WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermoneutral air environment

  1. The obesity epidemic: from the environment to epigenetics – not simply a response to dietary manipulation in a thermoneutral environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Edward Symonds

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity continues to increase particularly in developed countries. To establish the primary mechanisms involved, relevant animal models which track the developmental pathway to obesity are required. This need is emphasised by the substantial rise in the number of overweight and obese children, of which a majority will remain obese through adulthood. The past half century has been accompanied with unprecedented transitions in our lifestyle. Each of these changes substantially contributes to enhancing our capacity to store energy into adipose tissues. The complex aetiology of adiposity is critical as a majority of models investigating obesity utilise a simplistic high-fat/low-carbohydrate diet, fed over a short time period to comparatively young inbred animals maintained in fixed environment. The natural history of obesity is much more complex involving many other mechanisms and this type of challenge may not be the optimal experimental intervention. Such processes include changes in adipose tissue composition with time and the transition from brown to white adipose tissue. Brown adipose tissue, due its unique ability to rapidly produce large amounts of heat could have a pivital role in energy balance and is under epigenetic regulation mediated by the histone H3k9-specific demethylase Jhdma2a. Furthermore, day length has a potential role in determining endocrine and metabolic responses in brown fat. The potential to utilise novel models and interventions across a range of animal species in adipose tissue development may finally start to yield sustainable strategies by which excess fat mass can, at last, be avoided in humans.

  2. Beyond the classic thermoneutral zone: Including thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingma, Boris Rm; Frijns, Arjan Jh; Schellen, Lisje; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D

    2014-01-01

    The thermoneutral zone is defined as the range of ambient temperatures where the body can maintain its core temperature solely through regulating dry heat loss, i.e., skin blood flow. A living body can only maintain its core temperature when heat production and heat loss are balanced. That means that heat transport from body core to skin must equal heat transport from skin to the environment. This study focuses on what combinations of core and skin temperature satisfy the biophysical requirements of being in the thermoneutral zone for humans. Moreover, consequences are considered of changes in insulation and adding restrictions such as thermal comfort (i.e. driver for thermal behavior). A biophysical model was developed that calculates heat transport within a body, taking into account metabolic heat production, tissue insulation, and heat distribution by blood flow and equates that to heat loss to the environment, considering skin temperature, ambient temperature and other physical parameters. The biophysical analysis shows that the steady-state ambient temperature range associated with the thermoneutral zone does not guarantee that the body is in thermal balance at basal metabolic rate per se. Instead, depending on the combination of core temperature, mean skin temperature and ambient temperature, the body may require significant increases in heat production or heat loss to maintain stable core temperature. Therefore, the definition of the thermoneutral zone might need to be reformulated. Furthermore, after adding restrictions on skin temperature for thermal comfort, the ambient temperature range associated with thermal comfort is smaller than the thermoneutral zone. This, assuming animals seek thermal comfort, suggests that thermal behavior may be initiated already before the boundaries of the thermoneutral zone are reached.

  3. Air pollution and the school air environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fsadni, Peter; Montefort, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about the association of school indoor air quality (SIAQ) with asthma, rhinitis, and rhinoconjunctivitis. Students and school staff deserve the highest standards of school air quality to ensure a safe and productive environment for our children’s education. Existing studies highlight the presence of several air pollutants present within school classrooms that have a direct association with poor health and poor student performance. Very little data exist ab...

  4. Redução do nível de proteína bruta em rações para frangos de corte em ambiente de termoneutralidade Dietary crude protein level reduction for broilers maintained in thermoneutral environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Will Pereira de Oliveira

    2011-08-01

    design, with five treatments (21.6; 20.6; 19.6; 18.6 and 17.6% CP and eight replications with seven birds per experimental unit. Temperatures inside the rooms were maintained at 21.6 ± 0.7°C, relative humidity at 74.4.0% and black globe temperature of 22.5 ± 0.7°C. Black globe temperature and humidity index (BGHTI calculated for a period of 70 ± 0.9. There was no effect of the reduction of the levels of CP on weight gain and on feed intake but feed conversion was influenced by the reduction of the CP levels, and the birds fed diet with 22.0% of CP presented a better result. The reduction of the levels of CP did not influence absolute carcass weight and absolute and relative weights of breast, thigh and drumstick. Reduction of the level of dietary CP from 21.6 to 17.6% and formulated according to ideal protein concept worsens feed conversion of broilers kept in thermoneutral environment, not influencing the other studied variables.

  5. Objective and subjective measures of exercise intensity during thermo-neutral and hot yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Corinne N; Lannan, Stephanie M; Zuhl, Micah N; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Nelson, Rachael K

    2018-04-01

    While hot yoga has gained enormous popularity in recent years, owing in part to increased environmental challenge associated with exercise in the heat, it is not clear whether hot yoga is more vigorous than thermo-neutral yoga. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine objective and subjective measures of exercise intensity during constant intensity yoga in a hot and thermo-neutral environment. Using a randomized, crossover design, 14 participants completed 2 identical ∼20-min yoga sessions in a hot (35.3 ± 0.8 °C; humidity: 20.5% ± 1.4%) and thermo-neutral (22.1 ± 0.2 °C; humidity: 27.8% ± 1.6%) environment. Oxygen consumption and heart rate (HR) were recorded as objective measures (percentage of maximal oxygen consumption and percentage of maximal HR (%HRmax)) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was recorded as a subjective measure of exercise intensity. There was no difference in exercise intensity based on percentage of maximal oxygen consumption during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga (30.9% ± 2.3% vs. 30.5% ± 1.8%, p = 0.68). However, exercise intensity was significantly higher during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga based on %HRmax (67.0% ± 2.3% vs. 60.8% ± 1.9%, p = 0.01) and RPE (12 ± 1 vs. 11 ± 1, p = 0.04). According to established exercise intensities, hot yoga was classified as light-intensity exercise based on percentage of maximal oxygen consumption but moderate-intensity exercise based on %HRmax and RPE while thermo-neutral yoga was classified as light-intensity exercise based on percentage of maximal oxygen uptake, %HRmax, and RPE. Despite the added hemodynamic stress and perception that yoga is more strenuous in a hot environment, we observed similar oxygen consumption during hot versus thermo-neutral yoga, classifying both exercise modalities as light-intensity exercise.

  6. Electronic air cleaners and the indoor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krafthefer, B.

    1986-01-01

    The growing awareness over the quality of air in the indoor environment is driving the search for effective control methods for the contaminants of concern. Electronic air cleaners can control such pollutants as dust, pollen, tobacco smoke, radon decay products, and other particulates. This paper presents an examination of the various types of electronic air cleaners and their effects on indoor pollutants. It also examines the mechanism for contaminant removal, the relationship of the efficiency to the characteristics of the contaminant, and what type of contaminants can be controlled with the electronic air cleaner, with particular emphasis placed on the removal of radon decay products. From a study on radon product removal in residences, the electronic air cleaner was found to have an efficiency of up to 70%. Not only was there a reduction in the residential working level, but the fluctuations in the working level were also reduced. With this information, they can better understand how to solve the air treatment problem of the inhabited space. 17 references, 8 figures

  7. Níveis de lisina digestível em rações para frangos de corte de 22 a 42 dias de idade, mantidos em ambiente de termoneutralidade Requirements of dietary digestible lysine for broilers from 22 to 42 days old on thermoneutral environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Roselí Valerio Lana

    2005-10-01

    acid relation, on performance of broilers from 22 to 42 days old on thermoneutral environment. Two hundred and ten male broilers (averaging initial weight of 662.5 g and 168 broilers (averaging initial weight of 623.7 g were assigned to a completely randomized experimental design in trials 1 and 2, respectively. In trial 1, the broilers were allotted to five treatments (digestible lysine levels in conventional diets and six replicates of seven broilers. In trial 2, the broilers were allotted to four treatments (digestible lysine levels in diet maintaining amino acid relation and six replicates of seven broilers. In both trials, linear effect of digestible lysine levels on body weight gain and feed:gain ratio were observed. In trial 1, the increasing dietary digestible lysine levels increased linearly absolute carcass weight. There was no effect of lysine levels on relative carcass weights and on absolute and relative weichts of abdominal fat. In trial 2, absolute and relative breast and thigh weights increased linearly, while the absolute drumstick data increased quadraticly up to 0.955% digestible lysine level. No treatment effects on relative drumstick weight and absolute and relative weights of abdominal fat was observed. It was concluded that male broilers, Avian Farms, in the period from 22 to 42 days old, require at least 1.015 and 1.075% digestible lysine in conventional diet or in a diet maintaining the amino acid relation, respectively. This corresponds to an intake of 28 g digestible lysine for birds on a thermoneutral environment.

  8. Characteristics of the local cutaneous sensory thermoneutral zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward A.

    2017-01-01

    Skin temperature detection thresholds have been used to measure human cold and warm sensitivity across the temperature continuum. They exhibit a sensory zone within which neither warm nor cold sensations prevail. This zone has been widely assumed to coincide with steady-state local skin temperatures between 32 and 34°C, but its underlying neurophysiology has been rarely investigated. In this study we employ two approaches to characterize the properties of sensory thermoneutrality, testing for each whether neutrality shifts along the temperature continuum depending on adaptation to a preceding thermal state. The focus is on local spots of skin on the palm. Ten participants (age: 30.3 ± 4.8 yr) underwent two experiments. Experiment 1 established the cold-to-warm inter-detection threshold range for the palm’s glabrous skin and its shift as a function of 3 starting skin temperatures (26, 31, or 36°C). For the same conditions, experiment 2 determined a thermally neutral zone centered around a thermally neutral point in which thermoreceptors’ activity is balanced. The zone was found to be narrow (~0.98 to ~1.33°C), moving with the starting skin temperature over the temperature span 27.5–34.9°C (Pearson r = 0.94; P cold-to-warm inter-threshold range (~2.25 to ~2.47°C) but is only half as wide. These findings provide the first quantitative analysis of the local sensory thermoneutral zone in humans, indicating that it does not occur only within a specific range of steady-state skin temperatures (i.e., it shifts across the temperature continuum) and that it differs from the inter-detection threshold range both quantitatively and qualitatively. These findings provide insight into thermoreception neurophysiology. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Contrary to a widespread concept in human thermoreception, we show that local sensory thermoneutrality is achievable outside the 32–34°C skin temperature range. We propose that sensory adaption underlies a new mechanism of temperature

  9. Exigência de metionina + cistina digestíveis para suínos machos castrados mantidos em ambiente termoneutro dos 30 aos 60 kg Digestible methionine + cystine requirement for barrows maintained in thermoneutral environment from 30 to 60 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Kiefer

    2005-06-01

    linearly as the digestible methionine + cystine levels in the diet increased. Quadratic effect of the treatments was verified on the fat and protein depositions in the carcass that increased until the levels of digestible methionine + cystine estimated in 0.548 and 0.547%, respectively. It was concluded that digestible methionine + cystine requirements for barrows maintained in thermoneutral environment from 30 to 60 kg is 0.549%, correspondent to digestible methionine + cystine:digestible lysine ratio of 66%.

  10. Thermoneutral isotope exchange reactions of cations in the gas phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ausloos, P.; Lias, S.G.

    1981-01-01

    Rate constants have been measured for reactions of the type AD 2 + + MH → MD + ADH + , where AD 2 + is CD 3 CND + , CD 3 CDOD + , (CD 3 COCD 3 )D + , or (C 2 D 5 ) 2 OD + and the MH molecules are alcohols, acids, mercaptans, H 2 S, AsH 3 , PH 3 , or aromatic molecules. Rate constants are also presented for the reactions Ar/sub H/D + + D 2 O → Ar/sub d/D + + HDO, where Ar/sub H/D + is a deuteronated aromatic molecule and Ar/sub D/D + is the same species with a D atom incorporated on the ring. In all but two cases, the competing deuteron transfer is sufficiently endothermic that it cannot be observed under the conditions of the ICR experiments at 320 to 420 K. The efficiencies of the isotope exchange reactions are interpreted in terms of estimated potential surface cross sections for the reactions AD 2 + + MH → [AD 2 + MH] → [ADMHD + ] → [ADH + MD] → ADH + + MD. When the formation of the [ADMHD + ] complex is estimated to be thermoneutral or slightly endothermic, the isotope exchange process is inefficient (probability of a reactive collision 2 + MH] → [ADMHD + ] is exothermic. For most of the systems, trends in reaction efficiency appear to be related to factors such as dipole moments of reactant species (or for aromatic compounds, the electron-donating or -withdrawing properties of ring substituents) which influence the relative orientation of the two reactant species in the complex

  11. Available phosphorus levels in diets for pigs with high genetic potential for lean meat deposition kept in thermoneutral environment from 15 to 30 kg Níveis de fósforo disponível em rações para suínos de alto potencial genético para deposição de carne magra mantidos em ambiente termoneutro dos 15 aos 30 kg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Alebrante

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It was used 72 pigs, 36 castrated males and 36 females, with initial weight of 14.97 ± 0.36 kg to evaluate levels of dietary available phosphorus (aP. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized block design, with six levels of aP (0.107; 0.214; 0.321; 0.428; 0.535 and 0.642%, six replicates and two animals (one castrated male and one female per experimental unit. Air temperature and relative humidity in the room were kept at 24.5 ± 1.2°C and 76.3 ± 8.5%, respectively. The levels of aP influenced both daily feed intake and daily weight gain, which increased in a quadratic way up to the estimated levels of 0.420% and 0.443%, respectively and feed conversion, which improved in a quadratic manner up to the estimated level of 0.461%. It was observed the effects of levels of aP on quantity of phosphorus and ash in the bone, which increased in a quadratic manner up to the estimated levels of 0.525% and 0.520%, respectively. Levels of Ap affected daily protein deposition in the carcass, which increased in a quadratic way up to the estimated level of 0.394%. There was no effect of levels of aP on daily fat carcass deposition. Levels of aP that provided the best results for daily weight gain, feed conversion and bone mineralization in swines with high genetic potential for lean meat kept in thermoneutral environment, from 15 to 30 kg are 0.443, 0.461 and 0.525%, respectively, corresponding to estimated daily intakes of 5.25, 5.45 and 6.14 g of aP.Foram utilizados 72 leitões, 36 machos castrados e 36 fêmeas, com peso inicial de 14,97 ± 0,36 kg para avaliar níveis de fósforo disponível (Pd. Os animais foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com seis níveis de Pd (0,107; 0,214; 0,321; 0,428; 0,535 e 0,642%, seis repetições e dois animais (um macho castrado e uma fêmea por unidade experimental. A temperatura interna da sala foi mantida em 24,5 ± 1,2ºC e a umidade relativa do ar em 76,3 ± 8,5%. Os n

  12. Cardiovascular autonomic control during short-term thermoneutral and cool head-out immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourot, Laurent; Bouhaddi, Malika; Gandelin, Emmanuel; Cappelle, Sylvie; Dumoulin, Gilles; Wolf, Jean-Pierre; Rouillon, Jean Denis; Regnard, Jacques

    2008-01-01

    Moderately cold head-out water immersion stimulates both baro- and cold-receptors, and triggers complex and contradictory effects on the cardiovascular system and its autonomic nervous control. To assess the effects of water immersion and cold on cardiovascular status and related autonomic nervous activity. Hemodynamic variables and indexes of autonomic nervous activity (analysis of heart rate and blood pressure variability) were evaluated in 12 healthy subjects during 3 exposures of 20 min each in the upright position, i.e., in air (AIR, 24-25 degrees C), and during head-out water immersion at 35-36 degrees C (WIn) and 26-27 degrees C (WIc). Plasma noradrenaline, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and total peripheral resistances were reduced during WIn compared to AIR (263.9 +/- 39.4 vs. 492.5 +/- 35.7 pg x ml(-1), 116.5 +/- 3.7 and 65.4 +/- 1.7 mmHg vs. 140.8 +/- 4.7 and 89.8 +/- 2.8 mmHg, 14.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 16.3 +/- 0.9 mmHg x L(-1) x min, respectively) while they were increased during WIc (530.8 +/- 84.7 pg ml(-1), 148.0 +/- 7.0 mmHg, 80.8 +/- 3.0 mmHg, and 25.8 +/- 1.9 mmHg x L(-1) x min, respectively). The blood pressure variability was reduced to the same extent during WIc and Win compared to AIR. Heart rate decreased during WIn (67.8 +/- 2.7 vs. 81.2 +/- 2.7 bpm during AIR), in parallel with an increased cardiac parasympathetic activity. This pattern was strengthened during WIc (55.3 +/- 2.2 bpm). Thermoneutral WI lowered sympathetic activity and arterial tone, while moderate whole-body skin cooling triggered vascular sympathetic activation. Conversely, both WI and cold triggered cardiac parasympathetic activation, highlighting a complex autonomic control of the cardiovascular system.

  13. Operating systems in the air transportation environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherry, G. W.

    1971-01-01

    Consideration of the problems facing air transport at present, and to be expected in the future. In the Northeast Corridor these problems involve community acceptance, airway and airport congestion and delays, passenger acceptance, noise reduction, and improvements in low-density short-haul economics. In the development of a superior short-haul operating system, terminal-configured vs cruise-configured vehicles are evaluated. CTOL, STOL, and VTOL aircraft of various types are discussed. In the field of noise abatement, it is shown that flight procedural techniques are capable of supplementing ?quiet engine' technology.

  14. The human thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones: Thermal comfort in your own skin blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlader, Zachary J

    2015-01-01

    Human thermoregulation is achieved via autonomic and behavioral responses. Autonomic responses involve 2 synchronous 'components'. One counteracts large thermal perturbations, eliciting robust heat loss or gain (i.e., sweating or shivering). The other fends off smaller insults, relying solely on changes in sensible heat exchange (i.e., skin blood flow). This sensible component occurs within the thermoneutral zone [i.e., the ambient temperature range in which temperature regulation is achieved only by sensible heat transfer, without regulatory increases in metabolic heat production (e.g., shivering) or evaporative heat loss (e.g., sweating)].(1) The combination of behavior and sensible heat exchange permits a range of conditions that are deemed thermally comfortable, which is defined as the thermal comfort zone.(1) Notably, we spend the majority of our lives within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones. It is only when we are unable to stay within these zones that deleterious health and safety outcomes can occur (i.e., hypo- or hyperthermia). Oddly, although the thermoneutral zone and thermal preference (a concept similar to the thermal comfort zone) has been extensively studied in non-human animals, our understanding of human thermoregulation within the thermoneutral and thermal comfort zones remains rather crude.

  15. Air quality inside subway metro indoor environment worldwide: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bin; Hao, Jinliang

    2017-10-01

    The air quality in the subway metro indoor microenvironment has been of particular public concern. With specific reference to the growing demand of green transportation and sustainable development, subway metro systems have been rapidly developed worldwide in last decades. The number of metro commuters has continuously increased over recent years in metropolitan cities. In some cities, metro system has become the primary public transportation mode. Although commuters typically spend only 30-40min in metros, the air pollutants emitted from various interior components of metro system as well as air pollutants carried by ventilation supply air are significant sources of harmful air pollutants that could lead to unhealthy human exposure. Commuters' exposure to various air pollutants in metro carriages may cause perceivable health risk as reported by many environmental health studies. This review summarizes significant findings in the literature on air quality inside metro indoor environment, including pollutant concentration levels, chemical species, related sources and health risk assessment. More than 160 relevant studies performed across over 20 countries were carefully reviewed. These comprised more than 2000 individual measurement trips. Particulate matters, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbonyls and airborne bacteria have been identified as the primary air pollutants inside metro system. On this basis, future work could focus on investigating the chronic health risks of exposure to various air pollutants other than PM, and/or further developing advanced air purification unit to improve metro in-station air quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  17. Indoor air quality in public utility environments-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiełowska, Monika; Marć, Mariusz; Zabiegała, Bożena

    2017-04-01

    Indoor air quality has been the object of interest for scientists and specialists from the fields of science such as chemistry, medicine and ventilation system design. This results from a considerable number of potential factors, which may influence the quality of the broadly understood indoor air in a negative way. Poor quality of indoor air in various types of public utility buildings may significantly affect an increase in the incidence of various types of civilisation diseases. This paper presents information about a broad spectrum of chemical compounds that were identified and determined in the indoor environment of various types of public utility rooms such as churches, museums, libraries, temples and hospitals. An analysis of literature data allowed for identification of the most important transport paths of chemical compounds that significantly influence the quality of the indoor environment and thus the comfort of living and the health of persons staying in it.

  18. Estimation of some comfort parameters for sleeping environments in dry-tropical sub-Saharan Africa region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djongyang, Noël; Tchinda, René; Njomo, Donatien

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Thermal comfort in sleeping environments in the sub-Saharan Africa is presented. ► Comfort charts for the dry-tropical regions were established. ► Total insulation values for bedding systems range between 0.81 clo and 0.94 clo. ► Thermoneutral operative temperature ranges between 29.5 °C and 31.7 °C. ► Thermoneutral air temperature ranges between 27.1 °C and 29.6 °C. - Abstract: A human being spends approximately one-third of his/her life in sleep. For an efficient and peaceful rest, he/she therefore needs some level of comfort. This includes acceptable environmental parameters as well as suitable bedding systems. While the theories of thermal comfort in workplaces at daytime are currently well established, research on thermal comfort for sleeping environment at night is limited. Further studies in relation with sleep are needed. This paper presents an investigation on thermal comfort in sleeping environments in the sub-Saharan Africa region. The comfort equation used is based on the energy balance of the human body derived from Fanger’s comfort model. Comfort charts for the dry-tropical sub-Saharan Africa region were established using indoor climatic conditions collected over five years in Ouagadougou (12°22′N, 1°32′W). Results obtained show that the suitable monthly total insulation values for bedding systems in the dry-tropical regions range between 0.81 clo and 0.94 clo. The thermoneutral operative temperature range between 29 °C and 32 °C, while the thermoneutral air temperature range between 27 °C and 30 °C.

  19. Corrosion of well casings in compressed air energy storage environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmore, R.P.; Stottlemyre, J.A.

    1980-10-01

    The goal of this study was to determine corrosive effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) environments on several well casing materials to aid in material selections. A literature search on corrosion behavior of well casing material in similar environments revealed that corrosion rates of 0.20 to 0.25 mm/y might be expected. This information was employed in designing the laboratory study. Unstressed electrically isolate samples of various carbon steels were autoclaved at varying humidities, temperatures, and exposure durations to simulate anticipated environments in the well bore during CAES operation. All compressed air tests were run at 12.1 MPa. Temperatures varied from 323/sup 0/K to 573/sup 0/K, and humidity varied from 100% to completely dry air. The effects of salts in the humidified air were also studied. Results indicated that typical well casings of carbon steel as used in oil, gas, and water production wells adequately withstand the anticipated CAES reservoir environment. An acceptable corrosion rate arrived at by these laboratory simulations was between 0.0015 and 0.15 mm/y. Corrosion was caused by metal oxidation that formed a protective scale of iron oxide. Higher temperatures, humidity rates, or salinity content of the humid air increased corrosion. Corrosion also increased on a metal coupon in contact with a sandstone sample, possibly due to crevice corrosion. For each of these factors either singularly or collectively, the increased corrosion rates were still acceptable with the maximum measured at 0.15 mm/y. When coupons were reused in an identical test, the corrosion rates increased beyond the anticipated values that had been determined by extrapolation from one-time runs. Fine cracking of the protective scale probably occurred due to thermal variations, resulting in increased corrosion rates and a greater potential for particulates, which could plug the reservoir.

