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Sample records for thermophilic composting ctc

  1. Thermophilic composting of municipal solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elango, D.; Thinakaran, N.; Panneerselvam, P.; Sivanesan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Process of composting has been developed for recycling of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW). The bioreactor design was modified to reduce the composting process time. The main goal of this investigation was to find the optimal value of time period for composting of MSW in thermophilic bioreactor under aerobic condition. The temperature profiles correlated well with experimental data obtained during the maturation process. During this period biological degraders are introduced in to the reactor to accelerate the composting process. The compost materials were analyzed at various stages and the environmental parameters were considered. The final composting materials contained large organic content with in a short duration of 40 days. The quantity of volume reduction of raw MSW was 78%. The test result shows that the final compost material from the thermophilic reactor provides good humus to build up soil characteristics and some basic plant nutrients

  2. Thermophilic methanogenic Archaea in compost material: occurrence, persistence and possible mechanisms for their distribution to other environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummes, Kathrin; Schäfer, Jenny; Kämpfer, Peter; Jäckel, Udo

    2007-12-01

    Since compost is widely used as soil amendment and the fact that during the processing of compost material high amounts of microorganisms are released into the air, we investigated whether compost may act as a carrier for thermophilic methanogens to temperate soils. All eight investigated compost materials showed a clear methane production potential between 0.01 and 0.98 micromol CH(4) g dw(-1)h(-1) at 50 degrees C. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and cloning analysis indicated the presence of Methanosarcina thermophila, Methanoculleus thermophilus, and Methanobacterium formicicum. Bioaerosols collected during the turning of a compost pile showed both a highly similar SSCP profile compared to the corresponding compost material and clear methane production during anoxic incubation in selective medium at 50 degrees C. Both observations indicated a considerable release of thermophilic methanogens into the air. To analyse the persistence of compost-borne thermophilic methanogens in temperate oxic soils, we therefore studied their potential activity in compost and compost/soil mixtures, which was brought to a meadow soil, as well as in an agricultural soil fertilised with compost. After 24h anoxic incubation at 50 degrees C, all samples containing compost showed a clear methanogenic activity, even 1 year after application. In combination with the in vitro observed resilience of the compost-borne methanogens against desiccation and UV radiation we assume that compost material acts as an effective carrier for the distribution of thermophilic methanogens by fertilisation and wind.

  3. Domestic sewage sludge composting in a rotary drum reactor: optimizing the thermophilic stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Luis; Cerrillo, María I; García-Albiach, Valentín; Villaseñor, José

    2012-12-15

    The aim of this paper was to study the influence of four process variables (turning frequency, gas-phase oxygen level, type of bulking agent and sludge/bulking agent mixing ratio) on the performance of the sewage sludge composting process using a rotary drum pilot scale reactor, in order to optimize the thermophilic stage and reduce the processing time. Powdered sawdust, wood shavings, wood chips, prunings waste and straw were used as bulking agents and the thermophilic stage temperature profile was used as the main indicator for gauging if the composting process was developing correctly. Our results showed that a 12 h(-1) turning frequency and an oxygen concentration of 10% were the optimal conditions for the composting process to develop. The best results were obtained by mixing the sewage sludge with wood shavings in a 3:1 w/w ratio (on a wet basis), which adapted the initial moisture content and porosity to an optimal range and led to a maximum temperature of 70 °C being reached thus ensuring the complete removal of pathogens. Moisture, C:N ratio, pH, organic matter, heavy metals, pathogens and stability were all analysed for every mixture obtained at the end of the thermophilic stage. These parameters were compared with the limits established by the Spanish regulation on fertilizers (RD 824/2005) in order to assess if the compost obtained could be used on agricultural soils. The right combination of having optimal process variables combined with an appropriate reactor design allowed the thermophilic stage of the composting process to be speeded up, hence obtaining a compost product, after just two weeks of processing that (with the exception of the moisture content) complied with the Spanish legal requirements for fertilizers, without requiring a later maturation stage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Temporal change of composition and potential activity of the thermophilic archaeal community during the composting of organic material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thummes, Kathrin; Kämpfer, Peter; Jäckel, Udo

    2007-07-01

    To date, composting has been regarded as an aerobic process but it has been shown that composting piles are often sources of atmospheric methane. In order to gain a more comprehensive view on the diversity of methanogenic Archaea in compost, gas chromatographical methods and molecular cloning were used to study relationships of thermophilic archaeal communities and changes in methane production potential during compost maturation. According to the thermophilic methane production potential, wide differences could be detected between differently aged compost materials. In material derived from 3- and 4-week-old piles, low and no thermophilic methane production potential, respectively, was observed at 50 degrees C. Material from a 6-week-old pile showed the maximum methane production. With compost maturation, the production slowly decreased again with 6 weeks, 8 weeks, and mature compost showing an optimum methane production potential at 60 degrees C. At 70 degrees C, only 6-week-old material showed a comparable high production of methane. The 16S rRNA-based phylogenetic surveys revealed an increase of archaeal diversity with compost maturation. In the 6-week-old material, 86% of the sequences in the archaeal 16S rRNA library had the highest sequence similarities to Methanothermobacter spp. and the remaining 14% of the clones were related to Methanosarcina thermophila. Quantification of methanogens in 6-week-old material, on the basis of the methane production rate, resulted in values of about 2x10(7) cells per gram fresh weight. In 8-week-old and mature compost material, the proportion of sequences similar to Methanothermobacter spp. decreased to 34% and 0%, respectively. The mature compost material showed the highest variation in identified sequences, although 33% could be assigned to as yet uncultured Archaea (e.g. Rice cluster I, III, and IV). Our results indicate that compost harbours a diverse community of thermophilic methanogens, with changing composition

  5. Effect of temperature on bacterial species diversity in thermophilic solid-waste composting.

    OpenAIRE

    Strom, P F

    1985-01-01

    Continuously thermophilic composting was examined with a 4.5-liter reactor placed in an incubator maintained at representative temperatures. Feed was a mixture of dried table scraps and shredded newspaper wetted to 55% moisture. One run at 49 degrees C (run A) employed a 1:4 feed-to-compost ratio, while the other runs used a 10:1 ratio and were incubated at 50, 55, 60, or 65 degrees C. Due to self-heating, internal temperatures of the composting mass were 0 to 7 degrees C hotter than the incu...

  6. Microbial community structure and dynamics in thermophilic composting viewed through metagenomics and metatranscriptomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, Luciana Principal; Martins, Layla Farage; Pereira, Roberta Verciano; Thomas, Andrew Maltez; Barbosa, Deibs; Lemos, Leandro Nascimento; Silva, Gianluca Major Machado; Moura, Livia Maria Silva; Epamino, George Willian Condomitti; Digiampietri, Luciano Antonio; Lombardi, Karen Cristina; Ramos, Patricia Locosque; Quaggio, Ronaldo Bento; de Oliveira, Julio Cezar Franco; Pascon, Renata Castiglioni; Cruz, João Batista da; da Silva, Aline Maria; Setubal, João Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Composting is a promising source of new organisms and thermostable enzymes that may be helpful in environmental management and industrial processes. Here we present results of metagenomic- and metatranscriptomic-based analyses of a large composting operation in the São Paulo Zoo Park. This composting exhibits a sustained thermophilic profile (50 °C to 75 °C), which seems to preclude fungal activity. The main novelty of our study is the combination of time-series sampling with shotgun DNA, 16S rRNA gene amplicon, and metatranscriptome high-throughput sequencing, enabling an unprecedented detailed view of microbial community structure, dynamics, and function in this ecosystem. The time-series data showed that the turning procedure has a strong impact on the compost microbiota, restoring to a certain extent the population profile seen at the beginning of the process; and that lignocellulosic biomass deconstruction occurs synergistically and sequentially, with hemicellulose being degraded preferentially to cellulose and lignin. Moreover, our sequencing data allowed near-complete genome reconstruction of five bacterial species previously found in biomass-degrading environments and of a novel biodegrading bacterial species, likely a new genus in the order Bacillales. The data and analyses provided are a rich source for additional investigations of thermophilic composting microbiology. PMID:27941956

  7. Growth characteristics of the thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in relation to production of mushroom compost.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegant, W.M.

    1992-01-01

    Scytalidium thermophilum is an important thermophilic fungus in the production of mushroom compost. I investigated the characteristics of this organism and present a simple model with which fungal growth in compost can be described. The model is used to predict better circumstances for rapid indoor

  8. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Space Agriculture Task Force; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.

    Manned Mars exploration, especially for extended periods of time, will require recycle of materials to support human life. Here, a conceptual design is developed for a Martian agricultural system driven by biologically regenerative functions. One of the core biotechnologies function is the use of hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology. These thermophilic bacteria can play an important role in increasing the effectiveness of the processing of human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and of converting them to fertilizer for the cultivation of plants. This microbial technology has been already well established for the purpose of processing sewage and waste materials for small local communities in Japan. One of the characteristics of the technology is that the metabolic heat release that occurs during bacterial fermentation raises the processing temperature sufficiently high at 80 100 °C to support hyper-thermophilic bacteria. Such a hyper-thermophilic system is found to have great capability of decomposing wastes including even their normally recalcitrant components, in a reasonably short period of time and of providing a better quality of fertilizer as an end-product. High quality compost has been shown to be a key element in creating a healthy regenerative food production system. In ground-based studies, the soil microbial ecology after the addition of high quality compost was shown to improve plant growth and promote a healthy symbiosis of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Another advantage of such high processing temperature is the ability to sterilize the pathogenic organisms through the fermentation process and thus to secure the hygienic safety of the system. Plant cultivation is one of the other major systems. It should fully utilize solar energy received on the Martian surface for supplying energy for photosynthesis. Subsurface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide mined on Mars should be also used in the plant cultivation system. Oxygen and

  9. Space agriculture for habitation on Mars with hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanazawa, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Kitaya, Y.; Yamashita, M.; Nagatomo, M.; Oshima, T.; Wada, H.; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Manned Mars exploration requires recycle of materials to support human life A conceptual design is developed for space agriculture which is driven by the biologically regenerative function Hyper-thermophilic aerobic composting bacterial ecology is the core of materials recycling system to process human metabolic waste and inedible biomass and convert them to fertilizer for plants cultivation A photosynthetic reaction of plants will be driven by solar energy Water will be recycled by cultivation of plants and passing it through plant bodies Sub-surface water and atmospheric carbon dioxide are the natural resource available on Mars and these resources will be converted to oxygen and foods We envision that the agricultural system will be scaled up by importing materials from Martian environment Excess oxygen will be obtained from growing trees for structural and other components Minor elements including N P K and other traces will be introduced as fertilizers or nutrients into the agricultural materials circulation Nitrogen will be collected from Martian atmosphere We will assess biological fixation of nitrogen using micro-organisms responsible in Earth biosphere Hyper-thermophilic aerobic bacterial ecology is effective to convert waste materials into useful forms to plants This microbial technology has been well established on ground for processing sewage and waste materials For instance the hyper-thermophilic bacterial system is applied to a composting machine in a size of a trash box in home kitchen Since such a home electronics

  10. Improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating SS-OFMSW through enrichment with compost and leachate seeds

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.

    2013-03-01

    This paper examines the potential of improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) by adding leachate and compost during inoculation. For this purpose, two stable thermophilic digesters, A (control) and B (with added leachate and compost), were subjected to a sustained substrate shock by doubling the organic loading rate for one week. Feeding was suspended then gradually resumed to reach the pre-shock loading rate (2. gVS/l/d). Digester A failed, exhibiting excessive increase in acetate and a corresponding decrease in pH and methane generation, and lower COD and solids removal efficiencies. In contrast, digester B was able to restore its functionality with 90% recovery of pre-shock methane generation rate at stable pH, lower hydrogen levels, and reduced VFAs and ammonia accumulation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digesters treating SS-OFMSW through enrichment with compost and leachate seeds

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia A.; El-Fadel, Mutasem E.; Saikaly, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the potential of improving the stability of thermophilic anaerobic digestion of source-sorted organic fraction of municipal solid waste (SS-OFMSW) by adding leachate and compost during inoculation. For this purpose, two stable thermophilic digesters, A (control) and B (with added leachate and compost), were subjected to a sustained substrate shock by doubling the organic loading rate for one week. Feeding was suspended then gradually resumed to reach the pre-shock loading rate (2. gVS/l/d). Digester A failed, exhibiting excessive increase in acetate and a corresponding decrease in pH and methane generation, and lower COD and solids removal efficiencies. In contrast, digester B was able to restore its functionality with 90% recovery of pre-shock methane generation rate at stable pH, lower hydrogen levels, and reduced VFAs and ammonia accumulation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Acidulocompost, a food waste compost with thermophilic lactic acid fermentation: its effects on potato production and weed growth

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Asagi; Keisuke Minamide; Toru Uno; Masanori Saito; Toyoaki Ito

    2016-01-01

    Acidulocomposting recycles food wastes by means of thermophilic lactic acid fermentation. This process can decrease ammonia volatilization and odor emission during processing and produce compost with high nitrogen (N) content. To compare the yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. ‘Dansyakuimo’) and the suppression of weeds with acidulocompost (AC) and those with conventional composts and inorganic fertilizer (IF), we conducted field experiments in Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Potat...

  13. Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liu, Dongming

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) coupled with a statistic analysis. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that compared to single-material composting (PM, CM), co-composting (PM + CM, PM + CM + ADR) could promote the degradation of organic matter and strengthen the ability of conserving nitrogen. A DGGE profile and statistical analysis demonstrated that co-composting, especially PM + CM + ADR, could improve the bacterial community structure and functional diversity, even in the thermophilic stage. Therefore, co-composting could weaken the screening effect of high temperature on bacterial communities. Dominant sequencing analyses indicated a dramatic shift in the dominant bacterial communities from single-material composting to co-composting. Notably, compared with PM, PM + CM increased the quantity of xylan-degrading bacteria and reduced the quantity of human pathogens. PMID:24963997

  14. Degradation of Tetracyclines in Pig Manure by Composting with Rice Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Rushan; Huang, Lidong; Li, Lingling; Gielen, Gerty; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Yongsong

    2016-01-01

    A holistic approach was followed for utilizing tetracyclines (TCs)-contaminated pig manure, by composting this with rice straw in a greenhouse for CO2 fertilization and composted residue application. After composting, the composted residues can be applied to cropland as a supplemental source of synthetic fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pig manure-rice straw composting on the degradation of TCs in pig manure. The results showed that greenhouse composting significantly accelerated the degradation of TCs. Contents (150 mg·kg−1) of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) in the composting feedstock could be completely removed within 42 days for OTC and TC, and 14 days for CTC. However, in the control samples incubated at 25 °C in the dark, concentrations of OTC, TC and CTC only decreased 64.7%, 66.7% and 73.3%, respectively, after 49 days. The degradation rates of TCs in the composting feedstock were in the order of CTC > TC > OTC. During the composting process, CTC dissipated rapidly with the time required for 50% degradation (DT50) and 90% degradation (DT90) of 2.4 and 7.9 days, but OTC was more persistent with DT50 and DT90 values of 5.5 and 18.4 days. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, it could be concluded that pig manure-rice straw composting in a greenhouse can help to accelerate the degradation of TCs in pig manure and make composted residues safer for field application. This technology could be an acceptable practice for greenhouse farmers to utilize TCs-contaminated pig manure. PMID:26927136

  15. Inoculation of Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 degrades the organic acids present in raw compost material and accelerates composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Araya, Shogo; Mimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, leading to an increase in pH beyond the neutral level, within 2 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria proliferated faster in the compost with RB1 inoculation than in that without inoculation. Although the yeast died with the increase in compost temperature, it affected the early stages of composting prior to the thermophilic stage and accelerated the composting process by 2 days by eliminating the initial lag phase seen in the growth of other microorganisms. Moreover, populations of Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus foraminis, and Bacillus coagulans became dominant during the thermophilic stages of both composting with and without RB1 inoculation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of bacterial community structure and dynamics during the thermophilic composting of different types of solid wastes: anaerobic digestion residue, pig manure and chicken manure

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Caihong; Li, Mingxiao; Jia, Xuan; Wei, Zimin; Zhao, Yue; Xi, Beidou; Zhu, Chaowei; Liu, Dongming

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of composting substrate types on the bacterial community structure and dynamics during composting processes. To this end, pig manure (PM), chicken manure (CM), a mixture of PM and CM (PM + CM), and a mixture of PM, CM and anaerobic digestion residue (ADR) (PM + CM + ADR) were selected for thermophilic composting. The bacterial community structure and dynamics during the composting process were detected and analysed by polymerase chain reaction–denaturing gra...

  17. Genome-Centric Analysis of a Thermophilic and Cellulolytic Bacterial Consortium Derived from Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Leandro N.; Pereira, Roberta V.; Quaggio, Ronaldo B.; Martins, Layla F.; Moura, Livia M. S.; da Silva, Amanda R.; Antunes, Luciana P.; da Silva, Aline M.; Setubal, João C.

    2017-01-01

    Microbial consortia selected from complex lignocellulolytic microbial communities are promising alternatives to deconstruct plant waste, since synergistic action of different enzymes is required for full degradation of plant biomass in biorefining applications. Culture enrichment also facilitates the study of interactions among consortium members, and can be a good source of novel microbial species. Here, we used a sample from a plant waste composting operation in the São Paulo Zoo (Brazil) as inoculum to obtain a thermophilic aerobic consortium enriched through multiple passages at 60°C in carboxymethylcellulose as sole carbon source. The microbial community composition of this consortium was investigated by shotgun metagenomics and genome-centric analysis. Six near-complete (over 90%) genomes were reconstructed. Similarity and phylogenetic analyses show that four of these six genomes are novel, with the following hypothesized identifications: a new Thermobacillus species; the first Bacillus thermozeamaize genome (for which currently only 16S sequences are available) or else the first representative of a new family in the Bacillales order; the first representative of a new genus in the Paenibacillaceae family; and the first representative of a new deep-branching family in the Clostridia class. The reconstructed genomes from known species were identified as Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius and Caldibacillus debilis. The metabolic potential of these recovered genomes based on COG and CAZy analyses show that these genomes encode several glycoside hydrolases (GHs) as well as other genes related to lignocellulose breakdown. The new Thermobacillus species stands out for being the richest in diversity and abundance of GHs, possessing the greatest potential for biomass degradation among the six recovered genomes. We also investigated the presence and activity of the organisms corresponding to these genomes in the composting operation from which the consortium was built

  18. Hygienization aspects of composting

    OpenAIRE

    Termorshuizen, A.J.; Alsanius, Beatrix

    2016-01-01

    Compost use in agriculture always brings about the risk of introducing plant and human pathogens. • The backbone of the hygienization process consists of temperature, moisture content and chemical compounds formed during composting and activity of antagonists. • Compost produced by proper composting, i.e. a process that produces high temperatures during asufficiently long thermophilic phase can be applied safely. • Farmers should invest in good relationships with compost produce...

  19. Screening of complex thermophilic microbial community and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Screening of complex thermophilic microbial community and application during municipal solid waste aerobic composting. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... Complex microbial community HP83 and HC181 were applied during municipal solid waste aerobic composting that was carried out in a composting reactor under ...

  20. Identification of thermophilic bacterial strains producing thermotolerant hydrolytic enzymes from manure compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, David M; Meddeb-Mouelhi, Fatma; Boissinot, Maurice; Sirois, Marc; Beauregard, Marc

    2012-03-01

    Ten thermophilic bacterial strains were isolated from manure compost. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA genes and biochemical characterization allowed identification of four different species belonging to four genera: Geobacillus thermodenitrificans, Bacillus smithii, Ureibacillus suwonensis and Aneurinibacillus thermoaerophilus. PCR-RFLP profiles of the 16S-ITS-23S rRNA region allowed us to distinguish two subgroups among the G. thermodenitrificans isolates. Isolates were screened for thermotolerant hydrolytic activities (60-65°C). Thermotolerant lipolytic activities were detected for G. thermodenitrificans, A. thermoaerophilus and B. smithii. Thermotolerant protease, α-amylase and xylanase activities were also observed in the G. thermodenitrificans group. These species represent a source of potential novel thermostable enzymes for industrial applications.

  1. The distribution of active β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities in composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiangyun; Liu, Meiting; Wang, Han; Fan, Yihong; Zhang, Haichang; Liu, Jiawen; Xing, Enlu; Xu, Xiuhong; Li, Hongtao

    2017-12-01

    The composting ecosystem is a suitable source for the discovery of novel microorganisms and secondary metabolites. Cellulose degradation is an important part of the global carbon cycle, and β-glucosidases complete the final step of cellulose hydrolysis by converting cellobiose to glucose. This work analyzes the succession of β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities that persist throughout cattle manure - rice straw composting, and evaluates their metabolic activities and community advantage during the various phases of composting. Fungal and bacterial β-glucosidase genes belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 1 and 3 (GH1 and GH3) amplified from DNA were classified and gene abundance levels were analyzed. The major reservoirs of β-glucosidase genes were the fungal phylum Ascomycota and the bacterial phyla Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus. This indicates that a diverse microbial community utilizes cellobiose. The succession of dominant bacteria was also detected during composting. Firmicutes was the dominant bacteria in the thermophilic phase of composting; there was a shift to Actinomycetes in the maturing stage. Proteobacteria accounted for the highest proportions during the heating and thermophilic phases of composting. By contrast, the fungal phylum Ascomycota was a minor microbial community constituent in thermophilic phase of composting. Combined with the analysis of the temperature, cellulose degradation rate and the carboxymethyl cellulase and β-glucosidase activities showed that the bacterial GH1 family β-glucosidase genes make greater contribution in cellulose degradation at the later thermophilic stage of composting. In summary, even GH1 bacteria families β-glucosidase genes showing low abundance in DNA may be functionally important in the later thermophilic phase of composting. The results indicate that a complex community of bacteria and fungi expresses β-glucosidases in compost. Several

  2. Succession and diversity of microorganisms and their association with physicochemical properties during green waste thermophilic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Wang, Shuqi; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhao, Tingning; Zhang, Bolin

    2018-03-01

    A comprehensive characterization of the bacterial diversity associated to thermophilic stages of green waste composting was achieved. In this study, eight different treatments (T1-T8) and three replicated lab-scale green waste composting were carried out to compare the effect of the cellulase (i.e. 0, 2%), microbial inoculum (i.e. 0, 2 and 4%) and particle size (i.e. 2 and 5 mm) on bacterial community structure. Physicochemical properties and bacterial communities of T1-T8 composts were observed, and the bacterial structure and diversity were examined by high-throughput sequencing via a MiSeq platform. The results showed that the most abundant phyla among the treatments were the Firmicutes, Chloroflexi and Proteobacteria. The shannon index and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) showed higher bacterial abundance and diversity at the metaphase of composting. Comparing with 5-mm treatments, particle size of 2-mm had a richer diversity of bacterial communities. The addition of cellulase and a microbial inoculum could promote the fermentation temperature, reduce the compost pH and C/N ratio and result in higher GI index. The humic substance (HS) and humic acid (HA) contents for 2-mm particle size treatments were higher than those of 5-mm treatments. Canonical correspondence analysis suggested that differences in bacterial abundance and diversity significantly correlated with HA, E 4 /E 6 and temperature, and the relationship between bacterial diversity and environmental parameters was affected by composting stages. Based on these results, the application of cellulase to promote green waste composting was feasible, and particle size was identified as a potential control of composting physicochemical properties and bacterial diversity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation and characterization of two novel ethanol-tolerant facultative-anaerobic thermophilic bacteria strains from waste compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Jiunn C N; Svenson, Charles J; Nakasugi, Kenlee; Leong, Caine T C; Bowman, John P; Chen, Betty; Glenn, Dianne R; Neilan, Brett A; Rogers, Peter L

    2006-10-01

    In a search for potential ethanologens, waste compost was screened for ethanol-tolerant thermophilic microorganisms. Two thermophilic bacterial strains, M5EXG and M10EXG, with tolerance of 5 and 10% (v/v) ethanol, respectively, were isolated. Both isolates are facultative anaerobic, non-spore forming, non-motile, catalase-positive, oxidase-negative, Gram-negative rods that are capable of utilizing a range of carbon sources including arabinose, galactose, mannose, glucose and xylose and produce low amounts of ethanol, acetate and lactate. Growth of both isolates was observed in fully defined minimal media within the temperature range 50-80 degrees C and pH 6.0-8.0. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rDNA sequences revealed that both isolates clustered with members of subgroup 5 of the genus Bacillus. G+C contents and DNA-DNA relatedness of M5EXG and M10EXG revealed that they are strains belonging to Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius. However, physiological and biochemical differences were evident when isolates M5EXG and M10EXG were compared with G. thermoglucosidasius type strain (DSM 2542(T)). The new thermophilic, ethanol-tolerant strains of G. thermoglucosidasius may be candidates for ethanol production at elevated temperatures.

  4. Controlling the process of composting farm biomass with the use of fuzzy logic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neugebauer, M. [Warmia and Mazury Univ., Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    The process of composting organic waste produces organic fertilizer. The main phases of composting include the mesophilic and thermophilic stages followed by cooling down and maturing. The thermophilic phase involves a relatively high temperature, from 45 to 80 degrees C and carbon dioxide emission. Extending this phase of the composting process may reduce the entire process time and the amount of methane produced. The process can be controlled by adjusting the amount of air supplied to the compost heap and controlling the temperature in the bed or oxygen content in the air leaving the heap. Precise control would help optimize the composting process in terms of heat reception, duration of the process and the temperature inside the bed. Excess heat could be put to use elsewhere, such as warming the substrate in a greenhouse. However, overheating the heap reduces the amount of thermophilic microorganisms and may actually reduce the compost temperature, thus slow down or even stop the thermophilic phase of the composting process. A literature survey focused on complex non-linear processes has shown that systems based on fuzzy logic are effective in controlling the process.

  5. Changes in bacterial and fungal communities across compost recipes, preparation methods, and composting times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Deborah A; Weicht, Thomas R; Bates, Scott T; Leff, Jonathan W; Fierer, Noah

    2013-01-01

    Compost production is a critical component of organic waste handling, and compost applications to soil are increasingly important to crop production. However, we know surprisingly little about the microbial communities involved in the composting process and the factors shaping compost microbial dynamics. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing approaches to assess the diversity and composition of both bacterial and fungal communities in compost produced at a commercial-scale. Bacterial and fungal communities responded to both compost recipe and composting method. Specifically, bacterial communities in manure and hay recipes contained greater relative abundances of Firmicutes than hardwood recipes with hay recipes containing relatively more Actinobacteria and Gemmatimonadetes. In contrast, hardwood recipes contained a large relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. Fungal communities of compost from a mixture of dairy manure and silage-based bedding were distinguished by a greater relative abundance of Pezizomycetes and Microascales. Hay recipes uniquely contained abundant Epicoccum, Thermomyces, Eurotium, Arthrobotrys, and Myriococcum. Hardwood recipes contained relatively abundant Sordariomycetes. Holding recipe constant, there were significantly different bacterial and fungal communities when the composting process was managed by windrow, aerated static pile, or vermicompost. Temporal dynamics of the composting process followed known patterns of degradative succession in herbivore manure. The initial community was dominated by Phycomycetes, followed by Ascomycota and finally Basidiomycota. Zygomycota were associated more with manure-silage and hay than hardwood composts. Most commercial composters focus on the thermophilic phase as an economic means to insure sanitation of compost from pathogens. However, the community succeeding the thermophilic phase begs further investigation to determine how the microbial dynamics observed here can be best managed

  6. Vermicomposting as a technology for reducing nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions from small-scale composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Kuijper, Thomas; Bruun, Sander; Neergaard, de Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Thermophilic composting produces a significant amount of greenhouse gases. The objectives of this study were (i) to evaluate the effectiveness of vermicomposting to reduce nitrogen losses and greenhouse gases emissions compared to thermophilic composting, and (ii) to determine the effect of

  7. Acidulocompost, a food waste compost with thermophilic lactic acid fermentation: its effects on potato production and weed growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Asagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acidulocomposting recycles food wastes by means of thermophilic lactic acid fermentation. This process can decrease ammonia volatilization and odor emission during processing and produce compost with high nitrogen (N content. To compare the yield of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L. ‘Dansyakuimo’ and the suppression of weeds with acidulocompost (AC and those with conventional composts and inorganic fertilizer (IF, we conducted field experiments in Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Potatoes were cultivated in 2008 and 2009 in an Andosol field treated with AC, conventional food waste compost (FWC, poultry manure compost (PMC, cattle manure compost (CMC, IF, or no fertilizer (NF. AC, but not the other treatments, delayed the emergence of potatoes, and suppressed the emergence of weeds, but it did not inhibit potato growth during the late growth stage or yield. Potato N uptake and tuber yield with AC were significantly higher than those with NF and similar to those with FWC, PMC, and IF. The N uptake efficiencies (ratio of difference between N uptake in the treatment and the control to added N for AC (10.4–12.7% in 2008 and 2009 were similar to those for FWC and PMC (10.2–13.1%, higher than those for CMC (–1.3 to 6.3%, but significantly lower than those for IF (30.2–42.3%. Our findings indicate that AC has an N supply capacity similar to those of FWC and PMC and additionally suppresses the emergence and growth of weeds.

  8. Aeribacillus composti sp. nov., a thermophilic bacillus isolated from olive mill pomace compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finore, Ilaria; Gioiello, Alessia; Leone, Luigi; Orlando, Pierangelo; Romano, Ida; Nicolaus, Barbara; Poli, Annarita

    2017-11-01

    A Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, thermophilic bacterium, strain N.8 T , was isolated from the curing step of an olive mill pomace compost sample, collected at the Composting Experimental Centre (CESCO, Salerno, Italy). Strain N.8 T , based on 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities, was most closely related to Aeribacillus pallidus strain H12 T (=DSM 3670 T ) (99.8 % similarity value) with a 25 % DNA-DNA relatedness value. Cells were rod-shaped, non-motile and grew optimally at 60 °C and pH 9.0, forming cream colonies. Strain N.8 was able to grow on medium containing up to 9.0 % (w/v) NaCl with an optimum at 6.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The cellular membrane contained MK-7, and C16 : 0 (48.4 %), iso-C17 : 0 (19.4 %) and anteiso-C17 : 0 (14.6 %) were the major cellular fatty acids. The DNA G+C content was 40.5 mol%. Based on phenotypic characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequences, DNA-DNA hybridization values and chemotaxonomic characteristics, strain N.8 T represents a novel species of the genus Aeribacillus, for which the name Aeribacillus composti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is N.8 T (=KCTC 33824 T =JCM 31580 T ).

  9. Kinetics and mechanism of the biodegradation of PLA/clay nanocomposites during thermophilic phase of composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stloukal, Petr; Pekařová, Silvie; Kalendova, Alena; Mattausch, Hannelore; Laske, Stephan; Holzer, Clemens; Chitu, Livia; Bodner, Sabine; Maier, Guenther; Slouf, Miroslav; Koutny, Marek

    2015-08-01

    The degradation mechanism and kinetics of polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite films, containing various commercially available native or organo-modified montmorillonites (MMT) prepared by melt blending, were studied under composting conditions in thermophilic phase of process and during abiotic hydrolysis and compared to the pure polymer. Described first order kinetic models were applied on the data from individual experiments by using non-linear regression procedures to calculate parameters characterizing aerobic composting and abiotic hydrolysis, such as carbon mineralization, hydrolysis rate constants and the length of lag phase. The study showed that the addition of nanoclay enhanced the biodegradation of PLA nanocomposites under composting conditions, when compared with pure PLA, particularly by shortening the lag phase at the beginning of the process. Whereas the lag phase of pure PLA was observed within 27days, the onset of CO2 evolution for PLA with native MMT was detected after just 20days, and from 13 to 16days for PLA with organo-modified MMT. Similarly, the hydrolysis rate constants determined tended to be higher for PLA with organo-modified MMT, particularly for the sample PLA-10A with fastest degradation, in comparison with pure PLA. The acceleration of chain scission in PLA with nanoclays was confirmed by determining the resultant rate constants for the hydrolytical chain scission. The critical molecular weight for the hydrolysis of PLA was observed to be higher than the critical molecular weight for onset of PLA mineralization, suggesting that PLA chains must be further shortened so as to be assimilated by microorganisms. In conclusion, MMT fillers do not represent an obstacle to acceptance of the investigated materials in composting facilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effects of grape seed addition in swine manure-wheat straw composting on the compost microbial community and carbon and nitrogen contents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Mei; Liu, Xue-Ling; Jiang, Ji-Shao; Huang, Hua; Liu, Dong

    2012-08-01

    Taking substrates swine manure and wheat straw (fresh mass ratio 10.5:1) as the control (PMW), a composting experiment was conducted in a self-made aerated static composting bin to study the effects of adding 8% grape seed (treatment PMW + G) on the succession of microbial community and the transformation of carbon and nitrogen in the substrates during the composting. Seven samples were collected from each treatment, according to the temperature of the compost during the 30 d composting period. The microbial population and physiological groups were determined, and the NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N, organic N, and organic C concentrations in the compost were measured. Grape seed addition induced a slight increase of bacterial count and a significant increase of actinomycetes count, but decreased the fungal count significantly. Grape seed addition also decreased the ratio of bacteria to actinomycetes and the counts of ammonifiers and denitrifiers, but increased the counts of nitrifiers, N-fixing bacteria, and cellulose-decomposing microorganisms. The contents of NH4(+)-N and organic C decreased, while that of NO3(-)-N increased obviously. The NO3(-)-N content in the compost was positively correlated with the actinomycetes count. During composting, the compost temperature in treatment PMW + G increased more rapidly, and remained steady in thermophilic phase, while the water content changed little, which provided a stable and higher population of actinomycetes and nitrifiers in thermophilic phase, being beneficial to the increase of compost nitrate N.

  11. Plastic degradation by thermophilic Bacillus sp. BCBT21 isolated from composting agricultural residual in Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Thi Cam Ha; Thang Nguyen, Dang; Thai, Hoang; Chinh Nguyen, Thuy; Thu Hien Tran, Thi; Le, Viet Hung; Huynh Nguyen, Van; Bach Tran, Xuan; Phuong Thao Pham, Thi; Giang Nguyen, Truong; Nguyen, Quang Trung

    2018-03-01

    Three different kinds of plastic bags HL, VHL, and VN1 with different chemical nature were degraded by a novel thermophilic bacterial strain isolated from composting agricultural residual in Vietnam in shaking liquid medium at 55 °C after 30 d. The new strain was classified in the Bacillus genus by morphological property and sequence of partial 16Sr RNA coding gene and named as Bacillus sp. BCBT21. This strain could produce extracellular hydrolase enzymes including lipase, CMCase, xylanase, chitinase, and protease with different level of activity in the same media. After a 30-d treatment at 55 °C with Bacillus sp. BCBT21, all characteristics including properties and morphology of treated plastic bags had been significantly changed. The weight loss, structure and surface morphology of these bags as well as the change in the average molecular weight of VHL bag were detected. Especially, the average molecular weight of VHL bag was significantly reduced from 205 000 to 116 760. New metabolites from the treated bags indicated biodegradation occurring with the different pathways. This finding suggests that there is high potential to develop an effective integrated method for plastic bags degradation by a combination of extracellular enzymes from bacteria and fungi existing in the composting process.

  12. Decline in extractable antibiotics in manure-based composts during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K-R; Owens, G; Ok, Y S; Park, W-K; Lee, D B; Kwon, S-I

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of antibiotics have been detected in natural water samples and this is of potential concern because of the adverse environmental effects of such antibiotic residues. One of the main sources of antibiotics effluence to the surrounding environment is livestock manures which often contain elevated concentrations of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) which survive digestion in the animal stomach following application in animal husbandry practices. In Korea, livestock manures are normally used for compost production indicating that there is potential for antibiotic release to the environment through compost application to agricultural lands. Therefore, reduction of the amount of VAs in composts is crucial. The purpose of this study was to understand the influence of the composting process and the components of the compost on the levels of three common classes of antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and macrolides). Composted materials at different stages of composting were collected from compost manufacturing plants and the variation in antibiotic concentrations was determined. Three different antibiotics, chlortetracycline (CTC), sulfamethazine (SMZ), and tylosin (TYL) at three different concentrations (2, 10, and 20mgkg(-1)) were also applied to a mixture of pig manure and sawdust and the mixtures incubated using a laboratory scale composting apparatus to monitor the changes in antibiotic concentrations during composting together with the physicochemical properties of the composts. During composting, in both field and lab-scale investigations, the concentrations of all three different antibiotics declined below the relevant Korean guideline values (0.8mgkg(-1) for tetracyclines, 0.2mgkg(-1) for sulfonamides and 1.0mgkg(-1) for macrolides). The decline of tetracycline and sulfonamide concentrations was highly dependent on the presence of sawdust while there was no influence of sawdust on TYL decline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A compost bin for handling privy wastes: its fabrication and use

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.E. Leonard; S.C. Fay

    1978-01-01

    A 24-ft3 (6.8-m3) fiberglass bin was constructed and tested for its effectiveness in composting privy wastes. A mixture of ground hardwood bark and raw sewage was used for composting. Temperatures in excess of 60°C for 36 hours were produced in the bin by aerobic, thermophilic composting. This temperature is...

  14. Changes in antibiotic concentrations and antibiotic resistome during commercial composting of animal manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wan-Ying; Yang, Xin-Ping; Li, Qian; Wu, Long-Hua; Shen, Qi-Rong; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2016-12-01

    The over-use of antibiotics in animal husbandry in China and the concomitant enhanced selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in animal manures are of serious concern. Thermophilic composting is an effective way of reducing hazards in organic wastes. However, its effectiveness in antibiotic degradation and ARG reduction in commercial operations remains unclear. In the present study, we determined the concentrations of 15 common veterinary antibiotics and the abundances of 213 ARGs and 10 marker genes for mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in commercial composts made from cattle, poultry and swine manures in Eastern China. High concentrations of fluoroquinolones were found in the poultry and swine composts, suggesting insufficient removal of these antibiotics by commercial thermophilic composting. Total ARGs in the cattle and poultry manures were as high as 1.9 and 5.5 copies per bacterial cell, respectively. After thermophilic composting, the ARG abundance in the mature compost decreased to 9.6% and 31.7% of that in the cattle and poultry manure, respectively. However, some ARGs (e.g. aadA, aadA2, qacEΔ1, tetL) and MGE marker genes (e.g. cintI-1, intI-1 and tnpA-04) were persistent with high abundance in the composts. The antibiotics that were detected at high levels in the composts (e.g. norfloxacin and ofloxacin) might have posed a selection pressure on ARGs. MGE marker genes were found to correlate closely with ARGs at the levels of individual gene, resistance class and total abundance, suggesting that MGEs and ARGs are closely associated in their persistence in the composts under antibiotic selection. Our research shows potential disseminations of antibiotics and ARGs via compost utilization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Earthworm casts (EWCs) and clinoptilolite (CL) were used in green waste composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL improved physico-chemical and microbiological properties. • Addition of EWCs + CL extended the duration of thermophilic periods during composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL enhanced humification, cellulose degradation, and nutrients. • Combined addition of 0.30% EWCs + 25% CL reduced composting time to 21 days. - Abstract: Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21 days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90–270 days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL

  16. Effects of earthworm casts and zeolite on the two-stage composting of green waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lu, E-mail: zhanglu1211@gmail.com; Sun, Xiangyang, E-mail: xysunbjfu@gmail.com

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Earthworm casts (EWCs) and clinoptilolite (CL) were used in green waste composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL improved physico-chemical and microbiological properties. • Addition of EWCs + CL extended the duration of thermophilic periods during composting. • Addition of EWCs + CL enhanced humification, cellulose degradation, and nutrients. • Combined addition of 0.30% EWCs + 25% CL reduced composting time to 21 days. - Abstract: Because it helps protect the environment and encourages economic development, composting has become a viable method for organic waste disposal. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of earthworm casts (EWCs) (at 0.0%, 0.30%, and 0.60%) and zeolite (clinoptilolite, CL) (at 0%, 15%, and 25%) on the two-stage composting of green waste. The combination of EWCs and CL improved the conditions of the composting process and the quality of the compost products in terms of the thermophilic phase, humification, nitrification, microbial numbers and enzyme activities, the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and physico-chemical characteristics and nutrient contents of final composts. The compost matured in only 21 days with the optimized two-stage composting method rather than in the 90–270 days required for traditional composting. The optimal two-stage composting and the best quality compost were obtained with 0.30% EWCs and 25% CL.

  17. Emissions of ammonia, nitrous oxide and methane during composting of organic household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunnarsdotter Beck-Friis, Barbro

    2001-01-01

    In Sweden, composting of source-separated organic household waste is increasing, both domestically at the small-scale, and in larger municipal plants. Composting means a microbial decomposition of organic material, which results in the production of environmentally undesirable gases, such as ammonia (NH 3 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ). The aim of this thesis was to study the emissions of NH 3 , N 2 O and CH 4 to the atmosphere during composting of source-separated organic household waste. The studies were conducted in an experimental reactor under constant and controlled conditions and in municipal compost heaps. Emissions of NH 3 , N 2 O and CH 4 occurred at different phases during composting. Ammonia started to volatilise during the shift from mesophilic to thermophilic conditions when short-chained fatty acids were decomposed. Nitrous oxide was only emitted during the first days of composting and later during the cooling phase when nitrate was formed. Methane was only produced during the thermophilic phase. Large municipal compost heaps are a significant source for the production and emission of the greenhouse gases N 2 O and CH 4 . To avoid unwanted gaseous emissions to the atmosphere during composting, gaseous exchange with the atmosphere should be controlled in future composting plants

  18. Effectiveness of combined thermophilic composting and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-26

    Jul 26, 2010 ... extractable humic acid carbon; CFA, extractable fulvic acid carbon; EC, electrical .... level of 80% recommended for vermicomposting but no worms ... composting of the wastes was then done in boxes measuring 1 x 1.

  19. Mathematical model for carbon dioxide evolution from the thermophilic composting of synthetic food wastes made of dog food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.I.; Tsai, J.J.; Wu, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    The impacts of the aeration and the agitation on the composting process of synthetic food wastes made of dog food were studied in a laboratory-scale reactor. Two major peaks of CO 2 evolution rate were observed. Each peak represented an independent stage of composting associated with the activities of thermophilic bacteria. CO 2 evolutions known to correlate well with microbial activities and reactor temperatures were fitted successfully to a modified Gompertz equation, which incorporated three biokinetic parameters, namely, CO 2 evolution potential, specific CO 2 evolution rate, and lag phase time. No parameters that describe the impact of operating variables are involved. The model is only valid for the specified experimental conditions and may look different with others. The effects of operating parameters such as aeration and agitation were studied statistically with multivariate regression technique. Contour plots were constructed using regression equations for the examination of the dependence of CO 2 evolution potentials on aeration and agitation. In the first stage, a maximum CO 2 evolution potential was found when the aeration rate and the agitation parameter were set at 1.75 l/kg solids-min and 0.35, respectively. In the second stage, a maximum existed when the aeration rate and the agitation parameter were set at 1.8 l/kg solids-min and 0.5, respectively. The methods presented here can also be applied for the optimization of large-scale composting facilities that are operated differently and take longer time

  20. Composting of meat products. First studies; Compostaje de productos carnicos. Primeros estudios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Hurtado, J. L.

    2001-07-01

    This study was carried out about the composting of one product meat wastes: the bay product from tannery industry. the aim was the control pathogens by maintaining temperatures for some time periods during composting. Heat inactivation of pathogens is one of the major benefits of thermophilic composting. The results were very successful. It should be noted, however, that heat inactivation is not the only method of pathogen destruction in a compost system. (Author) 12 refs.

  1. Inside the small-scale composting of kitchen and garden wastes: Thermal performance and stratification effect in vertical compost bins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrigoni, Juan Pablo; Paladino, Gabriela; Garibaldi, Lucas Alejandro; Laos, Francisca

    2018-06-01

    Decentralized composting has been proposed as a best available practice, with a highly positive impact on municipal solid wastes management plans. However, in cold climates, decentralized small-scale composting performance to reach thermophilic temperatures (required for the product sanitization) could be poor, due to a lack of critical mass to retain heat. In addition, in these systems the composting process is usually disturbed when new portions of fresh organic waste are combined with previous batches. This causes modifications in the well-known composting evolution pattern. The objective of this work was to improve the understanding of these technical aspects through a real-scale decentralized composting experience carried out under cold climate conditions, in order to assess sanitization performance and to study the effects of fresh feedstock additions in the process evolution. Kitchen and garden organic wastes were composted in 500 L-static compost bins (without turning) for 244 days under cold climate conditions (Bariloche, NW Patagonia, Argentina), using pine wood shavings in a ratio of 1.5:1 v: v (waste: bulking agent). Temperature profile, stability indicators (microbial activity, carbon and nitrogen contents and ratio) and other variables (pH and electrical conductivity), were monitored throughout the experience. Our results indicate that small-scale composting (average generation rate of 7 kg d -1 ) is viable under cold weather conditions, since thermophilic sanitization temperatures (> 55 °C) were maintained for 3 consecutive days in most of the composting mass, according to available USEPA regulations commonly used as a reference for pathogens control in sewage sludge. On the other hand, stability indicators showed a differentiated organic matter degradation process along the compost bins height. Particularly, in the bottommost composting mix layer the process took a longer period to achieve compost stability than the upper layers, suggesting

  2. Swine manure composting by means of experimental turning equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, A; Da Borso, F; Rodar, T; Chiumenti, R

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of research was to test the effectiveness of a prototype of a turning machine and to evaluate the feasability of a farm-scale composting process of the solid fraction of swine manure. A qualitative evaluation of the process and final product was made by monitoring the following parameters: process temperature, oxygen concentration inside the biomass, gaseous emissions (CH4, CO2, NH3, N2O), respiration index, humification index, total and volatile solids, carbon and nitrogen, pH and microbial load. The prototype proved to be very effective from a technical-operational point of view. The composting process exhibited a typical time-history, characterised by a thermophilic phase followed by a curing phase [Chiumenti, A., Chiumenti, R., Diaz, L.F., Savage, G.M., Eggerth, L.L., Goldstein, N., 2005. Modern Composting Technologies. BioCycle-JG Press, Emmaus, PA, USA]. Gas emissions from compost the windrow were more intense during the active phase of the process and showed a decreasing trend from the thermophilic to the curing phase. The final compost was characterized by good qualitative characteristics, a significant level of humification [Rossi, L., Piccinini, S., 1999. La qualità agronomica dei compost derivanti da liquami suinicoli. (Agronomic quality of swine manure compost). L'informatore Agrario 38, 29-31] and no odor emissions. This method of managing manure represents an effective, low cost approach that could be an interesting opportunity for swine farms.

  3. Composting in small laboratory pilots: Performance and reproducibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashermes, G.; Barriuso, E.; Le Villio-Poitrenaud, M.; Houot, S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We design an innovative small-scale composting device including six 4-l reactors. ► We investigate the performance and reproducibility of composting on a small scale. ► Thermophilic conditions are established by self-heating in all replicates. ► Biochemical transformations, organic matter losses and stabilisation are realistic. ► The organic matter evolution exhibits good reproducibility for all six replicates. - Abstract: Small-scale reactors ( 2 consumption and CO 2 emissions, and characterising the biochemical evolution of organic matter. A good reproducibility was found for the six replicates with coefficients of variation for all parameters generally lower than 19%. An intense self-heating ensured the existence of a spontaneous thermophilic phase in all reactors. The average loss of total organic matter (TOM) was 46% of the initial content. Compared to the initial mixture, the hot water soluble fraction decreased by 62%, the hemicellulose-like fraction by 68%, the cellulose-like fraction by 50% and the lignin-like fractions by 12% in the final compost. The TOM losses, compost stabilisation and evolution of the biochemical fractions were similar to observed in large reactors or on-site experiments, excluding the lignin degradation, which was less important than in full-scale systems. The reproducibility of the process and the quality of the final compost make it possible to propose the use of this experimental device for research requiring a mass reduction of the initial composted waste mixtures.

  4. Insight into effects of mature compost recycling on N2O emission and denitrification genes in sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Wu, Yiqi; Li, Weiguang; Wu, Chuandong; Chen, Zhiqiang

    2018-03-01

    Mature compost recycling is widely used to reduce the dosage of organic bulking agent in actual composting process. In this study, the effects of mature compost amendment on N 2 O emission and denitrification genes were investigated in 47 days composting of sewage sludge and rice husks. The results showed that mature compost amendment dramatically augmented N 2 O emission rate in mesophilic phase and CO 2 emission rate in thermophilic phase of composting, respectively. The cumulative amount of N 2 O emission increased by more than 23 times compared to the control. Mature compost amendment not only reduced moisture and pH, but also significantly increased NO 3 - -N and NO 2 - -N concentrations. The correlation matrices indicated that NO 3 - -N, narG and norB were the main factors influencing N 2 O emission rate in sludge composting with mature compost recycling, but the N 2 O emission rate was significantly correlated to NO 2 - -N, nirK and norB in the control. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Isolation of Thermophilic Lignin Degrading Bacteria from Oil-Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) Compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, C. M. T.; Chua, H. B.; Danquah, M. K.; Saptoro, A.

    2017-06-01

    Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) is a potential and sustainable feedstock for bioethanol production due to its high cellulosic content and availability in Malaysia. Due to high lignin content of EFB and the lack of effective delignification process, commercial bioethanol production from EFB is presently not viable. Enzymatic delignification has been identified as one of the key steps in utilising EFB as a feedstock for bioethanol conversion. To date, limited work has been reported on the isolation of lignin degrading bacteria. Hence, there is a growing interest to search for new lignin degrading bacteria with greater tolerance to temperature and high level of ligninolytic enzymes for more effective lignin degradation. This study aimed to isolate and screen thermophilic ligninolytic microorganisms from EFB compost. Ten isolates were successfully isolated from EFB compost. Although they are not capable of decolorizing Methylene Blue (MB) dye under agar plate assay method, they are able to utilize lignin mimicked compound - guaiacol as a sole carbon on the agar plate assay. This infers that there is no correlation of ligninolytic enzymes with dye decolourization for all the isolates that have been isolated. However, they are able to produce ligninolytic enzymes (Lignin peroxidase, Manganese peroxidase, Laccase) in Minimal Salt Medium with Kraft Lignin (MSM-KL) with Lignin Peroxidase (LiP) as the predominant enzyme followed by Manganese Peroxidase (MnP) and Laccase (Lac). Among all the tested isolates, CLMT 29 has the highest LiP production up to 8.7673 U/mL following 24 h of growth.

  6. Nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure with biochar prepared at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ronghua; Wang, Quan; Zhang, Zengqiang; Zhang, Guangjie; Li, Zhonghong; Wang, Li; Zheng, Jianzhong

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the corn stalk charred biomass (CB) prepared at different pyrolysis temperatures as additives on nutrient transformation during aerobic composting of pig manure were investigated. The results showed that the addition of CB carbonized at different temperatures to pig manure compost significantly influenced the compost temperature, moisture, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter degradation, total nitrogen, [Formula: see text] and NH3 variations during composting. Compared with control and adding CB charred at lower temperature treatments, the addition of CB prepared over 700°C resulted in higher pH (over 9.2) and NH3 emission and lower potherb mustard seed germination index value during the thermophilic phase. Peak temperatures of composts appeared at 7 days for control and 11 days for CB added treatments. During 90 days composting, the organic matter degradation could be increased over 14.8-29.6% after adding of CB in the compost mixture. The introduction of CB in pig manure could prolong the thermophilic phase, inhibit moisture reduce, facilitate the organic matter decomposition, reduce diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) extractable Zn and Cu contents in pig manure composts and increase ryegrass growth. The study indicated that the corn stalk CB prepared around 500°C was a suitable additive in pig manure composting.

  7. Production of well-matured compost from night-soil sludge by an extremely short period of thermophilic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Ohtaki, Akihito; Takemoto, Minoru; Fujiwara, Shunrokuro

    2011-03-01

    The effect of various operational conditions on the decomposition of organic material during the composting of night-soil treatment sludge was quantitatively examined. The optimum composting conditions were found to be a temperature of ca. 60°C and an initial pH value of 8. Rapid decomposition of organic matter ceased by the sixth day of composting under these optimum conditions, and the final value of the cumulative emission of carbon (E(C)), which represents the degree of organic matter decomposition, was less than 40%, indicating that the sludge contained only a small amount of easily degradable organic material. A plant growth assay using Komatsuna (Brassica campestris L. var. rapiferafroug) in a 1/5000a standard cultivation pot was then conducted for the compost at various degrees of organic matter decomposition: the raw composting material, the final compost obtained on day 6, and the 2 intermediate compost products (i.e., E(C)=10% and 20%). It was found that the larger the E(C), the greater the yield of Komatsuna growth. It was also found that 6 days of composting is sufficient to promote Komatsuna growth at the standard loading level, which is equivalent to a 1.5 g N/pot, since the promotion effect was as high as that obtained using chemical fertilizer. It can therefore be concluded that well-matured compost could be obtained in a short period of time (i.e., as early as 6 days), when night-soil sludge is composted under optimum conditions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biodegradation functions in a large-scale aerobic composting plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongming; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Song, Caihong; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-01-01

    Composting is an appropriate management alternative for municipal solid waste; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scare. We employed metaproteomics to elucidate the main biodegradation pathways in municipal solid waste composting system across the main phases in a large-scale composting plant. The investigation of microbial succession revealed that Bacillales, Actinobacteria and Saccharomyces increased significantly with respect to abundance in composting process. The key microbiologic population for cellulose degradation in different composting stages was different. Fungi were found to be the main producers of cellulase in earlier phase. However, the cellulolytic fungal communities were gradually replaced by a purely bacterial one in active phase, which did not support the concept that the thermophilic fungi are active through the thermophilic phase. The effective decomposition of cellulose required the synergy between bacteria and fungi in the curing phase. PMID:25989417

  9. Impacts of sporulation temperature, exposure to compost matrix and temperature on survival of Bacillus cereus spores during livestock mortality composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, K; Reuter, T; Gilroyed, B H; McAllister, T A

    2015-04-01

    To investigate impact of sporulation and compost temperatures on feasibility of composting for disposal of carcasses contaminated with Bacillus anthracis. Two strains of B. cereus, 805 and 1391, were sporulated at either 20 or 37°C (Sporulation temperature, ST) and 7 Log10 CFU g(-1) spores added to autoclaved manure in nylon bags (pore size 50 μm) or in sealed vials. Vials and nylon bags were embedded into compost in either a sawdust or manure matrix each containing 16 bovine mortalities (average weight 617 ± 33 kg), retrieved from compost at intervals over 217 days and survival of B. cereus spores assessed. A ST of 20°C decreased spore survival by 1·4 log10 CFU g(-1) (P Compost temperatures >55°C reduced spore survival (P compost temperatures were key factors influencing survival of B. cereus spores in mortality compost. Composting may be most appropriate for the disposal of carcasses infected with B. anthracis at ambient temperatures ≤20°C under thermophillic composting conditions (>55°C). © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Biochar amendment for batch composting of nitrogen rich organic waste: Effect on degradation kinetics, composting physics and nutritional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mayur Shirish; Jambhulkar, Rohit; Kalamdhad, Ajay S

    2018-04-01

    Composting is an efficient technology to reduce pathogenic bodies and stabilize the organic matter in organic wastes. This research work investigates an effect of biochar as amendment to improve the composting efficiency and its effect on degradation kinetics, physical and nutritional properties. Biochar (2.5, 5 and 10% (w/w)) were added into a mixture of Hydrilla verticillata, cow dung and sawdust having ratio of 8:1:1 (control), respectively. Biochar addition resulted in advanced thermophilic temperatures (59 °C) and could improve the physical properties of composting process. Owing to addition of 5% biochar as a bulking agent in composting mixture, the final product from composting, total nitrogen increased by 45% compared to the other trials, and air-filled porosity decreased by 39% and was found to be within recommended range from literature studies. Considering temperature, degradation rate and nitrogen transformation the amendment of 5% biochar is recommended for Hydrilla verticillata composting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Impact of compost amendments and operating temperature on diesel fuel bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesnawi, R.M.; McCartney, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    The optimal conditions for compost bioremediation of unweathered diesel-contaminated soil were examined in this laboratory study. A sandy soil from the Assiniboine Delta Aquifer in Manitoba was spiked with diesel fuel and radio-labeled phenanthrene to yield a contaminant load of 20,000 mg per kg of dry soil. Two amendment materials were used, consisting of municipal biosolids, leaves and wood shavings. Since temperature plays a significant role, this study observed the effect of the operating temperature and the amendment material on the fate of phenanthrene and extractable diesel range hydrocarbons during the composting bioremediation of diesel-contaminated soil. The material was amended with fresh feedstock material or finished compost and incubated at thermophilic or mesophilic temperatures for 126 days. No mineralization of carbon 14 phenanthrene was detected in the controls that were not amended with compost. However, 25 to 42 per cent phenanthrene mineralization was detected in treatments that received compost. The lowest extractable diesel range organic residual was observed in the treatment receiving fresh compost amendment and incubated at thermophilic temperatures. The highest residual was noted in the control without any amendment. All treatments that received amendments outperformed the control reactors. However, there were large differences among the treatment performances, indicating that amendment type and operating temperature are significant factors that affect the performance of bioremediation. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  12. Heat inactivation of Salmonella spp. in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R; Kim, J; Jiang, X

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moisture on thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in poultry litter under optimal composting conditions. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella was studied in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process. A mixture of three Salmonella serotypes grown in Tryptic soy broth with rifampin (TSB-R) was inoculated in fresh compost with 40 or 50% moisture at a final concentration of c. 7 log CFU g(-1). The inoculated compost was kept in an environmental chamber which was programmed to rise from room temperature to target composting temperatures in 2 days. In poultry compost with optimal moisture content (50%), Salmonella spp. survived for 96, 72 and 24 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, as compared with 264, 144 and 72 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, in compost with suboptimal moisture (40%). Pathogen decline was faster during the come-up time owing to higher ammonia volatilization. Our results demonstrated that Salmonella spp. survived longer in fresh poultry compost with suboptimal moisture of 40% than in compost with optimal moisture of 50% during thermophilic composting. High nitrogen content of the poultry compost is an additional factor contributing to Salmonella inactivation through ammonia volatilization during thermal exposure. This research validated the effectiveness of the current composting guidelines on Salmonella inactivation in fresh poultry compost. Both initial moisture level and ammonia volatilization are important factors affecting microbiological safety and quality of compost product. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. The effect of composting on the persistence of four ionophores in dairy manure and poultry litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manure composting is a well-described approach for stabilization of nutrients and reduction of pathogens and odors. Although composting studies have shown that thermophilic temperatures and aerobic conditions can increase removal rates of selected antibiotics, comparable information is lacking for ...

  14. Thermophilic biofiltration of benzene and toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Kyung-Suk; Yoo, Sun-Kyung; Ryu, Hee Wook

    2007-12-01

    In the current studies, we characterized the degradation of a hot mixture of benzene and toluene (BT) gases by a thermophilic biofilter using polyurethane as packing material and high-temperature compost as a microbial source. We also examined the effect of supplementing the biofilter with yeast extract (YE). We found that YE substantially enhanced microbial activity in the thermophilic biofilter. The degrading activity of the biofilter supplied with YE was stable during long-term operation (approximately 100 d) without accumulating excess biomass. The maximum elimination capacity (1,650 g x m(-3) h(-1)) in the biofilter supplemented with YE was 3.5 times higher than that in the biofilter without YE (470 g g x m(-3) h(-1)). At similar retention times, the capacity to eliminate BT for the YE-supplemented biofilter was higher than for previously reported mesophilic biofilters. Thus, thermophilic biofiltration can be used to degrade hydrophobic compounds such as a BT mixture. Finally, 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction-DGGE (PCR-DGGE) fingerprinting revealed that the thermophilic bacteria in the biofilter included Rubrobacter sp. and Mycobacterium sp.

  15. Effect of thermo-tolerant actinomycetes inoculation on cellulose degradation and the formation of humic substances during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Zhao, Yue; Zhang, Zhechao; Wei, Yuquan; Wang, Huan; Lu, Qian; Li, Yanjie; Wei, Zimin

    2017-10-01

    The inoculum containing four cellulolytic thermophilic actinomycetes was screened from compost samples, and was inoculated into co-composting during different inoculation phases. The effect of different inoculation phases on cellulose degradation, humic substances formation and the relationship between inoculation and physical-chemical parameters was determined. The results revealed that inoculation at different phases of composting improved cellulase activities, accelerated the degradation of cellulose, increased the content of humic substances and influenced the structure of actinomycetic community, but there were significant differences between different inoculation phases. Redundancy analysis showed that the different inoculation phases had different impacts on the relationship between exogenous actinobacteria and physical-chemical parameters. Therefore, based on the promoting effort of inoculation in thermophilic phase of composting for the formation of humic substances, we suggested an optimized inoculation strategy to increase the content of humic substances, alleviate CO 2 emission during composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of added polyacrylamide on changes in water states during the composting of kitchen waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu-Qiang; Chen, Zhuo-Xian; Zhang, Xue-Qing; Hu, Li-Fang; Shen, Dong-Sheng; Long, Yu-Yang

    2015-02-01

    The effects of adding polyacrylamide (PAM), to attempt to delay the loss of capillary water and achieve a better level of organic matter humification, in the composting of kitchen waste were evaluated. Four treatments, with initial moisture content of 60 % were used: 0.1 % PAM added before the start of composting (R1), 0.1 % PAM added when the thermophilic phase of composting became stable (at >50 °C) (R2), 0.1 % PAM added when the moisture content significantly decreased (R3), and no PAM added (R4). The introduction of PAM in R1 and R2 significantly increased the capillary force and delayed the loss of moisture content and capillary water. The introduction of PAM in R2 and R3 improved the composting process, in terms of the degradation of biochemical fractions and the humification degree. These results show that the optimal time for adding PAM was the initial stage of the thermophilic phase.

