceptors. Results In wildtype mice we found that polymodal C-fibers (CPMs lacking TRPV1 were sensitized to heat within a day after CFA injection. This sensitization included both a drop in average heat threshold and an increase in firing rate to a heat ramp applied to the skin. No changes were observed in the mechanical response properties of these cells. Conversely, TRPV1-positive mechanically insensitive, heat sensitive fibers (CHs were not sensitized following inflammation. However, results suggested that some of these fibers may have gained mechanical sensitivity and that some previous silent fibers gained heat sensitivity. In mice lacking TRPV1, inflammation only decreased heat threshold of CPMs but did not sensitize their responses to the heat ramp. No CH-fibers could be identified in naïve nor inflamed TRPV1-/- mice. Conclusions Results obtained here suggest that increased heat sensitivity in TRPV1-negative CPM fibers alone following inflammation is insufficient for the induction of heat hyperalgesia. On the other hand, TRPV1-positive CH fibers appear to play an essential role in this process that may include both afferent and efferent functions.

  11. Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Riccardo; Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic devices are energy-conversion systems generating an electric current from the thermal photons radiated by a hot body. While their efficiency is limited in far field by the Schockley-Queisser limit, in near field the heat flux transferred to a photovoltaic cell can be largely enhanced because of the contribution of evanescent photons, in particular for a source supporting a surface mode. Unfortunately, in the infrared where these systems operate, the mismatch between the surface-mode frequency and the semiconductor gap reduces drastically the potential of this technology. In this paper we propose a modified thermophotovoltaic device in which the cell is covered by a graphene sheet. By discussing the transmission coefficient and the spectral properties of the flux, we show that both the cell efficiency and the produced current can be enhanced, paving the way to promising developments for the production of electricity from waste heat.

  12. System Budgets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle

    1996-01-01

    The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers.......The lecture note is aimed at introducing system budgets for optical communication systems. It treats optical fiber communication systems (six generations), system design, bandwidth effects, other system impairments and optical amplifiers....

  13. Decentralised energy supply as our future energy supply system? - An interview with Prof. Alexander Wokaun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagel, Ch.

    2002-01-01

    In this interview with Professor Alexander Wokaun, head of General Energy Research at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland, the decentralised use of small, gas-fired combined heat and power (CHP) units is discussed as a means of meeting Switzerland's Kyoto CO 2 commitments. The question on which of several new CHP technologies such as gas-fired engines and turbines, Stirling engines, fuel cells and thermo-photovoltaics will win the race is discussed. The efficiency and application areas of CHP technologies are examined and the problems involved when controlling complex electricity grids with many small decentrally placed generating facilities is discussed. Finally, Professor Wokaun is asked for his opinion on what the Swiss power mix will look like in 20 years

  14. Ventilation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gossler

    1980-01-01

    The present paper deals with - controlled area ventilation systems - ventilation systems for switchgear-building and control-room - other ventilation systems for safety equipments - service systems for ventilation systems. (orig./RW)

  15. 75 FR 81310 - In the Matter of Certain Digital Television Products and Certain Products Containing Same and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    ... Victory Electronics (Taiwan) Co., Ltd. (``Top Victory Electronics''); and Envision Peripherals, Inc. (``Envision''). Cease-and-desist orders were issued against Vizio, TPV USA, Envision, and SBC. Respondents Vizio, AmTran, TPV Technology, TPV USA, Top Victory Electronics, and Envision appealed to the United...

  16. Embedded Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Embedded system, micro-con- troller ... Embedded systems differ from general purpose computers in many ... Low cost: As embedded systems are extensively used in con- .... operating systems for the desktop computers where scheduling.

  17. Thermal systems; Systemes thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalot, S. [Valenciennes Univ. et du Hainaut Cambresis, LME, 59 (France); Lecoeuche, S. [Ecole des Mines de Douai, Dept. GIP, 59 - Douai (France)]|[Lille Univ. des Sciences et Technologies, 59 - Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Ahmad, M.; Sallee, H.; Quenard, D. [CSTB, 38 - Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Gascoin, N.; Gillard, P.; Bernard, S. [Laboratoire d' Energetique, Explosion, Structure, 18 - Bourges (France); Gascoin, N.; Toure, Y. [Laboratoire Vision et Robotique, 18 - Bourges (France); Daniau, E.; Bouchez, M. [MBDA, 18 - Bourges (France); Dobrovicescu, A.; Stanciu, D. [Bucarest Univ. Polytechnique, Faculte de Genie Mecanique (Romania); Stoian, M. [Reims Univ. Champagne Ardenne, Faculte des Sciences, UTAP/LTM, 51 (France); Bruch, A.; Fourmigue, J.F.; Colasson, S. [CEA Grenoble, Lab. Greth, 38 (France); Bontemps, A. [Universite Joseph Fourier, LEGI/GRETh, 38 - Grenoble (France); Voicu, I.; Mare, T.; Miriel, J. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), LGCGM, IUT, 35 - Rennes (France); Galanis, N. [Sherbrooke Univ., Genie Mecanique, QC (Canada); Nemer, M.; Clodic, D. [Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre Energetique et Procedes, 75 (France); Lasbet, Y.; Auvity, B.; Castelain, C.; Peerhossaini, H. [Nantes Univ., Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. de Thermocinetiquede Nantes, UMR-CNRS 6607, 44 (France)

    2005-07-01

    This session about thermal systems gathers 26 articles dealing with: neural model of a compact heat exchanger; experimental study and numerical simulation of the thermal behaviour of test-cells with walls made of a combination of phase change materials and super-insulating materials; hydraulic and thermal modeling of a supercritical fluid with pyrolysis inside a heated channel: pre-dimensioning of an experimental study; energy analysis of the heat recovery devices of a cryogenic system; numerical simulation of the thermo-hydraulic behaviour of a supercritical CO{sub 2} flow inside a vertical tube; mixed convection inside dual-tube exchangers; development of a nodal approach with homogenization for the simulation of the brazing cycle of a heat exchanger; chaotic exchanger for the cooling of low temperature fuel cells; structural optimization of the internal fins of a cylindrical generator; a new experimental approach for the study of the local boiling inside the channels of exchangers with plates and fins; experimental study of the flow regimes of boiling hydrocarbons on a bundle of staggered tubes; energy study of heat recovery exchangers used in Claude-type refrigerating systems; general model of Carnot engine submitted to various operating constraints; the free pistons Stirling cogeneration system; natural gas supplied cogeneration system with polymer membrane fuel cell; influence of the CRN coating on the heat flux inside the tool during the wood unrolling process; transport and mixture of a passive scalar injected inside the wake of a Ahmed body; control of a laser welding-brazing process by infrared thermography; 2D self-adaptative method for contours detection: application to the images of an aniso-thermal jet; exergy and exergy-economical study of an 'Ericsson' engine-based micro-cogeneration system; simplified air-conditioning of telephone switching equipments; parametric study of the 'low-energy' individual dwelling; brief synthesis of

  18. Data Systems vs. Information Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Amatayakul, Margret K.

    1982-01-01

    This paper examines the current status of “hospital information systems” with respect to the distinction between data systems and information systems. It is proposed that the systems currently existing are incomplete data dystems resulting in ineffective information systems.

  19. EXPERT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Georgiana Marin; Mihai Catalin Andrei

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades IT and computer systems have evolved rapidly in economic informatics field. The goal is to create user friendly information systems that respond promptly and accurately to requests. Informatics systems evolved into decision assisted systems, and such systems are converted, based on gained experience, in expert systems for creative problem solving that an organization is facing. Expert systems are aimed at rebuilding human reasoning on the expertise obtained from experts, sto...

  20. Multibody Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Falko Jens

    1999-01-01

    Multibody Systems is one area, in which methods for solving DAEs are of special interst. This chapter is about multibody systems, why they result in DAE systems and what kind of problems that can arise when dealing with multibody systems and formulating their corresponding DAE system....

  1. System dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Hun; Mun, Tae Hun; Kim, Dong Hwan

    1999-02-01

    This book introduces systems thinking and conceptual tool and modeling tool of dynamics system such as tragedy of single thinking, accessible way of system dynamics, feedback structure and causal loop diagram analysis, basic of system dynamics modeling, causal loop diagram and system dynamics modeling, information delay modeling, discovery and application for policy, modeling of crisis of agricultural and stock breeding products, dynamic model and lesson in ecosystem, development and decadence of cites and innovation of education forward system thinking.

  2. Coupling component systems towards systems of systems

    OpenAIRE

    Autran , Frédéric; Auzelle , Jean-Philippe; Cattan , Denise; Garnier , Jean-Luc; Luzeaux , Dominique; Mayer , Frédérique; Peyrichon , Marc; Ruault , Jean-René

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Systems of systems (SoS) are a hot topic in our "fully connected global world". Our aim is not to provide another definition of what SoS are, but rather to focus on the adequacy of reusing standard system architecting techniques within this approach in order to improve performance, fault detection and safety issues in large-scale coupled systems that definitely qualify as SoS, whatever the definition is. A key issue will be to secure the availability of the services pr...

  3. Systems effectiveness

    CERN Document Server

    Habayeb, A R

    1987-01-01

    Highlights three principal applications of system effectiveness: hardware system evaluation, organizational development and evaluation, and conflict analysis. The text emphasizes the commonality of the system effectiveness discipline. The first part of the work presents a framework for system effectiveness, partitioning and hierarchy of hardware systems. The second part covers the structure, hierarchy, states, functions and activities of organizations. Contains an extended Appendix on mathematical concepts and also several project suggestions.

  4. Auxiliary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Systems included under the heading ''Reactor Auxillary Systems'' are those immediately involved with the reactor operation. These include the systems for dosing and letdown of reactor coolant, as well as for the chemical dosing, purification and treatment of the reactor coolant and the cooling system in the controlled area. The ancillary systems are mainly responsible for liquid and gaseous treatment and the waste treatment for final storage. (orig.)

  5. Bitcoin System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Lánský

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cryptocurrency systems are purely digital and decentralized systems that use cryptographic principles to confirm transactions. Bitcoin is the first and also the most widespread cryptocurrency. The aim of this article is to introduce Bitcoin system using a language understandable also to readers without computer science education. This article captures the Bitcoin system from three perspectives: internal structure, network and users. Emphasis is placed on brief and clear definitions (system components and their mutual relationships. A new system view of the stated terms constitutes author’s own contribution.

  6. JOSHUA system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honeck, H.C.

    1975-04-01

    A major computational system called JOSHUA has been under development at the Savannah River Laboratory since 1968. The JOSHUA System has two major parts: the Operating System and the Application System. The Operating System has been in production use since 1970 and provides data management, terminal, and job execution facilities. The Application System uses these facilities in solving problems in reactor physics and engineering. Features of the Application System are the two-dimensional lattice physics and three-dimensional transient reactor physics capabilities, which have been in use since 1971 and 1974, respectively. The capabilities of the JOSHUA System are summarized, and statistics on size, use, and development effort are provided. (U.S.)

  7. Systems thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Derek; Colosi, Laura; Lobdell, Claire

    2008-08-01

    Evaluation is one of many fields where "systems thinking" is popular and is said to hold great promise. However, there is disagreement about what constitutes systems thinking. Its meaning is ambiguous, and systems scholars have made diverse and divergent attempts to describe it. Alternative origins include: von Bertalanffy, Aristotle, Lao Tsu or multiple aperiodic "waves." Some scholars describe it as synonymous with systems sciences (i.e., nonlinear dynamics, complexity, chaos). Others view it as taxonomy-a laundry list of systems approaches. Within so much noise, it is often difficult for evaluators to find the systems thinking signal. Recent work in systems thinking describes it as an emergent property of four simple conceptual patterns (rules). For an evaluator to become a "systems thinker", he or she need not spend years learning many methods or nonlinear sciences. Instead, with some practice, one can learn to apply these four simple rules to existing evaluation knowledge with transformative results.

  8. Cognitive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The tutorial will discuss the definition of cognitive systems as the possibilities to extend the current systems engineering paradigm in order to perceive, learn, reason and interact robustly in open-ended changing environments. I will also address cognitive systems in a historical perspective...... to be modeled within a limited set of predefined specifications. There will inevitably be a need for robust decisions and behaviors in novel situations that include handling of conflicts and ambiguities based on the capability and knowledge of the artificial cognitive system. Further, there is a need...... in cognitive systems include e.g. personalized information systems, sensor network systems, social dynamics system and Web2.0, and cognitive components analysis. I will use example from our own research and link to other research activities....

  9. Crystal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomaker, Verner; Lingafelter, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of crystal systems, comparing (in table format) crystal systems with lattice types, number of restrictions, nature of the restrictions, and other lattices that can accidently show the same metrical symmetry. (JN)

  10. Filter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanin, V.R.

    1990-01-01

    The multidetector systems for high resolution gamma spectroscopy are presented. The observable parameters for identifying nuclides produced simultaneously in the reaction are analysed discussing the efficiency of filter systems. (M.C.K.)

  11. Expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldy, P.A.

    1988-01-01

    The definitions of the terms 'artificial intelligence' and 'expert systems', the methodology, areas of employment and limits of expert systems are discussed. The operation of an expert system is described, especially the presentation and organization of knowledge as well as interference and control. Methods and tools for expert system development are presented and their application in nuclear energy are briefly addressed. 7 figs., 2 tabs., 6 refs

  12. Expert System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hildebrandt, Thomas Troels; Cattani, Gian Luca

    2016-01-01

    An expert system is a computer system for inferring knowledge from a knowledge base, typically by using a set of inference rules. When the concept of expert systems was introduced at Stanford University in the early 1970s, the knowledge base was an unstructured set of facts. Today the knowledge b...... for the application of expert systems, but also raises issues regarding privacy and legal liability....

  13. Módulo de sincronización entre Tienda Online Prestashop y Unicenta POS

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Corredor, Montserrat

    2015-01-01

    [CASTELLÀ] Este proyecto consiste en la creación de un sistema que permite sincronizar los productos, categorías y stock, entre dos programas que gestionan tiendas. Estos programas son el TPV (Terminal Punto de Venta) uniCenta y el CMS (Content Management System) eCommerce (Electronic Commerce) Prestashop. [ANGLÈS] This project involves the creation of a system that synchronizes products, categories and stock between two programs that manage shops. These programs are the POS (Point of Sal...

  14. Retrofitting Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    This report gives an overview of the different retrofitting possibilities that are available today. The report looks at both external and internal systems for external wall constructions, roof constructions, floor constructions and foundations. All systems are described in detail in respect to use...... and methods, and the efficiency of the different systems are discussed....

  15. Multifunction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wauthier, J.; Fiori, R.

    1990-01-01

    The development, the characteristics and the applications of a multifunction system are presented. The system is used on the RBES laboratory pipes, at Marcoule. The system was developed in order to allow, without time loss, the modification of the circuit function by replacing only one component. The following elements form the multifunction system: a fixed base, which is part of the tube, a removable piece, which is inserted into the base, a cover plate and its locking system. The material, chosen among commercial trade marks, required small modifications in order to be used in the circuit [fr

  16. Operating systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tsichritzis, Dionysios C; Rheinboldt, Werner

    1974-01-01

    Operating Systems deals with the fundamental concepts and principles that govern the behavior of operating systems. Many issues regarding the structure of operating systems, including the problems of managing processes, processors, and memory, are examined. Various aspects of operating systems are also discussed, from input-output and files to security, protection, reliability, design methods, performance evaluation, and implementation methods.Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of what constitutes an operating system, followed by a discussion on the definition and pr

  17. Systems integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents a view of systems integration, from an ergonomics/human factors perspective, emphasising the process of systems integration as is carried out by humans. The first section discusses some of the fundamental issues in systems integration, such as the significance of systems boundaries, systems lifecycle and systems entropy, issues arising from complexity, the implications of systems immortality, and so on. The next section outlines various generic processes for executing systems integration, to act as guides for practitioners. These address both the design of the system to be integrated and the preparation of the wider system in which the integration will occur. Then the next section outlines some of the human-specific issues that would need to be addressed in such processes; for example, indeterminacy and incompleteness, the prediction of human reliability, workload issues, extended situation awareness, and knowledge lifecycle management. For all of these, suggestions and further readings are proposed. Finally, the conclusions section reiterates in condensed form the major issues arising from the above.

  18. Ternary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, D.N.; Hubberstey, P.; Barker, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The paper reviews the experimental and theoretical studies carried out on multicomponent alkali metal systems. Solid-liquid phase equilibria studies are mainly concerned with the systems Na-K-Rb and Na-K-Cs, and data on the liquidus temperatures in these systems are presented. The thermodynamic properties of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system have been determined experimentally, and the enthalpy, heat capacity and excess functions of the alloy are given. An analysis of calculational methods used in determining thermodynamic functions of ternary liquid metals systems is described. Finally, data are tabulated for the density, compressibility, saturated vapour pressure, viscosity and thermal conductivity of the ternary Na-K-Cs eutectic system. (UK)

  19. Recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kembellec, Gérald; Saleh, Imad

    2014-01-01

    Acclaimed by various content platforms (books, music, movies) and auction sites online, recommendation systems are key elements of digital strategies. If development was originally intended for the performance of information systems, the issues are now massively moved on logical optimization of the customer relationship, with the main objective to maximize potential sales. On the transdisciplinary approach, engines and recommender systems brings together contributions linking information science and communications, marketing, sociology, mathematics and computing. It deals with the understan

  20. Material Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Brath; Mortensen, Henrik Rubæk; Mullins, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes and reflects upon the results of an investigative project which explores the setting up of a material system - a parametric and generative assembly consisting of and taking into consideration material properties, manufacturing constraints and geometric behavior. The project...... approaches the subject through the construction of a logic-driven system aiming to explore the possibilities of a material system that fulfills spatial, structural and performative requirements concurrently and how these are negotiated in situations where they might be conflicting....

  1. Systems Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Vaughan, William W.

    2016-01-01

    The term “systems engineering” when entered into the Google search page, produces a significant number of results, evidence that systems engineering is recognized as being important for the success of essentially all products. Since most readers of this item will be rather well versed in documents concerning systems engineering, I have elected to share some of the points made on this subject in a document developed by the European Cooperation for Space Standardization (ECSS), a component of t...

  2. Energetic Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Energetic Systems Division provides full-spectrum energetic engineering services (project management, design, analysis, production support, in-service support,...

  3. Intelligent systems

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, J David

    2011-01-01

    Technology has now progressed to the point that intelligent systems are replacing humans in the decision making processes as well as aiding in the solution of very complex problems. In many cases intelligent systems are already outperforming human activities. Artificial neural networks are not only capable of learning how to classify patterns, such images or sequence of events, but they can also effectively model complex nonlinear systems. Their ability to classify sequences of events is probably more popular in industrial applications where there is an inherent need to model nonlinear system

  4. Systemic darwinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winther, Rasmus Grønfeldt

    2008-08-19

    Darwin's 19th century evolutionary theory of descent with modification through natural selection opened up a multidimensional and integrative conceptual space for biology. We explore three dimensions of this space: explanatory pattern, levels of selection, and degree of difference among units of the same type. Each dimension is defined by a respective pair of poles: law and narrative explanation, organismic and hierarchical selection, and variational and essentialist thinking. As a consequence of conceptual debates in the 20th century biological sciences, the poles of each pair came to be seen as mutually exclusive opposites. A significant amount of 21st century research focuses on systems (e.g., genomic, cellular, organismic, and ecological/global). Systemic Darwinism is emerging in this context. It follows a "compositional paradigm" according to which complex systems and their hierarchical networks of parts are the focus of biological investigation. Through the investigation of systems, Systemic Darwinism promises to reintegrate each dimension of Darwin's original logical space. Moreover, this ideally and potentially unified theory of biological ontology coordinates and integrates a plurality of mathematical biological theories (e.g., self-organization/structure, cladistics/history, and evolutionary genetics/function). Integrative Systemic Darwinism requires communal articulation from a plurality of perspectives. Although it is more general than these, it draws on previous advances in Systems Theory, Systems Biology, and Hierarchy Theory. Systemic Darwinism would greatly further bioengineering research and would provide a significantly deeper and more critical understanding of biological reality.

  5. Caste System

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Karla

    2016-01-01

    In standard economics, individuals are rational actors and economic forces undermine institutions that impose large inefficiencies. The persistence of the caste system is evidence of the need for psychologically more realistic models of decision-making in economics. The caste system divides South Asian society into hereditary groups whose lowest ranks are represented as innately polluted. ...

  6. Recommender systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lu L.; Medo M.; Yeung C.H.; Zhang Y.-C.; Zhang Z.-K.; Zhou T.

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing rapid expansion of the Internet greatly increases the necessity of effective recommender systems for filtering the abundant information. Extensive research for recommender systems is conducted by a broad range of communities including social and computer scientists, physicists, and interdisciplinary researchers. Despite substantial theoretical and practical achievements, unification and comparison of different approaches are lacking, which impedes further advances. In this article...