  20. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  1. Compressed air noise reductions from using advanced air gun nozzles in research and development environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieve, Kurt; Rice, Amanda; Raynor, Peter C

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate sound levels produced by compressed air guns in research and development (R&D) environments, replace conventional air gun models with advanced noise-reducing air nozzles, and measure changes in sound levels to assess the effectiveness of the advanced nozzles as engineering controls for noise. Ten different R&D manufacturing areas that used compressed air guns were identified and included in the study. A-weighted sound level and Z-weighted octave band measurements were taken simultaneously using a single instrument. In each area, three sets of measurements, each lasting for 20 sec, were taken 1 m away and perpendicular to the air stream of the conventional air gun while a worker simulated typical air gun work use. Two different advanced noise-reducing air nozzles were then installed. Sound level and octave band data were collected for each of these nozzles using the same methods as for the original air guns. Both of the advanced nozzles provided sound level reductions of about 7 dBA, on average. The highest noise reductions measured were 17.2 dBA for one model and 17.7 dBA for the other. In two areas, the advanced nozzles yielded no sound level reduction, or they produced small increases in sound level. The octave band data showed strong similarities in sound level among all air gun nozzles within the 10-1,000 Hz frequency range. However, the advanced air nozzles generally had lower noise contributions in the 1,000-20,000 Hz range. The observed decreases at these higher frequencies caused the overall sound level reductions that were measured. Installing new advanced noise-reducing air nozzles can provide large sound level reductions in comparison to existing conventional nozzles, which has direct benefit for hearing conservation efforts.

  2. Lead and cadmium in indoor air and the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komarnicki, Guenter J.K.

    2005-01-01

    The present study was conducted to find potential terrestrial biomonitors for heavy metals in indoor air in an urban environment. TSP, PM 10 , and PM 2.5 were collected in three retirement facilities in the urban area of Vienna. In addition, particulate matter and soil, vegetation, and isopods (Porcellio scaber L.) were collected in the adjacent garden areas. Aerosols were sampled with a low-volume air sampler. The sampled materials were wet ashed and total lead and cadmium contents were determined. Water-soluble heavy metal concentrations were measured in aqueous extracts from air exposed filters, soil, and vegetation. Lead and cadmium were analyzed by graphite furnace AAS. Lead contents in the vegetation were inferred from water-soluble lead in soils. Lead in isopods generally reflected the contents in vegetation. Cadmium in plants probably derived from soil solutions as well as from atmospheric input. Isopods reflected the total cadmium contents in soils. Particulate matter was dominated by PM 2.5 , both with respect to mass concentrations and to heavy metal contents. The indoor aerosol was found to be influenced by human activity, indoor sources, and outdoor particles. Relationships between indoor airborne heavy metals and the contents in vegetation (lead and cadmium: positive) and isopods (lead: negative) were identified to have the potential for biomonitoring indoor air quality. - Urban vegetation and isopods are potential indicators for indoor aerial heavy metals

  3. Behavior of aerosols in a steam-air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Longest, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of aerosols assumed to be characteristic of those generated during light water reactor (LWR) accident sequences and released into containment is being studied in the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) which is located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The program plan for the NSPP aerosol project provides for the study of the behavior, within containment, of simulated LWR accident aerosols emanating from fuel, reactor core structural materials, and from concrete-molten core materials interactions. The aerodynamic behavior of each of these aerosols was studied individually to establish its characteristics; current experiments involve mixtures of these aerosols to establish their interaction and collective behavior within containment. Tests have been conducted with U 3 O 8 aerosols, Fe 2 O 3 aerosols, and concrete aerosols in an environment of either dry air [relative humidity (RH) less than 20%] or steam-air [relative humidity (RH) approximately 100%] with aerosol mass concentration being the primary experimental variable

  4. Performance of an alpha air monitor in a dusty environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Newton, G.J.; Yeh, H.C.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.

    1988-01-01

    The Eberline Alpha-6 Continuous Air Monitor (CAM) was evaluated for use in detecting alpha radiation from 238 Pu and 239 Pu in the presence of background aerosols of salt dust and radon progeny. The Alpha-6 method uses an embedded, multichannel analyzer and real-time computer to correct for the presence of alpha-emitting radon progeny and to accurately report plutonium air concentration in dust-free environments. However, accumulation of mg/cm 2 salt dust on the sample collection filter was found to be equivalent to an infinitely thick layer. Dust loading raises the limit of detection in proportion to the concentration of airborne salt. Proper detection of 239 Pu is impaired by airborne concentrations of salt greater than 2 mg/m 3 . Alpha spectral analysis at a central monitoring computer is recommended to avoid detection errors at higher salt concentrations. (author)

  5. Air Purification in Closed Environments: An Overview of Spacecraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jay L.; LeVan, Douglas; Crumbley, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The primary goal for a collective protection system and a spacecraft environmental control and life support system (ECLSS) are strikingly similar. Essentially both function to provide the occupants of a building or vehicle with a safe, habitable environment. The collective protection system shields military and civilian personnel from short-term exposure to external threats presented by toxic agents and industrial chemicals while an ECLSS sustains astronauts for extended periods within the hostile environment of space. Both have air quality control similarities with various aircraft and 'tight' buildings. This paper reviews basic similarities between air purification system requirements for collective protection and an ECLSS that define surprisingly common technological challenges and solutions. Systems developed for air revitalization on board spacecraft are discussed along with some history on their early development as well as a view of future needs. Emphasis is placed upon two systems implemented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS): the trace contaminant control system (TCCS) and the molecular sieve-based carbon dioxide removal assembly (CDRA). Over its history, the NASA has developed and implemented many life support systems for astronauts. As the duration, complexity, and crew size of manned missions increased from minutes or hours for a single astronaut during Project Mercury to days and ultimately months for crews of 3 or more during the Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, and ISS programs, these systems have become more sophisticated. Systems aboard spacecraft such as the ISS have been designed to provide long-term environmental control and life support. Challenges facing the NASA's efforts include minimizing mass, volume, and power for such systems, while maximizing their safety, reliability, and performance. This paper will highlight similarities and differences among air purification systems

  6. A constant flow filter air sampler for workplace environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parulian, A.; Rodgers, J.C.; McFarland, A.R.

    1996-01-01

    A filter air sampler has been developed for sampling radionuclide aerosol particles form the workplace environment. It provides easy filter changing, constant flow sampling, and a visual display to indicate proper operation. An experimental study was conducted to characterize the collection efficiency of the sampler as affected by variations in room air velocity, particle size, sampling flow rate, inlet geometry, and inlet orientation to the free stream. Tests were carried out in a wing tunnel at velocities between 0.3 m s -1 and 2.0 m s -1 , which is a range that covers anticipated velocities in the typical highly ventilated workplace environment of a nuclear facility. Nearly monodisperse aerosols with sizes between 5 and 20 μm aerodynamic diameter were sampled at flow rates between 28.3 and 84.9 L min -1 . Inlet orientations of 0 degree, 90 degree, and 180 degree from the horizontal were selected for evaluation. When the sampler was oriented at 0 degree over various ranges of free stream velocities, sampling flow rates and particle sizes, the transmission efficiency of aerosol was typically greater than 95%. The transmission efficiencies varied form 80% to 106% for 10-μm aerodynamic diameter particles over the previously noted range of free stream velocities and inlet orientations. Uniformity of deposits of 10 μm aerodynamic diameter particles on collection filters was examined for a sampling rate of 57 L min -1 , a sampler orientation of 90 degree into the wind and wind speeds of 0.3-2 m s -1 . The coefficients of variation for the areal density of the deposits ranged from 6.1% to 37.2%. A miniature critical flow venturi with a constant sampling flow rate of 57 L min -1 was developed for application to the new filter air sampler. It was demonstrated that the performance of the new filter air sampler is quite acceptable over a wide range of conditions. 31 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  7. Limitations of ambient air quality standards in evaluating indoor environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of the kinds of data used for the derivation of ambient air quality standards (AAQSs) for carbon monoxide and ozone shows that these values are based on the toxicology of the materials and thus are suitable for evaluating potential health effects of indoor environments, especially on the very young, the aged, and the infirm. A similar analysis shows that the AAQSs for suspended particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and sulfur dioxide are strictly empirical and that they should not be used for any but their first, intended purpose. The AAQSs for non-methane hydrocarbons are based on photochemical smog production, not injury of any kind, and have no utility for indoor environment evaluation

  8. Environment and air pollution: health services bequeath to grotesque menace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Imran; Rasli, Amran Md; Awan, Usama; Ma, Jian; Ali, Ghulam; Faridullah; Alam, Arif; Sajjad, Faiza; Zaman, Khalid

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study is to establish the link between air pollution, fossil fuel energy consumption, industrialization, alternative and nuclear energy, combustible renewable and wastes, urbanization, and resulting impact on health services in Malaysia. The study employed two-stage least square regression technique on the time series data from 1975 to 2012 to possibly minimize the problem of endogeniety in the health services model. The results in general show that air pollution and environmental indicators act as a strong contributor to influence Malaysian health services. Urbanization and nuclear energy consumption both significantly increases the life expectancy in Malaysia, while fertility rate decreases along with the increasing urbanization in a country. Fossil fuel energy consumption and industrialization both have an indirect relationship with the infant mortality rate, whereas, carbon dioxide emissions have a direct relationship with the sanitation facility in a country. The results conclude that balancing the air pollution, environment, and health services needs strong policy vistas on the end of the government officials.

  9. Microbial air contamination in indoor environment of a university library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalwasińska, Agnieszka; Burkowska, Aleksandra; Wilk, Iwona

    2012-01-01

    The present study was aimed at evaluating the number of bacteria and mould fungi in the indoor and outdoor environment of Toruń University Library. The sampling sites were located in the rooms serving the functions typical of libraries (i.e. in the Main Reading Room, Current Periodicals Reading Room, Collections Conservation Laboratory, Old Prints Storeroom, in rooms serving other (non-library) functions (i.e. main hall, cafeteria, and toilet) as well as outside the library building. The analyses reveal that the concentrations of bacterial as well as fungal aerosols estimated with the use of the impaction method ranged between 10(1)-10(3) CFU·m(-3), which corresponds to the concentrations normally observed in areas of this kind. Evaluation of the hygienic condition of the studied areas was based on the criteria for microbiological cleanliness in interiors submitted by the European Commission in 1993. According to this classification, the air was considered to be heavily or moderately contaminated with bacteria, while the air contamination with mould fungi was described as low or moderate. The air in the Old Prints Storeroom was considered the least contaminated with microbial aerosol.

  10. Air ion concentrations in various urban outdoor environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xuan; Jayaratne, Rohan; Morawska, Lidia

    2010-06-01

    Atmospheric ions are produced by many natural and anthropogenic sources and their concentrations vary widely between different environments. There is very little information on their concentrations in different types of urban environments, how they compare across these environments and their dominant sources. In this study, we measured airborne concentrations of small ions, particles and net particle charge at 32 different outdoor sites in and around a major city in Australia and identified the main ion sources. Sites were classified into seven groups as follows: park, woodland, city centre, residential, freeway, power lines and power substation. Generally, parks were situated away from ion sources and represented the urban background value of about 270 ions cm -3. Median concentrations at all other groups were significantly higher than in the parks. We show that motor vehicles and power transmission systems are two major ion sources in urban areas. Power lines and substations constituted strong unipolar sources, while motor vehicle exhaust constituted strong bipolar sources. The small ion concentration in urban residential areas was about 960 cm -3. At sites where ion sources were co-located with particle sources, ion concentrations were inhibited due to the ion-particle attachment process. These results improved our understanding on air ion distribution and its interaction with particles in the urban outdoor environment.

  11. Body mapping of cutaneous wetness perception across the human torso during thermo-neutral and warm environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filingeri, Davide; Fournet, Damien; Hodder, Simon; Havenith, George

    2014-10-15

    Sensing skin wetness is linked to inputs arising from cutaneous cold-sensitive afferents. As thermosensitivity to cold varies significantly across the torso, we investigated whether similar regional differences in wetness perception exist. We also investigated the regional differences in thermal pleasantness and whether these sensory patterns are influenced by ambient temperature. Sixteen males (20 ± 2 yr) underwent a quantitative sensory test under thermo-neutral [air temperature (Tair) = 22°C; relative humidity (RH) = 50%] and warm conditions (Tair = 33°C; RH = 50%). Twelve regions of the torso were stimulated with a dry thermal probe (25 cm(2)) with a temperature of 15°C below local skin temperature (Tsk). Variations in Tsk, thermal, wetness, and pleasantness sensations were recorded. As a result of the same cold-dry stimulus, the skin-cooling response varied significantly by location (P = 0.003). The lateral chest showed the greatest cooling (-5 ± 0.4°C), whereas the lower back showed the smallest (-1.9 ± 0.4°C). Thermal sensations varied significantly by location and independently from regional variations in skin cooling with colder sensations reported on the lateral abdomen and lower back. Similarly, the frequency of perceived skin wetness was significantly greater on the lateral and lower back as opposed to the medial chest. Overall wetness perception was slightly higher under warm conditions. Significantly more unpleasant sensations were recorded when the lateral abdomen and lateral and lower back were stimulated. We conclude that humans present regional differences in skin wetness perception across the torso, with a pattern similar to the regional differences in thermosensitivity to cold. These findings indicate the presence of a heterogeneous distribution of cold-sensitive thermo-afferent information. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Cardiovascular and metabolic responses to fasting and thermoneutrality are conserved in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, J M; Williams, T D; Chambers, J B; Rashotte, M E

    2001-04-01

    The primary purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that reduced leptin signaling is necessary to elicit the cardiovascular and metabolic responses to fasting. Lean (Fa/?; normal leptin receptor; n = 7) and obese (fa/fa; mutated leptin receptor; n = 8) Zucker rats were instrumented with telemetry transmitters and housed in metabolic chambers at 23 degrees C (12:12-h light-dark cycle) for continuous (24 h) measurement of metabolic and cardiovascular variables. Before fasting, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was higher (MAP: obese = 103 +/- 3; lean = 94 +/- 1 mmHg), whereas oxygen consumption (VO(2): obese = 16.5 +/- 0.3; lean = 18.6 +/- 0.2 ml. min(-1). kg(-0.75)) was lower in obese Zucker rats compared with their lean controls. Two days of fasting had no effect on MAP in either lean or obese Zucker rats, whereas VO(2) (obese = -3.1 +/- 0.3; lean = -2.9 +/- 0.1 ml. min(-1). kg(-0.75)) and heart rate (HR: obese = -56 +/- 4; lean = -42 +/- 4 beats/min) were decreased markedly in both groups. Fasting increased HR variability both in lean (+1.8 +/- 0.4 ms) and obese (+2.6 +/- 0.3 ms) Zucker rats. After a 6-day period of ad libitum refeeding, when all parameters had returned to near baseline levels, the cardiovascular and metabolic responses to 2 days of thermoneutrality (ambient temperature 29 degrees C) were determined. Thermoneutrality reduced VO(2) (obese = -2.4 +/- 0.2; lean = -3.3 +/- 0.2 ml. min(-1). kg(-0.75)), HR (obese = -46 +/- 5; lean = -55 +/- 4 beats/min), and MAP (obese = -13 +/- 6; lean = -10 +/- 1 mmHg) similarly in lean and obese Zucker rats. The results indicate that the cardiovascular and metabolic responses to fasting and thermoneutrality are conserved in Zucker rats and suggest that intact leptin signaling may not be requisite for the metabolic and cardiovascular responses to reduced energy intake.

  13. Guidelines on Thermal Comfort of Air Conditioned Indoor Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Toyohiko

    The thermal comfort of air conditioned indoor environment for workers depended, of course, on metabolic rate of work, race, sex, age, clothing, climate of the district and state of acclimatization. The attention of the author was directed to the seasonal variation and the sexual difference of comfortable temperature and a survey through a year was conducted on the thermal comfort, and health conditions of workers engaged in light work in a precision machine factory, in some office workers. Besides, a series of experiments were conducted for purpose of determinning the optimum temperature of cooling in summer time in relation to the outdoor temperature. It seemed that many of workers at present would prefer somewhat higher temperature than those before the World War II. Forty years ago the average homes and offices were not so well heated as today, and clothing worn on the average was considerably heavier.

  14. Standard sub-thermoneutral caging temperature influences radiosensitivity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Povinelli

    Full Text Available The production of new blood cells relies on a hierarchical network of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs. To maintain lifelong hematopoiesis, HSPCs must be protected from ionizing radiation or other cytotoxic agents. For many years, murine models have been a valuable source of information regarding factors that either enhance or reduce the survival of HSPCs after exposure of marrow to ionizing radiation. In a recent series of studies, however, it has become clear that housing-related factors such as the cool room temperature required for laboratory mice can exert a surprising influence on the outcome of experiments. Here we report that the mild, but chronic cold-stress endured by mice housed under these conditions exerts a protective effect on HSPCs after both non-lethal and lethal doses of total body irradiation (TBI. Alleviation of this cold-stress by housing mice at a thermoneutral temperature (30°C resulted in significantly greater baseline radiosensitivity to a lethal dose of TBI with more HSPCs from mice housed at thermoneutral temperature undergoing apoptosis following non-lethal TBI. Cold-stressed mice have elevated levels of norepinephrine, a key molecule of the sympathetic nervous system that binds to β-adrenergic receptors. We show that blocking this signaling pathway in vivo through use of the β-blocker propanolol completely mitigates the protective effect of cold-stress on HSPC apoptosis. Collectively this study demonstrates that chronic stress endured by the standard housing conditions of laboratory mice increases the resistance of HSPCs to TBI-induced apoptosis through a mechanism that depends upon β-adrenergic signaling. Since β-blockers are commonly prescribed to a wide variety of patients, this information could be important when predicting the clinical impact of HSPC sensitivity to TBI.

  15. Standard sub-thermoneutral caging temperature influences radiosensitivity of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povinelli, Benjamin J; Kokolus, Kathleen M; Eng, Jason W-L; Dougher, Christopher W; Curtin, Leslie; Capitano, Maegan L; Sailsbury-Ruf, Christi T; Repasky, Elizabeth A; Nemeth, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The production of new blood cells relies on a hierarchical network of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). To maintain lifelong hematopoiesis, HSPCs must be protected from ionizing radiation or other cytotoxic agents. For many years, murine models have been a valuable source of information regarding factors that either enhance or reduce the survival of HSPCs after exposure of marrow to ionizing radiation. In a recent series of studies, however, it has become clear that housing-related factors such as the cool room temperature required for laboratory mice can exert a surprising influence on the outcome of experiments. Here we report that the mild, but chronic cold-stress endured by mice housed under these conditions exerts a protective effect on HSPCs after both non-lethal and lethal doses of total body irradiation (TBI). Alleviation of this cold-stress by housing mice at a thermoneutral temperature (30°C) resulted in significantly greater baseline radiosensitivity to a lethal dose of TBI with more HSPCs from mice housed at thermoneutral temperature undergoing apoptosis following non-lethal TBI. Cold-stressed mice have elevated levels of norepinephrine, a key molecule of the sympathetic nervous system that binds to β-adrenergic receptors. We show that blocking this signaling pathway in vivo through use of the β-blocker propanolol completely mitigates the protective effect of cold-stress on HSPC apoptosis. Collectively this study demonstrates that chronic stress endured by the standard housing conditions of laboratory mice increases the resistance of HSPCs to TBI-induced apoptosis through a mechanism that depends upon β-adrenergic signaling. Since β-blockers are commonly prescribed to a wide variety of patients, this information could be important when predicting the clinical impact of HSPC sensitivity to TBI.

  16. The Future of the Brigade Combat Team: Air-Ground Integration and the Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    coordinate, and control joint and multinational aircraft during CAS situations in combat and training. The current system which the CAS mission falls...current system , experiences from Vietnam, Operation Desert Storm, Afghanistan and Iraq help to identify future challenges to the operating environment ...multinational partners. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Air Ground Integration, Theater Air Ground System , Theater Air Control System , Army Air Ground System , Joint

  17. Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME): Software User's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    A user's guide for the Air Traffic Complexity Measurement Environment (ACME) software is presented. The ACME consists of two major components, a complexity analysis tool and user interface. The Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT) analyzes complexity off-line, producing data files which may be examined interactively via the Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT). The Complexity Analysis Tool is composed of three independently executing processes that communicate via PVM (Parallel Virtual Machine) and Unix sockets. The Runtime Data Management and Control process (RUNDMC) extracts flight plan and track information from a SAR input file, and sends the information to GARP (Generate Aircraft Routes Process) and CAT (Complexity Analysis Task). GARP in turn generates aircraft trajectories, which are utilized by CAT to calculate sector complexity. CAT writes flight plan, track and complexity data to an output file, which can be examined interactively. The Complexity Data Analysis Tool (CDAT) provides an interactive graphic environment for examining the complexity data produced by the Complexity Analysis Tool (CAT). CDAT can also play back track data extracted from System Analysis Recording (SAR) tapes. The CDAT user interface consists of a primary window, a controls window, and miscellaneous pop-ups. Aircraft track and position data is displayed in the main viewing area of the primary window. The controls window contains miscellaneous control and display items. Complexity data is displayed in pop-up windows. CDAT plays back sector complexity and aircraft track and position data as a function of time. Controls are provided to start and stop playback, adjust the playback rate, and reposition the display to a specified time.

  18. Protection of air in premises and environment against beryllium aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitkolov, N.Z.; Vishnevsky, E.P.; Krupkin, A.V. [Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    1998-01-01

    First and foremost, the danger of beryllium aerosols concerns a possibility of their inhalation. The situation is aggravated with high biological activity of the beryllium in a human lung. The small allowable beryllium aerosols` concentration in air poses a rather complex and expensive problem of the pollution prevention and clearing up of air. The delivery and transportation of beryllium aerosols from sites of their formation are defined by the circuit of ventilation, that forms aerodynamics of air flows in premises, and aerodynamic links between premises. The causes of aerosols release in air of premises from hoods, isolated and hermetically sealed vessels can be vibrations, as well as pulses of temperature and pressure. Furthermore, it is possible the redispersion of aerosols from dirty surfaces. The effective protection of air against beryllium aerosols at industrial plants is provided by a complex of hygienic measures: from individual means of breath protection up to collective means of the prevention of air pollution. (J.P.N.)

  19. Assessing the Effects of Mechanic Activities on Uyo Air Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prior to the advancement of science and technology, our air was fresh, and wholesome. Expansion in the economic sector one of which is mechanic workshops brought along with it advantages and disadvantages, one of which is air pollution. Activities carried out in these workshops included engine repairs, paneling, open ...

  20. Thermal Environment for Classrooms. Central System Approach to Air Conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triechler, Walter W.