  17. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, L.M.; Mourão, I.; Coutinho, J.; Smith, S.R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. ► Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. ► Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. ► Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. ► The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m 3 h −1 and 1 m 3 h −1 and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62–64 °C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 °C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520–660 g kg −1 dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P 4 + and increased concentrations of NO 3 - in SF composts. The results indicated that minimum intervention composting of SF in static piles over 168 days can produce agronomically effective organic soil amendments containing significant amounts of OM (772–856 g kg −1 ) and plant nutrients. The

  18. Unique hyper-thermal composting process in Kagoshima City forms distinct bacterial community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Yukihiro; Tabata, Hanae; Itahara, Asuka; Shimizu, Natsuki; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji

    2016-11-01

    A unique compost, Satsuma soil, is produced from three types of wastewater sludge using hyper-thermal processes at temperatures much higher than that of general thermophilic processes in Kagoshima City, Japan. We analyzed the bacterial community structures of this hyper-thermal compost sample and other sludges and composts by a high-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing method targeting the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 621,076 reads were derived from 17 samples and filtered. Artificial sequences were deleted and the reads were clustered based on the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 97% similarity. Phylum-level analysis of the hyper-thermal compost revealed drastic changes of the sludge structures (each relative abundance) from Firmicutes (average 47.8%), Proteobacteria (average 22.3%), and Bacteroidetes (average 10.1%) to two main phyla including Firmicutes (73.6%) and Actinobacteria (25.0%) with less Proteobacteria (∼0.3%) and Bacteroidetes (∼0.1%). Furthermore, we determined the predominant species (each relative abundance) of the hyper-thermal compost including Firmicutes related to Staphylococcus cohnii (13.8%), Jeotgalicoccus coquinae (8.01%), and Staphylococcus lentus (5.96%), and Actinobacteria related to Corynebacterium stationis (6.41%), and found that these species were not predominant in wastewater sludge. In contrast, we did not observe any common structures among eight other composts produced, using the hyper-thermal composts as the inoculums, under thermophilic conditions from different materials. Principle coordinate analysis of the hyper-thermal compost indicated a large difference in bacterial community structures from material sludge and other composts. These results suggested that a distinct bacterial community structure was formed by hyper-thermal composting. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhancement of Cotton Stalks Composting with Certain Microbial Inoculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abdel-Twab Seoudi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of inoculation with Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Azotobacter chrococcum microbes on cotton stalks composting was studied in an attempt to achieve rapid maturity and desirable characteristics of produced compost. Composting process was maintained for 16 weeks under aerobic conditions with proper moisture content and turning piles. The C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to about 30:1 before composting using chicken manure. Temperature evolution and its profile were monitored throughout the composting period. Mineralization rates of organic matter and changes in nitrogen content during composting stages were evaluated. Total plate count of mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria, cellulose decomposers and Azotobacter were determined during composting periods. The treatment of cotton stalks inoculated with both P. chrysosporium and Azotobacter gave the most desirable characteristics of the final product with respect to the narrow C/N ratio, high nitrogen content and high numbers of Azotobacter. The phytotoxicity test of compost extracts was evaluated. The use of P. chrysosporium in composting accelerated markedly decomposition process, so that 16 weeks composting enough to produce a stable and mature compost suitable for use as fertilizer while the fertilizer obtained by composting cotton stalks mixed with chicken manure and inoculated with microorganisms is highest quality Compost.

  20. Evaluation of calcium cyanamide addition during co-composting of manure and maize straw in a forced-aeration static-pile system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simujide, Huasai; Aorigele, Chen; Wang, Chun-Jie; Zhang, Tian-Hua; Manda, Bai

    2016-01-01

    Composting is one of the most environmentally friendly treatments to inactivate pathogenic organisms or reduce them to acceptable levels. However, even under thermal conditions, some pathogenic organisms such as E. coli could exist for a long time in composting. Such great persistence may increase the possibility of outbreaks of these organisms and further increase the environmental load. Calcium cyanamide (CaCN 2 ) has recently been recognized to have the fungicidal effect on the pathogens of the soilborne diseases. So, the present study determined the effect of CaCN 2 addition on composting progress as an antimicrobial agent and an amendment during forced-aeration static-pile composting of cow manure, which was mainly aimed to inhibit the pathogens that had not been inactivated by heat during composting. The mixtures of dairy cow manure and maize straw with addition of 2 % CaCN 2 or no addition were composted for 63 days. The physical, chemical and biological changes in compost mixtures were examined during composting. The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA procedure from SAS software (version 9.0). The results showed that the addition of CaCN 2 significantly increased the maximum temperature and lengthened the duration of the thermophilic phase, and increased the percent T-N but decreased C/N ratio. For microbiological test, the addition of CaCN 2 shortened the time to inactivate E. coli , and increased the total average population of thermophilic bacteria but did not significantly influence that of mesophilic bacteria. The results indicated that the addition of CaCN 2 , at least at the additive content of 2 % could benefit the thermophilic phase and the composting could quickly reach the sanitary standard during the composting of manure with maize straw in a forced-aeration static-pile system. This finding will contribute to solve the feces disposal problems.

  1. Date palm and the activated sludge co-composting actinobacteria sanitization potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Fels, Loubna; Hafidi, Mohamed; Ouhdouch, Yedir

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to find a connection between the development of the compost actinobacteria and the potential involvement of antagonistic thermophilic actinomycetes in compost sanitization as high temperature additional role. An abundance of actinobacteria and coliforms during the activated sludge and date palm co-composting is determined. Hundred actinomycete isolates were isolated from the sample collected at different composting times. To evaluate the antagonistic effects of the different recovered actinomycete isolates, several wastewater-linked microorganisms known as human and plant potential pathogens were used. The results showed that 12 isolates have an in vitro inhibitory effect on at least 9 of the indicator microorganisms while only 4 active strains inhibit all these pathogens. The antimicrobial activities of sterilized composting time extracts are also investigated.

  2. Variation in microbial population during composting of agro-industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Luísa; Reis, Mário; Dionísio, Lídia

    2013-05-01

    Two compost piles were prepared, using two ventilation systems: forced ventilation and ventilation through mechanical turning. The material to compost was a mixture of orange waste, olive pomace, and grass clippings (2:1:1 v/v). During the composting period (375 days), samples were periodically taken from both piles, and the enumeration of fungi, actinomycetes, and heterotrophic bacteria was carried out. All studied microorganisms were incubated at 25 and 55 °C after inoculation in appropriate growth media. Fungi were dominant in the early stages of both composting processes; heterotrophic bacteria proliferated mainly during the thermophilic stage, and actinomycetes were more abundant in the final stage of the composting process. Our results showed that the physical and chemical parameters: temperature, pH, moisture, and aeration influenced the variation of the microbial population along the composting process. This study demonstrated that composting of these types of wastes, despite the prolonged mesophilic stage, provided an expected microbial variation.

  3. Application of Bacillus sp. TAT105 to reduce ammonia emissions during pilot-scale composting of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazutaka; Tanaka, Akihiro; Furuhashi, Kenich; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    2017-12-01

    Thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacterium Bacillus sp. TAT105 grows and reduces ammonia (NH 3 ) emissions by assimilating ammonium nitrogen during composting of swine feces. To evaluate the efficacy of a biological additive containing TAT105 at reducing NH 3 emissions, composting tests of swine manure on a pilot scale (1.8 m 3 ) were conducted. In the TAT105-added treatment, NH 3 emissions and nitrogen loss were lower than those in the control treatment without TAT105. No significant difference was detected in losses in the weight and volatile solids between the treatments. Concentration of thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacteria in the compost increased in both treatments at the initial stage of composting. In the TAT105-added treatment, bacterial concentration reached ~10 9 colony-forming units per gram of dry matter, several-fold higher than that in the control and stayed at the same level until the end. These results suggest that TAT105 grows during composting and reduces NH 3 emissions in TAT105-added treatment.

  4. Composting of organically amended/treated hardwood and softwood sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takyi-Lartey, Rita

    2015-07-01

    Sawdust is a major waste produced by the wood industry. Adding value to sawdust through composting is one of the surest means by which environmental pollution could be minimized. About 500 kg of softwood and hardwood sawdust were separately mixed with mucuna leaves and kitchen waste in the ratio of 3:1:1 on weight basis and heaped using effluent from abattoir to develop composts. Objectives of the study were to monitor changes in the physico-chemical properties, NH4"+ ‒ N, NO3"‒ ‒ N, C:N ratio, minerals N, K, P, microbial load and toxic elements in the composts during a 12 week period. Germination test was also done to evaluate the stability and maturity of the composts developed. Degradation of softwood sawdust compost (SSC) was better in the mesophilic phase while that of hardwood sawdust compost (HSC) occurred in the thermophilic phase. Thus, significantly higher amount of the organic material in SSC was decomposed during the period as compared to HSC. Also, greater percentage of the nitrogen in the initial material of SSC was converted into plant-available inorganic nitrogen (NH4"+ and NO3"‒) than was achieved in HSC. Hence, most of the mineral nitrogen in HSC that was converted was lost, probably in the thermophilic phase. On the contrary, the amount of organic nitrogen contained in the finished composts of both SSC and HSC were adequately good for application to the soil. Additionally, concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms in SSC and HSC products were within acceptable limits in terms of toxicity on growing plants. The softwood sawdust compost was relatively more stable as compared to HSC under the experimental conditions. Concentrations of heavy metals in both SSC and HSC were also within acceptable limits that would cause no toxicity to plants. Also, moisture contents in both SSC and HSC were within the good range (40 - 60%) required for a good compost. Thus both SSC and HSC produced were of good quality. Further research targeting specific

  5. Effects of the feeding ratio of food waste on fed-batch aerobic composting and its microbial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Pan, Songqing; Zhang, Zhaoji; Lin, Xiangyu; Zhang, Yuzhen; Chen, Shaohua

    2017-01-01

    To determine the suitable feeding ratio for fed-batch aerobic composting, four fermenters were operated by adding 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% of food waste every day. The results showed that the 5% and 10% treatments were able to maintain continuous thermophilic conditions, while the 15% treatment performed badly in regard to composting temperature, which was probably due to the negative effects of excessive moisture on microbial activity. As composting proceeded, both the 5% and the 10% treatments reached maturity and achieved weight losses of approximately 65%. High-throughput sequencing results indicated that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria were the dominant phyla of the community structure. The communities sampled at the thermophilic phases had high similarity and relatively low diversity, while species diversity increased in the maturity phase. This study was devoted to optimizing the fed-batch composting process and assessing bacterial communities, both of which were supplied as a reference for practical application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of maize straw content with sewage sludge on composting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czekała Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available After entrance to EU in 2004, the management of sewage sludge has become more and more important problem for the new members. In Poland, one of the most promising technologies is composting process of sewage sludge with carbonaceous materials. However, the high price of typically used cereal straw forces the specialists to look for new and cheap materials used as donor of carbon and substrates creating good, porous structure of composted heap. This work presents the results of sewage sludge composting mixed with sawdust and maize straw used to create structure favorable for air exchange. The results show dynamic thermophilic phase of composting process in all cases where maize straw was used.

  7. The influences of inoculants from municipal sludge and solid waste on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during chicken manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Jijin; Yuan, Jing; Li, Guoxue; Zang, Bing; Li, Yangyang

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of inoculants on compost stability, maturity and enzyme activities during composting of chicken manure and cornstalk. Two microbial inoculants (originated from aerobic municipal sludge and municipal solid waste, respectively) were used in composting at the rate of 0.3% of initial raw materials (wet weight). No microbial inoculums were added to the control. The experiment was conducted under aerobic conditions for 53 days. The results show that enzyme activity is an important index to comprehensively evaluate the composting stability and maturity. Microbes originated from sludge works best in terms of composting stability and maturity (C:N ratio decreased from 15.5 to 10, and germination index increased to 109%). Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and municipal solid waste extended the time of thermophilic phase for 11 and 7 days, respectively. Microbial inoculums originated from sludge and MSW significantly increased the average of catalase activity (by 15.0% and 12.1%, respectively), urease activity (by 21.5% and 12.2%, respectively) and cellulase activity (by 32.1% and 26.1%, respectively) during composting.

  8. Composting of Sewage Sludge Using Recycled Matured Compost as a Single Bulking Agent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyang; Ren, Jian; Niu, Huasi; Wu, Xingwu

    2010-11-01

    Pretreatment (bulking agent choice and mixing) is an essential phase of dewatered raw sludge (RS) composting affecting its industrialization significantly. In this paper recycled compost (RC) was chosen as a single bulking agent in the composting experiment instead of other agents such as sawdust, rice straw, MSW, and the mixing machine was developed for mixing of SS and RC. According to the mixing experiment, SS and RC can be mixed uniformly and formed into small particles of 10˜15 mm in diameter, which improved the availability of oxygen during composting. The effect of different volumetric ratios of RS to RC, 1:1 (Exp.1), 1:2 (Exp.2) and 1:4 (Exp.3), on the performance of composting was investigated in detail. Temperature, oxygen consumption rate, organic matter, C/N ratio and moisture content were monitored in each experiment. In despite of low initial C/N of the mixture, intensive fermentation happened in all the experiments. Exp.1 and Exp.2 achieved stability and sanitization, but Exp 1 took more days to accomplish the fermentation. Exp 3 maintained thermophilic temperatures for a shortest time and did not satisfy the necessary sanitation requirements because more RC was recycled. In all experiments, the moisture content of their final composts were too high to be used as bulking agents before extra moisture was reduced. RS: RC = 1:2 (v/v) was the optimum and advisable proportion for the industrialization of sewage sludge composting of, the composting period was about 10 days, and the aeration rate 0.05 m3/(m3ṡmin) was appropriate in this study.

  9. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC); colorectal cancer diagnosis with CTC in an Auckland population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Helen; Dodd, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity of computed tomographic colonography (CTC) in the detection of colorectal cancer in our population and evaluate the reasons why these lesions may be missed on CTC. All patients who underwent CTC in the 65-month period from 1 January 2004 to 1 July 2009 were included in the analysis. Demographic data and CTC findings were recorded, according to the CT Colonography Reporting and Data System. Data were cross-matched with the National Cancer Registry results for colorectal cancer cases between 1 January 2004 and 1 October 2009, 3 months longer to include any delayed diagnoses. There were 2026 consecutive CTC patients, comprising 52.6% female, average age of 60 years; range 19–87. Approximately 84% were symptomatic. There were 45 confirmed colorectal cancers among this patient group in the National Cancer Registry during the relevant time period compared with 43 suspected cancers on CTC, giving a miss rate of 2 of 45, or 4.4%. The sensitivity of 95% for CTC in the detection of colorectal cancer compares favourably with the published national and international data.

  10. Microbial phylogeny determines transcriptional response of resistome to dynamic composting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Dong, Da; Strong, P J; Zhu, Weijing; Ma, Zhuang; Qin, Yong; Wu, Weixiang

    2017-08-16

    Animal manure is a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) that pose a potential health risk globally, especially for resistance to the antibiotics commonly used in livestock production (such as tetracycline, sulfonamide, and fluoroquinolone). Currently, the effects of biological treatment (composting) on the transcriptional response of manure ARGs and their microbial hosts are not well characterized. Composting is a dynamic process that consists of four distinct phases that are distinguished by the temperature resulting from microbial activity, namely the mesophilic, thermophilic, cooling, and maturing phases. In this study, changes of resistome expression were determined and related to active microbiome profiles during the dynamic composting process. This was achieved by integrating metagenomic and time series metatranscriptomic data for the evolving microbial community during composting. Composting noticeably reduced the aggregated expression level of the manure resistome, which primarily consisted of genes encoding for tetracycline, vancomycin, fluoroquinolone, beta-lactam, and aminoglycoside resistance, as well as efflux pumps. Furthermore, a varied transcriptional response of resistome to composting at the ARG levels was highlighted. The expression of tetracycline resistance genes (tetM-tetW-tetO-tetS) decreased during composting, where distinctive shifts in the four phases of composting were related to variations in antibiotic concentration. Composting had no effect on the expression of sulfonamide and fluoroquinolone resistance genes, which increased slightly during the thermophilic phase and then decreased to initial levels. As indigenous populations switched greatly throughout the dynamic composting, the core resistome persisted and their reservoir hosts' composition was significantly correlated with dynamic active microbial phylogenetic structure. Hosts for sulfonamide and fuoroquinolone resistance genes changed notably in phylognetic structure

  11. Occupational hygiene of windrow composting. Aumakompostoinnin tyoehygienia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, K; Wihersaari, M [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland). Combustion and Thermal Engineering Lab.; Huvio, T; Lundstroem, Y [Helsingin kaupungin vesi- ja viemaerilaitos, Helsinki (Finland); Veijalainen, A [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-01-01

    The occupational air in windrow composting of digested sewage sludge, raw sludge and source separated biowaste was investigated for microbe, endotoxin and dust concentrations and for odour level during turning and sieving of composts. The normal parameters of composting were investigated at the same time. The composting of the source separated biowaste was so vigorous that the drying due to heat generation may have slowed the process. Composting of the digested and the raw sludge took place much more slowly. In all composts, the measured values for heavy metals stayed well below specified norms. The composts were hygienic: no Salmonella bacteria were found in a single sample. The formation of odorous compounds was measured in small composters: more such compounds were formed in the thermophile stage of biowaste composts than in the digested sludge composts. Among the gases that were released, dimethyl sulphide, dimethyl disulphide, e-pinene and limonene clearly exceeded the odour threashould. Endotoxins and dust concentrations in the occupational air were small. Total dust concentrations in the cabs of composting machines at times exceeded the eight-hour HTP concentration for organic dust. Especially in the occupational air of the biowaste and raw sludge composts, the concentrations of bacteria and fungi exceeded 10[sup 2]-10[sup 5] cfu/m[sup 3] during turning. This concentration level may cause respiratory ailments. The identified fungi included members of the genera Aspergillus, Penicillum and Cladosporum, which are associated with allergies. The microbes and dust concentrations measured in this study of windrow composting are comparable to the findings of corresponding studies from other composting plants, landfills and waste treatment plants.

  12. [The stratification of moisture content and its dynamics in co-composting of sewage sludge and pig manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wei; Chen, Tong-bin; Gao, Ding; Zheng, Yu-qi; Zheng, Guo-di

    2004-03-01

    The experiment of co-composting of sewage sludge and pig manure was studied. The moisture contents were 50.82%-60.87% at the stage of temperature rising and 38.7%-52.17% at the stage of thermophilic fermentation, and the stratification of moisture content were not obvious for both stages because the door, the internal wall and the depth of the composting bay had little effect on the stratification. At the stage of cooling, the moisture content was 24.54%-49.39%, and the stratification of moisture content was remarkable as the door, the internal wall and the depth of the composting bay had great influence on it. At the stage of maturity, the moisture content was 19.18%-49.34%, and the stratification of moisture weakened, for which the door and the internal wall were mainly responsible. At the different composting stage, the degree of difference of moisture content on the profiles of the pile was of the order: maturity stage > cooling stage > thermophilic stage = temperature rising stage, and the moisture content in the pile was as follows: the lower > the middle > the upper. The relation between moisture content and composting time meeted with two-order kinetics equation.

  13. The structural and functional contributions of β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities to cellulose degradation in composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xiangyun; Liu, Meiting; Fan, Yihong; Xu, Jie; Xu, Xiuhong; Li, Hongtao

    2018-01-01

    Compost habitats sustain a vast ensemble of microbes that engender the degradation of cellulose, which is an important part of global carbon cycle. β-Glucosidase is the rate-limiting enzyme of degradation of cellulose. Thus, analysis of regulation of β-glucosidase gene expression in composting is beneficial to a better understanding of cellulose degradation mechanism. Genetic diversity and expression of β-glucosidase-producing microbial communities, and relationships of cellulose degradation, metabolic products and the relative enzyme activity during natural composting and inoculated composting were evaluated. Compared with natural composting, adding inoculation agent effectively improved the degradation of cellulose, and maintained high level of the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCase) and β-glucosidase activities in thermophilic phase. Gene expression analysis showed that glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1) family of β-glucosidase genes contributed more to β-glucosidase activity in the later thermophilic phase in inoculated compost. In the cooling phase of natural compost, glycoside hydrolase family 3 (GH3) family of β-glucosidase genes contributed more to β-glucosidase activity. Intracellular β-glucosidase activity played a crucial role in the regulation of β-glucosidase gene expression, and upregulation or downregulation was also determined by extracellular concentration of glucose. At sufficiently high glucose concentrations, the functional microbial community in compost was altered, which may contribute to maintaining β-glucosidase activity despite the high glucose content. This research provides an ecological functional map of microorganisms involved in carbon metabolism in cattle manure-rice straw composting. The performance of the functional microbial groups in the two composting treatments is different, which is related to the cellulase activity and cellulose degradation, respectively.

  14. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brito, L.M., E-mail: miguelbrito@esa.ipvc.pt [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Mourao, I. [Escola Superior Agraria, Instituto Politecnico de Viana do Castelo, Refoios, 4990-706 Ponte de Lima (Portugal) and Mountain Research Centre (CIMO), IPB, Campus de St Apolonia, Apartado 1172, 5301-855 Braganca (Portugal); Coutinho, J., E-mail: j_coutin@utad.pt [C. Quimica, DeBA, EC Vida e Ambiente, Universidade de Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro, ap 1013, 5001-911 Vila Real (Portugal); Smith, S.R., E-mail: s.r.smith@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simple management techniques were examined for composting slurry solid fraction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composting slurry solids was effective without bulking agents, turning or rewetting. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maximum rates of organic matter destruction were observed in short piles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and moisture reduction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The simple compost management approach maximised N retention and agronomic value. - Abstract: Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and 1 m{sup 3} h{sup -1} and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2 m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 Degree-Sign C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 Degree-Sign C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg{sup -1} dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (P < 0.001) increased nutrient concentrations during the composting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final

  15. Removal of dissolved textile dyes from wastewater by a compost sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, L.S.; Roy, W.R.; Cole, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for treating dye-contaminated waste streams by sorption using compost as a low-cost sorbent. A mature, thermophilic compost sample was used to sorb CI Acid Black 24, CI Acid Orange 74, CI Basic Blue 9, CI Basic Green 4, CI Direct Blue 71, CI Direct Orange 39, CI Reactive Orange 16 and CI Reactive Red 2 from solution using a batch-sorption method. With the exception of the two reactive dyes, the sorption kinetics were favourable for a continuous-flow treatment process with the compost-dye mixtures reaching a steady state within 3-5 h. Based on limited comparisons, the affinity of the compost for each dye appeared to be competitive with other non-activated carbon sorbents. The results suggest that additional research on using compost as a sorbent for dye-contaminated solutions is warranted.

  16. Thermophilic fungi in the new age of fungal taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Tássio Brito; Gomes, Eleni; Rodrigues, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are of wide interest due to their potential to produce heat-tolerant enzymes for biotechnological processes. However, the taxonomy of such organisms remains obscure, especially given new developments in the nomenclature of fungi. Here, we examine the taxonomy of the thermophilic fungi most commonly used in industry in light of the recent taxonomic changes following the adoption of the International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants and also based on the movement One Fungus = One Name. Despite the widespread use of these fungi in applied research, several thermotolerant fungi still remain classified as thermophiles. Furthermore, we found that while some thermophilic fungi have had their genomes sequenced, many taxa still do not have barcode sequences of reference strains available in public databases. This lack of basic information is a limiting factor for the species identification of thermophilic fungi and for metagenomic studies in this field. Based on next-generation sequencing, such studies generate large amounts of data, which may reveal new species of thermophilic fungi in different substrates (composting systems, geothermal areas, piles of plant material). As discussed in this study, there are intrinsic problems associated with this method, considering the actual state of the taxonomy of thermophilic fungi. To overcome such difficulties, the taxonomic classification of this group should move towards standardizing the commonly used species names in industry and to assess the possibility of including new systems for describing species based on environmental sequences.

  17. Role of psychrotrophic bacteria in organic domestic waste composting in cold regions of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Ning; Wen, Luming; Cao, Huiming; Liu, Keran; An, Xuejiao; Li, Dapeng; Wang, Hailan; Du, Xiaopeng; Li, Chunyan

    2017-07-01

    To study the influence of psychrotrophic bacteria on organic domestic waste (ODW) composting in cold regions, twelve new efficient psychrotrophic composting strains were isolated. Together with the published representative composting strains, a phylogenetic tree was constructed showing that although the strains belong to the same phylum, the genera were markedly different. The twelve strains were inoculated into the ODW in the composting reactor at 13°C. After treatment, the indices of temperature, moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, C/N, ammonium nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen indicated that the compost had reached maturity. The thermophilic phase was reached at 17d, and composting was completed at 42d, a markedly shorter composting time than that in previous studies. High-throughput sequencing indicated that the inoculative strains became the dominant community during the mesophilic phase and that they enhanced the stability of the microbial community structure. Thus, psychrotrophic bacteria played a key role in low-temperature composting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Impacts of delayed addition of N-rich and acidic substrates on nitrogen loss and compost quality during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jishao; Kang, Kang; Chen, Dan; Liu, Ningning

    2018-02-01

    Delayed addition of Nitrogen (N)-rich and acidic substrates was investigated to evaluate its effects on N loss and compost quality during the composting process. Three different delayed adding methods of N-rich (pig manure) and acidic substrates (phosphate fertilizer and rotten apples) were tested during the pig manure and wheat straw is composting. The results showed that delayed addition of pig manure and acidic materials led two temperature peaks, and the durations of two separate thermophilic phase were closely related to the amount of pig manure. Delayed addition reduced total N loss by up to 14% when using superphosphate as acidic substrates, and by up to 12% when using rotten apples as acidic substrates, which is mainly due to the decreased NH 3 emissions. At the end of composting, delayed the addition of pig manure caused a significant increase in the HS (humus substance) content, and the highest HS content was observed when 70% of the pig manure was applied at day 0 and the remaining 30% was applied on day 27. In the final compost, the GI in all treatments almost reached the maturity requirement by exceeding 80%. The results suggest that delayed addition of animal manure and acidic substrates could prevent the N loss during composting and improve the compost quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Degradation kinetics of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and organic matter of sewage sludge during composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.-F.; Kumar, Mathava; Lin, J.-G.

    2008-01-01

    The potential degradation of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and organic matter of sewage sludge by composting was investigated using laboratory reactor at different operating conditions (E-1, E-2 and E-3). In all conditions, single stage thermophilic phase was observed within 2 days and almost, 60% of DEHP was degraded under this phase. At the end of composting, total DEHP degradation of more than 85% was observed in all conditions and total carbon reduction was 11.8% in E-1, 7.6% in E-2 and 10.8% in E-3. Similar trend was observed in the degradation of total nitrogen. The reduction of volatile solids (VS) in the composting reactors was 5.4% in E-1 (18 days), 5.5% in E-2 (12 days) and 4.3% in E-3 (18 days). The degradation kinetics of DEHP in thermophilic phase (including initial mesophilic phase) and the phase there after were determined by first order and fractional power kinetics, respectively. The significance of experimental parameters in DEHP degradation was assessed by Pearson correlation approach. Elevated temperature produced during composting was effective for the rapid degradation of DEHP from sewage sludge compared to mesophilic treatment

  20. Characterization of composting mixtures and compost of rabbit by-products to obtain a quality product and plant proposal for industrial production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Biagio; Papajova, Ingrid; Tamborrino, Rosanna; Ventrella, Domenico; Vitti, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    In this study we have observed the effects of using rabbit manure and slaughtering by-products in a composting process. Three piles of this material, 4700 kg each, with different amount and C/N ratio, have been investigated and experimental tests were carried out in an industrial horizontal axe reactor using a prototype of turning machine. The composting time lasted 85 days; 2 experimental cycles were conducted: one in Winter and one in Summer. In the Winter test, mesophilic reaction started only in the control mixture (animal manure + slaughtering by-products without straw). It is noteworthy that, the 3 investigated mixtures produced soil amendment by compost with good agronomical potential but with parameters close to the extreme limits of the law. In the Summer test, there was thermophilic fermentation in all mixtures and a better quality compost was obtained, meeting all the agronomic and legislative constraints. For each pile, we examined the progression of fermentation process and thus the plant limitations that did not allow a correct composting process. The results obtained in this study are useful for the development of appropriate mixtures, machines, and plants assuring continuance and reliability in the composting of the biomass coming from rabbit industry.

  1. In-Vessel Co-Composting of Food Waste Employing Enriched Bacterial Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Quan; Wang, Meijing; Chen, Hongyu; Ren, Xiuna; Zhao, Junchao; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the present study is to develop a good initial composting mix using a bacterial consortium and 2% lime for effective co-composting of food waste in a 60-litre in-vessel composter. In the experiment that lasted for 42 days, the food waste was first mixed with sawdust and 2% lime (by dry mass), then one of the reactors was inoculated with an enriched bacterial consortium, while the other served as control. The results show that inoculation of the enriched natural bacterial consortium effectively overcame the oil-laden co-composting mass in the composter and increased the rate of mineralization. In addition, CO 2 evolution rate of (0.81±0.2) g/(kg·day), seed germination index of (105±3) %, extractable ammonium mass fraction of 305.78 mg/kg, C/N ratio of 16.18, pH=7.6 and electrical conductivity of 3.12 mS/cm clearly indicate that the compost was well matured and met the composting standard requirements. In contrast, control treatment exhibited a delayed thermophilic phase and did not mature after 42 days, as evidenced by the maturity parameters. Therefore, a good composting mix and potential bacterial inoculum to degrade the oil are essential for food waste co-composting systems.

  2. In-Vessel Co-Composting of Food Waste Employing Enriched Bacterial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Awasthi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to develop a good initial composting mix using a bacterial consortium and 2 % lime for effective co-composting of food waste in a 60-litre in-vessel composter. In the experiment that lasted for 42 days, the food waste was first mixed with sawdust and 2 % lime (by dry mass, then one of the reactors was inoculated with an enriched bacterial consortium, while the other served as control. The results show that inoculation of the enriched natural bacterial consortium effectively overcame the oil-laden co-composting mass in the composter and increased the rate of mineralization. In addition, CO2 evolution rate of (0.81±0.2 g/(kg·day, seed germination index of (105±3 %, extractable ammonium mass fraction of 305.78 mg/kg, C/N ratio of 16.18, pH=7.6 and electrical conductivity of 3.12 mS/cm clearly indicate that the compost was well matured and met the composting standard requirements. In contrast, control treatment exhibited a delayed thermophilic phase and did not mature after 42 days, as evidenced by the maturity parameters. Therefore, a good composting mix and potential bacterial inoculum to degrade the oil are essential for food waste co-composting systems.

  3. Critical evaluation of post-consumption food waste composting employing thermophilic bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Lai, Ka Man; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2017-12-01

    Effect of single-function (oil degrading) and multi-functional bacterial consortium with zeolite as additive for post-consumption food waste (PCFW) composting was investigated through assessing the oil content reduction in a computer controlled 20-L composter. Three treatments of PCFWs combined with 10% zeolite were developed: Treatment-2 and Treatment-3 were inoculated with multi-functional (BC-1) and oil degrading bacterial consortium (BC-2), respectively, while T-1 was without bacterial inoculation and served as control. Results revealed that BC-2 inoculated treatment (T-3) was superior to control treatment and marginally better than T-2 in terms of oil degradation. The reduction of oil content was >97.8% in T-3 and 92.27% in T-2, while total organic matter degradation was marginally higher in T-2 (42.95%) than T-3 (41.67%). Other parameters of compost maturity including germination test indicated that T-2 was marginally better than T-3 and significantly enhanced the oily PCFW decomposition and shortened the composting period by 20days. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anaerobic composting of waste organic fraction. Compostaje anaerobico de la fraccion organica de los residuos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baere, L. de; Verdonck, O.; Verstraete, W.

    1994-01-01

    The dry anaerobic composting can be carried out in mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Gas production of 6,2 and 8.5 m''3 biogas m''3 daily in laboratory fermenters was obtained. The quality of waste is higher than obtained in aerobic process. The streptococcus sludge was destroyed. This experimental can be applied for big scale and it permits energy recovery and organic compost of municipal solid wastes. (Author)

  5. Fermentation of Corn Fiber Hydrolysate to Lactic Acid by the Moderate Thermophile Bacillus coagulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composted manure from a dairy farm in Texas was examined for thermophilic microorganisms by enrichment in xylose broth medium. Forty randomly picked isolates were identified as strains of Bacillus coagulans by sequence analysis of rRNA genes. One strain, designated as MXL-9, could convert mixed su...

  6. Assessment of bacterial diversity during composting of agricultural byproducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Composting is microbial decomposition of biodegradable materials and it is governed by physicochemical, physiological and microbiological factors. The importance of microbial communities (bacteria, actinomycetes and fungi) during composting is well established. However, the microbial diversity during composting may vary with the variety of composting materials and nutrient supplements. Therefore, it is necessary to study the diversity of microorganisms during composting of different agricultural byproducts like wheat bran, rice bran, rice husk, along with grass clippings and bulking agents. Here it has been attempted to assess the diversity of culturable bacteria during composting of agricultural byproducts. Results The culturable bacterial diversity was assessed during the process by isolating the most prominent bacteria. Bacterial population was found to be maximum during the mesophilic phase, but decreased during the thermophilic phase and declined further in the cooling and maturation phase of composting. The bacterial population ranged from 105 to 109 cfu g-1 compost. The predominant bacteria were characterized biochemically, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated strains, both Gram-positive and Gram-negative groups belonged to the order Burkholderiales, Enterobacteriales, Actinobacteriales and Bacillales, which includes genera e.g. Staphylococcus, Serratia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Terribacillus, Lysinibacillus Kocuria, Microbacterium, Acidovorax and Comamonas. Genera like Kocuria, Microbacterium, Acidovorax, Comamonas and some new species of Bacillus were also identified for the first time from the compost made from agricultural byproducts. Conclusion The use of appropriate nitrogen amendments and bulking agents in composting resulted in good quality compost. The culture based strategy enabled us to isolate some novel bacterial isolates like Kocuria, Microbacterium, Acidovorax and Comamonas first time from agro-byproducts compost

  7. Glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladden, John M; Allgaier, Martin; Miller, Christopher S; Hazen, Terry C; VanderGheynst, Jean S; Hugenholtz, Philip; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2011-08-15

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60°C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80°C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  8. Changes in structure and function of fungal community in cow manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Yin, Xiangbo; Mao, Hailong; Chu, Chu; Tian, Yu

    2018-05-01

    In this study, dynamic changes in fungal communities, trophic modes and effect factors in 60 days composting of cow manure were analyzed by using high throughput sequencing, FUNGuild and Biolog FF MicroPlate, respectively. Orpinomyces (relative abundance >10.85%) predominated in feedstock, and Mycothermus became the dominating genus (relative abundance >75%) during the active phase. Aerobic composting treatment had a significant effect on fungal trophic modes with pathogenic fungi fading away and wood saprotrophs increasing over composting time. Fungal communities had the higher carbon sources utilization capabilities at the thermophilic phase and mature phase than those in the other periods. Oxidation reduction potential (ORP) significantly increased from -180 to 180 mV during the treatment. Redundancy analysis showed that the succession of fungal community during composting had a significant association with ORP (p composting treatment not only influenced fungal community structure, but also changed fungal trophic modes and metabolic characteristics. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Earthworms change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during composting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nigatu, Abebe Nigussie; Bruun, Sander; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has recently been proposed as an indicator of compost stability. We assessed the earthworms' effect on DOC content and composition during composting, and linked compost stability to greenhouse gas emissions and feeding ratio. Earthworms reduced total DOC content......, indicating larger stability of vermicompost than of thermophilic compost. The concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid were reduced by earthworms, whereas there was no significant effect on hydrophobic neutrals and hydrophilics. The humic acid fraction was depleted more quickly than the other compounds......, indicating humic acid degradation during composting. The optimum feeding ratio decreased DOC content compared to the high feeding ratio. The lowest N2O emissions were also observed at the optimum feeding ratio. Our study confirmed the use of DOC content and composition as an indicator of compost stability...

  10. Degradation rates in thermophilic sludge processing - the liquid and the solid way

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihaltz, P.; Kovacs, R.; Csikor, Zs.; Dahab, M.F.

    2003-07-01

    Two promising and well known techniques for sludge stabilization and pathogen destruction, the composting and autothermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD, often referred to as ''liquid composting'') have not yet undergone a comparative parallel study. This comparison is presented in this paper to identify - sometimes unusually (e.g. up to 30 mg O{sub 2} /gVS h) high - degradation rates, their main influencing parameters. For the ATAD we developed a well fitting modified two-substrate kinetic model quantitatively describing this process feature too - the clear signs of two substrate degradation also appears in most own and literature composting records. However compost process modelling needs as a prerequisite the clarification of the controlling transport mechanisms. Experimental conclusions suggest the dual role of local VS limitation closely connected with, but being behind the strong observed oxygen limitation, what is proposed for the explanation of composting process rates - essentially based on specific surface area controlled transport phenomena, justifying efforts to conduct the process at lower (<20 to 25%) moisture content and higher (>1000 1/m) specific surface area levels. (author)

  11. Microbial safety control of compost material with cow dung by heat treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chun-ming

    2007-01-01

    Various kinds of pathogenic bacteria derived from the intestinal tract of animals exist in compost material like cow dung. In order to sterilize the pathogenic bacteria completely in compost material, the cow dung was put into a heat treatment machine in pilot plan, and harmless condition in short time was examined. The results indicated, pathogenic indicator bacteria such as coliform bacteria, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and salmonella were all 106 cfu/g dw at the beginning, died rapidly when cow dung temperature rose to above 50 degrees C, and not detected at 54-68 degrees C for 6-24 h heat treatment. Coliform bacteria and salmonella in heated cow dung were not detected by re-growth culture and enrichment culture examination. Moreover, it was hardly influenced on the fermentation ability of composting microbe, organic decomposition bacteria. During heat treatment, the mesophile decreased rapidly and the thermophile stabilized or increased, and the most of composting microbe were bacillus in cow dung by fluorescence microscope, this indicated that bacillus was dominator and composting microbe in composting process.

  12. Microbiological characteristics of bioaerosol at the composting plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Vítězová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversion of biodegradable waste from landfill is of key importance in developing a sustainable waste strategy for the next decade and beyond. The proliferation of waste treatment technologies such as mechanical biological treatment, anaerobic digestion and composting will be paramount in achieving this strategic goal. Composting plant is one of the end technology, which is widely used in waste processing of the biodegradable waste. These wastes originate from the maintenance of green areas in the cities and the municipalities and from the separatelly collected biodegradable waste from the citizens. There is also possible to process other biodegradable materials whose origin may be in other technologies of waste management at the composting plant. The most commonly used technology of composting is windrow system. Technological operations, which are necessary for the proper conduct of the composting process, may have negative influence on the environment in the immediate vicinity of composting plant. As pollutants we can mark particular odor and microorganisms. The largest group of microorganisms in the monitored air were psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria and microscopic thermotolerant fungi. The amount of thermophillic actinomycetes ranged from 10 to 84.000 CFU∙m−3 (colony forming units per m3. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the maximum air contamination has been found during aeration of windrow by compost turner and during the sieving of the mature compost. For each indicator, the increase in concentrations due to the turning of compost windrow as compared to the background concentration obtained in natural environments and upwind of composting plants was determined. At a distance of 150 m from the composting plant, only low numbers of indicator organisms at a regular occurrence in the air has been found.

  13. Effect of commercial mineral-based additives on composting and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himanen, M; Hänninen, K

    2009-08-01

    The effectiveness of two commercial additives meant to improve the composting process was studied in a laboratory-scale experiment. Improver A (sulphates and oxides of iron, magnesium, manganese, and zinc mixed with clay) and B (mixture of calcium hydroxide, peroxide, and oxide) were added to source-separated biowaste:peat mixture (1:1, v/v) in proportions recommended by the producers. The composting process (T, emissions of CO(2), NH(3), and CH(4)) and the quality of the compost (pH, conductivity, C/N ratio, water-soluble NH(4)-N and NO(3)-N, water- and NaOH-soluble low-weight carboxylic acids, nutrients, heavy metals and phytotoxicity to Lepidium sarivum) were monitored during one year. Compared with the control, the addition of improver B increased pH by two units, led to an earlier elimination of water-soluble ammonia, an increase in nitrates, a 10-fold increase in concentrations of acetic acid, and shortened phytotoxicity period by half; as negative aspect it led to volatilization of ammonia. The addition of improver A led to a longer thermophilic stage by one week and lower concentrations of low-weight carboxylic acids (both water- and NaOH-extractable) with formic and acetic of similar amounts, however, most of the aspects claimed by the improver's producer were not confirmed in this trial.

  14. Anaerobic Thermophiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Canganella

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The term “extremophile” was introduced to describe any organism capable of living and growing under extreme conditions. With the further development of studies on microbial ecology and taxonomy, a variety of “extreme” environments have been found and an increasing number of extremophiles are being described. Extremophiles have also been investigated as far as regarding the search for life on other planets and even evaluating the hypothesis that life on Earth originally came from space. The first extreme environments to be largely investigated were those characterized by elevated temperatures. The naturally “hot environments” on Earth range from solar heated surface soils and water with temperatures up to 65 °C, subterranean sites such as oil reserves and terrestrial geothermal with temperatures ranging from slightly above ambient to above 100 °C, to submarine hydrothermal systems with temperatures exceeding 300 °C. There are also human-made environments with elevated temperatures such as compost piles, slag heaps, industrial processes and water heaters. Thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms have been known for a long time, but scientists have often resisted the belief that some organisms do not only survive at high temperatures, but actually thrive under those hot conditions. They are perhaps one of the most interesting varieties of extremophilic organisms. These microorganisms can thrive at temperatures over 50 °C and, based on their optimal temperature, anaerobic thermophiles can be subdivided into three main groups: thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 50 °C and 64 °C and a maximum at 70 °C, extreme thermophiles with an optimal temperature between 65 °C and 80 °C, and finally hyperthermophiles with an optimal temperature above 80 °C and a maximum above 90 °C. The finding of novel extremely thermophilic and hyperthermophilic anaerobic bacteria in recent years, and the fact that a large fraction of them belong

  15. Production of nitrate-rich compost from the solid fraction of dairy manure by a lab-scale composting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhao-Yong; Zhang, Jing; Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    In the present study, we developed an efficient composting process for the solid fraction of dairy manure (SFDM) using lab-scale systems. We first evaluated the factors affecting the SFDM composting process using different thermophilic phase durations (TPD, 6 or 3days) and aeration rates (AR, 0.4 or 0.2 lmin(-1)kg(-1)-total solid (TS)). Results indicated that a similar volatile total solid (VTS) degradation efficiency (approximately 60%) was achieved with a TPD of 6 or 3days and an AR of 0.4 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called higher AR), and a TPD of 3days resulted in less N loss caused by ammonia stripping. N loss was least when AR was decreased to 0.2 l min(-1) kg(-1)-TS (hereafter called lower AR) during the SFDM composting process. However, moisture content (MC) in the composting pile increased at the lower AR because of water production by VTS degradation and less water volatilization. Reduced oxygen availability caused by excess water led to lower VTS degradation efficiency and inhibition of nitrification. Adding sawdust to adjust the C/N ratio and decrease the MC improved nitrification during the composing processes; however, the addition of increasing amounts of sawdust decreased NO3(-) concentration in matured compost. When an improved composting reactor with a condensate removal and collection system was used for the SFDM composting process, the MC of the composting pile was significantly reduced, and nitrification was detected 10-14days earlier. This was attributed to the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Highly matured compost could be generated within 40-50days. The VTS degradation efficiency reached 62.0% and the final N content, NO3(-) concentration, and germination index (GI) at the end of the composting process were 3.3%, 15.5×10(3)mg kg(-1)-TS, and 112.1%, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors related to the attraction of flies at a biosolids composting facility (Bariloche, Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laos, F.; Semenas, L.; Labud, V.

    2004-01-01

    The composting process is used to treat biosolids from the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Bariloche (NW Patagonia, Argentina). Since 1998, an odourless, innocuous and stable organic amendment has been produced at the Biosolids Composting Plant of Bariloche. However, volatile compounds produced during this process, attract different vectors, mainly insects belonging to the Order Diptera, particularly in summer. To evaluate factors associated with the attraction of Diptera to composting windrows, volatile compounds, wind velocity, ambient and windrow temperatures were measured and their relationships with the taxa of flies found were determined. Sampling was conducted several months on newly formed windrows during 3 weeks of the thermophilic composting period. Composite samples from each windrow were taken on the first day of each sampling week, from November 1999 to March 2000 to analyze volatile compounds using an 'electronic nose'. Windrow and ambient temperatures and wind velocity were recorded on three consecutive days of each week, from January to March 2000; also the capture of flies was performed in this period. A weekly mean value was calculated for each environmental variable. Canonical Correspondence Analysis was employed to determine relationships between taxa of flies and the studied factors. The electronic nose discriminated among odours emitted, differentiating windrows by the bulking agent employed and by week of the thermophilic composting period. Ambient temperatures increased slightly during the sampling weeks; the highest values of wind velocity were registered during the second sampling week while windrow temperatures were sustained approximately 60 degree sign C. Canonical Correspondence Analysis showed that attraction of flies to composting windrows was related to minimum and maximum ambient temperatures and volatile compounds for Muscina stabulans, Fannia sp. and Acaliptratae and to wind velocity for Ophyra sp., Sarcophaga sp., Cochliomyia

  17. Inactivation of Bacillus anthracis Spores during Laboratory-Scale Composting of Feedlot Cattle Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shanwei; Harvey, Amanda; Barbieri, Ruth; Reuter, Tim; Stanford, Kim; Amoako, Kingsley K.; Selinger, Leonard B.; McAllister, Tim A.

    2016-01-01

    Anthrax outbreaks in livestock have social, economic and health implications, altering farmer’s livelihoods, impacting trade and posing a zoonotic risk. Our study investigated the survival of Bacillus thuringiensis and B. anthracis spores sporulated at 15, 20, or 37°C, over 33 days of composting. Spores (∼7.5 log10 CFU g-1) were mixed with manure and composted in laboratory scale composters. After 15 days, the compost was mixed and returned to the composter for a second cycle. Temperatures peaked at 71°C on day 2 and remained ≥55°C for an average of 7 days in the first cycle, but did not exceed 55°C in the second. For B. thuringiensis, spores generated at 15 and 21°C exhibited reduced (P composting for spores generated at 15, 21, and 37°C, respectively. For both species, spore viability declined more rapidly (P composting cycle. Our findings suggest that the duration of thermophilic exposure (≥55°C) is the main factor influencing survival of B. anthracis spores in compost. As sporulation temperature did not influence survival of B. anthracis, composting may lower the viability of spores associated with carcasses infected with B. anthracis over a range of sporulation temperatures. PMID:27303388

  18. How to read and report CTC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, Emanuele; Mang, Thomas; Hellstrom, Mikael; Mantarro, Annalisa; Faggioni, Lorenzo; Bartolozzi, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Owing to encouraging results achieved in the clinical practice, CT colonography (CTC) is being increasingly employed for the examination of the whole colon and rectum and is quickly becoming a widely accepted diagnostic technique that is replacing double contrast barium enema and appears a promising tool for colorectal cancer screening as well. The increasing number of symptomatic and asymptomatic patients undergoing CTC for both evaluation of symptoms and colorectal cancer screening, along with the growing availability of CTC facilities in most healthcare departments and imaging centres, requires that a sufficient number of radiologists be adequately trained in performing and interpreting CTC studies. Indeed, optimal performance of CTC depends on a number of factors, including the quality of colonic preparation (e.g. laxative bowel cleansing and optimised colonic distension), the CTC image acquisition protocol used, and reading approach and specific skills of radiologists for correct detection and interpretation of colonic findings. Consequently, dedicated training and expertise is key to obtain high sensitivity in lesion detection and reduce the number of false positives, thus ensuring an optimal clinical management of patients. To this purpose, dedicated training programmes are essential to teach and standardise not only the approach to CTC reading, but also reporting of colonic findings

  19. Relative Numbers of Certain Microbial Groups Present in Compost Used for Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fordyce, C.

    1970-01-01

    The relative numbers of microorganisms associated with compost during mushroom production were studied by the dilution plate method. Thermophilic actinomycetes and fungi were isolated with a very high frequency early in the growing season. Although numbers of thermophilic bacteria diminished slowly during the season, the thermophilic fungi and actinomycetes diminished rapidly with the latter disappearing after 6 weeks. Mesophilic fungi other than Agaricus or Trichoderma remained relatively stable throughout the growing period. Agaricus could be isolated between the first and third break. Trichoderma became dominant after the fourth break. The mesophilic bacterial counts diminished during the most productive portion of the mushroom cropping season and then increased to much higher numbers toward the end of the season. PMID:5529631

  20. Effects of pH and microbial composition on odour in food waste composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Cecilia; Yu, Dan; Franke-Whittle, Ingrid; Kauppi, Sari; Smårs, Sven; Insam, Heribert; Romantschuk, Martin; Jönsson, Håkan

    2013-01-01

    A major problem for composting plants is odour emission. Slow decomposition during prolonged low-pH conditions is a frequent process problem in food waste composting. The aim was to investigate correlations between low pH, odour and microbial composition during food waste composting. Samples from laboratory composting experiments and two large scale composting plants were analysed for odour by olfactometry, as well as physico-chemical and microbial composition. There was large variation in odour, and samples clustered in two groups, one with low odour and high pH (above 6.5), the other with high odour and low pH (below 6.0). The low-odour samples were significantly drier, had lower nitrate and TVOC concentrations and no detectable organic acids. Samples of both groups were dominated by Bacillales or Actinobacteria, organisms which are often indicative of well-functioning composting processes, but the high-odour group DNA sequences were similar to those of anaerobic or facultatively anaerobic species, not to typical thermophilic composting species. High-odour samples also contained Lactobacteria and Clostridia, known to produce odorous substances. A proposed odour reduction strategy is to rapidly overcome the low pH phase, through high initial aeration rates and the use of additives such as recycled compost. PMID:23122203

  1. Characterization and open windrow composting of MSW in Jodhpur City, Rajasthan, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambade, Bhushan; Sharma, Sunil; Sharma, Yukti; Sharma, Yagya

    2013-07-01

    Solid waste is sometimes not suitable for direct land application. Processing solid waste through composting converts it to a humus-containing organic material advantageous for agriculture/horticulture use. Major advantages of composting are stabilization of the wastes; substantially reduced C/N ratio and gas formation, and virtually elimination of odors and pathogens. Composting is accomplished under aerobic conditions developing temperatures of 55 degrees C or above. The windrow technique is simple and accomplished easily with standard equipments. The open windrow composting of municipal solid waste (MSW) in windrows was analyzed in this study for six weeks. The raw MSW was introduced to active composting without any source segregations. The moisture content of the MSW dropped from 58.88% to 48.06% and windrow attained a thermophillic temperature for about two weeks. It was observed that the pH, C/N ratio and temperature variations were comparable to that of traditional windrow composting. The peak temperature recorded was 68 degrees C and temperature remained above 60 degrees C for more than three weeks. The volume reduction was obtained by using one-cu.m. cage. The results indicate that the bulk composting could reduce by about 29% the total mass of the waste.

  2. Stable-isotope analysis of a combined nitrification-denitrification sustained by thermophilic methanotrophs under low-oxygen conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, R; Oldenhuis, R; Brand, W; Vos, A; Gottschal, JC; Zwart, KB

    To simulate growth conditions experienced by microbiota at O-2-limited interfaces of organic matter in compost, an experimental system capable of maintaining dual limitations of oxygen and carbon for extended periods, i.e., a pO(2)-auxostat, has been used. N-15 tracer studies on thermophilic (53

  3. Stable-isotope analysis of a combined nitrification- denitrification sustained by thermophilic methanotrophs under low-oxygen conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, R.; Oldenhuis, R.; Brand, W.; Vos, A.; Gottschal, J.C.; Zwart, K.B.

    1997-01-01

    To simulate growth conditions experienced by microbiota at O-2- limited interfaces of organic matter in compost, an experimental system capable of maintaining dual limitations of oxygen and carbon for extended periods, i.e., a pO(2)-auxostat, has been used. N-15 tracer studies on thermophilic (53

  4. Performance of in-vessel composting of food waste in the presence of coal ash and uric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Chun-Jiang; Huang, Guo-He; Yao, Yao; Sun, Wei; An, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The amendments of CA and UA could facilitate the composting performance. ► The overall performance is a sum of different events with different mechanisms. ► The added CA and UA might lead to higher pH during the composting. ► The process is correlated with the variations of microbial activity and C/N ratio. ► The presence of CA and UA has significant influence on composting of food waste. - Abstract: Massive quantities of food waste often coexist with other agroindustrial and industrial waste, which might contain coal ash (CA) and uric acid (UA). This study investigated the influence of CA and UA on the composting of food waste in the in-vessel system. The patterns of food waste composting were compared among various combinations. The results showed that the temperature level was enhanced in the presence of CA and UA during the first 8 days. The significant drop in pH was observed in the treatment without any amendment. But the presence of CA could alleviate the drop of pH. More intensive organic mass reduction took place in the treatments with amended CA and UA in the first half of process. The O 2 uptake rate in the reactor with CA and UA was higher than that with only CA in the early stage. Both thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms were present throughout the composting period. The populations of both thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms were influenced when amended with CA and UA. The decreasing trend in C/N ratio was shown in all the reactors, while a relatively lower C/N ratio was obtained in the series with both CA and UA.

  5. Earthworms change the quantity and composition of dissolved organic carbon and reduce greenhouse gas emissions during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Bruun, Sander; de Neergaard, Andreas; Kuyper, Thomas W

    2017-04-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has recently been proposed as an indicator of compost stability. We assessed the earthworms' effect on DOC content and composition during composting, and linked compost stability to greenhouse gas emissions and feeding ratio. Earthworms reduced total DOC content, indicating larger stability of vermicompost than of thermophilic compost. The concentrations of humic acid and fulvic acid were reduced by earthworms, whereas there was no significant effect on hydrophobic neutrals and hydrophilics. The humic acid fraction was depleted more quickly than the other compounds, indicating humic acid degradation during composting. The optimum feeding ratio decreased DOC content compared to the high feeding ratio. The lowest N 2 O emissions were also observed at the optimum feeding ratio. Our study confirmed the use of DOC content and composition as an indicator of compost stability and suggested that feeding ratio should be considered when assessing the earthworms' effect on stabilisation and greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Passive aeration composting of chicken litter: effects of aeration pipe orientation and perforation size on losses of compost elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunwande, Gbolabo A; Osunade, James A

    2011-01-01

    A passive aeration composting study was undertaken to investigate the effects of aeration pipe orientation (PO) and perforation size (PS) on some physico-chemical properties of chicken litter (chicken manure + sawdust) during composting. The experimental set up was a two-factor completely randomised block design with two pipe orientations: horizontal (Ho) and vertical (Ve), and three perforation sizes: 15, 25 and 35 mm diameter. The properties monitored during composting were pile temperature, moisture content (MC), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), total carbon (C(T)), total nitrogen (N(T)) and total phosphorus (P(T)). Moisture level in the piles was periodically replenished to 60% for efficient microbial activities. The results of the study showed that optimum composting conditions (thermophilic temperatures and sanitation requirements) were attained in all the piles. During composting, both PO and PS significantly affected pile temperature, moisture level, pH, C(T) loss and P(T) gain. EC was only affected by PO while N(T) was affected by PS. Neither PO nor PS had a significant effect on the C:N ratio. A vertical pipe was effective for uniform air distribution, hence, uniform composting rate within the composting pile. The final values showed that PO of Ve and PS of 35 mm diameter resulted in the least loss in N(T). The PO of Ho was as effective as Ve in the conservation of C(T) and P(T). Similarly, the three PSs were equally effective in the conservation of C(T) and P(T). In conclusion, the combined effects of PO and PS showed that treatments Ve35 and Ve15 were the most effective in minimizing N(T) loss. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effectiveness of three bulking agents for food waste composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikari, Bijaya K.; Barrington, Suzelle; Martinez, Jose; King, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Rather than landfilling, composting the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes recycles the waste as a safe and nutrient enriched soil amendment, reduces emissions of greenhouse gases and generates less leachate. The objective of this project was to investigate the composting effectiveness of three bulking agents, namely chopped wheat (Triticum) straw, chopped mature hay consisting of 80% timothy (milium) and 20% clover (triphullum) and pine (pinus) wood shavings. These bulking agents were each mixed in duplicates at three different ratios with food waste (FW) and composted for 10 days using prototype in-vessel composters to observe their temperature and pH trends. Then, each mixture was matured in vertical barrels for 56 days to measure their mass loss and final nutrient content and to visually evaluate their level of decomposition. Chopped wheat straw (CWS) and chopped hay (CH) were the only two formulas that reached thermophilic temperatures during the 10 days of active composting when mixed with FW at a wet mass ratio of 8.9 and 8.6:1 (FW:CWS and FW:CH), respectively. After 56 days of maturation, these two formulas were well decomposed with no or very few recognizable substrate particles, and offered a final TN exceeding the original. Wood shavings (WS) produced the least decomposed compost at maturation, with wood particles still visible in the final product, and with a TN lower than the initial. Nevertheless, all bulking agents produced compost with an organic matter, TN, TP and TK content suitable for use as soil amendment

  8. Utilization of Chicken Excretions as Compost Manure in Bolu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Kütük

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Turkish agricultural soils are insufficient with regard to organic matter content. Likewise, organic matter amounts in agricultural areas of Bolu are low. The benefits of organic matter to physical, chemical and biologic properties of soils are known for very long time. On the other hand, huge amount of chicken excretions are produced in Turkey with increased chicken production recently, and this result in substantial health and environmental problems. Amount of chicken excretions are estimated about 10 000 000 tons in Turkey. In Bolu, these amounts of chicken excretions are 300 000 tons per year. The most appropriate way to solve this question is to transform chicken excretions to organic manure and apply to agricultural fields. Composting is basic process for transforming of chicken excretions to organic manure. Composting is the aerobic decomposition of organic materials in the thermophilic temperature range of 40-65 °C. There are two essential methods in composting. One of them is traditional method taking much time and producing low grade manure. Another is rapid composting method taking less time and producing high grade manure under more controlled conditions. Rapid composting methods which are more acceptable as commercially in the world are windrow, rectangular agitated beds and rotating drum, respectively Selection of appropriate method is depending on composting material, environmental and economical conditions. Chicken excretions occurring large amounts in Bolu must be transformed to organic manure by means of a suitable composting method and used in agriculture. Because, chicken manure is an important resource for sustainable agriculture in Turkey and it should be evaluated.

  9. The relative isotopic abundance (δ13C, δ15N) during composting of agricultural wastes in relation to compost quality and feedstock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inácio, Caio T; Magalhães, Alberto M T; Souza, Paulo O; Chalk, Phillip M; Urquiaga, Segundo

    2018-05-01

    Variations in the relative isotopic abundance of C and N (δ 13 C and δ 15 N) were measured during the composting of different agricultural wastes using bench-scale bioreactors. Different mixtures of agricultural wastes (horse bedding manure + legume residues; dairy manure + jatropha mill cake; dairy manure + sugarcane residues; dairy manure alone) were used for aerobic-thermophilic composting. No significant differences were found between the δ 13 C values of the feedstock and the final compost, except for dairy manure + sugarcane residues (from initial ratio of -13.6 ± 0.2 ‰ to final ratio of -14.4 ± 0.2 ‰). δ 15 N values increased significantly in composts of horse bedding manure + legumes residues (from initial ratio of +5.9 ± 0.1 ‰ to final ratio of +8.2 ± 0.5 ‰) and dairy manure + jatropha mill cake (from initial ratio of +9.5 ± 0.2 ‰ to final ratio of +12.8 ± 0.7 ‰) and was related to the total N loss (mass balance). δ 13 C can be used to differentiate composts from different feedstock (e.g. C 3 or C 4 sources). The quantitative relationship between N loss and δ 15 N variation should be determined.

  10. Rapid production of maggots as feed supplement and organic fertilizer by the two-stage composting of pig manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Feng-Xiang; Wang, Wei-Ping; Hong, Chun-Lai; Feng, Ming-Guang; Xue, Zhi-Yong; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Yao, Yan-Lai; Yu, Man

    2012-07-01

    A two-stage composting experiment was performed to utilize pig manure for producing maggots as feed supplement and organic fertilizer. Seven-day composting of 1.8 ton fresh manure inoculated with 9 kg mixture of housefly neonates and wheat bran produced 193 kg aging maggots, followed by 12 week composting to maturity. Reaching the thermophilic phase and final maturity faster was characteristic of the maggot-treated compost compared with the same-size natural compost. Upon the transit of the maggot-treated compost to the second stage, the composting temperature maintained around 55 °C for 9 days and the moisture decreased to ~40%. Moreover, higher pH, faster detoxification and different activity patterns for some microbial enzymes were observed. There was a strong material loss (35% water-soluble carbon and 16% total nitrogen) caused by the maggot culture in the first stage. Our results highlight a higher economic value of pig manure achieved through the two-stage composting without bulking agents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Community dynamics and glycoside hydrolase activities of thermophilic bacterial consortia adapted to switchgrass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladden, J.M.; Allgaier, M.; Miller, C.S.; Hazen, T.C.; VanderGheynst, J.S.; Hugenholtz, P.; Simmons, B.A.; Singer, S.W.