  7. GEOMASS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Takuya; Saegusa, Hiromitsu

    2009-03-01

    As a part of the research and development regarding characterisation of deep geological environment, the GEOMASS (GEOLOGICAL MODELLING ANALYSIS AND SIMULATION SOFTWARE) system has been developed by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency in order to carry out geological and hydrogeological modelling and groundwater flow simulation and so on. The GEOMASS system integrates a commercial geological interpretation system (EarthVision), which is used for geological modelling and visualisation, with a proprietary code for groundwater flow (FracAffinity). This integrated system allows users to make rapid improvement of models as data increases. Also, it is possible to perform more realistic groundwater flow simulation due to the capability of modelling the rock mass as a continuum with discrete hydro-structural features in the rock mass. This paper consists of 'Overview of GEOMASS system', FracAffinity Theoretical Background' and 'FracAffinity User Guide' and is edited as a GEOMASS system manual. 'Overview of GEOMASS system' describes the outline of this system. 'FracAffinity Theoretical Background' describes the information of technical background of FracAffinity software. FracAffinity User Guide' describes the structure of the FracAffinity input files, the usage of FracAffinity Interface and flow-solver. Updating of the FracAffinity has been continued as needed and FracAffinity version3.3 is the latest version at present (July 2008). (author)

  8. Systems integration (automation system). System integration (automation system)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, K; Komori, T; Fukuma, Y; Oikawa, M [Nippon Steal Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-09-26

    This paper introduces business activities on an automation systems integration (SI) started by a company in July,1988, and describes the SI concepts. The business activities include, with the CIM (unified production carried out on computers) and AMENITY (living environment) as the mainstays, a single responsibility construction ranging from consultation on structuring optimal systems for processing and assembling industries and intelligent buildings to system design, installation and after-sales services. With an SI standing on users {prime} position taken most importantly, the business starts from a planning and consultation under close coordination. On the conceptual basis of structuring optimal systems using the ompany {prime}s affluent know-hows and tools and adapting and applying with multi-vendors, open networks, centralized and distributed systems, the business is promoted with the accumulated technologies capable of realizing artificial intelligence and neural networks in its background, and supported with highly valuable business results in the past. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Creative Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manelius, Anne-Mette; Beim, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Opsamling af diskussioner på konferencen og udstillingen Creative Systems i september/oktober 2007. Konferencen og Udstillingen Creative Systems sætter fokus på systemer som en positiv drivkraft i den kreative skabelsesproces. CINARK inviterede fire internationale kapaciteter, som indenfor hver...... deres felt har beskæftiget sig med udviklingen af systemer. Kieran Timberlake, markant amerikansk tegnestue; Mark West, Professor på University of Manitoba, Canada, og pioner indenfor anvendelse af tekstilforskalling til betonstøbninger; Matilda McQuaid, Arkitekturhistoriker og kurator på udstillingen...... om Extreme Textiles på amerikanske Cooper Hewit Design Museum, samt Professor Ludger Hovestadt, ved ETH, Zürich der fokuserer på udvikling og anvendelse af logaritmiske systemtilgange. Udstillingen diskuterede ud fra deres meget forskellige arbejder, det kreative potentiale i anvendelsen af systemer...

  10. Reactive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aceto, Luca; Ingolfsdottir, Anna; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    A reactive system comprises networks of computing components, achieving their goals through interaction among themselves and their environment. Thus even relatively small systems may exhibit unexpectedly complex behaviours. As moreover reactive systems are often used in safety critical systems......, the need for mathematically based formal methodology is increasingly important. There are many books that look at particular methodologies for such systems. This book offers a more balanced introduction for graduate students and describes the various approaches, their strengths and weaknesses, and when...... they are best used. Milner's CCS and its operational semantics are introduced, together with the notions of behavioural equivalences based on bisimulation techniques and with recursive extensions of Hennessy-Milner logic. In the second part of the book, the presented theories are extended to take timing issues...

  11. Upgraded RECOVER system - CASDAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi; Koyama, Kinji

    1992-03-01

    The CASDAC (Containment And Surveillance Data Authenticated Communication) system has been developed by JAERI for nuclear safeguards and physical protection of nuclear material. This system was designed and constructed as an upgraded RECOVER system, design concept of which was based on the original RECOVER system and also the TRANSEAVER system. Both of them were developed several years ago as a remote monitoring system for continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material. The system consists of two subsystems, one of them is a Grand Command Center (GCC) subsystem and the other is a facility subsystem. Communication between the two subsystems is controlled through the international telephone line network. Therefore all communication data are encrypted to prevent access by an unauthorized person who may intend to make a falsification, or tapping. The facility subsystem has an appropriate measure that ensure data security and reliable operation under unattended mode of operator. The software of this system is designed so as to be easily used in other different types of computers. This report describes the outline of the CASDAC system and the results of its performance test. This work has been carried out in the framework of Japan Support Programme for Agency Safeguards (JASPAS) as a project, JA-1. (author)

  12. Short communication: Phenotypic protease inhibitor resistance and cross-resistance in the clinic from 2006 to 2008 and mutational prevalences in HIV from patients with discordant tipranavir and darunavir susceptibility phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethell, Richard; Scherer, Joseph; Witvrouw, Myriam; Paquet, Agnes; Coakley, Eoin; Hall, David

    2012-09-01

    To test tipranavir (TPV) or darunavir (DRV) as treatment options for patients with phenotypic resistance to protease inhibitors (PIs), including lopinavir, saquinavir, atazanavir, and fosamprenavir, the PhenoSense GT database was analyzed for susceptibility to DRV or TPV among PI-resistant isolates. The Monogram Biosciences HIV database (South San Francisco, CA) containing 7775 clinical isolates (2006-2008) not susceptible to at least one first-generation PI was analyzed. Phenotypic responses [resistant (R), partially susceptible (PS), or susceptible (S)] were defined by upper and lower clinical cut-offs to each PI. Genotypes were screened for amino acid substitutions associated with TPV-R/DRV-S and TPV-S/DRV-R phenotypes. In all, 4.9% (378) of isolates were resistant to all six PIs and 31.0% (2407) were resistant to none. Among isolates resistant to all four first-generation PIs, DRV resistance increased from 21.2% to 41.9% from 2006 to 2008, respectively, and resistance to TPV remained steady (53.9 to 57.3%, respectively). Higher prevalence substitutions in DRV-S/TPV-R isolates versus DRV-R/TPV-S isolates, respectively, were 82L/T (44.4% vs. 0%) and 83D (5.8% vs. 0%). Higher prevalence substitutions in DRV-R/TPV-S virus were 50V (0.0% vs. 28.9%), 54L (1.0% vs. 36.1%), and 76V (0.4% vs. 15.5%). Mutations to help predict discordant susceptibility to DRV and TPV in isolates with reduced susceptibility to other PIs were identified. DRV resistance mutations associated with improved virologic response to TPV were more prevalent in DRV-R/TPV-S isolates. TPV resistance mutations were more prevalent in TPV-R and DRV-S isolates. These results confirm the impact of genotype on phenotype, illustrating how HIV genotype and phenotype data assist regimen optimization.

  13. Watchdog System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tanja Kidholm Osmann; Bahnsen, Chris Holmberg; Jensen, Morten Bornø

    This deliverable is part of WP4. Overall WP4 is motivated by the need for automatic systems that can ease the task of annotating massive amounts of traffic data. Concretely this deliverable is related to WP4.2 - the watchdog system. The idea with the watchdog is to develop a system that can remov...... huge chunks of video data where no events/interactions of interest are occurring and hence let a user focus on manually annotation of only the interesting stuff....

  14. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sternberg, Shlomo

    2010-01-01

    Celebrated mathematician Shlomo Sternberg, a pioneer in the field of dynamical systems, created this modern one-semester introduction to the subject for his classes at Harvard University. Its wide-ranging treatment covers one-dimensional dynamics, differential equations, random walks, iterated function systems, symbolic dynamics, and Markov chains. Supplementary materials offer a variety of online components, including PowerPoint lecture slides for professors and MATLAB exercises.""Even though there are many dynamical systems books on the market, this book is bound to become a classic. The the

  15. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surfaces have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  16. Water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riess, R.

    1981-01-01

    The present paper describes the coolant chemistry and its consequences for 1300 MWsub(e) KWU PWR plants. Some selected systems, i.e. primary heat transport system, steam water cycle and cooling water arrangements, are chosen for this description. Various aspects of coolant chemistry regarding general corrosion, selective types of corrosion and deposits on heat transfer surface have been discussed. The water supply systems necessary to fulfill the requirements of the coolant chemistry are discussed as well. It has been concluded that a good operating performance can only be achieved when - beside other factors - the water chemistry has been given sufficient consideration. (orig./RW)

  17. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froggatt, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    The invention provides a two dimensional imaging system in which a pattern of radiation falling on the system is detected to give electrical signals for each of a plurality of strips across the pattern. The detection is repeated for different orientations of the strips and the whole processed by compensated back projection. For a shadow x-ray system a plurality of strip x-ray detectors are rotated on a turntable. For lower frequencies the pattern may be rotated with a Dove prism and the strips condensed to suit smaller detectors with a cylindrical lens. (author)

  18. Kaonic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oset E.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I make a short review of the situation of the kaonic systems, with novel information supporting the two Λ(1405 states from the K-d → nπΣ reaction. A review is made of the K¯$ar K$NN system with recent calculations converging to smaller bindings and larger widths. Novel systems involving two kaons and one nucleon or three kaons are also reported and finally a short discussion is made of the analogous state DNN for which recent studies find a large binding and a small width.

  19. The systems integration modeling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danker, W.J.; Williams, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the systems integration modeling system (SIMS), an analysis tool for the detailed evaluation of the structure and related performance of the Federal Waste Management System (FWMS) and its interface with waste generators. It's use for evaluations in support of system-level decisions as to FWMS configurations, the allocation, sizing, balancing and integration of functions among elements, and the establishment of system-preferred waste selection and sequencing methods and other operating strategies is presented. SIMS includes major analysis submodels which quantify the detailed characteristics of individual waste items, loaded casks and waste packages, simulate the detailed logistics of handling and processing discrete waste items and packages, and perform detailed cost evaluations

  20. ring system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1,3,2-DIAZABORACYCLOALKANE. RING SYSTEM. Negussie Retta" and Robert H. Neilson. 'Department of Chemistry, Addis Ababa University, P.O. Box 1176, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Department of Chemistry, Texas Christian University.

  1. Septic Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The web site provides guidance and technical assistance for homeowners, government officials, industry professionals, and EPA partners about how to properly develop and manage individual onsite and community cluster systems that treat domestic wastewater.

  2. Respiratory system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, R. G., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The general anatomy and function of the human respiratory system is summarized. Breathing movements, control of breathing, lung volumes and capacities, mechanical relations, and factors relevant to respiratory support and equipment design are discussed.

  3. Bubble systems

    CERN Document Server

    Avdeev, Alexander A

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a systematic analysis of bubble system mathematics, using the mechanics of two-phase systems in non-equilibrium as the scope of analysis. The author introduces the thermodynamic foundations of bubble systems, ranging from the fundamental starting points to current research challenges. This book addresses a range of topics, including description methods of multi-phase systems, boundary and initial conditions as well as coupling requirements at the phase boundary. Moreover, it presents a detailed study of the basic problems of bubble dynamics in a liquid mass: growth (dynamically and thermally controlled), collapse, bubble pulsations, bubble rise and breakup. Special emphasis is placed on bubble dynamics in turbulent flows. The analysis results are used to write integral equations governing the rate of vapor generation (condensation) in non-equilibrium flows, thus creating a basis for solving a number of practical problems. This book is the first to present a comprehensive theory of boil...

  4. Systems Biology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    study and understand the function of biological systems, particu- larly, the response of such .... understand the organisation and behaviour of prokaryotic sys- tems. ... relationship of the structure of a target molecule to its ability to bind a certain ...

  5. Bricks / Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    At first glance, this book may appear eclectic. It contains writings from architectural practice in a language and structure based on subjective views and experiences, combined with research contributions based on systematic design investigations of discrete computational systems. Discussions range......, and it aims to illustrate and identify new modes of working in architecture, particularly with regards to brickwork and other complex systems of modular assemblies, whether physical or digital....

  6. Expert Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas, P.J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Expert systems mimic the problem-solving activity of human experts in specialized domains by capturing and representing expert knowledge. Expert systems include a knowledge base, an inference engine that derives conclusions from the knowledge, and a user interface. Knowledge may be stored as if-then rules, orusing other formalisms such as frames and predicate logic. Uncertain knowledge may be represented using certainty factors, Bayesian networks, Dempster-Shafer belief functions, or fuzzy se...

  7. Nanorobotic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin Dong

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Two strategies towards the realization of nanotechnology have been presented, i.e., top-down and bottom up. The former one is mainly based on nanofabrication and includes technologies such as nano-lithography, nano-imprint, and etching. Presently, they are still 2D fabrication processes with low resolution. The later one is an assembly-based technique. At present, it includes such items as self-assembly, dip-pen lithography, and directed self-assembly. These techniques can generate regular nano patterns in large scales. To fabricate 3D complex nano devices there are still no effective ways by so far. Here we show our effort on the development of a nano laboratory, a prototype nanomanufacturing system, based on nanorobotic manipulations. In which, we take a hybrid strategy as shown in Fig. 1. In this system, nano fabrication and nano assembly can be performed in an arbitrary order to construct nano building blocks and finally nano devices. The most important feature in this system is that the products can be fed back into the system to shrink the system part by part leading to nanorobots. Property characterization can be performed in each intermediate process. Due to the nanorobotic manipulation system, dynamic measurement can be performed rather than conventional static observations.

  8. Fiscal system analysis - contractual systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    Production sharing contracts are one of the most popular forms of contractual system used in petroleum agreements around the world, but the manner in which the fiscal terms and contract parameters impact system measures is complicated and not well understood. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the influence of private and market uncertainty in contractual fiscal systems. A meta-modelling approach is employed that couples the results of a simulation model with regression analysis to construct numerical functionals that quantify the fiscal regime. Relationships are derived that specify how the present value, rate of return, and take statistics vary as a function of the system parameters. The deepwater Girassol field development in Angola is taken as a case study. (author)

  9. Reactor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyano, Hiroshi; Narabayashi, Naoshi.

    1990-01-01

    The represent invention concerns a reactor system with improved water injection means to a pressure vessel of a BWR type reactor. A steam pump is connected to a heat removing system pipeline, a high pressure water injection system pipeline and a low pressure water injection system pipeline for injecting water into the pressure vessel. A pump actuation pipeline is disposed being branched from a main steam pump or a steam relieaf pipeline system, through which steams are supplied to actuate the steam pump and supply cooling water into the pressure vessel thereby cooling the reactor core. The steam pump converts the heat energy into the kinetic energy and elevates the pressure of water to a level higher than the pressure of the steams supplied by way of a pressure-elevating diffuser. Cooling water can be supplied to the pressure vessel by the pressure elevation. This can surely inject cooling water into the pressure vessel upon loss of coolant accident or in a case if reactor scram is necessary, without using an additional power source. (I.N.)

  10. ARAC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, M.F.; Wyman, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    In spite of the remarkable safety record of the nuclear industry as a whole, recent public concern over the potential impact of the industry's accelerated growth has prompted ERDA to expand its emergency response procedures. The Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability, ARAC, is a computer communications system designed to enhance the existing emergency response capability of ERDA nuclear facilities. ARAC will add at least two new functions to this capability: centralized, real-time data acquisition and storage, and simulation of the long range atmospheric transport of hazardous materials. To perform these functions, ARAC employs four major sub-systems or facilities: the site facility, the central facility, the global weather center and the regional model. The system has been under development for the past two years at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the University of California

  11. Thermodynamic limits of energy harvesting from outgoing thermal radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddhiraju, Siddharth; Santhanam, Parthiban; Fan, Shanhui

    2018-04-17

    We derive the thermodynamic limits of harvesting power from the outgoing thermal radiation from the ambient to the cold outer space. The derivations are based on a duality relation between thermal engines that harvest solar radiation and those that harvest outgoing thermal radiation. In particular, we derive the ultimate limit for harvesting outgoing thermal radiation, which is analogous to the Landsberg limit for solar energy harvesting, and show that the ultimate limit far exceeds what was previously thought to be possible. As an extension of our work, we also derive the ultimate limit of efficiency of thermophotovoltaic systems.

  12. Microbiology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Technology originating in a NASA-sponsored study of the measurement of microbial growth in zero gravity led to the development of Biomerieux Vitek, Inc.'s VITEK system. VITEK provides a physician with accurate diagnostic information and identifies the most effective medication. Test cards are employed to identify organisms and determine susceptibility to antibiotics. A photo-optical scanner scans the card and monitors changes in the growth of cells contained within the card. There are two configurations - VITEK and VITEK JR as well as VIDAS, a companion system that detects bacteria, viruses, etc. from patient specimens. The company was originally created by McDonnell Douglas, the NASA contractor.

  13. Spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, W J

    1989-01-01

    This book is about spin systems as models for magnetic materials, especially antiferromagnetic lattices. Spin-systems are well-defined models, for which, in special cases, exact properties may be derived. These special cases are for the greater part, one- dimensional and restricted in their applicability, but they may give insight into general properties that also exist in higher dimension. This work pays special attention to qualitative differences between spin lattices of different dimensions. It also replaces the traditional picture of an (ordered) antiferromagnetic state of a Heisenberg sy

  14. Distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Van Steen, Maarten

    2017-01-01

    For this third edition of "Distributed Systems," the material has been thoroughly revised and extended, integrating principles and paradigms into nine chapters: 1. Introduction 2. Architectures 3. Processes 4. Communication 5. Naming 6. Coordination 7. Replication 8. Fault tolerance 9. Security A separation has been made between basic material and more specific subjects. The latter have been organized into boxed sections, which may be skipped on first reading. To assist in understanding the more algorithmic parts, example programs in Python have been included. The examples in the book leave out many details for readability, but the complete code is available through the book's Website, hosted at www.distributed-systems.net.

  15. Multiscale bilateral filtering for improving image quality in digital breast tomosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Chan, Heang-Ping; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.; Samala, Ravi K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Detection of subtle microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a challenging task because of the large, noisy DBT volume. It is important to enhance the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of microcalcifications in DBT reconstruction. Most regularization methods depend on local gradient and may treat the ill-defined margins or subtle spiculations of masses and subtle microcalcifications as noise because of their small gradient. The authors developed a new multiscale bilateral filtering (MSBF) regularization method for the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) to improve the CNR of microcalcifications without compromising the quality of masses. Methods: The MSBF exploits a multiscale structure of DBT images to suppress noise and selectively enhance high frequency structures. At the end of each SART iteration, every DBT slice is decomposed into several frequency bands via Laplacian pyramid decomposition. No regularization is applied to the low frequency bands so that subtle edges of masses and structured background are preserved. Bilateral filtering is applied to the high frequency bands to enhance microcalcifications while suppressing noise. The regularized DBT images are used for updating in the next SART iteration. The new MSBF method was compared with the nonconvex total p-variation (TpV) method for noise regularization with SART. A GE GEN2 prototype DBT system was used for acquisition of projections at 21 angles in 3° increments over a ±30° range. The reconstruction image quality with no regularization (NR) and that with the two regularization methods were compared using the DBT scans of a heterogeneous breast phantom and several human subjects with masses and microcalcifications. The CNR and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the line profiles of microcalcifications and across the spiculations within their in-focus DBT slices were used as image quality measures. Results: The MSBF method reduced contouring artifacts

  16. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario Whether you're stomping through the showers ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  17. Operating Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    areas in which this type is useful are multimedia, virtual reality, and advanced scientific projects such as undersea exploration and planetary rovers. Because of the expanded uses for soft real-time functionality, it is finding its way into most current operating systems, including major versions of Unix and Windows NT OS.

  18. Barrier Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heteren, S. van

    2015-01-01

    Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change

  19. Systems Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christakis, Alexander; Hammond, Debora; Jackson, Michael; Laszlo, Alexander; Mitroff, Ian; Snowden, Dave; Troncale, Len; Carr-Chellman, Alison; Spector, J. Michael; Wilson, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Scholars representing the field of systems science were asked to identify what they considered to be the most exciting and imaginative work currently being done in their field, as well as how that work might change our understanding. The scholars included Alexander Christakis, Debora Hammond, Michael Jackson, Alexander Laszlo, Ian Mitroff, Dave…

  20. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  1. Quorum Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wattenhofer, Roger; Förster, Klaus-Tycho

    2016-01-01

    What happens if a single server is no longer powerful enough to service all your customers? The obvious choice is to add more servers and to use the majority approach (e.g. Paxos, Chapter 2) to guarantee consistency. However, even if you buy one million servers, a client still has to access more ...... study the theory behind overlapping sets, known as quorum systems....

  2. System Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morecroft, John

    System dynamics is an approach for thinking about and simulating situations and organisations of all kinds and sizes by visualising how the elements fit together, interact and change over time. This chapter, written by John Morecroft, describes modern system dynamics which retains the fundamentals developed in the 1950s by Jay W. Forrester of the MIT Sloan School of Management. It looks at feedback loops and time delays that affect system behaviour in a non-linear way, and illustrates how dynamic behaviour depends upon feedback loop structures. It also recognises improvements as part of the ongoing process of managing a situation in order to achieve goals. Significantly it recognises the importance of context, and practitioner skills. Feedback systems thinking views problems and solutions as being intertwined. The main concepts and tools: feedback structure and behaviour, causal loop diagrams, dynamics, are practically illustrated in a wide variety of contexts from a hot water shower through to a symphony orchestra and the practical application of the approach is described through several real examples of its use for strategic planning and evaluation.