    This speech compares the air conditioning requirements of high-rise office buildings with those of large centralized school complexes. A description of one particular air conditioning system provides information about the system's arrangement, functions, performance efficiency, and cost effectiveness. (MLF)

  1. Humidification and perceived indoor air quality in the office environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinikainen, L M; Aunela-Tapola, L; Jaakkola, J J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of humidification on the odour, acceptability, and stuffiness of indoor air. METHODS: In a six period cross over trial at the Pasila Office Center, Helsinki, the air of two wings of the building in turn were ventilated with air of 30%-40% humidity. A third wing served as a non-humidified control area. The quality of indoor air was assessed weekly by a panel containing 18 to 23 members. The intraindividual differences in the ratings for odour, stuffiness, and acceptability between humidified and non-humidified wings were used to assess the effect of humidification. The roles of sex, current smoking, and age as potential effect modifiers were assessed by comparing the mean intraindividual differences in ratings between the groups. RESULTS: Humidified air was found to be more odorous and stuffy (paired t test P = 0.0001) and less acceptable than the non-humidified air (McNemar's test P humidification decreases the perceived air quality. This effect is strongest in women and young subjects. PMID:9196454

  2. Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Kuckelkorn, Jens; Liu, Di; Liu, Li-Qun; Pan, Xiao-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO 2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented. - Highlights: • Low energy school buildings and classroom environment. • Heat recovery facility operating with an air conditioning unit. • Displacement ventilation influenced by the heat recovery efficiency. • Energy conservation of cooling and ventilation through heat recovery. • Enhancement of classroom environment with reduction of school building energy

  3. Outdoor-indoor air pollution in urban environment: Challenges and opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Y.C. eLeung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the continual improvement in our quality of life, indoor air quality has become an important area of concern in the 21st century. Indoor air quality is affected by many factors including the type and running conditions of indoor pollution sources, ventilation conditions, as well as indoor activities. Studies revealed that the outdoor environment is also an important factor that cannot be neglected for indoor air quality studies. In this review, the indoor and outdoor air pollution relationships obtained from different studies are discussed in order to identify the key factors affecting the indoor air quality. As climate change is recognized as imposing impacts on the environment, how it affects the indoor air quality and the health impacts to the occupants will be evaluated in this paper. The major challenges and opportunities in indoor/outdoor air pollution studies will be highlighted.

  4. Nanomaterials for benign indoor environments: Electrochromics for 'smart windows', sensors for air quality, and photo-catalysts for air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, C.G.; Azens, A.; Heszler, P.; Kish, L.B.; OEsterlund, L.

    2007-01-01

    Nanomaterials can be used in a number of technologies in order to accomplish benign indoor environments. This paper takes a unified view on this problem from a solar-energy-based perspective and specifically considers electrochromics for achieving good day-lighting jointly with energy efficiency, sensors aimed at air quality assessment, and photocatalysis for air cleaning. Recent results, mainly from the authors' laboratories, are reported for all of these areas. (author)

  5. A novel complex air supply model for indoor air quality control via the occupant micro-environment demand ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jie; Zhou, Bo; Jin, Maozhu; Wang, Jun; Xiong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Protection of indoor air quality and human health can be achieved via ventilation, which has becomes one of the most important tasks for sustainable buildings. This approach also requires highly efficient and energy saving methods for modern building ventilations consisting of a set of parameters of the complex indoor system. Therefore, the advancement in understanding the characteristics of various ventilation methods is highly necessary. This study presents one novel air supply model for the complex occupant micro-environment demand control ventilations, to analyze the efficiency of various ventilation types. This model is established primarily according to the momentum and mass conservations, and goal of occupant micro-environment demand, which is a complex system with the characteristics of diversity and dynamic variation. As for different occupant densities, characteristics of outdoor air supply for controlling gaseous pollutant and three basic features of outdoor airflow supply reaching occupant micro-environment were obtained. This research shows that for various types of occupant density and storey height, the rising and descending rates of the demand outdoor airflow in mixing ventilation are higher than those under displacement ventilation conditions. In addition, since the structure is better designed and sewage flow is more efficient, the mixing ventilation also requires a much higher peak demand outdoor airflow than its counterpart. The increase of storey height will lead to a decline of pollutants in the breathing zone and the demand outdoor airflow. Fluctuations of air flow diffusion caused by the change of occupant density in architectural space, will lead to variations of outdoor airflow reaching occupant micro-environment. Accordingly, it would lead to the different peak values of demand outdoor airflow, and the difference becomes even significant if the occupant density increases. The variations of the air supply and fraction of air reaching the

  6. N-nitroso compounds in the air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, D.H.; Edwards, G.S.; Krull, I.S.; Wolf, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    The measurement and chemistry of N-nitroso compounds, most of which are known carcinogens, in the air are discussed. Methods for the analysis of N-nitroso compounds in the ambient air usually employ a nitrosamine-specific detector, coupled to a gas chromatograph or a high-pressure liquid chromatograph, with structural confirmation by high-resolution mass spectroscopy and extensive artifact experiments required. Airborne N-nitrosamines have been detected at significant trace levels near leather tanneries, rocket fuel plants, tire factories, tobacco smoke, amine factories, cooking vapors and in the ambient air. Nitrosation of amines has been demonstrated with nitrogen oxides, certain C-nitro compounds and nitrous acid, and tertiary amines, tertiary amine oxides and primary amines have been nitrosated

  7. Indoor air quality: The hidden side of the indoor environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Fernandes, E. de; Bluyssen, P.M.; Clausen, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The physical environment can be defined and understood in manv different ways, both from its nature, e.g., thermal, accoustic, etc., or its dimension, e.g., global, local, urban, indoors. The indoor environment is much more than the space or the light effects; it is the result of a complex

  8. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    1999-01-01

    Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms...

  9. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2001-01-01

    Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms...

  10. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2002-01-01

    Air-conditioning of buildings has played a very positive role for economic development in warm climates. Still its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from SBS symptoms, even...

  11. Keto analogues and amino acids supplementation induces a decrease of white blood cell counts and a reduction of muscle damage during intense exercise under thermoneutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, R C P; Camerino, S R A S; França, T C L; Rodrigues, D S A; Gouveia, M G S; Ximenes-da-Silva, A; Bassini, A; Prado, E S; Cameron, L C

    2017-04-19

    This study evaluated the acute effect of keto analogue and amino acid (AA-KAAA) supplementation on both white blood cell counts and the established biomarkers of muscle damage during exercise under thermoneutral conditions. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for two days and were divided into two equal groups: a group taking AA-KAAA (KA) or a control group (PL). The athletes performed a two hour cycling session followed by a maximum incremental test until voluntary exhaustion (VExh). Blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise for further hematological and biochemical analyses. Exercise-induced ammonemia increased in the PL group at VExh (75%) but remained unchanged in the KA group. Both groups exhibited a significant increase in leukocyte and neutrophil counts of ∼85% (∼13 × 10 9 L -1 ), but the shape of the lymphocytes and the eosinophil counts suggest that AA-KAAA supplementation helps prevent lymphocytosis. AA-KAAA supplementation induced a decrease in creatine kinase and aspartate aminotransferase levels at VExh while showing a significant decrease in lactate dehydrogenase at 120 min. We found that AA-KAAA supplementation decreases both the lymphocyte count response in blood and the established biomarkers of muscle damage after intense exercise under a low heat stress environment.

  12. Microclimatic control in the museum environment: Air diffusion performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ascione, Fabrizio; Minichiello, Francesco [DETEC, University of Naples Federico II, P.le Tecchio 80, 80125 Naples, NA (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    For the conservation of cultural heritage, museums need appropriate HVAC systems. Besides the time stability of the microclimatic parameters in the exhibition rooms, a high spatial uniformity is necessary and, thus, an optimal performance of the air diffusion systems. Using numerical codes based on Building Energy Performance Simulation (BEPS) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques, in this paper an analysis has been carried out to compare different suitable air diffusion equipments, as regards uniformity of thermal-hygrometric and kinetic fields in a modelled typical exhibition room. For various part load conditions, the values of thermal-hygrometric parameters in different volumes of the room have been evaluated, as well as an innovative spatial thermal-hygrometric performance index. Globally estimating indoor temperature, relative humidity and their uniformity, for high exhibition rooms (5 m) the swirling diffusers have shown the best average performances, followed by the perimetrical stripes of slot diffusers, while for very high rooms (9 m) nozzles have resulted preferable. (author)

  13. Study of containment air cooler capacity in steam air environment during accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kansal, M.; Mohan, N.; Bhawal, R.N.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The air coolers are provided for controlling the temperature in the reactor building during normal operation. These air coolers also serve as the main heat sink for the removal of energy from high enthalpy air-steam mixture expected in reactor building under accident conditions. A subroutine COOLER has been developed to estimate the heat removal rate of the air coolers at high temperature and steam conditions. The subroutine COOLER has been attached with the code PACSR (post accident containment system response) used for containment pressure temperature calculation. The subroutine was validated using design parameters at normal operating condition. A study was done to estimate the heat removal rate for some postulated accident conditions. The study reveals that, under accident conditions, the heat removal rate of air coolers increases several times compared with normal operating conditions

  14. Indoor air in school environment and the impact on children’s health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajcova, D.; Vondrova, D.; Hirosova, K.; Sevcikova, L.

    2014-01-01

    More attention is paid to assessing the quality of not only outdoor but also indoor air. Since children spend large part of their time at schools, several studies are aimed at indoor air monitoring in schools. These studies confirmed association between poor quality of indoor environment and the incidence of asthma and other respiratory diseases of children. The most serious indoor air pollutants includes dust particles, inorganic and volatile organic compounds, components of tobacco smoke, mold and dust mites. Providing healthy school environment should be one of the basic methods to protect and support physical and mental health and development of children. (author)

  15. THE QUALITY OF AIR IN HOSPITAL ENVIRONMENTS CLIMATIZED AND ITS INFLUENCE IN THE OCCURRENCE OF INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Staciarini Anders

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Climatized environment is defined as the environment where temperature and humidity are controlled.We have made a review of literature, from 1990 to 2001, through data base MEDLINE, LILACS and Ministry ofHealth – Brazil. The aim of this study was to analyze the air quality in climatized environment and the last as a riskfactor for hospital infection – HI. Twenty-three articles where analyzed and gathered by the focused theme;patterns and principles for maintaining the air quality; air quality and isolation of microorganism; air quality andoccurrence of infection. The standard of quality quotes: ventilation, maintenance and cleanness of climatizationsystems. Aspergillus, Legionella, Acinetobacter, Clostridium, Nocardia, among others where found in airconditioned devices and the first three ones being responsable for booms of HI.

  16. Air quality and passenger comfort in an air-conditioned bus micro-environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxuan; Lei, Li; Wang, Xingshen; Zhang, Yinghui

    2018-04-12

    In this study, passenger comfort and the air pollution status of the micro-environmental conditions in an air-conditioned bus were investigated through questionnaires, field measurements, and a numerical simulation. As a subjective analysis, passengers' perceptions of indoor environmental quality and comfort levels were determined from questionnaires. As an objective analysis, a numerical simulation was conducted using a discrete phase model to determine the diffusion and distribution of pollutants, including particulate matter with a diameter air quality and dissatisfactory thermal comfort conditions in Jinan's air-conditioned bus system. To solve these problems, three scenarios (schemes A, B, C) were designed to alter the ventilation parameters. According to the results of an improved simulation of these scenarios, reducing or adding air outputs would shorten the time taken to reach steady-state conditions and weaken the airflow or lower the temperature in the cabin. The airflow pathway was closely related to the layout of the air conditioning. Scheme B lowered the temperature by 0.4 K and reduced the airflow by 0.01 m/s, while scheme C reduced the volume concentration of PM 10 to 150 μg/m 3 . Changing the air supply angle could further improve the airflow and reduce the concentration of PM 10 . With regard to the perception of airflow and thermal comfort, the scheme with an airflow provided by a 60° nozzle was considered better, and the concentration of PM 10 was reduced to 130 μg/m 3 .

  17. Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools Program: Benefits of Improving Air Quality in the School Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Radiation and Indoor Air.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools (IAQ TfS) Program to help schools prevent, identify, and resolve their IAQ problems. This publication describes the program and its advantages, explaining that through simple, low-cost measures, schools can: reduce IAQ-related health risks and…

  18. Chicago Residents' Perceptions of Air Quality: Objective Pollution, the Built Environment, and Neighborhood Stigma Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Katherine E

    2015-09-01

    Substantial research documents higher pollution levels in minority neighborhoods, but little research evaluates how residents perceive their own communities' pollution risks. According to "Neighborhood stigma" theory, survey respondents share a cultural bias that minorities cause social dysfunction, leading to over-reports of dysfunction in minority communities. This study investigates perceptions of residential outdoor air quality by linking objective data on built and social environments with multiple measures of pollution and a representative survey of Chicago residents. Consistent with the scholarly narrative, results show air quality is rated worse where minorities and poverty are concentrated, even after extensive adjustment for objective pollution and built environment measures. Perceptions of air pollution may thus be driven by neighborhood socioeconomic position far more than by respondents' ability to perceive pollution. The finding that 63.5% of the sample reported excellent or good air quality helps to explain current challenging in promoting environmental action.

  19. Preterm infant thermal care: differing thermal environments produced by air versus skin servo-control incubators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K A; Burr, R

    1999-06-01

    Incubator thermal environments produced by skin versus air servo-control were compared. Infant abdominal skin and incubator air temperatures were recorded from 18 infants in skin servo-control and 14 infants in air servo-control (26- to 29-week gestational age, 14 +/- 2 days postnatal age) for 24 hours. Differences in incubator and infant temperature, neutral thermal environment (NTE) maintenance, and infant and incubator circadian rhythm were examined using analysis of variance and scatterplots. Skin servo-control resulted in more variable air temperature, yet more stable infant temperature, and more time within the NTE. Circadian rhythm of both infant and incubator temperature differed by control mode and the relationship between incubator and infant temperature rhythms was a function of control mode. The differences between incubator control modes extend beyond temperature stability and maintenance of NTE. Circadian rhythm of incubator and infant temperatures is influenced by incubator control.

  20. Air quality and particles: impact on the environment and health. What to prescribe for tomorrow?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaiss, Pierre; POISSON, Nathalie; Poulleau, Jean; Gondcaille, Catherine

    2009-09-01

    After having recalled that particles in the air are present under the form of liquid or solid matters and are characterized by their size, and that the term aerosol is generally used for a mix of air and particles in suspension, this publication proposes an overview of tools used to characterize particle pollutions, of the different impacts of particles on health, on the way ecosystems react with particle pollutions, on impacts of particles on building environment (outside and inside)

  1. Preferred Air Velocity and Local Cooling Effect of desk fans in warm environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2013-01-01

    to compensate for higher environmental temperatures at the expense of no or relatively low energy consumption. When using desk fans, local air movement is generated around the occupant and a certain cooling effect is perceived. The impact of the local air movement generated by different air flow patterns......Common experiences, standards, and laboratory studies show that increased air velocity helps to offset warm sensation due to high environmental temperatures. In warm climate regions the opening of windows and the use of desk or ceiling fans are the most common systems to generate increased airflows......, and the possibility to keep comfortable conditions for the occupants in warm environments were evaluated in studies with human subjects. In an office-like climatic chamber, the effect of higher air velocity was investigated at room temperatures between 26°C to 34°C and at constant absolute humidity of 12.2 g...

  2. Construction and application of an intelligent air quality monitoring system for healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Tung; Liao, Chi-Jui; Liu, Jung-Chun; Den, Walter; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Tsai, Jaw-Ji

    2014-02-01

    Indoor air quality monitoring in healthcare environment has become a critical part of hospital management and policy. Manual air sampling and analysis are cost-inhibitive and do not provide real-time air quality data and response measures. In this month-long study over 14 sampling locations in a public hospital in Taiwan, we observed a positive correlation between CO(2) concentration and population, total bacteria, and particulate matter concentrations, thus monitoring CO(2) concentration as a general indicator for air quality could be a viable option. Consequently, an intelligent environmental monitoring system consisting of a CO(2)/temperature/humidity sensor, a digital plug, and a ZigBee Router and Coordinator was developed and tested. The system also included a backend server that received and analyzed data, as well as activating ventilation and air purifiers when CO(2) concentration exceeded a pre-set value. Alert messages can also be delivered to offsite users through mobile devices.

  3. Physiological responses to known intake of ergot alkaloids by steers at environmental temperatures within or greater than their thermoneutral zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisemann, Joan; Huntington, Gerald; Williamson, Megan; Hanna, Michelle; Poore, Matthew

    2014-11-01

    Two studies separated effects of dietary ergot alkaloids from effects of feed intake or ambient temperature on respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR), surface temperature (ST), rectal temperature (RT), blood pressure (BP), serum hormone, and plasma metabolite concentrations in beef steers. The balanced, single reversal design for each experiment used 8 beef steers fed tall fescue seed (2.5 g/kg body weight, (BW)) with (E+) or without (E-) ergot alkaloids as part of a 60:40 switchgrass hay: supplement diet. Periods were 35 d with 21 d of preliminary phase and 14 d of feeding fescue seed once daily. Measures of dependent variables were collected on d 20, 25, 29 and 35 of each period at 0730 (before feeding), 1230 and 1530. In Expt 1 steers weighed 286 kg, gained 0.61 kg BW/d, E+ supplied 2.72 mg ergot alkaloids including 1.60 mg ergovaline per steer daily, and mean minimum and maximum daily ambient temperatures were 23.6 and 32.3°C. In Expt 2 steers weighed 348 kg, gained 1.03 kg BW/d, E+ supplied 3.06 mg ergot alkaloids including 2.00 mg ergovaline daily, and mean minimum and maximum daily ambient temperatures were 11.9 and 17.4°C. Dry matter intake was not affected by fescue seed treatment (P < 0.20) in either experiment. In both experiments, E+ reduced HR (P < 0.01) and increased insulin (P = 0.07). Systolic BP minus diastolic BP decreased (P< 0.05) for E+ in both experiments, due to increased diastolic BP in Expt 1 (P < 0.03) and decreased systolic BP in Expt 2 (P < 0.07). In Expt 1, above the thermoneutral zone, E+ increased (P< 0.05) RR, RT and left side ST in comparison to E-, but in Expt 2, within the thermoneutral zone, E+ and E- did not differ (P < 0.18). Ergot alkaloids from fescue seed affect the cardiovascular system of steers separately from effects of feed intake or environmental temperature. Ergot alkaloids interact with ambient temperatures above the steers’ thermoneutral zone to exacerbate the symptoms of hyperthermic stress.

  4. Development of System Architecture to Investigate the Impact of Integrated Air and Missile Defense in a Distributed Lethality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT by Justin K. Davis...TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6. AUTHOR(S) Justin K...ARCHITECTURE TO INVESTIGATE THE IMPACT OF INTEGRATED AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE IN A DISTRIBUTED LETHALITY ENVIRONMENT Justin K. Davis Lieutenant

  5. Advances in energy and environment. Vol. 2: Air quality, water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharkawy, A.L.; Kummler, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    The 5th conference of energy and environment was held on 3-6 June 1996 in Cairo. The specialists discussed the effects of advances in energy and environment. The applications of solar energy, heat transfer, thermal application, storage and bio-conversion, fuels, energy and development. This second volume covers papers presented on the subjects air pollution, environmental protection, solid and hazardous wastes, water and wastewater treatment. tabs., figs

  6. Indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Alexandro; Dominski, Fábio Hech

    2018-01-15

    Systematic reviews have the potential to contribute substantially to environmental health and risk assessment. This study aimed to investigate indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice through a systematic review. The systematic review followed the PRISMA guidelines and was recorded in the PROSPERO registry (CRD42016036057). The search was performed using the SciELO, Science Direct, Scopus, LILACS, MEDLINE via PubMed, and SPORTDiscus databases, from their inception through April 2017. The search terms used in the databases were {air pollution" OR "air pollutants" OR "air quality"} AND {"physical exercise" OR "physical activity" OR "sport"}. The results of selected studies were divided into 5 categories for analysis: monitoring of air quality in the environment according to international guidelines, indoor-to-outdoor ratio (I/O), air quality during physical exercise, impact of air quality on health, and interventions to improve indoor air quality. Among 1281 studies screened, 34 satisfied the inclusion criteria. The monitoring of pollutants was conducted in 20 studies. CO and NO 2 were the most investigated pollutants, and guidelines were discussed in most studies. The I/O ratio was investigated in 12 studies, of which 9 showed a higher concentration of some pollutants in indoor rather than outdoor environments. Among the 34 studies selected, only 7 investigated the impact of indoor air pollution on human health. The population in most of these studies consisted of hockey players. Most studies conducted monitoring of pollutants in indoor environments used for physical exercise and sports practice. The earliest studies were conducted in ice skating rinks and the most recent evaluated gymnasiums, fitness centers, and sports centers. The CO, particulate matter, and NO 2 concentrations were the most investigated and have the longest history of investigation. These pollutants were within the limits established by guidelines in most

  7. Air Pollution Abatement Performances of Green Infrastructure in Different Urban Environments – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intensifying the proportion of urban green infrastructure has been considered as one of the remedies for air pollution levels in cities, yet the impact of numerous vegetation types deployed in different built environments has to be fully synthesised and quantified. This review ex...

  8. Investigation of the Indoor Environment in a Passive House Apartment Building Heated by Ventilation Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysholt Hansen, MathiasYoung Bok; Koulani, Chrysanthi Sofia; Peuhkuri, Ruut Hannele

    2014-01-01

    comfort and the performance of the air heating system and solar shading. Thermal comfort category B according to ISO 7730 was obtained in the building during field measurements, indicating that the air heating system was able to maintain comfort conditions in winter, when the outdoor temperature had been...... building project finished medio 2012. The design challenge was met with a concept of air heating that is individually controlled in every room. It also applies external solar shading. This study used indoor climate measurements and dynamic simulations in one of these apartment buildings to evaluate thermal...... unusual low for a longer period. The dynamic simulations also indicated that air heating during winter can provide a comfortable thermal environment. Dynamic simulations also demonstrated that during summer, apartments with automatic external solar screens had no serious overheating, whereas in apartments...

  9. Thermal environment and air quality in office with personalized ventilation combined with chilled ceiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipczynska, Aleksandra; Kaczmarczyk, Jan; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2015-01-01

    The thermal environment and air quality conditions provided with combined system of chilled ceiling and personalized ventilation (PV) were studied in a simulated office room for two occupants. The proposed system was compared with total volume HVAC solutions used today, namely mixing ventilation...... and chilled ceiling combined with mixing ventilation. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether PV can be the only ventilation system in the rooms equipped with chilled ceiling. The room air temperature was 26°C in cases with traditional systems and 28°C when PV was used. PV supplied air...... with the temperature of 25°C. PV improved thermal conditions and was up to nearly 10 times more efficient in delivering clean air at workstations than mixing ventilation systems, which resulted in strong protection of occupants from the cross-infection. In the room space outside workstations no substantial differences...

  10. Investigation of creep rupture properties in air and He environments of alloy 617 at 800 °C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Woo-Gon, E-mail: wgkim@kaeri.re.k [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Ekaputra, I.M.W.; Park, Jae-Young [Pukyong National University, Busan 608-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Min-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    Creep rupture properties for Alloy 617 were investigated by a series of creep tests under different applied stresses in air and He environments at 800 °C. The creep rupture time in air and He environments exhibited almost similar life in a short rupture time. However, when the creep rupture time reaches above 3000 h, the creep life in the He environment reduced compared with those of the air environment. The creep strain rate in the He environment was a little faster than that in the air environment above 3000 h. The reduction of creep life in the He environment was due to the difference of various microstructure features such as the carbide depleted zone, oxidation structures, surface cracking, voids below the surface, and voids in the matrix in air and He environments. Alloy 617 followed Norton’s power law and the Monkman–Grant relationship well. As the stress decreased, the creep ductility decreased slightly. The thickness of the outer and internal oxide layers presented the trend of a parabolic increase with an increase in creep rupture time in both the air and He environments. The thickness in the He environment was found to be thicker than in the air environment, although pure helium gas of 99.999% was used in the present investigation. The differences in the oxide-layer thickness caused detrimental effects on the creep resistance, even in a low oxygen-containing He agent.