    2011-05-01

    Industrial-scale biofuel production requires robust enzymatic cocktails to produce fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass. Thermophilic bacterial consortia are a potential source of cellulases and hemicellulases adapted to harsher reaction conditions than commercial fungal enzymes. Compost-derived microbial consortia were adapted to switchgrass at 60 C to develop thermophilic biomass-degrading consortia for detailed studies. Microbial community analysis using small-subunit rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing and short-read metagenomic sequencing demonstrated that thermophilic adaptation to switchgrass resulted in low-diversity bacterial consortia with a high abundance of bacteria related to thermophilic paenibacilli, Rhodothermus marinus, and Thermus thermophilus. At lower abundance, thermophilic Chloroflexi and an uncultivated lineage of the Gemmatimonadetes phylum were observed. Supernatants isolated from these consortia had high levels of xylanase and endoglucanase activities. Compared to commercial enzyme preparations, the endoglucanase enzymes had a higher thermotolerance and were more stable in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2mim][OAc]), an ionic liquid used for biomass pretreatment. The supernatants were used to saccharify [C2mim][OAc]-pretreated switchgrass at elevated temperatures (up to 80 C), demonstrating that these consortia are an excellent source of enzymes for the development of enzymatic cocktails tailored to more extreme reaction conditions.

  12. Thermoactinomyces guangxiensis sp. nov., a thermophilic actinomycete isolated from mushroom compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Liu, Bin; Pan, Shangli

    2015-09-01

    A novel thermophilic actinomycete, designated strain CD-1(T), was isolated from mushroom compost in Nanning, Guangxi province, China. The strain grew at 37-55 °C (optimum 45-50 °C), pH 6.0-11.0 (optimum pH 7.0-9.0) and with 0-2.0% NaCl (optimum 0-1.0%), formed well-developed white aerial mycelium and pale-yellow vegetative mycelium, and single endospores (0.8-1.0 μm diameter) were borne on long sporophores (2-3 μm length). The endospores were spherical-polyhedron in shape with smooth surface. Based on its phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, strain CD-1(T) is affiliated to the genus Thermoactinomyces. It contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid; the whole-cell sugars were ribose and glucose. Major fatty acids were iso-C15 :  0, C16 : 0, anteiso-C15  : 0 and iso-C17  : 0. MK-7 was the predominant menaquinone. The polar phospholipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine containing hydroxylated fatty acids, ninhydrin-positive glycophospholipid, an unknown phospholipid and glycolipids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 48.8%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the organism was closely related to Lihuaxuella thermophila YIM 77831(T) (95.69% sequence similarity), Thermoactinomyces daqus H-18(T) (95.49%), Laceyella putida KCTC 3666(T) (95.05%), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris KCTC 9076(T) (95.01%) and Thermoactinomyces intermedius JCM 3312(T) (94.55%). Levels of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain CD-1T and Lihuaxuella thermophila JCM 18059(T), Thermoactinomyces daqus DSM 45914(T), Laceyella putida JCM 8091(T), Thermoactinomyces vulgaris JCM 3162(T) and Thermoactinomyces intermedius JCM 3312(T) were low (22.8, 33.3, 24.7, 29.4 and 30.0%, respectively). A battery of phenotypic, genotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data indicated that strain CD-1T represented a novel species of the genus Thermoactinomyces, for which the name Thermoactinomyces guangxiensis sp. nov

  13. Evaluation of physical, chemical and heavy metal concentration of food waste composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Kadir Aeslina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, food waste composting with rice husk and coconut fibre as compost medium were carried out. Two types of different fermentation liquids were prepared which were fermented liquid (banana peel and fermented liquid from fermented soybeans. During the composting process, a compost samples for a twenty week duration at an interval time of two weeks. Among the physico-chemical parameters that were tested were temperature, moisture content, pH value, Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorous, Potassium and Total Organic Carbon and Carbon Nitrogen ratio. Heavy metals such as copper, cadmium, lead, nickel and arsenic were observed and analysed. From this study, it was found that, the temperature increased during the thermophilic phase while there was gradually increase of Total Nitrogen, Total Phosphorous and Potassium from the beginning till the end of the composting process. It was also found that the total organic carbon (TOC and the carbon nitrogen ratio decreased significantly during the decomposition process. Traces amounts of heavy metals were also detected and remains below the standard Malaysian Environmental regulations. It was concluded that, the composting process was faster with processed food waste followed by combination of processed food waste and raw. Raw food waste were demonstrated the lowest degradation rate.

  14. Phospholipid fatty acid analysis to monitor the co-composting process of olive oil mill wastes and organic household refuse

    OpenAIRE

    Barje , F.; Amir , S.; Winterton , Peter; Pinelli , Eric; Merlina , Georges; Cegarra , J.; Revel , Jean-Claude; Hafidi , Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    International audience; The co-composting of olive oil mill wastes and household refuse was followed for 5 months. During the thermophilic phase of composting, the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (AHB) count, showed a significant rise with a slight regression of fungal biomass. In the same way, phospholipid fatty acids PLFAs common in bacteria, showed a significant increase of hydroxyl and branched PLFAs. The evaluation of the ratio of octadecenoic PLFAs to stearic acid (C18:1/C18:0) revealed ...

  15. [Interaction Between Sulfonamide Antibiotics Fates and Chicken Manure Composting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Wang, Jian-mei; Sun, Wan-chun; Fu, Jian-rong; Chen, Hong-jin; Ma, Jun-wei

    2016-05-15

    Based on aerobic manure composting with or without the addition of a mixture of sulfadimethoxine SM2 and sulfamonomethoxine SMM (1:1, m/m), changes in the physic-chemical properties of manure compost, the microbial community physiological profiles, the antibiotics concentration and the abundances of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during the composting were tracked. The results indicated that the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics led to inhibition on the basal respiration of manure compost during the early composting period, delayed the formation of thermophilic temperature and reduced the conversion of nutrients such as organic matter, ammonia nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen. Meanwhile, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics dramatically affected the physiological profile of microbial community in manure in the middle stage of composting. HPLC-MS/MS results showed that both SMM and SM2 in manure were completely degraded within 14 days, while the degradation rate of SMM was faster than that of SM2. For both composting treatments with or without addition of exogenous antibiotics, the relative abundance of sull and sul2 showed an initial decline in the first 14 or 21 days and a slight increase thereafter. The addition of exogenous antibiotics showed insignificant enhancement on increasing the relative abundance of sul1 and IntI1 in manure, but resulted in an apparent increase in sul2 relative abundance. Although the fates of tetQ and tetW during composting were different from that of sulfonamide ARGs, the introduction of sulfonamide antibiotics into manure increased the relative abundance of tetracycline ARGs. Redundancy analysis indicated that composting temperature correlated negatively with sul1, sul2 and IntI1 relative abundance in manure but had no obvious relationship with tetQ and tetW relative abundance. All the ARGs detected in this work correlated negatively with C/N ratio and the nitrate nitrogen concentration of manure compost but

  16. Microbial degradation of lignocellulosic fractions during drum composting of mixed organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vempalli Sudharsan Varma

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to characterize the microbial population involved in lignocellulose degradation during drum composting of mixed organic waste i.e. vegetable waste, cattle manure, saw dust and dry leaves in a 550 L rotary drum composter. Lignocellulose degradation by different microbial populations was correlated by comparing results from four trials, i.e., Trial 1 (5:4, Trial 2 (6:3, Trial 3 (7:2 and Trial 4 (8:1 of varying waste combinations during 20 days of composting period. Due to proper combination of waste materials and agitation in drum composter, a maximum of 66.5 and 61.4 °C was achieved in Trial 1 and 2 by observing a temperature level of 55 °C for 4–6 d. The study revealed that combinations of waste materials had a major effect on the microbial degradation of waste material and quality of final compost due to its physical properties. However, Trial 1 was observed to have longer thermophilic phase leading to higher degradation of lignocellulosic fractions. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and fluorescent spectroscopy confirmed the decrease in aliphatic to aromatic ratio and increase in polyphenolic compounds of the compost. Heterotrophic bacteria were observed predominantly due to the readily available organic matter during the initial period of composting. However, fungi and actinomycetes were active in the degradation of lignocellulosic fractions.

  17. Metagenomic analysis of microbial consortia enriched from compost: new insights into the role of Actinobacteria in lignocellulose decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Dong, Da; Wang, Haoshu; Müller, Karin; Qin, Yong; Wang, Hailong; Wu, Weixiang

    2016-01-01

    Compost habitats sustain a vast ensemble of microbes specializing in the degradation of lignocellulosic plant materials and are thus important both for their roles in the global carbon cycle and as potential sources of biochemical catalysts for advanced biofuels production. Studies have revealed substantial diversity in compost microbiomes, yet how this diversity relates to functions and even to the genes encoding lignocellulolytic enzymes remains obscure. Here, we used a metagenomic analysis of the rice straw-adapted (RSA) microbial consortia enriched from compost ecosystems to decipher the systematic and functional contexts within such a distinctive microbiome. Analyses of the 16S pyrotag library and 5 Gbp of metagenomic sequence showed that the phylum Actinobacteria was the predominant group among the Bacteria in the RSA consortia, followed by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and Bacteroidetes. The CAZymes profile revealed that CAZyme genes in the RSA consortia were also widely distributed within these bacterial phyla. Strikingly, about 46.1 % of CAZyme genes were from actinomycetal communities, which harbored a substantially expanded catalog of the cellobiohydrolase, β-glucosidase, acetyl xylan esterase, arabinofuranosidase, pectin lyase, and ligninase genes. Among these communities, a variety of previously unrecognized species was found, which reveals a greater ecological functional diversity of thermophilic Actinobacteria than previously assumed. These data underline the pivotal role of thermophilic Actinobacteria in lignocellulose biodegradation processes in the compost habitat. Besides revealing a new benchmark for microbial enzymatic deconstruction of lignocelluloses, the results suggest that actinomycetes found in compost ecosystems are potential candidates for mining efficient lignocellulosic enzymes in the biofuel industry.

  18. Composting of tobacco plant waste by manual turning and forced aeration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonglak Saithep

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of tobacco plant waste composting, by the manual turning and the forced aeration system, was compared. Tobacco plant waste, cow manure, urea fertiliser, and a compost inoculum mixture at a 100:10:0.2:0.01 ratio respectively, with 60% (w/v moisture content, were set up in piling forms. The piles of the manual turning system were provided with turning aeration by hand at intervals of 7 days during the composting process. For the forced aeration system, each pile was aerated by a 3-HP air pump with a flow rate of 19 litres min-1 for 15 minutes every morning and evening. The completely randomised design of turned and force-aerated piles was performed in triplicate. The composting activity of both systems during the composting period was measured by several parameters: temperature, pH, moisture content, C/N ratio, growth of microorganisms, cellulase activity, and nicotine degradation in the set-up piles. Both systems had similar temperature, pH, and moisture content conditions in the piles during the composting process. However, the forced aeration system was more advantageous for the growth of mesophilic and thermophilic microorganisms, for cellulase activity from cellulase-producing microorganisms, and for nicotine degradation, when compared to the manual turning system. In conclusion, the forced aeration system was more efficient than the manual turning system in composting and is a viable alternative method for the composting process.

  19. Composting-Like Conditions Are More Efficient for Enrichment and Diversity of Organisms Containing Cellulase-Encoding Genes than Submerged Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senta Heiss-Blanquet

    Full Text Available Cost-effective biofuel production from lignocellulosic biomass depends on efficient degradation of the plant cell wall. One of the major obstacles for the development of a cost-efficient process is the lack of resistance of currently used fungal enzymes to harsh conditions such as high temperature. Adapted, thermophilic microbial communities provide a huge reservoir of potentially interesting lignocellulose-degrading enzymes for improvement of the cellulose hydrolysis step. In order to identify such enzymes, a leaf and wood chip compost was enriched on a mixture of thermo-chemically pretreated wheat straw, poplar and Miscanthus under thermophile conditions, but in two different set-ups. Unexpectedly, metagenome sequencing revealed that incubation of the lignocellulosic substrate with compost as inoculum in a suspension culture resulted in an impoverishment of putative cellulase- and hemicellulase-encoding genes. However, mimicking composting conditions without liquid phase yielded a high number and diversity of glycoside hydrolase genes and an enrichment of genes encoding cellulose binding domains. These identified genes were most closely related to species from Actinobacteria, which seem to constitute important players of lignocellulose degradation under the applied conditions. The study highlights that subtle changes in an enrichment set-up can have an important impact on composition and functions of the microcosm. Composting-like conditions were found to be the most successful method for enrichment in species with high biomass degrading capacity.

  20. Microbial conversion of food wastes for biofertilizer production with thermophilic lipolytic microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Shu-Hsien; Yang, Shang-Shyng [Institute of Microbiology and Biochemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, (Taiwan); Liu, Ching-Piao [Department of Biological Science and Technology, Meiho Institute of Technology, Pingtung 91201, (Taiwan)

    2007-05-15

    Food waste is approximately one quarter of the total garbage in Taiwan. To investigate the feasibility of microbial conversion of food waste to multiple functional biofertilizer, food waste was mixed with bulking materials, inoculated with thermophilic and lipolytic microbes and incubated at 50{sup o}C in a mechanical composter. Microbial inoculation enhanced the degradation of food wastes, increased the total nitrogen and the germination rate of alfalfa seed, shortened the maturity period and improved the quality of biofertilizer. In food waste inoculated with thermophilic and lipolytic Brevibacillus borstelensis SH168 for 28 days, total nitrogen increased from 2.01% to 2.10%, ash increased from 24.94% to 29.21%, crude fat decreased from 4.88% to 1.34% and the C/N ratio decreased from 18.02 to 17.65. Each gram of final product had a higher population of thermophilic microbes than mesophilic microbes. Microbial conversion of food waste to biofertilizer is a feasible and potential technology in the future to maintain the natural resources and to reduce the impact on environmental quality. (author)

  1. Differences in the mobility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn during composting of two types of household bio-waste collected in four seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanc, Ales; Szakova, Jirina; Ochecova, Pavla

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mobility of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn during 3 different compost aeration rates of household bio-waste, originating in urban settlement (U-bio-waste) and family house buildings (F-bio-waste). The first two weeks, when the thermophilic composting phase became, the highest decline of exchangeable content was recorded. After 12 weeks of composting, lower exchangeable content was found in the case of U-bio-waste composts than F-bio-waste composts, despite higher loss of fresh mass. The order of fractions in both final composts was as follows: residual>oxidizable>reducible>exchangeable. The exchangeable portion of total content in final composts decreased in this order: Zn (17%), Cd (11%), Pb (4%) and Cu (3%). Regarding the low exchangeable content of heavy metals and high-quality organic matter, these types of composts could be used not only as fertilizer, but for remediation of metals contaminated land. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Relative contributions of archaea and bacteria to microbial ammonia oxidation differ under different conditions during agricultural waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Yaoning; Yu, Zhen; Yu, Man; Li, Hui; Liu, Zhifeng; Chen, Ming; Lu, Lunhui; Hu, Chunxiao

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the relative contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) to nitrification during agricultural waste composting. The AOA and AOB amoA gene abundance and composition were determined by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), respectively. The results showed that the archaeal amoA gene was abundant throughout the composting process, while the bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased to undetectable level during the thermophilic and cooling stages. DGGE showed more diverse archaeal amoA gene composition when the potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) rate reached peak values. A significant positive relationship was observed between the PAO rate and the archaeal amoA gene abundance (R²=0.554; Parchaea dominated ammonia oxidation during the thermophilic and cooling stages. Bacteria were also related to ammonia oxidation activity (R²=0.503; P=0.03) especially during the mesophilic and maturation stages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Mineralization of phenanthrene and fluoranthene in yardwaste compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, Carolyn J.; Tuovinen, Olli H.

    2003-01-01

    PAH biomineralization measurements of yardwaste compost samples indicated heterogeneous distribution of active microorganisms and substantial sequestration of the non-polar substrate in the compost matrix. - The purpose of the study was to evaluate the potential of phenanthrene and fluoranthene biodegradation in yardwaste compost materials. These polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons were chosen for this work because they are relatively readily biodegradable and ubiquitous in the environment. Compost samples were incubated in biometers with 14 C-labeled phenanthrene and the evolution of 14 CO 2 was assessed as a measure of mineralization. The 14 CO 2 evolution varied widely among replicate biometers, possibly as the result of (1) uneven and patchy colonization of phenanthrene-degrading microorganisms on compost particles, and (2) non-uniform dispersion of the labeled substrate spike into the yardwaste microenvironment. Mineralization of phenanthrene reached about 40% extent of 14 CO 2 evolution at best before leveling off, but the maximum varied from sample to sample and could be as low as 1% after three months. Active mineralization occurred at mesophilic and thermophilic temperatures. Methanol extraction was used to recover 14 C from biometer samples that were spiked with 14 C-labeled phenanthrene. Extraction for 24-48 h yielded 1-14% recovery of 14 C, depending on the length of the preceding incubation. The low extraction yield and relatively low maximum mineralization ( 14 C-labeled fluoranthene was negligible in biometers but could be stimulated by pre-enrichment with salicylate or naphthalene. Pre-enrichment also accelerated the mineralization of phenanthrene

  4. Heterogeneity of zeolite combined with biochar properties as a function of sewage sludge composting and production of nutrient-rich compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar Awasthi, Mukesh; Wang, Meijing; Pandey, Ashok; Chen, Hongyu; Kumar Awasthi, Sanjeev; Wang, Quan; Ren, Xiuna; Hussain Lahori, Altaf; Li, Dong-Sheng; Li, Ronghua; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-10-01

    In the present study, biochar combined with a higher dosage of zeolite (Z) and biochar (B) alone were applied as additives for dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS) composting using 130-L working volume lab-scale reactors. We first observed that the addition of a mixture of B and Z to DFSS equivalent to 12%B+10% (Z-1), 15% (Z-2) and 30% (Z-3) zeolite (dry weight basis) worked synergistically as an amendment and increased the composting efficiency compared with a treatment of 12%B alone amended and a control without any amendment. In a composting reactor, the addition of B+Z may serve as a novel approach for improving DFSS composting and the quality of the end product in terms of the temperature, water-holding capacity, CO 2 emissions, electrical conductivity, water-soluble and total macro-nutrient content and phytotoxicity. The results indicated that during the thermophilic phase, dissolved organic carbon, NH 4 + -N and NO 3 - -N increased drastically in all biochar amended treatments, whereas considerably low water-soluble nutrients were observed in the control treatment throughout and at the end of the composting. Furthermore, the maturity parameters and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) indicated that compost with 12%B+15%Z became more mature and humified within 35days of DFSS composting, with the maturity parameters, such as CO 2 evolution and the concentration of NH 4 + -N in the compost, being within the permissible limits of organic farming in contrast to the control. Furthermore, at the end of composting, the addition of higher dosage of biochar (12%) alone and 12% B+Z lowered the pH by 7.15 to 7.86 and the electrical conductivity by 2.65 to 2.95mScm -1 as compared to the control, while increased the concentrations of water-soluble nutrients (gkg -1 ) including available phosphorus, sodium and potassium. In addition, greenhouse experiments demonstrated that the treatment of 150kgha -1 biochar combined with zeolite and that of 12%B alone improved the yield of

  5. Simple technologies for on-farm composting of cattle slurry solid fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, L M; Mourão, I; Coutinho, J; Smith, S R

    2012-07-01

    Composting technologies and control systems have reached an advanced stage of development, but these are too complex and expensive for most agricultural practitioners for treating livestock slurries. The development of simple, but robust and cost-effective techniques for composting animal slurries is therefore required to realise the potential benefits of waste sanitation and soil improvement associated with composted livestock manures. Cattle slurry solid fraction (SF) was collected at the rates of 4m(3)h(-1) and 1m(3)h(-1) and composted in tall (1.7 m) and short (1.2m) static piles, to evaluate the physicochemical characteristics and nutrient dynamics of SF during composting without addition of bulking agent materials, and without turning or water addition. Highest maximum temperatures (62-64 °C) were measured in tall piles compared to short piles (52 °C). However, maximum rates of organic matter (OM) destruction were observed at mesophilic temperature ranges in short piles, compared to tall piles, whereas thermophilic temperatures in tall piles maximised sanitation and enhanced moisture reduction. Final OM losses were within the range of 520-660 g kg(-1) dry solids and the net loss of OM significantly (Pcomposting period. An advanced degree of stabilization of the SF was indicated by low final pile temperatures and C/N ratio, low concentrations of NH(4)(+) and increased concentrations of NO(3)(-) in SF composts. The results indicated that minimum intervention composting of SF in static piles over 168 days can produce agronomically effective organic soil amendments containing significant amounts of OM (772-856 g kg(-1)) and plant nutrients. The implications of a minimal intervention management approach to composting SF on compost pathogen reduction are discussed and possible measures to improve sanitation are suggested. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D' haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  7. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  8. Chemical, microbial and physical properties of manufactured soils produced by co-composting municipal green waste with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belyaeva, O.N.; Haynes, R.J. [University of Queensland, St Lucia, Qld. (Australia)

    2009-11-15

    Increasing proportions of coal fly ash were co-composted with municipal green waste to produce manufactured soil for landscaping use. Only the 100% green waste treatment reached a thermophilic composting phase ({ge} 50{sup o}C) which lasted for 6 days. The 25% and 50% ash treatments reached 36-38{sup o}C over the same period while little or no self-heating occurred in the 75% and 100% ash treatments. Composted green waste had a low bulk density and high total and macro-porosity. Addition of 25% ash to green waste resulted in a 75% increase in available water holding capacity. As the proportions of added ash in the composts increased, the organic C, soluble C, microbial biomass C, basal respiration and activities of beta-glucosidase, L-asparaginase, alkali phosphatase and arylsulphatase enzymes in the composted products all decreased. It could be concluded that addition of fly ash to green waste at a proportion higher than 25% did not improve the quality parameters of manufactured soil.

  9. Effect of addition of organic waste on reduction of Escherichia coli during cattle feces composting under high-moisture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanajima, Dai; Kuroda, Kazutaka; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Haga, Kiyonori

    2006-09-01

    To ensure Escherichia coli reduction during cattle feces composting, co-composting with a variety of organic wastes was examined. A mixture of dairy cattle feces and shredded rice straw (control) was blended with organic wastes (tofu residue, rice bran, rapeseed meal, dried chicken feces, raw chicken feces, or garbage), and composted using a bench-scale composter under the high-moisture condition (78%). The addition of organic waste except chicken feces brought about maximum temperatures of more than 55 degrees C and significantly reduced the number of E. coli from 10(6) to below 10(2)CFU/g-wet after seven days composting, while in the control treatment, E. coli survived at the same level as that of raw feces. Enhancements of the thermophilic phase and E. coli reduction were related to the initial amount of easily digestible carbon in mass determined as BOD. BOD value more than 166.2 mg O2/DMg brought about significant E. coli reduction.

  10. Characterization of Bacterial Community Dynamics during the Decomposition of Pig Carcasses in Simulated Soil Burial and Composting Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Bo-Min; Kim, Yu Mi; Jeon, Jun Min; Ryu, Hee Wook; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2017-12-28

    Soil burial is the most widely used disposal method for infected pig carcasses, but composting has gained attention as an alternative disposal method because pig carcasses can be decomposed rapidly and safely by composting. To understand the pig carcass decomposition process in soil burial and by composting, pilot-scale test systems that simulated soil burial and composting were designed and constructed in the field. The envelope material samples were collected using special sampling devices without disturbance, and bacterial community dynamics were analyzed by high-throughput pyrosequencing for 340 days. Based on the odor gas intensity profiles, it was estimated that the active and advanced decay stages were reached earlier by composting than by soil burial. The dominant bacterial communities in the soil were aerobic and/or facultatively anaerobic gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas, Gelidibacter, Mucilaginibacter , and Brevundimonas . However, the dominant bacteria in the composting system were anaerobic, thermophilic, endospore-forming, and/or halophilic gram-positive bacteria such as Pelotomaculum, Lentibacillus, Clostridium , and Caldicoprobacter . Different dominant bacteria played important roles in the decomposition of pig carcasses in the soil and compost. This study provides useful comparative date for the degradation of pig carcasses in the soil burial and composting systems.

  11. Variation of physicochemical parameters during a composting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria C, D.M.; Ballesteros, M.I.; Bendeck, M.

    1999-01-01

    Two composting processes were carried out; they lasted for about 165 days. In one of the processes the decomposition of the material was performed only by microorganisms only (direct composting) and in the other one, by microorganisms and earthworms -Eisenla foetida- (indirect composting). The first one was carried out in a composting system called c amas a nd the indirect one was carried out in its initial phase in a system of p anelas , then the wastes were transferred to a c ama . The materials were treated in both processes with lime, ammonium nitrate and microorganisms. Periodical samples were taken from different places of the pile and a temperature control was made weekly. The following physicochemical parameters were analyzed in each sample: Humidity, color, pH soil : water in ratios of 1:5 and 1:10, ash, organic matter, CIC, contents of carbon and nitrogen and C/N ratio. In the aqueous extract, C/N ratio and percentage of hydro solubles were analyzed. It was also made a germination assay taking measurements of the percentage of garden cress seeds (Lepidium sativum) that germinated in the aqueous extract. The parameters variation in each process let us to establish that the greatest changes in the material happened in the initial phases of the process (thermophilic and mesophilic phases); the presence of microorganisms was the limiting factor in the dynamic of the process; on the other hand, the earthworm addition did not accelerate the mineralization of organic matter. The results let us to establish that the color determination is not an effective parameter in order to evaluate the degree of maturity of the compost. Other parameters such as temperature and germination percentage can be made as routine test to determine the process rate. Determination of CIC, ash and hydro solubles content are recommended to evaluate the optimal maturity degree in the material. It is proposed changes such as to reduce the composting time to a maximum of 100 days and to

  12. Workers' exposure to bioaerosols from three different types of composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifait, Laetitia; Marchand, Geneviève; Veillette, Marc; M'Bareche, Hamza; Dubuis, Marie-Eve; Pépin, Carole; Cloutier, Yves; Bernard, Yves; Duchaine, Caroline

    2017-10-01

    Composting is a natural dynamic biological process used to valorise putrescible organic matter. The composting process can involve vigorous movements of waste material piles, which release high concentrations of bioaerosols into the surrounding environment. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants (CP) as well as the potential occupational exposure of composting workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the workers exposure to bioaerosols during working activities in three different types of composting facilities (domestic, manure, carcass) using two different quantification methods (cultivation and qPCR) for bacteria and moulds concentrations. As expected, even if there are differences between all CP frameworks, independently of the type of the raw compost used, the production of bioaerosols increases significantly during handling activities. Important concentrations of mesophilic moulds and mesophilic bacteria were noted in the working areas with a respective maximal concentration of 2.3 × 10 5 CFU/m 3 and 1.6 × 10 5 CFU/m 3 . A. fumigatus and thermophilic Actinomycetes were also detected in all working areas for the 3 CP. This study emphases the risks for workers to being in contact with aerosolized pathogens such as Mycobacterium and Legionella and more specifically, L. pneumophila. The presence of high concentration of these bacteria in CP suggests a potential occupational health risk. This study may lead to recommendations for the creation of limits for occupational exposure. There is a need for identifying the standards exposure limits to bioaerosols in CP and efficient recommendation for a better protection of workers' health.

  13. Municipal solid wastes composting: Estrela (Brasil); Compostaje de residuos solidos municipales: el ejemplo de Estrela, brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konrad, O.; Bezama, A.; Navia, R.; Lorber, K. E.

    2002-07-01

    In Estrela, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, an improved separation system for the municipal solid wastes was implemented. The objective is to enhance the performance of the composting process of the solid wastes. In the original separation system, the fractions corresponding to organic matter, recyclable materials and the light-weight fraction (destined to sanitary landfill) were obtained, where the organic fraction reached a 70%. This fraction was destined to a composting process which after 80 days of processing was still in the thermophilic stage and had to be later stabilized through a worm composting process. In order to improve this situation, a modified system was proposed and implemented. In this way, four fractions were obtained during the separation process: a light fraction destined to sanitary land filling, a recyclable materials fraction and two organic fractions. (Author) 8 refs.

  14. Home composting versus industrial composting: influence of composting system on compost quality with focus on compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrena, Raquel; Font, Xavier; Gabarrell, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2014-07-01

    Stability is one of the most important properties of compost obtained from the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes. This property is essential for the application of compost to land to avoid further field degradation and emissions of odors, among others. In this study, a massive characterization of compost samples from both home producers and industrial facilities is presented. Results are analyzed in terms of chemical and respiration characterizations, the latter representing the stability of the compost. Results are also analyzed in terms of statistical validation. The main conclusion from this work is that home composting, when properly conducted, can achieve excellent levels of stability, whereas industrial compost produced in the studied facilities can also present a high stability, although an important dispersion is found in these composts. The study also highlights the importance of respiration techniques to have a reliable characterization of compost quality, while the chemical characterization does not provide enough information to have a complete picture of a compost sample. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A comparative study of composting the solid fraction of dairy manure with or without bulking material: Performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiao-Zhong; Ma, Shi-Chun; Wang, Shi-Peng; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Deng, Yu; Kida, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    The present study compared the development of various physicochemical properties and the composition of microbial communities involved in the composting process in the solid fraction of dairy manure (SFDM) with a sawdust-regulated SFDM (RDM). The changes in several primary physicochemical properties were similar in the two composting processes, and both resulted in mature end-products within 48days. The bacterial communities in both composting processes primarily comprised Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Firmicutes were predominant in the thermophilic phase, whereas Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, and Nitrospirae were more abundant in the final mature phase. Furthermore, the succession of bacteria in both groups proceeded in a similar pattern, suggesting that the effects of the bulking material on bacterial dynamics were minor. These results demonstrate the feasibility of composting using only the SFDM, reflected by the evolution of physicochemical properties and the microbial communities involved in the composting process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of red mud addition on tetracycline and copper resistance genes and microbial community during the full scale swine manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Zhang, Junya; Sui, Qianwen; Wan, Hefeng; Tong, Juan; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong; Wei, Dongbin

    2016-09-01

    Swine manure has been considered as the reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Composting is one of the most suitable technologies for treating livestock manures, and red mud was proved to have a positive effect on nitrogen conservation during composting. This study investigated the abundance of eight tetracycline and three copper resistance genes, the bacterial community during the full scale swine manure composting with or without addition of red mud. The results showed that ARGs in swine manure could be effectively removed through composting (reduced by 2.4log copies/g TS), especially during the thermophilic phase (reduced by 1.5log copies/g TS), which the main contributor might be temperature. Additionally, evolution of bacterial community could also have a great influence on ARGs. Although addition of red mud could enhance nitrogen conservation, it obviously hindered removal of ARGs (reduced by 1.7log copies/g TS) and affected shaping of bacterial community during composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Enzymatic degradation of cellulose for thermophilic actinomycete: isolation, characterization and cellulolytic activity determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Ramírez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty five cellulolytic thermophilic actinomycete strains were isolated from 71 compost, soil, hay and dung samples. Streptomyces sp. (50,63%, Thermomonospora curvata (15,82%, T. chromogena (13,92%, and other species were identified. Endoglucanase, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase activities were evaluated from 10 cellulolytic actinomycete strains. Among these the Streptomyces sp. 7CMC10 strain showed the biggest activity levels corresponding to 20,14; 2,61 and 5,40 UI/mg of protein, respectively.

  18. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Allgaier

    Full Text Available Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, approximately 10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 degrees C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  19. Compost made of organic wastes suppresses fusariosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryntseva, Polina; Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Selivanovkaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Fungal plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Usually, pesticides are used for soil sanitation, and it results in practically pest-free soils, although pesticides cause a biological vacuum, which present many horticultural disadvantages. Suppressive composts, which possess both fertilizing properties for plants and inhibiting properties for plant pathogens, represent an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional pesticides. In this study, composts obtained from agricultural organic wastes were applied to suppress Fusarium oxysporum of tomato plants in model experiments. Composts were made of mixtures of the widespread organic wastes sampled in Tatarstan (Russia): straw (SW), corn wastes (CW), chicken manure (ChM), cattle manure (CM) and swine manure (SM). 11 two- and three-component mixtures were prepared to obtain the optimal carbon-nitrogen, moisture and pH balances, and composted for 210 days. It was found that the thermophilic phase of composting in all the mixtures lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. from 27°C to 59°C. In the initial mixtures, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg CO2-C g-1 day-1). After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (SW+SM) to 100% (CW+ChM+SM, CW+ChM); however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (Trichoderma asperellum, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and

  20. [Effect of aeration on composting of date palm residues contaminated with Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. albedinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroune, K; Bouakka, M; Hakkou, A

    2005-01-01

    Composting of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) residues contaminated with Fusarium f.sp oxysporum albedinis, causal agent of the vascular wilt (Bayoud) of the date palm, has been achieved. The effect of the aeration of the piles by manual turning has been studied. The maintenance of an adequate humidity of 60%-70%, necessary to the good progress of the composting process, required the contribution of 11.4 L of water/kg of the dried residues. The evolution of the temperatures in the three piles presents the same phases. A latency phase, followed after 2-3 d of composting by a thermophilic phase, which lasts about 24 d, where the temperature remains elevated between 50 and 70 degrees C. Then a cooling phase that takes about 15 d, during which the temperatures fall to values between 25 and 35 degrees C, near room temperature. Fusarium f.sp oxysporum albedinis is eliminated completely during the thermophilic phase of composting, and increasing frequencies of turning accelerate its disappearance to a certain extent. On the other hand, pH remained steady and relatively basic oscillating between 8.2 and 8.7. Ninety percent (90%) of the the date palm residues are composed exclusively of organic matters. The total nitrogen represents only 0.4%. The contribution of manure decreases the ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) from 115 to 48 in the initial mixture. After 80 d of composting and according to the frequency of return up, there is a reduction of the granulometry of the substratum, the C/N ratio (from 29% to 44%), the organic matter (from 15% to 23%), the total volume (from 25% to 35%), and of the dry weight of the swaths (from 16% to 24%). On the other hand there is an increase in total nitrogen rate (from 20% to 40%) and in the mineral matter (from 23% to 35%).

  1. Prediction of temperature and thermal inertia effect in the maturation stage and stockpiling of a large composting mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrena, R.; Canovas, C.; Sanchez, A.

    2006-01-01

    A macroscopic non-steady state energy balance was developed and solved for a composting pile of source-selected organic fraction of municipal solid waste during the maturation stage (13,500 kg of compost). Simulated temperature profiles correlated well with temperature experimental data (ranging from 50 to 70 deg. C) obtained during the maturation process for more than 50 days at full scale. Thermal inertia effect usually found in composting plants and associated to the stockpiling of large composting masses could be predicted by means of this simplified energy balance, which takes into account terms of convective, conductive and radiation heat dissipation. Heat losses in a large composting mass are not significant due to the similar temperatures found at the surroundings and at the surface of the pile (ranging from 15 to 40 deg. C). In contrast, thermophilic temperature in the core of the pile was maintained during the whole maturation process. Heat generation was estimated with the static respiration index, a parameter that is typically used to monitor the biological activity and stability of composting processes. In this study, the static respiration index is presented as a parameter to estimate the metabolic heat that can be generated according to the biodegradable organic matter content of a compost sample, which can be useful in predicting the temperature of the composting process

  2. High-solids enrichment of thermophilic microbial communities and their enzymes on bioenergy feedstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, A. P.; Allgaier, M.; Singer, S.W.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; Hugenholtz, P.; VanderGheynst, J.S.

    2011-04-01

    Thermophilic microbial communities that are active in a high-solids environment offer great potential for the discovery of industrially relevant enzymes that efficiently deconstruct bioenergy feedstocks. In this study, finished green waste compost was used as an inoculum source to enrich microbial communities and associated enzymes that hydrolyze cellulose and hemicellulose during thermophilic high-solids fermentation of the bioenergy feedstocks switchgrass and corn stover. Methods involving the disruption of enzyme and plant cell wall polysaccharide interactions were developed to recover xylanase and endoglucanase activity from deconstructed solids. Xylanase and endoglucanase activity increased by more than a factor of 5, upon four successive enrichments on switchgrass. Overall, the changes for switchgrass were more pronounced than for corn stover; solids reduction between the first and second enrichments increased by a factor of four for switchgrass while solids reduction remained relatively constant for corn stover. Amplicon pyrosequencing analysis of small-subunit ribosomal RNA genes recovered from enriched samples indicated rapid changes in the microbial communities between the first and second enrichment with the simplified communities achieved by the third enrichment. The results demonstrate a successful approach for enrichment of unique microbial communities and enzymes active in a thermophilic high-solids environment.

  3. An assessment of adaptive and antagonistic properties of Trichoderma sp. strains in vegetable waste composts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolna-Maruwka Agnieszka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiment consisted in monitoring the count of moulds and three selected Trichoderma sp. isolates (T1 - Trichoderma atroviride, T2 - Trichoderma harzianum, T3 - Trichoderma harzianum in vegetable (onion and tomato waste composted with additives (straw, pig manure. Additionally, the aim of the study was to determine the type of interaction occurring between autochthonous fungi isolated from composts after the end of the thermophilic phase and Trichoderma sp. strains applied in the experiment. Number of microorganisms was determined by the plate method, next the identification was confirmed. The rating scale developed by Mańka was used to determine the type of interactions occurring between microorganisms. The greatest count of moulds in onion waste composts was noted in the object which had simultaneously been inoculated with two strains T1 - T. atroviride and T3 - T. harzianum. The greatest count of moulds was noted in the tomato waste composts inoculated with T2 - T. harzianum strain. Microscope identification revealed that Penicillum sp., Rhizopus sp., Alternaria sp. and Mucor sp. strains were predominant in onion waste composts. In tomato waste composts Penicillium was the predominant genus, followed by Rhizopus. The test of antagonism revealed the inhibitory effect of Trichoderma isolates on most autochthonous strains of moulds. Tomato waste composts proved to be better substrates for the growth and development of Trichoderma sp. isolates. The results of the study show that vegetable waste can be used in agriculture as carriers of antagonistic microorganisms.

  4. Feasibility of composting combinations of sewage sludge, olive mill waste and winery waste in a rotary drum reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José

    2010-10-01

    Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Organic biowastes blend selection for composting industrial eggshell by-product: experimental and statistical mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Micaela A R; Andrade, Sandra R; Martins, Rui C; Quina, Margarida J; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M

    2012-01-01

    Composting is one of the technologies recommended for pre-treating industrial eggshells (ES) before its application in soils, for calcium recycling. However, due to the high inorganic content of ES, a mixture of biodegradable materials is required to assure a successful procedure. In this study, an adequate organic blend composition containing potato peel (PP), grass clippings (GC) and wheat straw (WS) was determined by applying the simplex-centroid mixture design method to achieve a desired moisture content, carbon: nitrogen ratio and free air space for effective composting of ES. A blend of 56% PP, 37% GC and 7% WS was selected and tested in a self heating reactor, where 10% (w/w) of ES was incorporated. After 29 days of reactor operation, a dry matter reduction of 46% was achieved and thermophilic temperatures were maintained during 15 days, indicating that the blend selected by statistical approach was adequate for composting of ES.

  6. Assessing the inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during composting of livestock carcasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Victoria L; Krause, Denis O; McAllister, Tim A; Buckley, Katherine E; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve; Ominski, Kim H

    2013-05-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle

  7. Assessing the Inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis during Composting of Livestock Carcasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Victoria L.; Krause, Denis O.; McAllister, Tim A.; Buckley, Katherine E.; Reuter, Tim; Hendrick, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants, with substantial economic impacts on the cattle industry. Johne's disease is known for its long latency period, and difficulties in diagnosis are due to insensitivities of current detection methods. Eradication is challenging as M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis can survive for extended periods within the environment, resulting in new infections in naïve animals (W. Xu et al., J. Environ. Qual. 38:437-450, 2009). This study explored the use of a biosecure, static composting structure to inactivate M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Mycobacterium smegmatis was also assessed as a surrogate for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Two structures were constructed to hold three cattle carcasses each. Naturally infected tissues and ground beef inoculated with laboratory-cultured M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. smegmatis were placed in nylon and plastic bags to determine effects of temperature and compost environment on viability over 250 days. After removal, samples were cultured and growth of both organisms was assessed after 12 weeks. After 250 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was still detectable by PCR, while M. smegmatis was not detected after 67 days of composting. Furthermore, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable in both implanted nylon and plastic bags over the composting period. As the compost never reached a homogenous thermophilic (55 to 65°C) state throughout each structure, an in vitro experiment was conducted to examine viability of M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis after exposure to 80°C for 90 days. Naturally infected lymph tissues were mixed with and without compost. After 90 days, M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis remained viable despite exposure to temperatures typically higher than that achieved in compost. In conclusion, it is unlikely composting can be used as a means of inactivating M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis associated with cattle

  8. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) performance: one-year clinical follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, S.E.; Murray, D.; Rate, A.J.; Richards, D.M.; Kumar, N.A. Mahesh

    2006-01-01

    Aim: Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) represents a valuable advance in imaging technology for patients with colonic symptoms who are unfit for or fail to complete investigation with conventional techniques of colonoscopy or barium enema. The aim of this study was to examine whether CTC was sufficient to exclude colorectal cancer in such a population. As our patients were unfit for or unable to complete conventional investigations, we used 1 year clinical follow-up to exclude colonic malignancy. Materials and Methods: CTC examination was performed using multi-slice CT in patients fitting pre-determined criteria. All patients who had completed 12 months of follow-up after CTC were included. Data were extracted from patient records and lack of presentation within the 12 months following a negative CTC was assumed to equate to lack of colorectal cancer at initial investigation. Results: One hundred and twelve patients underwent CTC with a median age of 78 years (range 39-95) and median follow-up of 18 months (range 12-26). CTC detected 7 colorectal cancers, with 3 false positives and 1 false negative, giving a sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 97.1% for the detection of colorectal cancer. Conclusions: CTC is a good imaging tool for the exclusion of colorectal cancer in a population unfit for or unable to complete colonoscopy or barium enema, with reasonable sensitivity and specificity for detection of colorectal cancer. However, the optimum investigative strategy for fitter symptomatic individuals is still debated and should be clarified by the results of ongoing randomised controlled trials

  9. Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Cooperative Tagging Center (CTC) began as the Cooperative Game Fish Tagging Program (GTP) at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute (WHOI) in 1954. The GTP was...

  10. Benefits to decomposition rates when using digestate as compost co-feedstock: Part II - Focus on microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arab, Golnaz; Razaviarani, Vahid; Sheng, Zhiya; Liu, Yang; McCartney, Daryl

    2017-10-01

    Linkage between composting reactor performance and microbial community dynamics was investigated during co-composting of digestate and fresh feedstock (organic fraction of municipal solid waste) using 25L reactors. Previously, the relationship between composting performance and various physicochemical parameters were reported in Part I of the study (Arab and McCartney, 2017). Three digestate to fresh feedstock ratios (0, 40, and 100%; wet weight basis) were selected for analysis of microbial community dynamics. The 40% ratio was selected because it was found to perform the best (Arab and McCartney, 2017). Illumina sequencing results revealed that the reactor with a greater composting performance (higher organic matter degradation and higher heat generation; 40% ratio) was associated with higher microbial diversity. Two specific bacterial orders that might result in higher performance were Thermoactinomycetaceae and Actinomycetales with a higher sequence abundance during thermophilic composting phase and during the maturing composting phase, respectively. Galactomyces, Pichia, Chaetomium, and Acremonium were the four fungal genera that are probably also involved in higher organic matter degradation in the reactor with better performance. The redundancy analysis (RDA) biplot indicated that among the studied environmental variables, temperature, total ammonia nitrogen and nitrate concentration accounted for much of the major shifts in microbial sequence abundance during the co-composting process. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bacterial Community Structure and Biochemical Changes Associated With Composting of Lignocellulosic Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Huzairi Mohd Zainudin

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial community structure and biochemical changes during the composting of lignocellulosic oil palm empty bunch (EFB and palm oil mill effluent (POME anaerobic sludge were studied by examining the succession of the bacterial community and its association with changes in lignocellulosic components by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE and the 16S rRNA gene clone library. During composting, a major reduction in cellulose after 10 days from 50% to 19% and the carbon content from 44% to 27% towards the end of the 40-day composting period were observed. The C/N ratio also decreased. A drastic change in the bacterial community structure and diversity throughout the composting process was clearly observed using PCR-DGGE banding patterns. The bacterial community drastically shifted between the thermophilic and maturing stages. 16s rRNA clones belonging to the genera Bacillus, Exiguobacterium, Desemzia, and Planococcus were the dominant groups throughout composting. The species closely related to Solibacillus silvestris were found to be major contributors to changes in the lignocellulosic component. Clones identified as Thermobacillus xylanilyticus, Brachybacterium faecium, Cellulosimicrobium cellulans, Cellulomonas sp., and Thermobifida fusca, which are known to be lignocellulosic-degrading bacteria, were also detected and are believed to support the lignocellulose degradation.

  12. Microbiological parameters and maturity degree during composting of Posidonia oceanica residues mixed with vegetable wastes in semi-arid pedo-climatic condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Neyla; Kouki, Soulwene; M'hiri, Fadhel; Jedidi, Naceur; Mahrouk, Meriam; Hassen, Abdennaceur; Ouzari, Hadda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the biological stability and maturity degree of compost during a controlled pile-composting trial of mixed vegetable residues (VR) collected from markets of Tunis City with residues of Posidonia oceanica (PoR), collected from Tunis beaches. The accumulation in beaches (as well as their removal) constitutes a serious environmental problem in all Mediterranean countries particularly in Tunisia. Aerobic-thermophilic composting is the most reasonable way to profit highly-valuable content of organic matter in these wastes for agricultural purposes. The physical, chemical, and biological parameters were monitored during composting over 150 d. The most appropriate parameters were selected to establish the maturity degree. The main result of this research was the deduction of the following maturity criterion: (a) C/N ratio 80%. These five parameters, considered jointly are indicative of a high maturity degree and thus of a high-quality organic amendment which employed in a rational way, may improve soil fertility and soil quality. The mature compost was relatively rich in N (13.0 g/kg), P (4.74 g/kg) and MgO (15.80 g/kg). Thus composting definitively constitutes the most optimal option to exploit these wastes.

  13. Inactivation of a bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus in cattle manure by anaerobic digestion, heat treatment, gamma irradiation, ensilage and composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteith, H.D.; Shannon, E.E.; Derbyshire, J.B.

    1986-08-01

    A bovine enterovirus and a bovine parvovirus seeded into liquid cattle manure were rapidly inactivated by anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions (55/sup 0/C), but the same viruses survived for up to 13 and 8 days respectively under mesophilic conditions (35/sup 0/C). The enterovirus was inactivated in digested liquid manure heated to 70/sup 0/C for 30 min, but the parvovirus was not inactivated by this treatment. The enterovirus, seeded into single cell protein (the solids recovered by centrifugation of digested liquid manure), was inactivated by a gamma irradiation dose of 1.0 Mrad, but the parvovirus survived this dose. When single cell protein seeded with bovine enterovirus or bovine parvovirus was ensiled with cracked corn, the enterovirus was inactivated after a period of 30 days, while the parvovirus survived for 30 days in one of two experiments. Neither the enterovirus nor the parvovirus survived composting for 28 days in a thermophilic aerobic environment when seeded into the solid fraction of cattle manure. It was concluded that, of the procedures tested, only anaerobic digestion under thermophilic conditions appeared to be reliable method of viral inactivation to ensure the safety of single cell protein for refeeding to livestock. Composting appeared to be a suitable method for the disinfection of manure for use as a soil conditioner.

  14. Odor composition analysis and odor indicator selection during sewage sludge composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-li; Zheng, Guo-di; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-bin; Wu, Fang-kun; Niu, Ming-jie; Zou, Ke-hua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT On the basis of total temperature increase, normal dehydration, and maturity, the odor compositions of surface and internal piles in a well-run sewage sludge compost plant were analyzed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry with a liquid nitrogen cooling system and a portable odor detector. Approximately 80 types of substances were detected, including 2 volatile inorganic compounds, 4 sulfur organic compounds, 16 benzenes, 27 alkanes, 15 alkenes, and 19 halogenated compounds. Most pollutants were mainly produced in the mesophilic and pre-thermophilic periods. The sulfur volatile organic compounds contributed significantly to odor and should be controlled primarily. Treatment strategies should be based on the properties of sulfur organic compounds. Hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, ammonia, and carbon disulfide were selected as core indicators. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethylbenzene, phenylpropane, and isopentane were designated as concentration indicators. Benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, dimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, toluene, chlorobenzene, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and ethylbenzene were selected as health indicators. According to the principle of odor pollution indicator selection, dimethyl disulfide was selected as an odor pollution indicator of sewage sludge composting. Monitoring dimethyl disulfide provides a highly scientific method for modeling and evaluating odor pollution from sewage sludge composting facilities. Implications: Composting is one of the most important methods for sewage sludge treatment and improving the low organic matter content of many agricultural soils. However, odors are inevitably produced during the composting process. Understanding the production and emission patterns of odors is important for odor control and treatment. Core indicators, concentration indicators, and health indicators provide an index

  15. Odor composition analysis and odor indicator selection during sewage sludge composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yan-Li; Zheng, Guo-di; Gao, Ding; Chen, Tong-Bin; Wu, Fang-Kun; Niu, Ming-Jie; Zou, Ke-Hua

    2016-09-01

    On the basis of total temperature increase, normal dehydration, and maturity, the odor compositions of surface and internal piles in a well-run sewage sludge compost plant were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with a liquid nitrogen cooling system and a portable odor detector. Approximately 80 types of substances were detected, including 2 volatile inorganic compounds, 4 sulfur organic compounds, 16 benzenes, 27 alkanes, 15 alkenes, and 19 halogenated compounds. Most pollutants were mainly produced in the mesophilic and pre-thermophilic periods. The sulfur volatile organic compounds contributed significantly to odor and should be controlled primarily. Treatment strategies should be based on the properties of sulfur organic compounds. Hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl sulfide, ammonia, and carbon disulfide were selected as core indicators. Ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, carbon disulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methyl mercaptan, dimethylbenzene, phenylpropane, and isopentane were designated as concentration indicators. Benzene, m-xylene, p-xylene, dimethylbenzene, dichloromethane, toluene, chlorobenzene, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, and ethylbenzene were selected as health indicators. According to the principle of odor pollution indicator selection, dimethyl disulfide was selected as an odor pollution indicator of sewage sludge composting. Monitoring dimethyl disulfide provides a highly scientific method for modeling and evaluating odor pollution from sewage sludge composting facilities. Composting is one of the most important methods for sewage sludge treatment and improving the low organic matter content of many agricultural soils. However, odors are inevitably produced during the composting process. Understanding the production and emission patterns of odors is important for odor control and treatment. Core indicators, concentration indicators, and health indicators provide an index system to odor evaluation

  16. Biochar accelerates organic matter degradation and enhances N mineralisation during composting of poultry manure without a relevant impact on gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, M; Alburquerque, J A; Sánchez-Monedero, M A; Roig, A; Cayuela, M L

    2015-09-01

    A composting study was performed to assess the impact of biochar addition to a mixture of poultry manure and barley straw. Two treatments: control (78% poultry manure + 22% barley straw, dry weight) and the same mixture amended with biochar (3% dry weight), were composted in duplicated windrows during 19 weeks. Typical monitoring parameters and gaseous emissions (CO2, CO, CH4, N2O and H2S) were evaluated during the process as well as the agronomical quality of the end-products. Biochar accelerated organic matter degradation and ammonium formation during the thermophilic phase and enhanced nitrification during the maturation phase. Our results suggest that biochar, as composting additive, improved the physical properties of the mixture by preventing the formation of clumps larger than 70 mm. It favoured microbiological activity without a relevant impact on N losses and gaseous emissions. It was estimated that biochar addition at 3% could reduce the composting time by 20%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Applying functional metagenomics to search for novel lignocellulosic enzymes in a microbial consortium derived from a thermophilic composting phase of sugarcane bagasse and cow manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Lívia Tavares; de Oliveira, Marcelo Nagem Valério; Carneiro, Deisy Guimarães; de Souza, Robson Assis; Alvim, Mariana Caroline Tocantins; Dos Santos, Josenilda Carlos; da Silva, Cynthia Canêdo; Vidigal, Pedro Marcus Pereira; da Silveira, Wendel Batista; Passos, Flávia Maria Lopes

    2016-09-01

    Environments where lignocellulosic biomass is naturally decomposed are sources for discovery of new hydrolytic enzymes that can reduce the high cost of enzymatic cocktails for second-generation ethanol production. Metagenomic analysis was applied to discover genes coding carbohydrate-depleting enzymes from a microbial laboratory subculture using a mix of sugarcane bagasse and cow manure in the thermophilic composting phase. From a fosmid library, 182 clones had the ability to hydrolyse carbohydrate. Sequencing of 30 fosmids resulted in 12 contigs encoding 34 putative carbohydrate-active enzymes belonging to 17 glycosyl hydrolase (GH) families. One third of the putative proteins belong to the GH3 family, which includes β-glucosidase enzymes known to be important in the cellulose-deconstruction process but present with low activity in commercial enzyme preparations. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences of seven selected proteins, including three β-glucosidases, showed low relatedness with protein sequences deposited in databases. These findings highlight microbial consortia obtained from a mixture of decomposing biomass residues, such as sugar cane bagasse and cow manure, as a rich resource of novel enzymes potentially useful in biotechnology for saccharification of lignocellulosic substrate.

  18. A stepwise-cluster microbial biomass inference model in food waste composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Wei; Huang, Guo H.; Zeng Guangming; Qin Xiaosheng; Sun Xueling

    2009-01-01

    A stepwise-cluster microbial biomass inference (SMI) model was developed through introducing stepwise-cluster analysis (SCA) into composting process modeling to tackle the nonlinear relationships among state variables and microbial activities. The essence of SCA is to form a classification tree based on a series of cutting or mergence processes according to given statistical criteria. Eight runs of designed experiments in bench-scale reactors in a laboratory were constructed to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. The results indicated that SMI could help establish a statistical relationship between state variables and composting microbial characteristics, where discrete and nonlinear complexities exist. Significance levels of cutting/merging were provided such that the accuracies of the developed forecasting trees were controllable. Through an attempted definition of input effects on the output in SMI, the effects of the state variables on thermophilic bacteria were ranged in a descending order as: Time (day) > moisture content (%) > ash content (%, dry) > Lower Temperature (deg. C) > pH > NH 4 + -N (mg/Kg, dry) > Total N (%, dry) > Total C (%, dry); the effects on mesophilic bacteria were ordered as: Time > Upper Temperature (deg. C) > Total N > moisture content > NH 4 + -N > Total C > pH. This study made the first attempt in applying SCA to mapping the nonlinear and discrete relationships in composting processes.

  19. Fungal communities associated with the biodegradation of polyester polyurethane buried under compost at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley; Robson, Geoffrey D

    2013-12-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future.

  20. Fungal Communities Associated with the Biodegradation of Polyester Polyurethane Buried under Compost at Different Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Urooj; Houlden, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    Plastics play an essential role in the modern world due to their low cost and durability. However, accumulation of plastic waste in the environment causes wide-scale pollution with long-lasting effects, making plastic waste management expensive and problematic. Polyurethanes (PUs) are heteropolymers that made up ca. 7% of the total plastic production in Europe in 2011. Polyester PUs in particular have been extensively reported as susceptible to microbial biodegradation in the environment, particularly by fungi. In this study, we investigated the impact of composting on PUs, as composting is a microbially rich process that is increasingly being used for the processing of green waste and food waste as an economically viable alternative to landfill disposal. PU coupons were incubated for 12 weeks in fresh compost at 25°C, 45°C, and 50°C to emulate the thermophilic and maturation stages of the composting process. Incubation at all temperatures caused significant physical deterioration of the polyester PU coupons and was associated with extensive fungal colonization. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP) analysis and pyrosequencing of the fungal communities on the PU surface and in the surrounding compost revealed that the population on the surface of PU was different from the surrounding compost community, suggesting enrichment and selection. The most dominant fungi identified from the surfaces of PU coupons by pyrosequencing was Fusarium solani at 25°C, while at both 45°C and 50°C, Candida ethanolica was the dominant species. The results of this preliminary study suggest that the composting process has the potential to biodegrade PU waste if optimized further in the future. PMID:24056469

  1. Turned windrow composting of cow manure as appropriate technology for zero discharge of mulberry pulp wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolanun, Banjarata; Kaewkam, Chompoonuch; Bauoon, Orapin; Chiemchaisri, Chart

    2014-08-01

    Turned windrow composting was investigated as appropriate technology for recycling the wastewater (excluding black liquor) from mulberry pulp and paper handicrafts. Two exterior turned windrows (1.5 m width x 1.5 m height x 2.0 m length) with dry leaves/cow manure/sawdust wet weight ratios of 60:40:0 (Pile A) and 55:40:5 (Pile B) were used for the investigation. Changes in the physical and chemical properties of the compost were examined and a phytotoxicity analysis was performed. A soil incubation test and an informal focus group discussion were also conducted. The results revealed that while both piles met the regulatory processing requirements for further reduced pathogens (>or= 55 degrees C for 15 days or longer), the operation without sawdust (Pile A) not only significantly enhanced the thermophilic temperature regime (P 0.05). The germination index of two plant species in both piles varied between 126% and 230% throughout the experiment, and no pronounced differences (P > 0.05) among the samples were found. Addition of the compost significantly improved soil organic matter and pH (7-8), as well as reduced the loss of NO3-N. Local discussion groups were initiated to evaluate the cost-benefits, the potential of wastewater removal, the cooperation of community users and supporters, the compost quality and the potential compost market.

  2. Bacterial community shift for monitoring the co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch and palm oil mill effluent anaerobic sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainudin, Mohd Huzairi Mohd; Ramli, Norhayati; Hassan, Mohd Ali; Shirai, Yoshihito; Tashiro, Kosuke; Sakai, Kenji; Tashiro, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    A recently developed rapid co-composting of oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and palm oil mill effluent (POME) anaerobic sludge is beginning to attract attention from the palm oil industry in managing the disposal of these wastes. However, a deeper understanding of microbial diversity is required for the sustainable practice of the co-compositing process. In this study, an in-depth assessment of bacterial community succession at different stages of the pilot scale co-composting of OPEFB-POME anaerobic sludge was performed using 454-pyrosequencing, which was then correlated with the changes of physicochemical properties including temperature, oxygen level and moisture content. Approximately 58,122 of 16S rRNA gene amplicons with more than 500 operational taxonomy units (OTUs) were obtained. Alpha diversity and principal component analysis (PCoA) indicated that bacterial diversity and distributions were most influenced by the physicochemical properties of the co-composting stages, which showed remarkable shifts of dominant species throughout the process. Species related to Devosia yakushimensis and Desemzia incerta are shown to emerge as dominant bacteria in the thermophilic stage, while Planococcus rifietoensis correlated best with the later stage of co-composting. This study proved the bacterial community shifts in the co-composting stages corresponded with the changes of the physicochemical properties, and may, therefore, be useful in monitoring the progress of co-composting and compost maturity.

  3. Influence of lime and struvite on microbial community succession and odour emission during food waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Selvam, Ammaiyappan; Lau, Sam S S; Wong, Jonathan W C

    2018-01-01

    Lime addition as well as formation of struvite through the addition of magnesium and phosphorus salts provide good pH buffering and may reduce odour emission. This study investigated the odour emission during food waste composting under the influence of lime addition, and struvite formation. Composting was performed in 20-L reactors for 56days using artificial food waste mixed with sawdust at 1.2:1 (w/w dry basis). VFA was one of the most important odours during food waste composting. However, during thermophilic phase, ammonia is responsible for max odour index in the exhaust gas. Trapping ammonia through struvite formation significantly reduced the maximum odour unit of ammonia from 3.0×10 4 to 1.8×10 4 . The generation and accumulation of acetic acid and butyric acid led to the acidic conditions. The addition of phosphate salts in treatment with struvite formation improved the variation of total bacteria, which in turn increased the organic decomposition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Isolation and Screening of Thermophilic Bacilli from Compost for Electrotransformation and Fermentation: Characterization of Bacillus smithii ET 138 as a New Biocatalyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, E.F.; Weijer, van de A.H.P.; Daas, M.J.A.; Oost, van der J.; Vos, de W.M.; Kranenburg, van R.

    2015-01-01

    Thermophilic bacteria are regarded as attractive production organisms for cost-efficient conversion of renewable resources to green chemicals, but their genetic accessibility is a major bottleneck in developing them into versatile platform organisms. In this study, we aimed to isolate thermophilic,

  5. Spatial Heterogeneity of Bacteria: Evidence from Hot Composts by Culture-independent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Guo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic diversity of the bacteria in hot composting samples collected from three spatial locations was investigated by molecular tools in order to determine the influence of gradient effect on bacterial communities during the thermophilic phase of composting swine manure with rice straw. Total microbial DNA was extracted and bacterial near full-length 16S rRNA genes were subsequently amplified, cloned, restriction fragment length polymorphism-screened and sequenced. The superstratum sample had the highest microbial diversity among the three samples which was possibly related to the surrounding conditions of the sample resulting from the location. The results showed that the sequences related to Bacillus sp. were most common in the composts. In superstratum sample, 45 clones (33% and 36 clones (27% were affiliated with the Bacillus sp. and Clostridium sp., respectively; 74 clones (58% were affiliated with the Clostridium sp. in the middle-level sample; 52 clones (40% and 29 clones (23% were affiliated with the Clostridium sp. and Bacillus sp. in substrate sample, respectively. It indicated that the microbial diversity and community in the samples were different for each sampling site, and different locations of the same pile often contained distinct and different microbial communities.