  3. System Description:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schürmann, Carsten; Poswolsky, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Delphin is a functional programming language [Adam Poswolsky and Carsten Schürmann. Practical programming with higher-order encodings and dependent types. In European Symposium on Programming (ESOP), 2008] utilizing dependent higher-order datatypes. Delphin's two-level type-system cleanly separates...

  4. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  5. Bioenergy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, C.P.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a bioenergy system has to be considered as an integrated process in which each stage or step interacts with other steps in the overall process. There are a number of stages in the supply and conversion of woody biomass for energy. Each step in the chain has implications for the next step and for overall system efficiency. The resource can take many forms and will have varying physical and chemical characteristics which will influence the efficiency and cost of conversion. The point in the supply chain at which size and moisture content is reduced and the manner in which it is done is influential in determining feedstock delivered cost and overall system costs. To illustrate the interactions within the overall system, the influence of the nature, size and moisture content of delivered feedstocks on costs of generating electricity via thermal conversion processes is examined using a model developed to investigate the inter-relationships between the stages in the supply chain. (author)

  6. Urogenital system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamm, B.; Asbach, P.; Beyersdorff, D.; Hein, P.; Zaspel, U.

    2007-01-01

    The book is focussed on the radiological diagnostics of diseases in the urogential system. The description of the specific diseases, the identification by modern imaging techniques, the interpretation of examinatory results and therapeutic options are systematically treated in 4 chapters: kidney and adrenal glands, urinary tract, male genitals, female genitals

  7. Mirror systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogassi, Leonardo; Ferrari, Pier Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Mirror neurons are a class of visuomotor neurons, discovered in the monkey premotor cortex and in an anatomically connected area of the inferior parietal lobule, that activate both during action execution and action observation. They constitute a circuit dedicated to match actions made by others with the internal motor representations of the observer. It has been proposed that this matching system enables individuals to understand others' behavior and motor intentions. Here we will describe the main features of mirror neurons in monkeys. Then we will present evidence of the presence of a mirror system in humans and of its involvement in several social-cognitive functions, such as imitation, intention, and emotion understanding. This system may have several implications at a cognitive level and could be linked to specific social deficits in humans such as autism. Recent investigations addressed the issue of the plasticity of the mirror neuron system in both monkeys and humans, suggesting also their possible use in rehabilitation. WIREs Cogn Sci 2011 2 22-38 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.89 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering...

  9. Energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1974-01-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  10. Energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haefele, W [Nuclear Research Centre, Applied Systems Analysis and Reactor Physics, Karlsruhe (Germany); International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, Laxenburg (Austria)

    1974-07-01

    Up to the present the production, transmission and distribution of energy has been considered mostly as a fragmented problem; at best only subsystems have been considered. Today the scale of energy utilization is increasing rapidly, and correspondingly, the reliance of societies on energy. Such strong quantitative increases influence the qualitative nature of energy utilization in most of its aspects. Resources, reserves, reliability and environment are among the key words that may characterize the change in the nature of the energy utilization problem. Energy can no longer be considered an isolated technical and economical problem, rather it is embedded in the ecosphere and the society-technology complex. Restraints and boundary conditions have to be taken into account with the same degree of attention as in traditional technical problems, for example a steam turbine. This results in a strong degree of interweaving. Further, the purpose of providing energy becomes more visible, that is, to make survival possible in a civilized and highly populated world on a finite globe. Because of such interweaving and finiteness it is felt that energy should be considered as a system and therefore the term 'energy systems' is used. The production of energy is only one component of such a system; the handling of energy and the embedding of energy into the global and social complex in terms of ecology, economy, risks and resources are of similar importance. he systems approach to the energy problem needs more explanation. This paper is meant to give an outline of the underlying problems and it is hoped that by so doing the wide range of sometimes confusing voices about energy can be better understood. Such confusion starts already with the term 'energy crisis'. Is there an energy crisis or not? Much future work is required to tackle the problems of energy systems. This paper can only marginally help in that respect. But it is hoped that it will help understand the scope of the

  11. TUBO system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, H.J.C.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Toledo, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Proceedings recently incorporated to TUBO system like the seismic analysis and the stress verification acccording to ASME-Boiler Rule and Pressure Vessel Code-section III are presented. The seismic analysis comprehend the consideration of uniform motion of the support, its multiple excitation, and the attainment of the spectral response for both cases. The module for stress verification uses stresses resulting fromthe combination of the loads specified by the user, in the automatic verification of permissible stresses for the pipings class 1 and 2, based on criteria NB-3650 and NC-3650 of ASME. The implementation of these proceedings in the TUBO system are discussed and a numerical example that covers the different phases of a stress analysis in a piping is presented [pt

  12. Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The solar collectors shown are elements of domestic solar hot water systems produced by Solar One Ltd., Virginia Beach, Virginia. Design of these systems benefited from technical expertise provided Solar One by NASA's Langley Research Center. The company obtained a NASA technical support package describing the d e sign and operation of solar heating equipment in NASA's Tech House, a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined in an energy- efficient home. Solar One received further assistance through personal contact with Langley solar experts. The company reports that the technical information provided by NASA influenced Solar One's panel design, its selection of a long-life panel coating which increases solar collection efficiency, and the method adopted for protecting solar collectors from freezing conditions.

  13. Bilateral system. The ABACC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, Ruben O.

    2001-01-01

    After relating the antecedents of the creation of the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for the Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC), the paper describes the common system of accounting and control set up by Argentina and Brazil. The organization of ABACC is also outlined

  14. Physical system requirements: Overall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) of 1982 assigned to the Department of Energy (DOE) the responsibility for managing the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste and established the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for that purpose. The Secretary of Energy, in his November 1989 report to Congress (DOE/RW-0247), announced three new initiatives for conduct of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (CRWM) program. One of these initiatives was to establish improved management structure and procedures. In response, OCRWM performed a management study and the Direct subsequently issued the Management Systems Improvement Strategy (MSIS) on August 10, 1990, calling for a rigorous implementation of systems engineering principles with a special emphasis on functional analysis. This approach establishes a framework for integrating the program management efforts with the technical requirements analysis into a single, unified, and consistent program. The functional analysis approach recognizes that just the facilities and equipment comprising the physical waste management system must perform certain functions, so must certain programmatic and management functions be performed within the program in order to successfully bring the physical system into being

  15. Security system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Mark J.; Kuca, Michal; Aragon, Mona L.

    2016-02-02

    A security system includes a structure having a structural surface. The structure is sized to contain an asset therein and configured to provide a forceful breaching delay. The structure has an opening formed therein to permit predetermined access to the asset contained within the structure. The structure includes intrusion detection features within or associated with the structure that are activated in response to at least a partial breach of the structure.

  16. Cardiovascular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soulen, R.L.; Grosh, J.

    1984-01-01

    Invasive cardiovascular diagnostic procedures involve a finite risk and therefore can be recommended only when the benefit appears to exceed the risk by a substantial margin. The risk/benefit ratio varies not only with the procedure concerned but with the status of the vascular system, concomitant diseases, and the risks of both the suspected illness and its treatment. The risks inherent in the procedures per se are detailed in the sections to follow

  17. Priority Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gössler , Gregor; Sifakis , Joseph

    2004-01-01

    Projet POP_ART; We present a framework for the incremental construction of deadlock-free systems meeting given safety properties. The framework borrows concepts and basic results from the controller synthesis paradigm by considering a step in the construction process as a controller synthesis problem. We show that priorities are expressive enough to represent restrictions induced by deadlock-free controllers preserving safety properties. We define a correspondence between such restrictions an...

  18. Imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrooke, J.G.; Ansorge, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    A moving object such as a container on a conveyor belt is imaged by an optical system onto a charge coupled device array in which the lines of the array are arranged perpendicular to the direction of motion of the object. The speed of movement of the object is sensed to generate electrical signals which are processed to provide shift signals enabling the shifting of data row to row in the array in synchronism with the movement of the container. The electrical charge associated with a given point on the array is transferred from one line to the other until it appears at the last line of the array, from which it is read out in known manner in conjunction with all other electrical charges associated with the row of charge coupled devices in the last line of the array. Due to the integrating effect achieved, the aperture of the imaging system can be much smaller than otherwise would be required, and/or the level of light illumination can be reduced. The imaging system can be applied to X-ray inspection devices, aerial surveillance or scanning of moving documents in copying processes. (author)

  19. Braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgren, D.U.

    1982-09-23

    A balanced braking system comprising a plurality of braking assemblies located about a member to be braked. Each of the braking assemblies consists of a spring biased piston of a first material fitted into a body of a different material which has a greater contraction upon cooling than the piston material. The piston is provided with a recessed head portion over which is positioned a diaphragm and forming a space therebetween to which is connected a pressurized fluid supply. The diaphragm is controlled by the fluid in the space to contact or withdraw from the member to be braked. A cooling means causes the body within which the piston is fitted to contract more than the piston, producing a tight shrink fit therebetween. The braking system is particularly applicable for selectively braking an arbor of an electron microscope which immobilizes, for example, a vertically adjustable low temperature specimen holder during observation. The system provides balanced braking forces which can be easily removed and re-established with minimal disturbance to arbor location.

  20. Protecting information in systems of systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, D.

    2012-01-01

    Systems of systems are coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. The component systems of a system of systems often belong to different security domains, which are governed by different authorities (hereafter called parties). Furthermore, systems

  1. Dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Birkhoff, George D

    1927-01-01

    His research in dynamics constitutes the middle period of Birkhoff's scientific career, that of maturity and greatest power. -Yearbook of the American Philosophical Society The author's great book€¦is well known to all, and the diverse active modern developments in mathematics which have been inspired by this volume bear the most eloquent testimony to its quality and influence. -Zentralblatt MATH In 1927, G. D. Birkhoff wrote a remarkable treatise on the theory of dynamical systems that would inspire many later mathematicians to do great work. To a large extent, Birkhoff was writing about his o

  2. Nuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Todreas, Neil E

    2011-01-01

    Principal Characteristics of Power ReactorsIntroductionPower CyclesPrimary Coolant SystemsReactor CoresFuel AssembliesAdvanced Water- and Gas-Cooled Reactors (Generation III And III+)Advanced Thermal and Fast Neutron Spectrum Reactors (Generation IV)ReferencesProblemsThermal Design Principles and ApplicationIntroductionOverall Plant Characteristics Influenced by Thermal Hydraulic ConsiderationsEnergy Production and Transfer ParametersThermal Design LimitsThermal Design MarginFigures of Merit for Core Thermal PerformanceThe Inverted Fuel ArrayThe Equivalent Annulus ApproximationReferencesProble

  3. Videobasierte Systeme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Peter

    Videosensoren spielen für Fahrerassistenz systeme eine zentrale Rolle, da sie die Interpretation visueller Informationen (Objektklassifikation) gezielt unterstützen. Im Heckbereich kann die Video sensorik in der einfachsten Variante die ultraschallbasierte Einparkhilfe bei Einpark- und Rangiervorgängen unterstützen. Beim Nachtsichtsystem NightVision wird das mit Infrarotlicht angestrahlte Umfeld vor dem Fahrzeug mit einer Frontkamera aufgenommen und im Fahrzeugcockpit auf einem Display dem Fahrer angezeigt (s. Nachtsichtsysteme). Andere Fahrerassistenzsysteme verarbeiten die Videosignale und generieren daraus gezielt Informationen, die für eigenständige Funktionen (z. B. Spurverlassenswarner) oder aber als Zusatzinformation für andere Funktionen ausgewertet werden (Sensordatenfusion).

  4. Relaxation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Environ Corporation's relaxation system is built around a body lounge, a kind of super easy chair that incorporates sensory devices. Computer controlled enclosure provides filtered ionized air to create a feeling of invigoration, enhanced by mood changing aromas. Occupant is also surrounded by multidimensional audio and the lighting is programmed to change colors, patterns, and intensity periodically. These and other sensory stimulators are designed to provide an environment in which the learning process is stimulated, because research has proven that while an individual is in a deep state of relaxation, the mind is more receptive to new information.

  5. Bearing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapich, Davorin D.

    1987-01-01

    A bearing system includes backup bearings for supporting a rotating shaft upon failure of primary bearings. In the preferred embodiment, the backup bearings are rolling element bearings having their rolling elements disposed out of contact with their associated respective inner races during normal functioning of the primary bearings. Displacement detection sensors are provided for detecting displacement of the shaft upon failure of the primary bearings. Upon detection of the failure of the primary bearings, the rolling elements and inner races of the backup bearings are brought into mutual contact by axial displacement of the shaft.

  6. Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    stand.    CV CS x dAvvdVov dt d F   (18-1) Where  denotes density and vx is the velocity in the x-direction. The first term on the...by  but to avoid confusion with  from Eqs. 18-7 to 10, it is denoted k in this formula . Ru is the universal gas constant (8.314472 J/mol K), pe is...Russian Federation Used on Phobos spacecraft as main engines 74 1.03 NTO/ UDMH 13.73-19.61 316-325 Orbital Maneuvering System 1 Aerojet Shuttle

  7. Using an accelerometer for analyzing a reach-to-grasp movement after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Michaelsen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was using an accelerometer to access the kinematics of reach-to-grasp movements in subjects with hemiparesis. Eight subjects (59.4 ± 6.9 years old with chronic hemiparesis (50.9 ± 25.8 months post-stroke participated in this study. Kinematic assessment was performed using a triaxial accelerometer (EMG Systems, Brazil attached to the subjects' forearm. Ten reach-to-grasp movements of grabbing a 500ml-size bottle were performed by the subjects with the paretic and the non-paretic upper limbs (ULs. The following space-temporal variables were calculated and used to compare the paretic and non-paretic ULs: movement time (MT, time to reach the peak velocity, absolute and relative (TPV and TPV%MT, relative deceleration duration (DEC%MT, time to peak acceleration (TPA and peak hand acceleration (PA. Movements were slower in the paretic UL with increased MT, TPA and DEC. The accelerometer allowed to identify of changes in reaching-to-grasp movements of subjects with hemiparesis. When complex systems are not available, accelerometers can be an alternative to measure UL movements.

  8. Enhanced imaging of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis through improved image-reconstruction algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidky, Emil Y.; Pan Xiaochuan; Reiser, Ingrid S.; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Moore, Richard H.; Kopans, Daniel B.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The authors develop a practical, iterative algorithm for image-reconstruction in undersampled tomographic systems, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). Methods: The algorithm controls image regularity by minimizing the image total p variation (TpV), a function that reduces to the total variation when p=1.0 or the image roughness when p=2.0. Constraints on the image, such as image positivity and estimated projection-data tolerance, are enforced by projection onto convex sets. The fact that the tomographic system is undersampled translates to the mathematical property that many widely varied resultant volumes may correspond to a given data tolerance. Thus the application of image regularity serves two purposes: (1) Reduction in the number of resultant volumes out of those allowed by fixing the data tolerance, finding the minimum image TpV for fixed data tolerance, and (2) traditional regularization, sacrificing data fidelity for higher image regularity. The present algorithm allows for this dual role of image regularity in undersampled tomography. Results: The proposed image-reconstruction algorithm is applied to three clinical DBT data sets. The DBT cases include one with microcalcifications and two with masses. Conclusions: Results indicate that there may be a substantial advantage in using the present image-reconstruction algorithm for microcalcification imaging.

  9. Expert Systems: What Is an Expert System?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Beverly K.; Main, Linda

    1994-01-01

    Describes expert systems and discusses their use in libraries. Highlights include parts of an expert system; expert system shells; an example of how to build an expert system; a bibliography of 34 sources of information on expert systems in libraries; and a list of 10 expert system shells used in libraries. (Contains five references.) (LRW)

  10. System analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Seung Hui

    2004-02-01

    This book deals with information technology and business process, information system architecture, methods of system development, plan on system development like problem analysis and feasibility analysis, cases for system development, comprehension of analysis of users demands, analysis of users demands using traditional analysis, users demands analysis using integrated information system architecture, system design using integrated information system architecture, system implementation, and system maintenance.

  11. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hackney, S.

    1983-01-01

    A system for posting hazardous materials into and out of an enclosure, such as a glovebox, through a port in a wall of the enclosure. The port is normally closed by a door which cooperates with a removable end closure, on a container or the like when the latter is presented to and secured at the port. The container is secured in position at the port by means of a rotatable coupling ring. A single interlock ensures that the door cannot be opened in the absence of a container at the port and also that the container cannot be removed from the port when the door is open. In place of the container, a glove secured to a rigid sleeve may be used to enable the operator to perform a work function within the glovebox. (author)

  12. hydrothermal systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bayón

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we revise the classical formulation of the problem depriving it of the concepts that are superfluous from the mathematical point of view. We observe that a number of power stations can be substituted by a single one that behaves equivalently to the entire set. Proceeding in this way, we obtain a variational formulation in its purest sense (without restrictions. This formulation allows us to employ the theory of calculus of variations to the highest degree. We then calculate the equivalent minimizer in the case where the cost functions are second-order polynomials. We prove that the equivalent minimizer is a second-order polynomial with piece-wise constant coefficients. Moreover, it belongs to the class C1. Finally, we present various examples prompted by real systems and perform the proposed algorithms using Mathematica.

  13. Nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Palmero, Faustino; Lemos, M; Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Casado-Pascual, Jesús

    2018-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the most recent advances in nonlinear science. It provides a unified view of nonlinear properties in many different systems and highlights many  new developments. While volume 1 concentrates on mathematical theory and computational techniques and challenges, which are essential for the study of nonlinear science, this second volume deals with nonlinear excitations in several fields. These excitations can be localized and transport energy and matter in the form of breathers, solitons, kinks or quodons with very different characteristics, which are discussed in the book. They can also transport electric charge, in which case they are known as polarobreathers or solectrons. Nonlinear excitations can influence function and structure in biology, as for example, protein folding. In crystals and other condensed matter, they can modify transport properties, reaction kinetics and interact with defects. There are also engineering applications in electric lattices, Josephson junction a...

  14. Posting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    A posting system for the movement of equipment, such as a manipulator, into and out of an enclosure e.g. a cell or glovebox, for toxic or radioactive materials has the manipulator arranged within a collapsible bellows-like container with an end of the container cooperating with a port entry to the enclosure. The collapsible container isolates the manipulator from the environment outside the enclosure and allows the manipulator to enter and leave the contaminated enclosure without breach of the containment. A particular construction of cell for use with radioactive material is described, having a thick wall of shielding material such as concrete provided with a door normally closed by a Pb shutter and having a cylindrical gamma shield block located over the shutter on the exterior of the wall. (author)

  15. Systems engineering simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Cloutier, Robert; Bone, Mary Alice

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionOverviewDiscussion of Common TerminologyThe Case for Systems EngineeringA Brief History of Systems EngineeringSystem ExamplesSummaryThe System Life CycleManaging System Development-The Vee ModelSystem ProductionSystem Utilization and SupportSystem Retirement and DisposalOther Systems Engineering Development ModelsSpiral ModelAgile Model for Systems EngineeringSystem of InterestAbstraction and DecompositionIntegrationDeveloping and Managing RequirementsCyclone Requiremen

  16. NJOY system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Choong Sup; Kim, Jung Do

    1998-01-01

    The NJOY Nuclear Data Processing System is used to convert evaluated nuclear data in ENDF format into forms useful for applications. The NJOY code is a modular computer code designed to read evaluated data in ENDF format, transform the data in various ways, and output the results as libraries designed to be used in various applications. The modules are essentially independent programs, and they communicate with each other using input and output files, plus a very few common variables. The NJOY code can work with neutrons, photons, and charged particles. The evaluated nuclear data are reconstructed to pointwise cross sections from ENDF resonance parameters and interpolation schemes. The pointwise data can be Doppler broadened to the temperatures requested by users. The data in unresolved energy range can be computed to effective self-shielded pointwise cross sections. The cross sections and scattering matrices for free or bound scatterers in the thermal energy range are able to be produced. The self-shielded multigroup cross sections, group-to-group scattering matrices, photon-production matrices, and charged-particle cross sections from pointwise data can be generated for various application codes

  17. Chem systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that world styrene demand, paced by a near doubling of combined requirements in East Asia and Oceania, could reach 19.3 million metric tons by 2000, an average growth rate of 3.7%/year. So concludes Chem Systems Inc., Tarrytown, N.Y., in a study of world styrene markets through the end of the century. Pacific Rim styrene production and consumption throughout the 1990s are predicted to make up increasingly larger shares of world markets, while demand and production lag in the U.S. and western Europe. Demand and capacity in other parts of the world will grow in real terms, increasing combined market shares only slightly. Most of the increase will be driven by demand in East Asia and Oceania, where consumption by century's end is expected to increase 4.48 million metric tons from 2.25 million tons in 1991. Meantime, Japan's styrene demand in 2000 is projected at 2.64 million tons, a 500,000 ton increase from 1991 demand but a net market loss of 1.9%

  18. Synthesis of Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres with enhanced photovoltaic performance and application for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yu [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Wang Lingling [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); State Key Laboratory of Supramolecular Structure and Materials, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Liu Bingkun; Zhai Jiali; Fan Haimei; Wang Dejun; Lin Yanhong [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China); Xie Tengfeng, E-mail: xietf@jlu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130023 (China)

    2011-07-15

    Highlights: > Near-monodisperse Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres have been synthesized. > The photovoltaic properties of the samples were examined by SPS, FISPS and TPV measurements. > Surface photovoltage results revealed Zn doping can promote charge transfer in TiO{sub 2} film electrode. - Abstract: Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} microspheres have been synthesized by introducing a trace amount of zinc nitrate hexahydrate to the reaction system. Scanning electron microscope (SEM), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been utilized to characterize the samples. Both surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) technique based on lock-in amplifier and transient photovoltage (TPV) measurement reveal that the slight doping of Zn can promote the separation of photo-generated charges as well as restrain the recombination due to the strong interface built-in electric field and the decreasing of surface trap states. The photovoltaic parameters of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) based on Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} are significantly better, compared to that of a cell based on undoped TiO{sub 2}. The relation between the performance of DSSCs and their photovoltaic properties is also discussed.