  11. Investigation of creep rupture properties in air and He environments of alloy 617 at 800 °C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Woo-Gon; Ekaputra, I.M.W.; Park, Jae-Young; Kim, Min-Hwan; Kim, Yong-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Creep rupture properties for Alloy 617 were investigated by a series of creep tests under different applied stresses in air and He environments at 800 °C. The creep rupture time in air and He environments exhibited almost similar life in a short rupture time. However, when the creep rupture time reaches above 3000 h, the creep life in the He environment reduced compared with those of the air environment. The creep strain rate in the He environment was a little faster than that in the air environment above 3000 h. The reduction of creep life in the He environment was due to the difference of various microstructure features such as the carbide depleted zone, oxidation structures, surface cracking, voids below the surface, and voids in the matrix in air and He environments. Alloy 617 followed Norton’s power law and the Monkman–Grant relationship well. As the stress decreased, the creep ductility decreased slightly. The thickness of the outer and internal oxide layers presented the trend of a parabolic increase with an increase in creep rupture time in both the air and He environments. The thickness in the He environment was found to be thicker than in the air environment, although pure helium gas of 99.999% was used in the present investigation. The differences in the oxide-layer thickness caused detrimental effects on the creep resistance, even in a low oxygen-containing He agent.

  12. Air-Sense: indoor environment monitoring evaluation system based on ZigBee network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yang; Hu, Liang; Yang, Disheng; Liu, Hengchang

    2017-08-01

    In the modern life, people spend most of their time indoors. However, indoor environmental quality problems have always been affecting people’s social activities. In general, indoor environmental quality is also related to our indoor activities. Since most of the organic irritants and volatile gases are colorless, odorless and too tiny to be seen, because we have been unconsciously overlooked indoor environment quality. Consequently, our body suffer a great health problem. In this work, we propose Air-Sense system which utilizes the platform of ZigBee Network to collect and detect the real-time indoor environment quality. What’s more, Air-Sense system can also provide data analysis, and visualizing the results of the indoor environment to the user.

  13. Indoor air quality of houses located in the urban environment of Agra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Ajay; Saini, Renuka; Masih, Amit

    2008-10-01

    Increased concern over the adverse health effects of air pollution has highlighted the need for air-pollution measurements, especially in urban areas, where many sources of air pollutants are normally monitored outdoors as part of obligations under the National Air Quality Strategies. Very little is known about air pollution indoors. In fact, the largest exposure to health-damaging indoor pollution probably occurs in the developing world, not in households, schools, and offices of developed countries where most research and control efforts have been focused to date. As a result much of the health impacts from air pollution worldwide seem to occur among the poorest and most vulnerable populations. The authors in their earlier studies have confirmed the importance of ambient air in determining the quality of air indoors. In this study an observation of air quality indoors and outdoors of domestic homes located in an urban environment from October 2004 to December 2005 in Agra, north central India, is performed. The purpose of this study was to characterize the indoor/outdoor (I/O) relationship of airborne pollutants and recognize their probable source in all three seasons, that is, winter, summer, and rainy season. Concentrations of SO(2), NO(2), CO(2), Cl(2), H(2)S, NH(3), RSPM, and PAH were monitored simultaneously and I/O ratios were calculated. In order to investigate the effect of seasonality on indoor and ambient air quality, winter to summer and winter to monsoon average ratios were calculated. It is apparent that there is a general pattern of increasing levels from monsoon to summer to winter, and similarly from outdoor to indoor air. Regressions analysis had been done to further investigate the influence of outdoor air-pollutant concentrations on indoor concentrations. The most probable categories of sources for these pollutants have been identified by using principal-component analysis. Indoor air pollution is a complex function of energy housing and

  14. Outdoor air pollution, family and neighborhood environment, and asthma in LA FANS children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Qian, Lei; Ritz, Beate

    2009-03-01

    We examined associations between outdoor air pollution and childhood asthma, using measures of SES, neighborhood quality, and social support from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LA FANS). We linked residential census tracts for 3114 children to government air monitoring stations and estimated average pollutant concentrations for the year before interview. CO and NO(2) levels increased and O(3) levels decreased as neighborhood quality decreased, yet correlations were low. Pollutant levels were not correlated with neighborhood support. Even after adjustment for social environment characteristics, LA FANS children living in high O(3), PM(10), and CO areas appeared to have worse asthma morbidity.

  15. XPS response in the corrosion products analysis for copper exposed at clean air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariaca, L.; Morcillo, M.; Feliu Jr, S.; Gonzalez, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this work is presented the obtained response for superficial analysis technique by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA), to determine the corrosion products formed during the copper exposure at environment without pollutants (clean air) at 50, 70 and 90 % of relative humidity at 35 Centigrade. One of the copper corrosion products most knew is Cu 2 O. This oxide is formed instantly to be exposed the copper at air. However in function of the exposure time and the relative humidity at it is exposed, the Cu 2 O oxide is transformed at Cu O and Cu(OH) 2 (Author)

  16. Cold air plasma to decontaminate inanimate surfaces of the hospital environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Orla J; Claro, Tânia; O'Connor, Niall; Cafolla, Anthony A; Stevens, Niall T; Daniels, Stephen; Humphreys, Hilary

    2014-03-01

    The hospital environment harbors bacteria that may cause health care-associated infections. Microorganisms, such as multiresistant bacteria, can spread around the patient's inanimate environment. Some recently introduced biodecontamination approaches in hospitals have significant limitations due to the toxic nature of the gases and the length of time required for aeration. This study evaluated the in vitro use of cold air plasma as an efficient alternative to traditional methods of biodecontamination of hospital surfaces. Cultures of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, and Acinetobacter baumannii were applied to different materials similar to those found in the hospital environment. Artificially contaminated sections of marmoleum, mattress, polypropylene, powder-coated mild steel, and stainless steel were then exposed to a cold air pressure plasma single jet for 30 s, 60 s, and 90 s, operating at approximately 25 W and 12 liters/min flow rate. Direct plasma exposure successfully reduced the bacterial load by log 3 for MRSA, log 2.7 for VRE, log 2 for ESBL-producing E. coli, and log 1.7 for A. baumannii. The present report confirms the efficient antibacterial activity of a cold air plasma single-jet plume on nosocomial bacterially contaminated surfaces over a short period of time and highlights its potential for routine biodecontamination in the clinical environment.

  17. Preliminary results of thermal igniter experiments in H2-air-steam environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowry, W.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal igniters (glow plugs), proposed by the Tennessee Valley Authority for intentional ignition of hydrogen in nuclear reactor containment, have been tested for functionability in mixtures of air, hydrogen, and steam. Test environments included 6% to 16% hydrogen concentrations in air, and 8%, 10%, and 12% hydrogen in mixtures with 30% and 40% steam fractions. All were conducted in a 10.6 ft 3 insulated pressure vessel. For all of these tests the glow plug successfully initiated combustion. Dry air/hydrogen tests exhibited a distinct tendency for complete combustion at hydrogen concentrations between 8% and 9%. Steam suppressed both peak pressures and completeness of combustion. No combustion could be initiated at or above a 50% steam fraction. Circulation of the mixture with a fan increased the completeness of combustion. The glow plug showed no evidence of performance degradation throughout the program

  18. Field evaluation and health assessment of air cleaners in removing radon decay products in domestic environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chih-Shan.

    1990-01-01

    In this study, field evaluations of two types of air cleaners were conducted in three single-family houses. The measurements included radon concentration, particle number concentration, and concentration and size distribution of radon decay products. The influence on the behavior of radon decay products by various indoor particles both with and without the air cleaning systems was investigated. A room model was used to calculate the changes in the aerosol parameters caused by the operation of the air cleaners. Using the James dosimetric models (1989 and 1990), the changes in the hourly bronchial dose rate per Bq m -3 radon for men, women, and children can be estimated for various domestic environments. 94 refs., 60 figs., 28 tabs

  19. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, Robert; Lock, Grahm

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS) project. A detailed database has been constructed for the calculation of energy consumption and air pollutant emissions. Based on an in-house database...... changes from findings reported in Methodologies for Estimating air pollutant Emissions from Transport (MEET). The database operates on statistical data provided by Eurostat, which describe vessel and freight movements from and towards EU 15 major ports. Data are at port to Maritime Coastal Area (MCA...... with a view to this purpose, are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission calculations for bulk carriers entering the port of Helsinki, as an example of the database operation, and aggregate results for different types...

  20. Study on the friction of κ-carrageenan hydrogels in air and aqueous environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozbial, Andrew; Li, Lei

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the friction mechanism of polysaccharide hydrogels, which is the key component of human cartilage that has very low friction coefficient, is critical to develop next generation artificial joint replacement materials. In this study, the friction of the polysaccharide κ-carrageenan hydrogel was investigated to elucidate the effect of external load, cross-linking density, velocity, and environment on friction. Our experimental results show that (1) coefficient of friction (COF) decreases with normal load in air and remains constant in water, (2) increasing cross-linking density concurrently increases friction and is proportional to Young's modulus, (3) COF increases with testing velocity in both air and water, and (4) friction is reduced in aqueous environment due to the lubricating effect of water. The underlying frictional mechanism is discussed on the basis of water transport from bulk to surface and a previously proposed "repulsion-adsorption" model. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Orthogonal design on range hood with air curtain and its effects on kitchen environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaomin; Wang, Xing; Xi, Guang

    2014-01-01

    Conventional range hoods cannot effectively prevent the oil fumes containing cooking-induced harmful material from escaping into the kitchen Air curtains and guide plates have been used in range hoods to reduce the escape of airborne emissions and heat, thereby improving the kitchen environment and the cook's degree of comfort. In this article, numerical simulations are used to study the effects of the jet velocity of an air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, the area of the guide plate, and the exhaust rate of the range hood on the perceived temperature, the perceived concentration of oil fumes, the release temperature of oil fumes, and the concentration of escaped oil fumes in a kitchen. The orthogonal experiment results show that the exhaust rate of the range hood is the main factor influencing the fumes concentration and the temperature distribution in the kitchen. For the range hood examined in the present study, the optimum values of the exhaust rate, the jet velocity of the air curtain, the jet angle of the air curtain, the width of the jet slot, and the area of the guide plate are 10.5 m(3)/min, 1.5 m/s, -5°, 4 mm, and 0.22 m(2), respectively, based on the results of the parametric study. In addition, the velocity field, temperature field, and oil fumes concentration field in the kitchen using the proposed range hood with the air curtain and guide plate are analyzed for those parameters. The study's results provide significant information needed for improving the kitchen environment.

  2. Research on the Coupling Coordination Relationship between Urbanization and the Air Environment: A Case Study of the Area of Wuhan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available China’s high-speed socioeconomic development has been characterized by rapid urbanization and a series of ecological environment issues, especially air pollution. This paper proposed a comprehensive indicator system for the evaluation of urbanization and the air environment in Wuhan, a metropolis in central China, and then investigated the relationship between urbanization and the air environment from the perspective of coupling coordination theory. Furthermore, a coupling coordination degree model (CCDM was constructed to estimate the relationship by using panel data collected from 1996–2013. The results showed the following: (1 Spatial urbanization and air environment quality make the greatest contributions to the compound system compared to other first grade indicators, indicating that they are critical factors to consider when the government is making relevant decisions about urban sprawl. (2 The comprehensive level of the air environment initially decreased from 1996–1998 and then increased with fluctuations in Wuhan, with several inflection points, meaning that the variation process of the air environment is unstable and repetitive, and efforts to improve the air environment must persist over a long period of time. Lastly, (3 the degree of coordinated coupling between urbanization and the air environment exhibited an S-shaped curve, indicating that Wuhan changed from having slightly unbalanced development to barely balanced development and then entered into a period of superiorly balanced development, with the air environment lagging. Thus, the ambient urban air quality has been subject to great pressure, and the government should continue to take effective action to improve it.

  3. Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides in urban environment: air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ye, Youbin; Hu, Dan; Ou, Langbo; Wang, Xuejun

    2010-11-01

    Characteristics and transport of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in urban multiple environments, including air, dust, rain, canopy throughfall, and runoff water, are explored in this study. Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) dominated in both air and rain water, and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) related substances showed a higher affinity to dust. Relatively high concentrations of DDT and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) in air, rain and dust imply that technical DDT in the environment has been degrading, and there may be unknown local or regional emission sources that contain DDTs in the study area. Source identification showed that DDTs in Beijing urban environments with a fresh signature may originate from the atmospheric transport from remote areas. The ratio of α-/γ-HCH in dust, rain, canopy throughfall and runoff were close to 1, indicating the possible use of lindane. OCPs in runoff were transported from various sources including rain, dust, and canopy throughfall. In runoff, DDTs and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) were mainly transported from dust, and HCHs were mainly from rain and canopy throughfall.

  4. Inter-comparison of air pollutant concentrations in different indoor environments in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shun-Cheng; Guo, Hai; Li, Wai-Ming; Chan, Lo-Yin

    Indoor air quality in selected indoor environments in Hong Kong such as homes, offices, schools, shopping malls and restaurants were investigated. Average CO 2 levels and total bacteria counts in air-conditioned classrooms, shopping malls and restaurants were comparatively higher than those measured in occupied offices and homes. Elevated CO 2 levels exceeding 1000 ppm and total bacteria counts resulted from high occupancy combined with inadequate ventilation. Average PM 10 levels were usually higher indoors than outdoors in homes, shopping malls and restaurants. The highest indoor PM 10 levels were observed at investigated restaurants due to the presence of cigarette smoking and extensive use of gas stoves for cooking. The restaurants and shopping malls investigated had higher formaldehyde levels than other indoor environments when building material, smoking and internal renovation work were present. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in both indoor and outdoor environments mainly resulted from vehicle exhaust emissions. It was observed that interior decoration work and the use of industrial solvents in an indoor environment could significantly increase the indoor levels of VOCs.

  5. Effect of air on speed of insulating material deterioration under simulated LOCA environment. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusama, Yasuo; Yagi, Toshiaki; Ito, Masayuki; Okada, Sohei; Yoshikawa, Masato (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma. Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1982-12-01

    To examine the quality approval testing method for the electric cables used for nuclear reactors, various covering insulating materials employed for the cables have been investigated from all angles. The factors which are considered to affect the deterioration of cable materials in a simulated LOCA (loss of coolant accident) environmental test are numerous. This paper reports on the result of investigation on the effect of air on the rate of deterioration of various organic materials usually used as the insulating and covering materials for the cables. Five kinds of polymer sheets (1 mm thick) used for reactor cables were employed as samples. The samples of both standard compounding ratio and the compounding ratio for practical reactor use were tested. As the deterioration prior to LOCA simulation, the thermal deterioration corresponding to 40 years aging (at 121 deg C for 7 days) was given, and subsequently, 50 Mrad gamma -irradiation at 1 Mrad/h was performed in the air. After that, the samples were subject to LOCA simulated environment. Since the results were different according to the kinds of samples, those are described separately for Hypalon, ethylene propylene rubber, cross-linked polyethylene, chloroprene and silicone rubber. The existence of air under LOCA environment accelerated the deterioration of insulation materials except silicone rubber, though its influence differed to the polymers. These materials swelled in the presence of air, and the degree of swelling increased with the temperature, having the close relation to oxidation deterioration. Polyethylene was more susceptible to the effect of air, and silicone rubber was rather stable. The samples of fire-retardant compounding ratio more swelled by water absorption than those of standard compounding ratio.

  6. Characterizing Spatial and Temporal Patterns of Thermal Environment and Air Quality in Taipei Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juang, J. Y.; Sun, C. H.; Jiang, J. A.; Wen, T. H.

    2017-12-01

    The urban heat island effect (UHI) caused by the regional-to-global environmental changes, dramatic urbanization, and shifting in land-use compositions has becoming an important environmental issue in recent years. In the past century, the coverage of urban area in Taipei Basin has dramatically increasing by ten folds. The strengthen of UHI effect significantly enhances the frequency of warm-night effect, and strongly influences the thermal environment of the residents in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan. In addition, the urban expansions due to dramatic increasing in urban populations and traffic loading significantly impacts the air quality and causes health issue in Taipei. In this study, the main objective is to quantify and characterize the temporal and spatial distributions of thermal environmental and air quality in the Greater Taipei Metropolitan Area by using monitoring data from Central Weather Bureau, Environmental Protection Administration. In addition, in this study, we conduct the analysis on the distribution of physiological equivalent temperature in the micro scale in the metropolitan area by using the observation data and quantitative simulation to investigate how the thermal environment is influenced under different conditions. Furthermore, we establish a real-time mobile monitoring system by using wireless sensor network to investigate the correlation between the thermal environment, air quality and other environmental factors, and propose to develop the early warning system for heat stress and air quality in the metropolitan area. The results from this study can be integrated into the management and planning system, and provide sufficient and important background information for the development of smart city in the metropolitan area in the future.

  7. Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Adan S. S.; Calderaro, Gisele; Guimarães, Patricia C.; Magalhaes, Mateus R.; Morais, Marcos V. B.; Rafee, Sameh A. A.; Ribeiro, Igor O.; Andreoli, Rita V.; Martins, Jorge A.; Martins, Leila D.; Martin, Scot T.; Souza, Rodrigo A. F.

    2017-07-01

    How a changing energy matrix for electricity production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. Manaus, the largest city in the central Amazon Basin of Brazil, is in the process of changing its energy matrix for electricity production from fuel oil and diesel to natural gas over an approximately 10-year period, with a minor contribution by hydropower. Three scenarios of urban air quality, specifically afternoon ozone concentrations, were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem) model. The first scenario used fuel oil and diesel for electricity production, which was the reality in 2008. The second scenario was based on the fuel mix from 2014, the most current year for which data were available. The third scenario considered nearly complete use of natural gas for electricity production, which is the anticipated future, possibly for 2018. For each case, inventories of anthropogenic emissions were based on electricity generation, refinery operations, and transportation. Transportation and refinery operations were held constant across the three scenarios to focus on effects of power plant fuel switching in a tropical context. The simulated NOx and CO emissions for the urban region decrease by 89 and 55 %, respectively, after the complete change in the energy matrix. The results of the simulations indicate that a change to natural gas significantly decreases maximum afternoon ozone concentrations over the population center, reducing ozone by > 70 % for the most polluted days. The sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the fuel switchover is consistent with a NOx-limited regime, as expected for a tropical forest having high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, high water vapor concentrations, and abundant solar radiation. There are key differences in a shifting energy matrix in a tropical, forested environment compared to other world environments. Policies favoring the burning of

  8. Mass concentrations of BTEX inside air environment of buses in Changsha, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaokai; Zhang, Guoqiang; Zhang, Quan [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China); Chen, Hong [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, Hunan (China)

    2011-02-15

    In order to estimate the mass concentrations of benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E) and xylenes (X) inside air environment of buses and to analyze the influencing factors of the BTEX pollution levels, 22 public buses were investigated in Changsha, China. The interior air was collected through activated charcoal adsorption tubes and then the air samples were analyzed with thermally desorbed gas chromatograph. The mass concentrations ranged from 21.3 to 106.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for benzene, from 53.5 to 266.0 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for toluene, from 19.6 to 95.9 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for ethylbenzene and from 46.9 to 234.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for xylenes. Their mean values were 68.7, 179.7, 62.5 and 151.8 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. The rates of buses tested where the interior concentrations exceeded the limit levels of Chinese Indoor Air Quality Standard were 45.5% for toluene and 13.6% for xylenes. The BTEX levels increased when in-car temperature or relative humidity rose, and decreased when car age or travel distance increased. The BTEX concentrations were higher in leather trims buses than in non-leather trims ones, in air-conditioned buses than in non-air-conditioned ones, and in high-grade buses than in low-grade ones. According to the analysis of multiple linear regression equation, car age and in-car temperature were two most important factors influencing the BTEX pollution levels in the cabins of public buses. (author)

  9. Data link air traffic control and flight deck environments: Experiment in flight crew performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozito, Sandy; Mcgann, Alison; Corker, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    This report describes an experiment undertaken in a full mission simulation environment to investigate the performance impact of, and human/system response to, data-linked Air Traffic Control (ATC) and automated flight deck operations. Subjects were twenty pilots (ten crews) from a major United States air carrier. Crews flew the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator (ACFS), a generic 'glass cockpit' simulator at NASA Ames. The method of data link used was similar to the data link implementation plans for a next-generation aircraft, and included the capability to review ATC messages and directly enter ATC clearance information into the aircraft systems. Each crew flew experimental scenarios, in which data reflecting communication timing, errors and clarifications, and procedures were collected. Results for errors and clarifications revealed an interaction between communication modality (voice v. data link) and communication type (air/ground v. intracrew). Results also revealed that voice crews initiated ATC contact significantly more than data link crews. It was also found that data link crews performed significantly more extraneous activities during the communication task than voice crews. Descriptive data from the use of the review menu indicate the pilot-not-flying accessing the review menu most often, and also suggest diffulty in accessing the target message within the review menu structure. The overall impact of communication modality upon air/ground communication and crew procedures is discussed.

  10. Keto analogue and amino acid supplementation and its effects on ammonemia and performance under thermoneutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Saulo Rodrigo Alves e Silva; Lima, Rafaela Carvalho Pereira; França, Thássia Casado Lima; Herculano, Edla de Azevedo; Rodrigues, Daniela Souza Araújo; Gouveia, Marcos Guilherme de Sousa; Cameron, L C; Prado, Eduardo Seixas

    2016-02-01

    Alterations of cerebral function, fatigue and disturbance in cognitive-motor performance can be caused by hyperammonemia and/or hot environmental conditions during exercise. Exercise-induced hyperammonemia can be reduced through supplementation with either amino acids or combined keto analogues and amino acids (KAAA) to improve exercise tolerance. In the present study, we evaluated KAAA supplementation on ammonia metabolism and cognitive-motor performance after high-intensity exercise under a low heat stress environment. Sixteen male cyclists received a ketogenic diet for 2 d and were divided into two groups, KAAA (KEx) or placebo (CEx) supplementation. The athletes performed a 2 h cycling session followed by a maximum test (MAX), and blood samples were obtained at rest and during exercise. Cognitive-motor tasks were performed before and after the protocol, and the exhaustion time was used to evaluate physical performance. The hydration status was also evaluated. The CEx group showed a significant increase (∼ 70%) in ammonia concentration at MAX, which did not change in the KEx group. The non-supplemented group showed a significant increase in uremia. Both the groups had a significant increase in blood urate concentrations at 120 min, and an early significant increase from 120 min was observed in the CEx group. There was no change in the glucose concentrations of the two groups. A significant increase in lactate was observed at the MAX moment in both groups. There was no significant difference in the exhaustion times between the groups. No changes were observed in the cognitive-motor tasks after the protocol. We suggest that KAAA supplementation decreases ammonia concentration during high-intensity exercise but does not affect physical or cognitive-motor performances under a low heat stress environment.