  6. Composting municipal biosolids in polyethylene sleeves with forced aeration: Process control, air emissions, sanitary and agronomic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidov, R; Saadi, I; Krassnovsky, A; Hanan, A; Medina, Sh; Raviv, M; Chen, Y; Laor, Y

    2017-09-01

    Composting in polyethylene sleeves with forced aeration may minimize odor emissions, vectors attraction and leachates associated with open windrows. A disadvantage of this technology is the lack of mixing during composting, potentially leading to non-uniform products. In two pilot experiments using biosolids and green waste (1:1; v:v), thermophilic conditions (>45°C) were maintained for two months, with successful control of oxygen levels and sufficient moisture. Emitted odors declined from 1.5-3.8×10 5 to 5.9×10 3 -2.3×10 4 odor units m -3 -air in the first 3weeks of the process, emphasizing the need of odor control primarily during this period. Therefore, composting might be managed in two phases: (i) a closed sleeve for 6-8weeks during which the odor is treated; (ii) an open pile (odor control is not necessary). Reduction of salmonella, E. coli and coliforms was effective initially, meeting the standards of "Class A" biosolids; however, total and fecal coliforms density increased after opening the second sleeve and exceeded the standard of 1000 most probable number (MPN) per g dry matter. Compost maturity was achieved in the open piles following the two sleeves and the final compost was non-phytotoxic and beneficial as a soil additive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Andrew; Turner, Geraldine

    2010-01-01

    Composting can provide both a means of managing organic waste, and a vehicle to teach Science at all levels of schooling. In response to a local organic waste issue a process has been developed to compost waste from an olive oil press and analyse the resultant compost. In this article, the composting process is described in a manner that can be…

  8. Heavy metal content in compost and earthworms from home composters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożym Marta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of compost tests from home composters and earthworms living there, that treating waste into compost. The samples were taken from home composters and allotment gardens from Opole Region. The composting material was green waste. The total content of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni Cr in compost and compost earthworms’ samples were determined. It was found that the compost samples were not contaminated with heavy metals. According to the Polish classification of composts from municipal wastes, the composts met the requirements for first class of quality. The composts did not exceed the limits of heavy metals specified in the Polish law for solid organic fertilizers. The degree of metal accumulation by compost earthworms depended on the type of metal. The high value of the bioaccumulation factor (BAF was obtained for Cd, Pb and Zn. No accumulation of other metals (Ni, Cr, Cu in earthworm bodies was found. It has been found that earthworm species, naturally occurring in Poland, can also be used as potential bioindicators of metals in the environment, such as the species Eisenia fetida. The aim of the study was to evaluate the heavy metal content in composts from home composters and ability to accumulate metals by compost earthworms.

  9. Growth of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in cattle manure compost under various temperatures and ammonia concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Ryu; Tada, Chika; Asano, Ryoki; Yamamoto, Nozomi; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Nakai, Yutaka

    2012-05-01

    A recent study showed that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) coexist in the process of cattle manure composting. To investigate their physiological characteristics, liquid cultures seeded with fermenting cattle manure compost were incubated at various temperatures (37°C, 46°C, or 60°C) and ammonium concentrations (0.5, 1, 4, or 10 mM NH (4) (+) -N). The growth rates of the AOB and AOA were monitored using real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis targeting the bacterial and archaeal ammonia monooxygenase subunit A genes. AOB grew at 37°C and 4 or 10 mM NH (4) (+) -N, whereas AOA grew at 46°C and 10 mM NH (4) (+) -N. Incubation with allylthiourea indicated that the AOB and AOA grew by oxidizing ammonia. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and subsequent sequencing analyses revealed that a bacterium related to Nitrosomonas halophila and an archaeon related to Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis were the predominant AOB and AOA, respectively, in the seed compost and in cultures after incubation. This is the first report to demonstrate that the predominant AOA in cattle manure compost can grow and can probably oxidize ammonia under moderately thermophilic conditions.

  10. Fate of diesel fuel hydrocarbon in composting bioremediation system using radio- labeled 14C phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesnawi, R. M.; McCartney, D. M.

    2008-01-01

    To characterize the fate of fuel hydrocarbon in bioremediation composting system, diesel fuel, spiked with radio-labeled [9-1 4C ] phenanthrene at activity of 0.15μCi g - 1 of diesel fuel, was added to the soil to yield a contaminant load of 20,000 mg kg - 1 dry soil. The contaminated soil was amended with either fresh feedstock material (municipal sludge, leaves, and wood shaving) or mature compost and then incubated at thermophilic temperature pattern for 126 day. The mineralized, volatilized, and extractable fractions of 1 4C labeled phenanthrene were determined every two weeks over 126-days experimental period. The 1 4C data were used to predict the amount of removal due to biodegradation and sorption. In controls that were not amended with compost, no mineralization of 1 4C phenanthrene was detected, whereas treatments that received compost amendment showed significant release of phenanthrene as 1 4C O 2., ranging from 25% to 42% of initial radioactivity concentrations. The 1 4C extracted from the solids were decreasing with time. The total radioactivity extracted at the end of the experiment was less than 11% in the amended soil, whereas in the controls, more than 65% of the 1 4C was extracted. The 1 4C data indicated that bound residues formation was the major mechanism for the removal of pantherine or its metabolites. (author)

  11. Effects of mix ratio, moisture content and aeration rate on sulfur odor emissions during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Bing; Li, Shuyan; Michel, Frederick; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Difang; Li, Yangyang

    2016-10-01

    Sulfur compounds in swine manure can cause odor emissions during composting if conditions are not conducive to their rapid oxidation and degradation. In this study, the effects of controllable composting process variables on sulfur odor emissions were investigated. These included pig manure to corn stalk mix ratio (0.7:1, 1.5:1 and 2.2:1dw basis), initial moisture content (60%, 65%, 70% and 75%) and aeration rate (1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0m(3)m(-3)h(-1)). The compounds measured were carbonyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan, ethyl mercaptan, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide (Me2S) and dimethyl disulfide (Me2SS). The results showed that total sulfur losses ranged from 3.9% to 18.3% after 26days of composting. Me2S and Me2SS were the primary (>59.61%) sulfur compounds released during this period. After turning, emission rates of both Me2S and Me2SS increased. Emissions of the other six sulfur compounds were low and inconsistent during composting. Within the compost, feedstock mix ratio significantly influenced the concentration of Me2SS, while aeration rate significantly affected Me2S concentration (pMoisture content did not have a significant effect on the concentrations of either of these two compounds. Concentrations of sulfur odor compounds were the lowest at the highest aeration rate. Therefore, high aeration rates during the thermophilic phase, especially after turning, are recommended to minimize sulfur odors produced during swine manure composting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The efficiency of home composting programmes and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; Soto, M

    2017-06-01

    The efficiency of home composting programmes and the quality of the produced compost was evaluated in eight rural areas carrying out home composting programmes (up to 880 composting bins) for all household biowaste including meat and fish leftovers. Efficiency was analysed in terms of reduction of organic waste collected by the municipal services. An efficiency of 77% on average was obtained, corresponding to a composting rate of 126kg/person·year of biowaste (or 380kg/composter·year). Compost quality was determined for a total of 90 composting bins. The operation of composting bins by users was successful, as indicated by a low C/N ratio (10-15), low inappropriate materials (or physical contaminant materials, mean of 0.27±0.44% dry matter), low heavy metal content (94% of samples met required standards for agricultural use) and high nutrient content (2.1% N, 0.6% P, 2.5% K, 0.7% Mg and 3.7% Ca on average, dry matter). The high moisture (above 70% in 48% of the samples) did not compromise the compost quality. Results of this study show that home composting of household organic waste including meat and fish leftovers is a feasible practice. Home composting helps individuals and families to reduce the amount of household waste at the same time gaining a fertiliser material (compost) of excellent quality for gardens or vegetable plots. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Composting of pig manure and forest green waste amended with industrial sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, O; Viña, S; Uzal, M; Soto, M

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this research was to study the composting of chestnut forest green waste (FGW) from short rotation chestnut stands amended with sludge resulting from the manufacture of Medium Density Fibreboard (MDFS) and pig manure (PM). Both FGW and MDFS presented low biodegradation potential but different characteristics in granulometry and bulk density that make its mixture of interest to achieve high composting temperatures. PM decreased the C/N ratio of the mixture and increased its moisture content (MC). Three mixtures of MDFS:FGW at volume ratios of 1:1.3 (M2), 1:2.4 (M3) and 0:1 (M4) were composted after increasing its MC to about 70% with PM. A control with food waste (OFW) and FGW (1:2.4 in volume) (M1) was run in parallel. Watering ratios reached 0.25 (M1), 1.08 (M2) 1.56 (M3) and 4.35 (M4) L PM/kg TS of added solids wastes. Treatments M2 and M3 reached a thermophilic phase shorter than M1, whilst M4 remained in the mesophilic range. After 48days of composting, temperature gradients in respect to ambient temperature were reduced, but the mineralization process continued for around 8months. Final reduction in total organic carbon reached 35-56%, depending mainly on the content in MDFS. MDFS addition to composting matrices largely reduced nitrogen losses, which range from 22% (M2) to 37% (M3) and 53% (M4). Final products had high nutrient content, low electrical conductivity and low heavy metal content which make it a valuable product for soil fertilization, right to amend in the chestnut forests and as a pillar of their sustainable management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Kinetics and mechanism of the biodegradation of PLA/clay nanocomposites during thermophilic phase of composting process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stloukal, P.; Pekařová, S.; Kalendová, A.; Mattausch, H.; Laske, S.; Holzer, C.; Chitu, L.; Bodner, S.; Maier, G.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Koutný, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, August (2015), s. 31-40 ISSN 0956-053X Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : composting * biodegradability * polylactic acid Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 3.829, year: 2015

  15. Co-composting of vegetable wastes and carton: Effect of carton composition and parameter variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawoteea, Soonita Anjeena; Mudhoo, Ackmez; Kumar, Sunil

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of carton in the composting process of mixed vegetable wastes using an experimental composter of capacity 80L. Three different mixes were set-up (Mixes 1, 2 and 3) which consisted of vegetable wastes, 2.0kg paper and bulking agents, vegetable wastes, 1.5kg carton and bulking agents, vegetable wastes, 4.5kg carton and bulking agents, respectively. Temperature evolution, pH trends, moisture levels, respiration rates, percentage volatile solids and electrical conductivity were monitored for a period of 50days. The system remained under thermophilic conditions for a very short period due to the small size of the reactor. The three mixes did not exceed a temperature of 55°C, where sanitization takes place by the destruction of pathogens. The highest peak of CO 2 evolution was observed in Mix 2 indicating that maximum microbial degradation took place in that mix. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Mechanisms of CTC Biomarkers in Breast Cancer Brain Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No...patterns were noticeable up to 10-week analysis endpoint (Figure 1A). Of note, Notch1+/HPSE- CTC subsets generated 3D CTC macro -mammospheres (>5...9 days. Estrogen pellet (0.72mg; 90 day release; Innovative Research of America)(16) was subcutaneously implanted behind the neck of each mouse

  17. Management of sewage sludge by composting using fermented water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tello-Andrade, A F; Jiménez-Moleón, M C; Sánchez-Galván, G

    2015-10-01

    The goal of the present research work was to assess the management of sewage sludge (SS) by composting using fermented water hyacinth (WHferm) as an amendment. The water hyacinth was fermented, and a higher production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) (782.67 mg L(-1)) and soluble organic carbon (CSOL) (4788.34 mg L(-1)) was obtained using a particle size of 7 mm compared to 50 mm. For composting, four treatments (10 kg fresh weight each) were evaluated: treatment A (100 % SS + 0 % WHferm), treatment B (75 % SS + 25 % WHferm), treatment C (50 % SS + 50 % WHferm), and treatment D (25 % SS + 75 % WHferm). The WHferm added to SS, especially in treatments C (50 %) and D (75 %), increased the initial contents of organic matter (OM), organic carbon (CORG), CSOL, the C/N ratio, and the germination index (GI). The heavy metal content (HMC) (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) at the beginning was below the maximum allowed by USEPA regulations. All of the samples were free of Salmonella sp. from the beginning. The reduction of the CORG, CSOL, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), and C/N ratio indicated the degradation of the OM by day 198. The treatments with WHferm (B, C, and D) yielded higher values of electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, and GI than SS at day 198. No significant differences were observed in GI among the treatments with WHferm. The fecal coliforms were eliminated (Penicillium, Rhizopus, Paecilomyces (penicillin producers), and Fusariella isolated from the compost may have promoted the elimination of pathogens since no thermophile temperatures were obtained. WHferm as an amendment in the composting of SS improved the characteristics of the final product, especially when it was used in proportions of 25 and 50 %. An excellent product was obtained in terms of HMC, and the product was B class in terms of pathogens.

  18. Fungal and bacterial successions in the process of co-composting of organic wastes as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Saveliev, Anatoly; Grigoryeva, Tatiana; Boulygina, Eugenia; Selivanovskaya, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Composting is viewed as one of the primary methods to treat organic wastes. Co-composting may improve the efficiency of this treatment by establishing the most suitable conditions for decomposers than those present in the individual wastes. Given that bacteria and fungi are the driving agents of composting, information about the composition of their communities and dynamics during composting may improve reproducibility, performance and quality of the final compost as well as help to evaluate the potential human health risk and the choice of the most appropriate application procedure. In this study, the co-composting of mixtures containing two similar components (organic fraction of municipal solid waste and sawdust polluted by oil) and one discriminate component (sewage sludges of different origin) were investigated. Bacterial and fungal community successions in the two mixtures were analyzed during the composting process by determining the change in their structural dynamics using qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing methods in a lab experiment for a period of 270 days. During the initial composting stage, the number of 16S bacterial copies was (3.0±0.2) x 106 and (0.4±0.0) x 107 g-1, and the Rhodospiralles and Lactobacialles orders dominated. Fungal communities had (2.9±0.0) x105 and (6.1±0.2) x105 ITS copies g-1, and the Saccharomycetales order dominated. At the end of the thermophilic stage on the 30th day of composting, bacterial and fungal communities underwent significant changes: dominants changed and their relative abundance decreased. Typical compost residents included Flavobacteriales, Chitinophagaceae and Bacterioidetes for bacteria and Microascaceae, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Agaricomycetes for fungi. During the later composting stages, the dominating taxa of both bacterial and fungal communities remained, while their relative abundance decreased. In accordance with the change in the dominating OTUs, it was concluded that the

  19. Fungal and bacterial successions in the process of co-composting of organic wastes as revealed by 454 pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Galitskaya

    Full Text Available Composting is viewed as one of the primary methods to treat organic wastes. Co-composting may improve the efficiency of this treatment by establishing the most suitable conditions for decomposers than those present in the individual wastes. Given that bacteria and fungi are the driving agents of composting, information about the composition of their communities and dynamics during composting may improve reproducibility, performance and quality of the final compost as well as help to evaluate the potential human health risk and the choice of the most appropriate application procedure. In this study, the co-composting of mixtures containing two similar components (organic fraction of municipal solid waste and sawdust polluted by oil and one discriminate component (sewage sludges of different origin were investigated. Bacterial and fungal community successions in the two mixtures were analyzed during the composting process by determining the change in their structural dynamics using qPCR and 454 pyrosequencing methods in a lab experiment for a period of 270 days. During the initial composting stage, the number of 16S bacterial copies was (3.0±0.2 x 106 and (0.4±0.0 x 107 g-1, and the Rhodospiralles and Lactobacialles orders dominated. Fungal communities had (2.9±0.0 x105 and (6.1±0.2 x105 ITS copies g-1, and the Saccharomycetales order dominated. At the end of the thermophilic stage on the 30th day of composting, bacterial and fungal communities underwent significant changes: dominants changed and their relative abundance decreased. Typical compost residents included Flavobacteriales, Chitinophagaceae and Bacterioidetes for bacteria and Microascaceae, Dothideomycetes, Eurotiomycetes, Sordariomycetes, and Agaricomycetes for fungi. During the later composting stages, the dominating taxa of both bacterial and fungal communities remained, while their relative abundance decreased. In accordance with the change in the dominating OTUs, it was

  20. Towards the Biological Understanding of CTC: Capture Technologies, Definitions and Potential to Create Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M.C. Barradas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC are rare cells originated from tumors that travel into the blood stream, extravasate to different organs of which only a small fraction will develop into metastasis. The presence of CTC enumerated with the CellSearch system is associated with a relative short survival and their continued presence after the first cycles of therapy indicates a futile therapy in patients with metastatic carcinomas. Detailed characterization of CTC holds the promise to enable the choice of the optimal therapy for the individual patients during the course of the disease. The phenotype, physical and biological properties are however not well understood making it difficult to assess the merit of recent technological advancements to improve upon the capture of CTC or to evaluate their metastatic potential. Here we will discuss the recent advances in the classification of CTC captured by the CellSearch system, the implications of their features and numbers. Latest capture platforms are reviewed and placed in the light of technology improvements needed to detect CTC. Physical properties, phenotype, viability and proliferative potential and means to assess their proliferation and metastatic capacity will be summarized and placed in the context of the latest CTC capture platforms.

  1. Physiology of thermophilic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ljungdahl, L G

    1979-01-01

    Thermophilic micro-organisms have all of the properties normally found in mesophilic micro-organisms. These include metabolic pathways, regulatory mechanisms such as allosteric or feedback control, repression and induction of protein synthesis, growth yields and metabolic rates. The main difference between thermophiles and mesophiles is the former's capacity to grow at high temperatures. The basis for this capacity is the thermophile's capability to synthesize proteins, complex structures and membranes that are stable or are stabilized and functional at thermophilic temperatures. It is proposed that the maximum and minimum growth temperatures are normally determined by properties associated with proteins, and that the membrane plays a lesser role in determining these temperatures. Enzymes and other proteins from thermophiles, except for having higher thermostability, are very similar to corresponding proteins from mesophiles. The higher thermostability is generally dependent on subtle changes in the composition and sequence of the amino acids and rarely dependent on non-proteinaceous factors. Although over 100 proteins have been purified from thermophiles and compared with corresponding proteins from mesophiles, the exact nature of the higher thermostability has yet to be determined in a protein from a thermophile.

  2. Compost supplementation with nutrients and microorganisms in composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Óscar J; Ospina, Diego A; Montoya, Sandra

    2017-11-01

    The composting is an aerobic, microorganism-mediated, solid-state fermentation process by which different organic materials are transformed into more stable compounds. The product obtained is the compost, which contributes to the improvement of physical, chemical and microbiological properties of the soil. However, the compost usage in agriculture is constrained because of its long-time action and reduced supply of nutrients to the crops. To enhance the content of nutrients assimilable by the plants in the compost, its supplementation with nutrients and inoculation with microorganisms have been proposed. The objective of this work was to review the state of the art on compost supplementation with nutrients and the role played by the microorganisms involved (or added) in their transformation during the composting process. The phases of composting are briefly compiled and different strategies for supplementation are analyzed. The utilization of nitrogenous materials and addition of microorganisms fixing nitrogen from the atmosphere or oxidizing ammonia into more assimilable for plants nitrogenous forms are analyzed. Several strategies for nitrogen conservation during composting are presented as well. The supplementation with phosphorus and utilization of microorganisms solubilizing phosphorus and potassium are also discussed. Main groups of microorganisms relevant during the composting process are described as well as most important strategies to identify them. In general, the development of this type of nutrient-enriched bio-inputs requires research and development not only in the supplementation of compost itself, but also in the isolation and identification of microorganisms and genes allowing the degradation and conversion of nitrogenous substances and materials containing potassium and phosphorus present in the feedstocks undergoing the composting process. In this sense, most important research trends and strategies to increase nutrient content in the compost

  3. Effects of mixing and covering with mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Wen Hai; Yuan, Jing; Luo, Yi Ming; Li, Guo Xue; Nghiem, Long D; Price, William E

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated effects of mature compost on gaseous emissions during composting using pig manure amended with corn stalks. Apart from a control treatment, three treatments were conducted with the addition of 5% (wet weight of raw materials) of mature compost: (a) mixing raw materials with mature compost at the beginning of composting; (b) covering raw materials with mature compost throughout the experimental period; and (c) covering raw materials with mature compost at the start of composting, but incorporating it into composting pile on day 6 of composting. Mature compost used for the last treatment was inoculated with 2% (wet weight) of raw materials of strain M5 (a methanotrophic bacterium) solution. During 30-d of composting, three treatments with the addition of mature compost could reduce CH4 emission by 53-64% and N2O emission by 43-71%. However, covering with mature compost throughout the experimental period increased cumulative NH3 emission by 61%, although it could reduce 34% NH3 emission in the first 3d. Inoculating strain M5 in mature compost covered on the top of composting pile within first 6d enhanced CH4 oxidation, but simultaneously increased N2O emission. In addition, mixing with mature compost could improve compost maturity. Given the operational convenience in practice, covering with mature compost and then incorporating it into composting pile is a suitable approach to mitigate gaseous emissions during composting. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Fractionation characterization and speciation of heavy metals in composts and compost and compost-amended soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwegbue, C. M.A.; Emuh, F.N.; Isirimah, N.O.; Egun, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Speciation of heavy metals in soils determines the availability for metals for plant uptake and potential for contamination of groundwater following application of composts to agricultural lands. Methods used to characterize heavy metals in solid phase of composts and compost amended soils include physical fractionation and chemical extraction. Chemical extraction schemes are most frequently used approach to fractionate trace metals in soils, sewage sludge and composts. Several variations exist in the sequential extraction procedures. These variations include reagent types, strength, volume and extraction time. A main drawback shared by all sequential extraction schemes is that the procedures themselves are complex and time consuming. This setback has been overcome by the use of ultrasound accelerated extraction which reduce the extraction time for the entire extraction steps to about 90 minutes allowing composting process to be monitored more frequently which help to provide detailed understanding of the partitioning behaviour of heavy metals. Inspite of the variability the sequential extraction schemes, they all aimed at correlating each fraction with the mobility and plant availability of each metal. Several studies have shown that phase association of heavy metal in composts include water-soluble, exchangeable, precipitated as discrete phases, co-precipitate in metal oxides and adsorbed or complexed by organic ligands and residual forms. The phase association and solubility of metals changes over composting time thereby altering metal availability. It is apparent that the positive effects of resulting from compost application far outweigh the negative effect, but more research is needed on a wide range of municipal solid waste compost with more precise determination of the fate of municipal solid waste compost applied trace metals in the environment. (author)

  5. CTC1-STN1 coordinates G- and C-strand synthesis to regulate telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Peili; Jia, Shuting; Takasugi, Taylor; Smith, Eric; Nandakumar, Jayakrishnan; Hendrickson, Eric; Chang, Sandy

    2018-05-17

    Coats plus (CP) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in CTC1, a component of the CST (CTC1, STN1, and TEN1) complex important for telomere length maintenance. The molecular basis of how CP mutations impact upon telomere length remains unclear. The CP CTC1 L1142H mutation has been previously shown to disrupt telomere maintenance. In this study, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to engineer this mutation into both alleles of HCT116 and RPE cells to demonstrate that CTC1:STN1 interaction is required to repress telomerase activity. CTC1 L1142H interacts poorly with STN1, leading to telomerase-mediated telomere elongation. Impaired interaction between CTC1 L1142H :STN1 and DNA Pol-α results in increased telomerase recruitment to telomeres and further telomere elongation, revealing that C:S binding to DNA Pol-α is required to fully repress telomerase activity. CP CTC1 mutants that fail to interact with DNA Pol-α resulted in loss of C-strand maintenance and catastrophic telomere shortening. Our findings place the CST complex as an important regulator of both G-strand extensions by telomerase and C-strand synthesis by DNA Pol-α. © 2018 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during composting of oily sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, M; Marques, M; Hogland, W; Nammari, D R

    2008-01-01

    contaminated masses are exposed to a second thermophilic phase. This could be achieved by adding new easily biodegradable organic amendments to the contaminated masses after some months of composting, remixing and composting again for a minimum additional period of 2 months.

  7. Properties of thermophilic microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungdahl, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    Microorganisms are called thermophilic or extreme thermophilic (caldo-active) if they grow and reproduce over 47 0 C and 70 0 C, respectively. A survey of growth characteristics of thermophiles is presented and it includes those which also live at extreme pH. The prevalent but not completely emcompassing theory of the ability of thermophiles to grow at high temperatures is that they have macromolecules and cell organelles with high thermostability. Work on some proteins and cell organelles from thermophiles is reviewed. The thermostabilities of these components are compared with those of the living cells, and factors which may govern optimum as well as minimum growth temperatures of microorganisms are discussed. Examples are from the literature but also include enzymes involved in tetrahydrofolate metabolism and other proteins of acetogenic therhmophilic bacteria which are presently studied in the author's laboratory

  8. A robust nitrifying community in a bioreactor at 50 °C opens up the path for thermophilic nitrogen removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtens, Emilie Np; Spieck, Eva; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Bodé, Samuel; Boeckx, Pascal; Schouten, Stefan; Jauregui, Ruy; Pieper, Dietmar H; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-09-01

    The increasing production of nitrogen-containing fertilizers is crucial to meet the global food demand, yet high losses of reactive nitrogen associated with the food production/consumption chain progressively deteriorate the natural environment. Currently, mesophilic nitrogen-removing microbes eliminate nitrogen from wastewaters. Although thermophilic nitrifiers have been separately enriched from natural environments, no bioreactors are described that couple these processes for the treatment of nitrogen in hot wastewaters. Samples from composting facilities were used as inoculum for the batch-wise enrichment of thermophilic nitrifiers (350 days). Subsequently, the enrichments were transferred to a bioreactor to obtain a stable, high-rate nitrifying process (560 days). The community contained up to 17% ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOAs) closely related to 'Candidatus Nitrososphaera gargensis', and 25% nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOBs) related to Nitrospira calida. Incorporation of (13)C-derived bicarbonate into the respective characteristic membrane lipids during nitrification supported their activity as autotrophs. Specific activities up to 198±10 and 894±81 mg N g(-1) VSS per day for AOAs and NOBs were measured, where NOBs were 33% more sensitive to free ammonia. The NOBs were extremely sensitive to free nitrous acid, whereas the AOAs could only be inhibited by high nitrite concentrations, independent of the free nitrous acid concentration. The observed difference in product/substrate inhibition could facilitate the development of NOB inhibition strategies to achieve more cost-effective processes such as deammonification. This study describes the enrichment of autotrophic thermophilic nitrifiers from a nutrient-rich environment and the successful operation of a thermophilic nitrifying bioreactor for the first time, facilitating opportunities for thermophilic nitrogen removal biotechnology.

  9. Biochemical characterization of thermophilic lignocellulose degrading enzymes and their potential for biomass bioprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambare, Vasudeo; Zambare, Archana; Christopher, Lew P. [Center for Bioprocessing Research & Development, South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City 57701, SD (United States); Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanath [Center for Bioprocessing Research & Development, South Dakota State University, Brookings 57007, SD (United States)

    2011-07-01

    A thermophilic microbial consortium (TMC) producing hydrolytic (cellulolytic and xylanolytic) enzymes was isolated from yard waste compost following enrichment with carboxymethyl cellulose and birchwood xylan. When grown on 5% lignocellulosic substrates (corn stover and prairie cord grass) at 60C, the thermophilic consortium produced more xylanase (up to 489 U/l on corn stover) than cellulase activity (up to 367 U/l on prairie cord grass). Except for the carboxymethyl cellulose-enriched consortium, thermo-mechanical extrusion pretreatment of these substrates had a positive effect on both activities with up to 13% and 21% increase in the xylanase and cellulase production, respectively. The optimum temperatures of the crude cellulase and xylanase were 60C and 70C with half-lives of 15 h and 18 h, respectively, suggesting higher thermostability for the TMC xylanase. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the crude enzyme exhibited protein bands of 25-77 kDa with multiple enzyme activities containing 3 cellulases and 3 xylanases. The substrate specificity declined in the following descending order: avicel>birchwood xylan>microcrystalline cellulose>filter paper>pine wood saw dust>carboxymethyl cellulose. The crude enzyme was 77% more active on insoluble than soluble cellulose. The Km and Vmax values were 36.49 mg/ml and 2.98 U/mg protein on avicel (cellulase), and 22.25 mg/ml and 2.09 U/mg protein, on birchwood xylan (xylanase). A total of 50 TMC isolates were screened for cellulase and xylanase secretion on agar plates. All single isolates showed significantly lower enzyme activities when compared to the thermophilic consortia. This is indicative of the strong synergistic interactions that exist within the thermophilic microbial consortium and enhance its hydrolytic capabilities. It was further demonstrated that the thermostable enzyme-generated lignocellulosic hydrolyzates can be fermented to bioethanol by a recombinant strain of Escherichia coli

  10. Physico-chemical and biological characteristics of compost from decentralised composting programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M A; Sen, R; Soto, M

    2015-12-01

    Composts that originated from small-scale composting programmes including home, community and canteen waste composters were studied. Heavy metals concentration indicated compliance with current regulations for conventional and organic agriculture. Compost from canteen waste showed high organic matter content (74% VS), while community (44 ± 20% VS) and home composts (31 ± 16% VS) had moderate levels. N content increased from home compost (1.3 ± 0.9% dm) to community (2.0 ± 0.9%) and canteen compost (2.5-3.0%) while P content ranged from 0.4% to 0.6% dm. C/N, absorbance E4/E6 and N-NH4(+)/N-NO3(-) ratios as well as respiration index indicated well-stabilized final products. Culturable bacterial and fungal cfu linkage to composting dynamics were identified and higher diversity of invertebrates was found in the smaller scale static systems. With similar process evolution indicators to industrial systems, overall results support the sustainability of these small-scale, self-managed composting systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob K; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H; Favoino, Enzo

    2009-11-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to composting of organic waste and the use of compost were assessed from a waste management perspective. The GHG accounting for composting includes use of electricity and fuels, emissions of methane and nitrous oxide from the composting process, and savings obtained by the use of the compost. The GHG account depends on waste type and composition (kitchen organics, garden waste), technology type (open systems, closed systems, home composting), the efficiency of off-gas cleaning at enclosed composting systems, and the use of the compost. The latter is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting therefore varies between significant savings (-900 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wet waste (ww)) and a net load (300 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) ww). The major savings are obtained by use of compost as a substitute for peat in the production of growth media. However, it may be difficult for a specific composting plant to document how the compost is used and what it actually substitutes for. Two cases representing various technologies were assessed showing how GHG accounting can be done when specific information and data are available.

  12. Remediation of metal polluted mine soil with compost: Co-composting versus incorporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tandy, Susan; Healey, John R.; Nason, Mark A.; Williamson, Julie C.; Jones, Davey L.

    2009-01-01

    Trace element contamination of post-industrial sites represents a major environmental problem and sustainable management options for remediating them are required. This study compared two strategies for immobilizing trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) in mine spoil: (1) co-composting contaminated soil with organic wastes and (2) conventional incorporation of mature compost into contaminated soil. Sequential chemical extraction of the soil was performed to determine temporal changes in trace element fractionation and bioavailability during composting and plant growth. We show that mine spoil can be co-composted successfully and this action causes significant shifts in metal availability. However, co-composting did not lead to significant differences in metal partitioning in soil or in plant metal uptake compared with simply mixing mine spoil with mature compost. Both treatments promoted plant growth and reduced metal accumulation in plants. We conclude that co-composting provides little additional benefit for remediating trace-element-polluted soil compared with incorporation of compost. - Co-composting did not provide enhanced stabilization of trace elements over the conventional addition of compost to contaminated land

  13. Thermophilic lignocellulose deconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumer-Schuette, Sara E; Brown, Steven D; Sander, Kyle B; Bayer, Edward A; Kataeva, Irina; Zurawski, Jeffrey V; Conway, Jonathan M; Adams, Michael W W; Kelly, Robert M

    2014-05-01

    Thermophilic microorganisms are attractive candidates for conversion of lignocellulose to biofuels because they produce robust, effective, carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and survive under harsh bioprocessing conditions that reflect their natural biotopes. However, no naturally occurring thermophile is known that can convert plant biomass into a liquid biofuel at rates, yields and titers that meet current bioprocessing and economic targets. Meeting those targets requires either metabolically engineering solventogenic thermophiles with additional biomass-deconstruction enzymes or engineering plant biomass degraders to produce a liquid biofuel. Thermostable enzymes from microorganisms isolated from diverse environments can serve as genetic reservoirs for both efforts. Because of the sheer number of enzymes that are required to hydrolyze plant biomass to fermentable oligosaccharides, the latter strategy appears to be the preferred route and thus has received the most attention to date. Thermophilic plant biomass degraders fall into one of two categories: cellulosomal (i.e. multienzyme complexes) and noncellulosomal (i.e. 'free' enzyme systems). Plant-biomass-deconstructing thermophilic bacteria from the genera Clostridium (cellulosomal) and Caldicellulosiruptor (noncellulosomal), which have potential as metabolic engineering platforms for producing biofuels, are compared and contrasted from a systems biology perspective. © 2013 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Monitoring and optimizing the co-composting of dewatered sludge: a mixture experimental design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Evangelou, Alexandros; Voudrias, Evangelos

    2011-09-01

    The management of dewatered wastewater sludge is a major issue worldwide. Sludge disposal to landfills is not sustainable and thus alternative treatment techniques are being sought. The objective of this work was to determine optimal mixing ratios of dewatered sludge with other organic amendments in order to maximize the degradability of the mixtures during composting. This objective was achieved using mixture experimental design principles. An additional objective was to study the impact of the initial C/N ratio and moisture contents on the co-composting process of dewatered sludge. The composting process was monitored through measurements of O(2) uptake rates, CO(2) evolution, temperature profile and solids reduction. Eight (8) runs were performed in 100 L insulated air-tight bioreactors under a dynamic air flow regime. The initial mixtures were prepared using dewatered wastewater sludge, mixed paper wastes, food wastes, tree branches and sawdust at various initial C/N ratios and moisture contents. According to empirical modeling, mixtures of sludge and food waste mixtures at 1:1 ratio (ww, wet weight) maximize degradability. Structural amendments should be maintained below 30% to reach thermophilic temperatures. The initial C/N ratio and initial moisture content of the mixture were not found to influence the decomposition process. The bio C/bio N ratio started from around 10, for all runs, decreased during the middle of the process and increased to up to 20 at the end of the process. The solid carbon reduction of the mixtures without the branches ranged from 28% to 62%, whilst solid N reductions ranged from 30% to 63%. Respiratory quotients had a decreasing trend throughout the composting process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Evaluation of the Addition of Wood Ash to Control the pH of Substrates in Municipal Biowaste Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oviedo-Ocaña Edgar Ricardo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the addition of wood ashes (WA for controlling the pH of substrates in municipal biowaste (MBW composting. Three combinations in wet weight percent (w/w of MBW and WA were tested: i BC1: 2% WA and 98% MBW; ii BC2: 4% WA and 96% MBW; and iii BC3: 8% WA and 92% MBW. Each combination was compared with a control (100% MBW called B1, B2 and B3 respectively. The experiment was conducted to pilot scale, with piles of 510 kg. The results indicate that the addition of WA improved the pH level and nutrients for the composting process; however, it had not substantial benefit in the process (start of the thermophilic phase and the behavior of the substrate degradation rate. Furthermore, a higher presence of salts and phytotoxic compounds in the product was observed. This could limit the product use for agricultural activities.

  16. Additives aided composting of green waste: effects on organic matter degradation, compost maturity, and quality of the finished compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabhane, Jagdish; William, S P M Prince; Bidyadhar, Rajnikant; Bhilawe, Priya; Anand, Duraisamy; Vaidya, Atul N; Wate, Satish R

    2012-06-01

    The effect of various additives such as fly ash, phosphogypsum, jaggery, lime, and polyethylene glycol on green waste composting was investigated through assessing their influence on microbial growth, enzymatic activities, organic matter degradation, bulk density, quality of finished compost including gradation test, heavy metal analysis, etc. A perusal of results showed that addition of jaggery and polyethylene glycol were helpful to facilitate composting process as they significantly influenced the growth of microbes and cellulase activity. The quality of finished compost prepared from jaggery and polyethylene glycol added treatments were superior to other composts, wherein reduction in C/N ratio was more than 8% in jaggery treatment. All other parameters of compost quality including gradation test also favored jaggery and polyethylene glycol as the best additives for green waste composting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CTC Sentinel. Volume 9, Issue 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    for the Caliphate,” CTC Sentinel 8:8 (2015). 28 Nicolas Beau, “Syrte, une cinquantaine de français aux cotés de Daech,” MondeAfrique, February 12...scale.”2 Earlier this month, Assistant Commissioner Mark Rowley, who oversees counterterrorism efforts for the London Metropoli- tan Police, warned

  18. Thermophilic Biohydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    Dark fermentative hydrogen production at thermophilic conditions is attractive process for biofuel production. From thermodynamic point of view, higher temperatures favor biohydrogen production. Highest hydrogen yields are always associated with acetate, or with mixed acetate- butyrate type...... fermentation. On the contrary the hydrogen yield decreases, with increasing concentrations of lactate, ethanol or propionate. Major factors affecting dark fermentative biohydrogen production are organic loading rate (OLR), pH, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved hydrogen and dissolved carbon dioxide...... concentrations, and soluble metabolic profile (SMP). A number of thermophilic and extreme thermophilic cultures (pure and mixed) have been studied for biohydrogen production from different feedstocks - pure substrates and waste/wastewaters. Variety of process technologies (operational conditions...

  19. Composting Technology and the Impact of Compost on Soil Biochemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-aziz, Reda Abdel Thaher; Al-Barakh, Fahad bin Nasser

    2005-01-01

    Organic farming is one of several approaches to sustainable agriculture. Properly managed, organic farming reduces or eliminates environmental pollution and helps conserve water and soil on the farm. Organic farming systems require significantly greater amounts of organic fertilizers input than conventional systems. Because of the shortage of organic fertilizers in arid areas, composting is a way to transform waste materials left over from agricultural production and processing into a useful resource. Mature compost is an excellent organic fertilizer and soil amendment. The potential of composting to turn on-farm waste material into farm resources makes it an attractive proposition. Composting offers several benefits such as to enhance soil fertility and soil health, thereby increasing agricultural productivity, improving soil biodiversity, reducing ecological risks and improving the environment. Aerobic composting of some agricultural wastes (peanut, wheat straw and palm tree wastes) was carried out to raise its fertilizing value compared with widely used organic fertilizer, farmyard manure. The influence of composted and non-composted agricultural wastes on the availability of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (NPK) in sandy soil, as well as the uptake of these elements by corn plants, was also studied. Results indicated a rapid degradation of palm tree and wheat straw wastes as compared with peanut wastes. The composting process raised the fertilizing value of agricultural wastes as indicated by increase in nutritional availability. The application of the composted wastes as organic fertilizers to sandy soil increased the content of available N, P and K. Results showed that the application of different composted organic materials increased the dry weight and NPK uptake by corn plants. (author)

  20. Superconductivity in the W-Tc and W2C-Tc systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgi, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    A series of compositions in the W-Tc, W 2 C-Re and W 2 C-Tc systems were prepared and examined for superconductivity. The crystal structure, lattice parameters and superconducting transition temperatures of the W 2 C-Tc are reported for the first time. Similar measurements were made on the W-Tc and W 2 C-Re systems and the results compared with previous published results for these systems. 7 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Comparison between Windrow and Pit Composting of Poultry Wastes, Leaves and Garbage of Municipal Solid Waste in Damghan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaghmaeian K, Malakootian M, Noorisepehr M

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Basic principles of Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM are: Reduction, Reuse, Recycling and Recovery (4Rs. Composting as an element of ISWM strategy that can be applied to separately collected or mixed wastes, is a controlled aerobic process carried out by successive microbial populations combining both mesophilic and thermophilic activities and leading to the production of carbon dioxide, water, minerals and stabilized organic matter. In this research, comparing between windrow and pit co-composting methods was studied in the city of Damghan, Iran. Waste proportioning was done based on C/N ratio (about 25:1 and moisture content (about 55%. Mixed wastes were located in windrow and pit with natural aeration tunnel. Sufficient oxygen supply was provided in the piles of compostable materials in two systems through frequent turning of the piles in 7 d intervals during the first month. Temperature reached to maximum level in 10-15 d and then depleted (days: 20-25. It reached to the safety level (about 60˚C based on U.S.EPA and WHO recommendations. Finally, compost was produced with pH=7.7, dark brown color and 30- 35% moisture content. N, P, K, organic matter and organic carbon were measured by standard methods. Results were compared with WHO and U.S.EPA recommendations showing suitable conditions Also it was indicated that pit method was better for maintaining temperature, nitrogen, organic C and organic matter.

  2. COMBINED COMPOST AND VERMICOMPOSTING PROCESS IN THE TREATMENT AND BIOCONVERSION OF SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alidadi, A. R. Parvaresh and M. R. Shamansouri

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Traditional thermophillic composting is commonly for treatment of sludge. A related technique as vermicomposting process, using earthworms to breakdown sludge, is also becoming popular. These two techniques have their inherent advantages and disadvantages. The combined approach suggested in this study to enhance the overall process and improve the products qualities. Two systems,vermicomposting and combined compost vermicomposting processes, have been investigated in this study. The sludge used in this study was obtained from the drying beds of South Isfahan wastewater treatment plant.The sludge mixed with sawdust to provide C/N ratio of 25/1.Eisenia fetida was the species of earthworms used in the vermicomposting processes.The results obtained indicates reduction in the amount of volatile solids,total carbon and C/N ratio with the vermicompost age,which indicates the reduction in the biodegradable organic content and mineralization of sludge. Also increase in phosphorus concentration by the end process because of mineralization of organic matter. The results indicate that, a system that combines the two mentioned processes not only shortens stabilization time, but also improves the products quality. Combining the two systems resulted in a product that was more stable and homogenous; the product could meet the pathogen reduction requirements.

  3. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction. PMID:23390930

  4. Composting of rice straw with effective microorganisms (EM) and its influence on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, Mohd Lokman Che; Manaf, Latifah Abd; Latiff, Puziah Abdul

    2013-02-07

    This study aims to assess the effect of EM application on the composting process of rice straw with goat manure and green waste and to evaluate the quality of both compost treatments. There are two treatment piles in this study, in which one pile was applied with EM and another pile without EM. Each treatment was replicated three times with 90 days of composting duration. The parameters for the temperature, pH, TOC and C/N ratio, show that decomposition of organic matter occurs during the 90-day period. The t-test conducted shows that there is a significant difference between compost with EM and compost without EM. The application of EM in compost increases the macro and micronutrient content. The following parameters support this conclusion: compost applied with EM has more N, P and K content (P compost without EM. Although the Fe in compost with EM is much higher (P compost without EM, for Zn and Cu, there is no significant difference between treatments. This study suggests that the application of EM is suitable to increase the mineralization in the composting process. The final resultant compost indicated that it was in the range of the matured level and can be used without any restriction.

  5. Utilization of high temperature compost in space agriculture: the model compost kills Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshima, Tairo; Moriya, Toshiyuki; Yoshii, Takahiro

    The author and his colleagues have proposed the use of high temperature composting in space inhabitation. Composting has many advantages over burning in organic waste treatments. Composting is self-heating processes and needs no extra fuel. Composting requires no sophis-ticated equipment such as an incinerator. Composting emits no hazardous gases such as NOx, SOx and dioxines which are often produced by burning. The final product can be used as fer-tilizer in space farm land; resources recycling society can be constructed in space stations and space cities. In addition to these advantages, composting and compost soil may contribute to the environmental cleanup. During composting processes, harmful compounds to agricultural plants and animals can be destroyed. Seeds of weeds can be killed by high heat. Likewise pathogenic microbes in the waste can be eliminated during fermentation inside the composts. Recently we measured the survivability of E. coli in compost. E. coli was used as the represen-tative of the Gram-negative bacteria. Since many pathogenic strains belong to Gram-negative bacteria and Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics than gram-positive bac-teria. When E. coli cells were mixed in the compost pile of which inside temperature reaches up to 75oC, they died within a short period as expected. However, E. coli DNA was detected even after a day in high temperature compost. RNA has a shorter life-span than DNA, but was detected after incubation in compost for several hours. In addition to sterilizing effects due to high temperature, we found our compost soil has E. coli killing activity. When mixed with the compost soil at room temperature, E. coli died gradually. Extract of the compost soil also killed E. coli at room temperature, but it took a few days to eliminate E. coli completely. During the killing process, total number of living bacteria did not change, indicating that the killing activity is limited to some specific

  6. Methanogenesis in Thermophilic Biogas Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1995-01-01

    Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process as ....... Experiments using biogas reactors fed with cow manure showed that the same biogas yield found at 550 C could be obtained at 610 C after a long adaptation period. However, propionate degradation was inhibited by increasing the temperature.......Methanogenesis in thermophilic biogas reactors fed with different wastes is examined. The specific methanogenic activity with acetate or hydrogen as substrate reflected the organic loading of the specific reactor examined. Increasing the loading of thermophilic reactors stabilized the process...... as indicated by a lower concentration of volatile fatty acids in the effluent from the reactors. The specific methanogenic activity in a thermophilic pilot-plant biogas reactor fed with a mixture of cow and pig manure reflected the stability of the reactor. The numbers of methanogens counted by the most...

  7. Effect of biochar amendment on compost organic matter composition following aerobic composting of manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Nikolas; Subdiaga, Edisson; Orsetti, Silvia; de la Rosa, José María; Knicker, Heike; Schmidt, Hans-Peter; Kappler, Andreas; Behrens, Sebastian

    2018-02-01

    Biochar, a material defined as charred organic matter applied in agriculture, is suggested as a beneficial additive and bulking agent in composting. Biochar addition to the composting feedstock was shown to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching during the composting process, and to result in a fertilizer and plant growth medium that is superior to non-amended composts. However, the impact of biochar on the quality and carbon speciation of the organic matter in bulk compost has so far not been the focus of systematic analyses, although these parameters are key to determine the long-term stability and carbon sequestration potential of biochar-amended composts in soil. In this study, we used different spectroscopic techniques to compare the organic carbon speciation of manure compost amended with three different biochars. A non-biochar-amended compost served as control. Based on Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy we did not observe any differences in carbon speciation of the bulk compost independent of biochar type, despite a change in the FTIR absorbance ratio 2925cm -1 /1034cm -1 , that is suggested as an indicator for compost maturity. Specific UV absorbance (SUVA) and emission-excitation matrixes (EEM) revealed minor differences in the extractable carbon fractions, which only accounted for ~2-3% of total organic carbon. Increased total organic carbon content of biochar-amended composts was only due to the addition of biochar-C and not enhanced preservation of compost feedstock-C. Our results suggest that biochars do not alter the carbon speciation in compost organic matter under conditions optimized for aerobic decomposition of compost feedstock. Considering the effects of biochar on compost nutrient retention, mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon sequestration, biochar addition during aerobic composting of manure might be an attractive strategy to produce a sustainable, slow

  8. Composting: Fast 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, L. Reed, Sr.; Demanche, Edna L.; Klemm, E. Barbara; Kyselka, Will; Phillips, Edwin A.; Pottenger, Francis M.; Yamamoto, Karen N.; Young, Donald B.

    Composting is a way of using organic wastes from yards and kitchens to help plants grow. This book discusses how composting happens in nature, the classification of composting methods, and their characteristics. Examples of containers for aerobic/anaerobic decomposition are introduced along with sample activities. The process of aerobic/anaerobic…

  9. Composting of bio solids by composting tunnels; Compostaje de biosolidos mediante tunes de compostado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varo, P.; Rodriguez, M.; Prats, D.; Soto, R.; Pastor, B.; Monges, M.

    2003-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the bio-solid composting process carried out in the composting plant of Aspe (Alicante) by means of open composting tunnels, and to determine the quality of the resulting compost. The parameters under control are temperature. humidity, density, pH, conductivity, organic matter, C/N ratio, ammonium nitride and organic nitrogen. The concentrations of cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and copper were monitored during the composting process. Observing the parameters analyzed we can conclude that the composting process of the sewage sludge from Aspe procedures a product suitable for agricultural use. The values obtained allow the product resulting from the process to be designated as compost. (Author)

  10. Compost duurzaam ingezet. De Compost Scorekaarten: een instrument voor het afwegen van de waarde van compost

    OpenAIRE

    Schrik, Yannick; Koopmans, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Het duurzame gebruik van een reststof zoals compost hangt sterk samen met de waarde die de compost heeft bij toepassing. Deze publicatie geeft via heldere Compost Score Kaarten inzicht in het vinden van de juiste compostsoort voor het gewenste doel. Of het nu gaat om organischestofvoorziening, verbetering van de bodemstructuur of de nutriëntenvoorziening van gewassen: een bewuste keuze voor de compostsoort en –kwaliteit draagt bij aan een duurzame inzet en duurzaam hergebruik van reststoffen.

  11. Bacterial inoculum enhances keratin degradation and biofilm formation in poultry compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichida, J M; Krizova, L; LeFevre, C A; Keener, H M; Elwell, D L; Burtt, E H

    2001-11-01

    Native microbial populations can degrade poultry waste, but the process can be hastened by using feather-degrading bacteria. Strains of Bacillus licheniformis and a Streptomyces sp. isolated from the plumage of wild birds were grown in a liquid basal medium and used to inoculate feathers in compost bioreaction vessels. Control vessels had only basal medium added to the feathers, litter and straw. Temperature, ammonia, carbon and nitrogen were monitored for 4 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy of the feather samples showed more complete keratin-degradation, more structural damage, and earlier microbial biofilm formation on inoculated feathers than on uninoculated feathers. A diverse community of aerobic bacteria and fungi were cultured early, but declined rapidly. Thermophilic B. licheniformis and Streptomyces spp. were abundant throughout. Enteric gram-negative bacteria, (e.g., Salmonella, E. coli) originally found on waste feathers were not recovered after day 4. Vessel temperatures reached 64-71 degrees C within 36 h and stabilized at 50 degrees C. When tumble-mixed at day 14, renewed activity peaked at 59 degrees C and quickly dropped as available carbon was used. Feathers soaked in an inoculum of B. licheniformis and Streptomyces degraded more quickly and more completely than feathers that were not presoaked. Inoculation of feather waste could improve composting of the large volume of feather waste generated every year by poultry farms and processing plants.

  12. POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOCHAR FOR COMPOSTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Malińska

    2014-10-01

    for composting of materials with high moisture and/or nitrogen contents. The addition of biochar to composting mixtures can reduce ammonia emissions, and thus limit nitrogen losses during composting, increase water holding capacity and retention of nutrients. Biochar can also function as a carrier substrate for microbial inoculants and a scrubing material used in biofilters at composting facilities. Due to the fact that the literature does not provide many examples of biochar applications for composting, and there is little known about the effects of biochar added to composting mixtures on composting dynamics and properties of final composts, futher investigations should focus on mechanisms of biochar-composting mixtures interactions and analysis of properties of biochar-based composts. The overall goal of the article is to analyze the potentials of biochars for composting, to report the effects of various biochars on composting dynamics and quality of produced biochar-based composts, and to indicate the areas of further studies on biochar properties that would allow optimization of composting and improve the quality of final products.

  13. Composting of empty fruit bunches in the tower composter - effect of air intake holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvan; Husaini, T.; Trisakti, B.; Batubara, F.; Daimon, H.

    2018-02-01

    The process of composting empty fruit bunches (EFB) by mixing with activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) is an alternative utilization of solid waste generated from palm oil mill. This study aims to find composting techniques of EFB and to obtain degradation data of composting EFB by varying the air intake holes to produce good quality compost. Composting process was carried out by tearing the EFB into four shreds, then put into the tower composter while adding ALOF until it reached the optimum moisture content of 55 -65%. During the composting process, we maintained moisture content at optimum conditions by adding ALOF. Variations of air intake holes area to the outer surface area of the composter are 0/44.314; 72.39/44.314 and 144.78/44.314 (cm2/cm2). Composting is carried out for forty days, however, based on the result, compost began to mature on the 10th day. The results revealed that there was an influence of air intake holes to the composting process. The best degradation of EFB was obtained on the variation of air intake holes 72.39/44.314 (cm2/cm2), pH 8.1, moisture content 79.14%, water holding capacity 60%, electrical conductivity 4.725 dS/m and C/N ratio 20.97.

  14. Biochar, compost and biochar-compost blend as options to recover nutrients and sequester carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldfield, Thomas L; Sikirica, Nataša; Mondini, Claudio; López, Guadalupe; Kuikman, Peter J; Holden, Nicholas M

    2018-07-15

    This work assessed the potential environmental impact of recycling organic materials in agriculture via pyrolysis (biochar) and composting (compost), as well its combination (biochar-compost blend) versus business-as-usual represented by mineral fertiliser. Life cycle assessment methodology was applied using data sourced from experiments (FP7 project Fertiplus) in three countries (Spain, Italy and Belgium), and considering three environmental impact categories, (i) global warming; (ii) acidification and (iii) eutrophication. The novelty of this analysis is the inclusion of the biochar-compost blend with a focus on multiple European countries, and the inclusion of the acidification and eutrophication impact categories. Biochar, compost and biochar-compost blend all resulted in lower environmental impacts than mineral fertiliser from a systems perspective. Regional differences were found between biochar, compost and biochar-compost blend. The biochar-compost blend offered benefits related to available nutrients and sequestered C. It also produced yields of similar magnitude to mineral fertiliser, which makes its acceptance by farmers more likely whilst reducing environmental impacts. However, careful consideration of feedstock is required. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Purification and biochemical characterization of a detergent-stable keratinase from a newly thermophilic actinomycete Actinomadura keratinilytica strain Cpt29 isolated from poultry compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habbeche, Amina; Saoudi, Boudjema; Jaouadi, Bassem; Haberra, Soumaya; Kerouaz, Bilal; Boudelaa, Mokhtar; Badis, Abdelmalek; Ladjama, Ali

    2014-04-01

    An extracellular thermostable keratinase (KERAK-29) was purified and biochemically characterized from a thermophilic actinomycete Actinomadura keratinilytica strain Cpt29 newly isolated from Algerian poultry compost. The isolate exhibited high keratinase production when grown in chicken feather meal media (24,000 U/ml). Based on matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis, the purified enzyme is a monomer with a molecular mass of 29,233.10-Da. The data revealed that the 25 N-terminal residue sequence displayed by KERAK-29 was TQADPPSWGLNNIDRQTAFTKATSI, which showed high homology with those of Streptomyces proteases. This keratinase was completely inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride (PMSF) and diiodopropyl fluorophosphates (DFP), which suggests that it belongs to the serine protease family. Using keratin azure as a substrate, the optimum pH and temperature values for keratinase activity were pH 10 and 70°C, respectively. KERAK-29 was stable between 20 and 60°C and pH 3 and 10 for 5 and 120 h, respectively, and its thermoactivity and thermostability were enhanced in the presence of 5 mM Mn(2+). Its catalytic efficiency was higher than that of the KERAB keratinase from Streptomyces sp. strain AB1. KERAK-29 was also noted to show high keratinolytic activity and significant stability in the presence of detergents, which made it able to accomplish the entire feather-biodegradation process on its own. The ability of the A. keratinilytica strain Cpt29 to grow and produce substantial levels of keratinase using feather as a substrate could open new promising opportunities for the valorization of keratin-containing wastes and reduction of its impacts on the environment. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Simulation of Organic Matter and Pollutant Evolution during Composting: The COP-Compost Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashermes, G; Zhang, Y; Houot, S; Steyer, J P; Patureau, D; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2013-01-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance. In this work, we proposed a model to simulate the behavior of OPs and the dynamic of organic C during composting. This model, named COP-Compost, includes two modules. An existing organic C module is based on the biochemical composition of the initial waste mixture and simulates the organic matter transformation during composting. An additional OP module simulates OP mineralization and the evolution of its bioaccessibility. Coupling hypotheses were proposed to describe the interactions between organic C and OP modules. The organic C module, evaluated using experimental data obtained from 4-L composting pilots, was independently tested. The COP-Compost model was evaluated during composting experiments containing four OPs representative of the major pollutants detected in compost and targeted by current and future regulations. These OPs included a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (fluoranthene), two surfactants (4--nonylphenol and a linear alkylbenzene sulfonate), and an herbicide (glyphosate). Residues of C-labeled OP with different bioaccessibility were characterized by sequential extraction and quantified as soluble, sorbed, and nonextractable fractions. The model was calibrated and coupling the organic C and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Impact of compost process conditions on organic micro pollutant degradation during full scale composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadef, Yumna; Poulsen, Tjalfe Gorm; Bester, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Knowledge about the effects of oxygen concentration, nutrient availability and moisture content on removal of organic micro-pollutants during aerobic composting is at present very limited. Impact of oxygen concentration, readily available nitrogen content (NH4(+), NO3(-)), and moisture content on biological transformation of 15 key organic micro-pollutants during composting, was therefore investigated using bench-scale degradation experiments based on non-sterile compost samples, collected at full-scale composting facilities. In addition, the adequacy of bench-scale composting experiments for representing full-scale composting conditions, was investigated using micro-pollutant concentration measurements from both bench- and full-scale composting experiments. Results showed that lack of oxygen generally prevented transformation of organic micro-pollutants. Increasing readily available nitrogen content from about 50 mg N per 100 g compost to about 140 mg N per 100 g compost actually reduced micro-pollutant transformation, while changes in compost moisture content from 50% to 20% by weight, only had minor influence on micro-pollutant transformation. First-order micro-pollutant degradation rates for 13 organic micro-pollutants were calculated using data from both full- and bench-scale experiments. First-order degradation coefficients for both types of experiments were similar and ranged from 0.02 to 0.03 d(-1) on average, indicating that if a proper sampling strategy is employed, bench-scale experiments can be used to represent full-scale composting conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Substrate-Specific Development of Thermophilic Bacterial Consortia by Using Chemically Pretreated Switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichorst, Stephanie A; Joshua, Chijioke; Sathitsuksanoh, Noppadon; Singh, Seema; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W

    2014-12-01

    Microbial communities that deconstruct plant biomass have broad relevance in biofuel production and global carbon cycling. Biomass pretreatments reduce plant biomass recalcitrance for increased efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis. We exploited these chemical pretreatments to study how thermophilic bacterial consortia adapt to deconstruct switchgrass (SG) biomass of various compositions. Microbial communities were adapted to untreated, ammonium fiber expansion (AFEX)-pretreated, and ionic-liquid (IL)-pretreated SG under aerobic, thermophilic conditions using green waste compost as the inoculum to study biomass deconstruction by microbial consortia. After microbial cultivation, gravimetric analysis of the residual biomass demonstrated that both AFEX and IL pretreatment enhanced the deconstruction of the SG biomass approximately 2-fold. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D-NMR) experiments and acetyl bromide-reactive-lignin analysis indicated that polysaccharide hydrolysis was the dominant process occurring during microbial biomass deconstruction, and lignin remaining in the residual biomass was largely unmodified. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene amplicon libraries revealed that although the dominant taxa across these chemical pretreatments were consistently represented by members of the Firmicutes, the Bacteroidetes, and Deinococcus-Thermus, the abundance of selected operational taxonomic units (OTUs) varied, suggesting adaptations to the different substrates. Combining the observations of differences in the community structure and the chemical and physical structure of the biomass, we hypothesize specific roles for individual community members in biomass deconstruction. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Extracolonic findings (ECF) on CT colonography (CTC) in patients presenting with colorectal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiani, Sarit; Tomas-Hernandez, Silvia; Karandikar, Sharad; Roy-Choudhury, Shuvro

    2013-10-01

    Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is now an established method for imaging the colon and rectum in the screening and symptomatic setting. Additional benefit of CTC is the ability to assess for extracolonic findings especially in patients presenting with colorectal symptoms. To determine prevalence of extracolonic findings (ECF) in symptomatic patients undergoing CTC and determine accuracy of CTC for exclusion of significant abdominal disease and extracolonic malignancy (ECM). A total of 1359 unenhanced prone and postcontrast supine CTC studies were performed between March 2002 and December 2007. ECF were retrospectively classified according to C-RADS criteria into E1 to E4 findings. For ECM, a gold standard of clinical and/or radiological follow-up supplemented with data from the regional cancer registry with a median follow-up of 42 months was created. Sensitivity and negative predictive values for ECM was calculated. Following exclusions, 1177 CTCs were analyzed. Of 1423 extracolonic findings reported, 328/1423 (23%) E3 and 100/1423 (7%) E4 (including six eventual FP studies) findings were identified. Thirty-two ECMs were confirmed following further investigations. Seven further small ECMs were detected during the entire follow-up, of which two were potentially visible in retrospect (false-negative studies). Additional tests were generated from 55/1177 (4.7%) studies. Sensitivity and negative predictive value for ECM was 94.1% (95% CI 78.9-98.9%) and 99.8% (95% CI 99.3-99.9%), respectively. One in 37 patients were found to have an ECM. Two potentially detectable cancers were missed. Only a small proportion of patients underwent additional work-up.