  19. System safety education focused on system management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grose, V. L.

    1971-01-01

    System safety is defined and characteristics of the system are outlined. Some of the principle characteristics include role of humans in hazard analysis, clear language for input and output, system interdependence, self containment, and parallel analysis of elements.

  20. Systems Biology and Health Systems Complexity in;

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donald Combs, C.; Barham, S.R.; Sloot, P.M.A.

    2016-01-01

    Systems biology addresses interactions in biological systems at different scales of biological organization, from the molecular to the cellular, organ, organism, societal, and ecosystem levels. This chapter expands on the concept of systems biology, explores its implications for individual patients

  1. Airport Information Retrieval System (AIRS) System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    This report presents the system design for a prototype air traffic flow control automation system developed for the FAA's Systems Command Center. The design was directed toward the immediate automation of airport data for use in traffic load predicti...

  2. System specifications for the NDS Dictionary System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attree, P.M.; Smith, P.M.

    1979-09-01

    The NDS Dictionary System is a computerized system for maintaining and distributing the EXFOR dictionaries and for preparing internal versions of these dictionaries for use in the NDS EXFOR System and other NDS systems. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS Dictionary System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. This manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made; this is the version of January 1979

  3. Quality management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mu Sung

    2009-08-15

    This book deals with ISO9001 quality management system which includes summary of this system such as classification of quality, principle of quality management, and definition, requirement and procedure of quality management system, introduction of ISO9001 system like model of ISO9001 quality management system, ISO certificate system, structure of ISO9001 standard, requirement of ISO9001 quality management system, process approach and documentation of system, propel cases of ISO9001 quality management system.

  4. Quality management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mu Sung

    2009-08-01

    This book deals with ISO9001 quality management system which includes summary of this system such as classification of quality, principle of quality management, and definition, requirement and procedure of quality management system, introduction of ISO9001 system like model of ISO9001 quality management system, ISO certificate system, structure of ISO9001 standard, requirement of ISO9001 quality management system, process approach and documentation of system, propel cases of ISO9001 quality management system.

  5. Protecting Information in Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Systems of Systems (SoS) are dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, the SoS paradigm has a strong impact on system interoperability and on the

  6. A security framework for systems of systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, D.; Zannone, N.; Etalle, S.

    2011-01-01

    Systems of systems consist of a wide variety of dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, this new paradigm has a strong impact on system

  7. A Security Framework for Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trivellato, Daniel; Zannone, Nicola; Etalle, Sandro

    2011-01-01

    Systems of systems consist of a wide variety of dynamic, distributed coalitions of autonomous and heterogeneous systems that collaborate to achieve a common goal. While offering several advantages in terms of scalability and flexibility, this new paradigm has a strong impact on system

  8. Systems theory of interconnected port contact systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Port-based network modeling of a large class of complex physical systems leads to dynamical systems known as port-Hamiltonian systems. The key ingredient of any port-Hamiltonian system is a power-conserving interconnection structure (mathematically formalized by the geometric notion of a Dirac

  9. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, K.

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG. (WB) [de

  10. Networked control of microgrid system of systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Magdi S.; Rahman, Mohamed Saif Ur; AL-Sunni, Fouad M.

    2016-08-01

    The microgrid has made its mark in distributed generation and has attracted widespread research. However, microgrid is a complex system which needs to be viewed from an intelligent system of systems perspective. In this paper, a network control system of systems is designed for the islanded microgrid system consisting of three distributed generation units as three subsystems supplying a load. The controller stabilises the microgrid system in the presence of communication infractions such as packet dropouts and delays. Simulation results are included to elucidate the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  11. D0 Cryo System Control System Autodialer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbin, J.; /Fermilab

    1990-04-17

    The DO cryogenic system is controlled by a TI565-PLC based control system. This allows the system to be unmanned when in steady state operation. System experts will need to be contacted when system parameters exceed normal operating points and reach alarm setpoints. The labwide FIRUS system provides one alarm monitor and communication link. An autodialer provides a second and more flexible alarm monitor and communication link. The autodialer monitors contact points in the control system and after receiving indication of an alarm accesses a list of experts which it calls until it receives an acknowledgement. There are several manufacturers and distributors of autodialer systems. This EN explains the search process the DO cryo group used to fmd an autodialer system that fit the cryo system's needs and includes information and specs for the unit we chose.

  12. Superspeed Maglev system Transrapid. System decription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, L [Thyssen Henschel AG,, Maglev Transportation Technology, Muenchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The superspeed maglev system Transrapid is a track-bound transportation system for passengern and priority freight transport. The transrapid trainsets are composed of self-sufficient vehicle section coupled together. The superspeed maglev system Transrapid is capable of revenue operation at speeds of 100 to 500 km/h. Besides the description of the system concept and system characteristics safety and availability are discussed. (HW)

  13. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined

  14. Situation awareness with systems of systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tretmans, Jan; Borth, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security.  Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier selection, rule-based anomaly detection, an ontology-based event model for semantic reasoning, new methods for semi-automatic generation of adapters bridging communication gaps, security policies for systems-of-systems, trust assessment, and methods to deal with the dynamics of systems-of-systems in run-time monitoring, testing, and diagnosis. Architectural considerations for designing information-centric systems-of-systems such as situation awareness systems, and an integrated demonstrator implementing many of the investigated aspects, complete the book.

  15. System specifications for the NDS EXFOR System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attree, P.M.; Smith, P.M.

    1979-07-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the magnetic-tape exchange of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centres for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The NDS EXFOR System is a computerized system for the storage and retrieval of EXFOR information compiled or received by the IAEA. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS EXFOR System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. The manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made

  16. System specifications for the NDS EXFOR System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attree, P M; Smith, P M

    1982-06-01

    EXFOR is the agreed exchange format for the magnetic-tape exchange of nuclear reaction data between national and international nuclear data centers for the benefit of nuclear data users in all countries. The NDS EXFOR System is a computerized system for the storage and retrieval of EXFOR information compiled or received of the IAEA. This document is an internal manual for the system specifications of the NDS EXFOR System. It includes flow charts, system and program summaries, input and output specifications and file and record descriptions. The manual is updated from time to time when system modifications are made; the first version was issued in July 1979. (author)

  17. Computer System Design System-on-Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The next generation of computer system designers will be less concerned about details of processors and memories, and more concerned about the elements of a system tailored to particular applications. These designers will have a fundamental knowledge of processors and other elements in the system, but the success of their design will depend on the skills in making system-level tradeoffs that optimize the cost, performance and other attributes to meet application requirements. This book provides a new treatment of computer system design, particularly for System-on-Chip (SOC), which addresses th

  18. Smart electromechanical systems the central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Kurbanov, Vugar

    2017-01-01

    This book describes approaches to solving the problems of developing the central nervous system of robots (CNSR) based on smart electromechanical systems (SEMS) modules, principles of construction of the various modules of the central nervous system and variants of mathematical software CNSR in control systems for intelligent robots. It presents the latest advances in theory and practice at the Russian Academy of Sciences. Developers of intelligent robots to solve modern problems in robotics are increasingly addressing the use of the bionic approach to create robots that mimic the complexity and adaptability of biological systems. These have smart electromechanical system (SEMS), which are used in various cyber-physical systems (CPhS), and allow the functions of calculation, control, communications, information storage, monitoring, measurement and control of parameters and environmental parameters to be integrated. The behavior of such systems is based on the information received from the central nervous syst...

  19. Multiobjective Collaborative Optimization of Systems of Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolf, Robert A

    2005-01-01

    ...; in other words an inefficient design of the system of systems. This thesis examines the simultaneous design of several ships using the sea base concept as an example application of a network of ships working together...

  20. Situation Awareness with Systems of Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, P. van de; Tretmans, J.; Borth, M.

    2013-01-01

    This book discusses various aspects, challenges, and solutions for developing systems-of-systems for situation awareness, using applications in the domain of maritime safety and security. Topics include advanced, multi-objective visualization methods for situation awareness, stochastic outlier

  1. Linking Political Systems and War Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harste, Gorm

    2009-01-01

    Decisive parts of the Western political system have demonstrated a seemingly surprising misinterpretation of military might. As Madelaine Albright has suggested, the mighty perceived themselves as "almighty". Political power seems to have invested in instrumental coercive power relations and found...... military coercion to be the appropriate mean. Using the system theory and the theory of systemic risks displayed by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann the article demonstrates how military systems due to their own autonomy and autopoiesis do not fit into the idea of political government....... The Clausewitzian ideal of a political system that could continue its power games by means of war was moderated by Clausewitz' own analysis of "friction". How can a political system be so blind towards the possibilities of another system? What are the risks of systemic blind spots? The argument of the paper...

  2. Designing information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Blethyn, Stanley G

    2014-01-01

    Designing Information Systems focuses on the processes, methodologies, and approaches involved in designing information systems. The book first describes systems, management and control, and how to design information systems. Discussions focus on documents produced from the functional construction function, users, operators, analysts, programmers and others, process management and control, levels of management, open systems, design of management information systems, and business system description, partitioning, and leveling. The text then takes a look at functional specification and functiona

  3. Cognitive Medical Multiagent Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-01-01

    The development of efficient and flexible agent-based medical diagnosis systems represents a recent research direction. Medical multiagent systems may improve the efficiency of traditionally developed medical computational systems, like the medical expert systems. In our previous researches, a novel cooperative medical diagnosis multiagent system called CMDS (Contract Net Based Medical Diagnosis System) was proposed. CMDS system can solve flexibly a large variety of medical diagnosis problems...

  4. Non linear system become linear system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petre Bucur

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper refers to the theory and the practice of the systems regarding non-linear systems and their applications. We aimed the integration of these systems to elaborate their response as well as to highlight some outstanding features.

  5. System Design of the SWRL Financial System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Masumi

    To produce various management and accounting reports in order to maintain control of SWRL (Southwest Regional Laboratory) operational and financial activities, a computer-based SWRL financial system was developed. The system design is outlined, and various types of system inputs described. The kinds of management and accounting reports generated…

  6. Triggering system innovation in agricultural innovation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turner, James A.; Williams, Tracy; Nicholas, Graeme; Foote, Jeff; Rijswijk, Kelly; Barnard, Tim; Beechener, Sam; Horita, Akiko

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a process for stimulating engagement among change agents to develop a shared understanding of systemic problems in the agricultural innovation system (AIS), challenge prevalent institutional logics and identify actions they might undertake to stimulate system innovation.

  7. Port contact systems for irreversible thermodynamical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eberard, D.; Maschke, B.M.; Schaft, A.J. van der

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we propose a definition of control contact systems, generalizing input-output Hamiltonian systems, to cope with models arising from irreversible Thermodynamics. We exhibit a particular subclass of these systems, called conservative, that leaves invariant some Legendre submanifold (the

  8. Modeling learning technology systems as business systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avgeriou, Paris; Retalis, Symeon; Papaspyrou, Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    The design of Learning Technology Systems, and the Software Systems that support them, is largely conducted on an intuitive, ad hoc basis, thus resulting in inefficient systems that defectively support the learning process. There is now justifiable, increasing effort in formalizing the engineering

  9. General Systems Theory and Instructional Systems Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, David F.

    1990-01-01

    Describes basic concepts in the field of general systems theory (GST) and identifies commonalities that exist between GST and instructional systems design (ISD). Models and diagrams that depict system elements in ISD are presented, and two matrices that show how GST has been used in ISD literature are included. (11 references) (LRW)

  10. Expert systems in process control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittig, T.

    1987-01-01

    To illustrate where the fundamental difference between expert systems in classical diagnosis and in industrial control lie, the work of process control instrumentation is used as an example for the job of expert systems. Starting from the general process of problem-solving, two classes of expert systems can be defined accordingly. (orig.) [de

  11. Expert Systems for auditing management information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheroghe Popescu

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Expert systems are built with the help of: specialised programming languages or expert system generators (shell. But this structure was reached after tens of years of work and research, because expert systems are nothing but pragmatic capitalisation of the results of research carried out in artificial intelligence and theory of knowledge.

  12. Psychology of system design

    CERN Document Server

    Meister, D

    2014-01-01

    This is a book about systems, including: systems in which humans control machines; systems in which humans interact with humans and the machine component is relatively unimportant; systems which are heavily computerized and those that are not; and governmental, industrial, military and social systems. The book deals with both traditional systems like farming, fishing and the military, and with systems just now tentatively emerging, like the expert and the interactive computer system. The emphasis is on the system concept and its implications for analysis, design and evaluation of these many di

  13. Biomedical signals and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tranquillo, Joseph V

    2013-01-01

    Biomedical Signals and Systems is meant to accompany a one-semester undergraduate signals and systems course. It may also serve as a quick-start for graduate students or faculty interested in how signals and systems techniques can be applied to living systems. The biological nature of the examples allows for systems thinking to be applied to electrical, mechanical, fluid, chemical, thermal and even optical systems. Each chapter focuses on a topic from classic signals and systems theory: System block diagrams, mathematical models, transforms, stability, feedback, system response, control, time

  14. Operating System Security

    CERN Document Server

    Jaeger, Trent

    2008-01-01

    Operating systems provide the fundamental mechanisms for securing computer processing. Since the 1960s, operating systems designers have explored how to build "secure" operating systems - operating systems whose mechanisms protect the system against a motivated adversary. Recently, the importance of ensuring such security has become a mainstream issue for all operating systems. In this book, we examine past research that outlines the requirements for a secure operating system and research that implements example systems that aim for such requirements. For system designs that aimed to

  15. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klise, Katherine A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Murray, Regan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Walker, La Tonya Nicole [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Resilience is a concept that is being used increasingly to refer to the capacity of infrastructure systems to be prepared for and able to respond effectively and rapidly to hazardous events. In Section 2 of this report, drinking water hazards, resilience literature, and available resilience tools are presented. Broader definitions, attributes and methods for measuring resilience are presented in Section 3. In Section 4, quantitative systems performance measures for water distribution systems are presented. Finally, in Section 5, the performance measures and their relevance to measuring the resilience of water systems to hazards is discussed along with needed improvements to water distribution system modeling tools.

  16. Manager's assistant systems for space system planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, William L.; Burnard, Robert; Edwards, Gary E.; Shoop, James

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a class of knowledge-based 'assistant' systems for space system planning. Derived from technology produced for the DARPA/USAF Pilot's Associate program, these assistant systems help the human planner by doing the bookkeeping to maintain plan data and executing the procedures and heuristics currently used by the human planner to define, assess, diagnose, and revise plans. Intelligent systems for Space Station Freedom assembly sequence planning and Advanced Launch System modeling will be presented as examples. Ongoing NASA-funded work on a framework supporting the development of such tools will also be described.

  17. Lighting system with thermal management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton; Stecher, Thomas; Seeley, Charles; Kuenzler, Glenn; Wolfe, Jr., Charles; Utturkar, Yogen; Sharma, Rajdeep; Prabhakaran, Satish; Icoz, Tunc

    2013-05-07

    Lighting systems having unique configurations are provided. For instance, the lighting system may include a light source, a thermal management system and driver electronics, each contained within a housing structure. The light source is configured to provide illumination visible through an opening in the housing structure. The thermal management system is configured to provide an air flow, such as a unidirectional air flow, through the housing structure in order to cool the light source. The driver electronics are configured to provide power to each of the light source and the thermal management system.

  18. EPICS based DAQ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Weixing; Chen Yongzhong; Zhou Weimin; Ye Kairong; Liu Dekang

    2002-01-01

    EPICS is the most popular developing platform to build control system and beam diagnostic system in modern physics experiment facilities. An EPICS based data acquisition system was built in Redhat 6.2 operation system. The system is successfully used in the beam position monitor mapping, it improves the mapping process a lot

  19. Autonomous photovoltaic lighting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hafez, Ahmed A. A.; Montesinos Miracle, Daniel; Sudrià Andreu, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a comparison between the conventional and Photovoltaic (PV) lighting systems. A simple sizing procedure for a PV stand-alone system was advised. The paper also proposes a novel PV lighting system. The proposed system is simple, compact and reliable. The system operation was investigated by thoroughly mathematical and simulation work.

  20. FFTF control system experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warrick, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The FFTF control systems provide control equipment for safe and efficient operation of the plant. For convenience, these systems will be divided into three parts for discussions: (1) Plant Protection System (PPS); (2) Plant Control System (PCS); and (3) General Observations. Performance of each of these systems is discussed

  1. Automatic control systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Yun Gi

    2004-01-01

    This book gives descriptions of automatic control for electrical electronics, which indicates history of automatic control, Laplace transform, block diagram and signal flow diagram, electrometer, linearization of system, space of situation, state space analysis of electric system, sensor, hydro controlling system, stability, time response of linear dynamic system, conception of root locus, procedure to draw root locus, frequency response, and design of control system.

  2. MEA vacuum system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stroo, R.; Schwebke, H.; Heine, E.

    1984-01-01

    This report describes construction and operation of the MEA vacuum system of NIKHEF (Netherlands). First, the klystron vacuum system, beam transport system, diode pump and a triode pump are described. Next, the isolation valve and the fast valves of the vacuum system are considered. Measuring instruments, vacuum system commands and messages of failures are treated in the last chapter. (G.J.P.)

  3. From systems biology to systems biomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Paul M A; Balling, Rudi; Vlassis, Nikos

    2012-08-01

    Systems Biology is about combining theory, technology, and targeted experiments in a way that drives not only data accumulation but knowledge as well. The challenge in Systems Biomedicine is to furthermore translate mechanistic insights in biological systems to clinical application, with the central aim of improving patients' quality of life. The challenge is to find theoretically well-chosen models for the contextually correct and intelligible representation of multi-scale biological systems. In this review, we discuss the current state of Systems Biology, highlight the emergence of Systems Biomedicine, and highlight some of the topics and views that we think are important for the efficient application of Systems Theory in Biomedicine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Mapping biological systems to network systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rathore, Heena

    2016-01-01

    The book presents the challenges inherent in the paradigm shift of network systems from static to highly dynamic distributed systems – it proposes solutions that the symbiotic nature of biological systems can provide into altering networking systems to adapt to these changes. The author discuss how biological systems – which have the inherent capabilities of evolving, self-organizing, self-repairing and flourishing with time – are inspiring researchers to take opportunities from the biology domain and map them with the problems faced in network domain. The book revolves around the central idea of bio-inspired systems -- it begins by exploring why biology and computer network research are such a natural match. This is followed by presenting a broad overview of biologically inspired research in network systems -- it is classified by the biological field that inspired each topic and by the area of networking in which that topic lies. Each case elucidates how biological concepts have been most successfully ...

  5. Environmental Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goals Recycling Green Purchasing Pollution Prevention Reusing Water Resources Environmental Management Stewardship » Environmental Protection » Environmental Management System Environmental Management System An Environmental Management System is a systematic method for assessing mission activities, determining the

  6. System floorplanning optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Browning, David W.; Elansary, Ayman; Shalaby, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Notebook and Laptop Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) place great emphasis on creating unique system designs to differentiate themselves in the mobile market. These systems are developed from the 'outside in' with the focus on how the system

  7. Connected motorcycle system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-15

    This project characterized the performance of Connected Vehicle Systems (CVS) on motorcycles based on two key components: global positioning and wireless communication systems. Considering that Global Positioning System (GPS) and 5.9 GHz Dedicated Sh...

  8. Antiskid braking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazdera, J. S.

    1974-01-01

    Published report describes analytical development and simulation of braking system. System prevents wheels from skidding when brakes are applied, significantly reducing stopping distance. Report also presents computer simulation study on system as applied to aircraft.

  9. Bridge Management Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    In this paper bridge management systems are discussed with special emphasis on management systems for reinforced concrete bridges. Management systems for prestressed concrete bridges, steel bridges, or composite bridges can be developed in a similar way....

  10. TWRSview system requirements specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldwell, J.A.; Lee, A.K.

    1995-12-01

    This document provides the system requirements specification for the TWRSview software system. The TWRSview software system is being developed to integrate electronic data supporting the development of the TWRS technical baseline

  11. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  12. Lungs and Respiratory System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Lungs and Respiratory System KidsHealth / For Parents / Lungs and Respiratory System ... ll have taken at least 600 million breaths. Respiratory System Basics All of this breathing couldn't ...

  13. The Trinity System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, Billy Joe [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vigil, Benny Manuel [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-13

    This paper describes the Trinity system, the first ASC Advanced Technology System (ATS-1). We describe the Trinity procurement timeline, the ASC computing strategy, the Trinity specific mission needs, and the Trinity system specifications.

  14. Pneumatic transfer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichler, H.; Boeck, H.; Hammer, J.; Buchtela, K.

    1988-11-01

    A pneumatic transfer system for research reactors, including a sample changer system and to be used for neutron activation analysis, is described. The system can be obtained commercially from the Atominstitut. 2 figs. (qui)

  15. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth / For Kids / Quiz: Immune System Print How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! About Us ...