  11. Comparison of different statistical modelling approaches for deriving spatial air temperature patterns in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Annette; Beck, Christoph; Breitner, Susanne; Cyrys, Josef; Geruschkat, Uta; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Kühlbach, Benjamin; Kusch, Thomas; Richter, Katja; Schneider, Alexandra; Umminger, Robin; Wolf, Kathrin

    2017-04-01

    Frequently spatial variations of air temperature of considerable magnitude occur within urban areas. They correspond to varying land use/land cover characteristics and vary with season, time of day and synoptic conditions. These temperature differences have an impact on human health and comfort directly by inducing thermal stress as well as indirectly by means of affecting air quality. Therefore, knowledge of the spatial patterns of air temperature in cities and the factors causing them is of great importance, e.g. for urban planners. A multitude of studies have shown statistical modelling to be a suitable tool for generating spatial air temperature patterns. This contribution presents a comparison of different statistical modelling approaches for deriving spatial air temperature patterns in the urban environment of Augsburg, Southern Germany. In Augsburg there exists a measurement network for air temperature and humidity currently comprising 48 stations in the city and its rural surroundings (corporately operated by the Institute of Epidemiology II, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health and the Institute of Geography, University of Augsburg). Using different datasets for land surface characteristics (Open Street Map, Urban Atlas) area percentages of different types of land cover were calculated for quadratic buffer zones of different size (25, 50, 100, 250, 500 m) around the stations as well for source regions of advective air flow and used as predictors together with additional variables such as sky view factor, ground level and distance from the city centre. Multiple Linear Regression and Random Forest models for different situations taking into account season, time of day and weather condition were applied utilizing selected subsets of these predictors in order to model spatial distributions of mean hourly and daily air temperature deviations from a rural reference station. Furthermore, the different model setups were

  12. Friction and wear behaviour of 18 polymers in contact with steel in environments of air and water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mens, J.W.M.; de Gee, A.W.J.

    1991-01-01

    18 polymers were characterized with respect to their friction and wear behaviour in contact with steel in environments of air and water. These were six unfilled materials, i.e. polyamide 66 (PA 66), polyoxymethylene (POM), polyethyleneterephthalate (PETP), polyetheretherketone (PEEK),

  13. Investigations on Chlorophytum comosum ability to remove toluene from air in a closed environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulteau, G.; Lakel, A.

    Plants play a major role in bioregenerative systems for air and water supplies. They may also contribute to the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the air in a closed environment, based on the ability to absorb toxic compounds and to detoxify them. The aim of our work was to study the capabilities of Chlorophytum comosum for toluene removal and to identify the main parts of the plants which are responsible for the elimination. A 1-m3 sealed chamber was designed and built in 8-mm window glass assembled with UV-polymerized glue. It was equipped with one internal fan for air mixing. The other materials (low-emitting and low-adsorptive) were aluminium and PTFE. A cooling system was also used to regulate humidity content which was monitored continuously as well as temperature and carbon dioxide concentration. Experiments were carried out in this chamber with Chlorophytum comosum plants exposed to an initial concentration of 11.5x103 μg toluene m-3. Pollutant concentration was measured every five minutes during several days. Toluene removal was studied in various configurations (potting media, hydroponic conditions{ldots}) in order to document the level of contribution of each component (leaves, roots, microorganisms and soil) of the potted plants. Results show that 54 % of toluene was removed in 72 h with the whole potted plant. A large participation of the soil in the purification process was noticed whereas foliage seemed to have little effect at the light intensity used in the experiments. Moreover, the tests realized with both natural and sterilized soils suggest that soil bacteria (in potting media) play a significant role in the removal process showing that soil and its microorganisms may have complementary roles in the elimination phenomena. Detoxifying function of potted plants could find current applications in improving air quality, in particular indoor air from domestic buildings.

  14. Piloted simulation of an air-ground profile negotiation process in a time-based Air Traffic Control environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David H.; Green, Steven M.

    1993-01-01

    Historically, development of airborne flight management systems (FMS) and ground-based air traffic control (ATC) systems has tended to focus on different objectives with little consideration for operational integration. A joint program, between NASA's Ames Research Center (Ames) and Langley Research Center (Langley), is underway to investigate the issues of, and develop systems for, the integration of ATC and airborne automation systems. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate a profile negotiation process (PNP) between the Center/TRACON Automation System (CTAS) and an aircraft equipped with a four-dimensional flight management system (4D FMS). Prototype procedures were developed to support the functional implementation of this process. The PNP was designed to provide an arrival trajectory solution which satisfies the separation requirements of ATC while remaining as close as possible to the aircraft's preferred trajectory. Results from the experiment indicate the potential for successful incorporation of aircraft-preferred arrival trajectories in the CTAS automation environment. Fuel savings on the order of 2 percent to 8 percent, compared to fuel required for the baseline CTAS arrival speed strategy, were achieved in the test scenarios. The data link procedures and clearances developed for this experiment, while providing the necessary functionality, were found to be operationally unacceptable to the pilots. In particular, additional pilot control and understanding of the proposed aircraft-preferred trajectory, and a simplified clearance procedure were cited as necessary for operational implementation of the concept.

  15. Turbulent transport across an interface between dry and humid air in a stratified environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallana, Luca; de Santi, Francesca; di Savino, Silvio; Iovieno, Michele; Ricchiardone, Renzo; Tordella, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    The transport of energy and water vapor across a thin layer which separates two decaying isotropic turbulent flows with different kinetic energy and humidity is considered. The interface is placed in a shearless stratified environment in temporal decay. This system reproduces a few aspects of small scale turbulent transport across a dry air/moist air interface in an atmospheric like context. In our incompressible DNS at Reλ = 250 , Boussinesq's approximation is used for momentum and energy transport while the vapor is modeled as a passive scalar (Kumar, Schumacher & Shaw 2014). We investigated different stratification levels with an initial Fr between 0.8 and 8 in presence of a kinetic energy ratio equal to 7. As the buoyancy term becomes of the same order of the inertial ones, a spatial redistribution of kinetic energy, dissipation and vapor concentration is observed. This eventually leads to the onset of a well of kinetic energy in the low energy side of the mixing layer which blocks the entrainment of dry air. Results are discussed and compared with laboratory and numerical experiments. A posteriori estimates of the eventual compression/expansion of fluid particles inside the interfacial mixing layer are given (Nance & Durran 1994).

  16. A High-Fidelity Batch Simulation Environment for Integrated Batch and Piloted Air Combat Simulation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; McManus, John W.; Chappell, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    A batch air combat simulation environment known as the Tactical Maneuvering Simulator (TMS) is presented. The TMS serves as a tool for developing and evaluating tactical maneuvering logics. The environment can also be used to evaluate the tactical implications of perturbations to aircraft performance or supporting systems. The TMS is capable of simulating air combat between any number of engagement participants, with practical limits imposed by computer memory and processing power. Aircraft are modeled using equations of motion, control laws, aerodynamics and propulsive characteristics equivalent to those used in high-fidelity piloted simulation. Databases representative of a modern high-performance aircraft with and without thrust-vectoring capability are included. To simplify the task of developing and implementing maneuvering logics in the TMS, an outer-loop control system known as the Tactical Autopilot (TA) is implemented in the aircraft simulation model. The TA converts guidance commands issued by computerized maneuvering logics in the form of desired angle-of-attack and wind axis-bank angle into inputs to the inner-loop control augmentation system of the aircraft. This report describes the capabilities and operation of the TMS.

  17. Feasibility of a Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment for Advanced NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Michael J.; Gibson, Alec K.; Dennis, Noah E.; Underwood, Matthew C.; Miller,Lana B.; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract-Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) applications reliant upon aircraft data links such as Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) offer a sweeping modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS), but the aviation stakeholder community has not yet established a positive business case for equipage and message content standards remain in flux. It is necessary to transition promising Air Traffic Management (ATM) Concepts of Operations (ConOps) from simulation environments to full-scale flight tests in order to validate user benefits and solidify message standards. However, flight tests are prohibitively expensive and message standards for Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) systems cannot support many advanced ConOps. It is therefore proposed to simulate future aircraft surveillance and communications equipage and employ an existing commercial data link to exchange data during dedicated flight tests. This capability, referred to as the Networked Air Traffic Infrastructure Validation Environment (NATIVE), would emulate aircraft data links such as ADS-B using in-flight Internet and easily-installed test equipment. By utilizing low-cost equipment that is easy to install and certify for testing, advanced ATM ConOps can be validated, message content standards can be solidified, and new standards can be established through full-scale flight trials without necessary or expensive equipage or extensive flight test preparation. This paper presents results of a feasibility study of the NATIVE concept. To determine requirements, six NATIVE design configurations were developed for two NASA ConOps that rely on ADS-B. The performance characteristics of three existing in-flight Internet services were investigated to determine whether performance is adequate to support the concept. Next, a study of requisite hardware and software was conducted to examine whether and how the NATIVE concept might be realized. Finally, to determine a business case

  18. Methodology to determine the appropriate amount of excess air for the operation of a gas turbine in a wet environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Leyte, R.; Zamora-Mata, J.M.; Torres-Aldaco, A. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Departamento de Ingenieria de Procesos e Hidraulica, San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col Vicentina 09340, Iztapalapa, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Toledo-Velazquez, M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Escuela Superior de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Laboratorio de Ingenieria Termica e Hidraulica Aplicada, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Edificio 5, 3er piso SEPI-ESIME, C.P. 07738, Col. Lindavista, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Salazar-Pereyra, M. [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Ecatepec, Division de Ingenieria Mecatronica e Industrial, Posgrado en Ciencias en Ingenieria Mecatronica, Av. Tecnologico s/n, Col. Valle de Anahuac, C.P. 55210, Ecatepec de Morelos, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    This paper addresses the impact of excess air on turbine inlet temperature, power, and thermal efficiency at different pressure ratios. An explicit relationship is developed to determine the turbine inlet temperature as a function of excess air, pressure ratio and relative humidity. The effect of humidity on the calculation of excess air to achieve a pre-established power output is analyzed and presented. Likewise it is demonstrated that dry air calculations provide a valid upper bound for the performance of a gas turbine under a wet environment. (author)

  19. Air pollution and asthma control in the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquemin, Bénédicte; Kauffmann, Francine; Pin, Isabelle; Le Moual, Nicole; Bousquet, Jean; Gormand, Frédéric; Just, Jocelyne; Nadif, Rachel; Pison, Christophe; Vervloet, Daniel; Künzli, Nino; Siroux, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Background The associations between exposure to air pollution and asthma control are not well known. The objective is to assess the association between long term exposure to NO2, O3 and PM10 and asthma control in the EGEA2 study (2003–2007). Methods Modeled outdoor NO2, O3 and PM10 estimates were linked to each residential address using the 4-km grid air pollutant surface developed by the French Institute of Environment for 2004. Asthma control was assessed in 481 subjects with current asthma using a multidimensional approach following the 2006–2009 GINA guidelines. Multinomial and ordinal logistic regressions were conducted adjusted on sex, age, BMI, education, smoking and use of inhaled corticosteroids. The association between air pollution and the three domains of asthma control (symptoms, exacerbations and lung function) was assessed. Odds Ratios (ORs) are reported per Inter Quartile Range (IQR). Results Median concentrations (μg.m−3) were 32(IQR 25–38) for NO2 (n=465), 46(41–52) for O3 and 21(18–21) for PM10 (n=481). In total, 44%, 29% and 27% had controlled, partly-controlled and uncontrolled asthma. The ordinal ORs for O3 and PM10 with asthma control were 1.69(95%CI 1.22–2.34) and 1.35(95%CI 1.13–1.64) respectively. When including both pollutants in the same model, both associations persisted. Associations were not modified by sex, smoking status, use of inhaled corticosteroids, atopy, season of examination or BMI. Both pollutants were associated with each of the three main domains of control. Conclusions The results suggest that long-term exposure to PM10 and O3 is associated with uncontrolled asthma in adults, defined by symptoms, exacerbations and lung function. Abstract Word count: 250 Key words: air pollution, asthma, asthma control PMID:21690606

  20. The Combined Influence of Air Pollution and Home Learning Environment on Early Cognitive Skills in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanair A. Lett

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child’s neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050, isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m3 had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: −2.91, −0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12 had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: −2.30, −0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [−1.48, 95% CI: −2.79, −0.18; −1.05, 95% CI: −2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone

  1. The Combined Influence of Air Pollution and Home Learning Environment on Early Cognitive Skills in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lett, Lanair A; Stingone, Jeanette A; Claudio, Luz

    2017-10-26

    Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child's neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050), isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m³) had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: -2.91, -0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12) had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: -2.30, -0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [-1.48, 95% CI: -2.79, -0.18; -1.05, 95% CI: -2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone exposure and a low HOME score had a

  2. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthaamarai Rogawansamy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®, 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid, and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia oil tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum, which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%–4.2% acetic acid was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to

  3. An evaluation of antifungal agents for the treatment of fungal contamination in indoor air environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-06-02

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%-4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth

  4. Power plant fuel switching and air quality in a tropical, forested environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. S. Medeiros

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available How a changing energy matrix for electricity production affects air quality is considered for an urban region in a tropical, forested environment. Manaus, the largest city in the central Amazon Basin of Brazil, is in the process of changing its energy matrix for electricity production from fuel oil and diesel to natural gas over an approximately 10-year period, with a minor contribution by hydropower. Three scenarios of urban air quality, specifically afternoon ozone concentrations, were simulated using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-Chem model. The first scenario used fuel oil and diesel for electricity production, which was the reality in 2008. The second scenario was based on the fuel mix from 2014, the most current year for which data were available. The third scenario considered nearly complete use of natural gas for electricity production, which is the anticipated future, possibly for 2018. For each case, inventories of anthropogenic emissions were based on electricity generation, refinery operations, and transportation. Transportation and refinery operations were held constant across the three scenarios to focus on effects of power plant fuel switching in a tropical context. The simulated NOx and CO emissions for the urban region decrease by 89 and 55 %, respectively, after the complete change in the energy matrix. The results of the simulations indicate that a change to natural gas significantly decreases maximum afternoon ozone concentrations over the population center, reducing ozone by > 70 % for the most polluted days. The sensitivity of ozone concentrations to the fuel switchover is consistent with a NOx-limited regime, as expected for a tropical forest having high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds, high water vapor concentrations, and abundant solar radiation. There are key differences in a shifting energy matrix in a tropical, forested environment compared to other world environments. Policies

  5. Air pollution abatement performances of green infrastructure in open road and built-up street canyon environments - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhijith, K. V.; Kumar, Prashant; Gallagher, John; McNabola, Aonghus; Baldauf, Richard; Pilla, Francesco; Broderick, Brian; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Pulvirenti, Beatrice

    2017-08-01

    Intensifying the proportion of urban green infrastructure has been considered as one of the remedies for air pollution levels in cities, yet the impact of numerous vegetation types deployed in different built environments has to be fully synthesised and quantified. This review examined published literature on neighbourhood air quality modifications by green interventions. Studies were evaluated that discussed personal exposure to local sources of air pollution under the presence of vegetation in open road and built-up street canyon environments. Further, we critically evaluated the available literature to provide a better understanding of the interactions between vegetation and surrounding built-up environments and ascertain means of reducing local air pollution exposure using green infrastructure. The net effects of vegetation in each built-up environment are also summarised and possible recommendations for the future design of green infrastructure are proposed. In a street canyon environment, high-level vegetation canopies (trees) led to a deterioration in air quality, while low-level green infrastructure (hedges) improved air quality conditions. For open road conditions, wide, low porosity and tall vegetation leads to downwind pollutant reductions while gaps and high porosity vegetation could lead to no improvement or even deteriorated air quality. The review considers that generic recommendations can be provided for vegetation barriers in open road conditions. Green walls and roofs on building envelopes can also be used as effective air pollution abatement measures. The critical evaluation of the fundamental concepts and the amalgamation of key technical features of past studies by this review could assist urban planners to design and implement green infrastructures in the built environment.

  6. A questionnaire survey on sleeping thermal environment and bedroom air conditioning in high-rise residences in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Z. [Institute of Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning and Gas Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Deng, S. [Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong SAR (China)

    2006-07-01

    This paper reports on the results of a questionnaire survey on sleeping thermal environment and bedroom air conditioning in high-rise residential buildings in Hong Kong. The survey aimed at investigating the current situation of sleeping thermal environment and bedroom air conditioning, in order to gather relevant background information to develop strategies for bedroom air conditioning in the subtropics. It focused on the use patterns and types of bedroom air conditioning systems used, human factors such as the use of bedding and sleep wear during sleep, preference for indoor air temperature settings in bedrooms, ventilation control at nighttime with room air conditioner (RAC) turned on, etc. The results of the survey showed that most of the respondents would prefer a relatively low indoor air temperature at below 24 {sup o}C. Most of the respondents might however not be satisfied with the indoor air quality (IAQ) in bedrooms in Hong Kong. On the other hand, 68% of the respondents did not use any ventilation control intentionally during their sleep with their RACs turned on. A lack of knowledge of the ventilation control devices provided on window type room air conditioners (WRACs) indicated an urgent need for user education. (author)

  7. A structural regression model for relationship between indoor air quality with dissatisfaction of occupants in education environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Hamid Reza; Yunos, Mohd Yazid Mohd; Ismail, Sumarni; Yaman, Maheran

    2017-12-01

    This paper analysis the effects of indoor air elements on the dissatisfaction of occupants in education of environments. Tries to find the equation model for increasing the comprehension about these affects and optimizes satisfaction of occupants about indoor environment. Subsequently, increase performance of students, lecturers and staffs. As the method, a satisfaction questionnaire (SQ) and measuring environment elements (MEE) was conducted, 143 respondents at five classrooms, four staff rooms and five lectures rooms were considered. Temperature, air velocity and humidity (TVH) were used as independent variables and dissatisfaction as dependent variable. The hypothesis was tested for significant relationship between variables, and analysis was applied. Results found that indoor air quality presents direct effects on dissatisfaction of occupants and indirect effects on performance and the highest effects fallowed by temperature. These results may help to optimize the quality of efficiency and effectiveness in education environments.

  8. Thermomechanical fatigue behavior of SiC/Ti-24Al-11Nb in air and argon environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Paul A.; Verrilli, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    A series of tension-tension, load-controlled thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) tests were conducted on a titanium aluminide composite in both laboratory air and a flowing argon environment. Results from these tests show that the environment plays an increasingly important role as applied stress levels are decreased. Differences in damage mechanisms between the two environments were observed which corresponds to observed variations in TMF lives.

  9. The air quality impact of the port of Amsterdam on its environment: Development of an air quality tool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, L.; Breemen, T. van; Hulskotte, J.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the expansion of the Port of Amsterdam, Urban development and the construction of new highways, air pollution levels are about to exceed European guidelines in and around the port region of Amsterdam. To assess the air quality in this region and the impact of theport emissions on its

  10. Impacts of cooking system on indoor air environment: a case study on a Bangladeshi village

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azad, A.K.; Afroze, S.; Azam, M.

    2005-01-01

    Energy is needed to meet the subsistence requirement as well as to meet the demand for economic growth and development. As like many other third world countries still more than half of the total consumed energy comes from the traditional fuels in Bangladesh. This is causing rapid deforestation and consequently a change in the eco-systems leading to erosion and change in the climatic pattern. Extreme use of raw (low quality) biomass traditional cook stoves causes significant impacts on indoor air environment and as well on human health. In the study, an assessment of the cooking energy usage pattern, its potential impacts on indoor air environment and human health in a village named Deyara in Khulna district has been performed. The socio-economic status of the villagers and cooking energy usage pattern were evaluated by a questionnaire survey. In the study village Deyara, about 74% of the total households rely on biomass fuel, where the mostly used biomass is trees and its residues (46%), next the crop wastes (39%) and lastly the cow dung (15%). Emissions of different types of air pollutants and greenhouse gases from the burning of biomass cooking fuels the study village are estimated. In the study area the estimated annual emission of CO/sub 2/ is 45.5 tons which about 94% of the total emission, where CO is 4.5%, PM is 1 % and about 0.5% emission is of SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, N/sub 2/O. In the study area the concentrations of air pollutants in the kitchen environment were estimated using an indoor air quality model. The model results show that the concentration around the household areas is not at tolerable level and due to only 1 hour biomass burning this concentration is 323 mg/m/sup 3/ for CO, 50.6 mg/m/sup 3/ for PM, 15 mg/m/sup 3/ for NO/sub 2/ and 9.6 mg/m/sup 3/ for SO/sub 2/. Not only this, from the combustion of biomass cooking fuels this concentrations of different carcinogens are also at high levels. For 1 hour burning of biomass fuel this concentration is

  11. Tensile properties of V-5Cr-5Ti alloy after exposure in air environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Oxidation studies were conducted on V-5Cr-5Ti alloy specimens in an air environment to evaluate the oxygen uptake behavior of the alloy as a function of temperature and exposure time. The oxidation rates, calculated from parabolic kinetic measurements of thermogravimetric testing and confirmed by microscopic analysis of cross sections of exposed specimens, were 5, 17, and 27 {mu}m per year after exposure at 300, 400, and 500{degrees}C, respectively. Uniaxial tensile tests were conducted at room temperature and at 500{degrees}C on preoxidized specimens of the alloy to examine the effects of oxidation and oxygen migration on tensile strength and ductility. Correlations were developed between tensile strength and ductility of the oxidized alloy and microstructural characteristics such as oxide thickness, depth of hardened layer, depth of intergranular fracture zone, and transverse crack length.

  12. Wear Behavior of Selected Nuclear Grade Graphites at Room Temperature in Ambient Air Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eung-Seon; Park, Kwang-Seok; Kim, Yong-Wan

    2008-01-01

    In a very high temperature reactor (VHTR), graphite will be used not only for as a moderator and reflector but also as a major structural component due to its excellent neutronic, thermal and mechanical properties. In the VHTR, wear of graphite components is inevitable due to a neutron irradiation-induced dimensional change, thermal gradient, relative motions of graphite components and a shock load such as an earthquake. Large wear particles accumulated at the bottom of a reactor can influence the cooling of the lower part and small wear particles accumulated on the primary circuit and heat exchanger tube can make it difficult to inspect the equipment, and also decrease the heat exchange rate. In the present work, preliminary wear tests were performed at room temperature in ambient air environment to understand the basic wear characteristics of selected nuclear grade graphites for the VHTR

  13. Effects of NATO air-raids on human environment and health of the population of Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damjanov, V.; Vukicevic, A.; Grozdanov, J.

    2002-01-01

    The bombing targets of NATO forces were almost all larger towns in Serbia, and particularly the facilities of chemical and oil industry. The most severely attacked cities were Pancevo, Novi Sad, Belgrade, Nis, Kragujevac, Sombor, Krusevac, Bogutovac, Kraljevo, Smederevo, Bor, Prahovo, etc. Constantly and repeatedly attacked chemical and oil plants, in addition to direct destruction of the plants, produced divergent effects, such as emission of a variety of primary and secondary pollutants into the living environment (air, water, soil). The majority of these pollutants are documented to have not only the toxicological but also the potential carcinogenic, teratogenic and/or mutagenic effects. The activities of health service (preventive before all) included qualitative and, to a permissible extent, the quantitative measurements of the mineral oils, polychlorobiphenyls, polycyclic aromatic carbons, total carbons, phenol, 3-chloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene, benzene, toluene, xylene, ethylbenzene, styrene, phosgene, vinyl chloride monomer, 1 ,2-dichlor-oethane, dioxin, furan, toxic metals (lead, chromium, cadmium, nickel, arsenic, mercury) -first in air, then in water currents, soil, plants and animals. The peacetime networks for monitoring environmental pollution (air, water, foodstuffs) were not capable to follow up all changes that occurred during aggression. During bombing of the chemical and oil plants the health service did not register any significant increase of individuals (dwellers) presenting with accident-related signs and symptoms. The results of environmental quality obtained so far, indicate a need to follow up the subclinical and clinical manifestations of a long-term exposure of the population. However, the majority of substances that we were able to identify indicate the presence of environmental pollution which will persist for a long time in the years ahead and in concentrations which may eventually have toxicological, carcinogenic, mutagenic

  14. Deliberate ignition of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures in condensing steam environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchat, T.K.; Stamps, D.W.