  20. Heat and desiccation are the predominant factors affecting inactivation of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus thuringiensis spores during simulated composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, K; Harvey, A; Barbieri, R; Xu, S; Reuter, T; Amoako, K K; Selinger, L B; McAllister, T A

    2016-01-01

    The suitability of composting for disposal of livestock mortalities due to Bacillus anthracis was assessed by measuring viability of surrogate spores from two strains each of Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus thuringiensis after a heating cycle modelled on a cattle composting study. Sporulation was attempted from 10 to 37°C, but poor yields at lower temperatures resulted in 25, 30 and 37°C being selected to generate sufficient spores (8 log10  CFU ml(-1) ) for experiments. Spores were inoculated into 3 g autoclaved dried-ground compost rehydrated with 6 ml water or silica beads in a factorial design for each strain, sporulation temperature, matrix and sampling day (0, 25, 50, 100, 150). Maximum incubation temperature was 62°C, but spores were maintained at ≥55°C for 78 of 150 days. Although significant differences existed among Bacillus strains and sporulation temperatures, numbers of viable spores after 150 days averaged 1·3 log10  CFU g(-1) , a 5·2 log10 reduction from day 0. Spore inactivation was likely due to heat and desiccation as matrices were autoclaved prior to incubation, negating impacts of microflora. Results support composting for disposal of anthrax mortalities, provided long-term thermophillic heating is achieved. Due to limited sporulation at 10°C, livestock mortalities from anthrax at this or lower ambient temperatures would likely be of lower risk for disease transmission. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Alterações em propriedades de solo adubado com doses de composto orgânico sob cultivo de bananeira Changes in soil properties managed with organic compost rates, under banana plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erval Rafael Damatto Junior

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o intuito de avaliar os efeitos de diferentes doses de composto orgânico nas propriedades químicas do solo cultivado com bananeira 'Prata-anã' (Musa AAB, foi desenvolvido o presente trabalho na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP, Botucatu-SP. O plantio foi realizado no mês de novembro de 2002, com mudas convencionais, adotando-se o espaçamento de 2,5 x 2,5 m. O composto orgânico foi produzido com serragem de madeira e esterco de bovino, sendo os tratamentos empregados constituídos das seguintes doses de composto: T1 = 0 g planta-1 de K2O (dose zero do composto - Testemunha; T2 = 98,5 g planta-1 de K2O (43 kg planta-1 de composto; T3 = 197,0 g planta-1 de K2O (86 kg planta-1 de composto; T4 = 290,5 g planta-1 de K2O (129 kg planta-1 de composto; T5 = 394,0 g planta-1 de K2O (172 kg planta-1 de composto, sendo essas doses calculadas de acordo com o teor de potássio presente no mesmo. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos casualizados, com 5 tratamentos, 5 repetições e 2 plantas por parcela. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e à análise de regressão. Aos quatro meses após a aplicação da última parcela da adubação com composto orgânico, realizou-se amostragem de solo da camada de 0 a 20 cm e foram avaliadas as propriedades químicas do solo. A adubação orgânica promoveu incrementos no pH, matéria orgânica, fósforo, cálcio, soma de bases, CTC e saturação por bases do solo.Aiming to evaluate the effects of different organic compost rates in chemical properties of soil cultivated with banana plants 'Prata-anã' (Musa AAB, this present work was carried out at "Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP", Botucatu-SP. Plants were placed in the prepared area in November 2002, at 2,5 x 2,5 m spacing between plants. The organic compost was produced using wood residue and bovine manure and the treatments were constituted by different compost rates: T1 = 0 g plant-1 of K2O (zero of

  2. Seeding effect on cocomposting wastewater biosolids with coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, M.; Wong, J.W.C. [Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Biology

    2001-10-01

    The seeding effect on fly ash-amended biosolids composting was evaluated by inoculating a mixture of ash and biosolids with seeding materials before composting. These inocula included thermophilic bacteria (Bacillus. brevis, B. coagulans, and B. licheniformis) isolated from the ash-biosolids compost, a commercial decomposter, and recycled biosolids compost. Although the addition of these microbial additives to the ash-biosolids compost improved the population of thermophilic bacteria at the early stage of composting, the improvement was negligible after 4 days of composting. Inoculation with isolated bacterial culture, milk powder, or the decomposter, only, did not effectively improve the decomposition of organic matter compared with those receiving inoculation of both microbial additives and milk powder together. The isolated Bacillus species was as efficient as the commercial decomposter in accelerating the decomposition rate during ash-amended biosolids composting as indicated by the high amounts of carbon dioxide evolved and cumulative weight loss. Taking into consideration the lower operating cost and acceptable decomposition efficiency, recycled biosolids compost seemed to be a promising additive to ash-amended biosolids compost to improve composting efficiency.

  3. Analysis of volatile organic compounds in compost samples: A potential tool to determine appropriate composting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengxiang; Pan, Zaifa; Hong, Chunlai; Wang, Weiping; Chen, Xiaoyang; Xue, Zhiyong; Yao, Yanlai

    2016-12-01

    Changes in volatile organic compound contents in compost samples during pig manure composting were studied using a headspace, solid-phase micro-extraction method (HS-SPME) followed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (GC/MS). Parameters affecting the SPME procedure were optimized as follows: the coating was carbon molecular sieve/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the temperature was 60°C and the time was 30min. Under these conditions, 87 compounds were identified from 17 composting samples. Most of the volatile components could only be detected before day 22. However, benzenes, alkanes and alkenes increased and eventually stabilized after day 22. Phenol and acid substances, which are important factors for compost quality, were almost undetectable on day 39 in natural compost (NC) samples and on day 13 in maggot-treated compost (MC) samples. Our results indicate that the approach can be effectively used to determine the composting times by analysis of volatile substances in compost samples. An appropriate composting time not only ensures the quality of compost and reduces the loss of composting material but also reduces the generation of hazardous substances. The appropriate composting times for MC and NC were approximately 22days and 40days, respectively, during the summer in Zhejiang. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Composting: a growth market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueker, D.; Guenther, H.; Komodromos, A.

    1994-01-01

    The paper explains the current state of affairs in composting in Germany from the angles of licensing, engineering, the number and scale of existing and projected plants, the market for compost, and the prospective market for composting plants. (orig.) [de

  5. Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process enhancing compost maturity of dewatered sludge with synchronous electricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hang; Jiang, Junqiu; Zhao, Qingliang; Wang, Kun; Zhang, Yunshu; Zheng, Zhen; Hao, Xiaodi

    2015-10-01

    Bioelectrochemically-assisted anaerobic composting process (AnCBE) with dewatered sludge as the anode fuel was constructed to accelerate composting of dewatered sludge, which could increase the quality of the compost and harvest electric energy in comparison with the traditional anaerobic composting (AnC). Results revealed that the AnCBE yielded a voltage of 0.60 ± 0.02 V, and total COD (TCOD) removal reached 19.8 ± 0.2% at the end of 35 d. The maximum power density was 5.6 W/m(3). At the end of composting, organic matter content (OM) reduction rate increased to 19.5 ± 0.2% in AnCBE and to 12.9 ± 0.1% in AnC. The fuzzy comprehensive assessment (FCA) result indicated that the membership degree of class I of AnCBE compost (0.64) was higher than that of AnC compost (0.44). It was demonstrated that electrogenesis in the AnCBE could improve the sludge stabilization degree, accelerate anaerobic composting process and enhance composting maturity with bioelectricity generation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, E W; H'ng, P S; Peng, S H; Wan-Azha, W M; Chin, K L; Chow, M J; Wong, W Z

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, large amounts of organic materials, which lead to disposal problems, are generated from agricultural residues especially from palm oil industries. Increasing landfill costs and regulations, which limit many types of waste accepted at landfills, have increased the interest in composting as a component of waste management. The objectives of this study were to characterize compost feedstock properties of common organic waste materials available in Malaysia. Thus, a ratio modelling of matching ingredients for empty fruit bunches (EFBs) co-composting using different organic materials in Malaysia was done. Organic waste materials with a C/N ratio of composting. The outcome of this study suggested that the percentage of EFB ranged between 50% and 60%, which is considered as the ideal mixing ratio in EFB co-composting. Conclusively, EFB can be utilized in composting if appropriate feedstock in term of physical and chemical characteristics is coordinated in the co-composting process.

  7. Interactions Between Beneficial and Harmful Microorganisms: From the Composting Process to Compost Application

    OpenAIRE

    Fuchs, Jacques G.

    2010-01-01

    Numerous microorganisms are involved in the composting process, but their precise roles are often unknown. Compost microorganisms are influenced by the composition of the substrate and by the temperature in the compost pile. In addition, different microorganisms also influence each other, e.g. through competition. In the first phase of composting, microbial activity increase drastically, leading to a rise in temperature. The initial bacterial dominance is replaced by a fungal one during compo...

  8. Determination analaysis of the power losses of transformers with continuously transpored conductors (CTC) based fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloko, Bambang Sri; Atsari, Erinna Dyah

    2017-03-01

    Electric motive force which flows into the iron core continuously on a plate - plate iron isolated may cause heat posed by current eddy (eddy current). No water loss occurs due to detainees on the circuit at the the flow of current load because this loss happened on the entanglement of the transformer is made of copper. Continuously Transposed Conductors (CTC) consist of a number of enameled rectangular wires (5-84 strands) made into an assembly. Each strand is transposed in turn to each position in the cable and is then covered with layers of insulation paper. Continuously Transposed Conductors are used in winding wires for medium and ultra high power transformers. CTC is manufactured by OFHC copper and indeed, is able to supply polyester roped. CTC which has been designed to reduce production cost, oil pocket and improve cooling efficiency. Hardened type CTC (CPR1, CPR2, and CPR3: BS1432) and Self-bonding CTC which can be used to improve mechanical and electrical strength are also available. This analysis is performed using the methods of fuzzy logic in taking account of the resources.

  9. Extracolonic findings (ECF) on CT colonography (CTC) in patients presenting with colorectal symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarit Badiani, Sarit; Karandikar, Sharad [Dept. of General Surgery, Heart of England Foundation Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Tomas-Hernandez, Silvia; Roy-Choudhury; Shuvro [Dept. of Radiology, Heart of England Foundation Trust, Birmingham (United Kingdom)], e-mail: shurvrorc@googlemail.com

    2013-10-15

    Background: Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) is now an established method for imaging the colon and rectum in the screening and symptomatic setting. Additional benefit of CTC is the ability to assess for extracolonic findings especially in patients presenting with colorectal symptoms. Purpose: To determine prevalence of extracolonic findings (ECF) in symptomatic patients undergoing CTC and determine accuracy of CTC for exclusion of significant abdominal disease and extracolonic malignancy (ECM). Material and Methods: A total of 1359 unenhanced prone and postcontrast supine CTC studies were performed between March 2002 and December 2007. ECF were retrospectively classified according to C-RADS criteria into E1 to E4 findings. For ECM, a gold standard of clinical and/or radiological follow-up supplemented with data from the regional cancer registry with a median follow-up of 42 months was created. Sensitivity and negative predictive values for ECM was calculated. Results: Following exclusions, 1177 CTCs were analyzed. Of 1423 extracolonic findings reported, 328/1423 (23%) E3 and 100/1423 (7%) E4 (including six eventual FP studies) findings were identified. Thirty-two ECMs were confirmed following further investigations. Seven further small ECMs were detected during the entire follow-up, of which two were potentially visible in retrospect (false-negative studies). Additional tests were generated from 55/1177 (4.7%) studies. Sensitivity and negative predictive value for ECM was 94.1% (95% CI 78.9 - 98.9%) and 99.8% (95% CI 99.3 - 99.9%), respectively. Conclusion: One in 37 patients were found to have an ECM. Two potentially detectable cancers were missed. Only a small proportion of patients underwent additional work-up.

  10. ENDOSPORES OF THERMOPHILIC FERMENTATIVE BACTERIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volpi, Marta

    2016-01-01

    solely based on endospores of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which presumably constitute only a small fraction of the total thermophilic endospore community reaching cold environments. My PhD project developed an experimental framework for using thermophilic fermentative endospores (TFEs) to trace...

  11. Wat is goede compost?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, K.; Janmaat, L.

    2014-01-01

    Compost wordt voor meerdere doelen ingezet. Als meststof, maar ook om de organische stofbalans op peil te houden. Maar compost heeft nog meer voordelen. Zo worden aan compost ziektewerende eigenschappen toegekend. Het doel van compostgebruik bepaalt voor een groot deel welke prijs er voor wordt

  12. Progress of organic matter degradation and maturity of compost produced in a large-scale composting facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Marui, Taketoshi

    2011-06-01

    To monitor the progress of organic matter degradation in a large-scale composting facility, the percentage of organic matter degradation was determined by measuring CO(2) evolution during recomposting of compost samples withdrawn from the facility. The percentage of organic matter degradation was calculated as the ratio of the amount of CO(2) evolved from compost raw material to that evolved from each sample during recomposting in the laboratory composting apparatus. It was assumed that the difference in the cumulative emission of CO(2) between the compost raw material and a sample corresponds to the amount of CO( 2) evolved from the sample in the composting facility. Using this method, the changes in organic matter degradation during composting in practical large-scale composting facilities were estimated and it was found that the percentage of organic matter degradation increased more vigorously in the earlier stages than in the later stages of composting. The percentage of organic matter degradation finally reached 78 and 55% for the compost produced from garbage-animal manure mixture and distillery waste (shochu residue), respectively. It was thus ascertained that organic matter degradation progressed well in both composting facilities. Furthermore, by performing a plant growth assay, it was observed that the compost products of both the facilities did not inhibit seed germination and thus were useful in promoting plant growth.

  13. Combining biochar, zeolite and wood vinegar for composting of pig manure: The effect on greenhouse gas emission and nitrogen conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quan; Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Ren, Xiuna; Zhao, Junchao; Li, Ronghua; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Meijing; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2018-04-01

    The effect of enhancing wood vinegar (WV) with a mixture of biochar (B) and zeolite (Z) to compost pig manure (PM) in a 130 L reactor was evaluated to determine the levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia emissions. Six treatments were prepared in a 2:1 ratio of PM mixed with wheat straw (WS; dry weight basis): PM + WS (control), PM + WS + 10%B, PM + WS + 10%B + 10%Z, and PM + WS with 0.5%, 1.0% and 2.0%WV combined with 10%B + 10%Z. These were composted for 50 days, and the results indicated that the combined use of B, Z, and WV could shorten the thermophilic phase and improve the maturity of compost compared to the control treatment. In addition, WV mixed with B and Z could reduce ammonia loss by 64.45-74.32% and decrease CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O emissions by 33.90-46.98%, 50.39-61.15%, and 79.51-81.10%, respectively. Furthermore, compared to treatments in which B and B + Z were added, adding WV was more efficient to reduce the nitrogen and carbon loss, and the 10%B + 10%Z + 2%WV treatment presented the lowest loss of carbon (9.16%) and nitrogen (0.75%). Based on the maturity indexes used, nitrogen conservation, and efficiency of GHG emissions reduction, the treatment 10%B + 10%Z + 2%WV is suggested for efficient PM composting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biodegradation of compostable and oxodegradable plastic films by backyard composting and bioaugmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quecholac-Piña, Xochitl; García-Rivera, Mariel Anel; Espinosa-Valdemar, Rosa María; Vázquez-Morillas, Alethia; Beltrán-Villavicencio, Margarita; Cisneros-Ramos, Adriana de la Luz

    2017-11-01

    Plastics are widely used in the production of short-life products, which are discarded producing an accumulation of these materials and problems due to their persistence in the environment and waste management systems. Degradable plastics (compostable, oxodegradable) have been presented as an alternative to decrease the negative effect of plastic waste. In this research, the feasibility of degrading a commercially available compostable film and oxodegradable polyethylene, with and without previous abiotic oxidation, is assessed in a home composting system. Reactors (200 L) were used to degrade the plastic films along with a mixture of organic food waste (50 %), mulch (25 %), and dry leaves (25 %), amended with yeast and a solution of brown sugar to increase the speed of the process. The presence of the plastic film did not affect the composting process, which showed an initial increase in temperature and typical profiles for moisture content, pH, with a final C/N of 17.4. After 57 days, the compostable plastic has decreased its mechanical properties in more than 90 %, while the oxodegradable film did not show significant degradation if it was not previously degraded by UV radiation. The use of these plastics should be assessed against the prevailing waste management system in each city or country. In the case of Mexico, which lacks the infrastructure for industrial composting, home composting could be an option to degrade compostable plastics along organic waste. However, more testing is needed in order to set the optimal parameters of the process.

  15. Thermophilic Fungi: Their Physiology and Enzymes†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwari, Ramesh; Bharadwaj, Girish; Bhat, Mahalingeshwara K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20°C and a maximum temperature of growth extending up to 60 to 62°C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45°C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62°C. Although widespread in terrestrial habitats, they have remained underexplored compared to thermophilic species of eubacteria and archaea. However, thermophilic fungi are potential sources of enzymes with scientific and commercial interests. This review, for the first time, compiles information on the physiology and enzymes of thermophilic fungi. Thermophilic fungi can be grown in minimal media with metabolic rates and growth yields comparable to those of mesophilic fungi. Studies of their growth kinetics, respiration, mixed-substrate utilization, nutrient uptake, and protein breakdown rate have provided some basic information not only on thermophilic fungi but also on filamentous fungi in general. Some species have the ability to grow at ambient temperatures if cultures are initiated with germinated spores or mycelial inoculum or if a nutritionally rich medium is used. Thermophilic fungi have a powerful ability to degrade polysaccharide constituents of biomass. The properties of their enzymes show differences not only among species but also among strains of the same species. Their extracellular enzymes display temperature optima for activity that are close to or above the optimum temperature for the growth of organism and, in general, are more heat stable than those of the mesophilic fungi. Some extracellular enzymes from thermophilic fungi are being produced commercially, and a few others have commercial prospects. Genes of thermophilic fungi encoding lipase, protease, xylanase, and cellulase have been cloned and

  16. Composting: Mass Balances and Product Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Körner, I.

    2011-01-01

    While the basic processes involved in composting of waste are described in Chapter 9.1 and the main composting technologies are presented in Chapter 9.2, this chapter focuses on mass balances, environmental emissions, unit process inventories and the quality of the compost produced. Understanding...... these issues and being able to account for them is a prerequisite in compost engineering and for establishing and running a successful composting facility. Of specific importance is the final use of the compost product. Use in agriculture is described in Chapter 9.10 and the use of compost in soil amendment...

  17. Hydrogen Production by Thermophilic Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niel, van E.W.J.; Willquist, K.; Zeidan, A.A.; Vrije, de T.; Mars, A.E.; Claassen, P.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Of the many ways hydrogen can be produced, this chapter focuses on biological hydrogen production by thermophilic bacteria and archaea in dark fermentations. The thermophiles are held as promising candidates for a cost-effective fermentation process, because of their relatively high yields and broad

  18. Assessing the effect of biodegradable and degradable plastics on the composting of green wastes and compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmar, G; Mohee, R

    2008-10-01

    An assessment of the effect of the composting potential of Mater-Bi biodegradable plastic with green wastes, noted by GBIO, and degradable plastic (PDQ-H additive) with green wastes, noted by GDEG, was carried out in a lagged two-compartment compost reactor. The composting time was determined until constant mass of the composting substrates was reached. The green wastes composting process was used as control (G). After one week of composting, the biodegradable plastics disappeared completely, while 2% of the original degradable plastic still remained after about 8 weeks of composting. A net reduction in volatile solids contents of 61.8%, 56.5% and 53.2% were obtained for G, GBIO and GDEG, respectively. Compost quality was assessed in terms of nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus contents, which were found to be highest for GBIO compost. From the phytotoxicity test, it has been observed that a diluted extract of GBIO compost has produced the longest length of radicle. From the respiration test, no significant difference in the amount of carbon dioxide released by the composting of GDEG and G was observed. This study showed that the quality of the compost is not affected by the presence of the biodegradable and degradable plastics in the raw materials.

  19. Combining woody biomass for combustion with green waste composting: Effect of removal of woody biomass on compost quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Boogaerts, Christophe; Vandaele, Elke

    2016-12-01

    The question was tackled on how the green waste compost industry can optimally apply the available biomass resources for producing both bioenergy by combustion of the woody fraction, and high quality soil improvers as renewable sources of carbon and nutrients. Compost trials with removal of woody biomass before or after composting were run at 9 compost facilities during 3 seasons to include seasonal variability of feedstock. The project focused on the changes in feedstock and the effect on the end product characteristics (both compost and recovered woody biomass) of this woody biomass removal. The season of collection during the year clearly affected the biochemical and chemical characteristics of feedstock, woody biomass and compost. On one hand the effect of removal of the woody fraction before composting did not significantly affect compost quality when compared to the scenario where the woody biomass was sieved from the compost at the end of the composting process. On the other hand, quality of the woody biomass was not strongly affected by extraction before or after composting. The holocellulose:lignin ratio was used in this study as an indicator for (a) the decomposition potential of the feedstock mixture and (b) to assess the stability of the composts at the end of the process. Higher microbial activity in green waste composts (indicated by higher oxygen consumption) and thus a lower compost stability resulted in higher N immobilization in the compost. Removal of woody biomass from the green waste before composting did not negatively affect the compost quality when more intensive composting was applied. The effect of removal of the woody fraction on the characteristics of the green waste feedstock and the extracted woody biomass is depending on the season of collection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Myceliophthora thermophila syn. Sporotrichum thermophile: a thermophilic mould of biotechnological potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijender

    2016-01-01

    Myceliophthora thermophila syn. Sporotrichum thermophile is a ubiquitous thermophilic mould with a strong ability to degrade organic matter during optimal growth at 45 °C. Both genome analysis and experimental data have suggested that the mould is capable of hydrolyzing all major polysaccharides found in biomass. The mould is able to secrete a large number of hydrolytic enzymes (cellulases, laccases, xylanases, pectinases, lipases, phytases and some other miscellaneous enzymes) employed in various biotechnological applications. Characterization of the biomass-hydrolyzing activity of wild and recombinant enzymes suggests that this mould is highly efficient in biomass decomposition at both moderate and high temperatures. The native enzymes produced by the mould are more efficient in activity than their mesophilic counterparts beside their low enzyme titers. The mould is able to synthesize various biomolecules, which are used in multifarious applications. Genome sequence data of M. thermophila also supported the physiological data. This review describes the biotechnological potential of thermophilic mould, M. thermophila supported by genomic and experimental evidences.

  1. Passively Aerated Composting of Straw-Rich Pig Manure : Effect of Compost Bed Porosity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2002-01-01

    Straw-rich manure from organic pig farming systems can be composted in passively aerated systems as the high application of straw results in a compost bed with good structure and porosity. The passively aerated composting process was simulated in one-dimensional reactors of 2 m3 for straw-rich

  2. Thermophilic microorganisms in biomining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Edgardo Rubén; Castro, Camila; Urbieta, María Sofía

    2016-11-01

    Biomining is an applied biotechnology for mineral processing and metal extraction from ores and concentrates. This alternative technology for recovering metals involves the hydrometallurgical processes known as bioleaching and biooxidation where the metal is directly solubilized or released from the matrix for further solubilization, respectively. Several commercial applications of biomining can be found around the world to recover mainly copper and gold but also other metals; most of them are operating at temperatures below 40-50 °C using mesophilic and moderate thermophilic microorganisms. Although biomining offers an economically viable and cleaner option, its share of the world´s production of metals has not grown as much as it was expected, mainly considering that due to environmental restrictions in many countries smelting and roasting technologies are being eliminated. The slow rate of biomining processes is for sure the main reason of their poor implementation. In this scenario the use of thermophiles could be advantageous because higher operational temperature would increase the rate of the process and in addition it would eliminate the energy input for cooling the system (bioleaching reactions are exothermic causing a serious temperature increase in bioreactors and inside heaps that adversely affects most of the mesophilic microorganisms) and it would decrease the passivation of mineral surfaces. In the last few years many thermophilic bacteria and archaea have been isolated, characterized, and even used for extracting metals. This paper reviews the current status of biomining using thermophiles, describes the main characteristics of thermophilic biominers and discusses the future for this biotechnology.

  3. Comparing composts formed by different technological processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyckova, B.; Mudrunka, J.; Kucerova, R.; Glogarova, V.

    2017-10-01

    The presented article compares quality of composts which were formed by different technological processes. The subject to comparison was a compost which was created in a closed fermenter where ideal conditions for decomposition and organic substances conversion were ensured, with compost which was produced in an open box of community composting. The created composts were analysed to determine whether it is more important for the final compost to comply with the composting conditions or better sorting of raw materials needed for compost production. The results of the carried out experiments showed that quality of the resulting compost cannot be determined unequivocally.

  4. Presence of Legionella and Free-Living Amoebae in Composts and Bioaerosols from Composting Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conza, Lisa; Pagani, Simona Casati; Gaia, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires’ disease (LD). Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA) that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture) and FLA (by culture) in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila) were detected in 69.3% (61/88) of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba) in 92.0% (81/88). L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88) of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012) than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47) were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47) for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8%) were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents. PMID:23844174

  5. Presence of Legionella and free-living Amoebae in composts and bioaerosols from composting facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Conza

    Full Text Available Several species of Legionella cause Legionnaires' disease (LD. Infection may occur through inhalation of Legionella or amoebal vesicles. The reservoirs of Legionella are water, soil, potting soil and compost. Some species of free-living amoebae (FLA that are naturally present in water and soil were described as hosts for Legionella. This study aimed to understand whether or not the composting facilities could be sources of community-acquired Legionella infections after development of bioaerosols containing Legionella or FLA. We looked for the presence of Legionella (by co-culture and FLA (by culture in composts and bioaerosols collected at four composting facilities located in southern Switzerland. We investigated the association between the presence of Legionella and compost and air parameters and presence of FLA. Legionella spp. (including L. pneumophila were detected in 69.3% (61/88 of the composts and FLA (mainly Acanthamoeba, Vermamoeba, Naegleria and Stenamoeba in 92.0% (81/88. L. pneumophila and L. bozemanii were most frequently isolated. FLA as potential host for Legionella spp. were isolated from 40.9% (36/88 of the composts in all facilities. In Legionella-positive samples the temperature of compost was significantly lower (P = 0.012 than in Legionella-negative samples. Of 47 bioaerosol samples, 19.1% (9/47 were positive for FLA and 10.6% (5/47 for L. pneumophila. Composts (62.8% were positive for Legionella and FLA contemporaneously, but both microorganisms were never detected simultaneously in bioaerosols. Compost can release bioaerosol containing FLA or Legionella and could represent a source of infection of community-acquired Legionella infections for workers and nearby residents.

  6. Alcohol dehydrogenases from thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radianingtyas, Helia; Wright, Phillip C

    2003-12-01

    Many studies have been undertaken to characterise alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs) from thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, mainly to better understand their activities and thermostability. To date, there are 20 thermophilic archaeal and 17 thermophilic bacterial strains known to have ADHs or similar enzymes, including the hypothetical proteins. Some of these thermophiles are found to have multiple ADHs, sometimes of different types. A rigid delineation of amino acid sequences amongst currently elucidated thermophilic ADHs and similar proteins is phylogenetically apparent. All are NAD(P)-dependent, with one exception that utilises the cofactor F(420) instead. Within the NAD(P)-dependent group, the thermophilic ADHs are orderly clustered as zinc-dependent ADHs, short-chain ADHs, and iron-containing/activated ADHs. Distance matrix calculations reveal that thermophilic ADHs within one type are homologous, with those derived from a single genus often showing high similarities. Elucidation of the enzyme activity and stability, coupled with structure analysis, provides excellent information to explain the relationship between them, and thermophilic ADHs diversity.

  7. Evaluating of selected parameters of composting process by composting of grape pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In Europe, there is annually available 8 million tons of grape pomace. From the viewpoint of waste management, pomace represents biotic waste produced in the FDM (Food–Drink–Milk sector. Composting process represents an effective use of grape pomace. Introduced experiment deals with monitoring of the composting process of grape pomace provided by 2 different variants of different composition of composting piles. Obtained results indicate that dynamics of process is affected by the share of raw materials. According to the temperature curve characteristics, the temperature above 45 °C for at least 5 days was necessary for compost sanitation. Such temperature was achieved in piles with higher proportion of pomace (Var.II. Analysis of results shows that the compost made ​​of grape pomace is a quality organic fertilizer, which may have in addition to agronomic point of view also great hygienic and ecological importance.

  8. Biochar amendment before or after composting affects compost quality and N losses, but not P plant uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandecasteele, Bart; Sinicco, Tania; D'Hose, Tommy; Vanden Nest, Thijs; Mondini, Claudio

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the use of biochar (10% on a dry weight basis) to improve the composting process and/or the compost quality by adding it to either the feedstock mixture or the mature compost. The addition of biochar to the feedstocks was essayed in a full scale trial using a mixture of green waste and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Addition of biochar to mature compost was performed in a medium scale experiment. The use of biochar, even in small amounts, changed the composting process and the properties of the end products. However these effects depended on the time of application. We observed a faster decomposition in the bio-oxidative phase and lower greenhouse gas emissions when biochar was added at the beginning of the composting process, and a reduction in readily available P when biochar was applied during compost storage. Biochar as a means to increase the C content of the compost was only effective during compost storage. The P fertilizer replacement value of the compost with and without biochar was tested in a plant trial with annual ryegrass. While there was a clear effect on readily available P concentrations in the compost, adding biochar to the feedstock or the compost did not affect the P fertilizer replacement value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. CTC Sentinel, Volume 9, Issue 1, January 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    off digital media more gener- ally. But it’s changing all the time. New apps, new encryption. CTC: Are you calling here in the UK, like the FBI and...as 30 million people across West and Central Africa. Although the Peul are known as nomadic herders, they in fact comprise a heterogeneous group

  10. Effects of rhamnolipid and initial compost particle size on the two-stage composting of green waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a potential alternative to green waste incineration or deposition in landfills. The effects of the biosurfactant rhamnolipid (RL) (at 0.0%, 0.15%, and 0.30%) and initial compost particle size (IPS) (10, 15, and 25 mm) on a new, two-stage method for composting green waste was investigated. A combination of RL addition and IPS adjustment improved the quality of the finished compost in terms of its physical characteristics, pH, C/N ratio, nutrient content, cellulose and hemicellulose contents, water-soluble carbon (WSC) content, xylanase and CMCase activities, numbers of culturable microorganisms (bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi), and toxicity to germinating seeds. The production of a stable and mature compost required only 24 days with the optimized two-stage composting method described here rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. The best quality compost was obtained with 0.15% RL and an IPS of 15 mm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Microbial enhancement of compost extracts based on cattle rumen content compost - characterisation of a system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Karuna; Shrestha, Pramod; Walsh, Kerry B; Harrower, Keith M; Midmore, David J

    2011-09-01

    Microbially enhanced compost extracts ('compost tea') are being used in commercial agriculture as a source of nutrients and for their perceived benefit to soil microbiology, including plant disease suppression. Rumen content material is a waste of cattle abattoirs, which can be value-added by conversion to compost and 'compost tea'. A system for compost extraction and microbial enhancement was characterised. Molasses amendment increased bacterial count 10-fold, while amendment based on molasses and 'fish and kelp hydrolysate' increased fungal count 10-fold. Compost extract incubated at 1:10 (w/v) dilution showed the highest microbial load, activity and humic/fulvic acid content compared to other dilutions. Aeration increased the extraction efficiency of soluble metabolites, and microbial growth rate, as did extraction of compost without the use of a constraining bag. A protocol of 1:10 dilution and aerated incubation with kelp and molasses amendments is recommended to optimise microbial load and fungal-to-bacterial ratio for this inoculum source. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbohydrate composition of compost during composting and mycelium growth of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurak, Edita; Kabel, Mirjam A; Gruppen, Harry

    2014-01-30

    Changes of plant cell wall carbohydrate structures occurring during the process to make suitable compost for growth of Agaricus bisporus are unknown. In this paper, composition and carbohydrate structures in compost samples collected during composting and mycelium growth were analyzed. Furthermore, different extracts of compost samples were prepared with water, 1M and 4M alkali and analyzed. At the beginning of composting, 34% and after 16 days of mycelium growth 27% of dry matter was carbohydrates. Carbohydrate composition analysis showed that mainly cellulose and poorly substituted xylan chains with similar amounts and ratios of xylan building blocks were present in all phases studied. Nevertheless, xylan solubility increased 20% over the period of mycelium growth indicating partial degradation of xylan backbone. Apparently, degradation of carbohydrates occurred over the process studied by both bacteria and fungi, mainly having an effect on xylan-chain length and solubility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Prognostic Role of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTC) in High-risk Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busetto, Gian Maria; Ferro, Matteo; Del Giudice, Francesco; Antonini, Gabriele; Chung, Benjamin I; Sperduti, Isabella; Giannarelli, Diana; Lucarelli, Giuseppe; Borghesi, Marco; Musi, Gennaro; de Cobelli, Ottavio; De Berardinis, Ettore

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as a prognostic marker in patients with high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) and assess the efficacy and reliability of 2 different CTC isolation methods. Globally, 155 patients with a pathologically confirmed diagnosis of high-risk NMIBC were included (pT1G3 with or without carcinoma in situ) and underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURB) after a blood withdrawal for CTC evaluation. A total of 101 patients (Group A) had their samples analyzed with the CellSearch automated system, and 54 (Group B) had their samples analyzed with the CELLection Dynabeads manual system. Patients were followed for 28 months, and during this interval, there were a total of 65 (41.9%) recurrences, 27 (17.4%) disease progressions, and 9 (5.8%) lymph node and/or bone metastasis. In our CTC analysis, there were 20 (19.8%) positive patients in Group A and 24 in Group B (44.4%). In our analysis, we found a strong correlation between CTC presence and time to first recurrence; in Group A, we observed an incidence of recurrence in 75% of CTC-positive patients and in Group B of 83% of CTC-positive patients. The time to progression was also strongly correlated with CTCs: 65% and 29%, respectively, of those patients who progressed in those with CTCs in Group A and B. The study demonstrates the potential role of CTCs as a prognostic marker for risk stratification in patients with NMIBC, to predict both recurrence and progression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Strike It Rich with Classroom Compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Linda L. Cronin

    1992-01-01

    Discusses composting of organic materials as an alternative to landfills. Lists uses of composts and describes details of a simple composting activity for high school students. Includes an information sheet for students and a student data sheet. Suggests other composting activities. (PR)

  15. Status on Science and Application of Thermophilic Anaerobic Digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    1994-01-01

    Thermophilic anaerobic processes are often regarded as less stable than mesophilic processes. In the paper this postulate is examined and disproved based on real operational data from of full-scale mesophilic and thermophilic biogas plants. The start-up produce for the thermophilic plants was...... for thermophilic digestion along with the implications for the methanogenic bacteria active at these temperatures....

  16. CTC Sentinel. Volume 9, Issue 2, February 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-02

    Islamic State side. See Derek Henry Flood: “The Islamic State Raises Its Black Flag Over The Caucasus,” CTC Sentinel 8:6 (2015): pp. 1-4. Dr. Guido...Qalamun,” [Hezbollah Holds Funeral for Child Killed in Al-Qalamun], Al-Araby Al-Jadid, April 28, 2015. 2 Lin Jenkins , “Isis video shows killing of

  17. Evaluation of Composting and the Quality of Compost from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aerobic composting potential and quality of Source Separated Municipal Solid Waste (SSMSW) was studied using four different treatments for over 80 days. Four different types of treatments using different inoculums were used for the composting of source separated municipal solid waste. The phytotoxicity tests of the ...

  18. Clearance Analysis of CTC2 (on ELC4) to S-TRRJ HRS Radiator Rotation Envelope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Donn

    2014-01-01

    In response to the planned retirement of the Space Shuttle Program, International Space Station (ISS) management began stockpiling spare parts on the ISS. Many of the larger orbital replacement units were stored on the Expedite the Processing of Experiments to Space Station (EXPRESS) Logistics Carriers (ELCs) mounted on the end of the S3 and P3 truss segments, immediately outboard of the Thermal Radiator Rotary Joints (TRRJs) and their attached radiators. In an August 2009 computer-aided design (CAD) assessment, it was determined that mounting the Cargo Transport Container (CTC) 2 on the inboard face of ELC4 as planned would create insufficient clearance between the CTC2 and the rotational envelope of the radiators when the TRRJs were rotated to a gamma angle of 35.0 degrees. The true clearance would depend on how the Unpressurized Cargo Carrier Attachment System (UCCAS) was mounted to the S3 truss and how the ELC4 was attached to it. If the plane of the UCCAS attachment points were tilted even slightly inboard, it would significantly change the clearance between CTC2 and the Starboard TRRJ (S-TRRJ) radiators. Additionally, since CTC2 would be covered in multilayer insulation (MLI), the true outer profile of CTC2 was not captured in the CAD models used for the clearance assessment. It was possible that, even if the S-TRRJ radiators cleared CTC2, they could snag the MLI covering. In the fall of 2010, the Image Science and Analysis Group (ISAG) was asked to perform an on-orbit clearance analysis to determine the location of CTC2 on ELC4 and the S-TRRJ radiators at the angle of closest approach so that a positive clearance could be assured. To provide the measurements as quickly as possible to aid in the assessment, it was decided that the clearance analysis would be broken into two phases. Phase I: The location and orientation of the UCCAS fittings, which support and hold the ELC4 in place, would be measured relative to the ISS Analytical Coordinate System (ISSACS

  19. Rapid establishment of thermophilic anaerobic microbial community during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhe; Zhang, Yu; Li, Yuyou; Chi, Yongzhi; Yang, Min

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how fast the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community could be established during the one-step startup of thermophilic anaerobic digestion from a mesophilic digester. Stable thermophilic anaerobic digestion was achieved within 20 days from a mesophilic digester treating sewage sludge by adopting the one-step startup strategy. The succession of archaeal and bacterial populations over a period of 60 days after the temperature increment was followed by using 454-pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. After the increase of temperature, thermophilic methanogenic community was established within 11 days, which was characterized by the fast colonization of Methanosarcina thermophila and two hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanothermobacter spp. and Methanoculleus spp.). At the same time, the bacterial community was dominated by Fervidobacterium, whose relative abundance rapidly increased from 0 to 28.52 % in 18 days, followed by other potential thermophilic genera, such as Clostridium, Coprothermobacter, Anaerobaculum and EM3. The above result demonstrated that the one-step startup strategy could allow the rapid establishment of the thermophilic anaerobic microbial community. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessing Soil Nutrient Additions through Different Composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of vermi-compost in northern Ethiopia is not a common practice. It is, therefore, important to understand the possible impediments through studying its chemical and biological properties and its extra contribution compared to other composting techniques. Four compost types (vermi-compost, conventional compost, ...

  1. Seafood-Processing Sludge Composting: Changes to Microbial Communities and Physico-Chemical Parameters of Static Treatment versus for Turning during the Maturation Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, David; Mato, Salustiano

    2016-01-01

    In general, in composting facilities the active, or intensive, stage of the process is done separately from the maturation stage, using a specific technology and time. The pre-composted material to be matured can contain enough biodegradable substrates to cause microbial proliferation, which in turn can cause temperatures to increase. Therefore, not controlling the maturation period during waste management at an industrial level can result in undesired outcomes. The main hypothesis of this study is that controlling the maturation stage through turning provides one with an optimized process when compared to the static approach. The waste used was sludge from a seafood-processing plant, mixed with shredded wood (1:2, v/v). The composting system consists of an intensive stage in a 600L static reactor, followed by maturation in triplicate in 200L boxes for 112 days. Two tests were carried out with the same process in reactor and different treatments in boxes: static maturation and turning during maturation when the temperature went above 55°C. PLFAs, organic matter, pH, electrical conductivity, forms of nitrogen and carbon, hydrolytic enzymes and respiratory activity were periodically measured. Turning significantly increased the duration of the thermophilic phase and consequently increased the organic-matter degradation. PCA differentiated significantly the two treatments in function of tracking parameters, especially pH, total carbon, forms of nitrogen and C/N ratio. So, stability and maturity optimum values for compost were achieved in less time with turnings. Whereas turning resulted in microbial-group stabilization and a low mono/sat ratio, static treatment produced greater variability in microbial groups and a high mono/sat ratio, the presence of more degradable substrates causes changes in microbial communities and their study during maturation gives an approach of the state of organic-matter degradation. Obtaining quality compost and optimizing the composting

  2. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Priyanka; Lee, Joonhee; Choi, Hong-Lim

    2016-04-01

    We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds) emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC) and aerated static pile composting (SAPC). In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles), volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1) were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems.

  3. Chemical structures and characteristics of animal manures and composts during composting and assessment of maturity indices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieying Huang

    Full Text Available Changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures and maturity of swine, cattle and chicken manures and composts during 70-day composting without addition of bulking agents were investigated. Physicochemical characteristics were measured by routine analyses and chemical structures by solid-state 13C NMR and FT-IR. Three manures were of distinct properties. Their changes in physicochemical characteristics, chemical structures, and maturity were different not only from each other but also from those with addition of bulking agents during composting. Aromaticity in chicken manure composts decreased at first, and then increased whereas that in cattle and swine manure composts increased. Enhanced ammonia volatilization occurred without addition of bulking agents. NMR structural information indicated that cattle and chicken composts were relatively stable at day 36 and 56, respectively, but swine manure composts were not mature up to day 70. Finally, the days required for three manures to reach the threshold values of different maturity indices were different.

  4. Composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material and compost effects on soil and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumpeli, Anna; Pavlatou-Ve, Athina K; Kostopoulou, Sofia K; Mamolos, Andreas P; Siomos, Anastasios S; Kalburtji, Kiriaki L

    2013-10-15

    Composting organic residues is a friendly to the environment alternative to producing fertilizer. This research was carried out to study the process of composting Phragmites australis Cav. plant material alone or with animal manure on a pilot-scale, to evaluate firstly the quality of the composts produced and secondly, using a pot experiment, the effects of their application on soil physicochemical characteristics and tomato plants development. For the compost production a randomized complete block design was used with five treatments (five compost types) and four replications. For the pot experiment, a completely randomized design was used with 17 treatments (plain soil, soil with synthetic fertilizer and the application of five compost types, at three rates each) and five replications. Compost N increased with composting time, while C/N ratio decreased significantly and by the end it ranged from 43.3 for CM to 22.6 for CY. Compost pH became almost neutral, ranging from 6.73 for CY to 7.21 for CM3Y3AM4 by the end. Compost combinations CY7AM3 and CM7AM3 had a more positive influence on the soil physicochemical characteristics than the others. Soil N, P, Ca and Mg concentrations and the reduction of clay dispersion were the highest when CM7AM3 compost was added. The macro-aggregate stability was the highest for CY7AM3, which also sustained plant growth. The latter compost combination improved most of the soil physicochemical characteristics and plant growth especially, when the application rate was 4% (w/w), which equals to 156 Mg ha(-1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Opportunities and barriers to on-farm composting and compost application: A case study from northwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viaene, J; Van Lancker, J; Vandecasteele, B; Willekens, K; Bijttebier, J; Ruysschaert, G; De Neve, S; Reubens, B

    2016-02-01

    Maintaining and increasing soil quality and fertility in a sustainable way is an important challenge for modern agriculture. The burgeoning bioeconomy is likely to put further pressure on soil resources unless they are managed carefully. Compost has the potential to be an effective soil improver because of its multiple beneficial effects on soil quality. Additionally, it fits within the bioeconomy vision because it can valorize biomass from prior biomass processing or valorize biomass unsuitable for other processes. However, compost is rarely used in intensive agriculture, especially in regions with high manure surpluses. The aim of this research is to identify the barriers to on-farm composting and the application of compost in agriculture, using a mixed method approach for the case of Flanders. The significance of the 28 identified barriers is analyzed and they are categorized as market and financial, policy and institutional, scientific and technological and informational and behavioral barriers. More specifically, the shortage of woody biomass, strict regulation, considerable financial and time investment, and lack of experience and knowledge are hindering on-farm composting. The complex regulation, manure surplus, variable availability and transport of compost, and variable compost quality and composition are barriers to apply compost. In conclusion, five recommendations are suggested that could alleviate certain hindering factors and thus increase attractiveness of compost use in agriculture. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Positive correlation between postoperative tumor recurrence and changes in circulating tumor cell counts in pulmonary venous blood (pvCTC) during surgical manipulation in non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masaki; Tanaka, Fumihiro; Yoneda, Kazue; Takuwa, Teruhisa; Matsumoto, Seiji; Okumura, Yoshitomo; Kondo, Nobuyuki; Tsujimura, Tohru; Nakano, Takashi; Hasegawa, Seiki

    2018-01-01

    In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), circulating tumor cells (CTC) are shed and circulate to the peripheral blood through the pulmonary vein. Previously, CTC count in pulmonary venous blood (pvCTC) was shown to significantly increase after surgical manipulation. Therefore, we assessed the correlation between the changes in the pvCTC count (ΔpvCTC) and clinical outcomes. Consecutive patients with peripheral-type, NSCLC, who underwent lobectomy or bi-lobectomy through open thoracotomy, were enrolled prospectively. Before and after lobectomy, 2.5 mL of blood was drawn from the associated lobar pulmonary vein (PV), and was served for the quantitative evaluation of CTC using the CellSearch ® system. The cut-off point of ΔpvCTC was determined according to clinical outcomes and ΔpvCTC using receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve. Then the correlation between ΔpvCTC and clinical outcomes was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analyses and log-rank test. In addition, the correlation between ΔpvCTC and perioperative variables was assessed. A total of 30 patients were enrolled, tumor recurrence occurred in 11 patients over a median follow-up of 64.4 months. Of these, 7 patients had distant metastasis and 4 had local recurrence. The median ΔpvCTC was 49 cells/2.5 mL, and pvCTC-count was increased during surgical manipulation in 24 patients (80%). We divided patients into two groups based on ΔpvCTC with the cut-off value as 119 cells/2.5 mL according to ROC curve. Significant shorter time to distant metastasis (TDM) (P=0.0123) was observed in high ΔpvCTC group (ΔpvCTC ≥119 cells/2.5 mL) than low ΔpvCTC group (ΔpvCTC <119 cells/ 2.5mL). Neither disease-free survival (DFS) nor overall survival (OS) was significantly correlated with ΔpvCTC. Increasing pvCTC count during surgical manipulation was significantly correlated with postoperative distant metastasis in completely resected NSCLC patients. Significant shorter TDM was observed in patient with high ΔpvCTC group.

  7. Meat waste as feedstock for home composting: Effects on the process and quality of compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storino, Francesco; Arizmendiarrieta, Joseba S; Irigoyen, Ignacio; Muro, Julio; Aparicio-Tejo, Pedro M

    2016-10-01

    Home composting is a powerful tool, which is spreading in different parts of the world, to reduce the generation of municipal waste. However, there is debate concerning the appropriateness, in terms of domestic hygiene and safety, of keeping a composter bin in the household deputed to kitchen waste of animal origin, such as meat or fish scraps and pet droppings. The purpose of our work was to study how the addition of meat scraps to household waste influences the composting process and the quality of the final compost obtained. We compared four raw material mixtures, characterized by a different combination of vegetable and meat waste and different ratios of woody bulking agent. Changes in temperature, mass and volume, phenotypic microbial diversity (by Biolog™) and organic matter humification were determined during the process. At the end of the experiment, the four composts were weighed and characterized by physicochemical analysis. In addition, the presence of viable weed seeds was investigated and a germination bioassay was carried out to determine the level of phytotoxicity. Finally, the levels of pathogens (Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp.) were also determined in the final compost. Here we show that the presence of meat waste as raw feedstock for composting in bins can improve the activity of the process, the physicochemical characteristics and maturity of the compost obtained, without significantly affecting its salinity, pH and phytotoxicity. Pathogen levels were low, showing that they can be controlled by an intensive management and proper handling of the composter bins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Compost: Brown gold or toxic trouble?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacic, D.A.; Cahill, R.A.; Bicki, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    Limited data are available regarding the occurrence of potentially hazardous constituents in raw, uncomposted yard wastes, partially composted yard wastes, and finished compost (15, 16). Environmental monitoring at composting operations or facilities is lacking, and currently published research on the environmental fate of composted yard waste constituents is extremely limited. The cost of thoroughly investigating the fate of toxicants in yard waste may seem needlessly expensive, but it is much less than the cost of cleaning up contaminated sites and groundwater. Could yard waste compost sites become Superfund sites? The cost of a thorough testing program throughout the United States may be several million dollars, but that is only a fraction of the funds spent initiating and developing yard waste composting facilities, let alone the potentially much greater cost of environmental remediation. There is still time to address these problems and to develop sound state and federal guidelines for siting and operating yard waste compost facilities. The rush to implement landfill alternatives such as composting should not be the major driving force in determining legislation governing solid waste management. ?? 1991 American Chemical Society.

  9. Feasibility of medical stone amendment for sewage sludge co-composting and production of nutrient-rich compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Quan; Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar; Li, Ronghua; Zhao, Junchao; Ren, Xiuna; Wang, Meijing; Chen, Hongyu; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2018-06-15

    The feasibility of medical stone (MS) amendment as an innovative additive for dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS) co-composting was assessed using a 130-L vessel-scale composter. To verify successful composting, five treatments were designed with four different dosages (2, 4, 6, and 10) % of MS with a 1:1 mixture (dry weight) of DFSS + wheat straw (WS). The WS was used as a bulking agent. A control without any amendment treatment was carried out for the purpose of comparison. For DFSS co-composting, the amendment with MS improved the mineralization efficiency and compost quality in terms of CO 2 emissions, dehydrogenase enzyme (DE), electrical conductivity (EC), water-solubility, and total nutrients transformation. The DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn were also estimated to confirm the immobilization ability of the applied MS. Seed germination and plant growth tests were conducted to ensure the compost stability and phytotoxicity for Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa chinensis L.) growth and biomass, as well as chlorophyll content. The results showed that during the bio-oxidative phase, DOC, DON, AP, NH 4 + -N, and NO 3 - -N increased drastically in all the MS-blended treatments, except the application of 2% MS and the control treatment; significantly lower water-soluble nutrients were observed in the 2% MS and control treatments. A novel additive with 6-10% MS dosages considerably enhanced the organic matter conversion in the stable end-product (compost) and reduced the maturity period by two weeks compared to the 2% MS and control treatments. Consequently, the maturity parameters (e.g., EC, SGI, NH 4 + -N, DOC, and DON) confirmed that compost with 6-10% MS became more stable and mature within four weeks of DFSS co-composting. At the end of composting, significantly higher DTPA-extractable Cu and Zn contents were observed in the control treatment, and subsequently, in the very low application (10%) of MS. Higher MS dosage lowered the pH and EC to within the permissible

  10. Composite Compost Produced from Organic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăcătuşu Radu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil fertilization in ecological agriculture is done mostly using organic fertilizers. Some of them are prepared as compost from waste, but other haven’t, until now, any recycling possibility. In this context, for the preparation of new types of compost, we used three type of waste: sewage sludge from waste water treatment, marine algae and farmyard manure. We have made four different composting variants, each consisting of different proportions of the three waste: equal parts (33.33% of each waste, 50% of each of the three wastes separately, the difference being made up in equal amounts (25% of the other two wastes. Composting process was performed in Könemann silos (cubs with side by 1.20m and lasted 60 days, from July 19 until September 16, when the composted material has passed the stages of reduction and oxidation. During composting process, in the reductive stage the material has reached a temperature up to 63°C Celsius, enough heat for its sterilization. Initial material, semi composted and final composted material were been chemical analyzed, especially in terms of macro- and microelements, analytical results revealing high and normal content of such chemicals. Therefore the achieved compost could be used in organic farming systems.

  11. Composting of waste algae: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei; Clarke, William; Pratt, Steven

    2014-07-01

    Although composting has been successfully used at pilot scale to manage waste algae removed from eutrophied water environments and the compost product applied as a fertiliser, clear guidelines are not available for full scale algae composting. The review reports on the application of composting to stabilize waste algae, which to date has mainly been macro-algae, and identifies the peculiarities of algae as a composting feedstock, these being: relatively low carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio, which can result in nitrogen loss as NH3 and even N2O; high moisture content and low porosity, which together make aeration challenging; potentially high salinity, which can have adverse consequence for composting; and potentially have high metals and toxin content, which can affect application of the product as a fertiliser. To overcome the challenges that these peculiarities impose co-compost materials can be employed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing thermal conductivity of composting reactor with attention on varying thermal resistance between compost and the inner surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjiang; Niu, Wenjuan; Ai, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic estimation of heat transfer through composting reactor wall was crucial for insulating design and maintaining a sanitary temperature. A model, incorporating conductive, convective and radiative heat transfer mechanisms, was developed in this paper to provide thermal resistance calculations for composting reactor wall. The mechanism of thermal transfer from compost to inner surface of structural layer, as a first step of heat loss, was important for improving insulation performance, which was divided into conduction and convection and discussed specifically in this study. It was found decreasing conductive resistance was responsible for the drop of insulation between compost and reactor wall. Increasing compost porosity or manufacturing a curved surface, decreasing the contact area of compost and the reactor wall, might improve the insulation performance. Upon modeling of heat transfers from compost to ambient environment, the study yielded a condensed and simplified model that could be used to conduct thermal resistance analysis for composting reactor. With theoretical derivations and a case application, the model was applicable for both dynamic estimation and typical composting scenario. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Thermophilic slurry-phase treatment of petroleum hydrocarbon waste sludges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldi, F.J.; Bombaugh, K.J.; McFarland, B.

    1995-01-01

    Chemoheterotrophic thermophilic bacteria were used to achieve enhanced hydrocarbon degradation during slurry-phase treatment of oily waste sludges from petroleum refinery operations. Aerobic and anaerobic bacterial cultures were examined under thermophilic conditions to assess the effects of mode of metabolism on the potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The study determined that both aerobic and anaerobic thermophilic bacteria are capable of growth on petroleum hydrocarbons. Thermophilic methanogenesis is feasible during the degradation of hydrocarbons when a strict anaerobic condition is achieved in a slurry bioreactor. Aerobic thermophilic bacteria achieved the largest apparent reduction in chemical oxygen demand, freon extractable oil, total and volatile solid,s and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) when treating oily waste sludges. The observed shift with time in the molecular weight distribution of hydrocarbon material was more pronounced under aerobic metabolic conditions than under strict anaerobic conditions. The changes in the hydrocarbon molecular weight distribution, infrared spectra, and PAH concentrations during slurry-phase treatment indicate that the aerobic thermophilic bioslurry achieved a higher degree of hydrocarbon degradation than the anaerobic thermophilic bioslurry during the same time period

  14. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongpat, S.; Hashimoto, Shoji.

    1993-03-01

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author)

  15. A microbiological study on irradiated sludge composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongpat, S. [Office of Atomic Energy for Peace, Bangkok (Thailand); Hashimoto, Shoji

    1993-03-01

    Effect of fermentation temperature on microorganisms in sewage sludge compost and suppressive effect of the compost on Fusarium oxysporum were investigated. Dehydrated sewage sludge was irradiated at 10 kGy by cobalt 60 gamma ray source and fermented at various temperatures with six different seed-composts. It was found that microorganisms showed higher growth in irradiated sludge at the temperature around 30 to 40degC. One of the seed-composts and compost produced from the seed-compost showed the remarkable effects of suppression on F. oxysporum. It can be also observed that the composts produced by lower temperature fermentation showed higher suppression. (author).

  16. Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts associated with CTC1 and NDP mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniello, Romina; Arrigoni, Filippo; Citterio, Andrea; Tonelli, Alessandra; Sforzini, Cinzia; Rizzari, Carmelo; Pessina, Marco; Triulzi, Fabio; Bassi, Maria Teresa; Borgatti, Renato

    2013-12-01

    Mutations in the conserved telomere maintenance component 1 (CTC1) gene were recently described in Coats plus syndrome and in cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts. Norrie disease protein (NDP) gene was found mutated in Norrie disease, in Familial Exudative Vitreoretinopathy, and in Coats syndrome. Here we describe a boy affected by Norrie disease who developed typical features of cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts. Direct sequencing of the CTC1 and NDP genes in this patient shows the presence of compound heterozygosity for 2 mutations in CTC1 (c.775G>A, pV259M and a novel microdeletion c.1213delG) and a missense mutation in the NDP gene (c.182T>C, p.L61P). Based on these genetic findings and on the expression of both genes in endothelial cells, we postulate that microangiopathy might be a primary underlying pathologic abnormality in cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts. This hypothesis is further supported by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data showing multiple minute calcifications in the deep gray nuclei and in terminal arteriolar zones.

  17. Characterization of Odorant Compounds from Mechanical Aerated Pile Composting and Static Aerated Pile Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Kumari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We studied airborne contaminants (airborne particulates and odorous compounds emitted from compost facilities in South Korea. There are primarily two different types of composting systems operating in Korean farms, namely mechanical aerated pile composting (MAPC and aerated static pile composting (SAPC. In this study, we analyzed various particulate matters (PM10, PM7, PM2.5, PM1, and total suspended particles, volatile organic compounds and ammonia, and correlated these airborne contaminants with microclimatic parameters, i.e., temperature and relative humidity. Most of the analyzed airborne particulates (PM7, PM2.5, and PM1 were detected in high concentration at SAPC facilities compered to MAPC; however these differences were statistically non-significant. Similarly, most of the odorants did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, except for dimethyl sulfide (DMS and skatole. DMS concentrations were significantly higher in MAPC facilities, whereas skatole concentrations were significantly higher in SAPC facilities. The microclimate variables also did not vary significantly between MAPC and SAPC facilities, and did not correlate significantly with most of the airborne particles and odorous compounds, suggesting that microclimate variables did not influence their emission from compost facilities. These findings provide insight into the airborne contaminants that are emitted from compost facilities and the two different types of composting agitation systems.

  18. [Identification of Circulating Tumor Cell(CTC)in Breast Cancer Patients Using a Newly Established CTC Detecting System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Takuya; Ohnaga, Takashi; Lu, Xiao Long; Watanabe, Toru; Hirano, Katsuhisa; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2015-10-01

    We developed a new circulating tumor cell (CTC) chip in order to identify CTCs in the peripheral blood of cancer patients. In this study, we aimed to identify CTCs in the blood of breast cancer patients by using this CTC detecting system. In addition, we used this system to evaluate the response to anticancer agents. We were able to identify CTCs in 5 of 6 patients. In addition, the system showed that the number of CTCs had decreased after chemotherapy. Thus, the CTC detecting system was useful in the identification of CTCs in the breast cancer patients and in the early prediction of response to anticancer agents.

  19. Thermotoga lettingae sp. nov. : a novel thermophilic, methanol-degrading bacterium isolated from a thermophilic anaerobic reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balk, M.; Weijma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A novel, anaerobic, non-spore-forming, mobile, Gram-negative, thermophilic bacterium, strain TMO(T), was isolated from a thermophilic sulfate-reducing bioreactor operated at 65 degrees C with methanol as the sole substrate. The G C content of the DNA of strain TMO(T) was 39.2 molÐThe optimum pH,

  20. Study on rapid bio-drying technology of cow dung with CaO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaotian; Qu, Guangfei; Liu, Shugen; Xie, Ruosong; He, Yanhua

    2017-05-01

    Effect of CaO2 on cow dung rapid bio-drying technology was researched. A static aerobic composting system was applied to this experiment which combining natural ventilation with Turing in the process of composting. The physical characteristics of cow dung was observed and the compost temperature, moisture content, organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, potassium content was determined which in order to study the effect of CaO2 on rapid drying of cattle in the compost. In the initial stage of compost, adding CaO2 groups compared with the control group, the temperature rise faster, 4-6 days in advance to the thermophilic phase; at the end of composting, the CaO2 composition and moisture content decreased significantly to below 30%. The addition of CaO2 in fertilizer was shorten the composting time, extend the thermophilic phase, to provide sufficient oxygen meeting the growth needs of aerobic microorganisms. It convinced that the rapid bio-drying of dairy manure has a good effect and provided a new idea for the effective treatment of cow dung.

  1. Comparison normal composting with composting using effective microorganisms for poultry carcasses disposal in poultry farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Taher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Composting offers a convenient and environmentally acceptable safe, effective method for the disposal of carcasses as an alternative method to burning, burial and rendering. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a natural biological products containing an effective microorganisms namily; Lactic acid bacill (Lactobacillus plantarum; L. casei Streptococcus Lactis., Photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas palustris; Rhodobacter sphaeroides,Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Candida utilis Toula, Pichia Jadinii, Actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus; S. griseus., and Fermenting fungi (Aspergillus oryzae; Mucor hiemalis in the composting activity of poultry carcasses. The composting stacks constitute multi alternative layers of wood shaves, hay, poultry carcasses and then wood shaves and so on. The layers have been bypassed with plastic tubes for oxygen supply. Moreover, a petri dishes of salmonella and E. coli colonies were introduced within poultry carcasses layer. After 8 days of the experimental period this study follows the physical properties of the composting process according to its odor intesity, color and pH level as well as the bacterial reisolation from the stored colonies. Results indicate that the biological products increase the temperature of the composting stack (66-68° C with a minimal odors as the pH meters recording 5.4 as compared to the control composting stack (52-64° C and pH 6.8 with offender odors. On the other hand ,the biological product inhibit the bacterial reisolation offers since the 10the day of the experiment, however, in the normal composting stack that periods will prolonged till the 17 days of the experiment. Interestingly, the biological product induce high and rapid digestable rate for the poultry carcasses which shown within 25 days of the experiment, in comparison to the normal composting stack which induce that effects in 60 days. In conclusion, the addition of effective microorganism to the

  2. Effect of adding bulking materials over the composting process of municipal solid biowastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Oviedo-Ocaña

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Biowastes (BW, the main raw materials for the composting installations in developing countries, are characterized for containing uncooked food wastes (FW, high moisture content, low porosity, acidic pH, and low C/N ratios which affects the overall composting process (CP. In this study, we evaluated the effect of adding sugarcane bagasse (SCB and star grass (SG (Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum. Pilg. as bulking materials (BM over the quality of the substrate, progress of the process, and quality of the obtained product. In this sense, two pilot-scale experiments were performed. The first one contained a substrate formed by 78% BW and 22% SCB (pile A. The second experiment contained a substrate formed by 66% BW and 34% SG (pile B. For each experiment, control treatments (piles A' and B' respectively were performed by using 100% BW without BM. The results showed that in both cases the adding of BM improved substrate quality (pH, moisture, and total organic C content [TOC], speeding up the starting step (2-3 d and reducing the duration of the thermophilic phase of CP (3 d. However, the physico-chemical properties of both BM increased cooling and maturation phases duration (between 15 and 20 d. Obtained products quality was improved in terms of higher TOC, cation-exchange capacity, bulk density, and higher water holding capacity. Application of obtained products A and B could improve some soil properties like major nutrient, water retention, and increasing the organic matter.