  16. System floorplanning optimization

    KAUST Repository

    Browning, David W.; Ansary, Ayman M. El; Shalaby, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Notebook and Laptop Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) place great emphasis on creating unique system designs to differentiate themselves in the mobile market. These systems are developed from the 'outside in' with the focus on how the system

  17. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your autonomic nervous system is the part of your nervous system that controls involuntary actions, such as the beating of your heart ... breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result ...

  18. Central Nervous System Vasculitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Vasculitis / Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Central Nervous System (CNS) Vasculitis Swap out your current Facebook Profile ... Facebook personal page. Replace with this image. Central nervous system (CNS) vasculitis is inflammation of blood vessel walls ...

  19. Wind energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    A discussion on wind energy systems involved with the DOE wind energy program is presented. Some of the problems associated with wind energy systems are discussed. The cost, efficiency, and structural design of wind energy systems are analyzed.

  20. System Software 7 Macintosh

    CERN Multimedia

    1991-01-01

    System 7 is a single-user graphical user interface-based operating system for Macintosh computers and was part of the classic Mac OS line of operating systems. It was introduced on May 13, 1991, by Apple Computer. It succeeded System 6, and was the main Macintosh operating system until it was succeeded by Mac OS 8 in 1997. Features added with the System 7 release included virtual memory, personal file sharing, QuickTime, QuickDraw 3D, and an improved user interface. This is the first real major evolution of the Macintosh system, bringing a significant improvement in the user interface, improved stability and many new features such as the ability to use multiple applications at the same time. "System 7" is the last operating system name of the Macintosh that contains the word "system". Macintosh operating systems were later called "Mac OS" (for Macintosh Operating System).

  1. Marketing reporting system

    OpenAIRE

    Hanić Hasan M.

    2004-01-01

    The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  2. Marketing reporting system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanić Hasan M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The main components of a developed and good organized marketing information system are: internal reporting system, marketing reporting system, market research system and analytical marketing system. Marketing reporting system provides data and information about changes in business and micro marketing environment. This component of MIS ensures that marketing managers are up-to-date with what is going on, and to be informed about changes in company marketing environment.

  3. Propulsion Systems Panel deliberations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianca, Carmelo J.; Miner, Robert; Johnston, Lawrence M.; Bruce, R.; Dennies, Daniel P.; Dickenson, W.; Dreshfield, Robert; Karakulko, Walt; Mcgaw, Mike; Munafo, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Panel was established because of the specialized nature of many of the materials and structures technology issues related to propulsion systems. This panel was co-chaired by Carmelo Bianca, MSFC, and Bob Miner, LeRC. Because of the diverse range of missions anticipated for the Space Transportation program, three distinct propulsion system types were identified in the workshop planning process: liquid propulsion systems, solid propulsion systems and nuclear electric/nuclear thermal propulsion systems.

  4. Small test SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejen, Niels Kristian

    1999-01-01

    Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different.......Three small test SDHW systems was tested in a laboratory test facility.The three SDHW systems where all based on the low flow principe and a mantle tank but the design of the systems where different....

  5. Battery systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahn, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    A complete all-in-one reference on the important interdisciplinary topic of Battery Systems Engineering Focusing on the interdisciplinary area of battery systems engineering, this book provides the background, models, solution techniques, and systems theory that are necessary for the development of advanced battery management systems. It covers the topic from the perspective of basic electrochemistry as well as systems engineering topics and provides a basis for battery modeling for system engineering of electric and hybrid electric vehicle platforms. This original

  6. Gas transfer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberlin, J.C.; Frick, G.; Kempfer, C.; North, C.

    1988-09-01

    The state of work on the Vivitron gas transfer system and the system functions are summarized. The system has to: evacuate the Vivitron reservoir; transfer gas from storage tanks to the Vivitron; recirculate gas during operation; transfer gas from the Vivitron to storage tanks; and assure air input. The system is now being installed. Leak alarms are given by SF6 detectors, which set off a system of forced ventilation. Another system continuously monitors the amount of SF6 in the tanks [fr

  7. Cognitive Medical Multiagent Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barna Iantovics

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of efficient and flexible agent-based medical diagnosis systems represents a recent research direction. Medical multiagent systems may improve the efficiency of traditionally developed medical computational systems, like the medical expert systems. In our previous researches, a novel cooperative medical diagnosis multiagent system called CMDS (Contract Net Based Medical Diagnosis System was proposed. CMDS system can solve flexibly a large variety of medical diagnosis problems. This paper analyses the increased intelligence of the CMDS system, which motivates its use for different medical problem’s solving.

  8. Airports Geographic Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Airports Geographic Information System maintains the airport and aeronautical data required to meet the demands of the Next Generation National Airspace System....

  9. Aeronautical Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Aeronautical Information System (AIS) is a leased weather automated system that provides a means of collecting and distributing aeronautical weather information...

  10. Credit Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Credit Management System. Outsourced Internet-based application. CMS stores and processes data related to USAID credit programs. The system provides information...

  11. Control system design method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David G [Tijeras, NM; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2012-02-21

    A control system design method and concomitant control system comprising representing a physical apparatus to be controlled as a Hamiltonian system, determining elements of the Hamiltonian system representation which are power generators, power dissipators, and power storage devices, analyzing stability and performance of the Hamiltonian system based on the results of the determining step and determining necessary and sufficient conditions for stability of the Hamiltonian system, creating a stable control system based on the results of the analyzing step, and employing the resulting control system to control the physical apparatus.

  12. Neural Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As part of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and The Institute for System Research, the Neural Systems Laboratory studies the functionality of the...

  13. Integrated Systems Health Management for Intelligent Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando; Melcher, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The implementation of an integrated system health management (ISHM) capability is fundamentally linked to the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system. It is akin to having a team of experts who are all individually and collectively observing and analyzing a complex system, and communicating effectively with each other in order to arrive at an accurate and reliable assessment of its health. In this paper, concepts, procedures, and approaches are presented as a foundation for implementing an intelligent systems ]relevant ISHM capability. The capability stresses integration of DIaK from all elements of a system. Both ground-based (remote) and on-board ISHM capabilities are compared and contrasted. The information presented is the result of many years of research, development, and maturation of technologies, and of prototype implementations in operational systems.

  14. System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krantz, E.A.; Russell, K.D.; Stewart, H.D.; Van Siclen, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    Utilization of Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) related information in the day-to-day operation of plant systems has, in the past, been impracticable due to the size of the computers needed to run PRA codes. This paper discusses a microcomputer-based database system which can greatly enhance the capability of operators or regulators to incorporate PRA methodologies into their routine decision making. This system is called the System Analysis and Risk Assessment (SARA) system. SARA was developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc. at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to facilitate the study of frequency and consequence analyses of accident sequences from a large number of light water reactors (LWRs) in this country. This information is being amassed by several studies sponsored by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC). To meet the need of portability and accessibility, and to perform the variety of calculations necessary, it was felt that a microcomputer-based system would be most suitable

  15. Systems engineering for very large systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewkowicz, Paul E.

    Very large integrated systems have always posed special problems for engineers. Whether they are power generation systems, computer networks or space vehicles, whenever there are multiple interfaces, complex technologies or just demanding customers, the challenges are unique. 'Systems engineering' has evolved as a discipline in order to meet these challenges by providing a structured, top-down design and development methodology for the engineer. This paper attempts to define the general class of problems requiring the complete systems engineering treatment and to show how systems engineering can be utilized to improve customer satisfaction and profit ability. Specifically, this work will focus on a design methodology for the largest of systems, not necessarily in terms of physical size, but in terms of complexity and interconnectivity.

  16. Epilogue: Systems Approaches and Systems Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Each of the five systems approaches discussed in this volume: system dynamics (SD), the viable systems model (VSM), strategic options development and analysis (SODA), soft systems methodology (SSM) and critical systems heuristics (CSH) has a pedigree. Not in the sense of the sometimes absurd spectacle of animals paraded at dog shows. Rather, their pedigree derives from their systems foundations, their capacity to evolve and their flexibility in use. None of the five approaches has developed out of use in restricted and controlled contexts of either low or high levels of complicatedness. Neither has any one of them evolved as a consequence of being applied only to situations with either presumed stakeholder agreement on purpose, or courteous disagreement amongst stakeholders, or stakeholder coercion. The compilation is not a celebration of abstract ‘methodologies', but of theoretically robust approaches that have a genuine pedigree in practice.

  17. Systems analysis of a security alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiff, A.

    1975-01-01

    When the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory found that its security alarm system was causing more false alarms and maintenance costs than LLL felt was tolerable, a systems analysis was undertaken to determine what should be done about the situation. This report contains an analysis of security alarm systems in general and ends with a review of the existing Security Alarm Control Console (SACC) and recommendations for its improvement, growth and change. (U.S.)

  18. Precision digital control systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyskub, V. G.; Rozov, B. S.; Savelev, V. I.

    This book is concerned with the characteristics of digital control systems of great accuracy. A classification of such systems is considered along with aspects of stabilization, programmable control applications, digital tracking systems and servomechanisms, and precision systems for the control of a scanning laser beam. Other topics explored are related to systems of proportional control, linear devices and methods for increasing precision, approaches for further decreasing the response time in the case of high-speed operation, possibilities for the implementation of a logical control law, and methods for the study of precision digital control systems. A description is presented of precision automatic control systems which make use of electronic computers, taking into account the existing possibilities for an employment of computers in automatic control systems, approaches and studies required for including a computer in such control systems, and an analysis of the structure of automatic control systems with computers. Attention is also given to functional blocks in the considered systems.

  19. L-system fractals

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, Jibitesh

    2007-01-01

    The book covers all the fundamental aspects of generating fractals through L-system. Also it provides insight to various researches in this area for generating fractals through L-system approach & estimating dimensions. Also it discusses various applications of L-system fractals. Key Features: - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals - Dimension calculation for L-system fractals - Images & codes for L-system fractals - Research directions in the area of L-system fractals - Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area - Fractals generated from L-System including hybrid fractals- Dimension calculation for L-system fractals- Images & codes for L-system fractals- Research directions in the area of L-system fractals- Usage of various freely downloadable tools in this area

  20. Power system protection 2 systems and methods

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    The worldwide growth in demand for electricity has forced the pace of developments in electrical power system design to meet consumer needs for reliable, secure and cheap supplies. Power system protection, as a technology essential to high quality supply, is widely recognised as a specialism of growing and often critical importance, in which power system needs and technological progress have combined to result in rapid developments in policy and practice in recent years. In the United Kingdom, the need for appropriate training in power system protection was recognised in the early 1960s with t

  1. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  2. Unmanned Aerial System, New System Manning Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunn, Bruce P

    2006-01-01

    .... System safety and effectiveness, training, contractor operations and working conditions were evaluated for current UASs, including Hunter, Shadow, Predator, Improved Gnat, and to a lesser degree...

  3. Site systems engineering: Systems engineering management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-05-03

    The Site Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) implementation document for the Hanford Site Systems Engineering Policy, (RLPD 430.1) and Systems Engineering Criteria Document and Implementing Directive, (RLID 430.1). These documents define the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL) processes and products to be used at Hanford to implement the systems engineering process at the site level. This SEMP describes the products being provided by the site systems engineering activity in fiscal year (FY) 1996 and the associated schedule. It also includes the procedural approach being taken by the site level systems engineering activity in the development of these products and the intended uses for the products in the integrated planning process in response to the DOE policy and implementing directives. The scope of the systems engineering process is to define a set of activities and products to be used at the site level during FY 1996 or until the successful Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) is onsite as a result of contract award from Request For Proposal DE-RP06-96RL13200. Following installation of the new contractor, a long-term set of systems engineering procedures and products will be defined for management of the Hanford Project. The extent to which each project applies the systems engineering process and the specific tools used are determined by the project`s management.

  4. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System''s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section

  5. Radioisotope thermal photovoltaic application of the GaSb solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M. D.; Horne, W. E.; Day, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    An examination of a RTVP (radioisotopic thermophotovoltaic) conceptual design has shown a high potential for power densities well above those achievable with radioisotopic thermoelectric generator (RTG) systems. An efficiency of 14.4 percent and system specific power of 9.25 watts/kg were predicted for a system with sixteen GPHS (general purpose heat source) sources operating at 1100 C. The models also showed a 500 watt system power by the strontium-90 isotope at 1200 C at an efficiency of 17.0 percent and a system specific power of 11.8 watts/kg. The key to this level of performance is a high-quality photovoltaic cell with narrow bandgap and a reflective rear contact. Recent work at Boeing on GaSb cells and transparent back GaAs cells indicate that such a cell is well within reach.

  6. Systems integration of business systems. Business system ni kanshite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, H [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-09-26

    System integration (SI) is defined as combining hardwares and softwares as the infrastructures with know-hows for their use comprehensively to respond to high-level needs of users. This paper reports the features of an SI being developed by a company (E Company), its concept on the systematized development methodology, and the conceptual models. With the primary policy placed on creative integration standing on customers positions, the SI concept comprises three parts of models for evaluations as seen from the customers, evaluations as seen from the E Company, and the development object systems to link both parts. The third part is further consisted of several lower hierarchies including a customer controlled system hierarchy (this enables customers to control the system through visualization, for example, and includes three logic models (multiple solution selection, optimal solution under restricted conditions, and numerical solution)). 2 refs., 9 figs.

  7. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  8. Smart SDHW systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. A smart SDHW is a system in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top an...

  9. Information Systems Security Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Popescu; Veronica Adriana Popescu; Cristina Raluca Popescu

    2007-01-01

    The article covers:Defining an information system; benefits obtained by introducing new information technologies; IT management;Defining prerequisites, analysis, design, implementation of IS; Information security management system; aspects regarding IS security policy; Conceptual model of a security system; Auditing information security systems and network infrastructure security.

  10. Medical imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangioni, John V

    2013-06-25

    A medical imaging system provides simultaneous rendering of visible light and diagnostic or functional images. The system may be portable, and may include adapters for connecting various light sources and cameras in open surgical environments or laparascopic or endoscopic environments. A user interface provides control over the functionality of the integrated imaging system. In one embodiment, the system provides a tool for surgical pathology.

  11. Evolution of ERP systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wortmann, J.C.; Bititci, U.S.; Carrie, A.S.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the development of ERP systems over time. It explores both the functionality and the technology of ERP-systems. It explains the increased importance of ERP systems in practice. The paper also addresses the difficulties encountered in implementing ERP systems in real life. Modern

  12. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems). Digitale Prozessdaten-Kommunikations-Systeme (Bus Systeme)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleck, K

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG.

  13. EUCLID ARCHIVE SYSTEM PROTOTYPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belikov, Andrey; Williams, Owen; Droge, Bob; Tsyganov, Andrey; Boxhoorn, Danny; McFarland, John; Verdoes Kleijn, Gijs; Valentijn, E; Altieri, Bruno; Dabin, Christophe; Pasian, F.; Osuna, Pedro; Soille, P.; Marchetti, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    The Euclid Archive System prototype is a functional information system which is used to address the numerous challenges in the development of fully functional data processing system for Euclid. The prototype must support the highly distributed nature of the Euclid Science Ground System, with Science

  14. Product Service Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems......Departing from Product Development models based on physical artefacts. Moving towards integrated Product Development and System Operations models suited Product/Service-systems...

  15. Biogas plant control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasevicius, L.; Dervinis, G.; Macerauskas, V.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents intelligent control system for the pig farm biogas production process. The system uses a fuzzy logic models based on knowledge of experts and operators. Four fuzzy models are introduced. The adequacy of fuzzy models is verified using real data and MATLAB simulation. Proposed expert system is implemented into traditional SCADA system for biogas process prediction and failure analyzing. (authors)

  16. System Performance and Testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frei, U.; Oversloot, H.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter compares and contrasts the system performance of two widely used solar thermal systems using testing and simulation programs. Solar thermal systems are used in many countries for heating domestically used water. In addition to the simple thermosiphon systems, better designed pumped

  17. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  18. ERP–systems

    OpenAIRE

    Shustova I.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we analyzed the existing ERP–systems of foreign and domestic manufacturers. Popular ERP–systems in the Republic of Belarus were considered. The leading ERP-systems in the domestic market and their features were described in detail. Finally, we described the steps that must be taken to select the most suitable ERP-system for a particular company.

  19. Business advertisements management system

    OpenAIRE

    Rekel, Ernest

    2017-01-01

    Business Advertisements Management System The main goal of the project was to create a business advertisements management system, where users could easily create and find business advertisements. To accomplish this goal exist- ing systems were analyzed as well as their limitations. The end result is a working system which is able to store and proccess huge amount of data.

  20. Functional System Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Ligterink, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Functional system dynamics is the analysis, modelling, and simulation of continuous systems usually described by partial differential equations. From the infinite degrees of freedom of such systems only a finite number of relevant variables have to be chosen for a practical model description. The proper input and output of the system are an important part of the relevant variables.

  1. Type Systems for Bigraphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Ebbe; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Sangiorgi, Davide

    of controls and a set of reaction rules, collectively a bigraphical reactive system (BRS). Possible advantages of developing bigraphical type systems include: a deeper understanding of a type system itself and its properties; transfer of the type systems to the concrete family of calculi that the BRS models...

  2. Computer Operating System Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    FACILITY The Computer Management Information Facility ( CMIF ) system was developed by Rapp Systems to fulfill the need at the CRF to record and report on...computer center resource usage and utilization. The foundation of the CMIF system is a System 2000 data base (CRFMGMT) which stores and permits access

  3. Balancing for nonlinear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpen, J.M.A.

    1993-01-01

    We present a method of balancing for nonlinear systems which is an extension of balancing for linear systems in the sense that it is based on the input and output energy of a system. It is a local result, but gives 'broader' results than we obtain by just linearizing the system. Furthermore, the

  4. EPICS system: system structure and user interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, R.E.; Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Lahey, T.E.; Kramper, B.J.; MacKinnon, B.A.

    1984-02-01

    This paper present the user's view of and the general organization of the EPICS control system at Fermilab. Various subsystems of the EPICS control system are discussed. These include the user command language, software protection, the device database, remote computer interfaces, and several application utilities. This paper is related to two other papers on EPICS: an overview paper and a detailed implementation paper

  5. Probabilistic fuzzy systems as additive fuzzy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida, R.J.; Verbeek, N.; Kaymak, U.; Costa Sousa, da J.M.; Laurent, A.; Strauss, O.; Bouchon-Meunier, B.; Yager, R.

    2014-01-01

    Probabilistic fuzzy systems combine a linguistic description of the system behaviour with statistical properties of data. It was originally derived based on Zadeh’s concept of probability of a fuzzy event. Two possible and equivalent additive reasoning schemes were proposed, that lead to the

  6. System of Systems Analytic Workbench - 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-31

    Genetic Algorithm and Particle Swarm Optimization with Type-2 Fuzzy Sets for Generating Systems of Systems Architectures. Procedia Computer Science...The application effort involves modeling an existing messaging network to perform real-time situational awareness. The Analytical Workbench’s

  7. On generalized Volterra systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambides, S. A.; Damianou, P. A.; Evripidou, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    We construct a large family of evidently integrable Hamiltonian systems which are generalizations of the KM system. The algorithm uses the root system of a complex simple Lie algebra. The Hamiltonian vector field is homogeneous cubic but in a number of cases a simple change of variables transforms such a system to a quadratic Lotka-Volterra system. We present in detail all such systems in the cases of A3, A4 and we also give some examples from higher dimensions. We classify all possible Lotka-Volterra systems that arise via this algorithm in the An case.

  8. Transdisciplinarity Needs Systemism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Hofkirchner

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The main message of this paper is that systemism is best suited for transdisciplinary studies. A description of disciplinary sciences, transdisciplinary sciences and systems sciences is given, along with their different definitions of aims, scope and tools. The rationale for transdisciplinarity is global challenges, which are complex. The rationale for systemism is the concretization of understanding complexity. Drawing upon Ludwig von Bertalanffy’s intention of a General System Theory, three items deserve attention—the world-view of a synergistic systems technology, the world picture of an emergentist systems theory, and the way of thinking of an integrationist systems method.

  9. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present an economic model of systemic risk in which undercapitalization of the financial sector as a whole is assumed to harm the real economy, leading to a systemic risk externality. Each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall...... of components of SES to predict emerging systemic risk during the financial crisis of 2007–2009....

  10. Multiprocessor data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haumann, J.R.; Crawford, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    A multiprocessor data acquisition system has been built to replace the single processor systems at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory. The multiprocessor system was needed to accommodate the higher data rates at IPNS brought about by improvements in the source and changes in instrument configurations. This paper describes the hardware configuration of the system and the method of task sharing and compares results to the single processor system

  11. Genetics, systems, and alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClearn, G E

    1993-03-01

    Under a variety of rubrics (e.g., complexity, self-constructing systems, dissipative structures), interest has recently burgeoned in applying principles of complex systems to a wide variety of scientific issues. A major concern is with emergent properties of systems not derivable from the properties of components of the systems. In this paper, some elementary aspects of "systems" considerations are applied to phenomena of alcohol pharmacogenetics. It is likely that whole new families of informative phenotypes can be generated by this approach.

  12. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  13. Satellite services system overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysavy, G.