    1997-05-01

    Large scale experiments were performed to determine the effectiveness of thermal glow plug igniters to burn hydrogen in a condensing steam environment due to the presence of water sprays. The experiments were designed to determine if a detonation or accelerated flame could occur in a hydrogen-air-steam mixture which was initially nonflammable due to steam dilution but was rendered flammable by rapid steam condensation due to water sprays. Eleven Hydrogen Igniter Tests were conducted in the test vessel. The vessel was instrumented with pressure transducers, thermocouple rakes, gas grab sample bottles, hydrogen microsensors, and cameras. The vessel contained two prototypic engineered systems: (1) a deliberate hydrogen ignition system and (2) a water spray system. Experiments were conducted under conditions scaled to be nearly prototypic of those expected in Advanced Light Water Reactors (such as the Combustion Engineering (CE) System 80+), with prototypic spray drop diameter, spray mass flux, steam condensation rates, hydrogen injection flow rates, and using the actual proposed plant igniters. The lack of any significant pressure increase during the majority of the burn and condensation events signified that localized, benign hydrogen deflagration(s) occurred with no significant pressure load on the containment vessel. Igniter location did not appear to be a factor in the open geometry. Initially stratified tests with a stoichiometric mixture in the top showed that the water spray effectively mixes the initially stratified atmosphere prior to the deflagration event. All tests demonstrated that thermal glow plugs ignite hydrogen-air-steam mixtures under conditions with water sprays near the flammability limits previously determined for hydrogen-air-steam mixtures under quiescent conditions. This report describes these experiments, gives experimental results, and provides interpretation of the results. 12 refs., 127 figs., 16 tabs

  15. Resistance of HEPA filter separator materials to humid air--hydrogen fluoride--fluorine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, C.W.; Petit, G.S.; Woodfin, S.B.

    1977-01-01

    The U. S. Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) is interested in the development of a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter that is resistant to such corrosive reagents as hydrogen fluoride (HF) and fluorine (F 2 ) in air environments of normal relative humidity (about 50% RH). Several types of separator materials are used in the fabrication of commercial filters. The basic types of separator materials are asbestos, Kraft paper, plastic, and aluminum. At the request of the ERDA Division of Operational Safety, the different types of separator materials have been evaluated for their resistance to corrosive attack by HF and F 2 . The separator materials were dynamically tested in the 4-stage multiunit tester located in the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant laboratories. This is the system previously used in the evaluation of the Herty Foundation filter paper samples. Concurrent with the testing of filter media for its resistance to HF and F 2 , another component of the completed filter, the separator, was tested. All samples were exposed to a constant air flow (50% RH) of 32 liters/min, at 100 0 F, containing 900 ppM HF and 300 ppM F 2 . Exposure periods varied from 2 to 1000 h; however, the longer exposures were made only on the stronger candidates. Test results show the plastic and aluminum separator materials to be superior to the other types in resistance to HF and F 2 . The asbestos separators disintegrated after a relatively short exposure time; the Kraft paper types were the next weakest. The Clear Plastic S was the best performer of the plastics tested

  16. Gene-environment interactions linking air pollution and inflammation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Pei-Chen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Lill, Christina M; Bertram, Lars; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Hansen, Johnni; Ritz, Beate

    2016-11-01

    Both air pollution exposure and systemic inflammation have been linked to Parkinson's disease (PD). In the PASIDA study, 408 incident cases of PD diagnosed in 2006-2009 and their 495 population controls were interviewed and provided DNA samples. Markers of long term traffic related air pollution measures were derived from geographic information systems (GIS)-based modeling. Furthermore, we genotyped functional polymorphisms in genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines, namely rs1800629 in TNFα (tumor necrosis factor alpha) and rs16944 in IL1B (interleukin-1β). In logistic regression models, long-term exposure to NO 2 increased PD risk overall (odds ratio (OR)=1.06 per 2.94μg/m 3 increase, 95% CI=1.00-1.13). The OR for PD in individuals with high NO 2 exposure (≧75th percentile) and the AA genotype of IL1B rs16944 was 3.10 (95% CI=1.14-8.38) compared with individuals with lower NO 2 exposure (<75th percentile) and the GG genotype. The interaction term was nominally significant on the multiplicative scale (p=0.01). We did not find significant gene-environment interactions with TNF rs1800629. Our finds may provide suggestive evidence that a combination of traffic-related air pollution and genetic variation in the proinflammatory cytokine gene IL1B contribute to risk of developing PD. However, as statistical evidence was only modest in this large sample we cannot rule out that these results represent a chance finding, and additional replication efforts are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of built infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Imam, Boulent

    2013-02-01

    Over 150 research articles relating three multi-disciplinary topics (air pollution, climate change and civil engineering structures) are reviewed to examine the footprints of air pollution and changing environment on the sustainability of building and transport structures (referred as built infrastructure). The aim of this review is to synthesize the existing knowledge on this topic, highlight recent advances in our understanding and discuss research priorities. The article begins with the background information on sources and emission trends of global warming (CO(2), CH(4), N(2)O, CFCs, SF(6)) and corrosive (SO(2), O(3), NO(X)) gases and their role in deterioration of building materials (e.g. steel, stone, concrete, brick and wood) exposed in outdoor environments. Further section covers the impacts of climate- and pollution-derived chemical pathways, generally represented by dose-response functions (DRFs), and changing environmental conditions on built infrastructure. The article concludes with the discussions on the topic areas covered and research challenges. A comprehensive inventory of DRFs is compiled. The case study carried out for analysing the inter-comparability of various DRFs on four different materials (carbon steel, limestone, zinc and copper) produced comparable results. Results of another case study revealed that future projected changes in temperature and/or relatively humidity are expected to have a modest effect on the material deterioration rate whereas changes in precipitation were found to show a more dominant impact. Evidences suggest that both changing and extreme environmental conditions are expected to affect the integrity of built infrastructure both in terms of direct structural damage and indirect losses of transport network functionality. Unlike stone and metals, substantially limited information is available on the deterioration of brick, concrete and wooden structures. Further research is warranted to develop more robust and

  18. Natural Attenuation of Hydrocarbon and Trichloroethylene Vapors in the Subsurface Environment at Plattsburgh Air Force Base

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ostendorf, David

    1997-01-01

    .... UMASS tested the hypothesis that natural attenuation processes, stimulated by injected air, reduce emissions of hydrocarbons and trichloroethylene vapors to acceptable air quality standards at the site. Drs...

  19. Report by the Commission of environment accounting and economy - Health and outdoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depoorter, Stephanie; Niklaus, Doris; Rafenberg, Christophe; Dron, Dominique

    2012-07-01

    After an overview of the issue of air pollution (definition, pollutant emission, population exposure, main air pollutants and emission sources, assessment of air quality in France), this report discusses the various impacts of air pollution on health and their related costs: pathologies associated with a bad air quality, categories which are more exposed than others, assessment of health impacts of air pollution, health costs. The next part describes the current policies aimed at improving air quality: European and international commitments, national policy, public policy tools, impacts of policies of struggle against air pollution by some pollutants, current researches and knowledge to be improved

  20. Chemical characterization of particulate air pollutants Case studies on indoor air quality, cultural heritage and the marine environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horemans, Benjamin

    When attempting to discuss the effects of airborne particulate matter (PM), it is important to address both physical and chemical aspects of this pollutant. This work reports on the results of three separate case studies, each approaching a specific problem of air pollution by evaluating the chemical composition of PM. 1. In the US and Europe, office workers often complain about work-related health symptoms. These symptoms are collectively referred as the 'sick building syndrome'. This work could be considered as one of the largest data collections on particulate pollutants in Belgian offices. It helps to understand the sources as well as the behavior and fate of PM at our workplace environments. Especially the chemical information on PM makes the results unique, since it enables a better evaluation of the health risks connected to office dust. 2. The Alhambra and Generalife bring every year more than 3 million people to Granada in Southern Spain. Recently, the increasing urbanization of Granada and the immense pressure of mass tourism form a threat for this heritage. Despite the fact that atmospheric pollutants are known to he potentially aggressive for our cultural patrimony. this case study is the first to assess the effects of environmental aerosols on the Alhambra monument. The results of this study could help decision-makers at the Alhambra and the city of Granada with the formulation of preventive conservation measures. They show how local vehicular traffic is the main source for atmospheric pollution in and around the Alhambra monument. Targeted strategies are necessary in order to maximally preserve these monuments and their UNESCO world cultural heritage label. 3. Excessive input of nitrogen-containing atmospheric nutrients via dry and wet deposition can cause entrophication of marine regions, which is also a common, seasonal phenomenon along the coasts of the North Sea. This study is the first to give a complete quantitative description of the

  1. Real-time threat evaluation in a ground based air defence environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JN Roux

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In a military environment a ground based air defence operator is required to evaluate the tactical situation in real-time and protect Defended Assets (DAs on the ground against aerial threats by assigning available Weapon Systems (WSs to engage enemy aircraft. Since this aerial environment requires rapid operational planning and decision making in stress situations, the associated responsibilities are typically divided between a number of operators and computerized systems that aid these operators during the decision making processes. One such a Decision Support System (DSS, a threat evaluation and weapon assignment system, assigns threat values to aircraft (with respect to DAs in real-time and uses these values to propose possible engagements of observed enemy aircraft by anti-aircraft WSs. In this paper a design of the threat evaluation part of such a DSS is put forward. The design follows the structured approach suggested in [Roux JN & van Vuuren JH, 2007, Threat evaluation and weapon assignment decision support: A review of the state of the art, ORiON, 23(2, pp. 151-187], phasing in a suite of increasingly complex qualitative and quantitative model components as more (reliable data become available.

  2. Analysis of the crush environment for lightweight air-transportable accident-resistant containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure, J.D.; Hartman, W.F.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the longitudinal dynamic crush environment for a Lightweight Air-Transportable Accident-Resistant Container (LAARC, now called PAT-2) that can be used to transport small quantities of radioactive material. The analysis of the crush environment involves evaluation of the forces imposed upon the LAARC package during the crash of a large, heavily loaded, cargo aircraft. To perform the analysis, a cargo load column was defined which consisted of a longitudinal prism of cargo of cross-sectional area equal to the projected area of the radioactive-material package and length equal to the longitudinal extent of the cargo compartment in a commercial cargo jet aircraft. To bound the problem, two analyses of the cargo load column were performed, a static stability analysis and a dynamic analysis. The results of these analyses can be applied to other packaging designs and suggest that the physical limits or magnitude of the longitudinal crush forces, which are controlled in part by the yield strength of the cargo and the package size, are much smaller than previously estimated

  3. Imperiling urban environment through varying air pollution rein in measures and mass transit policies - a case study of Lahore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, A.

    2015-01-01

    Gargantuan expansion of big cities has increased motor vehicular tremendously. Lahore, a primitive green city is now gripped with swelling motor vehicular air pollution. Mass public transport, a back bone of city transportation network, due to erroneous running significantly contributes toward motor vehicular air pollution. Policy initiatives of the Government to curb motor vehicular air pollution are merely focused upon reduction of air pollution at source by the use of technology and clean fuel programmes. The policies for introduction of mass transit remained imprecise which lead to rise in transportation demand and increase in surfeit emission; Half-baked policies normally stem out to get political popularity which imperils urban environment. The paper highlights inconsistent policy measures and unsound air pollution control strategies adopted in big cities of Pakistan. Furthermore it gives guidance for sustainable mass transit policy measures. (author)

  4. Controlled environment laboratory for the energy certification of refrigeration and air conditioning systems; Laboratorio de ambiente controlado para la certificacion energetica de sistemas de refrigeracion y aire acondicionado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambriz, Juan Jose; Romero Paredes, Hernando; Dorantes, Ruben [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this paper the general characteristics of the Controlled Environment Laboratory (CELAB) are described and some of the possible tests that could be performed in this device to evaluate the energy efficiency in air conditioning systems, domestic refrigeration and industrial refrigeration, as well as tests to evaluate the hydrothermal comfort in national populations, are presented. [Spanish] En este trabajo se describen las caracteristicas generales del Laboratorio de Ambiente Controlado (LAB), y se presentan algunas de las posibles pruebas que podran ser desarrolladas en este dispositivo para evaluar la eficiencia energetica en sistemas de aire acondicionado, refrigeracion domestica y refrigeracion industrial, asi como para pruebas para evaluar el confort hidrotermico en poblaciones nacionales.

  5. Comparative hygienic assessment of active ingredients content in the air environment after treatment of cereal spiked crops by combined fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondratiuk, Mykola; Blagaia, Anna; Pelo, Ihor

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The quality of the air environment significantly affects the health of the population. Chemical plant protection products in the spring and summer time may be the main pollutants of the air environment in rural areas. Chemical plant protection products are dangerous substances of anthropogenic origin. If applying pesticides in high concentrations, the risk of poisoning by active ingredients of pesticide preparations in workers directly contacting with it increases. The aim: Comparative hygienic assessment of active ingredients content in the air environment after treatment of cereal spiked crops by combined fungicides was the aim of the work. Materials and methods: Active ingredients of the studied combined fungicides, samples of air, and swabs from workers' skin and stripes from overalls were materials of the research. Methods of full-scale in-field hygienic experiment, gas-liquid chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, as well as statistical and bibliographic methods were used in the research. Results and conclusions: Active ingredients of the studied combined fungicides were not detected in the working zone air and atmospheric air at the levels exceeding the limits of its detection by appropriate chromatography methods. Findings confirmed the air environment safety for agricultural workers and rural population if studied combined fungicides are applied following the hygienically approved suggested application rates and in accordance of good agricultural practice rules. However the possible complex risk for workers after certain studied fungicides application may be higher than acceptable due to the elevated values for dermal effects. The complex risk was higher than acceptable in еру case of aerial spraying of both studied fungicides, meanwhile only one combination of active ingredients revealed possible risk for workers applying fungicides by rod method of cereal spiked crops treatment.

  6. Evaluation of physical sampling efficiency for cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers in moving air environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wei-Chung; Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Chen, Bean T; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Cheng, Yung Sung

    2012-09-01

    The need to determine occupational exposure to bioaerosols has notably increased in the past decade, especially for microbiology-related workplaces and laboratories. Recently, two new cyclone-based personal bioaerosol samplers were developed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) in the USA and the Research Center for Toxicology and Hygienic Regulation of Biopreparations (RCT & HRB) in Russia to monitor bioaerosol exposure in the workplace. Here, a series of wind tunnel experiments were carried out to evaluate the physical sampling performance of these two samplers in moving air conditions, which could provide information for personal biological monitoring in a moving air environment. The experiments were conducted in a small wind tunnel facility using three wind speeds (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 m s(-1)) and three sampling orientations (0°, 90°, and 180°) with respect to the wind direction. Monodispersed particles ranging from 0.5 to 10 μm were employed as the test aerosols. The evaluation of the physical sampling performance was focused on the aspiration efficiency and capture efficiency of the two samplers. The test results showed that the orientation-averaged aspiration efficiencies of the two samplers closely agreed with the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) inhalable convention within the particle sizes used in the evaluation tests, and the effect of the wind speed on the aspiration efficiency was found negligible. The capture efficiencies of these two samplers ranged from 70% to 80%. These data offer important information on the insight into the physical sampling characteristics of the two test samplers.

  7. Fighting ambient air pollution and its impact on health: from human rights to the right to a clean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerm, N; Cesari, G

    2015-08-01

    Clean air is one of the basic requirements of human health and well-being. However, almost nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas are affected by air pollution. Populations living in Africa, South-East Asia, and in low- and middle-income countries across all regions are the most exposed. Exposure to outdoor air pollution ranks as the ninth leading risk factor for mortality, killing 3.2 million people each year, especially young children, the elderly, persons with lung or cardiovascular disease, those who work or exercise outdoors and low-income populations. In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, calling air pollution 'a major environmental health problem'. Human rights and environmental norms are powerful tools to combat air pollution and its impact on health. The dependence of human rights on environmental quality has been recognised in international texts and by human rights treaty bodies. The growing awareness of the environment has already yielded considerable legislative and regulatory output. However, the implementation of standards remains a pervasive problem. In the fight against violations of norms, citizens have a crucial role to play. We discuss the relevance of a yet to be proclaimed standalone right to a healthy environment.

  8. URBAN MORPHOLOGY AND AIR QUALITY IN DENSE RESIDENTIAL ENVIRONMENTS: CORRELATIONS BETWEEN MORPHOLOGICAL PARAMETERS AND AIR POLLUTION AT STREET-LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRIYANTHA EDUSSURIYA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is the second part of the series that identifies whether site-specific urban morphological parameters are correlated with air quality. This study aims to identify the most important urban morphological parameters that affects air quality at street level that affect air quality in metropolis like Hong Kong through field measurements and statistical analyses. The study considers 20 urban residential areas in five major districts of Hong Kong and real-time street level air pollutant and microclimatic data are collected from these areas. 21 morphological variables are identified and calculated based on the geometry of the urban fabric. Using principal component analyses, it is shown that out of the many urban morphological factors, only five morphological variables (plan area density, occlusivity, aerodynamic roughness height, mean built volume, compactness factor and four land development factors (aspect ratio, distance between building, mean building height and standard deviation of building height correlate with particulate matter. Besides mineralisation factor, contiguity and canyon ratio marginally correlate with particulate matter. On the other hand, nine variables (plan area density, compactness factor, occlusivity, aerodynamic roughness height, average size of building volume, aspect ratio, distance between buildings, mean building height and standard deviations of building heights correlate with NOx. All others play insignificant roles in street-level pollution effect. Moreover statistical analyses show little correlation between CO and ozone with urban morphological parameters. It is also established that the key microclimatic variables that connects PM and NOx with the urban morphological factors are northerly wind, relative humidity and temperature, which in turn translates to affecting the street-level air pollution.

  9. Performance Evaluation of the United Nations Environment Programme Air Quality Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reference data represents reference monitoring data associated with EPA-operated air monitoring equipment located at its AIRS test site in the Research Triangle...

  10. Assessing indoor air quality of school environments: transplanted lichen Pseudovernia furfuracea as a new tool for biomonitoring and bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protano, Carmela; Owczarek, Malgorzata; Antonucci, Arianna; Guidotti, Maurizio; Vitali, Matteo

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this research is to evaluate the ability of transplanted lichen Pseudovernia (P). furfuracea to biomonitor and bioaccumulate in urban indoor environments. The elements As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni and Pb and 12 selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were used to assess P. furfuracea as a biomonitoring tool for the indoor air quality of school environments. To achieve this purpose, lichen samples were exposed for 2 months in the outdoor and indoor environments of five school settings located in urban and rural areas. The results demonstrated that transplanted lichen P. furfuracea is a suitable biomonitoring tool for metals and PAHs in indoor settings and can discriminate between different levels of air pollution related to urbanisation and indoor conditions, such as those characterised by school environments. A transplanted lichen biomonitoring strategy is cost-effective, "green", educational for attending children and less "invasive" than traditional air sampling methods. The feasibility of indoor monitoring by P. furfuracea is a relevant finding and could be a key tool to improve air quality monitoring programmes in school scenarios and thus focus on health prevention interventions for children, who are one of the most susceptible groups in the population.

  11. Isolation of pathogenic yeasts in the air from hospital environments in the city of Fortaleza, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana A Cordeiro

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of environmental surveillance of yeasts in specific areas of two tertiary local hospitals. From March 2007 to February 2008, samples from the air of two public hospitals were collected on a monthly basis. The samples were collected through passive sedimentation method (day and night exposure of Petri dishes. A total of 240 air samples from 10 hospital environments were analyzed. These environments presented similar contamination levels, from which 80 fungi isolates were isolated: Candida parapsilosis (n = 34, Rhodotorula spp. (19, Trichosporon asahii (11, C. tropicalis (8, C. albicans (4, C. glabrata (1, C. guilliermondii (1, C. krusei (1 and Saccharomyces spp. (1. Regarding the presence of yeasts and climatic conditions, there were 40 strains (50% in semi-critical areas (natural ventilation and critical areas (air conditioned. Considering the presence of microorganisms with pathogenic potential, environmental monitoring is necessary to prevent possible hospital infections.

  12. Air environment purification using photocatalyst. Hikari shokubai ni yoru taiki kankyo joka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, K [National Institute for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1993-12-02

    Noticing that metal oxides have photocatalysis for reduction in NOx concentration and examining effects of the TiO2 selected on removal of pollutant, the paper proposes a direct purification method for the air environment. Since TiO2 causes electron excitation meeting near ultraviolet irradiation, it manifests a catalytic function for various oxidation/reduction reactions. Details of the reaction mechanism are unknown, various active oxygen species generated on the surface of TiO2 under light irradiation oxidize NOx and acquire it as nitric acid on the surface. It is found that mixture of activated carbon of low hygroscopicity with TiO2 is effective to prevent a tendency of NO to desorb before NO becomes nitric acid. What 40% of the catalyst with fluorine resin is formed into like a sheet shows a high removal rate even in the amount of ultraviolet irradiation in a winter cloudy day in the wide range of 0.5 - 95.0% of NOx and SO2, and if the photocatalyst is applied to the side wall of city buildings, the NOx concentration is estimated to be reduced by as much as 20%. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Multi-terminal remote monitoring and warning system using Micro Air Vehicle for dangerous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yanan; Wang, Xiaoxun; He, Chengcheng; Lai, Chenlong; Liu, Yuanchao

    2015-11-01

    For overcoming the problems such as remote operation and dangerous tasks, multi-terminal remote monitoring and warning system based on STC89C52 Micro Control Unit and wireless communication technique was proposed. The system with MCU as its core adopted multiple sets of sensor device to monitor environment parameters of different locations, such as temperature, humidity, smoke other harmful gas concentration. Data information collected was transmitted remotely by wireless transceiver module, and then multi-channel data parameter was processed and displayed through serial communication protocol between the module and PC. The results of system could be checked in the form of web pages within a local network which plays a wireless monitoring and warning role. In a remote operation, four-rotor micro air vehicle which fixed airborne data acquisition device was utilized as a middleware between collecting terminal and PC to increase monitoring scope. Whole test system has characteristics of simple construction, convenience, real time ability and high reliability, which could meet the requirements of actual use.

  14. Energy efficient and environment-friendly air-air heat pumps; Lucht-luchtwarmtepompen zeer zuinig en milieuvriendelijk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trautwein, M. [Stulz, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-02-15

    In many buildings often two different systems are applied: a gas installation for heating and an airconditioning system for cooling. However, an air conditioner can also be used for heating. This can save on the gas installation and/or the central heating system [Dutch] In veel gebouwen worden vaak twee verschillende installaties gebruikt: een gasinstallatie voor verwarming en een airconditioninginstallatie voor koeling. Echter, met airconditioners kan men ook prima verwarmen. Daarmee kan worden bespaard op gasaansluiting en CV-installatie.