  3. Improving quality of composted biowaste to enhance disease suppressiveness of compost-amended, peat-based potting mixes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Blok, W.J.; Curci, F.; Coenen, G.C.M.; Termorshuizen, A.J.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2005-01-01

    Biowaste can be converted into compost by composting or by a combination of anaerobic digestion and composting. Currently, waste management systems are primarily focused on the increase of the turnover rate of waste streams whereas optimisation of product quality receives less attention. This

  4. The Learning of Compost Practice in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agustina, T. W.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Riandi; Purwianingsih, W.

    2017-09-01

    The compost as one of the topics of the Urban Farming Movement in Bandung city, Indonesia. The preliminary study aims to obtain a description of the performance capabilities and compost products made by students with STREAM (Science-Technology-Religion-Art-Mathematics) approach. The method was explanatory sequential mixed method. The study was conducted on one class of Biology Education students at the one of the universities in Bandung, Indonesia. The sample was chosen purposively with the number of students as many as 44 people. The instruments were making Student Worksheets, Observation Sheets of Performance and Product Assessment, Rubric of Performance and Product, and Field Notes. The indicators of performance assessment rubrics include Stirring of Compost Materials and Composting Technology in accordance with the design. The product assessment rubric are a Good Composting Criteria and Compost Packaging. The result of can be stated most students have good performance. However, the ability to design of compost technology, compost products and the ability to pack compost are still lacking. The implication of study is students of Biology Education require habituation in the ability of designing technology.

  5. Evaluation of Cadmium, Lead and Zinc Content of Compost Produced in Babol Composting Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Asgharzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: The most important parameter is heavy metal contents in compost production technology. These heavy metals residue from substances like soap, detergents, cosmetics, packaging, leather and butteries are existed in municipal solid waste. The heavy metals can produce toxin for animal, human and plant. The aim of this research was study of produced compost quality based on heavy metals (Pb, Cd and Zn in Babol compost plant in 2012. Materials and Methods: The present research is a descriptive- cross sectional study in which was performed in six months. Total sample numbers (5 samples were randomly provided from final compost of Babol plant and then after extraction and filtration, the concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, lead and zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer PG- 999. Results: In analyzed samples the maximum, minimum and average of cadmium in the final compost were 7.25, 0.47 and 1.9 mg/kg. The maximum, minimum and mean of lead were 239.2, 31.9 and 67.1 mg/kg; in zinc were 972.7, 483.5 and 603.7 mg/kg respectively. Conclusion: The concentration of heavy metals in Babol compost samples was under Iranian national and World Health Organization standards and could be used for different species of plants. However, the usability of compost depends on other parameters such as carbon to nitrogen and other components like glass, plastics and textiles.

  6. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tambone, Fulvia, E-mail: fulvia.tambone@unimi.it; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO{sub 2} kg V S{sup −1} h{sup −1}. Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS {sup 13}C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  7. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Anaerobic digestion leads to the production of a biologically stable digestate. • Solid–liquid separation produces a solid fraction having high fertilizer value. • Composting process shows low biological activity due to high biological stability of digestate. • Solid digestate fraction can be composted in a short time or used directly as organic fertilizer. - Abstract: The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO 2 kg V S −1 h −1 . Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS 13 C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins)

  8. Compost bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... The use of composting in bioremediation has received little attention (Potter et al., ..... Counts of microorganisms in the compost during composting. Values are means of three ..... chlorinated pesticides. J. Water Poll. Cont. Fed.

  9. Thermophilic, lignocellulolytic bacteria for ethanol production: current state and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, Tinghong; Yao, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    of cellulolytic and saccharolytic thermophilic bacteria for lignocellulosic ethanol production because of their unique properties. First of all, thermophilic bacteria possess unique cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic systems and are considered as potential sources of highly active and thermostable enzymes...... for efficient biomass hydrolysis. Secondly, thermophilic bacteria ferment a broad range of carbohydrates into ethanol, and some of them display potential for ethanologenic fermentation at high yield. Thirdly, the establishment of the genetic tools for thermophilic bacteria has allowed metabolic engineering......, in particular with emphasis on improving ethanol yield, and this facilitates their employment for ethanol production. Finally, different processes for second-generation ethanol production based on thermophilic bacteria have been proposed with the aim to achieve cost-competitive processes. However, thermophilic...

  10. Effects of woody peat and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Difang; Luo, Wenhai; Yuan, Jing; Li, Guoxue; Luo, Yuan

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of calcium superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during pig manure composting with woody peat as the bulking agent. Two treatments were conducted with or without the addition of calcium superphosphate (10% dry weight of the composting mass), which were denoted as the control and superphosphate-amended treatment, respectively. Results show that the composting temperature of both treatments was higher than 50°C for more than 5days, which is typically required for pathogen destruction during manure composting. Compared to the control treatment, the superphosphate-amended treatment increased the emission of nitrogen oxide, but reduced the emission of methane, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide by approximately 35.5%, 37.9% and 65.5%, respectively. As a result, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emission during manure composting was reduced by nearly 34.7% with the addition of calcium superphosphate. The addition of calcium superphosphate increased the content of humic acid (indicated by E 4 /E 6 ratio). Nevertheless, the superphosphate-amended treatment postponed the biological degradation of organic matter and produced the mature compost with a higher electrical conductivity in comparison with the control treatment. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Composting of the solid fraction of digestate derived from pig slurry: Biological processes and compost properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambone, Fulvia; Terruzzi, Laura; Scaglia, Barbara; Adani, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to assess the characteristics of the solid fractions (SF) obtained by mechanical separation of digestate, their compostability and compost quality. To do so, the SF of digestates obtained from anaerobic digestion of pig slurry, energy crops and agro-industrial residues were sampled in five plants located in Northern Italy. Results obtained indicated that anaerobic digestion by itself promoted the high biological stability of biomasses with a Potential Dynamic Respiration Index (PDRI) close to 1000 mgO2 kg V S(-1)h(-1). Subsequent composting of digestates, with an added bulking agent, did not give remarkably different results, and led only to a slight modification of the characteristics of the initial non-composted mixtures; the composts obtained fully respected the legal limits for high quality compost. Chemical studies of organic matter composition of the biomasses by using CP MAS (13)C NMR, indicated that the compost was composed of a high relative content of O-alkyl-C (71.47% of total C) (cellulose and hemicelluloses) and a low alkyl-C (12.42%) (i.e. volatile fatty acids, steroid-like molecules, aliphatic biopolymers and proteins). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Microbial additives in the composting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelly de Queiroz Ribeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Composting is the process of natural degradation of organic matter carried out by environmental microorganisms whose metabolic activities cause the mineralization and partial humification of substances in the pile. This compost can be beneficially applied to the soil as organic fertilizer in horticulture and agriculture. The number of studies involving microbial inoculants has been growing, and they aim to improve processes such as composting. However, the behavior of these inoculants and other microorganisms during the composting process have not yet been described. In this context, this work aimed to investigate the effects of using a microbial inoculum that can improve the composting process and to follow the bacterial population dynamics throughout the process using the high-resolution melt (HRM technique. To do so, we analysed four compost piles inoculated with Bacillus cereus, Bacillus megaterium, B. cereus + B. megaterium and a control with no inoculum. The analyses were carried out using samples collected at different stages of the process (5th to 110th days. The results showed that the bacterial inocula influenced the process of composting, altering the breakdown of cellulose and hemicelluloses and causing alterations to the temperature and nitrogen levels throughout the composting process. The use of a universal primer (rDNA 16S allowed to follow the microbial succession during the process. However, the design of a specific primer is necessary to follow the inoculum throughout the composting process with more accuracy.

  13. In-vessel composting of household wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, Srinath R.; Bhave, Prashant P.

    2006-01-01

    The process of composting has been studied using five different types of reactors, each simulating a different condition for the formation of compost; one of which was designed as a dynamic complete-mix type household compost reactor. A lab-scale study was conducted first using the compost accelerators culture (Trichoderma viridae, Trichoderma harzianum, Trichorus spirallis, Aspergillus sp., Paecilomyces fusisporus, Chaetomium globosum) grown on jowar (Sorghum vulgare) grains as the inoculum mixed with cow-dung slurry, and then by using the mulch/compost formed in the respective reactors as the inoculum. The reactors were loaded with raw as well as cooked vegetable waste for a period of 4 weeks and then the mulch formed was allowed to maturate. The mulch was analysed at various stages for the compost and other environmental parameters. The compost from the designed aerobic reactor provides good humus to build up a poor physical soil and some basic plant nutrients. This proves to be an efficient, eco-friendly, cost-effective, and nuisance-free solution for the management of household solid wastes

  14. Effects of Vermi compost and Compost tea Application on the Growth criteria of Corn (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Afsharmanesh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Maize (Zea mays is a cereal crop that is grown widely throughout the world in a range of agroecological environments. .Its value as a cost-effective ruminant feed is one of the main reasons that farmers grow it. However, lack of nutrients such as N and P, are the principal obstacles - to crop production under low input agricultural systems leading to dependency on chemical fertilizers. Long-term use of chemical fertilizers destroy soil physicochemical properties and it reduced permeability which restricts root growth, nutrient uptake and plant production. Therefore, the use of organic fertilizers can help to enrich the soil root zone As a result growth and yield will improve. Materials and Methods In order to study the effects of different levels of vermicompost and foliar application of tea compost on growth characteristics of the hybrid maize genotype 713, a greenhouse experiment was conducted as a factorial experiment in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan, during 2013. Treatments were included vermicompost (0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% pot weight and tea composts (foliar application, non-foliar application. Measured traits were included root dry weight, root volume, leaf dry weight, stem dry weight, macro nutrient concentration (N and P and micro nutrient concentration (Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu. All the data were subjected to the statistical analysis (two-way ANOVA using SAS software (SAS 9.1.3. Differences between the treatments were performed by Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT at 1% confidence interval. Results and Discussion Results indicated that leaf and stem dry weight affected by the application of vermicompost and tea compost. However, the interaction effects had no significant effects on the leaf and stem dry weight. Application of tea compost increased 20% and 50% leaf dry weight and stem dry weight of corn compared to non- foliar application

  15. Pile composting of two-phase centrifuged olive husk residues: technical solutions and quality of cured compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfano, G; Belli, C; Lustrato, G; Ranalli, G

    2008-07-01

    The present work proposed an economically sustainable solution for composting olive humid husks (OHH) and leaves (OL) at a small/medium sized olive oil mill. We planned and set up a composting plant, the prototype taking the form of a simplified low-cost turning machine, and evaluated the use of an inoculum of one year-old composted humid husks (CHH) and sheep manure (SM) to facilitate the starting phase of the process. Trials were carried out using four piles under different experimental conditions (turnover, static, and type of inoculum). The best results were achieved with turnover and an inoculum that induced fast start-up and a correct evolution of the composting process. The final product was a hygienically clean, cured compost.

  16. Composting of food wastes: Status and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, Alejandra; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Barrena, Raquel; Gea, Teresa; Sánchez, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    This review analyses the main challenges of the process of food waste composting and examines the crucial aspects related to the quality of the produced compost. Although recent advances have been made in crucial aspects of the process, such composting microbiology, improvements are needed in process monitoring. Therefore, specific problems related to food waste composting, such as the presence of impurities, are thoroughly analysed in this study. In addition, environmental impacts related to food waste composting, such as emissions of greenhouse gases and odours, are discussed. Finally, the use of food waste compost in soil bioremediation is discussed in detail. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Alterações em atributos químicos de um Latossolo pela aplicação de composto de lixo urbano Changes on some chemical attributes of a soil due to the application of solid urban waste compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carvalho Oliveira

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Experimento de campo foi conduzido, nos anos agrícolas 1996/97 e 1997/98, para avaliar os efeitos de aplicações sucessivas de composto de lixo urbano sobre os teores de carbono orgânico, condutividade elétrica, pH e capacidade de troca de cátions (CTC ao pH atual de um Latossolo Amarelo distrófico em que foi cultivada cana-de-açúcar. No primeiro ano agrícola, além dos tratamentos calagem + adubação mineral e testemunha, o composto de lixo foi aplicado nas doses de 20, 40 e 60 Mg ha-1 (base seca. No segundo ano, o composto foi reaplicado nas doses de 24, 48 e 72 Mg ha-1. Todas as propriedades químicas do solo estudadas aumentaram com as doses do composto, em ambos os anos agrícolas. Os incrementos observados nesses atributos, da primeira para a segunda aplicação, foram significativos, exceto a condutividade elétrica, que, embora tenha aumentado logo após a aplicação do resíduo, não atingiu níveis críticos e teve seus valores reduzidos com o tempo. Acúmulos nos teores de C orgânico do solo foram diretamente proporcionais às doses de aplicação. O aumento da CTC do solo foi conseqüência direta dos incrementos nos teores de C orgânico e nos valores de pH.A field experiment was conducted, during the years of 1996/97 and 1997/98, to evaluate the effects of the successive application of solid urban waste compost on organic carbon, electrical conductivity, pH, and cation exchange capacity (CEC at field pH in a Typic Hapludox cropped with sugarcane. In the first year, besides lime + mineral fertilizer and control treatments, the compost was applied at a rate of 0, 20, 40, and 60 Mg ha-1 (dry basis. In the second year, the compost was reapplied at a rate of 24, 48, and 72 Mg ha-1. All studied soil properties increased with rate of compost application in both years. Attributes increments from the first to the second application were significant, except for electrical conductivity, which increased soon after the residue

  18. The Compost Pile Meets the 1990's.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paddock, Todd

    1991-01-01

    Advocates composting as a valuable alternative to the landfill for waste management. As much as two-thirds of garbage can be composted, and the process has become more cost effective. Some challenges to composting are producing a compost product that will sell and dealing with the odor created by the process. (KS)

  19. Compost maturity and nitrogen availability by co-composting of paddy husk and chicken manure amended with clinoptilolite zeolite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifah, Omar; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Susilawati, Kassim; Majid, Nik Muhamad

    2015-04-01

    The availability of paddy husk from rice processing plants remains high owing to increase in the worldwide rice consumption. Increasing demand for chicken products leads to poultry wastes production. Co-composting of the aforementioned wastes could solve the indiscriminate disposal of these wastes. Thus, co-composting of paddy husk and chicken slurry with clinoptilolite zeolite and urea as additive was carried out. Clinoptilolite zeolite was used to enhance ammonium and nitrate retention in the compost. Temperature of the compost was monitored three times daily for 55 days. Cation exchange capacity, organic matter, ash, humic acids, pH, total C, N, C/N ratio; total P, exchangeable Ca, Mg, K, NH4+, NO3-, and heavy metals contents were determined using standard procedures. pH, total N, humic acids, ash, NH4+, NO3-, P, Ca, Mg, and K contents increased but the salinity, heavy metals contents, and microbial population were low after the co-composting process. Zea mays L. (test crop) seed germination rate in distilled water and the compost were not significantly different. Growth of Spinach oleracea (test crop) on a peat-based growing medium and the compost was also not significantly different. These findings were possible because the clinoptilolite zeolite used in co-composting reduced accumulation of heavy metals that may have damage effects on the test crops. Mature compost with good agronomic properties can be produced by co-composting chicken slurry and paddy husk using clinoptilolite zeolite and urea as additives. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Assessment of compost maturity by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Rafael; Giráldez, Inmaculada; Palma, Alberto; Jesús Díaz, M

    2016-02-01

    The composting process produces and emits hundreds of different gases. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can provide information about progress of composting process. This paper is focused on the qualitative and quantitative relationships between compost age, as sign of compost maturity, electronic-nose (e-nose) patterns and composition of compost and composting gas at an industrial scale plant. Gas and compost samples were taken at different depths from composting windrows of different ages. Temperature, classical chemical parameters, O2, CO, combustible gases, VOCs and e-nose profiles were determined and related using principal component analysis (PCA). Factor analysis carried out to a data set including compost physical-chemical properties, pile pore gas composition and composting time led to few factors, each one grouping together standard composting parameters in an easy to understand way. PCA obtained from e-nose profiles allowed the classifying of piles, their aerobic-anaerobic condition, and a rough estimation of the composting time. That would allow for immediate and in-situ assessment of compost quality and maturity by using an on-line e-nose. The e-nose patterns required only 3-4 sensor signals to account for a great percentage (97-98%) of data variance. The achieved patterns both from compost (chemical analysis) and gas (e-nose analysis) samples are robust despite the high variability in feedstock characteristics (3 different materials), composting conditions and long composting time. GC-MS chromatograms supported the patterns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. CTC Sentinel. Volume 6, Issue 9. September 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    central government’s control and militants’ ability—and willingness—to quietly blend in.38 A security official in Hadramawt explained the group’s...safari.”17 8 Secunder Kermani, “Drone Victim’s Somalia Visits Probed,” BBC, May 30, 2013. 9 Personal interview, Tam Hussein, community worker who...shared vision of the Center products like the CTC Sentinel could not be produced. If you are interested in learning more about how to support the

  2. COP-compost: a software to study the degradation of organic pollutants in composts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Lashermes, G; Houot, S; Zhu, Y-G; Barriuso, E; Garnier, P

    2014-02-01

    Composting has been demonstrated to be effective in degrading organic pollutants (OP) whose behaviour depends on the composting conditions, the microbial populations activated and interactions with organic matters. The fate of OP during composting involves complex mechanisms and models can be helpful tools for educational and scientific purposes, as well as for industrialists who want to optimise the composting process for OP elimination. A COP-Compost model, which couples an organic carbon (OC) module and an organic pollutant (OP) module and which simulates the changes of organic matter, organic pollutants and the microbial activities during the composting process, has been proposed and calibrated for a first set of OP in a previous study. The objectives of the present work were (1) to introduce the COP-Compost model from its convenient interface to a potential panel of users, (2) to show the variety of OP that could be simulated, including the possibility of choosing between degradation through co-metabolism or specific metabolism and (3) to show the effect of the initial characteristics of organic matter quality and its microbial biomass on the simulated results of the OP dynamic. In the model, we assumed that the pollutants can be adsorbed on organic matter according to the biochemical quality of the OC and that the microorganisms can degrade the pollutants at the same time as they degrade OC (by co-metabolism). A composting experiment describing two different (14)C-labelled organic pollutants, simazine and pyrene, were chosen from the literature because the four OP fractions simulated in the model were measured during the study (the mineralised, soluble, sorbed and non-extractable fractions). Except for the mineralised fraction of simazine, a good agreement was achieved between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of the different organic fractions. For simazine, a specific biomass had to be added. To assess the relative importance

  3. Cellulases from Thermophilic Fungi: Recent Insights and Biotechnological Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo-Chuan Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermophilic fungal cellulases are promising enzymes in protein engineering efforts aimed at optimizing industrial processes, such as biomass degradation and biofuel production. The cloning and expression in recent years of new cellulase genes from thermophilic fungi have led to a better understanding of cellulose degradation in these species. Moreover, crystal structures of thermophilic fungal cellulases are now available, providing insights into their function and stability. The present paper is focused on recent progress in cloning, expression, regulation, and structure of thermophilic fungal cellulases and the current research efforts to improve their properties for better use in biotechnological applications.

  4. Bioleached sludge composting drastically reducing ammonia volatilization as well as decreasing bulking agent dosage and improving compost quality: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weitong; Zheng, Guanyu; Fang, Di; Cui, Chunhong; Liang, Jianru; Zhou, Lixiang

    2015-10-01

    Sludge bioleaching technology with Acidithiobacillus species has been commercially adopted for improving advanced dewatering of sludge in China since 2010. However, up to now, little information on bioleached dewatered sludge (BS) composting is available. Here, we report the changes of physicochemical and biological properties in BS composting and evaluate compost product quality compared to conventional dewatered sludge (CS) composting in an engineering scale composting facility. The results showed that the amount of bulking agents required in BS composting was only about 10% of CS composting to obtain optimum moisture content, reducing about 700 kg bulking agents per ton fresh sludge. pH of BS composting mixture was slightly lower consistently by about 0.2-0.3 pH units than that in CS mixture in the first 30 days. Organic matter biodegradation in BS system mainly occurred in the first 9 days of composting. In spite of higher content of NH4(+)-N was found in BS mixture in related to CS mixture; unexpectedly the cumulative ammonia volatilization in the former was only 51% of the latter, indicating that BS composting drastically reduced nitrogen loss. Compared to CS composting system, the relative lower pH, the higher intensity of microbial assimilation, and the presence of water soluble Fe in BS system might jointly reduce ammonia volatilization. Consequently, BS compost product exhibited higher fertilizer values (N+P2O5+K2O=8.38%) as well as lower heavy metal levels due to the solubilization of sludge-borne heavy metals during bioleaching process. Therefore, composting of BS possesses more advantages over the CS composting process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Composting; Konposuto ka shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. [Saitama Univ., Saitama (Japan)

    2000-02-05

    The composting method can be divided roughly into the aerobic process and the anaerobic process. The former one is a method of processing which decomposes organic substances in the work of the micro-aerobion by blowing the air in the compost material layer, and the latter one is a method for mainly decomposing the organic substance by the work of the anaerobiont microorganism without the positive contact of the material and air. Since the anaerobic process has a slow reaction rate, and emits a resistant odor, an aerobic process system is taken in many plants. In this paper, the aerobic process is described. At first, a fermenter, crush equipment, screening system and a deodorizer as the composting facilities are explained, and the problems of the composting process are described. The largest problem is to exploit a demand without a seasonal variation. It is necessary to exploit the market except for farmland and orchards in order to avoid the seasonal variation. For example, there is a demand for compost in parks, green land and golf courses. It can be also utilized for the normal plane protection of roads and railways. In addition, there are utilization applications such as barn bedding, earthworm culture floors and a deodorant of sewage urine disposal facilities. (NEDO)

  6. Composting and compost utilization: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Møller, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    is an important issue and is related to the long-term binding of carbon in the soil, to related effects in terms of soil improvement and to what the compost substitutes; this could be fertilizer and peat for soil improvement or for growth media production. The overall global warming factor (GWF) for composting...

  7. Changes in physical, chemical, and microbiological properties during the two-stage co-composting of green waste with spent mushroom compost and biochar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2014-11-01

    This research determined whether the two-stage co-composting can be used to convert green waste (GW) into a useful compost. The GW was co-composted with spent mushroom compost (SMC) (at 0%, 35%, and 55%) and biochar (BC) (at 0%, 20%, and 30%). The combined addition of SMC and BC greatly increased the nutrient contents of the compost product and also improved the compost quality in terms of composting temperature, particle-size distribution, free air space, cation exchange capacity, nitrogen transformation, organic matter degradation, humification, element contents, abundance of aerobic heterotrophs, dehydrogenase activity, and toxicity to germinating seeds. The addition of 35% SMC and 20% BC to GW (dry weight % of initial GW) and the two-stage co-composting technology resulted in the production of the highest quality compost product in only 24 days rather than the 90-270 days required with traditional composting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of microbially enhanced compost extracts produced from composted cattle rumen content material and from commercially available inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Karuna; Adetutu, Eric M; Shrestha, Pramod; Walsh, Kerry B; Harrower, Keith M; Ball, Andrew S; Midmore, David J

    2011-09-01

    A comparative study was performed on compost extracts prepared from cattle rumen content composted for three and nine months, nine month old compost inoculated with a Nutri-Life 4/20™ inoculum, and two commercial preparations (LivingSoil™ and Nutri-Life 4/20™), all incubated for 48h. Nutri-Life 4/20™ had the highest concentrations of NO(3)(-)-N and K(+)-K, while rumen compost extract had higher humic and fulvic acids concentration. The bacterial and fungal community level functional diversity of three month old compost extract and of LivingSoil™, assessed with Biolog™, were higher than that of nine month old rumen compost extract, with or without Nutri-Life 4/20™ inoculum, or Nutri-Life 4/20™. No difference in fungal diversity was observed between treatments, as indicated by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, however, bacterial diversity was higher in all compost extracts and LivingSoil™ compared to the Nutri-Life 4/20™. Criteria for judging the quality of a microbially enhanced extract are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Temperatures In Compost Landfill Covers As Result Of Methane Oxidation And Compost Respiration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheutz, Charlotte; Merono, A. R.; Pedersen, Rasmus Broen

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the temperature on methane (CH4) oxidation and respiration in compost sampled at a full scale biocover implemented at Klintholm landfill exhibiting high temperatures. Compost material was collected at Klintholm landfill and incubated with and without CH4...

  10. Determining thermal inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in fresh compost by simulating early phases of the composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Kim, Jinkyung; Shepherd, Marion W; Luo, Feng; Jiang, Xiuping

    2011-06-01

    A three-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was inoculated into fresh dairy compost (ca. 10(7) CFU/g) with 40 or 50% moisture and was placed in an environmental chamber (ca. 70% humidity) that was programmed to ramp from room temperature to selected composting temperatures in 2 and 5 days to simulate the early composting phase. The surviving E. coli O157:H7 population was analyzed by direct plating and enrichment. Optimal and suboptimal compost mixes, with carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios of 25:1 and 16:1, respectively, were compared in this study. In the optimal compost mix, E. coli O157:H7 survived for 72, 48, and 24 h in compost with 40% moisture and for 72, 24, and 24 h with 50% moisture at 50, 55, and 60°C, respectively, following 2 days of come-up time (rate of heating up). However, in the suboptimal compost mix, the pathogen survived for 288, 72, and 48 h in compost with 40% moisture and for 240, 72, 24 h in compost with 50% moisture at the same temperatures, respectively. Pathogen survival was longer, with 5 days of come-up time compared with 2 days of come-up. Overall, E. coli O157:H7 was inactivated faster in the compost with 50% moisture than in the compost with 40% at 55 and 60°C. Both moisture and come-up time were significant factors affecting Weibull model parameters. Our results suggest that slow come-up time at the beginning of composting can extend pathogen survival during composting. Additionally, both the C/N ratio and the initial moisture level in the compost mix affect the rate of pathogen inactivation as well.

  11. Composting of gamma-radiation disinfected sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, W.; Hashimoto, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nishimura, K.; Watanabe, H.; Ito, H.; Takehisa, M.

    1981-01-01

    The composting of radiation disinfected sewage sludge has been studied since 1978, aiming to present a new process of sludge composting for agricultural uses. This process is composed of two steps: irradiation step to disinfect sludge, and composting step to remove odor and easily decomposable organics in sludge. In this paper, the gamma-irradiation effect on sludge cake and composting condition of irradiated sludge are discussed. (author)

  12. Composting Begins at Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreckman, George P.

    1994-01-01

    Reports the results of a year-long home composting pilot program run by the city of Madison, Wisconsin. The study was designed to gather data on the amount and type of materials composted by 300 volunteer households and to determine the feasibility of a full-scale program. (LZ)

  13. Survival of thermophilic and hyper-thermophilic microorganisms after exposure to UV-C, ionizing radiation and desiccation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beblo, K.; Wirth, R.; Huber, H.; Douki, T.; Schmalz, G.; Rachel, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the ability of several (hyper-) thermophilic Archaea and phylo-genetically deep-branching thermophilic Bacteria to survive high fluences of monochromatic UV-C (254 nm) and high doses of ionizing radiation, respectively. Nine out of fourteen tested microorganisms showed a surprisingly high tolerance against ionizing radiation, and two species (Aquifex pyrophilus and Ignicoccus hospitalis) were even able to survive 20 kGy. Therefore, these species had a comparable survivability after exposure to ionizing radiation such as Deinococcus radiodurans. In contrast, there was nearly no difference in survival of the tested strains after exposure to UV-C under anoxic conditions. If the cells had been dried in advance of UV-C irradiation, they were more sensitive to UV-C radiation compared with cells irradiated in liquid suspension; this effect could be reversed by the addition of protective material like sulfidic ores before irradiation. By exposure to UV-C, photoproducts were formed in the DNA of irradiated Archaea and Bacteria. The distribution of the main photoproducts was species specific, but the amount of the photoproducts was only partly dependent on the applied fluence. Overall, our results show that tolerance to radiation seems to be a common phenomenon among thermophilic and hyper-thermophilic microorganisms. (authors)

  14. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  15. Thermophilic Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Cold Marine Sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ISAKSEN, MF; BAK, F.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1994-01-01

    C to search for presence of psychrophilic, mesophilic and thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Detectable activity was initially only in the mesophilic range, but after a lag phase sulfate reduction by thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria were observed. No distinct activity of psychrophilic...... sulfate-reducing bacteria was detected. Time course experiments showed constant sulfate reduction rates at 4 degrees C and 30 degrees C, whereas the activity at 60 degrees C increased exponentially after a lag period of one day. Thermophilic, endospore-forming sulfate-reducing bacteria, designated strain...... P60, were isolated and characterized as Desulfotomaculum kuznetsovii. The temperature response of growth and respiration of strain P60 agreed well with the measured sulfate reduction at 50 degrees-70 degrees C. Bacteria similar to strain P60 could thus be responsible for the measured thermophilic...

  16. Bioaerosols from composting facilities—a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wéry, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Bioaerosols generated at composting plants are released during processes that involve the vigorous movement of material such as shredding, compost pile turning, or compost screening. Such bioaerosols are a cause of concern because of their potential impact on both occupational health and the public living in close proximity to such facilities. The biological hazards potentially associated with bioaerosol emissions from composting activities include fungi, bacteria, endotoxin, and 1-3 β-glucans. There is a major lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants as well as the potential exposure of nearby residents. This is due in part to the difficulty of tracing specifically these microorganisms in air. In recent years, molecular tools have been used to develop new tracers which should help in risk assessments. This review summarizes current knowledge of microbial diversity in composting aerosols and of the associated risks to health. It also considers methodologies introduced recently to enhance understanding of bioaerosol dispersal, including new molecular indicators and modeling. PMID:24772393

  17. Composting sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, E.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage sludge is predominantly organic matter containing domestic and industrial wastes. The inefficiency of the waste water treatment to destroy pathogens and stabilization of odor-producing volatile organic compounds necessitates further treatment before sludge can be used as a soil amendment or fertilizer. Composting, which is the rapid biological decomposition of the sludge organic matter is an excellent method of sludge stabilization. During the process, volatile organics are decomposed and many of the pathogens destoyed. The low cost of the process and its flexibility with respect to labor and capital makes the system highly attractive to municipalities. A major problem facing large urban waste water treatment facilities is the distribution or marketing. The light weight of the material, expensive hauling costs, and low fertilizer value reduce its attractiveness to the agricultural sector. Thus, the greatest market is for horticultural purposes, sod, nurseries, greenhouses, parks, and reclamation areas. The major potential benefits of irradiating compost as a means of further disinfection are: (1) elimination of any health hazard; (2) increase of market potential, i.e., providing more market outlets to distribute the material; (3) compliance with state and federal health regulations; and (4) enhancement of the economics of composting as a result of utilizing compost in speciality products commanding a higher value

  18. Composting trial with BioFoam® products in a full scale commercial composting facility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der M.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of the trial was to be able to judge whether BioFoam® material degrades at sufficient rate to be composted together with regular source separated municipal solid biowaste in a full scale industrial composting facility.

  19. Experimental evaluation of compost leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Compost is often used in raingardens, roadsides, and bioretention systems, not only because of : its beneficial properties on soil quality, but also because compost improves water infiltration and : retains stormwater contaminants. However, when comp...

  20. Evaluation of aerobic co-composting of penicillin fermentation fungi residue with pig manure on penicillin degradation, microbial population dynamics and composting maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhua; Zhao, Juan; Yu, Cigang; Dong, Shanshan; Zhang, Dini; Yu, Ran; Wang, Changyong; Liu, Yan

    2015-12-01

    Improper treatment of penicillin fermentation fungi residue (PFFR), one of the by-products of penicillin production process, may result in environmental pollution due to the high concentration of penicillin. Aerobic co-composting of PFFR with pig manure was determined to degrade penicillin in PFFR. Results showed that co-composting of PFFR with pig manure can significantly reduce the concentration of penicillin in PFFR, make the PFFR-compost safer as organic fertilizer for soil application. More than 99% of penicillin in PFFR were removed after 7-day composting. PFFR did not affect the composting process and even promote the activity of the microorganisms in the compost. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) indicated that the bacteria and actinomycetes number in the AC samples were 40-80% higher than that in the pig-manure compost (CK) samples in the same composting phases. This research indicated that the aerobic co-composting was a feasible PFFR treatment method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Composting: Wastes to Resources. 4-H Leader's/Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonhotal, Jean F.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    This guide is designed for adult volunteer leaders, camp counselors, and teachers who want to set up composting projects with youth. Five sections explore: (1) an introduction to composting with illustrated instructions for making compost; (2) different methods of composting and structures needed for various composting systems; (3) how to identify…

  2. Molecular Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria of the β Subdivision of the Class Proteobacteria in Compost and Composted Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalchuk, George A.; Naoumenko, Zinaida S.; Derikx, Piet J. L.; Felske, Andreas; Stephen, John R.; Arkhipchenko, Irina A.

    1999-01-01

    Although the practice of composting animal wastes for use as biofertilizers has increased in recent years, little is known about the microorganisms responsible for the nitrogen transformations which occur in compost and during the composting process. Ammonia is the principle available nitrogenous compound in composting material, and the conversion of this compound to nitrite in the environment by chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria is an essential step in nitrogen cycling. Therefore, the distribution of ammonia-oxidizing members of the β subdivision of the class Proteobacteria in a variety of composting materials was assessed by amplifying 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and 16S rRNA by PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), respectively. The PCR and RT-PCR products were separated by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and were identified by hybridization with a hierarchical set of oligonucleotide probes designed to detect ammonia oxidizer-like sequence clusters in the genera Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas. Ammonia oxidizer-like 16S rDNA was detected in almost all of the materials tested, including industrial and experimental composts, manure, and commercial biofertilizers. A comparison of the DGGE and hybridization results after specific PCR and RT-PCR suggested that not all of the different ammonia oxidizer groups detected in compost are equally active. amoA, the gene encoding the active-site-containing subunit of ammonia monooxygenase, was also targeted by PCR, and template concentrations were estimated by competitive PCR. Detection of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in the composts tested suggested that such materials may not be biologically inert with respect to nitrification and that the fate of nitrogen during composting and compost storage may be affected by the presence of these organisms. PMID:9925559

  3. Effect of aeration rate, moisture content and composting period on availability of copper and lead during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yujun; Zhao, Lixin; Meng, Haibo; Hou, Yueqing; Zhou, Haibin; Wang, Fei; Cheng, Hongsheng; Liu, Hongbin

    2016-06-01

    Pollution by heavy metals, such as copper and lead, has become a limiting factor for the land application of faecal manures, such as pig manure. This study was conducted to investigate the influence of composting process parameters, including aeration rate, moisture content and composting period, on the distribution of heavy metal species during composting, and to select an optimal parameter for copper and lead inactivation. Results showed that the distribution ratios of exchangeable fractions of copper and lead had a bigger decrease under conditions of aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), an initial moisture content of 65% and composting period of 50 days. Suboptimal composting process conditions could lead to increased availability of heavy metals. Statistical analysis indicated that the aeration rate was the main factor affecting copper and lead inactivation, while the effects of moisture content and composting period were not significant. The rates of reduction of copper-exchangeable fractions and lead-exchangeable fractions were positively correlated with increased pH. The optimal parameters for reducing heavy metal bioavailability during pig manure composting were aeration rate, 0.1 m(3) min(-1) m(-3), initial moisture content, 65%, and composting period, 20 days. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Effect of spent mushroom substrate as a bulking agent on gaseous emissions and compost quality during pig manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuyan; Li, Danyang; Li, Jijin; Li, Yangyang; Li, Guoxue; Zang, Bing; Li, Yun

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the gaseous emissions (CH 4 , N 2 O, and NH 3 ) and compost quality during the pig manure composting by adding spent mushroom substrate (SMS) as a bulking agent. The control treatment was also studied using corn stalk (CS) as a bulking agent. The experiment was conducted in a pilot scale composting reactor under aerobic condition with the initial C/N ratio of 20. Results showed that bulking agents significantly affected gaseous emissions and compost quality. Using SMS as a bulking agent improved composting efficiency by shortening the time for maturity. SMS increased germination index and humic acid of the final compost (by 13.44 and 41.94%, respectively) compared with CS. Furthermore, composting with SMS as a bulking agent could reduce nitrogen loss, NH 3 , and N 2 O emissions (by 13.57, 35.56, and 46.48%, respectively) compared with the control. SMS slightly increased CH 4 emission about 1.1 times of the CS. However, a 33.95% decrease in the global warming potential of CH 4 and N 2 O was obtained by adding SMS treatment. These results indicate that SMS is a favorable bulking agent for reducing gaseous emissions and increasing compost quality.

  5. Determining Thermal Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Fresh Compost by Simulating Early Phases of the Composting Process ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Kim, Jinkyung; Shepherd, Marion W.; Luo, Feng; Jiang, Xiuping

    2011-01-01

    A three-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was inoculated into fresh dairy compost (ca. 107 CFU/g) with 40 or 50% moisture and was placed in an environmental chamber (ca. 70% humidity) that was programmed to ramp from room temperature to selected composting temperatures in 2 and 5 days to simulate the early composting phase. The surviving E. coli O157:H7 population was analyzed by direct plating and enrichment. Optimal and suboptimal compost mixes, with carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios of 25:1 and 16:1, respectively, were compared in this study. In the optimal compost mix, E. coli O157:H7 survived for 72, 48, and 24 h in compost with 40% moisture and for 72, 24, and 24 h with 50% moisture at 50, 55, and 60°C, respectively, following 2 days of come-up time (rate of heating up). However, in the suboptimal compost mix, the pathogen survived for 288, 72, and 48 h in compost with 40% moisture and for 240, 72, 24 h in compost with 50% moisture at the same temperatures, respectively. Pathogen survival was longer, with 5 days of come-up time compared with 2 days of come-up. Overall, E. coli O157:H7 was inactivated faster in the compost with 50% moisture than in the compost with 40% at 55 and 60°C. Both moisture and come-up time were significant factors affecting Weibull model parameters. Our results suggest that slow come-up time at the beginning of composting can extend pathogen survival during composting. Additionally, both the C/N ratio and the initial moisture level in the compost mix affect the rate of pathogen inactivation as well. PMID:21498743

  6. Simulating the dynamics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in contaminated soil through composting by COP-Compost model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan; Guan, Yidong; Shi, Qi

    2015-02-01

    Organic pollutants (OPs) are potentially present in composts, and the assessment of their content and bioaccessibility in these composts is of paramount importance to minimize the risk of soil contamination and improve soil fertility. In this work, integration of the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) and OPs in an overall experimental framework is first proposed and adopted to validate the applicability of the COP-Compost model and to calibrate the model parameters on the basis of what has been achieved with the COP-Compost model. The COP-Compost model was evaluated via composting experiments containing 16 US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the sorption coefficient (Kd) values of two types of OP: fluorenthene (FLT) and pyrene (PHE). In our study, these compounds are used to characterize the sequential extraction and are quantified as soluble, sorbed, and non-extractable fractions. The model was calibrated, and coupling the OC and OP modules improved the simulation of the OP behavior and bioaccessibility during composting. The results show good agreement between the simulated and experimental results describing the evolution of different organic pollutants using the OP module, as well as the coupling module. However, no clear relationship is found between the Kd and the property of organic fractions. Further estimation of parameters is still necessary to modify the insufficiency of this present research.

  7. Modeling composting kinetics: A review of approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Composting kinetics modeling is necessary to design and operate composting facilities that comply with strict market demands and tight environmental legislation. Current composting kinetics modeling can be characterized as inductive, i.e. the data are the starting point of the modeling process and

  8. Evaluation of Grape Pomace Composting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrik Burg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problems of composting of grape pomace in strip compost piles. The three variants of compost piles formed from grape pomace and vegetables waste, wood chips and mature in varying proportions were tested. Turning of piles was performed using windrow turner PKS 2.8, in which the achieved performance was monitored. On the performance of windrow turner has a significant influence also cross section or width and height of turning piles and the bulk density of ingredients including their moisture. In evaluating, attention has been paid to assessment of selected parameters (temperature, moisture content of the composting process. From the viewpoint of temperature course, the highest temperature reached at the piles in Var. I (64.1 °C and Var. II (55.3 °C. Moisture of compost piles in the individual variants did not differ significantly and ranged between 25–35%.

  9. Biowaste home composting: experimental process monitoring and quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatàno, Fabio; Pagliaro, Giacomo; Di Giovanni, Paolo; Floriani, Enrico; Mangani, Filippo

    2015-04-01

    Because home composting is a prevention option in managing biowaste at local levels, the objective of the present study was to contribute to the knowledge of the process evolution and compost quality that can be expected and obtained, respectively, in this decentralized option. In this study, organized as the research portion of a provincial project on home composting in the territory of Pesaro-Urbino (Central Italy), four experimental composters were first initiated and temporally monitored. Second, two small sub-sets of selected provincial composters (directly operated by households involved in the project) underwent quality control on their compost products at two different temporal steps. The monitored experimental composters showed overall decreasing profiles versus composting time for moisture, organic carbon, and C/N, as well as overall increasing profiles for electrical conductivity and total nitrogen, which represented qualitative indications of progress in the process. Comparative evaluations of the monitored experimental composters also suggested some interactions in home composting, i.e., high C/N ratios limiting organic matter decomposition rates and final humification levels; high moisture contents restricting the internal temperature regime; nearly horizontal phosphorus and potassium evolutions contributing to limit the rates of increase in electrical conductivity; and prolonged biowaste additions contributing to limit the rate of decrease in moisture. The measures of parametric data variability in the two sub-sets of controlled provincial composters showed decreased variability in moisture, organic carbon, and C/N from the seventh to fifteenth month of home composting, as well as increased variability in electrical conductivity, total nitrogen, and humification rate, which could be considered compatible with the respective nature of decreasing and increasing parameters during composting. The modeled parametric kinetics in the monitored experimental

  10. Sweet Sorghum crop. Effect of the Compost Application; Cultivo de Sorgo Dulce. Efecto de la Aplicacion de Compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negro, M J; Solano, M L; Carrasco, J; Ciria, P

    1998-12-01

    A 3 year-plot experiments were performed to determined the possible persistence of the positive effects of treating soil with compost. For this purpose, a sweet sorghum bagasse compost has been used. Experiments were achieved with sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. L. Moench) vr Dale as energy crop. Similar sorghum productivities were obtained both in plots with consecutive compost applications and in plots amended with mineral fertilizers. No residual effect after three years has been detected. It could be due to the low dose of compost application. (Author) 27 refs.

  11. An Overview of Organic Waste in Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Aeslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed studies on the composting process of organic waste. Organic wastes are wastes that easily biodegradable. These wastes are produced from many sources such as agricultural waste, market waste, kitchen waste, urban solid food wastes and municipal solid waste. Without proper management, these waste could create several environment problem. Therefore, composting is the best low cost alternative solution to overcome this problem. Composting method can degrade all types of organic wastes like fruits, vegetables, plants, yard wastes and others. The composition from organic waste that could be used as nutrients for crops, soil additive and for environmental management. However, many factors can contribute to the quality of the compost products as different types of organic wastes have different concentrations of nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (N, P, K which are the common macro nutrients present in fertilizers. The presences of heavy metals show how composts can be applied to soils without contributing any ill effect. In term of the factor affecting the composting process, temperature, pH, moisture contents and carbon nitrogen ratio (C:N are the main parameters that contribute to the efficiency of the composting process.

  12. Energy transduction and transport processes in thermophilic bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, W. N.; Tolner, B.; Speelmans, G.; Elferink, M. G. L.; de Wit, J. G.; Driessen, A. J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Bacterial growth at the extremes of temperature has remained a fascinating aspect in the study of membrane function and structure. The stability of the integral membrane proteins of thermophiles make them particularly amenable to study. Respiratory enzymes of thermophiles appear to be functionally

  13. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on composting gas emissions was studied. • The reduction mechanisms of composting gas were clarified in this study. • No negative effect was caused on maturity with phosphogypsum and superphosphate. • CH 4 and NH 3 emission was decreased with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. • GHG decreased by 17.4% and 7.3% with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH 4 , N 2 O, and NH 3 were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH 4 emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH 3 emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N 2 O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively

  14. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Fan [College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100037 (China); Li, Guoxue, E-mail: yangfan19870117@126.com [College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming [College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China)

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • Effect of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on composting gas emissions was studied. • The reduction mechanisms of composting gas were clarified in this study. • No negative effect was caused on maturity with phosphogypsum and superphosphate. • CH{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} emission was decreased with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. • GHG decreased by 17.4% and 7.3% with phosphogypsum and superphosphate addition. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, and NH{sub 3} were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH{sub 4} emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH{sub 3} emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N{sub 2}O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively.

  15. Influence of composting techniques on microbial succession ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pH also stabilized as the composting process progressed in the pit. Good quality compost was obtained in 5 weeks when PACT was used. Conventional pit method lasted over several weeks. Key Words: Municipal wastes; passive aeration; pit composting; temperature; microbial succession. African Journal of Biotechnology ...

  16. PRACTICAL SIMULATION OF COMPOSTING IN THE LABORATORY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A closed incubation system was developed for laboratory simulation of composting conditions at the interior of a large compost pile. A conductive heat flux control system (CHFC) was used to adjust the temperature of the internal wall to that of the compost center and compensate f...

  17. TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung compost toxicity test using Allium test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardini, Trimurti Hesti; Notodarmojo, Peni Astrini [Biology Study Program, School of Life Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    TPK Sarimukti, Cipatat, West Bandung produced 2 kinds of compost from traditional market waste, liquid and solid compost. The aim of this research is to evaluate toxicity of compost produced in TPK Sarimukti using shallots (Allium cepa). Tests carried out by treated shallots with liquid compost (2,5%, 5%, 10% and 12,5% (w/v)) or solid compost (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% (w/v)) for 48 hours. Results showed reduced root growth rate and mitotic index (MI) in accordance with increased concentrations of compost. Sub lethal concentrations are liquid compost 5% and 10% and solid compost 75%. Lethal concentrations are liquid compost 12,5 % and solid compost 100%. Micronuclei (MN) increased with increase in liquid compost concentration. MN found at very high frequencies in highest solid compost concentration (100%), but very low at lower concentrations. Cells with binuclei and cell necrosis increased with increasing concentrations of given compost. Nuclear anomalies (NA) found in high frequency in 75% and 100% solid compost. Based on research, we can conclude that liquid compost is more toxic because it can reduce MI and root growth rate at lower concentrations than solid compost. Both types of compost have genotoxic properties because it can induce chromosome aberration (CA), MN, binuclei and NA formation.

  18. The presence of insect at composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudruňka, J.; Lyčková, B.; Kučerová, R.; Glogarová, V.; Závada, J.; Gibesová, B.; Takač, D.

    2017-10-01

    During composting biodegradable waste, microbic organisms reproduce massively, most of which belong to serious biopathogens which are able to penetrate various environmental layers. Their vector species include dipterous insect (Diptera) which reaches considerable amounts in composting plant premises as well as home composting units, mainly during summer months. Therefore measures must be taken to eliminate or reduce this unwanted phenomenon (sanitisation, disinfection). For evaluating obtained results, relative abundance calculation was chosen.

  19. Effects of compost age on the release of nutrients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal B. Al-Bataina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Composted organic materials are applied to help restore disturbed soils, speed revegetation, and control erosion; these changes are generally beneficial for stormwater quality. Ensuring that nutrient release from compost is adequate for plant needs without degrading stormwater quality is important since composts release nitrogen at variable rates (1–3% of total N/yr and the leaching process can extend for many years. The aim of this work was to understand the effect of compost age on the extent and rates of nitrogen release by conducting detailed rainfall simulation studies of one compost type at three different ages. Models describing temporal changes in nitrogen release to runoff during a single storm and across multiple storms were developed and applied to the runoff data. Nitrogen content (% and bulk density of compost increased with the increase in compost age and total nitrogen release decreased with increasing compost age. The three rain simulations (storms performed on each of the three compost ages show that nitrogen release declined each day of the repeated daily storms. A first-order kinetic model was used to estimate the amount of nitrogen remaining on compost after several storms.

  20. Biochar for composting improvement and contaminants reduction. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Paulina; Schmidt, Hans Peter; Ok, Yong Sik; Oleszczuk, Patryk

    2017-12-01

    Biochar is characterised by a large specific surface area, porosity, and a large amount of functional groups. All of those features cause that biochar can be a potentially good material in the optimisation of the process of composting and final compost quality. The objective of this study was to compile the current knowledge on the possibility of biochar application in the process of composting and on the effect of biochar on compost properties and on the content of contaminants in compost. The paper presents the effect of biochar on compost maturity indices, composting temperature and moisture, and also on the content and bioavailability of nutrients and of organic and inorganic contaminants. In the paper note is also taken of the effect of biochar added to composted material on plants, microorganisms and soil invertebrates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Disease suppression and phytosanitary aspects of compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Western Europe, approximately 25% of the 200 million tons of municipal solid waste that is generated each year is of organic origin and therefore compostable. Presently 35% of this organic waste is composted, resulting in 9 million tons of compost, and used mainly in agriculture,

  2. CTC Sentinel. Volume 6, Issue 8, August 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    future. Syria,” CTC Sentinel 6:8 (2013). 16 For some interesting work on this issue, see Thomas Hegghammer, “Should I Stay or Should I Go? Explain- ing...the late 1980s and early 1 Arie Perliger, “Democracy in an Ongoing Conflict: The Politics of Defence in Israel,” in James Forest and Isaiah Wilson...people of Syria and Iran…will not Hates Most, U.S. or Iran?” Bloomberg, February 5, 2013. 24 Thomas Erdbrink, “Khamenei: Iran Will Back ‘Any Nations

  3. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    Het onderhavige onderzoek is een eerste verkenning geweest naar de aanwezigheid van organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost. In deze rapportage is een indicatieve vergelijking van de gehalten in compost met de streefwaarden voor bodem (H=20%) gemaakt. Mede op basis van dit onderzoek

  4. The role of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their non-aerated compost teas in reducing the incidence of foliar diseases of Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ngakou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Compost teas are fermented watery extracts of composted materials used for their beneficial effect on plants. A study was conducted in the field to compare the efficacy of cow dung and kitchen manure composts and their derived non-aerated compost teas on disease symptoms expression and severity of Lycopersicon esculentum. The experimental layout was a complete randomised block design comprising six treatments, each of which was repeated three times: the negative control plot (Tm-; the positive control or fungicide plot (Tm+; the cow dung compost plot (Cpi; the kitchen manure compost plot (Cpii; the compost tea derived cow dung plot (Tci; and the compost tea derived kitchen manure plot (Tcii. Compost tea derived cow dung was revealed to be richer in elemental nutrients (N, P, K than compost tea from kitchen manure, and significantly (p < 0.0001 enhanced fruit yield per plant. Similarly, the two composts and their derived compost teas significantly (p < 0.0001 reduced the incidence and severity of disease symptoms compared to the controls, with the highest efficacy accounting for cow dung compost and compost tea. Although the non-aerated compost teas were not amended with micro-organisms, these results suggest that the two compost teas in use were rich enough in microbial pathogen antagonists, and therefore, are perceived as potential alternatives to synthetic chemical fungicides. Future work will attempt to identify these microbial antagonists with highly suppressive activity in the non-aerated compost teas.

  5. Bacterial diversity at different stages of the composting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulin Lars

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Composting is an aerobic microbiological process that is facilitated by bacteria and fungi. Composting is also a method to produce fertilizer or soil conditioner. Tightened EU legislation now requires treatment of the continuously growing quantities of organic municipal waste before final disposal. However, some full-scale composting plants experience difficulties with the efficiency of biowaste degradation and with the emission of noxious odours. In this study we examine the bacterial species richness and community structure of an optimally working pilot-scale compost plant, as well as a full-scale composting plant experiencing typical problems. Bacterial species composition was determined by isolating total DNA followed by amplifying and sequencing the gene encoding the 16S ribosomal RNA. Results Over 1500 almost full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were analysed and of these, over 500 were present only as singletons. Most of the sequences observed in either one or both of the composting processes studied here were similar to the bacterial species reported earlier in composts, including bacteria from the phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Deinococcus-Thermus. In addition, a number of previously undetected bacterial phylotypes were observed. Statistical calculations estimated a total bacterial diversity of over 2000 different phylotypes in the studied composts. Conclusions Interestingly, locally enriched or evolved bacterial variants of familiar compost species were observed in both composts. A detailed comparison of the bacterial diversity revealed a large difference in composts at the species and strain level from the different composting plants. However, at the genus level, the difference was much smaller and illustrated a delay of the composting process in the full-scale, sub-optimally performing plants.

  6. Mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic digestion of sulphate-containing wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colleran, E; Pender, S

    2002-01-01

    The effect of sulphate at an influent chemical oxygen demand (COD):sulphate ratio of 4 on the operational performance of anaerobic hybrid reactors treating molasses wastewater was investigated under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions in a long-term laboratory-scale study over a 1,081 day period. The presence of sulphate reduced the COD removal efficiency under both mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. At 55 degrees C, effluent acetate levels were consistently greater than 4000 mg l(-1) indicating that thermophilic acetate-utilising methane-producing bacteria (MPB) or sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) had not developed in the reactor under the conditions applied. At 37 degrees C, acetate was exclusively utilised by acetoclastic methanogens, whereas H2-utilising SRB predominated over H2-utilising MPB in the competition for hydrogen. By contrast, hydrogenotrophic MPB were shown to outcompete H2-utilising SRB during long-term thermophilic operation. 16SrDNA analysis of the seed sludge and reactor biomass on conclusion of the 37 degrees C and 55 degrees C trials illustrated that the dominant methanogen present on conclusion of the thermophilic trial in the absence of influent sulphate was related to Methanocorpusculum parvuum, and was capable of growth on both acetate and hydrogen. By contrast, an organism closely related to Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was the dominant methanogen present in the sulphate-fed reactor on completion of the thermophilic trial.

  7. Comparative economic assessment of ethanol production under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mistry, P.B.

    1991-01-01

    Key technical factors affecting the economics of bioethanol production are critically analyzed with special reference to the relative merits of thermophilic and mesophilic fermentation. A number of novel process schemes to take advantage of thermophilic operation are discussed. Analysis of the capital and operating costs for a range of flowsheets then provides a basis for critical study. Estimates for thermophilic production are compared with those for a sugar cane based mesophilic process (using S. cerevisiae). For the thermophilic fermentation, the basic kinetic and yield constants are based on projected values for a strain of B. stearothermophilus. Compared to mesophilic operation, thermophilic operation results in reduced capital, operating and feed costs. The feed cost still accounts for a large proportion (75%) of the total production cost. However, on a feed-cost-free basis, a reduction in production cost of up to 32% could be realized by changing to thermophilic operation from existing yeast-based processes, after minor process modifications. 20 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs

  8. Assessing Soil Nutrient Additions through Different Composting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    is potentially better growth medium amendment when compared with traditional compost types. The use of vermi-compost is, therefore, very helpful in terms of providing beneficial soil nutrients as compared to other compost types. In contrast to the other chemical and biological properties, the highest pH was recorded in the.

  9. Thermophilic (55 - 65°C) and extreme thermophilic (70 - 80°C) sulfate reduction in methanol and formate-fed UASB reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vallero, M.V.G.; Camarero, E.; Lettinga, G.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of thermophilic (55-65 degreesC) and extreme thermophilic (70-80 degreesC) sulfate-reducing processes was investigated in three lab-scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactors fed with either methanol or formate as the sole substrates and inoculated with mesophilic granular

  10. CTC Sentinel. Volume 5, Issue 11-12, November 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-01

    Price of Defiance,” The National, October 18, 2012. 13 Be they military in the case of Dariya, or adjacent to Alawite-populated towns and villages...business occurred in late May 2012 against the Mexican subsidiary of Pepsico snack and beverage company, Sabritas. The attack was viewed as the...point) MAJ Bryan price , ph.D. Director, CTC CONTACT Combating Terrorism Center U.s. Military Academy 607 Cullum Road, Lincoln Hall West point, NY 10996

  11. Biofiltration of composting gases using different municipal solid waste-pruning residue composts: monitoring by using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, R; Cabeza, I O; Giráldez, I; Díaz, M J

    2011-09-01

    The concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during the composting of kitchen waste and pruning residues, and the abatement of VOCs by different compost biofilters was studied. VOCs removal efficiencies greater than 90% were obtained using composts of municipal solid waste (MSW) or MSW-pruning residue as biofilter material. An electronic nose identified qualitative differences among the biofilter output gases at very low concentrations of VOCs. These differences were related to compost constituents, compost particle size (2-7 or 7-20mm), and a combination of both factors. The total concentration of VOCs determined by a photoionization analyser and inferred from electronic nose data sets were correlated over an ample range of concentrations of VOCs, showing that these techniques could be specially adapted for the monitoring of these processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Wastewater Biosolid Composting Optimization Based on UV-VNIR Spectroscopy Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporal-Lara, Beatriz; Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; Gómez, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedreño, Jose

    2016-11-15

    Conventional wastewater treatment generates large amounts of organic matter-rich sludge that requires adequate treatment to avoid public health and environmental problems. The mixture of wastewater sludge and some bulking agents produces a biosolid to be composted at adequate composting facilities. The composting process is chemically and microbiologically complex and requires an adequate aeration of the biosolid (e.g., with a turner machine) for proper maturation of the compost. Adequate (near) real-time monitoring of the compost maturity process is highly difficult and the operation of composting facilities is not as automatized as other industrial processes. Spectroscopic analysis of compost samples has been successfully employed for compost maturity assessment but the preparation of the solid compost samples is difficult and time-consuming. This manuscript presents a methodology based on a combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation and ultraviolet, visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic measurements were performed with liquid compost extract instead of solid compost samples. Partial least square (PLS) models were developed to quantify chemical fractions commonly employed for compost maturity assessment. Effective regression models were obtained for total organic matter (residual predictive deviation-RPD = 2.68), humification ratio (RPD = 2.23), total exchangeable carbon (RPD = 2.07) and total organic carbon (RPD = 1.66) with a modular and cost-effective visible and near infrared (VNIR) spectroradiometer. This combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation with a versatile sensor system provides an easy-to-implement, efficient and cost-effective protocol for compost maturity assessment and near-real-time monitoring.

  13. Wastewater Biosolid Composting Optimization Based on UV-VNIR Spectroscopy Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Temporal-Lara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional wastewater treatment generates large amounts of organic matter–rich sludge that requires adequate treatment to avoid public health and environmental problems. The mixture of wastewater sludge and some bulking agents produces a biosolid to be composted at adequate composting facilities. The composting process is chemically and microbiologically complex and requires an adequate aeration of the biosolid (e.g., with a turner machine for proper maturation of the compost. Adequate (near real-time monitoring of the compost maturity process is highly difficult and the operation of composting facilities is not as automatized as other industrial processes. Spectroscopic analysis of compost samples has been successfully employed for compost maturity assessment but the preparation of the solid compost samples is difficult and time-consuming. This manuscript presents a methodology based on a combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation and ultraviolet, visible and short-wave near-infrared spectroscopy. Spectroscopic measurements were performed with liquid compost extract instead of solid compost samples. Partial least square (PLS models were developed to quantify chemical fractions commonly employed for compost maturity assessment. Effective regression models were obtained for total organic matter (residual predictive deviation—RPD = 2.68, humification ratio (RPD = 2.23, total exchangeable carbon (RPD = 2.07 and total organic carbon (RPD = 1.66 with a modular and cost-effective visible and near infrared (VNIR spectroradiometer. This combination of a less time-consuming compost sample preparation with a versatile sensor system provides an easy-to-implement, efficient and cost-effective protocol for compost maturity assessment and near-real-time monitoring.

  14. Mass and element balance in food waste composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huijun; Matsuto, Toshihiko

    2010-01-01

    The mass and element balance in municipal solid waste composting facilities that handle food waste was studied. Material samples from the facilities were analyzed for moisture, ash, carbon, nitrogen, and the oxygen consumption of compost and bulking material was determined. Three different processes were used in the food waste composting facilities: standard in-vessel composting, drying, and stand-alone composting machine. Satisfactory results were obtained for the input/output ash balance despite several assumptions made concerning the quantities involved. The carbon/nitrogen ratio and oxygen consumption values for compost derived only from food waste were estimated by excluding the contribution of the bulking material remaining in the compost product. These estimates seemed to be suitable indices for the biological stability of compost because there was a good correlation between them, and because the values seemed logical given the operating conditions at the facilities. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Microbiological analysis of composts produced on South Carolina poultry farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, M W; Liang, P; Jiang, X; Doyle, M P; Erickson, M C

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the methods used in compost operations of small and medium-sized poultry farms resulted in the production of an amendment free of foodborne pathogens. Nine compost heaps on five South Carolina poultry farms were surveyed at different stages of the composting process. Compost samples were analysed for coliforms and enriched for Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The waste materials and composting practices differed among the surveyed farms. On two farms, new materials were added to heaps that had previously completed the active composting phase. Five compost heaps did not reach an internal temperature of 55 degrees C, and c. 62% of all internal samples in the first composting phase contained moisture contents poultry wastes. This research provides information regarding the effectiveness of the composting practices and microbiological quality of poultry compost produced by small- and medium-sized farms. Ensuring the safety of compost that may be applied to soils should be an integral part of preharvest food safety programme.