    1982-01-01

    The benefits of a satellite services system and the basic needs of the Space Transportation System to have improved satellite service capability are identified. Specific required servicing equipment are discussed in terms of their technology development status and their operative functions. Concepts include maneuverable television systems, extravehicular maneuvering unit, orbiter exterior lighting, satellite holding and positioning aid, fluid transfer equipment, end effectors for the remote manipulator system, teleoperator maneuvering system, and hand and power tools.

  14. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  15. The control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The present control system has matured both in terms of age and capacity. Thus a new system based on a local area network (LAN) is being developed. A pilot project has been started but, owing to difficulties encountered with the present operating system used with the microprocessors, it has become necessary to reconsider the choice of operating system. A recently-released multi-tasking operating system that runs on the existing hardware has been chosen. 1 fig

  16. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  17. Evolvable synthetic neural system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Steven A. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An evolvable synthetic neural system includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to at least one neural basis function. Each neural basis function includes an evolvable neural interface operably coupled to a heuristic neural system to perform high-level functions and an autonomic neural system to perform low-level functions. In some embodiments, the evolvable synthetic neural system is operably coupled to one or more evolvable synthetic neural systems in a hierarchy.

  18. Telemetry System Data Latency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-13

    latencies will be measured. DATS Network TM Antenna TM ReceiverMCS System IOPlex IOPlexIADS CDS IADS Client TM Transmitter Sensors Signal Conditioning...TIME Figure 1-2 Mission Control System (MCS) / Interactive Analysis and Display System (IADS) Overview IADS CDSIADS Client TELEMETRY SYSTEM DATA...Sim GPS Signal Combiner MCS system Oscilloscope IADS Client IADS CDS Figure 13-1 IADS Data Flow 13.2. Test Results The results of the data test at

  19. Systems Theory and Systems Approach to Leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Berim Ramosaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems theory is product of the efforts of many researchers to create an intermediate field of coexistence of all sciences. If not for anything else, because of the magnitude that the use of systemic thinking and systemic approach has taken, it has become undisputed among the theories. Systems theory not only provides a glossary of terms with which researchers from different fields can be understood, but provides a framework for the presentation and interpretation of phenomena and realities. This paper addresses a systematic approach to leadership, as an attempt to dredge leadership and systems theory literature to find the meeting point. Systems approach is not an approach to leadership in terms of a manner of leader’s work, but it’s the leader's determination to factorize in his leadership the external environment and relationships with and among elements. Leader without followers is unable to exercise his leadership and to ensure their conviction he should provide a system, a structure, a purpose, despite the alternative chaos. Systems approach clarifies the thought on the complexity and dynamism of the environment and provides a framework for building ideas. If the general system theory is the skeleton of science (Boulding: 1956, this article aims to replenish it with leadership muscles by prominent authors who have written on systems theory and leadership, as well as through original ideas. In this work analytical methods were used (by analyzing approaches individually as well as synthetic methods (by assaying individual approaches in context of entirety. The work is a critical review of literature as well as a deductive analysis mingled with models proposed by authors through inductive analysis. Meta-analysis has been used to dissect the interaction and interdependence between leadership approaches.

  20. A distribution management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verho, P.; Jaerventausta, P.; Kaerenlampi, M.; Paulasaari, H. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion of the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the vendors of the other systems. In the research project this alternative is preferred and used in developing an independent distribution management system

  1. A distribution management system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verho, P; Jaerventausta, P; Kaerenlampi, M; Paulasaari, H [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland); Partanen, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The development of new distribution automation applications is considerably wide nowadays. One of the most interesting areas is the development of a distribution management system (DMS) as an expansion of the traditional SCADA system. At the power transmission level such a system is called an energy management system (EMS). The idea of these expansions is to provide supporting tools for control center operators in system analysis and operation planning. The needed data for new applications is mainly available in some existing systems. Thus the computer systems of utilities must be integrated. The main data source for the new applications in the control center are the AM/FM/GIS (i.e. the network database system), the SCADA, and the customer information system (CIS). The new functions can be embedded in some existing computer system. This means a strong dependency on the vendor of the existing system. An alternative strategy is to develop an independent system which is integrated with other computer systems using well-defined interfaces. The latter approach makes it possible to use the new applications in various computer environments, having only a weak dependency on the vendors of the other systems. In the research project this alternative is preferred and used in developing an independent distribution management system

  2. Modeling Power Systems as Complex Adaptive Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassin, David P.; Malard, Joel M.; Posse, Christian; Gangopadhyaya, Asim; Lu, Ning; Katipamula, Srinivas; Mallow, J V.

    2004-12-30

    Physical analogs have shown considerable promise for understanding the behavior of complex adaptive systems, including macroeconomics, biological systems, social networks, and electric power markets. Many of today's most challenging technical and policy questions can be reduced to a distributed economic control problem. Indeed, economically based control of large-scale systems is founded on the conjecture that the price-based regulation (e.g., auctions, markets) results in an optimal allocation of resources and emergent optimal system control. This report explores the state-of-the-art physical analogs for understanding the behavior of some econophysical systems and deriving stable and robust control strategies for using them. We review and discuss applications of some analytic methods based on a thermodynamic metaphor, according to which the interplay between system entropy and conservation laws gives rise to intuitive and governing global properties of complex systems that cannot be otherwise understood. We apply these methods to the question of how power markets can be expected to behave under a variety of conditions.

  3. Rover waste assay system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Rover waste assay system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched 235 U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for 137 Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Micro Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulslev Pedersen, Rasmus; Kühn Pedersen, Mogens

    2014-01-01

    such as medical and manufacturing. These new sensor applications have implications for information systems (IS) and, the authors visualize this new class of information systems as fractals growing from an established class of systems; namely that of information systems (IS). The identified applications...... and implications are used as an empirical basis for creating a model for these small new information systems. Such sensor systems are called embedded systems in the technical sciences, and the authors want to couple it with general IS. They call the merger of these two important research areas (IS and embedded...... systems) for micro information systems (micro-IS). It is intended as a new research field within IS research. An initial framework model is established, which seeks to capture both the possibilities and constraints of this new paradigm, while looking simultaneously at the fundamental IS and ICT aspects...

  6. ITER cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natalizio, A.; Hollies, R.E.; Sochaski, R.O.; Stubley, P.H.

    1992-06-01

    The ITER reference system uses low-temperature water for heat removal and high-temperature helium for bake-out. As these systems share common equipment, bake-out cannot be performed until the cooling system is drained and dried, and the reactor cannot be started until the helium has been purged from the cooling system. This study examines the feasibility of using a single high-temperature fluid to perform both heat removal and bake-out. The high temperature required for bake-out would also be in the range for power production. The study examines cost, operational benefits, and impact on reactor safety of two options: a high-pressure water system, and a low-pressure organic system. It was concluded that the cost savings and operational benefits are significant; there are no significant adverse safety impacts from operating either the water system or the organic system; and the capital costs of both systems are comparable

  7. System performance optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarz, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    The System Performance Optimization has become an important and difficult field for large scientific computer centres. Important because the centres must satisfy increasing user demands at the lowest possible cost. Difficult because the System Performance Optimization requires a deep understanding of hardware, software and workload. The optimization is a dynamic process depending on the changes in hardware configuration, current level of the operating system and user generated workload. With the increasing complication of the computer system and software, the field for the optimization manoeuvres broadens. The hardware of two manufacturers IBM and CDC is discussed. Four IBM and two CDC operating systems are described. The description concentrates on the organization of the operating systems, the job scheduling and I/O handling. The performance definitions, workload specification and tools for the system stimulation are given. The measurement tools for the System Performance Optimization are described. The results of the measurement and various methods used for the operating system tuning are discussed. (Auth.)

  8. NASA systems engineering handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Aster, Robert; Chamberlain, Robert G.; McDuffee, Patrick; Pieniazek, Les; Rowell, Tom; Bain, Beth; Cox, Renee I.; Mooz, Harold; Polaski, Lou

    1995-06-01

    This handbook brings the fundamental concepts and techniques of systems engineering to NASA personnel in a way that recognizes the nature of NASA systems and environment. It is intended to accompany formal NASA training courses on systems engineering and project management when appropriate, and is designed to be a top-level overview. The concepts were drawn from NASA field center handbooks, NMI's/NHB's, the work of the NASA-wide Systems Engineering Working Group and the Systems Engineering Process Improvement Task team, several non-NASA textbooks and guides, and material from independent systems engineering courses taught to NASA personnel. Five core chapters cover systems engineering fundamentals, the NASA Project Cycle, management issues in systems engineering, systems analysis and modeling, and specialty engineering integration. It is not intended as a directive.

  9. Expert systems and computer based industrial systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunand, R.

    1989-01-01

    Framentec is the artificial intelligence subsidiary of FRAMATOME. It is involved in expert-system activities of Shells, developments, methodology and software for maintenance (Maintex) and consulting and methodology. Specific applications in the nuclear field are presented. The first is an expert system to assist in the piping support design prototype, the second is an expert system that assists an ultrasonic testing operator in determining the nature of a welding defect and the third is a welding machine diagnosis advisor. Maintex is a software tool to provide assistance in the repair of complex industrial equipment. (author)

  10. Visualization System for Monitoring Data Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Pinho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Usually, a Big Data system has a monitoring system for performance evaluation and error prevention. There are some disadvantages in the way that these tools display the information and its targeted approach to physical components. The main goal is to study visual and interactive mechanisms that allow the representation of monitoring data in grid computing environments, providing the end-user information, which can contribute objectively to the system analysis. This paper is an extension of the paper presented at (Pinho and Carvalho 2016 and has the purpose to present the state of the art, carries out the proposed solution and present the achieved goals.

  11. System architecture for microprocessor based protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, J.M. Jr.; Lilly, G.M.

    1976-01-01

    This paper discusses the architectural design features to be employed by Westinghouse in the application of distributed digital processing techniques to the protection system. While the title of the paper makes specific reference to microprocessors, this is only one (and the newest) of the building blocks which constitutes a distributed digital processing system. The actual system structure (as realized through utilization of the various building blocks) is established through considerations of reliability, licensability, and cost. It is the intent of the paper to address these considerations licenstions as they relate to the architectural design features. (orig.) [de

  12. Embedded systems handbook networked embedded systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zurawski, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Considered a standard industry resource, the Embedded Systems Handbook provided researchers and technicians with the authoritative information needed to launch a wealth of diverse applications, including those in automotive electronics, industrial automated systems, and building automation and control. Now a new resource is required to report on current developments and provide a technical reference for those looking to move the field forward yet again. Divided into two volumes to accommodate this growth, the Embedded Systems Handbook, Second Edition presents a comprehensive view on this area

  13. Modern system architectures in embedded systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korhonen, T.

    2012-01-01

    Several new technologies are making their way also in embedded systems. In addition to the FPGA technology which has become commonplace, multi-core CPUs and I/O virtualization (the implementation of the tasks of a software hyper-visor in hardware to improve the efficiency) are being introduced to the embedded systems. In this paper we review the trends and discuss how to take advantage of these features in control systems. Some potential application examples like parallelization, data streaming, high-speed data acquisition and virtualization are discussed

  14. Nonlinearity of colloid systems oxyhydrate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sucharev, Yuri I

    2008-01-01

    The present monograph is the first systematic study of the non-linear characteristic of gel oxy-hydrate systems involving d- and f- elements. These are the oxyhydrates of rare-earth elements and oxides - hydroxides of d- elements (zirconium, niobium, titanium, etc.) The non-linearity of these gel systems introduces fundamental peculiarities into their structure and, consequently, their properties. The polymer-conformational diversity of energetically congenial gel fragments, which continu-ously transform under the effect of, for instance, system dissipation heat, is central to the au-thor's hy

  15. Information system development activities and inquiring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carugati, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a framework that maps information system development (ISD) activities on systems for the creation of knowledge. This work addresses the relevant and persisting problem of improving the chances of ISD success. The article builds upon previous research on knowledge aspects...... based on ISD literature and on Churchman's (1971) inquiring systems. The second part presents the use of the framework in an ISD project. The case is used to show the applicability of the framework and to highlight the advantages of this approach. The main theoretical implication is that the framework...

  16. Automatic remote communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yoichi

    1990-05-01

    The Upgraded RECOVER (Remote Continual Verification) system is a communication system for remote continual verification of security and safeguards status of nuclear material in principal nuclear facilities. The system is composed of a command center and facility sub-systems. A command center is a mini-computer system to process C/S (Containment and Surveillance) status data. Facility sub-systems consists of OSM (On-site Multiplexer), MU (Monitoring Unit) and C/S sensor. The system uses public telephone network for communication between a command center and facility sub-systems, and it encrypts communication data to prevent falsification and wiretapping by unauthorized persons. This system inherits the design principle of RECOVER system that was tested by IAEA before. We upgraded and expanded its capabilities more than those of RECOVER. The development of this system began in 1983, and it finished in 1987. Performance tests of the system were carried out since 1987. It showed a farely good result with some indications which should need further improvements. The Upgraded RECOVER system provides timely information about the status of C/S systems, which could contribute to the reduction of inspection effort and the improvement of cost performance. (author)

  17. Photovoltaic systems engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Messenger, Roger A

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundPopulation and Energy DemandEnergy UnitsCurrent World Energy Use PatternsExponential GrowthHubbert's Gaussian ModelNet Energy, Btu Economics, and the Test for SustainabilityDirect Conversion of Sunlight to Electricity with PhotovoltaicsThe SunThe Solar SpectrumThe Effect of Atmosphere on SunlightSunlight SpecificsCapturing SunlightIntroduction to PV SystemsThe PV CellThe PV ModuleThe PV ArrayEnergy StoragePV System LoadsPV System AvailabilityAssociated System Electronic ComponentsGeneratorsBalance of System (BOS) ComponentsGrid-Connected Utility-Interactive PV SystemsApplicable Codes and StandardsDesign Considerations for Straight Grid-Connected PV SystemsDesign of a System Based on Desired Annual System PerformanceDesign of a System Based on Available Roof SpaceDesign of a Microinverter-Based SystemDesign of a Nominal 21 kW System that Feeds a Three-Phase Distribution PanelDesign of a Nominal 250 kW SystemSystem Performance MonitoringMechanical ConsiderationsImportant Properties of MaterialsEstabli...

  18. T-systems and Y-systems in integrable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuniba, Atsuo; Nakanishi, Tomoki; Suzuki, Junji

    2011-01-01

    T- and Y-systems are ubiquitous structures in classical and quantum integrable systems. They are difference equations having a variety of aspects related to commuting transfer matrices in solvable lattice models, q-characters of Kirillov-Reshetikhin modules of quantum affine algebras, cluster algebras with coefficients, periodicity conjectures of Zamolodchikov and others, dilogarithm identities in conformal field theory, difference analog of L-operators in KP hierarchy, Stokes phenomena in 1D Schroedinger problem, AdS/CFT correspondence, Toda field equations on discrete spacetime, Laplace sequence in discrete geometry, Fermionic character formulas and combinatorial completeness of Bethe ansatz, Q-system and ideal gas with exclusion statistics, analytic and thermodynamic Bethe ansaetze, quantum transfer matrix method and so forth. This review is a collection of short reviews on these topics which can be read more or less independently. (topical review)

  19. T-systems and Y-systems in integrable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuniba, Atsuo [Institute of Physics, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Tokyo 153-8902 (Japan); Nakanishi, Tomoki [Graduate School of Mathematics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8604 (Japan); Suzuki, Junji, E-mail: atsuo@gokutan.c.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Shizuoka University, Ohya 836 (Japan)

    2011-03-11

    T- and Y-systems are ubiquitous structures in classical and quantum integrable systems. They are difference equations having a variety of aspects related to commuting transfer matrices in solvable lattice models, q-characters of Kirillov-Reshetikhin modules of quantum affine algebras, cluster algebras with coefficients, periodicity conjectures of Zamolodchikov and others, dilogarithm identities in conformal field theory, difference analog of L-operators in KP hierarchy, Stokes phenomena in 1D Schroedinger problem, AdS/CFT correspondence, Toda field equations on discrete spacetime, Laplace sequence in discrete geometry, Fermionic character formulas and combinatorial completeness of Bethe ansatz, Q-system and ideal gas with exclusion statistics, analytic and thermodynamic Bethe ansaetze, quantum transfer matrix method and so forth. This review is a collection of short reviews on these topics which can be read more or less independently. (topical review)

  20. Cooperating systems: Layered MAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochowiak, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Distributed intelligent systems can be distinguished by the models that they use. The model developed focuses on layered multiagent system conceived of as a bureaucracy in which a distributed data base serves as a central means of communication. The various generic bureaus of such a system is described and a basic vocabulary for such systems is presented. In presenting the bureaus and vocabularies, special attention is given to the sorts of reasonings that are appropriate. A bureaucratic model has a hierarchy of master system and work group that organizes E agents and B agents. The master system provides the administrative services and support facilities for the work groups.

  1. Simulation of Polygeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This Special Issue aims at collecting the recent studies dealing with polygeneration systems, with a special focus on the possible integration of different technologies into a single system, able to convert one or multiple energy sources into energy services (electricity, heat and cooling and other useful products (e.g., desalinized water, hydrogen, glycerin, ammonia, etc.. Renewable sources (solar, wind, hydro, biomass and geothermal, as well as fossil fuels, feeding advanced energy systems such as fuel cells and cogeneration systems, are considered. Special attention is paid to control strategies and to the management of the systems in general. Studies including thermoeconomic analyses and system optimizations are presented.

  2. The BELLE DAQ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Soh Yamagata; Yamauchi, Masanori; Nakao, Mikihiko; Itoh, Ryosuke; Fujii, Hirofumi

    2000-10-01

    We built a data acquisition system for the BELLE experiment. The system was designed to cope with the average trigger rate up to 500 Hz at the typical event size of 30 kB. This system has five components: (1) the readout sequence controller, (2) the FASTBUS-TDC readout systems using charge-to-time conversion, (3) the barrel shifter event builder, (4) the parallel online computing farm, and (5) the data transfer system to the mass storage. This system has been in operation for physics data taking since June 1999 without serious problems.

  3. The BELLE DAQ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Soh Yamagata; Yamauchi, Masanori; Nakao, Mikihiko; Itoh, Ryosuke; Fujii, Hirofumi

    2000-01-01

    We built a data acquisition system for the BELLE experiment. The system was designed to cope with the average trigger rate up to 500 Hz at the typical event size of 30 kB. This system has five components: (1) the readout sequence controller, (2) the FASTBUS-TDC readout systems using charge-to-time conversion, (3) the barrel shifter event builder, (4) the parallel online computing farm, and (5) the data transfer system to the mass storage. This system has been in operation for physics data taking since June 1999 without serious problems

  4. Reliable computer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, L L; Pinkert, J R

    1993-11-01

    In this article, we looked at some decisions that apply to the design of reliable computer systems. We began with a discussion of several terms such as testability, then described some systems that call for highly reliable hardware and software. The article concluded with a discussion of methods that can be used to achieve higher reliability in computer systems. Reliability and fault tolerance in computers probably will continue to grow in importance. As more and more systems are computerized, people will want assurances about the reliability of these systems, and their ability to work properly even when sub-systems fail.

  5. Adaptive intrusion data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.S.

    1976-01-01

    An Adaptive Intrusion Data System (AIDS) was developed to collect data from intrusion alarm sensors as part of an evaluation system to improve sensor performance. AIDS is a unique digital data compression, storage, and formatting system. It also incorporates capability for video selection and recording for assessment of the sensors monitored by the system. The system is software reprogrammable to numerous configurations that may be utilized for the collection of environmental, bi-level, analog and video data. The output of the system is digital tapes formatted for direct data reduction on a CDC 6400 computer, and video tapes containing timed tagged information that can be correlated with the digital data

  6. Introducing Systems Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Martin; Holwell, Sue

    Systems Approaches to Managing Change brings together five systems approaches to managing complex issues, each having a proven track record of over 25 years. The five approaches are: System Dynamics (SD) developed originally in the late 1950s by Jay Forrester Viable Systems Model (VSM) developed originally in the late 1960s by Stafford Beer Strategic Options Development and Analysis (SODA: with cognitive mapping) developed originally in the 1970s by Colin Eden Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) developed originally in the 1970s by Peter Checkland Critical Systems Heuristics (CSH) developed originally in the late 1970s by Werner Ulrich

  7. EPICS system: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartlett, J.F.; Bobbitt, J.S.; Kramper, B.J.; Lahey, T.E.; MacKinnon, B.A.; West, R.E.

    1984-02-01

    This paper presents an overview of the EPICS control system at FERMILAB. EPICS is a distributed, multi-user, interactive system for the control and monitoring of particle beamlines at a high-energy experimental physics laboratory. The overview discusses the operating environment of the control system, the requirements which determined the design decisions, the hardware and software configurations, and plans for the future growth and enhancement of the present system. This paper is the first of three related papers on the EPICS system. The other two cover (1) the system structure and user interface and (2) RSX implementation issues

  8. Nonlinear Hamiltonian systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Finn

    1995-01-01

    It is generally very difficult to solve nonlinear systems, and such systems often possess chaotic solutions. In the rare event that a system is completely solvable, it is said to integrable. Such systems never have chaotic solutions. Using the Inverse Scattering Transform Method (ISTM) two...... particular configurations of the Discrete Self-Trapping (DST) system are shown to be completely solvable. One of these systems includes the Toda lattice in a certain limit. An explicit integration is carried through for this Near-Toda lattice. The Near-Toda lattice is then generalized to include singular...