  15. Close Air Support in a Joint Environment: Disconnect Between the Services and How Can Close Air Support Be Improved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-05

    military expecting technology to close the gap between the lack of CAS training and the expected pilot proficiency in multiple roles? To be an... Research Project. Carlisle Barracks: U.S. Army War College, 19 March 2004. McGrath, John. Fire for Effect: Field Artillery and Close Air Support in...including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations

  16. Air distribution in office environment with asymmetric workstation layout using chilled beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koskela, Hannu; Haeggblom, Henna [Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Lemminkaeisenkatu 14-18 B, 20520 Turku (Finland); Kosonen, Risto; Ruponen, Mika [Halton Oy, Niittyvillankuja 4, 01510 Vantaa (Finland)

    2010-09-15

    Air flow patterns and mean air speeds were studied under laboratory conditions representing a full scale open-plan office. Three basic conditions were tested: summer, spring/autumn and winter. Chilled beams were used to provide cooling, outdoor air supply and air distribution in the room. The heat sources had a notable influence on the flow pattern in the room causing large scale circulation and affecting the direction of inlet jets. The maximum air speed in the occupied zone was higher than the recommendations. The mean air speed was also high on at the floor level but low on at the head level. The air speed was highest in the summer case under high cooling load. Results indicate that especially with high heat loads, it is difficult to fulfill the targets of the existing standards in practice. Two main sources of draught risk were found: a) downfall of colliding inlet jets causing local maxima of air speed and b) large scale circulation caused by asymmetric layout of chilled beams and heat sources. The first phenomenon can cause local draught risk when the workstation is located in the downfall area. The flow pattern is not stable and the position of draught risk areas can change in time and also due to changes in room heat sources. The second phenomenon can cause more constant high air speeds on at the floor level. CFD-simulation was able to predict the general flow pattern but somewhat overestimated the air speed compared to measurements. (author)

  17. [Air pollutant exposure during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development. Research protocol of the INMA (Childhood and Environment Project)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esplugues, Ana; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguilera, Inma; Iñíguez, Carmen; García Dos Santos, Saúl; Aguirre Alfaro, Amelia; Lacasaña, Marina; Estarlich, Marisa; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Marieta; Rebagliato, Marisa; Sala, María; Tardón, Adonina; Torrent, Maties; Martínez, María Dolores; Ribas-Fitó, Núria; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2007-01-01

    The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente [Spanish for Environment and Childhood]) project is a cooperative research network. This project aims to study the effects of environment and diet on fetal and early childhood development. This article aims to present the air pollutant exposure protocol during pregnancy and fetal and early childhood development of the INMA project. The information to assess air pollutant exposure during pregnancy is based on outdoor measurement of air pollutants (nitrogen dioxide [NO2], volatile organic compounds [VOC], ozone, particulate matter [PM10, PM2,5 ] and of their composition [polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons]); measurement of indoor and personal exposure (VOC and NO2); urinary measurement of a biological marker of hydrocarbon exposure (1-hydroxypyrene); and data gathered by questionnaires and geographic information systems. These data allow individual air pollutant exposure indexes to be developed, which can then be used to analyze the possible effects of exposure on fetal development and child health. This protocol and the type of study allow an approximation to individual air pollutant exposure to be obtained. Finally, the large number of participants (N = 4,000), as well as their geographic and social diversity, increases the study's potential.

  18. Dependence of Rn adsorption rate and effective half-life time on diffusion barrier type and moving air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafa, Wafaa; Badran, Heba

    2005-01-01

    The variation of the adsorbed radon rate during the exposure time using charcoal canister was studied applying moving air environment inside the radon chamber and compared to the static air measurements. The air movement increases the accumulation time leading to more accurate results. Different types of membrane have been tested as diffusion barrier for activated charcoal canisters. The Makrofol and aluminized polycarbonate improve the adsorption/desorption rate more than the polyehylene membrane. The measured effective half-life time showed a remarkable correlation with the previously measured permeability constant for corresponding membranes. Different types of commercially available charcoal were investigated to develop a local version of charcoal canister for radon measurements. Applying static and moving air environments, the break point and radon collection efficiency were determined at different temperatures. Both of the temperature and air movement accelerate the appearance of the break point. Th efficiency of the locally developed charcoal is 87% and 84.5% of that Calgon PCB charcoal used by EPA. (author)

  19. Effect of temporary open-air markets on the sound environment and acoustic perception based on the crowd density characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qi; Sun, Yang; Kang, Jian

    2017-12-01

    The sound environment and acoustic perception of open-air markets, which are very common in high-density urban open spaces, play important roles in terms of the urban soundscape. Based on objective and subjective measurements of a typical temporary open-air market in Harbin city, China, the effects of the temporary open-air market on the sound environment and acoustic perception were studied, considering different crowd densities. It was observed that a temporary open-air market without zoning increases the sound pressure level and subjective loudness by 2.4dBA and 0.21dBA, respectively, compared to the absence of a temporary market. Different from the sound pressure level and subjective loudness, the relationship between crowd density and the perceived acoustic comfort is parabolic. Regarding the effect of a temporary open-air market with different zones on the sound environment and acoustic perception, when the crowd densities were the same, subjective loudness in the fruit and vegetable sales area was always higher than in the food sales area and the clothing sales area. In terms of acoustic comfort, with an increase in crowd density, acoustic comfort in the fruit and vegetable sales area decreased, and acoustic comfort in the food sales area and the clothing sales area exhibited a parabolic change trend of increase followed by decrease. Overall, acoustic comfort can be effectively improved by better planning temporary open-air markets in high-density urban open spaces. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Distribution and air-sea exchange of mercury (Hg) in polluted marine environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E.; Sprovieri, M.; Bitetto, M.; Bonsignore, M.; Calabrese, S.; Di Stefano, V.; Oliveri, E.; Parello, F.; Mazzola, S.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) is emitted in the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources, these last accounting for one third of the total emissions. Since the pre-industrial age, the atmospheric deposition of mercury have increased notably, while ocean emissions have doubled owing to the re-emission of anthropogenic mercury. Exchange between the atmosphere and ocean plays an important role in cycling and transport of mercury. We present the preliminary results from a study on the distribution and evasion flux of mercury at the atmosphere/sea interface in the Augusta basin (SE Sicily, southern Italy), a semi-enclosed marine area affected by a high degree of contamination (heavy metals and PHA) due to the oil refineries placed inside its commercial harbor. It seems that the intense industrial activity of the past have lead to an high Hg pollution in the bottom sediments of the basin, whose concentrations are far from the background mercury value found in most of the Sicily Strait sediments. The release of mercury into the harbor seawater and its dispersion by diffusion from sediments to the surface, make the Augusta basin a potential supplier of mercury both to the Mediterranean Sea and the atmosphere. Based on these considerations, mercury concentration and flux at the air-sea interface of the Bay have been estimated using a real-time atomic adsorption spectrometer (LUMEX - RA915+) and an home-made accumulation chamber, respectively. Estimated Total Atmospheric Mercury (TGM) concentrations during the cruise on the bay were in the range of 1-3 ng · m-3, with a mean value of about 1.4 ng · m-3. These data well fit with the background Hgatm concentration values detected on the land (1-2 ng · m-3, this work), and, more in general, with the background atmospheric TGM levels found in the North Hemisphere (1.5-1.7 ng · m-3)a. Besides, our measurements are in the range of those reported for other important polluted marine areas. The mercury evasion flux at the air-sea interface

  1. Numerical study of the propagation of high power microwave pulses in air breakdown environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Kuo, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    A theoretical model based on a set of two modal equations has been developed to describe self-consistently the propagation of an intense microwave pulse in an air breakdown environment. It includes Poynting's equation for the continuity of the power flux of the pulse and the rate equation of the electron density. A forward wave approximation is used to simplify Poynting's equation and a semi-empirical formula for the ionization frequency as a function of the wave field amplitude is adopted for this model. In order to improve the numerical efficiency of the model in terms of the required computation time and available subroutines for numerical analysis of pulse propagation over a long distance, a transformation to the frame of local time of the pulse is introduced. The effect of space-time dependence of the group velocity of the pulse is included in this properly designed transformation. The inhomogeneous feature of the background pressure is also preserved in the model. The resultant equations are reduced to the forms which can be solved directly by the available subroutine of ODE solver. In this work, a comprehensive numerical analysis of the propagation of high power microwave pulse through the atmosphere is performed. It is shown that the pulse energy can severely be attenuated by the self-generated plasma. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to identify the optimum parameters of the pulse so that the energy loss of the pulse before reaching the destination can be minimized. These parameters include the power, frequency, shape and length of the pulse. The conditions for maximizing the ionization at a destinated region in the upper atmosphere will also be determined

  2. Characterization and health risk assessment of VOCs in occupational environments in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman Lerner, J. E.; Sanchez, E. Y.; Sambeth, J. E.; Porta, A. A.

    2012-08-01

    To detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air in small enterprises in La Plata city and surrounding areas, sampling was conducted using passive diffusion monitors (3M-3500) and analysis of the samples were performed byCG-FID. Analytic methodology was optimized for 23 VOCs (n-alkanes, cycloalkanes, aromatic and chlorinated compounds, ketones and terpenes compounds) by determining the recovery factor and detection limit for each analyte. Different recovery values were obtained by desorbing with a mixture of dichloromethane: methanol (50:50), with a standard deviation lower than 5%. Enterprise analyzed included chemical analysis laboratories, sewing workrooms, electromechanical repair and car painting centers, take away food shops, and a photocopy center. The highest levels of VOCs were found to be in electromechanical repair and car painting centers (hexane, BTEX, CHCl3, CCl4) followed by chemical analysis laboratories and sewing workrooms. Cancer and noncancer risks were assessed using conventional approaches (HQ and LCR, US EPA) using the benzene, trichloroethylene, chloroform for cancer risk, and toluene, xylene and n-hexane, for noncancer risks as markers. The results showed different LCR for benzene and trichloroethylene between the different indoor environments analyzed (electromechanical repair and car painting center ≫ others) and chloroform (laboratory > others), but comparing with the results obtained by other research, are in similar order of magnitude for equivalents activities. Similar finding were founded for HQ. Comparing these results with the worker protection legislation the electromechanical repair and car painting center and chemical analysis laboratories are close to the limits advised by OSHA and ACGIH. These facts show the importance of the use of abatement technologies for the complete reduction of VOCs levels, to mitigate their impact in the worker's health and their venting to the atmosphere.

  3. Air quality perception of pedestrians in an urban outdoor Mediterranean environment: A field survey approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantavou, Katerina; Lykoudis, Spyridon; Psiloglou, Basil

    2017-01-01

    Perception plays a significant role on people's response to preventive measures. In the view of public awareness, the aim of this study was to explore factors that affect air quality perception and to reveal its potential patterns. Air quality perception of individuals, in terms of dust and overall air quality, was examined in relation to air pollutants concentrations, meteorological variables, personal characteristics as well as their thermal sensation and health condition. The data used were obtained from environmental measurements, in situ and from stations, and questionnaire surveys conducted in an outdoor urban Mediterranean area, Athens, Greece. The participants were asked to report their air quality perception and thermal sensation based on predefined scales. A thermal index, Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), was estimated to obtain an objective measure of thermal sensation. Particulate matter (PM 10 ) and nitrogen oxide (NO) were associated with dust perception. Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and carbon monoxide (CO) were associated to air quality perception. Age, area of residence, health symptoms and thermal sensation also affected the perception of air quality. Dusty or poor air quality conditions were more likely to be reported when pollutants' concentrations were increased. Younger people, participants residing in the city center, experiencing health symptoms or warm thermal sensation showed a trend towards reporting more unfavorable air quality conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Incorporating wind availability into land use regression modelling of air quality in mountainous high-density urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ng, Edward

    2017-08-01

    Urban air quality serves as an important function of the quality of urban life. Land use regression (LUR) modelling of air quality is essential for conducting health impacts assessment but more challenging in mountainous high-density urban scenario due to the complexities of the urban environment. In this study, a total of 21 LUR models are developed for seven kinds of air pollutants (gaseous air pollutants CO, NO 2 , NO x , O 3 , SO 2 and particulate air pollutants PM 2.5 , PM 10 ) with reference to three different time periods (summertime, wintertime and annual average of 5-year long-term hourly monitoring data from local air quality monitoring network) in Hong Kong. Under the mountainous high-density urban scenario, we improved the traditional LUR modelling method by incorporating wind availability information into LUR modelling based on surface geomorphometrical analysis. As a result, 269 independent variables were examined to develop the LUR models by using the "ADDRESS" independent variable selection method and stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR). Cross validation has been performed for each resultant model. The results show that wind-related variables are included in most of the resultant models as statistically significant independent variables. Compared with the traditional method, a maximum increase of 20% was achieved in the prediction performance of annual averaged NO 2 concentration level by incorporating wind-related variables into LUR model development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Long term performance of particulate air-filter in an office environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Iqbal, Ahsan; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2015-01-01

    The present article is based on initial findings of an ongoing study. The objective of present study is to analyse the long term performance of an air particulate filter with and without ionizer. To study the performance of the air filters, a test rig was built in the Danish Building Research Ins...

  6. Transport and Environment Database System (TRENDS): Maritime Air Pollutant Emission Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgakaki, Aliki; Coffey, R. A.; Lock, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the TRENDS project. A detailed database has been constructed, which includes all stages of the energy consumption and air pollutant emission calculations. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated in the da...... ¿ short sea or deep-sea shipping. Key Words: Air Pollution, Maritime Transport, Air Pollutant Emissions......This paper reports the development of the maritime module within the framework of the TRENDS project. A detailed database has been constructed, which includes all stages of the energy consumption and air pollutant emission calculations. The technical assumptions and factors incorporated...... encountered since the statistical data collection was not undertaken with a view to this purpose are mentioned. Examples of the results obtained by the database are presented. These include detailed air pollutant emission results per port and vessel type, to aggregate results for different types of movements...

  7. Use of local convective and radiant cooling at warm environment: effect on thermal comfort and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Duszyk, Marcin; Krejcirikova, Barbora

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four local cooling devices (convective, radiant and combined) on thermal comfort and perceived air quality reported by 24 subjects at 28 ˚C and 50% RH was studied. The devices studied were: (1) desk cooling fan, (2) personalized ventilation providing clean air, (3) two radiant panels...... and (4) two radiant panels with one panel equipped with small fans. A reference condition without cooling was tested as well. The response of the subjects to the exposed conditions was collected by computerized questionnaires. The cooling devices significantly (pthermal comfort...... compared to without cooling. The acceptability of the thermal environment was similar for all cooling devices. The acceptability of air movement and PAQ increased when the local cooling methods were used. The best results were achieved with personalized ventilation and cooling fan. The improvement in PAQ...

  8. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugele, B.; Scheider, J.; Spangl, W.

    2001-01-01

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  9. Comparison of indoor air distribution and thermal environment for different combinations of radiant heating systems with mechanical ventilation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Xiaozhou; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2018-01-01

    A hybrid system with a radiant heating system and a mechanical ventilation system, which is regarded as an advanced heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system, has been applied in many modern buildings worldwide. To date, almost no studies focused on comparative analysis of the indoor...... air distribution and the thermal environment for all combinations of radiant heating systems with mechanical ventilation systems. Therefore, in this article, the indoor air distribution and the thermal environment were comparatively analyzed in a room with floor heating (FH) or ceiling heating (CH......) and mixing ventilation (MV) or displacement ventilation (DV) when the supply air temperature ranged from 15.0°C to 19.0°C. The results showed that the temperature effectiveness values were 1.05–1.16 and 0.95–1.02 for MV+ FH and MV+ CH, respectively, and they were 0.78–0.91 and 0.51–0.67 for DV + FH and DV...

  10. Environment and air pollution like gun and bullet for low-income countries: war for better health and wealth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiang; Azam, Muhammad; Islam, Talat; Zaman, Khalid

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the impact of environmental indicators and air pollution on "health" and "wealth" for the low-income countries. The study used a number of promising variables including arable land, fossil fuel energy consumption, population density, and carbon dioxide emissions that simultaneously affect the health (i.e., health expenditures per capita) and wealth (i.e., GDP per capita) of the low-income countries. The general representation for low-income countries has shown by aggregate data that consist of 39 observations from the period of 1975-2013. The study decomposes the data set from different econometric tests for managing robust inferences. The study uses temporal forecasting for the health and wealth model by a vector error correction model (VECM) and an innovation accounting technique. The results show that environment and air pollution is the menace for low-income countries' health and wealth. Among environmental indicators, arable land has the largest variance to affect health and wealth for the next 10-year period, while air pollution exerts the least contribution to change health and wealth of low-income countries. These results indicate the prevalence of war situation, where environment and air pollution become visible like "gun" and "bullet" for low-income countries. There are required sound and effective macroeconomic policies to combat with the environmental evils that affect the health and wealth of the low-income countries.

  11. Cooling Effectiveness Measurements for Air Film Cooling of Thermal Barrier Coated Surfaces in a Burner Rig Environment Using Phosphor Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Shyam, Vikram; Wroblewski, Adam C.; Zhu, Dongming; Cuy, Michael D.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-01-01

    While the effects of thermal barrier coating (TBC) thermal protection and air film cooling effectiveness are usually studied separately, their contributions to combined cooling effectiveness are interdependent and are not simply additive. Therefore, combined cooling effectiveness must be measured to achieve an optimum balance between TBC thermal protection and air film cooling. In this investigation, surface temperature mapping was performed using recently developed Cr-doped GdAlO3 phosphor thermometry. Measurements were performed in the NASA GRC Mach 0.3 burner rig on a TBC-coated plate using a scaled up cooling hole geometry where both the mainstream hot gas temperature and the blowing ratio were varied. Procedures for surface temperature and cooling effectiveness mapping of the air film-cooled TBC-coated surface are described. Applications are also shown for an engine component in both the burner rig test environment as well as an engine afterburner environment. The effects of thermal background radiation and flame chemiluminescence on the measurements are investigated, and advantages of this method over infrared thermography as well as the limitations of this method for studying air film cooling are discussed.

  12. The lasting effect of limonene-induced particle formation on air quality in a genuine indoor environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rösch, Carolin; Wissenbach, Dirk K; von Bergen, Martin; Franck, Ulrich; Wendisch, Manfred; Schlink, Uwe

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric ozone-terpene reactions, which form secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particles, can affect indoor air quality when outdoor air mixes with indoor air during ventilation. This study, conducted in Leipzig, Germany, focused on limonene-induced particle formation in a genuine indoor environment (24 m(3)). Particle number, limonene and ozone concentrations were monitored during the whole experimental period. After manual ventilation for 30 min, during which indoor ozone levels reached up to 22.7 ppb, limonene was introduced into the room at concentrations of approximately 180 to 250 μg m(-3). We observed strong particle formation and growth within a diameter range of 9 to 50 nm under real-room conditions. Larger particles with diameters above 100 nm were less affected by limonene introduction. The total particle number concentrations (TPNCs) after limonene introduction clearly exceed outdoor values by a factor of 4.5 to 41 reaching maximum concentrations of up to 267,000 particles cm(-3). The formation strength was influenced by background particles, which attenuated the formation of new SOA with increasing concentration, and by ozone levels, an increase of which by 10 ppb will result in a six times higher TPNC. This study emphasizes indoor environments to be preferred locations for particle formation and growth after ventilation events. As a consequence, SOA formation can produce significantly higher amounts of particles than transported by ventilation into the indoor air.

  13. Exposure to Air Ions in Indoor Environments: Experimental Study with Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the 20th century there has been a scientific debate about the potential effects of air ions on biological tissues, wellbeing and health. Effects on the cardiovascular and respiratory system as well as on mental health have been described. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in this topic. In an experimental indoor setting we conducted a double-blind cross-over trial to determine if higher levels of air ions, generated by a special wall paint, affect cognitive performance, wellbeing, lung function, and cardiovascular function. Twenty healthy non-smoking volunteers (10 female, 10 male participated in the study. Levels of air ions, volatile organic compounds and indoor climate factors were determined by standardized measurement procedures. Air ions affected the autonomous nervous system (in terms of an increase of sympathetic activity accompanied by a small decrease of vagal efferent activity: In the test room with higher levels of air ions (2194/cm3 vs. 1038/cm3 a significantly higher low to high frequency ratio of the electrocardiography (ECG beat-to-beat interval spectrogram was found. Furthermore, six of nine subtests of a cognitive performance test were solved better, three of them statistically significant (verbal factor, reasoning, and perceptual speed, in the room with higher ion concentration. There was no influence of air ions on lung function and on wellbeing. Our results indicate slightly activating and cognitive performance enhancing effects of a short-term exposure to higher indoor air ion concentrations.

  14. Microbial Air Contamination in Indoor and Outdoor Environment of Pig Farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Popescu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring a good air quality in pig farms is important for the health of animals and human workers. The aim of this study was the assessment of the microbiological quality of the air inside the pig houses and outside of these. The study was accomplished in two pig-fattening farms in Cluj County. The microbiological air quality was assessed in the cold and warm season, by determination of the total counts of mesophilic bacteria, staphylococci, streptococci, gram-negative bacteria and fungi. The bacterial and fungal counts varied in the air of the investigated farms. In relation to the season the mean counts of bacteria and fungi were significantly higher (P 0.05 were found between the values of the parameters determined from the indoor air and those obtained outside, from a distance of 5 m from the pig houses. The numbers of the bacteria and fungi in the outdoor air lowered as the distance from the farms increased, the differences being significant at 25 and 50 m (P < 0.05. The results of the study show a high bacterial contamination of the indoor and outdoor air of the pig farms.

  15. Air refractometry in a length comparator and the response to changes in the measurement environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieles, H

    1998-11-01

    Two different interference refractometers and one air parameter set-up are simultaneously operated in a temperature-stabilized casing of a length comparator. They allow absolute and relative measurements and calculations, respectively of the refractive index of air to be carried out for continuous interferometric length measurements. Measurement results are presented which were obtained under optimized environmental conditions. In addition, sources of disturbances are described which can significantly influence the measurements of the refractive index of air, and consequently may influence the accuracy of interferometric displacement measurements. (orig.)

  16. Geochemical Assessment of Groundwater in the Peri-urban Environment of Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, A.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater pollution is a major concern in peri-urban environments. Thus, water quality is being investigated at several domestic wells in Brandsen, 70 km south of Buenos Aires, Argentina. To present, about 20 water sources were sampled in orchards and small farms of the area. There is limited data about the wells construction, although collected information suggests that groundwater is derived from the superficial sandy loams of the Pampean Aquifer. Samples were analysed for major inorganic elements using ion chromatography and ICP-MS. Titration was used to estimate alkalinity. Physical characteristics (EC, pH, temperature) were measured on site. Results show that groundwater pH ranges from 6.5 to 7.8, with a specific conductance of 180 to 255 mS/m. A peak of 360 mS/m in one horticultural parcel is associated to local NO3- concentrations up to 140 mg/L. This value exceeds the maximum recommendations set by the WHO (50 mg/L). Considering that fertilizer inputs in that property are negligible, the high levels of NO3- might be attributed to effluents from a neighbour septic tank. An increase in NO3- (>150mg/L) was also detected in two conventional farms. This increase correlates to elevated SO42- concentrations (>300 mg/L) suggesting thus, fertilizers percolation into the saturated zone. The leaching of these fluids might be exacerbated by irrigation during new planting, and accumulations of fertilizer-solids in the root zones from previous seasons. Chloride concentrations average ~90 mg/L and would not pose a threat to health at the moment. Its main origin would be related to connate waters in the loam matrix, although some anthropogenic inputs might occur in the previously described farms. In general, the rest of the analysed elements fall within acceptable levels for drinking purposes as well. Nevertheless, further work is still necessary to better define the fate of the potential harmful elements and assess seasonal variations in water quality.