  16. Utilisation of composted night soil in fish production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polprasert, C.

    1984-01-01

    The stabilisation of human night soil mixed with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) and vegetable leaves by a simple composting method was found to be effective. This composting method did not require mechanical aeration or pile turning, but could retain most of the valuable nutrients and inactivate a large portion of micro-organisms present in the compost piles. A considerable yield of Tilapia could be obtained when the composted product was applied as feed to fish ponds. A discussion is included of the technical feasibility and the microbiological aspects of the integrated scheme of compost-fed fish ponds.

  17. Critical evaluation of municipal solid waste composting and potential compost markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, M; Jones, D L

    2009-10-01

    Mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of mixed waste streams is becoming increasingly popular as a method for treating municipal solid waste (MSW). Whilst this process can separate many recyclates from mixed waste, the resultant organic residue can contain high levels of heavy metals and physical and biological contaminants. This review assesses the potential end uses and sustainable markets for this organic residue. Critical evaluation reveals that the best option for using this organic resource is in land remediation and restoration schemes. For example, application of MSW-derived composts at acidic heavy metal contaminated sites has ameliorated soil pollution with minimal risk. We conclude that although MSW-derived composts are of low value, they still represent a valuable resource particularly for use in post-industrial environments. A holistic view should be taken when regulating the use of such composts, taking into account the specific situation of application and the environmental pitfalls of alternative disposal routes.

  18. Cellulolytic potential of thermophilic species from four fungal orders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busk, Peter Kamp; Lange, Lene

    2013-01-01

    and in characterization of their industrially useful enzymes. In the present study we investigated the cellulolytic potential of 16 thermophilic fungi from the three ascomycete orders Sordariales, Eurotiales and Onygenales and from the zygomycete order Mucorales thus covering all fungal orders that include thermophiles....... Thermophilic fungi are the only described eukaryotes that can grow at temperatures above 45 ºC. All 16 fungi were able to grow on crystalline cellulose but their secreted enzymes showed widely different cellulolytic activities, pH optima and thermostabilities. Interestingly, in contrast to previous reports, we......Elucidation of fungal biomass degradation is important for understanding the turnover of biological materials in nature and has important implications for industrial biomass conversion. In recent years there has been an increasing interest in elucidating the biological role of thermophilic fungi...

  19. Temperature control strategy to enhance the activity of yeast inoculated into compost raw material for accelerated composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Hirai, Hidehira

    2017-07-01

    The effects of inoculating the mesophilic yeast Pichia kudriavzevii RB1, which is able to degrade organic acids, on organic matter degradation in composting were elucidated. When model food waste with high carbohydrate content (C/N=22.3) was used, fluctuation in the inoculated yeast cell density was observed, as well as fluctuation in the composting temperature until day 5 when the temperature rose to 60°C, which is lethal for the yeast. After the decrease in yeast, acetic acid accumulated to levels as high as 20mg/g-ds in the composting material and vigorous organic matter degradation was inhibited. However, by maintaining the temperature at 40°C for 2days during the heating phase in the early stage of composting, both the organic acids originally contained in the raw material and acetic acid produced during the heating phase were degraded by the yeast. The concentration of acetic acid was kept at a relatively low level (10.1mg/g-ds at the highest), thereby promoting the degradation of organic matter by other microorganisms and accelerating the composting process. These results indicate that temperature control enhances the effects of microbial inoculation into composts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CTC-ask: a new algorithm for conversion of CT numbers to tissue parameters for Monte Carlo dose calculations applying DICOM RS knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosson, Rickard; Behrens, Claus F.

    2011-01-01

    One of the building blocks in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning is to convert patient CT data to MC compatible phantoms, consisting of density and media matrices. The resulting dose distribution is highly influenced by the accuracy of the conversion. Two major contributing factors are precise c...... outside of the lungs for the two cases studied, respectively. This was completely avoided by CTC-ask. CTC-ask is able to reduce anatomically irrational media assignment. The CTC-ask source code can be made available upon request to the authors....

  1. Improving biogas production from anaerobic co-digestion of Thickened Waste Activated Sludge (TWAS) and fat, oil and grease (FOG) using a dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic semi-continuous reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqaralleh, Rania Mona; Kennedy, Kevin; Delatolla, Robert

    2018-07-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility and advantages of using a dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic semi-continuous reactor system for the co-digestion of Thickened Waste Activated Sludge (TWAS) and Fat, Oil and Grease (FOG) to produce biogas in high quantity and quality. The performance of the dual-stage hyper-thermophilic (70°C)/thermophilic (55°C) anaerobic co-digestion system is evaluated and compared to the performance of a single-stage thermophilic (55°C) reactor that was used to co-digest the same FOG-TWAS mixtures. Both co-digestion reactors were compared to a control reactor (the control reactor was a single-stage thermophilic reactor that only digested TWAS). The effect of FOG% in the co-digestion mixture (based on total volatile solids) and the reactor hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the biogas/methane production and the reactors' performance were thoroughly investigated. The FOG% that led to the maximum methane yield with a stable reactor performance was determined for both reactors. The maximum FOG% obtained for the single-stage thermophilic reactor at 15 days HRT was found to be 65%. This 65% FOG resulted in 88.3% higher methane yield compared to the control reactor. However, the dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic co-digestion reactor proved to be more efficient than the single-stage thermophilic co-digestion reactor, as it was able to digest up to 70% FOG with a stable reactor performance. The 70% FOG in the co-digestion mixture resulted in 148.2% higher methane yield compared to the control at 15 days HRT. 70% FOG (based on total volatile solids) is so far the highest FOG% that has been proved to be useful and safe for semi-continuous reactor application in the open literature. Finally, the dual-stage hyper-thermophilic/thermophilic co-digestion reactor also proved to be efficient and stable in co-digesting 40% FOG mixtures at lower HRTs (i.e., 9 and 12 days) and still produce high methane yields and Class A effluents

  2. Soil bioassays as tools for sludge compost quality assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Sola, Laura; Ramirez, Wilson; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    Composting is a waste management technology that is becoming more widespread as a response to the increasing production of sewage sludge and the pressure for its reuse in soil. In this study, different bioassays (plant germination, earthworm survival, biomass and reproduction, and collembolan survival and reproduction) were assessed for their usefulness in the compost quality assessment. Compost samples, from two different composting plants, were taken along the composting process, which were characterized and submitted to bioassays (plant germination and collembolan and earthworm performance). Results from our study indicate that the noxious effects of some of the compost samples observed in bioassays are related to the low organic matter stability of composts and the enhanced release of decomposition endproducts, with the exception of earthworms, which are favored. Plant germination and collembolan reproduction inhibition was generally associated with uncomposted sludge, while earthworm total biomass and reproduction were enhanced by these materials. On the other hand, earthworm and collembolan survival were unaffected by the degree of composting of the wastes. However, this pattern was clear in one of the composting procedures assessed, but less in the other, where the release of decomposition endproducts was lower due to its higher stability, indicating the sensitivity and usefulness of bioassays for the quality assessment of composts.

  3. Qualidade de esterco de ave poedeira submetido a dois tipos de tratamentos de compostagem Quality of poultry manure submitted to two types of composting treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano G. dos Santos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se avaliou a qualidade de compostos de esterco de ave poedeira produzidos em pilhas de compostagem e se testaram os seguintes tratamentos: 1 sem gesso e sem revolvimento; 2 com gesso e sem revolvimento; 3 sem gesso e com revolvimento e 4 com gesso e com revolvimento. Para avaliar a qualidade dos compostos foram considerados os padrões do Ministério de Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento (MAPA, estabelecidos para ovos e larvas de helmintos, Salmonella sp, coliformes totais e fecais, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, C, N, umidade, relações C:N, C:CTC (Capacidade de troca de cátions e pH. Os compostos obtidos nas pilhas revolvidas atenderam aos padrões de qualidade, exceto o teor de C, que foi menor. Nos compostos das pilhas com gesso e não revolvidas, o teor deste elemento excedeu o mínimo exigido mas os valores de N, de ovos de helmintos e de umidade, não corresponderam ao padrão do MAPA. Os teores de metais e de Se dos compostos foram menores que o máximo permitido, exceto o de Cd, cujo teor foi elevado no esterco utilizado nas pilhas sem gesso. Este aditivo decresceu o valor do pH dos compostos e aumentou o teor de N das pilhas não revolvidas. Em relação a todos os atributos avaliados, os melhores compostos foram obtidos nas pilhas revolvidas.The quality of poultry manure composts obtained from composting heaps were evaluated, in the following treatments: 1 without gypsum and turning; 2 without gypsum and with turning; 3 with gypsum and turning; 4 with gypsum and without turning. The quality of composts was evaluated with the Department of Agricultural (DA standards established to the occurrence of eggs and grubs of helminthes, Salmonella sp, fecal and total coliforms, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, Se, C, N, humidity, C:N and C:CEC rations, and pH. The quality of composts from the turned heaps agrees with the DA standards, except the C content, which was lower. In the composts obtained from heaps with gypsum addition and without turner

  4. Organische microverontreinigingen in gft-compost

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rood GA; LAE

    1994-01-01

    The current investigation represented an initial survey on the presence of organic contaminants in Bio-waste compost (garden, fruit and vegetable wast). This report provides an indicative comparison between the pollution levels in compost and the target value for soil (H=20%). Partly based on this

  5. Thermophilic Fungi: Their Physiology and Enzymes†

    OpenAIRE

    Maheshwari, Ramesh; Bharadwaj, Girish; Bhat, Mahalingeshwara K.

    2000-01-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20 degrees C and a maximum temperature of growth extending Itp to 60 to 62 degrees C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45 degrees C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62 degrees C. Although wides...

  6. Enumerating actinomycetes in compost bioaerosols at source—Use of soil compost agar to address plate 'masking'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, M. P. M.; Drew, G. H.; Tamer Vestlund, A.; Aldred, D.; Longhurst, P. J.; Pollard, S. J. T.

    Actinomycetes are the dominant bacteria isolated from bioaerosols sampled at composting facilities. Here, a novel method for the isolation of actinomycetes is reported, overcoming masking of conventional agar plates, as well as reducing analysis time and costs. Repeatable and reliable actinomycetes growth was best achieved using a soil compost media at an incubation temperature of 44 °C and 7 days' incubation. The results are of particular value to waste management operators and their advisors undertaking regulatory risk assessments that support environmental approvals for compost facilities.

  7. Comparison of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Composting Council microbial detection methods in finished compost and regrowth potential of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157:H7 in finished compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynnells, Russell; Ingram, David T; Roberts, Cheryl; Stonebraker, Richard; Handy, Eric T; Felton, Gary; Vinyard, Bryan T; Millner, Patricia D; Sharma, Manan

    2014-07-01

    Bacterial pathogens may survive and regrow in finished compost due to incomplete thermal inactivation during or recontamination after composting. Twenty-nine finished composts were obtained from 19 U.S. states and were separated into three broad feedstock categories: biosolids (n=10), manure (n=4), and yard waste (n=15). Three replicates of each compost were inoculated with ≈ 1-2 log CFU/g of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and E. coli O157:H7. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) protocols and U.S. Composting Council's (USCC) Test Methods for the Examination of Composting and Compost (TMECC) were compared to determine which method recovered higher percentages of inoculated E. coli (representing fecal coliforms) and Salmonella spp. from 400-g samples of finished composts. Populations of Salmonella spp. and E. coli O157:H7 were determined over 3 days while stored at 25°C and compared to physicochemical parameters to predict their respective regrowth potentials. EPA Method 1680 recovered significantly (p=0.0003) more inoculated E. coli (68.7%) than TMECC 07.01 (48.1%) due to the EPA method using more compost in the initial homogenate, larger transfer dilutions, and a larger most probable number scheme compared to TMECC 07.01. The recoveries of inoculated Salmonella spp. by Environmental Protection Agency Method 1682 (89.1%) and TMECC 07.02 (72.4%) were not statistically significant (p=0.44). The statistically similar recovery percentages may be explained by the use of a nonselective pre-enrichment step used in both methods. No physicochemical parameter (C:N, moisture content, total organic carbon) was able to serve as a sole predictor of regrowth of Salmonella spp. or E. coli O157:H7 in finished compost. However, statistical analysis revealed that the C:N ratio, total organic carbon, and moisture content all contributed to pathogen regrowth potential in finished composts. It is recommended that the USCC modify TMECC protocols to test

  8. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-07-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  9. Air filled porosity in composting processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggieri, L.; Gea, T.; Artola, A.; Sanchez, A.

    2009-01-01

    As it is widely known, the composting process consists in the aerobic decomposition of the biodegradable organic matter present in different types of solid wastes. Water and oxygen are necessary for the biological activity of microorganisms involved in the composting process and their availability is directly related to the total and the air filled porosity (AFP). Maintaining adequate AFP level satisfies the oxygen content requirement to achieve the desired composting conditions and thus, tho enhance biological activity. (Author)

  10. Composite Compost Produced from Organic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Lăcătuşu Radu; Căpăţână Romeo; Lăcătuşu Anca-Rovena

    2016-01-01

    The soil fertilization in ecological agriculture is done mostly using organic fertilizers. Some of them are prepared as compost from waste, but other haven’t, until now, any recycling possibility. In this context, for the preparation of new types of compost, we used three type of waste: sewage sludge from waste water treatment, marine algae and farmyard manure. We have made four different composting variants, each consisting of different proportions of the three waste: equal parts (33.33%) of...

  11. Bio-degradation of synthetic textile dyes by thermophilic lignolytic fungal isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Sahni

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic dyes are extensively used in different industries like textile dyeing, paper, printing, color, photography, pharmaceutics and cosmetics. These are generally toxic and carcinogenic in nature. If not treated, they will remain in nature for a long period of time as they are recalcitrant. Among these, azo dyes represent the largest and most versatile class of synthetic dyes. Approximately 10-15% of the dyes are released into the environment during manufacture and usage. Various methods are used for dye removal viz. physical, chemical, electrochemical and biological. Advantage of chemical, electrochemical and biological methods over physical involves the complete destruction of the dye, but chemical and electrochemical methods are found to be expensive and have operational problems. So the biological method is preferred over other methods for degradation/decolorization of dyes. In the present study, thermophilic lignolytic fungal culture was isolated from compost/soil/digested slurry/plant debris, were subjected for acclimatization to Remazol Brilliant Blue (RBB at 0.05% concentration, in the malt extract broth (MEB. The most promising fungal isolates were used for further dye degradation studies. The results suggest that the isolates T10, T14 and T17 as a useful tool for degradation of reactive dyes.

  12. Optimization of control parameters for petroleum waste composting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Composting is being widely employed in the treatment of petroleum waste. The purpose of this study was to find the optimum control parameters for petroleum waste in-vessel composting. Various physical and chemical parameters were monitored to evaluate their influence on the microbial communities present in composting. The CO2 evolution and the number of microorganisms were measured as theactivity of composting. The results demonstrated that the optimum temperature, pH and moisture content were 56.5-59.5, 7.0-8.5 and 55%-60%, respectively. Under the optimum conditions, the removal efficiency of petroleum hydrocarbon reached 83.29% after 30 days composting.

  13. Case Study of Survey of Occasional Application of Vinasse in Compost Production in Different Phases (during Production and after Producing Compost, at Waste Resumption Complex of Aradkooh in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hemati

    2016-02-01

    locations in the riff-raff. The microbial population size was obtained by the CFU method.Electrical conductivity and pH of the water extracts from the samples were determined by shaking the samples mechanically with distilled water at a solid-to-water ratio of 1:10 (w/v. Additionally, NO3–N was determined by spectrophotometric method. Results and Discussion: At the beginning of this study, theresults showed that, after the formation of the riff-raff, temperature was increasing rapidly all over the riff-raff, which indicates a specified microbial activity. Minimum time to reach the thermophilic temperature, 30 ml per kilogram of vinasse raw materials, was for (C3 and maximum of them was for the control treatment (C0. Adding vinass in the second phase led to an increase in the compost mass temperature. Treatment C3 with the highest and treatment C0 has the lowest microbial populations. Total nitrogen content increased during composting of the waste materials in comparison with its initial concentration. In both phases treatment C3 has the highest and treatment C0 has the lowest total nitrogen content. According to results of the measurements of organic carbon in the first phase, at the beginning of composting process, most of the organic matter was in treatment C3and the lowest organic matter was in C0. However, with increasing the composting process, the vinass treatment had lost jts organic carbon with more gradient. In the second phase by adding vinass, the originally organic carbon increased because of the high levels of organic matter. But,with further vinass treatment, they lost their organic carbon more vigorously. During five months,changes in the ratio of carbon to nitrogen C/Nwas variable. In vinass treatment, the ratio ofC/N increased more vigorously until it reached one quarter and then it fell less sharply. In the first month, this ratio fell less sharply in the control group, and in the final months it fell with more intensity. In the second phase, decreasing

  14. Thermophillic Sidestream Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactors: The Shear Rate Dilemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeison, D.A.; Telkamp, P.; Lier, van J.B.

    2009-01-01

    Anaerobic biomass retention under thermophilic conditions has proven difficult. Membrane filtration can be used as alternative way to achieve high sludge concentrations. This research studied the feasibility of anaerobic membrane bioreactors (AnMBRs) under thermophilic conditions. A sidestream MBR

  15. Changes in the microbial communities during co-composting of digestates☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Whittle, Ingrid H.; Confalonieri, Alberto; Insam, Heribert; Schlegelmilch, Mirko; Körner, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is a waste treatment method which is of increasing interest worldwide. At the end of the process, a digestate remains, which can gain added value by being composted. A study was conducted in order to investigate microbial community dynamics during the composting process of a mixture of anaerobic digestate (derived from the anaerobic digestion of municipal food waste), green wastes and a screened compost (green waste/kitchen waste compost), using the COMPOCHIP microarray. The composting process showed a typical temperature development, and the highest degradation rates occurred during the first 14 days of composting, as seen from the elevated CO2 content in the exhaust air. With an exception of elevated nitrite and nitrate levels in the day 34 samples, physical–chemical parameters for all compost samples collected during the 63 day process indicated typical composting conditions. The microbial communities changed over the 63 days of composting. According to principal component analysis of the COMPOCHIP microarray results, compost samples from the start of the experiment were found to cluster most closely with the digestate and screened compost samples. The green waste samples were found to group separately. All starting materials investigated were found to yield fewer and lower signals when compared to the samples collected during the composting experiment. PMID:24456768

  16. Composting as a waste treatment technology: composting of sweet sorghum bagasse with different nitrogen sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, J.; Carrasco, J.E.; Negro, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to study the aerobic solid fermentation of sweet sorghum bagasse in mixture with other additives as nitrogen sources to evaluate the utilization of this material as a substrate for composting. The characteristics of sweet sorghum bagasse, a material extremely low in nutrients as a consequence of sugar juice extraction but with a high organic carbon content, suggest that it may be possible to compost it with other organic wastes nitrogen rich, since this is an indispensable element for the protein synthesis of the microbial biomass which determines the fermentation process. Several additives, including different types of agricultural residues, residues from beer industries, industrial cellulases, an enzymatic commercial product for activation of composting, domestic sewage sludge as well as some inorganic sources, were used in the experiences. The additives were utilized in doses of 1,5 and 10% (in some case 0.1 and 1% by weight), and the final C/N ratio of the mixtures was adjusted to 30 with NH4NO3. taking to account the nitrogen content of the additives. The experiment was carried out in a constant chamber at 37degree centigree and lasted for two month. Best quality composts from a fertilizer perspective were obtained utilizing spillages and grain bagasse (beer industry residue) as a nitrogen sources. On the contrary the use of KNO3 as nitrogen source showed a relatively unfavourable effect on the composting. The results obtained show the suitability of sweet sorghum bagasse to be used as a carbon substrate for composting in mixtures with variety of nitrogen sources. (Author) 15 refs

  17. Hydrophobic environment is a key factor for the stability of thermophilic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromiha, M Michael; Pathak, Manish C; Saraboji, Kadhirvel; Ortlund, Eric A; Gaucher, Eric A

    2013-04-01

    The stability of thermophilic proteins has been viewed from different perspectives and there is yet no unified principle to understand this stability. It would be valuable to reveal the most important interactions for designing thermostable proteins for such applications as industrial protein engineering. In this work, we have systematically analyzed the importance of various interactions by computing different parameters such as surrounding hydrophobicity, inter-residue interactions, ion-pairs and hydrogen bonds. The importance of each interaction has been determined by its predicted relative contribution in thermophiles versus the same contribution in mesophilic homologues based on a dataset of 373 protein families. We predict that hydrophobic environment is the major factor for the stability of thermophilic proteins and found that 80% of thermophilic proteins analyzed showed higher hydrophobicity than their mesophilic counterparts. Ion pairs, hydrogen bonds, and interaction energy are also important and favored in 68%, 50%, and 62% of thermophilic proteins, respectively. Interestingly, thermophilic proteins with decreased hydrophobic environments display a greater number of hydrogen bonds and/or ion pairs. The systematic elimination of mesophilic proteins based on surrounding hydrophobicity, interaction energy, and ion pairs/hydrogen bonds, led to correctly identifying 95% of the thermophilic proteins in our analyses. Our analysis was also applied to another, more refined set of 102 thermophilic-mesophilic pairs, which again identified hydrophobicity as a dominant property in 71% of the thermophilic proteins. Further, the notion of surrounding hydrophobicity, which characterizes the hydrophobic behavior of residues in a protein environment, has been applied to the three-dimensional structures of elongation factor-Tu proteins and we found that the thermophilic proteins are enriched with a hydrophobic environment. The results obtained in this work highlight the

  18. Bioremediation of diesel oil-contaminated soil by composting with biowaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gestel, Kristin van; Mergaert, Joris; Swings, Jean; Coosemans, Jozef; Ryckeboer, Jaak

    2003-01-01

    Composting of biowaste and diesel contaminated-soil is an efficient bioremediation method, with mature compost as a usable end product. - Soil spiked with diesel oil was mixed with biowaste (vegetable, fruit and garden waste) at a 1:10 ratio (fresh weight) and composted in a monitored composting bin system for 12 weeks. Pure biowaste was composted in parallel. In order to discern the temperature effect from the additional biowaste effect on diesel degradation, one recipient with contaminated soil was hold at room temperature, while another was kept at the actual composting temperature. Measurements of composting parameters together with enumerations and identifications of microorganisms demonstrate that the addition of the contaminated soil had a minor impact on the composting process. The first-order rate constant of diesel degradation in the biowaste mixture was four times higher than in the soil at room temperature, and 1.2 times higher than in the soil at composting temperature

  19. Removal of five fluoroquinolone antibiotics during broiler manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Meng, Lei; Xue, Nandong

    2018-02-01

    Composting is a cost-effective approach for the removal of antibiotics from the environment; however, the consequence of this approach on fluoroquinolone antibiotics is limited. The fate of five representative fluoroquinolone antibiotics, namely ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, and sarafloxacin, was investigated in a pilot-scale composting of broiler manure over 42 days. The effect of antibiotic concentrations (at a dose of 15, 30, or 60 mg/kg for each and a control without antibiotic addition) on the composting process was also assessed. The 42-day composting showed 45.3-75.4% of antibiotic removal with species-specific patterns. However, the observed variations in such removal among both antibiotics concentrations and composting times were not significant in most cases, possibly indicating a slight side-effect of the tested antibiotic concentrations on the composting process. To the best of our knowledge, this study is among few studies with a focus on the persistence of fluoroquinolone antibiotics during a pilot-scale composting, which warrants further study in regards to the mechanism underlying the removal of these compounds during composting.

  20. Pelleted organo-mineral fertilisers from composted pig slurry solids, animal wastes and spent mushroom compost for amenity grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Juluri R; Watabe, Miyuki; Stewart, T Andrew; Millar, B Cherie; Moore, John E

    2007-01-01

    In Ireland, conversion of biodegradable farm wastes such as pig manure spent mushroom compost and poultry litter wastes to pelletised fertilisers is a desirable option for farmers. In this paper, results obtained from the composting of pig waste solids (20% w/w) blended with other locally available biodegradable wastes comprising poultry litter (26% w/w), spent mushroom compost (26% w/w), cocoa husks (18% w/w) and moistened shredded paper (10% w/w) are presented. The resulting 6-mo old 'mature' composts had a nutrient content of 2.3% total N, 1.6% P and 3.1% K, too 'low' for direct use as an agricultural fertiliser. Formulations incorporating dried blood or feather meal amendments enriched the organic N-content, reduced the moisture in mature compost mixtures and aided the granulation process. Inclusion of mineral supplements viz., sulphate of ammonia, rock phosphate and sulphate of potash, yielded slow release fertilisers with nutrient N:P:K ratios of 10:3:6 and 3:5:10 that were suited for amenity grasslands such as golf courses for spring or summer application and autumn dressing, respectively. Rigorous microbiological tests carried out throughout the composting, processing and pelletising phases indicated that the formulated organo-mineral fertilisers were free of vegetative bacterial pathogens.

  1. Disposal and utilization of broiler slaughter waste by composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Bharathy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To know the feasibility of hygienic and environmentally safe method of disposal of broiler slaughter house waste with coir pith and caged layer manure. Materials and Methods: Compost bins (4 feet x 4 feet x 4 feet were established with concrete blocks with air holes to facilitate aerobic composting. The broiler slaughter waste and coconut coir pith waste were collected from the local market, free of cost. The caged layer manure available from poultry farms were utilized as manure substrate. Physical properties and chemical composition of ingredients were analyzed and a suitable compost recipe was formulated (USDA-NRCS, 2000. Two control bins were maintained simultaneously, using caged layer manure with coir pith waste and water in a ratio of 0.8:3:1.2 (T and another one bin using caged layer manure alone(T . 2 3 Results: At the end of composting, moisture content, weight and the Volume of the compost were reduced significantly (P<0.01, pH, EC, TDS, total organic carbon and total nitrogen content were also significantly (P<0.01 reduced at the finishing of composting. Calcium, phosphorous and potassium content was progressively increased during composting period. The finished compost contains undetectable level of salmonella. Cowpea and sorghum seeds showed positive germination percentage when this finished compost was used. It indicated that all of the finished compost was free from phytotoxin substances. Conclusion: The results indicated that, composting of slaughter waste combined with coir pith waste may be a hygienic and environmentally safe method of disposal of broiler slaughter house waste [Vet. World 2012; 5(6.000: 359-361

  2. Determination of an empirical formula for organic composition of mature compost produced in Isfahan-Iran composting plant in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Razmjoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aims of this study were to analyze the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen (CHNS-O content of compost derived from Isfahan-Iran municipal solid waste using thermal elemental analyzer and to develop an approximate empirical chemical formula for the organic fraction of the mature compost as a function of its elemental composition. Materials and Methods: The compost samples (1 kg were collected from different parts of the windrows and thoroughly mixed in accordance with standard methods. After drying and milling, each sample was introduced to an elemental analyzer to measure their CHNS-O contents. The moisture content, temperature, and pH value were also monitored in three different windrows during the process. Results: An approximate chemical empirical formula calculated for the organic fraction of the compost was: C 204 H 325 O 85 N 77 S. Conclusion: According to this formula, it appears that the mature compost produced in the site contains higher value of nondegradable nitrogen, which leads to a lower total C/N ratio. Therefore, improving the primary separation of raw material in the composting plant particularly severance of plastic materials can result in an optimum C/N ratio.

  3. Comparison of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Composting Council... Escherichia coli O157:H7 in finished compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composting management or conditions that result in inadequate exposure of the compostable materials to destructive time-temperature regimens can result in survival of enteric human pathogens. Bacterial pathogens, such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp., can regrow in finished compost. ...

  4. Monitoring of biopile composting of oily sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriipsalu, Mait; Nammari, Diauddin

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a bioreactor set-up used to simulate degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in a static biopile. The large-scale test was performed in a 28 m(3) custom-designed reactor. Oily sludge (40% by weight, having 7% dry matter [DM], and hydrocarbons C(10)-C(40) 160,000 mg kg(-1) DM) was mixed with organic-rich amendments - mature oil-compost (40%) and garden waste compost (20%). Within the reactor, the temperature and soil gases were monitored continuously during 370 days via 24 measurement points. Also, moisture content was continuously recorded and airflow through compost mix occasionally measured. Three-dimensional ordinary kriging spatial models were created to describe the dynamic variations of temperature, air distribution, and hydrocarbon concentration. There were large temperature differences in horizontal and vertical sections during initial months of composting only. Water content of the mixture was uneven by layers, referring on relocation of moisture due to aeration and condensation. The air distribution through the whole reactor varied largely despite of continuous aeration, while the concentration of O(2) was never reduced less than 1-2% on average. The results showed that composting of sludge using force-aerated static biopile technology was justified during the first 3-4 months, after which the masses could be re-mixed and heaped for further maturation in low-tech compost windrows. After 370 days of treatment, the content of hydrocarbons (C( 10)-C(40)) in the compost mixture was reduced by 68.7%.

  5. HEAVY METAL ASPECTS OF COMPOST USE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Composts prepared from municipal solid waste, biosolids, food processing wastes, manures, yard debris, and agricultural byproducts and residues are increasingly available for agricultural use. Although many benefits are possible from use of composts, these products must be safe f...

  6. Isolation and screening phosphate solubilizers from composts as biofertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim; Latiffah Norddin; Abdul Razak Ruslan

    2006-01-01

    Phosphate solubilizers are miroorganisms that able to solubilize insoluble inorganic phosphate compounds or hydrolyze organic phosphate to inorganic P. Therefore make the P to be available for plant and consequently enhance plant growth and yield. Recently, phosphate solubilizing microorganisms has been shown to play an important role in the biofertilizer industry. Fifty-one bacterial were isolated from eleven composts. Most of the phosphate solubilizers were isolated from natural farming composted compost and normal composting compost. This shows that both of these composts are more suitable to use for phosphate solubilizer isolation compare commercial composts. Fourteen of the isolates were found to be phosphate solubilizers. These isolates produced a clear zone on the phosphate agar plates, showing their potential as biofertilizer. AP3 was significantly produced the largest clear zone compared with other isolates. This indicates that isolate AP 3 could be a good phosphate solubilizer. Thus, their effectiveness in the greenhouse and field should be evaluated. (Author)

  7. Emission of Gases during Composting of Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dajana Kučić

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Composting is a biochemical process converting organic components into stable compost with release of heat, water, CO2 and NH3. The objective of this work was to determine the amount of CO2 and NH3 in the exhaust gases during composting of tobacco waste (TW and mixture of tobacco and grape waste (TGW. The cumulative evolved CO2 during 21 days of composting of TW and TGW, per mass of volatile matter, was 94.01 g kg−1 and 208.18 g kg−1, respectively, and cumulative evolved NH3 during composting of TW and TGW, per mass of volatile matter, was 504.81 mg kg−1 and 122.45 mg kg−1, respectively.

  8. Biological compost stability influences odor molecules production measured by electronic nose during food-waste high-rate composting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Imporzano, Giuliana; Crivelli, Fernando; Adani, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    Composting is a technique that is used to convert organic waste into agriculturally useful products. Composting is an aerobic, solid-state biological process, which typically can be divided into two phases, a high-rate composting phase and a curing phase. High-rate composting plays an important role during the composting process, owing to the high microbial activity occurring during this phase. It requires an accurate plant design to prevent the formation of anaerobic conditions and odors. The formation of anaerobic conditions mainly depends on the rate of O 2 consumption needed to degrade the substrate, i.e., the biological stability of the substrate. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the biological activity, measured by the dynamic respiration index (DRI) and the odor molecules production, measured by an electronic nose (EN) during two food-waste high-rate composting processes. Although the O 2 concentration in the biomass free air space (FAS) was kept optimal (O 2 > 140 ml l -1 , v/v) during composting, strong anaerobic conditions developed. This was indicated by the high levels of sulfur compounds, methane, and hydrogen in the outlet air stream. Both the high level of O 2 consumption, needed to degrade the high-degradable water-soluble organic matter and the low water O 2 solubility, caused by high temperature reached in this stage (up to 60 deg. C), led to the anaerobic conditions observed in the biofilm-particle level. The application of the partial least square (PLS) analysis demonstrated a good regression between the DRI and the odor molecules produced that was detected by the EN (R 2 = 0.991; R 2 CV = 0.990), signifying the usefulness of the DRI as a parameter to estimate the potential production of odor molecules of the biomass

  9. Effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on compost maturity and gaseous emissions during kitchen waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Li, Guoxue; Shi, Hong; Wang, Yiming

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of phosphogypsum and superphosphate on the maturity and gaseous emissions of composting kitchen waste. Two amended compost treatments were conducted using phosphogypsum and superphosphate as additives with the addition of 10% of initial raw materials (dry weight). A control treatment was also studied. The treatments were conducted under aerobic conditions in 60-L reactors for 35 days. Maturity indexes were determined, and continuous measurements of CH4, N2O, and NH3 were taken. Phosphogypsum and superphosphate had no negative effects on compost maturity, although superphosphate inhibited the temperature rise in the first few days. The addition of phosphogypsum and superphosphate drastically reduced CH4 emissions (by 85.8% and 80.5%, respectively) and decreased NH3 emissions (by 23.5% and 18.9%, respectively). However, a slight increase in N2O emissions (by 3.2% and 14.8%, respectively) was observed. Composting with phosphogypsum and superphosphate reduced total greenhouse gas emissions by 17.4% and 7.3% respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodar J. R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  11. Quality assessment of compost prepared with municipal solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodar, J. R.; Ramos, N.; Carreira, J. A.; Pacheco, R.; Fernández-Hernández, A.

    2017-11-01

    One way that helps maintain the sustainability of agro-ecosystems land is the application of compost from municipal solid waste as fertilizer, because it can recover the nutrients contained in them, minimizing the negative impact on the environment. Composting as a method for preparing organic fertilizers and amendments is economically and ecologically sound and may well represent an acceptable solution for disposing of municipal solid waste. In the present work, the quality of compost is studied made from municipal solid waste; the content of mineral nutrients: potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc, manganese, cupper, iron, nickel, chromium and lead has been investigated. The objective was to evaluate the changes in mineral nutrient concentration during the composting process. The compost was prepared in a pilot-plant using the turning-pile system. Temperature was used as a monitoring parameter to follow the composting progress, which underwent the typical trend of municipal solid waste composting mixtures. The results showed a similar evolution on the content of mineral nutrients of the mixture of municipal solid waste. This evolution originated in a mature compost (end sample) with an adequate content of mineral elements and physical-chemical characteristics for its use in agriculture. So, the use of compost of municipal solid waste represents an important tool for fertilization requirements for its use in agriculture.

  12. Use of composts in revegetating arid lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.

    1991-09-01

    Compost has been suggested as a soil amendment for arid lands at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The operating contractor of the site, Westinghouse Hanford Company, requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a literature review to compile additional information on the use of compost amendments and their benefits. This report provides background information on the factors needed for plant growth and the consequences of severe soil disturbance. This report also discussed the characteristics of composts relative to other amendments and how they each affect plant growth. Finally,regulatory requirements that could affect land application of sludge-based compost on the Hanford Site are reviewed.

  13. Thermophilic xylanases: from bench to bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basit, Abdul; Liu, Junquan; Rahim, Kashif; Jiang, Wei; Lou, Huiqiang

    2018-01-17

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a valuable raw material. As technology has evolved, industrial interest in new ways to take advantage of this raw material has grown. Biomass is treated with different microbial cells or enzymes under ideal industrial conditions to produce the desired products. Xylanases are the key enzymes that degrade the xylosidic linkages in the xylan backbone of the biomass, and commercial enzymes are categorized into different glycoside hydrolase families. Thermophilic microorganisms are excellent sources of industrially relevant thermostable enzymes that can withstand the harsh conditions of industrial processing. Thermostable xylanases display high-specific activity at elevated temperatures and distinguish themselves in biochemical properties, structures, and modes of action from their mesophilic counterparts. Natural xylanases can be further improved through genetic engineering. Rapid progress with genome editing, writing, and synthetic biological techniques have provided unlimited potential to produce thermophilic xylanases in their natural hosts or cell factories including bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi. This review will discuss the biotechnological potential of xylanases from thermophilic microorganisms and the ways they are being optimized and produced for various industrial applications.

  14. Sweet Sorghum Crop. Effect of the Compost Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negro, M. J.; Solano, M. L.; Carrasco, J.; Ciria, P.

    1998-01-01

    A 3 year-plot experiments were performed to determined the possible persistence of the positive effects of treating soil with compost. For this purpose, a sweet sorghum bagasse compost has been used. Experiments were achieved with sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor. L. Moench) vr Dale as energy crop. Similar sorghum productivities were obtained both in plots with consecutive compost applications and in plots amended with mineral fertilizers. No residual effect after three years has been detected. It could be due to the low dose of compost application. (Author) 27 refs

  15. Bioprospecting thermophiles for cellulase production: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Somen; Chaudhary, Anita

    2012-07-01

    Most of the potential bioprospecting is currently related to the study of the extremophiles and their potential use in industrial processes. Recently microbial cellulases find applications in various industries and constitute a major group of industrial enzymes. Considerable amount of work has been done on microbial cellulases, especially with resurgence of interest in biomass ethanol production employing cellulases and use of cellulases in textile and paper industry. Most efficient method of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis is through enzymatic saccharification using cellulases. Significant information has also been gained about the physiology of thermophilic cellulases producers and process development for enzyme production and biomass saccharification. The review discusses the current knowledge on cellulase producing thermophilic microorganisms, their physiological adaptations and control of cellulase gene expression. It discusses the industrial applications of thermophilic cellulases, their cost of production and challenges in cellulase research especially in the area of improving process economics of enzyme production.

  16. Relationship between microbial community dynamics and process performance during thermophilic sludge bioleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-Yi; Chou, Li-Chieh

    2016-08-01

    Heavy metals can be removed from the sludge using bioleaching technologies at thermophilic condition, thereby providing an option for biotreatment of wasted sludge generated from wastewater treatment. The purposes of this study were to establish a molecular biology technique, real-time PCR, for the detection and enumeration of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria during the thermophilic sludge bioleaching. The 16S rRNA gene for real-time PCR quantification targeted the bioleaching bacteria: Sulfobacillus thermosulfidooxidans, Sulfobacillus acidophilus, and Acidithiobacillus caldus. The specificity and stringency for thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria were tested before the experiments of monitoring the bacterial community, bacterial number during the thermophilic sludge bioleaching and the future application on testing various environmental samples. The results showed that S. acidophilus was identified as the dominant sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, while A. caldus and S. thermosulfidooxidans occurred in relatively low numbers. The total number of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria increased during the thermophilic bioleaching process. Meanwhile, the decrease of pH, production of sulfate, degradation of SS/VSS, and solubilization of heavy metal were found to correlate well with the population of thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria during the bioleaching process. The real-time PCR used in this study is a suitable method to monitor numbers of thermophilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria during the bioleaching process.

  17. Performance of thermophilic anaerobic digesters using inoculum mixes with enhanced methanogenic diversity

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanimeh, Sophia

    2017-05-30

    BACKGROUND Reportedly, various mixes of seeds were quasi-randomly selected to startup anaerobic digesters. In contrast, this study examines the impact of inoculating thermophilic anaerobic digesters with a designed mix of non-acclimated seeds based on their methanogen composition, using Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (QPCR) of 16S rRNA gene, to achieve high abundance and diversity of methanogens. RESULTS Based on QPCR results, two seed mixes were selected to inoculate two anaerobic digesters: digester (A) was inoculated with a control seed consisting of digestate, manure, and activated sludge; and digester (B) was inoculated with a further methanogen-enriched seed consisting of the control seed with added compost and leachate. Both seed combinations yielded a balanced microflora that is able to achieve a successful startup. However, upon reaching steady state, digester B exhibited lower propionate levels, resulting in lower VFA concentration and increased buffering capacity, indicating greater stability. Acetotrophs and hydrogenotrophs were dominated by Methanosarcinaceae and Methanobacteriales, respectively, in both digesters, exhibiting an average ratio of 66-to-34% in A and 76-to-24% in B during steady state. CONCLUSION The inoculation strategy in digester B resulted in improved stability, lower propionate concentration and 10% higher relative abundance of acetotrophs.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from food and garden waste composting

    OpenAIRE

    Ermolaev, Evgheni

    2015-01-01

    Composting is a robust waste treatment technology. Use of finished compost enables plant nutrient recycling, carbon sequestration, soil structure improvement and mineral fertiliser replacement. However, composting also emits greenhouse gases (GHG) such as methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) with high global warming potential (GWP). This thesis analysed emissions of CH₄ and N₂O during composting as influenced by management and process conditions and examined how these emissions could be ...

  19. Comparing Residue Clusters from Thermophilic and Mesophilic Enzymes Reveals Adaptive Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammond, Deanne W; Kastelowitz, Noah; Himmel, Michael E; Yin, Hang; Crowley, Michael F; Bomble, Yannick J

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how proteins adapt to function at high temperatures is important for deciphering the energetics that dictate protein stability and folding. While multiple principles important for thermostability have been identified, we lack a unified understanding of how internal protein structural and chemical environment determine qualitative or quantitative impact of evolutionary mutations. In this work we compare equivalent clusters of spatially neighboring residues between paired thermophilic and mesophilic homologues to evaluate adaptations under the selective pressure of high temperature. We find the residue clusters in thermophilic enzymes generally display improved atomic packing compared to mesophilic enzymes, in agreement with previous research. Unlike residue clusters from mesophilic enzymes, however, thermophilic residue clusters do not have significant cavities. In addition, anchor residues found in many clusters are highly conserved with respect to atomic packing between both thermophilic and mesophilic enzymes. Thus the improvements in atomic packing observed in thermophilic homologues are not derived from these anchor residues but from neighboring positions, which may serve to expand optimized protein core regions.

  20. State of the art and future perspectives of thermophilic anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahring, Birgitte Kiær; Mladenovska, Zuzana; Iranpour, R.

    2002-01-01

    The slate of the art of thermophilic digestion is discussed. Thermophilic digestion is a well established technology in Europe for treatment of mixtures of waste in common large scale biogas plants or for treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Due to a large number of failures...... over time with thermophilic digestion of sewage sludge this process has lost its appeal in the USA. New demands on sanitation of biosolids before land use will, however, bring the attention back to the use of elevated temperatures during sludge stabilization. In the paper we show how the use of a start......-up strategy based on the actual activity of key microbes can be used to ensure proper and fast transfer of mesophilic digesters into thermophilic operation. Extreme thermophilic temperatures of 65degreesC or more may be necessary in the future to meet the demands for full sanitation of the waste material...

  1. Characterization of explosives processing waste decomposition due to composting. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griest, W.H.; Stewart, A.J.; Ho, C.H.; Tyndall, R.L.; Vass, A.A.; Caton, J.E.; Caldwell, W.M.

    1994-09-01

    The objective of this work was to provide data and methodology assisting the transfer and acceptance of composting technology for the remediation of explosives-contaminated soils and sediments. Issues and activities addressed included: (a) chemical and toxicological characterization of compost samples from new field composting experiments, and the environmental availability of composting efficiency by isolation of bacterial consortia and natural surfactants from highly efficient composts, and (c) improved assessment of compost product suitability for land application.

  2. Composting as a strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.W.; Wagner-Riddle, C.; Thompson, A.; Fleming, R.; MacAlpine, A.

    2001-01-01

    Composting animal manure has the potential to reduce emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) from agriculture. Agriculture has been recognized as a major contributor of greenhouse gases, releasing an estimated 81% and 70% of the anthropogenic emissions of nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ), respectively. A significant amount of methane is emitted during the storage of liquid manure, whereas nitrous oxide is emitted from the storage of manure and from soil following manure or fertilizer application. Composting animal manure can reduce GHG emissions in two ways; by reducing nitrous oxide and methane emissions during manure storage and application, and by reducing the amount of manufactured fertilizers and the GHG associated with their production and use. We will present information of GHG emissions and potentials for reduction based on available data, and on specific composting experiments. Nitrous oxide and methane emissions were monitored on an enclosed composting system processing liquid hog manure. Measurements indicated that total GHG emissions during composting were 24% of the Tier 2 IPCC estimates for traditional liquid hog manure management on that farm. Previous research has also indicated little nitrous oxide emission following application of composted manure to soil. The method of composting has a large impact on GHG emissions, where GHG emissions are higher from outdoor windrow composting systems than from controlled aerated systems. Further research is required to assess the whole manure management system, but composting appears to have great potential to reduce GHG emissions from agriculture. The bonus is that composting also addresses a number of other environmental concerns such as pathogens, surface and groundwater quality and ammonia emissions. (author)

  3. Biodegradation of Lignocelluloses in Sewage Sludge Composting and Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosein Alidadi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Please cite this article as: Alidadi H, Najafpour AA, Vafaee A, Parvaresh A, Peiravi R. Biodegradation of lignocelluloses in sewage sludge composting and vermicomposting. Arch Hyg Sci 2012;1(1:1-5.   Aims of the Study: The aim of this study was to determine the amount of lignin degradation and biodegradation of organic matter and change of biomass under compost and vermicomposting of sewage sludge. Materials & Methods: Sawdust was added to sewage sludge at 1:3 weight bases to Carbon to Nitrogen ratio of 25:1 for composting or vermicomposting. Lignin and volatile solids were determined at different periods, of 0, 10, 30, 40 and 60 days of composting or vermicomposting period to determine the biodegradation of lignocellulose to lignin. Results were expressed as mean of two replicates and the comparisons among means were made using the least significant difference test calculated (p <0.05. Results: After 60 days of experiment period, the initial lignin increased from 3.46% to 4.48% for compost and 3.46% to 5.27% for vermicompost. Biodegradation of lignocellulose was very slow in compost and vermicompost processes. Vermicomposting is a much faster process than compost to convert lignocellulose to lignin (p <0.05. Conclusions: The organic matter losses in sewage sludge composting and vermicomposting are due to the degradation of the lignin fractions. By increasing compost age, the amount of volatile solids will decrease.

  4. Study on NPK Performance in Food Waste Composting by Using Agricultural Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Siti Noratifah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food waste represents almost 60% from the total municipal solid waste disposed in the landfill. Alternative disposal method for food waste could be conducted by using composting method. In this study, investigationon food waste composting by using agricultural fermentation was carried out to find out the performance of the compost. Two types of compost were produced which were commercial compost and research compost and total of 8 reactors were tested during this study. Research compost consist of coconut fiber (decomposing medium and the combination of salt and breadfruit peels as the fermentation liquid, while rice husk was used as decomposing medium for commercial compost along with fermented soybeanand brown sugar as fermentation liquid. Physical and chemical parameters which are temperature, pH value, moisture content, Total Nitrogen (N, Total Phosphorus (P and Potassium (K concentration were determined. Based on the results of 20 weeks composting, the overall temperature range from 27 °C to 45 °C which shown the active phase for composting occurred. On the other hand, during the period of composting, most of the pH value in each reactor is above 5 and approximately at neutral. This shown that the microbial respiration in the composting reactor was inhibited and had approached the mature phase. As for NPK content, Total Nitrogen value range from 98 ppm to 2268 ppm for commercial compost, while 84 ppm to 2240 ppm for research compost. Total Phosphorus has the values of0.871 ppm to 11.615 ppm for commercial compost and 1.785 ppm to 14.143 ppm for research compost. On the other hand, result for potassium is from 91.85 ppm to 645.55 ppm for commercial compost and from 133.95 ppm to 686.2 ppm for research compost. As a conclusion from the results obtained, the compost in this study is sufficient to be use for agricultural purposes and the best performance of NPK value was demonstrated by Reactor C2 from research compost.

  5. Compost production from municipal wastes of Canadian mining towns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jongejan, A.

    1983-01-01

    A summary of results of experiements on composting mumicipal wastes, and an overview of a type of composting process that could be used in small Canadian mining towns are given. The process is a means of waste disposal designed to produce compost. Compost can be used for the revegetation of mine-mill tailings as its sorptive properties complement the chemical action of inorganic fertilizers. The possibility of using compost instead of peat in water pollution-abatement processes can be considered. Difficulties that can be expected if a windrow composting process is continued during the low ambient-temperatures of Canadian winters can be avoided by storing the garbage-sewage mixture as hydraulically-compacted briquettes. Degradation of the briquettes takes place during mild-temperature periods without producing the foul odors of heaped garbage. A tentative plan for composting plant is presented as an illustration of the applicatin of the experimental results in a practical process. Because the process is a means of waste disposal, costs have to be divided between the municipality and the mining industry

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from green waste composting windrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu-Barker, Xia; Bailey, Shannon K; Paw U, Kyaw Tha; Burger, Martin; Horwath, William R

    2017-01-01

    The process of composting is a source of greenhouse gases (GHG) that contribute to climate change. We monitored three field-scale green waste compost windrows over a one-year period to measure the seasonal variance of the GHG fluxes. The compost pile that experienced the wettest and coolest weather had the highest average CH 4 emission of 254±76gCday -1 dry weight (DW) Mg -1 and lowest average N 2 O emission of 152±21mgNday -1 DW Mg -1 compared to the other seasonal piles. The highest N 2 O emissions (342±41mgNday -1 DW Mg -1 ) came from the pile that underwent the driest and hottest weather. The compost windrow oxygen (O 2 ) concentration and moisture content were the most consistent factors predicting N 2 O and CH 4 emissions from all seasonal compost piles. Compared to N 2 O, CH 4 was a higher contributor to the overall global warming potential (GWP) expressed as CO 2 equivalents (CO 2 eq.). Therefore, CH 4 mitigation practices, such as increasing O 2 concentration in the compost windrows through moisture control, feedstock changes to increase porosity, and windrow turning, may reduce the overall GWP of composting. Based on the results of the present study, statewide total GHG emissions of green waste composting were estimated at 789,000Mg of CO 2 eq., representing 2.1% of total annual GHG emissions of the California agricultural sector and 0.18% of the total state emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Thermophilic subseafloor microorganisms from the 1996 North Gorda Ridge eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summit, Melanie; Baross, John A.

    1998-12-01

    High-temperature microbes were present in two hydrothermal event plumes (EP96A and B) resulting from the February-March 1996 eruptions along the North Gorda Ridge. Anaerobic thermophiles were cultured from 17 of 22 plume samples at levels exceeding 200 organisms per liter; no thermophiles were cultured from any of 12 samples of background seawater. As these microorganisms grow at temperatures of 50-90°C, they could not have grown in the event plume and instead most probably derived from a subseafloor environment tapped by the event plume source fluids. Event plumes are thought to derive from a pre-existing subseafloor fluid reservoir, which implies that these thermophiles are members of a native subseafloor community that was present before the eruptive event. Thermophiles also were cultured from continuous chronic-style hydrothermal plumes in April 1996; these plumes may have formed from cooling lava piles. To better understand the nutritional, chemical, and physical constraints of pre-eruptive crustal environments, seven coccoidal isolates from the two event plumes were partially characterized. Results from nutritional and phylogenetic studies indicate that these thermophiles are heterotrophic archaea that represent new species, and probably a new genus, within the Thermococcales.

  8. Quality of compost from composting plant in Puerto Real (Cadiz, Spain); Calidad del compost procedente de la planta de compostaje de Puerto Real (Cadiz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godillo Romero, M. D.; Quiroga Alonso, J. M.; Garrido Perez, C.; Rodriguez Barros, R.; Sales Marquez, D. [Universidad de Cadiz (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The compost taken from the Compost Plant, treating urban solid residues from the Consorcio Bahia de Cadiz in the municipal district of Puerto Real, Cadiz, has been analysed for its particular qualities over the years 1990-1996. With this in mind we have determined the most important of parameters with a view to defining the quality of this organic fertilizer extracted from urban solid residues (USR): pH, conductivity, rejection through net meshing, humidity, organic matter, carbon, nitrogen, C/N relationship, cadmium, copper, nickel, lead, tin, zinc and mercury. The compost gathered complies with the established legal requisites concerning fertilizers and their related substances. The quality in the first years of this study is better due possibly to the construction of the bio-recycling plant leaving the latter as a holding plant. (Author)

  9. Effects of alkyl polyglycoside (APG) on composting of agricultural wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Fabao; Gu Wenjie; Xu Peizhi; Tang Shuanhu; Xie Kaizhi; Huang Xu; Huang Qiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Composting is the biological degradation and transformation of organic materials under controlled conditions to promote aerobic decomposition. To find effective ways to accelerate composting and improve compost quality, numerous methods including additive addition, inoculation of microorganisms, and the use of biosurfactants have been explored. Studies have shown that biosurfactant addition provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, thereby accelerating the composting process. However, biosurfactants have limited applications because they are expensive and their use in composting and microbial fertilizers is prohibited. Meanwhile, alkyl polyglycoside (APG) is considered a 'green' surfactant. This study aims to determine whether APG addition into a compost reaction vessel during 28-day composting can enhance the organic matter degradation and composting process of dairy manure. Samples were periodically taken from different reactor depths at 0, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. pH levels, electrical conductivity (EC), ammonium and nitrate nitrogen, seed germination indices, and microbial population were determined. Organic matter and total nitrogen were also measured. Compared with the untreated control, the sample with APG exhibited slightly increased microbial populations, such as bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. APG addition increased temperatures without substantially affecting compost pH and EC throughout the process. After 28 days, APG addition increased nitrate nitrogen concentrations, promoted matter degradation, and increased seed germination indices. The results of this study suggest that the addition of APG provides more favorable conditions for microorganism growth, slightly enhancing organic matter decomposition and accelerating the composting process, improving the compost quality to a certain extent.

  10. EVALUATION OF THE BIOSOLIDS COMPOST MATURITY IN SOUTH ISFAHAN WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Alidadi, A. R. Parvaresh, M. R. Shahmansouri, H. Pourmoghadas

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The composting process is a useful method of producing a stabilized material that can be used as a source of nutrients and soil conditioner. Maturity of compost is essential for its optimal use as a soil amendment and a source of plant nutrients as well. Immature composts pose problems of malodors and flies and phytotoxicity and pollution during use. Stability and maturity both are required for compost quality control. Compost maturity tests can be classified into physical, chemical, plant, and microbial activity assays. In this study, several methods of evaluating the stability and maturity of composted biosolids were compared based on chemical and biological properties. The sludge used of windrow composting was obtained from the drying beds of South Isfahan wastewater treatment plant. The results showed that, C/N ratio after 100 days of composting reached to 15/1; NH4/NO3 ratio decreased with increase of the time dewatered sludge compost, which this loss is 57.3%. The content of volatile solids, 28.8% decreased with composting time. The number of fecal coliforms in the initial sewage sludge compost was 17.9´106 and at the end of composting was 898MPN/g of total solids and the compost process provided class A pathogen criteria. Use of chemical and biological parameters exhibited three phases: rapid decomposition (day 40, stabilization (day 80 and maturation (day 100 in biosolids compost. Thus, the biosolid compost was mature and ready for use as an agricultural substrate after about 100 days of composting.

  11. Comparison of the thermostability of cellulases from various thermophilic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojtczak, G; Breuil, C; Yamada, J; Saddler, J N

    1987-10-01

    The cellulase activities of six thermophilic fungi were compared. Although the thermophilic fungi grew at relatively high temperatures (> 45/sup 0/C) the optimum temperatures for assaying the various cellulase activities were only slightly higher than the optimum temperatures for the mesophilic fungi, Trichoderma harzianum. Over prolonged incubation (> 24 h) the thermophilic strains demonstrated a higher hydrolytic potential as a result of the greater thermostability of the cellulase components. Although the extracellular cellulase activities had similar pH and temperature optima, in some cases the thermostability of the extracellular components were considerably lower.

  12. Conditions for energy generation as an alternative approach to compost utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclavska, H; Juchelkova, D; Skrobankova, H; Wiltowski, T; Campen, A

    2011-01-01

    Very strict limits constrain the current possibilities for compost utilization in agriculture and for land reclamation, thus creating a need for other compost utilization practices. A favourable alternative can be compost utilization as a renewable heat source - alternative fuel. The changes of the basic physical-chemical parameters during the composting process are evaluated. During the composting process, energy losses of 920 kJ/kg occur, caused by carbohydrate decomposition (loss of 12.64% TOC). The net calorific value for mature compost was 11.169 kJ/kg dry matter. The grain size of compost below 0.045 mm has the highest ash content. The energetic utilization of compost depended on moisture, which can be influenced by paper addition or by prolonging the time of maturation to six months.

  13. Bioprospecting thermophiles for cellulase production: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somen Acharya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Most of the potential bioprospecting is currently related to the study of the extremophiles and their potential use in industrial processes. Recently microbial cellulases find applications in various industries and constitute a major group of industrial enzymes. Considerable amount of work has been done on microbial cellulases, especially with resurgence of interest in biomass ethanol production employing cellulases and use of cellulases in textile and paper industry. Most efficient method of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysis is through enzymatic saccharification using cellulases. Significant information has also been gained about the physiology of thermophilic cellulases producers and process development for enzyme production and biomass saccharification. The review discusses the current knowledge on cellulase producing thermophilic microorganisms, their physiological adaptations and control of cellulase gene expression. It discusses the industrial applications of thermophilic cellulases, their cost of production and challenges in cellulase research especially in the area of improving process economics of enzyme production.

  14. Effects of moisture content and initial pH in composting process on heavy metal removal characteristics of grass clipping compost used for stormwater filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Eakalak; Khaodhir, Sutha; Ruangrote, Darin

    2009-10-01

    Heavy metals are common contaminants in stormwater runoff. One of the devices that can be used to effectively and economically remove heavy metals from runoff is a yard waste compost stormwater filter. The primary goal of composting is to reduce waste volume rather than to produce stormwater filter media. Moisture content (MC) and initial pH, the two important parameters in composting, were studied for their effects on yard waste volume reduction and heavy metal adsorption performances of the compost. The main objective of this investigation was to examine whether the conditions that provided high yard waste volume reduction would also result in compost with good heavy metal removal performances. Manila grass was composted at different initial pHs (5-9) and MCs (30-70%) and the composts were used to adsorb cadmium, copper, lead and zinc from water. Results indicated that MC is more critical than initial pH for both volume reduction and production of compost with high metal adsorption performances. The most optimal conditions for the two attributes were not exactly the same but lower MCs of 30-40% and pH 7 or higher tended to satisfy both high volume reduction and effective metal adsorption.

  15. Determining Thermal Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Fresh Compost by Simulating Early Phases of the Composting Process ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Randhir; Kim, Jinkyung; Shepherd, Marion W.; Luo, Feng; Jiang, Xiuping

    2011-01-01

    A three-strain mixture of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was inoculated into fresh dairy compost (ca. 107 CFU/g) with 40 or 50% moisture and was placed in an environmental chamber (ca. 70% humidity) that was programmed to ramp from room temperature to selected composting temperatures in 2 and 5 days to simulate the early composting phase. The surviving E. coli O157:H7 population was analyzed by direct plating and enrichment. Optimal and suboptimal compost mixes, with carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios of...

  16. Diversity of Ammonia Oxidizing Archaea in Tropical Compost Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya eDe Gannes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Composting is widely used to transform waste materials into valuable agricultural products. In the tropics, large quantities of agricultural wastes could be potentially useful in agriculture after composting. However, while microbiological processes of composts in general are well established, relatively little is known about microbial communities that may be unique to these in tropical systems, particularly nitrifiers. The recent discovery of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA has changed the paradigm of nitrification being initiated solely by ammonia oxidizing bacteria. In the present study, AOA abundance and diversity was examined in composts produced from combinations of plant waste materials common in tropical agriculture (rice straw, sugar cane bagasse, coffee hulls, which were mixed with either cow- or sheep-manure. The objective was to determine how AOA abundance and diversity varied as a function of compost system and time, the latter being a contrast between the start of the compost process (mesophilic phase and the finished product (mature phase. The results showed that AOA were relatively abundant in composts of tropical agricultural wastes, and significantly more so than were the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. Furthermore, while the AOA communities in the composts were predominatly group I.1b, the communities were diverse and exhibited structures that diverged between compost types and phases. These patterns could be taken as indicators of the ecophysiological diversity in the soil AOA (groub I.1b, in that significantly different AOA communties developed when exposed to varying physico-chemical environments. Nitrification patterns and levels differed in the composts which, for the mature material, could have signifcant effects on its performanc as a plant growth medium. Thus, it will also be important to determine the association of AOA (and diversity in their communities with nitrification in these systems.

  17. Changes in cadmium mobility during composting and after soil application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanc, Ales; Tlustos, Pavel; Szakova, Jirina; Habart, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The effect of twelve weeks of composting on the mobility and bioavailability of cadmium in six composts containing sewage sludge, wood chips and grass was studied, along with the cadmium immobilization capacity of compost. Two different soils were used and Cd accumulation measured in above-ground oat biomass (Avena sativa L.). Increasing pH appears to be an important cause of the observed decreases in available cadmium through the composting process. A pot experiment was performed with two different amounts of compost (9.6 and 28.8 g per kg of soil) added into Fluvisol with total Cd 0.255 mg kg -1 , and contaminated Cambisol with total Cd 6.16 mg kg -1 . Decrease of extractable Cd (0.01 mol l -1 CaCl 2 ) was found in both soils after compost application. The higher amount of compost immobilized an exchangeable portion of Cd (0.11 mol l -1 CH 3 COOH extractable) in contaminated Cambisol unlike in light Fluvisol. The addition of a low amount of compost decreased the content of Cd in associated above-ground oat biomass grown in both soils, while a high amount of compost decreased the Cd content in oats only in the Cambisol.