  9. LCA of Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurent, Alexis; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2018-01-01

    Energy systems are essential in the support of modern societies’ activities, and can span a wide spectrum of electricity and heat generation systems and cooling systems. Along with their central role and large diversity, these systems have been demonstrated to cause serious impacts on human health...... , ecosystems and natural resources. Over the past two decades, energy systems have thus been the focus of more than 1000 LCA studies, with the aim to identify and reduce these impacts. This chapter addresses LCA applications to energy systems for generation of electricity and heat . The chapter gives insight...

  10. Two Tethered Balloon Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngbluth, Otto; Owens, Thomas L.; Storey, Richard W.

    1990-01-01

    Systems take meteorological measurements for variety of research projects. Report describes work done by NASA Langley Research Center in atmospheric research using tethered balloon systems composed of commercially available equipment. Two separate tethered balloon systems described in report have payloads and configurations tailored to requirements of specific projects. Each system capable of measuring atmospheric parameter or species in situ and then telemetering this data in real time to ground station. Meteorological data and concentration of ozone typically measured. Indicates instrumented tethered balloon systems have distinct advantages over other systems for gathering data on troposphere.

  11. Microelectronic systems 1 checkbook

    CERN Document Server

    Vears, R E

    2013-01-01

    Microelectronic Systems 1 Checkbook provides coverage of the Business and Technician Education Council level 1 unit in Microelectronic Systems. However, it can be regarded as a basic textbook in microelectronic systems for a much wider range of studies. Each topic considered in the text is presented in a way that assumes the reader has little prior knowledge of electronics. The aim of the book is to provide an introduction to the concept of systems, to differentiate analogue and digital systems, and to describe the nature of microprocessor-controlled systems. An introduction to programming is

  12. Quality data systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, J.E.; Patterson, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    General Electric's Nuclear Fuel Department data system strategy of multifunctional system integration and specific applications of data systems for the Quality Assurance Programme is detailed. Descriptions of two manufacturing control systems and their function in satisfying quality data requirements are included. The timesharing quality data system developed for processing laboratory, traceability and material release data in the Fuel Manufacturing Operation is described. In addition, specific references are made to those areas where significant time reductions have been realized through the utilization of mechanized data-handling systems. (author)

  13. Water Fluoridation Reporting System (Public Water Systems)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Water Fluoridation Reporting System (WFRS) has been developed to provide tools to assist states in managing fluoridation programs. WFRS is designed to track all...

  14. Combat Systems Department Employee Recognition System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    This handbook contains two types of information: guidelines and instructions. The guidelines provide a foundation of purpose, assumptions, principles, expectations and attributes the Employee Recognition System is designed to reflect...

  15. Test System Impact on System Availability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pau, L. F.

    1987-01-01

    The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance of the sys......The specifications are presented for an imperfect automatic test system (ATS) (test frequency distribution, reliability, false alarm rate, nondetection rate) in order to account for the availability, readiness, mean time between unscheduled repairs (MTBUR), reliability, and maintenance...... of the system subject to monitoring and test. A time-dependent Markov model is presented, and applied in three cases, with examples of numerical results provided for preventive maintenance decisions, design of an automatic test system, buffer testing in computers, and data communications....

  16. An expert system for reward systems design.

    OpenAIRE

    Erturk, Alper

    2000-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Today's business environment is a highly competitive marketplace. In this competition, organizations distribute numerous rewards to motivate, attract and retain employees, such as pay, fringe benefits and promotions. However, not all managers have the necessary knowledge and expertise to effectively decide and structure reward systems. This thesis presents an expert system to assist managers with designing the most appropriate reward s...

  17. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.; Novotny, R.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES)

  18. Solar power satellite system; Uchu hatsuden system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, S [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-09-05

    The solar power satellite system is a system that converts solar energy into electric energy in the space, transmits power to earth through wireless resort such as microwave and supplies energy of new concept. In order to realize this system it is necessary to have new technologies such as space power transmission at low cost, construction of large space buildings and wireless high power transmission. In this paper, the principles, characteristics and the necessary technology of this system were explained. Besides Japan`s SPS2000 Plan (cooperative research by universities, government agencies and private corporations on the model of solar power satellite) the group of Europe, Russia and the United States has also proposed some ideas concerning the solar power satellite system. As far as the microwave power transmission, which is the key technology for solar power satellite system, is concerned, ground demonstration tests at the level of several tens of kW are discussed in Canada and France. 3 refs., 3 figs.

  19. System and method for creating expert systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Peter M. (Inventor); Luczak, Edward C. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A system and method provides for the creation of a highly graphical expert system without the need for programming in code. An expert system is created by initially building a data interface, defining appropriate Mission, User-Defined, Inferred, and externally-generated GenSAA (EGG) data variables whose data values will be updated and input into the expert system. Next, rules of the expert system are created by building appropriate conditions of the rules which must be satisfied and then by building appropriate actions of rules which are to be executed upon corresponding conditions being satisfied. Finally, an appropriate user interface is built which can be highly graphical in nature and which can include appropriate message display and/or modification of display characteristics of a graphical display object, to visually alert a user of the expert system of varying data values, upon conditions of a created rule being satisfied. The data interface building, rule building, and user interface building are done in an efficient manner and can be created without the need for programming in code.

  20. Business system: Sustainable development and anticipatory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Potočan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence and development of humankind depends mainly upon the co-ordinated operation of all areas and levels of human activity. However, in theory and in practice there is no model of operation, which would provide a harmonized and target oriented development. A partial solution is offered by sustainable development, which tries to define and carry out common goals of mankind with a harmonized implementation of human activities at all levels of its living and behaviour. Companies belong to central institutions of modern society which essentially co–create the sustainability of society. The company’s endeavour by simulation to prepare models of their goals concerning their internal and external environment. On the base of systemic treatment, we can define companies as business system, which can survive in a log-run only on the basis of sustainable development. The business system can also be supported by the application of the anticipatory systems. The anticipatory systems can be, in this sense, understood as an entity of the methodological approach, techniques and modes of work. Their characteristics have, a direct impact on the determination of goals, on the orientation of operation, and hence on the achievement of the business system results.

  1. Operating System for Runtime Reconfigurable Multiprocessor Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Göhringer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating systems traditionally handle the task scheduling of one or more application instances on processor-like hardware architectures. RAMPSoC, a novel runtime adaptive multiprocessor System-on-Chip, exploits the dynamic reconfiguration on FPGAs to generate, start and terminate hardware and software tasks. The hardware tasks have to be transferred to the reconfigurable hardware via a configuration access port. The software tasks can be loaded into the local memory of the respective IP core either via the configuration access port or via the on-chip communication infrastructure (e.g. a Network-on-Chip. Recent-series of Xilinx FPGAs, such as Virtex-5, provide two Internal Configuration Access Ports, which cannot be accessed simultaneously. To prevent conflicts, the access to these ports as well as the hardware resource management needs to be controlled, e.g. by a special-purpose operating system running on an embedded processor. For that purpose and to handle the relations between temporally and spatially scheduled operations, the novel approach of an operating system is of high importance. This special purpose operating system, called CAP-OS (Configuration Access Port-Operating System, which will be presented in this paper, supports the clients using the configuration port with the services of priority-based access scheduling, hardware task mapping and resource management.

  2. FFTF gas processing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halverson, T.G.

    1977-01-01

    The design and operation of the two radioactive gas processing systems at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) exemplifies the concept that will be used in the first generation of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR's). The two systems, the Radioactive Argon Processing System (RAPS) and the Cell Atmosphere Processing System (CAPS), process the argon and nitrogen used in the FFTF for cover gas on liquid metal systems and as inert atmospheres in steel lined cells housing sodium equipment. The RAPS specifically processes the argon cover gas from the reactor coolant system, providing for decontamination and eventual reuse. The CAPS processes radioactive gasses from inerted cells and other liquid metal cover gas systems, providing for decontamination and ultimate discharge to the atmosphere. The cryogenic processing of waste gas by both systems is described

  3. Optical Airborne Tracker System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Airborne Tracker System (OATS) is an airborne dual-axis optical tracking system capable of pointing at any sky location or ground target.  The objectives...

  4. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  5. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Immune System Print en español El sistema inmunitario The immune system, which is made up ... of Use Notice of Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for ...

  6. Designing automatic resupply systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, M L

    1999-02-01

    This article outlines the process for designing and implementing autoresupply systems. The planning process includes determination of goals and appropriate participation. Different types of autoresupply mechanisms include kanban, breadman, consignment, systems contracts, and direct shipping from an MRP schedule.

  7. Organizing Systemic Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.P.H. Jaspers (Ferdinand)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractSystemic innovation refers to product development activities that involve the change of multiple interdependent components. Unlike autonomous innovation, which refers to components that change independently, systemic innovation is for many firms the norm rather than the exception. This

  8. FAA Directives System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-26

    Consistent with the Federal Aviation Administration's mission to foster a safe, : secure, and efficient aviation system is the need for an effective and efficient : process for communitcating policy and procedures. The FAA Directives System : provide...

  9. Geographical information systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2004-01-01

    The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management.......The chapter gives an introduction to Geographical Information Systems (GIS) with particular focus on their application within environmental management....

  10. Septic Systems Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collection of septic systems case studies to help community planners, elected officials, health department staff, state officials, and interested citizens explore alternatives for managing their decentralized wastewater treatment systems.

  11. Inductive Monitoring System (IMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — IMS: Inductive Monitoring System The Inductive Monitoring System (IMS) is a tool that uses a data mining technique called clustering to extract models of normal...

  12. Visitor Registration System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Visitor Registration System (VRS) streamlines visitor check-in and check-out process for expediting visitors into USAID. The system captures visitor information...

  13. Information retrieval system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, R. F.; Holcomb, J. E.; Kelroy, E. A.; Levine, D. A.; Mee, C., III

    1970-01-01

    Generalized information storage and retrieval system capable of generating and maintaining a file, gathering statistics, sorting output, and generating final reports for output is reviewed. File generation and file maintenance programs written for the system are general purpose routines.

  14. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  15. Integrated Reporting Information System -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Integrated Reporting Information System (IRIS) is a flexible and scalable web-based system that supports post operational analysis and evaluation of the National...

  16. HVAC systems and equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, S.T. (Linford Air and Refrigeration Company, Oakland, CA (US))

    1990-02-01

    The author discusses the section of the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989 which addresses HVAC systems and equipment. New features of HVAC systems mandatory general requirements are described. New prescriptive requirements are detailed.

  17. Integrated security system definition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.K.; Hall, J.R. II

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of an integrated security system are to detect intruders and unauthorized activities with a high degree of reliability and the to deter and delay them until effective response/engagement can be accomplished. Definition of an effective integrated security system requires proper application of a system engineering methodology. This paper summarizes a methodology and describes its application to the problem of integrated security system definition. This process includes requirements identification and analysis, allocation of identified system requirements to the subsystem level and provides a basis for identification of synergistic subsystem elements and for synthesis into an integrated system. The paper discusses how this is accomplished, emphasizing at each step how system integration and subsystem synergism is considered. The paper concludes with the product of the process: implementation of an integrated security system

  18. Electrical railway transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Morris; Zaninelli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock. This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways. Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for ...

  19. Avian respiratory system disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Glenn H.

    1989-01-01

    Diagnosing and treating respiratory diseases in avian species requires a basic knowledge about the anatomy and physiology of this system in birds. Differences between mammalian and avian respiratory system function, diagnosis, and treatment are highlighted.

  20. BioSystems

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NCBI BioSystems Database provides integrated access to biological systems and their component genes, proteins, and small molecules, as well as literature...

  1. Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about an overview of drinking water distribution systems, the factors that degrade water quality in the distribution system, assessments of risk, future research about these risks, and how to reduce cross-connection control risk.

  2. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  3. US ecology data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crase, A.

    1987-01-01

    The US Ecology computer data system was instituted March 1, 1982. This system was designed to manage the increasing flow of paperwork and data associated with the receipt and disposal of low-level radioactive waste at Richland, Washington and Beatty, Nevada. The system was modified and upgraded in 1984 to accommodate a revised shipping manifest pursuant to the requirements of 10 CFR 20.311. The data system is used to generate various reports for both internal and external distribution. The computer system is located at US Ecology's corporate headquarters in Louisville, Kentucky. Remote access terminals are located at the disposal sites. The system is supported by a Wang VS-100 processor. In addition to supporting the radwaste data system, the system supports a chemical waste data base, word processing, and electronic mail. The management and operation of this data base are described. 19 figures

  4. Systems engineering management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, C.W.

    1985-10-01

    The purpose of this Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP) is to prescribe the systems engineering procedures to be implemented at the Program level and the minimum requirements for systems engineering at the Program-element level. The Program level corresponds to the Director, OCRWM, or to the organizations within OCRWM to which the Director delegates responsibility for the development of the System and for coordinating and integrating the activities at the Program-element level. The Office of Policy and Outreach (OPO) and the Office of Resource Management (ORM) support the Director at the Program level. The Program-element level corresponds to the organizations within OCRWM (i.e., the Office of Geologic Repositories (OGR) and the Office of Storage and Transportation Systems (OSTS)) with overall responsibility for developing the System elements - that is, the mined geologic disposal system (MGDS), monitored retrievable storage (MRS) (if approved by Congress), and the transportation system

  5. Mobile intelligent autonomous systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Raol, J. R; Gopal, Ajith K

    2013-01-01

    "Written for systems, mechanical, aero, electrical, civil, industrial, and robotics engineers, this book covers robotics from a theoretical and systems point of view, with an emphasis on the sensor...

  6. The remote control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansweijer, P.P.M.

    1988-01-01

    The remote-control system is applied in order to control various signals in the car of the spectrometer at distance. The construction (hardware and software) as well as the operation of the system is described. (author). 20 figs

  7. Pressurized water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    Design and mode of operation of the main PWR components are described: reactor core, pressure vessel and internals, cooling systems with pumps and steam generators, ancillary systems, and waste processing. (TK) [de

  8. Interconnected national system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cespedes, Jose Renato

    2000-01-01

    The paper is about the panorama of Colombia with relationship to the electric system, which is compound for hydroelectric and thermal systems; it also includes other topics on their development like expansion plan to year 2010

  9. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  10. Online data processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, Yoshinori; Yagi, Hideyuki; Yamada, Takayuki

    1979-02-01

    A pulse height analyzer terminal system PHATS has been developed for online data processing via JAERI-TOKAI computer network. The system is controled by using a micro-computer MICRO-8 which was developed for the JAERI-TOKAI network. The system program consists of two subprograms, online control system ONLCS and pulse height analyzer control system PHACS. ONLCS links the terminal with the conversational programming system of FACOM 230/75 through the JAERI-TOKAI network and controls data processing in TSS and remote batch modes. PHACS is used to control INPUT/OUTPUT of data between pulse height analyzer and cassette-MT or typewriter. This report describes the hardware configuration and the system program in detail. In the appendix, explained are real time monitor, type of message, PEX to PEX protocol and Host to Host protocol, required for the system programming. (author)

  11. Motivation and reward systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerde, W.; Vodosek, M.; den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Reward systems are identified as one of the human resource management (HRM) practices that may impact motivation. Reward systems may consist of several components, including financial and nonfinancial rewards, in fixed and variable amounts. Reinforcement, expectancy, and equity principles are

  12. Voluntary Service System (VSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — Voluntary Service System (VSS) is a national-level application which replaced the site-based Voluntary Timekeeping System (VTK). VTK was used for many years at the...

  13. Renewable Energy Tracking Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renewable energy generation ownership can be accounted through tracking systems. Tracking systems are highly automated, contain specific information about each MWh, and are accessible over the internet to market participants.

  14. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  15. Pothole tagging system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joubert, D

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available System (GPS) coordinates of the pothole for use by technical experts and maintenance schedulers. The system will utilise a Microsoft Kinect and a high-speed USB camera as sensing devices....

  16. Handbook of systems toxicology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Casciano, Daniel A; Sahu, Saura C

    2011-01-01

    "In the first handbook to comprehensively cover the emerging area of systems toxicology, the Handbook of Systems Toxicology provides an authoritative compilation of up-to-date developments presented...

  17. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  18. Cross Disciplinary Biometric Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Chengjun

    2012-01-01

    Cross disciplinary biometric systems help boost the performance of the conventional systems. Not only is the recognition accuracy significantly improved, but also the robustness of the systems is greatly enhanced in the challenging environments, such as varying illumination conditions. By leveraging the cross disciplinary technologies, face recognition systems, fingerprint recognition systems, iris recognition systems, as well as image search systems all benefit in terms of recognition performance.  Take face recognition for an example, which is not only the most natural way human beings recognize the identity of each other, but also the least privacy-intrusive means because people show their face publicly every day. Face recognition systems display superb performance when they capitalize on the innovative ideas across color science, mathematics, and computer science (e.g., pattern recognition, machine learning, and image processing). The novel ideas lead to the development of new color models and effective ...

  19. National Emission Information System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajtakova, E.; Spisakova, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this presentation the Slovak National Emission Information System (NEIS) is presented. The NEIS represents hierarchical oriented modular system of acquisition, verification, saving and reporting of data about annual emissions and payments for pollution of atmosphere

  20. Henry Ford Health Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Ford Health Systems evolved from a hospital into a system delivering care to 2.5 million patients and includes the Cancer Epidemiology, Prevention and Control Program, which focuses on epidemiologic and public health aspects of cancer.

  1. TMACS system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a description of the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS). It is intended as an introduction for those persons unfamiliar with the system as well as a reference document for the users, maintenance personnel, and system designers. In addition to describing the system, the document outlines the associated drawing documentation, provides maintenance and spare parts information, and discusses other TMACS documents that provide additional detail

  2. Computational Systems Chemical Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Oprea, Tudor I.; May, Elebeoba E.; Leitão, Andrei; Tropsha, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    There is a critical need for improving the level of chemistry awareness in systems biology. The data and information related to modulation of genes and proteins by small molecules continue to accumulate at the same time as simulation tools in systems biology and whole body physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) continue to evolve. We called this emerging area at the interface between chemical biology and systems biology systems chemical biology, SCB (Oprea et al., 2007).

  3. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  4. Weakened Immune Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Health Issues Health Issues Conditions Injuries & Emergencies Vaccine Preventable Diseases ... Children > Safety & Prevention > Immunizations > Weakened Immune Systems Safety & Prevention ...

  5. SSC Cryogenic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.P.; Louttit, R.I.; Rode, C.; VanderArend, P.C.

    1985-01-01

    The design of the 4.5 K primary cooling system and higher temperature shield cooling systems for the SSC are described. Typical flow diagrams for the magnet piping systems are presented. Estimated heat loads are given. The systems have been designed to accomodate the great distances, 90 km and up, over which the load will be distributed. Provision has been made for cooldown, warmup, quench recovery and magnet replacement, as well as for steady-state operation

  6. Market economic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pryor, Frederic L.

    2004-01-01

    The new comparative economics has focused on individual institutions, rather than the economic system as a whole. This essay argues that economic systems should be defined in terms of clusters of complementary or covarying institutions. A cluster analysis of OECD countries using data on forty different economic institutions shows that four economic systems characterize these nations. Further, these systems have no significant impact on economic growth or inflation, but they do have an importa...

  7. Timing system for PLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.S.; Kim, M.S.; Won, S.C.; Choi, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The PLS timing system consists of a master oscillator, a repetition rate pulse generator, a storage ring rf synchronizing system, and a rf driver and kicker trigger system composed of a fixed delay module and variable delay modules. All the timing modules are installed in the VME crates and controlled by the 32 bit microprocessors, and communicating with the Host computer via Ethernet. This paper describes the architectural design of this system as well as the requirements of performance

  8. Power system health analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billinton, Roy; Fotuhi-Firuzabad, Mahmud; Aboreshaid, Saleh

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a technique which combines both probabilistic indices and deterministic criteria to reflect the well-being of a power system. This technique permits power system planners, engineers and operators to maximize the probability of healthy operation as well as minimizing the probability of risky operation. The concept of system well-being is illustrated in this paper by application to the areas of operating reserve assessment and composite power system security evaluation

  9. System programming languages

    OpenAIRE

    Šmit, Matej

    2016-01-01

    Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming. In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua...

  10. Operating system MINIX

    OpenAIRE

    JIRKŮ, Radek

    2012-01-01

    This thesis introduces readers to the MINIX operating system, which was used in the creation of the Linux OS. It discusses the history and development of the system and explains its core and the file system. Also solves MINIX installation and configuration of the virtual machine at each step and deals with disputes that had a creator of Minix creator of Linux. In conclusion, compared with Linux MINIX and summarizes the advantages and disadvantages and the use of the operating system at present.

  11. Rainfed intensive crop systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed.......This chapter focuses on the importance of intensive cropping systems in contributing to the world supply of food and feed. The impact of climate change on intensive crop production systems is also discussed....

  12. Machine protection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Macpherson, A L

    2010-01-01

    A summary of the Machine Protection System of the LHC is given, with particular attention given to the outstanding issues to be addressed, rather than the successes of the machine protection system from the 2009 run. In particular, the issues of Safe Machine Parameter system, collimation and beam cleaning, the beam dump system and abort gap cleaning, injection and dump protection, and the overall machine protection program for the upcoming run are summarised.