  18. Lactobacillus salivarius CTC2197 Prevents Salmonella enteritidis Colonization in Chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual, Mònica; Hugas, Marta; Badiola, Jose Ignacio; Monfort, Josep Maria; Garriga, Margarita

    1999-01-01

    A rifampin-resistant Lactobacillus salivarius strain, CTC2197, was assessed as a probiotic in poultry, by studying its ability to prevent Salmonella enteritidis C-114 colonization in chickens. When the probiotic strain was dosed by oral gavage together with S. enteritidis C-114 directly into the proventriculus in 1-day-old Leghorn chickens, the pathogen was completely removed from the birds after 21 days. The same results were obtained when the probiotic strain was also administered through t...

  19. Valorization of beer brewing wastes by composting

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Maria Elisabete; Brás, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the viability of recycling the residual yeast and diatomaceous earth (RYDE) slurry generated by the beer brewing industry by composting with animal manures, as well as to evaluate the quality of the composts obtained. Two pilot composting trials were carried out with different mixes: cow manure/RYDE slurry (Pile CM) and sheep manure/RYDE slurry (Pile SM). For all piles, wood chips were applied as bulking agent. The process was monitored b...

  20. Tricistronic operon expression of the genes gcaD (tms), which encodes N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate uridyltransferase, prs, which encodes phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase, and ctc in vegetative cells of Bacillus subtilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilden, Ida; Krath, Britta N.; Hove-Jensen, Bjarne

    1995-01-01

    The gcaD, prs, and ctc genes were shown to be organized as a tricistronic operon. The transcription of the prs gene, measured as phosphoribosyl diphosphate synthetase activity, and of the ctc gene, measured as β-galactosidase activity specified by a ctc-lacZ protein fusion, were dependent...

  1. Bioremediation of Heavy Metals and Organic Toxicants by Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen V. Barker

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazardous organic and metallic residues or by-products can enter into plants, soils, and sediments from processes associated with domestic, municipal, agricultural, industrial, and military activities. Handling, ingestion, application to land or other distributions of the contaminated materials into the environment might render harm to humans, livestock, wildlife, crops, or native plants. Considerable remediation of the hazardous wastes or contaminated plants, soils, and sediments can be accomplished by composting. High microbial diversity and activity during composting, due to the abundance of substrates in feedstocks, promotes degradation of xenobiotic organic compounds, such as pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs. For composting of contaminated soils, noncontaminated organic matter should be cocomposted with the soils. Metallic pollutants are not degraded during composting but may be converted into organic combinations that have less bioavailability than mineral combinations of the metals. Degradation of organic contaminants in soils is facilitated by addition of composted or raw organic matter, thereby increasing the substrate levels for cometabolism of the contaminants. Similar to the composting of soils in vessels or piles, the on-site addition of organic matter to soils (sheet composting accelerates degradation of organic pollutants and binds metallic pollutants. Recalcitrant materials, such as organochlorines, may not undergo degradation in composts or in soils, and the effects of forming organic complexes with metallic pollutants may be nonpermanent or short lived. The general conclusion is, however, that composting degrades or binds pollutants to innocuous levels or into innocuous compounds in the finished product.

  2. Evaluation of biochar amended biosolids co-composting to improve the nutrient transformation and its correlation as a function for the production of nutrient-rich compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Mukesh Kumar; Wang, Quan; Chen, Hongyu; Wang, Meijing; Ren, Xiuna; Zhao, Junchao; Li, Jiao; Guo, Di; Li, Dong-Sheng; Awasthi, Sanjeev Kumar; Sun, Xining; Zhang, Zengqiang

    2017-08-01

    The influence of biochar amended dewatered fresh sewage sludge (DFSS)-wheat straw co-composting on nutrients transformation and end products quality was investigated. This is the first study to examine the biochar applied compost quality with different kgha -1 TKN on Brassica rapa L. growth. Seven mixtures were composted over 8-weeks period in 130-L reactor using the same DFSS with different concentration of biochar (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 12% and 18% on dry weight basis) and without additive added treatment served as control. The results indicated that compost with 8-12% biochar became more humified within 35days of composting, and the compost maturity parameters also showed that this could be much more feasible approach to increased water-soluble nutrients including NO 3 , DOC, DON, PO 4 3- , K + and Na + , but bioavailability of Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb content reduced as compared to control. Finally, results showed that 8-12% biochar was recommended for DFSS composting and 150kgha -1 TKN of compost dosages for organic farming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Compost amendment of sandy soil affects soil properties and greenhouse tomato productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Cornelis, W.; Razzaghi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Sandy soils, with low productivity, could be improved by compost application to sustain crop production. This study aimed to examine the effect of three compost types (vegetable, fruit and yard waste compost, garden waste compost, and spent mushroom compost) on basic properties of a loamy sand...... compost had greater effect in improving tomato productivity. A decade-long application of composts on loamy sand improved basic chemical and physical properties which were reflected in increased fruit yield in tomato. Since no negative effect of compost was observed, we suggest that sandy soils may serve...... and greenhouse tomato productivity. Disturbed and intact soil samples were taken from a decade-long compost field experiment on loamy sand with three compost types at application rate of 30 m3 ha-1 yr-1 (7.5 ton ha-1 yr-1). The soils were characterized for chemical and physical properties. Tomato was planted...

  4. Effect of compost on erodibility of loamy sand under simulated rainfall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Emmanuel; Cornelis, W.M.; Vermang, J.

    2011-01-01

    Three types of composts [vegetable, fruit and yard waste compost (VFYW), garden waste compost (GW), and spent mushroom compost (SM)] were applied at a rate of 30 m3 ha−1 for 10 years to loamy sand, to determine its effect on the aggregate stability and susceptibility to water erosion. Aggregate...... significant improvement for any of the compost types. SM application resulted in a significant increase (51%) in the shear strength of the soil after rainfall. Long term compost application does not appreciably improve the resistance of loamy sand to water erosion....

  5. Assessment of compost for suppression of Fusarium oxysporum and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present research was conducted to evaluate the compost effectiveness on Zea mays and Hibiscus sabdarriffa under Fusarium wilt disease. Compost physical, chemical and biological characters were monitored weekly during the ripening process. Both coliform and nematode were tested. Finally, the effect of compost ...

  6. Polluted land areas purified by composting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leinonen, A.L.; Nikula, A.

    1996-11-01

    Restoration of polluted land and development of purification methods are among the most topical environment protection issues, IVO, too, has participated in research on microbiological purification methods. The biodegrability of creosote, and agent used for impregnation of wooden power line poles, was tested in the laboratory in 1993-94. The tests revealed that soil polluted by creosote can be cleansed efficiently. In Petaejaevesi, central Finland, the results are being applied in the composting of land masses polluted by creosote. The composting, which began in summer 1995, has succeeded in line with expectations: The content of deleterious compounds fell by half after only a couple of months of composting. (orig.)

  7. CTC-ask: a new algorithm for conversion of CT numbers to tissue parameters for Monte Carlo dose calculations applying DICOM RS knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottosson, Rickard O; Behrens, Claus F

    2011-01-01

    One of the building blocks in Monte Carlo (MC) treatment planning is to convert patient CT data to MC compatible phantoms, consisting of density and media matrices. The resulting dose distribution is highly influenced by the accuracy of the conversion. Two major contributing factors are precise conversion of CT number to density and proper differentiation between air and lung. Existing tools do not address this issue specifically. Moreover, their density conversion may depend on the number of media used. Differentiation between air and lung is an important task in MC treatment planning and misassignment may lead to local dose errors on the order of 10%. A novel algorithm, CTC-ask, is presented in this study. It enables locally confined constraints for the media assignment and is independent of the number of media used for the conversion of CT number to density. MC compatible phantoms were generated for two clinical cases using a CT-conversion scheme implemented in both CTC-ask and the DICOM-RT toolbox. Full MC dose calculation was subsequently conducted and the resulting dose distributions were compared. The DICOM-RT toolbox inaccurately assigned lung in 9.9% and 12.2% of the voxels located outside of the lungs for the two cases studied, respectively. This was completely avoided by CTC-ask. CTC-ask is able to reduce anatomically irrational media assignment. The CTC-ask source code can be made available upon request to the authors. (note)

  8. Continuous feed, on-site composting of kitchen garbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eung-Ju; Shin, Hang-Sik; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2002-04-01

    Kitchen garbage generated at a school cafeteria was treated and stabilised in a controlled on-site composting unit for volume reduction and on-site utilisation of processed garbage. The on-site composter was fed with the garbage on a daily basis during the two-months experimental period. Compost was not removed from the unit but was entirely reused as a bulking agent in order to minimise the need for additional bulking agent and compost handling. Performance of the composter tinder this condition was investigated. Most of the easily degradable organic matter (EDM) in the garbage was biodegraded rapidly, and the final product had a low content of EDM. Lipids, total sugar, and hemi-cellulose were degraded 96%, 81%, and 66% respectively. Free air space (FAS) was higher than 0.5 all the time, so accumulation of dry matter in the unit was not significant in reducing reaction efficiency. Other reaction parameters such as pH and MC were kept within a suitable range; however, it was advisable to maintain MC at over 46%. As a result, this method of operation was able to stabilise the garbage with low sawdust demand and little compost production.

  9. Evaluation of maifanite and silage as amendments for green waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Sun, Xiangyang

    2018-04-23

    Composting is a popular method for recycling organic solid wastes including agricultural and forestry residues. However, traditional composting method is time consuming, generates foul smells, and produces an immature product. The effects of maifanite (MF; at 0%, 8.5%, and 13.5%) and/or silage (SG; at 0%, 25%, and 45%) as amendments on an innovative, two-stage method for composting green waste (GW) were investigated. The combined addition of MF and SG greatly improved composting conditions, reduced composting time, and enhanced compost quality in terms of composting temperature, bulk density, water-holding capacity, void ratio, pH, cation exchange capacity, ammonia nitrogen content, dissolved organic carbon content, crude fibre degradation, microbial numbers, enzyme activities, nutrient contents, and phytotoxicity. The two-stage composting of GW with 8.5% MF and 45% SG generated the highest quality and the most mature compost product and did so in only 21 days. With the optimized composting, the degradation rate of cellulose and hemicellulose reached 46.3 and 82.3%, respectively, and the germination index of Chinese cabbage and lucerne was 153 and 172%, respectively, which were all far higher than values obtained with the control. The combined effects of MF and SG on GW composting have not been previously explored, and this study therefore provided new and practical information. The comprehensive analyses of compost properties during and at the end of the process provided insight into underlying mechanisms. The optimized two-stage composting method may be a viable and sustainable alternative for GW management in that it converts the waste into a useful product. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. High rate composting of herbal pharmaceutical industry solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M; Duba, K S; Kalamdhad, A S; Bhatia, A; Khursheed, A; Kazmi, A A; Ahmed, N

    2012-01-01

    High rate composting studies of hard to degrade herbal wastes were conducted in a 3.5 m(3) capacity rotary drum composter. Studies were spread out in four trials: In trial 1 and 2, one and two turns per day rotation was observed, respectively, by mixing of herbal industry waste with cattle (buffalo) manure at a ratio of 3:1 on wet weight basis. In trial 3 inocula was added in raw waste to enhance the degradation and in trial 4 composting of a mixture of vegetable market waste and herbal waste was conducted at one turn per day. Results demonstrated that the operation of the rotary drum at one turn a day (trial 1) could provide the most conducive composting conditions and co-composting (trial 4) gave better quality compost in terms of temperature, moisture, nitrogen, and Solvita maturity index. In addition a FT-IR study also revealed that trial 1 and trial 4 gave quality compost in terms of stability and maturity due to the presence of more intense peaks in the aromatic region and less intense peaks were found in the aliphatic region compared with trial 2 and trial 3.

  11. Comparing Residue Clusters from Thermophilic and Mesophilic Enzymes Reveals Adaptive Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deanne W Sammond

    Full Text Available Understanding how proteins adapt to function at high temperatures is important for deciphering the energetics that dictate protein stability and folding. While multiple principles important for thermostability have been identified, we lack a unified understanding of how internal protein structural and chemical environment determine qualitative or quantitative impact of evolutionary mutations. In this work we compare equivalent clusters of spatially neighboring residues between paired thermophilic and mesophilic homologues to evaluate adaptations under the selective pressure of high temperature. We find the residue clusters in thermophilic enzymes generally display improved atomic packing compared to mesophilic enzymes, in agreement with previous research. Unlike residue clusters from mesophilic enzymes, however, thermophilic residue clusters do not have significant cavities. In addition, anchor residues found in many clusters are highly conserved with respect to atomic packing between both thermophilic and mesophilic enzymes. Thus the improvements in atomic packing observed in thermophilic homologues are not derived from these anchor residues but from neighboring positions, which may serve to expand optimized protein core regions.

  12. PrediCTC, liquid biopsy in precision oncology: a technology transfer experience in the Spanish health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alconada, L; Barbazan, J; Candamio, S; Falco, J L; Anton, C; Martin-Saborido, C; Fuster, G; Sampedro, M; Grande, C; Lado, R; Sampietro-Colom, L; Crego, E; Figueiras, S; Leon-Mateos, L; Lopez-Lopez, R; Abal, M

    2018-05-01

    Management of metastatic disease in oncology includes monitoring of therapy response principally by imaging techniques like CT scan. In addition to some limitations, the irruption of liquid biopsy and its application in personalized medicine has encouraged the development of more efficient technologies for prognosis and follow-up of patients in advanced disease. PrediCTC constitutes a panel of genes for the assessment of circulating tumor cells (CTC) in metastatic colorectal cancer patients, with demonstrated improved efficiency compared to CT scan for the evaluation of early therapy response in a multicenter prospective study. In this work, we designed and developed a technology transfer strategy to define the market opportunity for an eventual implementation of PrediCTC in the clinical practice. This included the definition of the regulatory framework, the analysis of the regulatory roadmap needed for CE mark, a benchmarking study, the design of a product development strategy, a revision of intellectual property, a cost-effectiveness study and an expert panel consultation. The definition and analysis of an appropriate technology transfer strategy and the correct balance among regulatory, financial and technical determinants are critical for the transformation of a promising technology into a viable technology, and for the decision of implementing liquid biopsy in the monitoring of therapy response in advanced disease.

  13. Cerebro-retinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts due to recessive mutations in the CTC1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisserbe, A; Tertian, G; Buffet, C; Turhan, A; Lambotte, O; Nasser, G; Alvin, P; Tardieu, M; Riant, F; Bergametti, F; Tournier-Lasserve, E; Denier, C

    2015-05-01

    Cerebro-retinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts (CRMCC) or Coats plus syndrome is a pleiotropic disorder affecting the eyes, brain, bone and gastrointestinal tract. Its primary pathogenesis involves small vessel obliterative microangiopathy. Recently, autosomal recessively inherited mutations in CTC1 have been reported in CRMCC patients. We herein report an adolescent referred to our hospital following new seizures in a context of an undefined multisystem disorder. Cerebral imaging disclosed asymmetrical leukopathy, intracranial calcifications and cysts. In addition, he presented other typical CRMCC features i.e. a history of intrauterine growth retardation, skeletal demineralization and osteopenia, bilateral exudative vitreo-retinopathy reminiscent of Coats disease, recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhages secondary to watermelon stomach and variceal bleeding of the esophagus due to idiopathic portal hypertension and telangiectatic and angiodysplasic changes in the small intestine and colon, and anemia due to recurrent bleeding and bone marrow abnormalities. The patient was diagnosed with Coats plus syndrome. CTC1 gene screening confirmed the diagnosis with the identification of heterozygous deleterious mutations. CRMCC due to CTC1 mutations has a broad clinical expressivity. Our case report illustrates the main possible associated phenotypes and their complications, demonstrating the need for a careful etiological search in order to initiate appropriate therapeutic and preventive measures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Temperature profiles of Agaricus bisporus in composting stages and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three compost formulas using different activator materials were prepared for Agaricus bisporus cultivation. A locally available casing material known as peat of Bolu district and its different combinations with perlite were used. Temperature profiles of all mixtures during composting were measured at every composting stages ...

  15. Stability measurements of compost trough electrolytic respirometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Arias, V.; Fernandez, F. J.; Rodriguez, L.; Villasenor, J.

    2009-07-01

    An experimental technique for compost stability measurements based on electrolytic respirometry was optimized and subsequently applied to a composting process. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge mixed with reed was composted during 90 days in a pilot scale rotary drum with forced aeration. Periodic solid samples were taken, and a previously optimized respirometric procedure was applied to them in order to measure the oxygen consumption. The resirometric experiments were made directly with a few grams of solid samples, optimum moisture and 37 degree centigrade during 96h. (Author)

  16. Stability measurements of compost trough electrolytic respirometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Arias, V.; Fernandez, F. J.; Rodriguez, L.; Villasenor, J.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental technique for compost stability measurements based on electrolytic respirometry was optimized and subsequently applied to a composting process. Anaerobically digested sewage sludge mixed with reed was composted during 90 days in a pilot scale rotary drum with forced aeration. Periodic solid samples were taken, and a previously optimized respirometric procedure was applied to them in order to measure the oxygen consumption. The resirometric experiments were made directly with a few grams of solid samples, optimum moisture and 37 degree centigrade during 96h. (Author)

  17. Onderzoek naar de herkomst van zware metalen en organische stoffen in GFT-compost. Deel I.1 Kwaliteit van GFT-compost

    OpenAIRE

    Dekker PM; LAE

    1995-01-01

    GFT-compost, afkomstig van gescheiden ingezameld huishoudelijk afval, voldoet in de regel niet aan de kwaliteitseisen van zeer schone compost (AmvB BOOM). In het component-onderzoek wordt nagegaan of de belastende stoffen afkomstig zijn van bepaalde componenten in GFT, zodat deze componenten eventueel buiten de gescheiden inzameling van GFT kunnen worden gehouden. Voor elk onderzocht composteerbedrijf is het gemiddelde metaalgehalte in GFT-compost gerelateerd aan de normen voor schone en zeer...

  18. Reduction of pathogenic bacteria in organic compost using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Yong; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chung, Byung-Yeoup; Kim, Dong-Ho

    2007-01-01

    Organic compost is a useful fertilizer for organic farming. However, it poses a microbiological hazard to the farm products because most of the composts are originated from excremental matters of domestic animals. In this study, the radiation treatment was performed to improve microbiological safety of organic compost and the effectiveness of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria in the 16 commercial composts were ranged from 10 5 to 10 7 CFU/ml and 0 to 10 3 CFU/ml, respectively. All coliform bacteria in the composts were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, while about 10 2 CFU/ml of the total aerobic bacteria were survived up to 10 kGy. In the artificial inoculation test, the test organisms (inoculated at 10 7 CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 3 kGy. Approximate D 10 values of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli in the compost were 0.40 and 0.25 kGy, respectively. In the cultivation test, the test organisms of the compost had transfer a lettuce leaves. The growth pattern of lettuce was not different between irradiated and non-irradiated composts

  19. Conductive iron oxides accelerate thermophilic methanogenesis from acetate and propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Chihaya; Kato, Souichiro; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Anaerobic digester is one of the attractive technologies for treatment of organic wastes and wastewater, while continuous development and improvements on their stable operation with efficient organic removal are required. Particles of conductive iron oxides (e.g., magnetite) are known to facilitate microbial interspecies electron transfer (termed as electric syntrophy). Electric syntrophy has been reported to enhance methanogenic degradation of organic acids by mesophilic communities in soil and anaerobic digester. Here we investigated the effects of supplementation of conductive iron oxides (magnetite) on thermophilic methanogenic microbial communities derived from a thermophilic anaerobic digester. Supplementation of magnetite accelerated methanogenesis from acetate and propionate under thermophilic conditions, while supplementation of ferrihydrite also accelerated methanogenesis from propionate. Microbial community analysis revealed that supplementation of magnetite drastically changed bacterial populations in the methanogenic acetate-degrading cultures, in which Tepidoanaerobacter sp. and Coprothermobacter sp. dominated. These results suggest that supplementation of magnetite induce electric syntrophy between organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and methanogenic archaea and accelerate methanogenesis even under thermophilic conditions. Findings from this study would provide a possibility for the achievement of stably operating thermophilic anaerobic digestion systems with high efficiency for removal of organics and generation of CH4. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Thermophilic growth and enzymatic thermostability are polyphyletic traits within Chaetomiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Brink, Joost; Facun, Kryss; de Vries, Michel; Stielow, J Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Thermophilic fungi have the potential to produce industrial-relevant thermostable enzymes, in particular for the degradation of plant biomass. Sordariales is one of the few fungal orders containing several thermophilic taxa, of which many have been associated with the production of thermostable enzymes. The evolutionary affiliation of Sordariales fungi, especially between thermophiles and non-thermophilic relatives, is however poorly understood. Phylogenetic analysis within the current study was based on sequence data, derived from a traditional Sanger and highly multiplexed targeted next generation sequencing approach of 45 isolates. The inferred phylogeny and detailed growth analysis rendered the trait 'thermophily' as polyphyletic within Chaetomiaceae (Sordariales, Sordariomycetes), and characteristic to: Myceliophthora spp., Thielavia terrestris, Chaetomium thermophilum, and Mycothermus thermophilus. Compared to mesophiles, the isolates within thermophilic taxa produced enzyme mixtures with the highest thermostability of known cellulase activities. Temperature profiles of the enzyme activities correlated strongly with the optimal growth temperatures of the isolates but not with their phylogenetic relationships. This strong correlation between growth and enzyme characteristics indicated that detailed analysis of growth does give predictive information on enzyme physiology. The variation in growth and enzyme characteristics reveals these fungi as an excellent platform to better understand fungal thermophily and enzyme thermostability. Copyright © 2015 The British Mycological Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ecology and biotechnological potential of the thermophilic fermentative Coprothermobacter spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliano, M C; Braguglia, C M; Petruccioli, M; Rossetti, S

    2015-05-01

    Thermophilic bacteria have been isolated from several terrestrial, marine and industrial environments. Anaerobic digesters treating organic wastes are often an important source of these microorganisms, which catalyze a wide array of metabolic processes. Moreover, organic wastes are primarily composed of proteins, whose degradation is often incomplete. Coprothermobacter spp. are proteolytic anaerobic thermophilic microbes identified in several studies focused on the analysis of the microbial community structure in anaerobic thermophilic reactors. They are currently classified in the phylum Firmicutes; nevertheless, several authors showed that the Coprothermobacter group is most closely related to the phyla Dictyoglomi and Thermotoga. Since only a few proteolytic anaerobic thermophiles have been characterized so far, this microorganism has attracted the attention of researchers for its potential applications with high-temperature environments. In addition to proteolysis, Coprothermobacter spp. showed several metabolic abilities and may have a biotechnological application either as source of thermostable enzymes or as inoculum in anaerobic processes. Moreover, they can improve protein degradation by establishing a syntrophy with hydrogenotrophic archaea. To gain a better understanding of the phylogenesis, metabolic capabilities and adaptations of these microorganisms, it is of importance to better define the role in thermophilic environments and to disclose properties not yet investigated. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Passively Aerated Composting of Straw-Rich Organic Pig Manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veeken, A.H.M.; Wilde, de V.; Szanto, G.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this study pig manure from organic farming systems is composted with passive aeration. Effectiveness of the composting process strongly depended on the density of the compost. Best results were observed at a density of 700 kg/m3, where both aerobic degradation and drying were adequate and

  3. Composting and comerzialization of compost from organic wastes in Vitoria- Gasteiz (Spain); Estrategia de compostaje y comercializacion de compost de la fraccion organica de RSU para Vitoria-Gastez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gil Franco, R.; Cebrian Otsoa, M.

    1997-12-31

    In the experience of the selective recovery in Vitoria-Gasteiz, were obtained a seria of conclusions about the best way to made the composting of the MSM`s organic part, alone or mixed with water treatment sludges, in addition to the possible actions in order to commercialize the obtained compost. (Author)

  4. Biopesticide effect of green compost against fusarium wilt on melon plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ros, M; Hernandez, M T; Garcia, C; Bernal, A; Pascual, J A

    2005-01-01

    The biopesticide effect of four green composts against fusarium wilt in melon plants and the effect of soil quality in soils amended with composts were assayed. The composts consisted of pruning wastes, with or without addition of coffee wastes (3/1 and 4/1, dry wt/dry wt) or urea (1000/1, dry wt/dry wt). In vitro experiments suggested the biopesticide effect of the composts against Fusarium oxysporum, while only the compost of pine bark and urea (1000/1dry wt/dry wt) had an abiotic effect. Melon plant growth with composts and F. oxysporum was one to four times greater than in the non-amended soil, although there was no significant decrease in the level of the F. oxysporum in the soil. The addition of composts to the soil also improved its biological quality, as assessed by microbiological and biochemical parameters: ATP and hydrolases involved in the P (phosphatase), C (beta-glucosidase) and N (urease) cycles. Green composts had greater beneficial characteristics, improved plant growth and controlled fusarium wilt in melon plants. These composts improve the soil quality of semi-arid agricultural soils. Biotic and abiotic factors from composts have been tested as responsible of their biopesticide activity against fusarium wilt.

  5. Aerobic Food Waste Composting: Measurement of Green House Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, J.

    2016-12-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are a major cause of global warming. While food waste composting can reduce the amount of waste being sent to traditional landfills, it also produces GHGs during the process. The objective of this research is to evaluate the GHGs emitted from an aerobic food composting machine, which is used in ISF. The Independent Schools Foundation Academy is a private independent school in Hong Kong with approximately 1500 students. Each academic year, the school produces 27 metric tons of food waste. In November 2013, the school installed a food waste composting system. Over the past 3 years, various improvements, such as installing a bio-filter to reduce the smell of the compost, have been made to the composting process. Meanwhile the compost is used by the primary students, as part of their experiential learning curriculum and organic farming projects. The composting process employs two machines: the Dehydra and A900 Rocket. The Dehydra reduces the mass of the food waste by separating the ground food waste and excessive water. The A900 Rocket, a composter made by Tidy Planet, processes food waste into compost in 14 days. This machine runs in an aerobic process, in which oxygen is used as an input gas and gases, such as carbon dioxide, are released. Carbon Dioxide is one of the greenhouse gases (GHGs). This research focuses on GHGs that are emitted from the A900 Rocket. The data is collected by the Gasmet DX 4015, a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) multi gas analyser. This equipment measures the concentration (ppm) of different GHGs, including N2O, CO2, CH4, NH3 and CO.

  6. Toepassingsmogelijkheden van compostering in de ecologische varkenshouderij : een milieutechnische benadering

    OpenAIRE

    Hilkens, W.

    1993-01-01

    Student report in which the possibilities of composting for a pig farming system in Gemert, The Netherlands, with an ecological basis, are investigated. The process of composting and different composting systems were evaluated

  7. Biomass production and energy source of thermophiles in a Japanese alkaline geothermal pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroyuki; Mori, Kousuke; Nashimoto, Hiroaki; Hattori, Shohei; Yamada, Keita; Koba, Keisuke; Yoshida, Naohiro; Kato, Kenji

    2010-02-01

    Microbial biomass production has been measured to investigate the contribution of planktonic bacteria to fluxations in dissolved organic matter in marine and freshwater environments, but little is known about biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting geothermal and hydrothermal regions. The biomass production of thermophiles inhabiting an 85 degrees C geothermal pool was measured by in situ cultivation using diffusion chambers. The thermophiles' growth rates ranged from 0.43 to 0.82 day(-1), similar to those of planktonic bacteria in marine and freshwater habitats. Biomass production was estimated based on cellular carbon content measured directly from the thermophiles inhabiting the geothermal pool, which ranged from 5.0 to 6.1 microg C l(-1) h(-1). This production was 2-75 times higher than that of planktonic bacteria in other habitats, because the cellular carbon content of the thermophiles was much higher. Quantitative PCR and phylogenetic analysis targeting 16S rRNA genes revealed that thermophilic H2-oxidizing bacteria closely related to Calderobacterium and Geothermobacterium were dominant in the geothermal pool. Chemical analysis showed the presence of H2 in gases bubbling from the bottom of the geothermal pool. These results strongly suggested that H2 plays an important role as a primary energy source of thermophiles in the geothermal pool.

  8. Accelerated In-vessel Composting for Household Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhave, Prashant P.; Joshi, Yadnyeshwar S.

    2017-12-01

    Composting at household level will serve as a viable solution in managing and treating the waste efficiently. The aim of study was to design and study household composting reactors which would treat the waste at source itself. Keeping this aim in mind, two complete mix type aerobic reactors were fabricated. A comparative study between manually operated and mechanically operated reactor was conducted which is the value addition aspect of present study as it gives an effective option of treatment saving the time and manpower. Reactors were loaded with raw vegetable waste and cooked food waste i.e. kitchen waste for a period of 30 days after which mulch was allowed to mature for 10 days. Mulch was analyzed for its C/N ratio, nitrate, phosphorous, potassium and other parameters to determine compost quality, every week during its period of operation. The results showed that compost obtained from both the reactors satisfied almost all compost quality criteria as per CPHEEO manual on municipal solid waste management and thus can be used as soil amendment to increase the fertility of soil.In terms of knowledge contribution, this study puts forth an effective way of decentralized treatment.

  9. The Early Years: Composting with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2016-01-01

    "Composting" is a way to purposefully use the process of decay to break down organic materials in a location where the resulting mixture can be harvested for enriching garden soil. The large body of literature about the science of composting provides many options for early childhood educators to choose from to incorporate into their…

  10. Diversity of thermophilic archaeal isolates from hot springs in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Naoto; Takashina, Tomonori

    2005-09-01

    In the light of the significance of extremophiles as model organisms to access possible extraterrestiral life, we provide a short review of the systematics of thermophilic Archaea, and introduce our exploratory research of novel thermophilic Archaea from hot springs in Japan. Up to date, we have isolated 162 strains of the thermophilic Archaea from hot springs in Japan by the enrichment method or the most probable number/PCR method, and the 16S rRNA gene sequences were determined to reveal their phylogenetic diversity. The sequence comparison illustrated that the isolates belonged to the orders Sulfolobales (117 isolates) , Thermoproteales (29 isolates), Desulfurococcales (8 isolates) and Thermoplasmatales (8 isolates), and there were six separate lineages representing new genera, and at least seven new species as predicted by the phylogenetic distance to known species. The collection of isolates not only included novel taxa but would give some implication for a necessity to reevaluate the current taxonomy of the thermophilic Archaea.

  11. [Emissions of greenhouse gas and ammonia from the full process of sewage sludge composting and land application of compost].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jia; Wei, Yuan-Song; Zhao, Zhen-Feng; Ying, Mei-Juan; Zhou, Guo-Sheng; Xiong, Jian-Jun; Liu, Pei-Cai; Ge, Zhen; Ding, Gang-Qiang

    2013-11-01

    There is a great uncertainty of greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction and nitrogen conservation from the full process of sludge composting and land application of compost in China due to the lack of emission data of GHG such as N2O and CH4 and ammonia (NH3). The purpose of this study is to get emission characteristics of GHGs and NH3 from the full process with on-site observation. Results showed that the total GHG emission factor from full process of the turning windrow (TW) system (eCO2/dry sludge, 196.21 kg x t(-1)) was 1.61 times higher of that from the ATP system. Among the full process, N2O was mostly from the land application of compost, whereas CH4 mainly resulted from the sludge composting. In the sludge composting of ATP, the GHG emission equivalence of the ATP (eCO2/dry sludge, 12.47 kg x t(-1) was much lower than that of the TW (eCO2/dry sludge, 86.84 kg x t(-1)). The total NH3 emission factor of the TW (NH3/dry sludge, 6.86 kg x t(-1)) was slightly higher than that of the ATP (NH3/dry sludge, 6.63 kg x t(-1)). NH3 was the major contributor of nitrogen loss in the full process. During the composting, the nitrogen loss as NH3 from both TW and ATP was nearly the same as 30% of TN loss from raw materials, and the N and C loss caused by N2O and CH4 were negligible. These results clearly showed that the ATP was a kind of environmentally friendly composting technology.

  12. Environmental Aspects Of Home Composting Of Organic Household Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Six composting units were monitored during a two-year long experimental campaign. Data regarding chemical compositions of waste inputs and outputs, gaseous emissions and leachate productions were collected, organized in mass balances and assessed by means of LCA. The management of the home...... composting unit was very relevant for the environmental performance of home composting, as the turning frequency influence the emissions of CH4 which is the main responsible for potential impacts on global warming. Results showed that overall home composting has low environmental impacts (between -2 and 16 m...

  13. Property and quinone profile analysis of the compost made in Kuriyama town

    OpenAIRE

    森本, 正則; 桑原, 直美; 田中, 尚道; 駒井, 功一郎

    2006-01-01

    [Synopsis] Application of compost made from garbage and bio-sludge show crop growth promoting effect in the field. We have evaluated to a property of the compost made in Kuriyama town (Hokkaido). Kuriyama town have a compost producing facility established in 2004. Mainly, we have evaluated suppression of the plant disease and plant growth promotion by using this compost. Application of this compost had promoted the cucumber growth in dose dependent manner. Application of native compost ...

  14. Composting and water pollution; Kompostointi vesistoen kuormittajana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ettala, M. [Kuopio Univ. (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The composting of biowaste collected separately is becoming increasingly common. However, numerous structural and operational problems are involved. The study deals with the water and nitrogen balances in composting, demonstrating a substantial nitrogen load on waters due to the practice. (orig.)

  15. Revamping of entisol soil physical characteristics with compost treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumono; Loka, S. P.; Nasution, D. L. S.

    2018-02-01

    Physical characteristic of Entisol soil is an important factor for the growth of plant. The aim of this research was to know the effect of compost application on physical characteristics of Entisol soil. The research method used was experimental method with 6 (six) treatments and 3 replications of which K1 = 10 kg Entisol soil without compost, K2 = 9 Kg Entisol soil with 1 kg compost, K3 = 8 kg Entisol soil with 2 kg compost, K4 = 7 kg Entisol soilwith3 kg compost, K5 = 6 kg Entisol soil with 4 kg compost and K6 = 5 kg Entisol soil with 5 kg compost. The observed parameters were soil texture, soil organic matter, soil thickness, porosity, soil pore size, soil permeability and water availability. The results showed that the Entisol soil texture was loamy sand texture, the value of soil organic matter ranged from 0.74% to 4.69%, soil thickness ranged from 13.83 to 20.16 cm, porosity ranged from16% to 37%, soil pore size ranged from 2.859 to 5.493 µm, permeability ranged from 1.24 to 5.64 cm/hour and water availability ranged from 6.67% to 9.12% by each treatment.

  16. Nutritional analysis of some composted and non-composted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Student

    2013-05-08

    May 8, 2013 ... Key words: Wood ear mushrooms, fresh and composted agricultural wastes, wheat bran, Kenya. ... substrate, especially the C : N ratio which is attained by getting the right ... was excess water, sun drying was done followed by a squeeze test ..... dependent on free circulation of moisture and air in the.

  17. Wastewater Biosolid Composting Optimization Based on UV-VNIR Spectroscopy Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Temporal-Lara, Beatriz; Melendez-Pastor, Ignacio; G?mez, Ignacio; Navarro-Pedre?o, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Conventional wastewater treatment generates large amounts of organic matter–rich sludge that requires adequate treatment to avoid public health and environmental problems. The mixture of wastewater sludge and some bulking agents produces a biosolid to be composted at adequate composting facilities. The composting process is chemically and microbiologically complex and requires an adequate aeration of the biosolid (e.g., with a turner machine) for proper maturation of the compost. Adequate (ne...

  18. School Compost Programs: Pathways to Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumpert, Kary; Dietz, Cyndra

    2012-01-01

    After the oft-repeated three Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle) comes the lesser-known but equally important fourth R: rot. In this case, rot means compost. Classrooms, schools, and school districts can use a number of methods to establish a compost program. The finished product is a valuable soil amendment that adds fertility to local farmland, school…

  19. Prevalence and distribution of colonic diverticula assessed with CT colonography (CTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cecco, Carlo Nicola [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Medical University of South Carolina, Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Charleston, SC (United States); Ciolina, Maria; Rengo, Marco; Bellini, Davide; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Iafrate, Franco; Laghi, Andrea [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Polo Pontino, Department of Radiological Sciences, Oncology and Pathology, Latina (Italy); Annibale, Bruno [University of Rome ' ' Sapienza' ' - Sant' Andrea Hospital, Department of Digestive and Liver Disease, Rome (Italy); Maruotti, Antonello [University ' ' Roma Tre' ' , Department of Public Institutions, Economy and Society, Rome (Italy); University of Southampton, Southampton Statistical Sciences Research Institute and School of Mathematics, Southampton (United Kingdom); Saba, Luca [Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria di Cagliari, Department of Radiology, Cagliari (Italy)

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of colonic diverticula according to age, gender, distribution, disease extension and symptoms with CT colonography (CTC). The study population included 1091 consecutive patients who underwent CTC. Patients with diverticula were retrospectively stratified according to age, gender, clinical symptoms and colonic segment involvement. Extension of colonic diverticula was evaluated using a three-point quantitative scale. Using this data, a multivariate regression analysis was applied to investigate the existence of any correlation among variables. Colonic diverticula were observed in 561 patients (240 men, mean age 68 ± 12 years). Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) was present in 47.4 % of cases. In 25.6 % of patients ≤40 years, at least one diverticulum in the colon was observed. Prevalence of right-sided diverticula in patients >60 years was 14.2 % in caecum and 18.5 % in ascending colon. No significant difference was found between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients regarding diverticula prevalence and extension. No correlation was present between diverticula extension and symptoms. The incidence of colonic diverticula appears to be greater than expected. Right colon diverticula do not appear to be an uncommon finding, with their prevalence increasing with patient age. SUDD does not seem to be related to diverticula distribution and extension. (orig.)

  20. Prevalence and distribution of colonic diverticula assessed with CT colonography (CTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cecco, Carlo Nicola; Ciolina, Maria; Rengo, Marco; Bellini, Davide; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Iafrate, Franco; Laghi, Andrea; Annibale, Bruno; Maruotti, Antonello; Saba, Luca

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of colonic diverticula according to age, gender, distribution, disease extension and symptoms with CT colonography (CTC). The study population included 1091 consecutive patients who underwent CTC. Patients with diverticula were retrospectively stratified according to age, gender, clinical symptoms and colonic segment involvement. Extension of colonic diverticula was evaluated using a three-point quantitative scale. Using this data, a multivariate regression analysis was applied to investigate the existence of any correlation among variables. Colonic diverticula were observed in 561 patients (240 men, mean age 68 ± 12 years). Symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) was present in 47.4 % of cases. In 25.6 % of patients ≤40 years, at least one diverticulum in the colon was observed. Prevalence of right-sided diverticula in patients >60 years was 14.2 % in caecum and 18.5 % in ascending colon. No significant difference was found between symptomatic and asymptomatic patients regarding diverticula prevalence and extension. No correlation was present between diverticula extension and symptoms. The incidence of colonic diverticula appears to be greater than expected. Right colon diverticula do not appear to be an uncommon finding, with their prevalence increasing with patient age. SUDD does not seem to be related to diverticula distribution and extension. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of Composting and the Quality of Compost from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Michael Horsfall

    3Addis Ababa University, Faculty of Sciences, Environmental Science Program, P.O.Box:1176, Addis ... practices of solid waste management of the city. ..... Basic Principles for composting of ... (http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/natu.

  2. Effects of biochar, compost and biochar-compost on growth and nutrient status of maize in two Mediterranean soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolikaki, Ioanna; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2017-04-01

    During the past years, studies have shown that biochar alone or combined with compost, has the potential to improve soil fertility and maize yield mostly on tropical soils whereas experiments on Mediterranean soils are rare. Therefore, the influence of biochar, compost and mixtures of the two, on maize (Zea mays L.) growth and nutrient status were investigated, in this study. Biochars were produced from 2 feedstocks: grape pomace (GP) and rice husks (RH) pyrolyzed at 300°C. Maize was grown for 30 days in a greenhouse pot trial on two Mediterranean soils amended with biochar or/with compost at application rates of 0% and 2% (w/w) (equivalent to 0 and 16 t ha-1) and N fertilization. Total aboveground dry matter yield of maize was significantly improved relative to the control for all organic amendments, with increases in yield 43-60.8%, in sandy loam soil, while, in loam soil a statistically significant increase of 70.6-81.3% was recorded for all the amendments apart from compost. Some morphological traits, such as aboveground height of plants, shoot diameter and belowground dry matter yield were significantly increased by the organic treatments. Aboveground concentration of P was significantly increased from 1.46 mg g-1 at control to 1.69 mg g-1 at 2% GP biochar in sandy loam soil, whereas GP biochar combined with compost gave an increase of 2.03 mg g-1 compared to control 1.23 mg g-1. K and Mn concentrations of above ground tissues were significantly increased only in sandy loam soil, while Fe in both soils. N concentration of aboveground tissues declined for all the amendments in loam soil and in sandy loam soil apart from compost amendment. Significant positive impacts of amended soils on nutrients uptake were observed in both soils as compared to the control related to the improved dry matter yield of plant. The current study demonstrated that maize production could be greatly improved by biochar and compost because of the nutrients they supply and their

  3. Mesophilic and thermophilic biotreatment of BTEX-polluted air in reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammad, Balsam T; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2007-08-15

    This study compares the removal of a mixture of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and all three xylene isomers (BTEX) in mesophilic and thermophilic (50 degrees C) bioreactors. In the mesophilic reactor fungi became dominant after long-term operation, while bacteria dominated in the thermophilic unit. Microbial acclimation was achieved by exposing the biofilters to initial BTEX loads of 2-15 g m(-3) h(-1), at an empty bed residence time of 96 s. After adaptation, the elimination capacities ranged from 3 to 188 g m(-3) h(-1), depending on the inlet load, for the mesophilic biofilter with removal efficiencies reaching 96%. On the other hand, in the thermophilic reactor the average removal efficiency was 83% with a maximum elimination capacity of 218 g m(-3) h(-1). There was a clear positive relationship between temperature gradients as well as CO(2) production and elimination capacities across the biofilters. The gas phase was sampled at different depths along the reactors observing that the percentage pollutant removal in each section was strongly dependant on the load applied. The fate of individual alkylbenzene compounds was checked, showing the unusually high biodegradation rate of benzene at high loads under thermophilic conditions (100%) compared to its very low removal in the mesophilic reactor at such load (<10%). Such difference was less pronounced for the other pollutants. After 210 days of operation, the dry biomass content for the mesophilic and thermophilic reactors were 0.300 and 0.114 g g(-1) (support), respectively, reaching higher removals under thermophilic conditions with a lower biomass accumulation, that is, lower pressure drop. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Legionella spp. in UK composts--a potential public health issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, S L; Beattie, T K; Knapp, C W; Lindsay, D S J

    2014-04-01

    Over the past 5 years, a number of cases of legionellosis in Scotland have been associated with compost use; however, studies investigating sources of infection other than water systems remain limited. This study delivers the first comprehensive survey of composts commonly available in the UK for the presence of Legionella species. Twenty-two store-bought composts, one green-waste compost and one home-made compost were tested for Legionella by culture methods on BCYE-α medium, and the findings were confirmed by macrophage infectivity potentiator (mip) speciation. Twenty-two of the samples were retested after an enrichment period of 8 weeks. In total, 15 of 24 composts tested positive for Legionella species, a higher level of contamination than previously seen in Europe. Two isolates of Legionella pneumophila were identified, and Legionella longbeachae serogroup 1 was found to be one of the most commonly isolated species. L. longbeachae infection would not be detected by routine Legionella urinary antigen assay, so such testing should not be used as the sole diagnostic technique in atypical pneumonia cases, particularly where there is an association with compost use. The occurrence of Legionella in over half of the samples tested indicates that compost could pose a public health risk. The addition of general hygiene warnings to compost packages may be beneficial in protecting public health. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  5. Reduction of pathogenic bacteria in organic compost using gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Hye-Jeong; Lim, Sang-Yong; Song, Hyun-Pa; Kim, Byung-Keun; Chung, Byung-Yeoup [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Chonbuk, Jeongeup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: fungikim@kaeri.re.kr

    2007-11-15

    Organic compost is a useful fertilizer for organic farming. However, it poses a microbiological hazard to the farm products because most of the composts are originated from excremental matters of domestic animals. In this study, the radiation treatment was performed to improve microbiological safety of organic compost and the effectiveness of gamma irradiation for inactivating Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli was investigated. The total aerobic and coliform bacteria in the 16 commercial composts were ranged from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7} CFU/ml and 0 to 10{sup 3} CFU/ml, respectively. All coliform bacteria in the composts were eliminated by irradiation at a dose of 3 kGy, while about 10{sup 2} CFU/ml of the total aerobic bacteria were survived up to 10 kGy. In the artificial inoculation test, the test organisms (inoculated at 10{sup 7} CFU/g) were eliminated by irradiation at 3 kGy. Approximate D{sub {sub 1}{sub 0}} values of Salmonella Typhimurium and E. coli in the compost were 0.40 and 0.25 kGy, respectively. In the cultivation test, the test organisms of the compost had transfer a lettuce leaves. The growth pattern of lettuce was not different between irradiated and non-irradiated composts.

  6. Reproducibility of suppression of Pythium wilt of cucumber by compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauritz Vilhelm Vestberg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global interest in using compost to suppress soil-borne fungal and bacterial diseases and nematodes. We studied the reproducibility of compost suppressive capacity (SC against Pythium wilt of cucumber using nine composts produced by the same composting plant in 2008 and 2009. A bioassay was set up in a greenhouse using cucumber inoculated with two strains of Pythium. The composts were used as 20% mixtures (v:v of a basic steam-sterilized light Sphagnum peat and sand (3:1, v:v. Shoot height was measured weekly during the 5-week experiment. At harvest, the SC was calculated as the % difference in shoot dry weight (DW between non-inoculated and inoculated cucumbers. The SC was not affected by year of production (2008 or 2009, indicating reproducibility of SC when the raw materials and the composting method are not changed. Differences in shoot height were not as pronounced as those for shoot DW. The results were encouraging, but further studies are still needed for producing compost with guaranteed suppressiveness properties.

  7. Force-dependent melting of supercoiled DNA at thermophilic temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galburt, E A; Tomko, E J; Stump, W T; Ruiz Manzano, A

    2014-01-01

    Local DNA opening plays an important role in DNA metabolism as the double-helix must be melted before the information contained within may be accessed. Cells finely tune the torsional state of their genomes to strike a balance between stability and accessibility. For example, while mesophilic life forms maintain negatively superhelical genomes, thermophilic life forms use unique mechanisms to maintain relaxed or even positively supercoiled genomes. Here, we use a single-molecule magnetic tweezers approach to quantify the force-dependent equilibrium between DNA melting and supercoiling at high temperatures populated by Thermophiles. We show that negatively supercoiled DNA denatures at 0.5 pN lower tension at thermophilic vs. mesophilic temperatures. This work demonstrates the ability to monitor DNA supercoiling at high temperature and opens the possibility to perform magnetic tweezers assays on thermophilic systems. The data allow for an estimation of the relative energies of base-pairing and DNA bending as a function of temperature and support speculation as to different general mechanisms of DNA opening in different environments. Lastly, our results imply that average in vivo DNA tensions range between 0.3 and 1.1 pN. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Delayed addition of nitrogen-rich substrates during composting of municipal waste: Effects on nitrogen loss, greenhouse gas emissions and compost stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigussie, Abebe; Bruun, Sander; Kuyper, Thomas W; de Neergaard, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Municipal waste is usually composted with an N-rich substrate, such as manure, to increase the N content of the product. This means that a significant amount of nitrogen can be lost during composting. The objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate (poultry manure) on nitrogen losses and greenhouse gas emissions during composting and to link this effect to different bulking agents (coffee husks and sawdust), and (ii) to assess the effect of split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate on compost stability and sanitisation. The results showed that split addition of the nitrogen-rich substrate reduced nitrogen losses by 9% when sawdust was used and 20% when coffee husks were used as the bulking agent. Depending on the bulking agent used, split addition increased cumulative N 2 O emissions by 400-600% compared to single addition. In contrast, single addition increased methane emissions by up to 50% compared to split addition of the substrate. Hence, the timing of the addition of the N-rich substrate had only a marginal effect on total non-CO 2 greenhouse gas emissions. Split addition of the N-rich substrate resulted in compost that was just as stable and effective at completely eradicating weed seeds as single addition. These findings therefore show that split addition of a nitrogen-rich substrate could be an option for increasing the fertilising value of municipal waste compost without having a significant effect on total greenhouse gas emissions or compost stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Composting of sugar cane bagasse by Bacillus strains

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mamita

    2017-01-18

    Jan 18, 2017 ... The inoculated composts presented higher enzymatic activities than control compost, .... bacteria were determined by the plate pouring technique using ..... emissions of carbon dioxide, ammonia and nitrous oxide from.

  10. Degradation of morphine in opium poppy processing waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin Quan; Zhang, Jin Lin; Schuchardt, Frank; Wang, Yan

    2014-09-01

    To investigate morphine degradation and optimize turning frequency in opium poppy processing waste composting, a pilot scale windrow composting trial was run for 55 days. Four treatments were designed as without turning (A1), every 5 days turning (A2), every 10 days turning (A3) and every 15 days turning (A4). During composting, a range of physicochemical parameters including the residual morphine degradation, temperature, pH, and the contents of total C, total N, total P and total K were investigated. For all treatments, the residual morphine content decreased below the detection limit and reached the safety standards after day 30 of composting, the longest duration of high temperature (⩾50 °C) was observed in A3, pH increased 16.9-17.54%, total carbon content decreased 15.5-22.5%, C/N ratio reduced from 46 to 26, and the content of total phosphorus and total potassium increased slightly. The final compost obtained by a mixture of all four piles was up to 55.3% of organic matter, 3.3% of total nutrient (N, P2O5 and K2O) and 7.6 of pH. A turning frequency of every ten days for a windrow composting of opium poppy processing waste is recommended to produce homogenous compost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intelligent composting assisted by a wireless sensing network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Marga; Martinez-Farre, Xavier; Casas, Oscar; Quilez, Marcos; Polo, Jose; Lopez, Oscar; Hornero, Gemma; Pinilla, Mirta R; Rovira, Carlos; Ramos, Pedro M; Borges, Beatriz; Marques, Hugo; Girão, Pedro Silva

    2014-04-01

    Monitoring of the moisture and temperature of composting process is a key factor to obtain a quality product beyond the quality of raw materials. Current methodologies for monitoring these two parameters are time consuming for workers, sometimes not sufficiently reliable to help decision-making and thus are ignored in some cases. This article describes an advance on monitoring of composting process through a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) that allows measurement of temperature and moisture in real time in multiple points of the composting material, the Compo-ball system. To implement such measurement capabilities on-line, a WSN composed of multiple sensor nodes was designed and implemented to provide the staff with an efficient monitoring composting management tool. After framing the problem, the objectives and characteristics of the WSN are briefly discussed and a short description of the hardware and software of the network's components are presented. Presentation and discussion of practical issues and results obtained with the WSN during a demonstration stage that took place in several composting sites concludes the paper. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diversity of bacteria and glycosyl hydrolase family 48 genes in cellulolytic consortia enriched from thermophilic biocompost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo, Javier A; Sizova, Maria V; Lynd, Lee R

    2010-06-01

    The enrichment from nature of novel microbial communities with high cellulolytic activity is useful in the identification of novel organisms and novel functions that enhance the fundamental understanding of microbial cellulose degradation. In this work we identify predominant organisms in three cellulolytic enrichment cultures with thermophilic compost as an inoculum. Community structure based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries featured extensive representation of clostridia from cluster III, with minor representation of clostridial clusters I and XIV and a novel Lutispora species cluster. Our studies reveal different levels of 16S rRNA gene diversity, ranging from 3 to 18 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), as well as variability in community membership across the three enrichment cultures. By comparison, glycosyl hydrolase family 48 (GHF48) diversity analyses revealed a narrower breadth of novel clostridial genes associated with cultured and uncultured cellulose degraders. The novel GHF48 genes identified in this study were related to the novel clostridia Clostridium straminisolvens and Clostridium clariflavum, with one cluster sharing as little as 73% sequence similarity with the closest known relative. In all, 14 new GHF48 gene sequences were added to the known diversity of 35 genes from cultured species.

  13. Struvite for composting of agricultural wastes with termite mound: Utilizing the unutilized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karak, Tanmoy; Sonar, Indira; Nath, Jyoti Rani; Paul, Ranjit Kumar; Das, Sampa; Boruah, Romesh Kumar; Dutta, Amrit Kumar; Das, Kuntal

    2015-01-01

    Although, compost is the store house of different plant nutrients, there is a concern for low amount of major nutrients especially nitrogen content in prepared compost. The present study deals with preparation of compost by using agricultural wastes with struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) along with termite mound. Among four composting mixtures, 50kg termite mound and 2.5kg struvite with crop residues (stover of ground nut: 361.65kg; soybean: 354.59kg; potato: 357.67kg and mustard: 373.19kg) and cow dung (84.90kg) formed a good quality compost within 70days of composting having nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as 21.59, 3.98 and 34.6gkg(-1), respectively. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences among the composts. The four composts formed two (pit 1, pit 2 and pit 3, pit 4) different groups. Two principal components expressed more than 97% of the total variability. Hierarchical cluster analysis resulted two homogeneous groups of composts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd Rahman, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja; Leow, Thean Chor; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Basri, Mahiran

    2007-08-10

    Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78 degrees C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0) as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5-99.2%). Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification. Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70 degrees C and was also stable up to 60 degrees C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T) and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T). Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T). Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular thermostable lipase into culture

  15. Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov., a thermophilic lipolytic bacterium isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salleh Abu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thermophilic Bacillus strains of phylogenetic Bacillus rRNA group 5 were described as a new genus Geobacillus. Their geographical distribution included oilfields, hay compost, hydrothermal vent or soils. The members from the genus Geobacillus have a growth temperatures ranging from 35 to 78°C and contained iso-branched saturated fatty acids (iso-15:0, iso-16:0 and iso-17:0 as the major fatty acids. The members of Geobacillus have similarity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences (96.5–99.2%. Thermophiles harboring intrinsically stable enzymes are suitable for industrial applications. The quest for intrinsically thermostable lipases from thermophiles is a prominent task due to the laborious processes via genetic modification. Results Twenty-nine putative lipase producers were screened and isolated from palm oil mill effluent in Malaysia. Of these, isolate T1T was chosen for further study as relatively higher lipase activity was detected quantitatively. The crude T1 lipase showed high optimum temperature of 70°C and was also stable up to 60°C without significant loss of crude enzyme activity. Strain T1T was a Gram-positive, rod-shaped, endospore forming bacterium. On the basic of 16S rDNA analysis, strain T1T was shown to belong to the Bacillus rRNA group 5 related to Geobacillus thermoleovorans (DSM 5366T and Geobacillus kaustophilus (DSM 7263T. Chemotaxonomic data of cellular fatty acids supported the affiliation of strain T1T to the genus Geobacillus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests, DNA/DNA hybridization, RiboPrint analysis, the length of lipase gene and protein pattern allowed genotypic and phenotypic differentiation of strain T1T from its validly published closest phylogenetic neighbors. Strain T1T therefore represents a novel species, for which the name Geobacillus zalihae sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain T1T (=DSM 18318T; NBRC 101842T. Conclusion Strain T1T was able to secrete extracellular

  16. Exogenous cellulases of thermophilic micromycetes. Pt. 1. Selection of producers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvesitadze, G; Kvachadze, L; Aleksidze, T; Chartishvili, D K

    1986-01-01

    More than 600 micromycetes - representatives of different genera have been investigated for their ability to produce exogenous cellulases. Most of the investigated cultures were found to produce these enzymes, 24 cultures being thermophilic, and 18 thermotolerant. Cellulase or its derivatives proved to be the most favourable carbon source for cellulase secretion. None of the thermophilic cultures studied manifested the ability of exogenous exoglucanase biosynthesis. Using UV-rays as mutagen, a mutant strain A. terreus T-49 has been obtained being characterized by an increased endo-glucanase and cellobiase activity, as compared to the initial strains. The cellulase preparations of thermophilic micromycetes contain one cellulasic component: endo-glucanase, or two: endo-glucanase and cellobiase.

  17. Heat recovery in compost piles for building applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Edouard

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes an estimation of the possible heat recovery of self-heating compost piles for building applications. The energy released during the aerobic composting of lignin and cellulose-based materials is computed by solving an inverse problem. The method consists first in an experimental phase with measurement of the temperature within the heap, then a numerical procedure allows for the inverse identification of the heat production due to the chemical reaction of composting. The simulation results show a good accordance with the experiments for the chosen source-term model. Comparing the results to the theoretical values for the energy released by aerobic composting provides an estimate for the efficiency of the reaction. The reached temperatures and recovered energy fit with the order of magnitude of building needs.

  18. Windrow composting as an option for disposal and utilization of dead birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vinodkumar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the feasibility of windrow composting as an environmentally safe and bio-secure disposal method of poultry manure and mortalities. Materials and Methods: Poultry dead birds and cage layer manure were collected from the commercial poultry farms and coir pith was obtained from coir fiber extraction unit. Physical properties and chemical composition of ingredients were analyzed and a suitable compost recipe was formulated. Two treatment windrow groups (T1- Dead birds + Cage layer manure + Coir pith, T2- Cage layer manure + Coir pith in replication were fabricated. Physical chemical and biological parameters of compost were analyzed. Results: Temperature profile ensured maximum pathogen and parasite reduction. Reduction in moisture content, weight, volume, total organic carbon, and progressive increase in total ash, calcium, phosphorus and potassium content as the composting proceeded, were indicative of organic matter degradation and mineralization. Favourable C:N ratio and germination index indicated compost maturity and absence of any phytotoxins in finished compost. The finished compost had undetectable level of Salmonella. There was no odour and fly menace throughout the composting experiment. Conclusion: Windrow composting of poultry waste can be considered as a biologically and environmentally safe disposal option with recycling of nutrients in the form of compost.

  19. Combining heterogeneous features for colonic polyp detection in CTC based on semi-definite programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Yao, Jianhua; Petrick, Nicholas A.; Summers, Ronald M.

    2009-02-01

    Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Computed tomographic colonography (CTC) combined with a computer aided detection system provides a feasible combination for improving colonic polyps detection and increasing the use of CTC for colon cancer screening. To distinguish true polyps from false positives, various features extracted from polyp candidates have been proposed. Most of these features try to capture the shape information of polyp candidates or neighborhood knowledge about the surrounding structures (fold, colon wall, etc.). In this paper, we propose a new set of shape descriptors for polyp candidates based on statistical curvature information. These features, called histogram of curvature features, are rotation, translation and scale invariant and can be treated as complementing our existing feature set. Then in order to make full use of the traditional features (defined as group A) and the new features (group B) which are highly heterogeneous, we employed a multiple kernel learning method based on semi-definite programming to identify an optimized classification kernel based on the combined set of features. We did leave-one-patient-out test on a CTC dataset which contained scans from 50 patients (with 90 6-9mm polyp detections). Experimental results show that a support vector machine (SVM) based on the combined feature set and the semi-definite optimization kernel achieved higher FROC performance compared to SVMs using the two groups of features separately. At a false positive per patient rate of 7, the sensitivity on 6-9mm polyps using the combined features improved from 0.78 (Group A) and 0.73 (Group B) to 0.82 (p<=0.01).

  20. Use of Urban composts for the regeneration of a burnt Mediterranean soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cellier, A.; Baldy, V.; Ballini, C.; Houot, S.; Francou, C.

    2009-07-01

    In Mediterranean region, forest fires are a major problem towards the desertification of the environment. Use of composts is considered as a solution for soil and vegetation rehabilitation. In this study, we determined the effects of three urban composts and their mode of application (laid at the soil surface or buried) on soil restoration after fire: municipal wastes compost (MWC), sewage sludge and green wastes compost (SSC) and, green wastes compost (GWC). (Author)

  1. Effect of the raw materials and mixing ratio of composted wastes on the dynamic of organic matter stabilization and nitrogen availability in composts of Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaboré, Théodore Wind-Tinbnoma; Houot, Sabine; Hien, Edmond; Zombré, Prosper; Hien, Victor; Masse, Dominique

    2010-02-01

    The effect of raw materials and their proportions in initial mixtures on organic matter (OM) stabilization and nitrogen (N) availability during pit composting in Sub-Saharan Africa was assessed using biochemical fractionation and laboratory incubations to characterize composts sampled throughout the composting process. Stabilization of OM occurred more rapidly in mixtures with slaughter-house wastes, it was progressive in mixture with household refuses while tree leaves compost remained unstable. Carbon mineralization from compost samples was positively correlated to water soluble and hemicellulose-like organic fractions. Mixtures containing large proportions of household refuses reached the highest stability and total N but available N remained weak. Slaughter-house wastes in the initial mixtures made possible to reach good OM stabilization and the largest N availability. The nature of initial mixing influenced composting parameters, OM stabilization and N availability. It is suggested mixing household refuses and slaughter-house wastes with tree leaves to reach better amending and fertilizer qualities of composts.

  2. Compost de ave de corral como componente de sustratos

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    Lorena Alejandra Barbaro¹

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El sustrato para cultivo es un material que colocado en un contenedor permite el anclaje del sistema radicular, proporcionando agua y nutrientes. Entre los materiales empleados para formular sustratos se encuentran los compost. Entre ellos el compost de cama de ave de corral (CAC, elaborado en base al estiércol de aves mezclado con los materiales que forman su lecho. El objetivo de este trabajo fue e