  13. Linear system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callier, Frank M.; Desoer, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this book is to provide a systematic and rigorous access to the main topics of linear state-space system theory in both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case; and the I/O description of linear systems. The main thrusts of the work are the analysis of system descriptions and derivations of their properties, LQ-optimal control, state feedback and state estimation, and MIMO unity-feedback systems.

  14. Radiant Floor Cooling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2008-01-01

    In many countries, hydronic radiant floor systems are widely used for heating all types of buildings such as residential, churches, gymnasiums, hospitals, hangars, storage buildings, industrial buildings, and smaller offices. However, few systems are used for cooling.This article describes a floor...... cooling system that includes such considerations as thermal comfort of the occupants, which design parameters will influence the cooling capacity and how the system should be controlled. Examples of applications are presented....

  15. Medical Expert Systems Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Nasser, Bassem S.

    2017-01-01

    International audience; There is an increased interest in the area of Artificial Intelligence in general and expert systems in particular. Expert systems are rapidly growing technology. Expert systems are a branch of Artificial Intelligence which is having a great impact on many fields of human life. Expert systems use human expert knowledge to solve complex problems in many fields such as Health, science, engineering, business, and weather forecasting. Organizations employing the technology ...

  16. Lithium battery management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J [Waukesha, WI

    2012-05-08

    Provided is a system for managing a lithium battery system having a plurality of cells. The battery system comprises a variable-resistance element electrically connected to a cell and located proximate a portion of the cell; and a device for determining, utilizing the variable-resistance element, whether the temperature of the cell has exceeded a predetermined threshold. A method of managing the temperature of a lithium battery system is also included.

  17. The Quality System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard Buus, Daniel; Eland, Morten Vestergaard; Lystlund, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present our efforts to try to increase cohesiveness and connectivity between quests generated by a recreation of an existing procedural quest generation system, with an addition of a progressive tier system called Quality System. A study gave strong indications that the Qualit...... System successfully produced a positive effect on the feeling of cohesiveness and connectivity between the generated quests amongst Role-playing- and Massively Multiplayer Online games players....

  18. Generalized Asynchronous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Kudryashova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper consider a mathematical model of a concurrent system, the special case of which is an asynchronous system. Distributed asynchronous automata are introduced here. It is proved that Petri nets and transition systems with independence can be considered as distributed asynchronous automata. Time distributed asynchronous automata are defined in a standard way by correspondence which relates events with time intervals. It is proved that the time distributed asynchronous automata generalize time Petri nets and asynchronous systems.

  19. IAEA safeguards information system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nardi, J.

    1984-01-01

    The basic concepts, structure, and operation of the Agency Safeguards Information System is discussed with respect to its role in accomplishing the overall objectives of safeguards. The basis and purposes of the Agency's information system, the structure and flow of information within the Agency's system, the relationship of the components is the Agency system, the requirements of Member States in respect of their reporting to the Agency, and the relationship of accounting data vis-a-vis facility and inspection data are described

  20. Systems engineering research

    OpenAIRE

    Sahraoui , Abd-El-Kader; Buede , Dennis ,; Sage , Andrew ,

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper, we propose selected research topics that are believed central to progress and growth in the application of systems engineering (SE). As a professional activity, and as an intellectual activity, systems engineering has strong links to such associated disciplines as decision analysis, operation research, project management, quality management, and systems design. When focussing on systems engineering research, we should distinguish between subjects that ar...

  1. Audit Management System

    CERN Document Server

    Alconada, Federico

    2015-01-01

    In the need of renewing their system, the Internal Audit department has given a proposal for building a new one. Taking into consideration the problems of their system they elaborated a requirement's list with the functionalities and features they were expecting from the new management system. This new system would be primarily for the use of the Internal Audit staff but it would also support the follow-up of internal audit recommendations by potentially all CERN staff members.

  2. Semantically Enhanced Recommender Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Montiel, Manuela; Aldana-Montes, José F.

    Recommender Systems have become a significant area in the context of web personalization, given the large amount of available data. Ontologies can be widely taken advantage of in recommender systems, since they provide a means of classifying and discovering of new information about the items to recommend, about user profiles and even about their context. We have developed a semantically enhanced recommender system based on this kind of ontologies. In this paper we present a description of the proposed system.

  3. NASA Tech Briefs, April 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Topics covered include: Direct-Solve Image-Based Wavefront Sensing; Use of UV Sources for Detection and Identification of Explosives; Using Fluorescent Viruses for Detecting Bacteria in Water; Gradiometer Using Middle Loops as Sensing Elements in a Low-Field SQUID MRI System; Volcano Monitor: Autonomous Triggering of In-Situ Sensors; Wireless Fluid-Level Sensors for Harsh Environments; Interference-Detection Module in a Digital Radar Receiver; Modal Vibration Analysis of Large Castings; Structural/Radiation-Shielding Epoxies; Integrated Multilayer Insulation; Apparatus for Screening Multiple Oxygen-Reduction Catalysts; Determining Aliasing in Isolated Signal Conditioning Modules; Composite Bipolar Plate for Unitized Fuel Cell/Electrolyzer Systems; Spectrum Analyzers Incorporating Tunable WGM Resonators; Quantum-Well Thermophotovoltaic Cells; Bounded-Angle Iterative Decoding of LDPC Codes; Conversion from Tree to Graph Representation of Requirements; Parallel Hybrid Vehicle Optimal Storage System; and Anaerobic Digestion in a Flooded Densified Leachbed.

  4. IDC System Specification Document.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  5. Automated Vehicle Monitoring System

    OpenAIRE

    Wibowo, Agustinus Deddy Arief; Heriansyah, Rudi

    2014-01-01

    An automated vehicle monitoring system is proposed in this paper. The surveillance system is based on image processing techniques such as background subtraction, colour balancing, chain code based shape detection, and blob. The proposed system will detect any human's head as appeared at the side mirrors. The detected head will be tracked and recorded for further action.

  6. Mobile Operating Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Vipin Kamboj; Hitesh Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Mobile phones are used by every people in today’s life. We use mobile phones without knowing the different factors that a mobile used including its technology, operating system, CPU ,RAM etc. Many types of operating system are used by different mobile. Every operating system has their advantage

  7. Solar tracking system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2016-07-12

    Solar tracking systems, as well as methods of using such solar tracking systems, are disclosed. More particularly, embodiments of the solar tracking systems include lateral supports horizontally positioned between uprights to support photovoltaic modules. The lateral supports may be raised and lowered along the uprights or translated to cause the photovoltaic modules to track the moving sun.

  8. Functional System Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligterink, N.E.

    2007-01-01

    Functional system dynamics is the analysis, modelling, and simulation of continuous systems usually described by partial differential equations. From the infinite degrees of freedom of such systems only a finite number of relevant variables have to be chosen for a practical model description. The

  9. Network SCADA System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milivojevic, Dragan R.; Tasic, Visa; Karabasevic, Dejan

    2003-01-01

    Copper Institute, Industrial Informatics department, is developing and applying network real time process monitoring and control systems. Some of these systems are already in use. The paper presents some hardware and software general remarks and performances, with special regard to communication sub-systems and network possibilities. (Author)

  10. BSF control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, Y.; Ishii, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Sasaki, H.; Sakai, I.

    1982-08-01

    The booster synchrotron utilization facility (BSF) is a facility which utilizes the four fifths of available beam pulses from the KEK booster synchrotron. The BSF control system includes the beam line control, interactions with the PS central control room and the experimental facilities, and the access control system. A brief description of the various components in the control system is given. (author)

  11. Building Community Knowledge Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen P.; Havn, Erling C.

    2003-01-01

    managers. We followed the system from its introduction in early 1997 until it was abandoned in the beginning of 2000. We focused on the way the system was introduced in the organization, how it changed, and how the intended group of users received (and eventually rejected) the system. Based on our...

  12. Observing farming systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Egon; Alrøe, Hugo Fjelsted

    2012-01-01

    of analysis from individual farmers to communication and social relations. This is where Luhmann’s social systems theory can offer new insights. Firstly, it can help observe and understand the operational closure and system logic of a farming system and how this closure is produced and reproduced. Secondly...

  13. Automated System Marketplace 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Jose-Marie; Kertis, Kimberly

    1994-01-01

    Reports results of the 1994 Automated System Marketplace survey based on responses from 60 vendors. Highlights include changes in the library automation marketplace; estimated library systems revenues; minicomputer and microcomputer-based systems; marketplace trends; global markets and mergers; research needs; new purchase processes; and profiles…

  14. Energy systems security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Energy Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering topics related to electricity transmission grids and their protection, risk assessment of energy systems, analysis of interdependent energy networks. Methods to manage electricity transmission disturbances so as to avoid blackouts are discussed, and self-healing energy system and a nano-enabled power source are presented.

  15. A File Archival System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanselow, J. L.; Vavrus, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    ARCH, file archival system for DEC VAX, provides for easy offline storage and retrieval of arbitrary files on DEC VAX system. System designed to eliminate situations that tie up disk space and lead to confusion when different programers develop different versions of same programs and associated files.

  16. Programmable electronic safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Traditionally safety systems intended for protecting personnel from electrical and radiation hazards at particle accelerator laboratories have made extensive use of electromechanical relays. These systems have the advantage of high reliability and allow the designer to easily implement fail-safe circuits. Relay based systems are also typically simple to design, implement, and test. As systems, such as those presently under development at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL), increase in size, and the number of monitored points escalates, relay based systems become cumbersome and inadequate. The move toward Programmable Electronic Safety Systems is becoming more widespread and accepted. In developing these systems there are numerous precautions the designer must be concerned with. Designing fail-safe electronic systems with predictable failure states is difficult at best. Redundancy and self-testing are prime examples of features that should be implemented to circumvent and/or detect failures. Programmable systems also require software which is yet another point of failure and a matter of great concern. Therefore the designer must be concerned with both hardware and software failures and build in the means to assure safe operation or shutdown during failures. This paper describes features that should be considered in developing safety systems and describes a system recently installed at the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility of the SSCL

  17. Programmable Electronic Safety Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parry, R.

    1993-05-01

    Traditionally safety systems intended for protecting personnel from electrical and radiation hazards at particle accelerator laboratories have made extensive use of electromechanical relays. These systems have the advantage of high reliability and allow the designer to easily implement failsafe circuits. Relay based systems are also typically simple to design, implement, and test. As systems, such as those presently under development at the Superconducting Super Collider Laboratory (SSCL), increase in size, and the number of monitored points escalates, relay based systems become cumbersome and inadequate. The move toward Programmable Electronic Safety Systems is becoming more widespread and accepted. In developing these systems there are numerous precautions the designer must be concerned with. Designing fail-safe electronic systems with predictable failure states is difficult at best. Redundancy and self-testing are prime examples of features that should be implemented to circumvent and/or detect failures. Programmable systems also require software which is yet another point of failure and a matter of great concern. Therefore the designer must be concerned with both hardware and software failures and build in the means to assure safe operation or shutdown during failures. This paper describes features that should be considered in developing safety systems and describes a system recently installed at the Accelerator Systems String Test (ASST) facility of the SSCL

  18. Lightweight Monorail Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Harold F.; Wood, Kenneth E.; Strecker, Myron T.

    1987-01-01

    Report proposes monorail transportation system for zero-gravity environment. System carries materials and parts between locations on space station. Includes tubular rails instead of open channels usually found in overhead conveyor systems. Since resistance to torque of closed tube greater than that of open channel for same amount of material, tubular monorail designed for higher loads or for greater spacing between support points.

  19. Information extraction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  20. Radiology systems architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deibel, S R; Greenes, R A

    1996-05-01

    This article focuses on the software requirements for enterprise integration in radiology. The needs of a future radiology systems architecture are examined, both at a concrete functional level and at an abstract system-properties level. A component-based approach to software development is described and is validated in the context of each of the abstract system requirements for future radiology computing environments.

  1. LED system reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driel, W.D. van; Yuan, C.A.; Koh, S.; Zhang, G.Q.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents our effort to predict the system reliability of Solid State Lighting (SSL) applications. A SSL system is composed of a LED engine with micro-electronic driver(s) that supplies power to the optic design. Knowledge of system level reliability is not only a challenging scientific

  2. Fusion systems engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    Summaries of research are included for each of the following topics: (1) fusion reactor systems studies, (2) development of blanket processing technology for fusion reactors, (3) safety studies of fusion concepts, (4) the MACK/MACKLIB system for nuclear response functions, and (5) energy storage and power supply systems for fusion reactors

  3. Flexible energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    The paper discusses and analyses diffent national strategies and points out key changes in the energy system in order to achieve a system which can benefit from a high percentage of wind and CHP without having surplus production problems, introduced here as a flexible energy system....

  4. Equivariant Dynamical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Ertinger

    1995-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to present some aspects of the mathematical theory of strange behaviour of nonlinear systems, especially of systems with symmetry. Proofs are emitted, the interested reader is advised to references. Our presentation is inevitably selective. We focus on parts of the theory with possible applications to electronic circuits and systems which may display chaotic behaviour.

  5. Lofar information system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valentijn, E.; Belikov, A. N.

    2009-01-01

    The Lofar Information System is a solution for Lofar Long Term Archive that is capable to store and handle PBs of raw and processed data. The newly created information system is based on Astro-WISE - the information system for wide field astronomy. We review an adaptation of Astro-WISE for the new

  6. Operation auxiliary system (SAO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolich, J.; Santome, D.; Drexler, J.

    1990-01-01

    This work presents an auxiliary system for nuclear power plants operation (SAO). The development purpose consisted in a computing supervision system to be installed at different sites of a reactor, mainly in the control room. The inclusion of this system to a nuclear power plant minimizes the possibility of human error for the facility operation. (Author) [es

  7. Quantum K-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narnhofer, H.; Thirring, W.

    1988-01-01

    We generalize the classical notion of a K-system to a non-commutative dynamical system by requiring that an invariantly defined memory loss be 100%. We give some examples of quantum K-systems and show that they cannot contain any quasi-periodic subsystem. 13 refs. (Author)

  8. Vacuum system for ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobson, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the proposed vacuum system for the planned ISABELLE storage rings with respect to acceptability and practicality from the vacuum viewport. A comparison is made between the proposed vacuum system and the vacuum system at the CERN ISR, and some comments on various design and operational parameters are made

  9. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-01

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  10. Dynamic Systems and Control Engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Seok

    1994-02-15

    This book deals with introduction of dynamic system and control engineering, frequency domain modeling of dynamic system, temporal modeling of dynamic system, typical dynamic system and automatic control device, performance and stability of control system, root locus analysis, analysis of frequency domain dynamic system, design of frequency domain dynamic system, design and analysis of space, space of control system and digital control system such as control system design of direct digital and digitalization of consecutive control system.

  11. Conceptual System of Systems Enabling Maritime Dominance in the Littorals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Holmes, Matt

    2004-01-01

    .... Focusing on only system-of systems (SoS) concepts, we consider a system of only manned platforms, a system of primarily unmanned platforms, and a balanced hybrid system of manned and unmanned platforms...

  12. Power Systems Integration Laboratory | Energy Systems Integration Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    | NREL Power Systems Integration Laboratory Power Systems Integration Laboratory Research in the Energy System Integration Facility's Power Systems Integration Laboratory focuses on the microgrid applications. Photo of engineers testing an inverter in the Power Systems Integration Laboratory

  13. Business System Planning Project, Preliminary System Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVOSEVICH, S.

    2000-01-01

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) is currently performing many core business functions including, but not limited to, work control, planning, scheduling, cost estimating, procurement, training, and human resources. Other core business functions are managed by or dependent on Project Hanford Management Contractors including, but not limited to, payroll, benefits and pension administration, inventory control, accounts payable, and records management. In addition, CHG has business relationships with its parent company CH2M HILL, U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection and other River Protection Project contractors, government agencies, and vendors. The Business Systems Planning (BSP) Project, under the sponsorship of the CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. Chief Information Officer (CIO), have recommended information system solutions that will support CHG business areas. The Preliminary System Design was developed using the recommendations from the Alternatives Analysis, RPP-6499, Rev 0 and will become the design base for any follow-on implementation projects. The Preliminary System Design will present a high-level system design, providing a high-level overview of the Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) modules and identify internal and external relationships. This document will not define data structures, user interface components (screens, reports, menus, etc.), business rules or processes. These in-depth activities will be accomplished at implementation planning time

  14. Spill operation system decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.

    1992-01-01

    The MSRC Spill Operation System (SOS) is a tool for the support of decision-making at the time of a catastrophic oil spill. SOS provides MSRC decision-makers with access to information about the source of the spill, the spill environment, and the availability of spill response resources. This system is designed to meet the information needs of a Response Supervisor, an Environmental Advisor, Logistics/Maintenance Supervisor, Operations Supervisor, and the MSRC Regional General Manager. The SOS project Objectives are: (1) integrate currently available data, systems, and technologies; (2) develop an application that effectively supports mobilized operations and can be adapted to support normal operations; (3) ensure that the development of computer applications is driven by user needs and not by technology; and (4) coordinate with government and other industry organizations to avoid duplication of effort. Design Objectives for SOS are: (1) centralize management information storage while decentralizing decision making capabilities; (2) boost User confidence by providing a system that is easy to learn, easy to use, and is open-quotes Sailor Proofclose quotes; and (3) use visualization technology in providing spill related information. This approach includes the use of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology for maps and geographically associated resource; and support MSRC's concept of operation which includes - a swift notification of response personnel; fast mobilization of response resources; and accurate tracking of resources during a spill. MSRC is organized into five responsibility regions

  15. 2014 Runtime Systems Summit. Runtime Systems Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Vivek [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Budimlic, Zoran [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Kulkani, Milind [US Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-19

    This report summarizes runtime system challenges for exascale computing, that follow from the fundamental challenges for exascale systems that have been well studied in past reports, e.g., [6, 33, 34, 32, 24]. Some of the key exascale challenges that pertain to runtime systems include parallelism, energy efficiency, memory hierarchies, data movement, heterogeneous processors and memories, resilience, performance variability, dynamic resource allocation, performance portability, and interoperability with legacy code. In addition to summarizing these challenges, the report also outlines different approaches to addressing these significant challenges that have been pursued by research projects in the DOE-sponsored X-Stack and OS/R programs. Since there is often confusion as to what exactly the term “runtime system” refers to in the software stack, we include a section on taxonomy to clarify the terminology used by participants in these research projects. In addition, we include a section on deployment opportunities for vendors and government labs to build on the research results from these projects. Finally, this report is also intended to provide a framework for discussing future research and development investments for exascale runtime systems, and for clarifying the role of runtime systems in exascale software.

  16. Power system relaying

    CERN Document Server

    Horowitz, Stanley H; Niemira, James K

    2013-01-01

    The previous three editions of Power System Relaying offer comprehensive and accessible coverage of the theory and fundamentals of relaying and have been widely adopted on university and industry courses worldwide. With the third edition, the authors have added new and detailed descriptions of power system phenomena such as stability, system-wide protection concepts and discussion of historic outages. Power System Relaying, 4th Edition continues its role as an outstanding textbook on power system protection for senior and graduate students in the field of electric power engineering and a refer

  17. Provably trustworthy systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Gerwin; Andronick, June; Keller, Gabriele; Matichuk, Daniel; Murray, Toby; O'Connor, Liam

    2017-10-13

    We present recent work on building and scaling trustworthy systems with formal, machine-checkable proof from the ground up, including the operating system kernel, at the level of binary machine code. We first give a brief overview of the seL4 microkernel verification and how it can be used to build verified systems. We then show two complementary techniques for scaling these methods to larger systems: proof engineering, to estimate verification effort; and code/proof co-generation, for scalable development of provably trustworthy applications.This article is part of the themed issue 'Verified trustworthy software systems'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Control and automation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Zillich, H.

    1986-01-01

    A survey is given of the development of control and automation systems for energy uses. General remarks about control and automation schemes are followed by a description of modern process control systems along with process control processes as such. After discussing the particular process control requirements of nuclear power plants the paper deals with the reliability and availability of process control systems and refers to computerized simulation processes. The subsequent paragraphs are dedicated to descriptions of the operating floor, ergonomic conditions, existing systems, flue gas desulfurization systems, the electromagnetic influences on digital circuits as well as of light wave uses. (HAG) [de

  19. Dynamical Systems Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Gils, S; Hoveijn, I; Takens, F; Nonlinear Dynamical Systems and Chaos

    1996-01-01

    Symmetries in dynamical systems, "KAM theory and other perturbation theories", "Infinite dimensional systems", "Time series analysis" and "Numerical continuation and bifurcation analysis" were the main topics of the December 1995 Dynamical Systems Conference held in Groningen in honour of Johann Bernoulli. They now form the core of this work which seeks to present the state of the art in various branches of the theory of dynamical systems. A number of articles have a survey character whereas others deal with recent results in current research. It contains interesting material for all members of the dynamical systems community, ranging from geometric and analytic aspects from a mathematical point of view to applications in various sciences.

  20. Electric power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weedy, B M; Jenkins, N; Ekanayake, J B; Strbac, G

    2012-01-01

    The definitive textbook for Power Systems students, providing a grounding in essential power system theory while also focusing on practical power engineering applications. Electric Power Systems has been an essential book in power systems engineering for over thirty years. Bringing the content firmly up-to-date whilst still retaining the flavour of Weedy's extremely popular original, this Fifth Edition has been revised by experts Nick Jenkins, Janaka Ekanayake and Goran Strbac. This wide-ranging text still covers all of the fundamental power systems subjects but is now e