  17. EMMA model: an advanced operational mesoscale air quality model for urban and regional environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, R.S.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Cortes, E.; Gonzalez, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mesoscale air quality models are an important tool to forecast and analyse the air quality in regional and urban areas. In recent years an increased interest has been shown by decision makers in these types of software tools. The complexity of such a model has grown exponentially with the increase of computer power. Nowadays, medium workstations can run operational versions of these modelling systems successfully. Presents a complex mesoscale air quality model which has been installed in the Environmental Office of the Madrid community (Spain) in order to forecast accurately the ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide air concentrations in a 3D domain centred on Madrid city. Describes the challenging scientific matters to be solved in order to develop an operational version of the atmospheric mesoscale numerical pollution model for urban and regional areas (ANA). Some encouraging results have been achieved in the attempts to improve the accuracy of the predictions made by the version already installed. (Author)

  18. Risk assessment - a research program aimed at health risks from air pollution in the general environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl-Kiessling, K.; Ahlborg, U.; Bylin, G.; Ehrenberg, L.; Hemminki, K.; Lindell, B.; Nilsson, Robert; Bostroem, C.E.; Swarn, U.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents a new research program for assessment of health risks caused by air pollutants. It is important to develop general methods for quantitative risk assessments and to improve the scientific base materials. (KAE)

  19. Kriged and modeled ambient air levels of benzene in an urban environment: an exposure assessment study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Dejian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing concern regarding the potential adverse health effects of air pollution, particularly hazardous air pollutants (HAPs. However, quantifying exposure to these pollutants is problematic. Objective Our goal was to explore the utility of kriging, a spatial interpolation method, for exposure assessment in epidemiologic studies of HAPs. We used benzene as an example and compared census tract-level kriged predictions to estimates obtained from the 1999 U.S. EPA National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA, Assessment System for Population Exposure Nationwide (ASPEN model. Methods Kriged predictions were generated for 649 census tracts in Harris County, Texas using estimates of annual benzene air concentrations from 17 monitoring sites operating in Harris and surrounding counties from 1998 to 2000. Year 1999 ASPEN modeled estimates were also obtained for each census tract. Spearman rank correlation analyses were performed on the modeled and kriged benzene levels. Weighted kappa statistics were computed to assess agreement between discretized kriged and modeled estimates of ambient air levels of benzene. Results There was modest correlation between the predicted and modeled values across census tracts. Overall, 56.2%, 40.7%, 31.5% and 28.2% of census tracts were classified as having 'low', 'medium-low', 'medium-high' and 'high' ambient air levels of benzene, respectively, comparing predicted and modeled benzene levels. The weighted kappa statistic was 0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI = 0.20, 0.31, indicating poor agreement between the two methods. Conclusions There was a lack of concordance between predicted and modeled ambient air levels of benzene. Applying methods of spatial interpolation for assessing exposure to ambient air pollutants in health effect studies is hindered by the placement and number of existing stationary monitors collecting HAP data. Routine monitoring needs to be expanded if we are to use these data

  20. Integrating the Land and Air Components in an Anti-Access/Area Denial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    to his pursuit and bomber squadrons being already tasked to their limits, Fredendall retorted that he had lost 300 men due to enemy actions and the...190 Murray and Scales, The Iraq War, 173. 191 Author’s personal experience as a Close Air Support planner and Strike Package ...in the future the command and control structure will need to support air strike packages transitioning from interdiction and global strike missions to

  1. Spatiotemporal influence of temperature, air quality, and urban environment on cause-specific mortality during hazy days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hung Chak; Wong, Man Sing; Yang, Lin; Shi, Wenzhong; Yang, Jinxin; Bilal, Muhammad; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2018-03-01

    Haze is an extreme weather event that can severely increase air pollution exposure, resulting in higher burdens on human health. Few studies have explored the health effects of haze, and none have investigated the spatiotemporal interaction between temperature, air quality and urban environment that may exacerbate the adverse health effects of haze. We investigated the spatiotemporal pattern of haze effects and explored the additional effects of temperature, air pollution and urban environment on the short-term mortality risk during hazy days. We applied a Poisson regression model to daily mortality data from 2007 through 2014, to analyze the short-term mortality risk during haze events in Hong Kong. We evaluated the adverse effect on five types of cause-specific mortality after four types of haze event. We also analyzed the additional effect contributed by the spatial variability of urban environment on each type of cause-specific mortality during a specific haze event. A regular hazy day (lag 0) has higher all-cause mortality risk than a day without haze (odds ratio: 1.029 [1.009, 1.049]). We have also observed high mortality risks associated with mental disorders and diseases of the nervous system during hazy days. In addition, extreme weather and air quality contributed to haze-related mortality, while cold weather and higher ground-level ozone had stronger influences on mortality risk. Areas with a high-density environment, lower vegetation, higher anthropogenic heat, and higher PM 2.5 featured stronger effects of haze on mortality than the others. A combined influence of haze, extreme weather/air quality, and urban environment can result in extremely high mortality due to mental/behavioral disorders or diseases of the nervous system. In conclusion, we developed a data-driven technique to analyze the effects of haze on mortality. Our results target the specific dates and areas with higher mortality during haze events, which can be used for development of

  2. Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    The term environment refers to the internal and external context in which organizations operate. For some scholars, environment is defined as an arrangement of political, economic, social and cultural factors existing in a given context that have an impact on organizational processes and structures....... For others, environment is a generic term describing a large variety of stakeholders and how these interact and act upon organizations. Organizations and their environment are mutually interdependent and organizational communications are highly affected by the environment. This entry examines the origin...... and development of organization-environment interdependence, the nature of the concept of environment and its relevance for communication scholarships and activities....

  3. Containing air pollution and traffic congestion: Transport policy and the environment in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Anthony T. H.

    Land transportation remains one of the main contributors of noise and air pollution in urban areas. This is in addition to traffic congestion and accidents which result in the loss of productive activity. While there is a close relationship between traffic volumes and levels of noise and air pollution, transport authorities often assume that solving traffic congestion would reduce noise and air pollutant levels. Tight control over automobile ownership and use in Singapore has contributed in improving traffic flows, travel speeds and air quality. The adoption of internationally accepted standards on automobile emissions and gasoline have been effective in reducing air pollution from motor vehicles. Demand management measures have largely focused on controlling the source of traffic congestion, i.e. private automobile ownership and its use especially within the Central Business District during the day. This paper reviews and analyzes the effectiveness of two measures which are instrumental in controlling congestion and automobile ownership, i.e. road pricing and the vehicle quota scheme (VQS). While these measures have been successful in achieving desired objectives, it has also led to the spreading of traffic externalities to other roads in the network, loss in consumer welfare and rent seeking by automobile traders.

  4. An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai; Gaskin, Sharyn; Taylor, Michael; Pisaniello, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study wa...

  5. Seat-integrated localized ventilation for exposure reduction to air pollutants in indoor environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Rezgals, Lauris; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2016-01-01

    A novel ventilation method for minimizing the spread of bioeffluent contaminants generated from sedentary people indoors was developed and studied. The concept of the method consists of a ventilated cushion which is able to suck the human bioeffluents at the area of the body where they are mainly...... generated before they disperse around a room. The polluted near the body air is exhausted into the cushion and it is removed from the room by a separate exhaust system. The performance of the method was studied in series of experiments. Full-scale room and a dressed thermal manikin sitting in front....... The experiments were conducted at 26°C room air temperature. The performance of the VC in conjunction with mixing total-volume background ventilation at 1 air change per hour (ACH) was compared with that of mixing background ventilation alone operating at 1, 1.5, 3 and 6 ACH. Experiments at exhaust airflow rate...

  6. Emotional and cognitive influences in air traffic controller tasks: An investigation using a virtual environment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truschzinski, Martina; Betella, Alberto; Brunnett, Guido; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2018-05-01

    Air traffic controllers are required to perform complex tasks which require attention and high precision. This study investigates how the difficulty of such tasks influences emotional states, cognitive workload and task performance. We use quantitative and qualitative measurements, including the recording of pupil dilation and changes in affect using questionnaires. Participants were required to perform a number of air traffic control tasks using the immersive human accessible Virtual Reality space in the "eXperience Induction Machine". Based on the data collected, we developed and validated a model which integrates personality, workload and affective theories. Our results indicate that the difficulty of an air traffic control task has a direct influence on cognitive workload as well as on the self-reported mood; whereas both mood and workload seem to change independently. In addition, we show that personality, in particular neuroticism, affects both mood and performance of the participants. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Matrix-specific distribution and diastereomeric profiles of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in a multimedia environment: Air, soil, sludge, sediment, and fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Hyeyeong; Son, Min-Hui; Seo, Sung-Hee; Chang, Yoon-Seok

    2017-07-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) contamination and its diastereomeric profile were investigated in a multi-media environment along a river at the local scale in air, soil, sludge, sediment, and fish samples. The spatial distribution of HBCD in each matrix showed a different result. The highest concentrations of HBCD in air and soil were detected near a general industrial complex; in the sediment and sludge samples, they were detected in the down-stream region (i.e., urban area). Each matrix showed the specific distribution patterns of HBCD diastereomers, suggesting continuous inputs of contaminants, different physicochemical properties, or isomerizations. The particle phases in air, sludge, and fish matrices were dominated by α-HBCD, owing to HBCD's various isomerization processes and different degradation rate in the environment, and metabolic capabilities of the fish; in contrast, the sediment and soil matrices were dominated by γ-HBCD because of the major composition of the technical mixtures and the strong adsorption onto solid particles. Based on these results, the prevalent and matrix-specific distribution of HBCD diastereomers suggested that more careful consideration should be given to the characteristics of the matrices and their effects on the potential influence of HBCD at the diastereomeric level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Use of bioindicators to evaluate air quality and genotoxic compounds in an urban environment in Southern Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Käffer, Márcia Isabel; Lemos, Andréa T.; Apel, Miriam Anders; Rocha, Jocelita Vaz; Martins, Suzana Maria de Azevedo

    2012-01-01

    Biological indicators are widely used to monitor genotic compounds and air quality in urban environments. Parmotrema tinctorum and Teloschistes exilis have been used to verify the presence of pollutants and analyze morphophysiological alterations in the thallus of species caused by their action. Species were exposed for seven months, in an urban area, in southern Brazil. Mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of PM10 organic extracts were assessed in the Salmonella/microsome assay at two stations. High concentrations of S, Pb, Cr, Zn and Hg were registered in the last period of exposure and more significant morphophysiological damages were verified in the lichens. Generally a higher mutagenic activity is observed in organic extracts of airborne particulate matter during the first months and in the third period of exposure of lichens. In addition, nitro compounds was detected through nitro-sensitive strains. Lichens and mutagenic biomarkers enabled the evaluation of air quality and the presence of environmentally-aggressive compounds. - Highlights: ► Biological indicators are widely used to monitor genotic compounds and air quality in urban environments. ► High concentrations of S and metals were registered in the last period of exposure. ► More significant morphophysiological damages were verified in the lichens in the last period of exposure. ► The results reveals that a set of factors contributed to the morphophysiological alterations of lichens. - Bioindicators are valuable monitors of genotoxic compounds and atmospheric pollution.

  9. Benzene levels in ambient air and breath of smokers and nonsmokers in urban and pristine environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wester, R.C.; Maibach, H.I.; Gruenke, L.D.; Craig, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    Benzene levels in human breath and in ambient air were compared in the urban area of San Francisco (SF) and in a more remote coastal pristine setting of Stinson Beach, Calif. (SB). Benzene analysis was done by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Ambient benzene levels were sevenfold higher in SF (2.6 +/- 1.3 ppb, n = 25) than SB (0.38 +/- 0.39 ppb, n = 21). In SF, benzene in smokers' breath (6.8 +/- 3.0 ppb) was greater than in nonsmokers' breath (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) and smokers' ambient air (3.3 +/- 0.8 ppb). In SB the same pattern was observed: benzene in smokers' breath was higher than in nonsmokers' breath and ambient air. Benzene in SF nonsmokers' breath was greater than in SB nonsmokers' breath. Marijuana-only smokers had benzene breath levels between those of smokers and nonsmokers. There was little correlation between benzene in breath and number of cigarettes smoked, or with other benzene exposures such as diet. Of special interest was the finding that benzene in breath of SF nonsmokers (2.5 +/- 0.8 ppb) was greater than that in nonsmokers ambient air (1.4 +/- 0.1 ppb). The same was true in SB, where benzene in nonsmokers breath was greater than ambient air (1.8 +/- 0.2 ppb versus 1.0 +/- 0.1 ppb on d 1 and 1.3 +/- 0.3 ppb versus 0.23 +/- 0.18 ppb on d 2). This suggests an additional source of benzene other than outdoor ambient air.

  10. In-air and pressurized water reactor environment fatigue experiments of 316 stainless steel to study the effect of environment on cyclic hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish, E-mail: smohanty@anl.gov; Soppet, William K., E-mail: soppet@anl.gov; Majumdar, Saurindranath, E-mail: majumdar@anl.gov; Natesan, Krishnamurti, E-mail: natesan@anl.gov

    2016-05-15

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under the sponsorship of Department of Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program, is trying to develop a mechanistic approach for more accurate life estimation of LWR components. In this context, ANL has conducted many fatigue experiments under different test and environment conditions on type 316 stainless steel (316 SS) material which is widely used in the US reactors. Contrary to the conventional S ∼ N curve based empirical fatigue life estimation approach, the aim of the present DOE sponsored work is to develop an understanding of the material ageing issues more mechanistically (e.g. time dependent hardening and softening) under different test and environmental conditions. Better mechanistic understanding will help develop computer-based advanced modeling tools to better extrapolate stress-strain evolution of reactor components under multi-axial stress states and hence help predict their fatigue life more accurately. Mechanics-based modeling of fatigue such as by using finite element (FE) tools requires the time/cycle dependent material hardening properties. Presently such time-dependent material hardening properties are hardly available in fatigue modeling literature even under in-air conditions. Getting those material properties under PWR environment, are even harder. Through this work we made preliminary attempt to generate time/cycle dependent stress-strain data both under in-air and PWR water conditions for further study such as for possible development of material models and constitutive relations for FE model implementation. Although, there are open-ended possibility to further improve the discussed test methods and related material estimation techniques we anticipate that the data presented in this paper will help the metal fatigue research community particularly, the researchers who are dealing with mechanistic modeling of metal fatigue such as using FE tools. In this paper the fatigue

  11. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  12. Energy efficiency and the environment: Innovative ways to improve air quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritschard, R.

    1993-02-01

    This paper focuses on novel, innovative approaches for reducing or delaying the production of photochemical smog in the Los Angeles Basin. These approaches include modifying the surface characteristics of the basin by increasing surface albedo and an extensive tree-planting program. The changes in surface conditions are designed to reduce the basin air temperatures, especially during the summer months, which will result in two possible effects. First, a decrease in temperature would lead to a reduction in energy use with an associated decline in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and a lowering of evaporative emission of reactive organic gases. Reductions in these smog precursors could improve the air quality of the basin without imposing additional emissions regulations. The second effect is associated with the possible causal relationship between air temperature and smog formation (i.e., lower temperatures and lower incidence of smog). Since this approach to mitigating air emissions is broad, the studies to date have concentrated on how changes in surface characteristics affect the meteorological conditions of the basin and on how these meteorological changes subsequently affect smog production. A geographic information system database of key surface characteristics (i.e., vegetative cover, albedo, moisture availability, and roughness) was compiled, and these characteristics were evaluated using prognostic meteorological models. The results of two- and three-dimensional meteorological simulations will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  13. Performance Evaluation of the United Nations Environment Programme Air Quality Monitoring Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    A request for technical collaboration between the UNEP and the US EPA resulted in the establishment of a MCRADA. The purpose of this agreement was to evaluate an air quality monitoring system (referred to as the UNEP pod) developed by the UNEP for use in environmental situations ...

  14. Modelling of human exposure to air pollution in the urban environment: a GPS-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniela; Tchepel, Oxana

    2014-03-01

    The main objective of this work was the development of a new modelling tool for quantification of human exposure to traffic-related air pollution within distinct microenvironments by using a novel approach for trajectory analysis of the individuals. For this purpose, mobile phones with Global Positioning System technology have been used to collect daily trajectories of the individuals with higher temporal resolution and a trajectory data mining, and geo-spatial analysis algorithm was developed and implemented within a Geographical Information System to obtain time-activity patterns. These data were combined with air pollutant concentrations estimated for several microenvironments. In addition to outdoor, pollutant concentrations in distinct indoor microenvironments are characterised using a probabilistic approach. An example of the application for PM2.5 is presented and discussed. The results obtained for daily average individual exposure correspond to a mean value of 10.6 and 6.0-16.4 μg m(-3) in terms of 5th-95th percentiles. Analysis of the results shows that the use of point air quality measurements for exposure assessment will not explain the intra- and inter-variability of individuals' exposure levels. The methodology developed and implemented in this work provides time-sequence of the exposure events thus making possible association of the exposure with the individual activities and delivers main statistics on individual's air pollution exposure with high spatio-temporal resolution.

  15. Human requirements in future air-conditioned environments: a search for excellence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Although air-conditioning has played a positive role for economic development in warm climates, its image is globally mixed. Field studies demonstrate that there are substantial numbers of dissatisfied people in many buildings, among them those suffering from SBS symptoms, even though existing...

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Air Flowfield at Urban Environment: the Case of Road Network at the Historical Centre of Kifissia's Municipality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, K.; Belias, C.

    2008-09-01

    The present paper refers to the numerical analysis of air flowfield at urban environments and the conducting thermal comfort after the evaluation of the examined space using CFD methods, taking into account bioclimatic principles at the architectural design. More specially, the paper draws attention to the physical procedures governing air movement at an urban environment (a road network) at Kifissia (a Municipality of north Athens), trying to form them in such way that will lead to the thermal comfort of the area's users. The study presents a mathematical model, implemented in a general computer code that can provide detailed information on velocity, prevailing in three-dimensional spaces of any geometrical complexity. Turbulent flow is simulated and buoyancy effects are taken into account. This simulation procedure is intended to contribute to the effort towards designing urban environments, using thermal comfort criteria at the bioclimatic design. A computer model of this kind will provide the architects or the environmental engineers with powerful and economical means of evaluating alternative spaces' designs.

  17. Provision of an air traffic control services in an airport environment : design and development of a Java application through the Hibernate persistence framework

    OpenAIRE

    Galduf Tel, Enrique

    2011-01-01

    Galduf Tel, E. (2010). Provision of an air traffic control services in an airport environment : design and development of a Java application through the Hibernate persistence framework. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/10161. Archivo delegado

  18. Compressive Creep Behavior of NEXTEL(TradeMark) 720/Alumina Ceramic Matrix Composite at 1200 Degrees C in Air and in Steam Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Szymczak, Neil R

    2006-01-01

    ...) 720/Alumina ceramic matrix composite at 1200 deg. C in air and 100% steam environments. The effects of creep loading history on the tensile and compressive material behavior will also be examined...

  19. [Risk for environment-induced diseases due to air pollution from motor vehicles in road-patrol officers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaĭlichenko, K Iu; Kas'ianenko, A A; Shchelkunova, I G; Grechko, A V

    2010-01-01

    The paper describes risk factors for environment-induced diseases in road-patrol (RP) officers under the existing working conditions: noise and chemical ambient air pollution from motor vehicles. There is evidence for a significant increase in the incidence of diseases of the cardiovascular and nervous system, sense organs, digestive and endocrine metabolic systems in the State Road Safety Inspectorate officers who are directly engaged in traffic management. Potential and real risks from motor transport to the health of RP roads have been estimated. Recommendations on optimizing the working conditions are given.

  20. Thermal cyclic oxidation behavior of the developed compositionally gradient graphite material of SiC/C in air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Junichi; Fujii, Kimio; Shindo, Masami

    1993-08-01

    For the developed compositionally gradient graphite material composed of surface SiC coating layer, middle SiC/C layer and graphite matrix, the thermal cyclic oxidation test was performed together with two kinds of the SiC coated graphite materials in air environment. It was made clear that the developed material exhibited high performance under severe thermal cyclic condition independent of the morphology of middle SiC/C layers and had the longer time or the more cycle margins from crack initiation to failure for surface SiC coating layer compared with the SiC coated graphite materials. (author)

  1. Quantum Fingerprint-Based Air Quality Monitoring in Coastal Environments, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Coastal environments vital to our nation are strongly impacted by natural and human factors and are also sensitive to global climate change. A need exists for...

  2. [Research of the air environment in cafes and restaurants, where a nargile is smoked].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levshin, V F; Ladan, B V; Slepchenko, N I

    2016-01-01

    By means of special devices there was performed research of air in premises of 17 cafes and restaurants where nargile is smoking. In the premises during the day and more there was evaluated a concentration of the following markers of tobacco smoke: carbon monoxide (CO), nicotine, tobacco smoke particles PM2,5 andpolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In the air of the examined enterprises the concentration of the major markers of tobacco smoke was established to exceed by several times acceptable and safe levels. At that in cafes and restaurants where nargile smoking the higher concentration of CO and PAHs was on average significantly more frequently than in a cafes with a rare nargile smoking. The data obtained can be used to refute the opinion on the safety of nargile smoking and tobacco smoke from the nargiles. All modern legislative and administrative measures to restrict and ban tobacco smoking should be extend to smoking nargile.

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Major Phytochemicals in Orthodox tea (Camellia sinensis), Oxidized under Compressed Air Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Brajesh Kumar; Datta, Ashis Kumar

    2016-04-01

    This study describes major changes in phytochemical composition of orthodox tea (Camellia sinensis var. Assamica) oxidized under compressed air (CA). The experiments for oxidation were conducted under air pressure (101, 202, and 303 kPa) for 150 min. Relative change in the concentrations of caffeine, catechins, theaflavins (TF), and thearubigins (TR) were analyzed. Effect of CA pressure was found to be nonsignificant in regulating caffeine concentration during oxidation. But degradation in different catechins as well as formation of different TF was significantly affected by CA pressure. At high CA pressure, TF showed highest peak value. TR was found to have slower rate of formation during initial phase of oxidation than TF. Even though the rate of TR formation was significantly influenced by CA, a portion of catechins remained unoxidized at end of oxidation. Except caffeine, the percent change in rate of formation or degradation were more prominent at 202 kPa. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Air Motion and Thermal Environment in Pig Housing Facilities with Diffuse Inlet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Lis

    A ventilation system with ambient air supply through diffuse ceiling used in pig production facilities is presented. The climatic conditions were examined both experimentally and numerically in an full scale experimental room and the inlet boundary conditions of the diffuse inlet were examined...... in ambient temperature and air exchange rate. The effect of housing equipment on environmental conditions has been examined both experimental and numerically and it was found that impervious housing equipment has a significant effect on the climatic conditions close to the wall in the occupational zone...... in a wind tunnel model. In the full scale experiments the focus has been on the correlation between variations in ambient climatic conditions and changes in environmental condition in the occupational zone. It was found that the environmental conditions in the occupational zone were independent on changes...

  5. Influence of air and vacuum environment on fatigue behavior of Zr-based bulk metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.Y.; Liaw, P.K.; Yokoyama, Y.; Peter, W.H.; Yang, B.; Freels, M.; Buchanan, R.A.; Liu, C.T.; Brooks, C.R.

    2007-01-01

    High-cycle fatigue (HCF) experiments in air and vacuum at room temperature were conducted on zirconium (Zr)-based bulk-metallic glasses (BMGs): Zr 50 Cu 40 Al 10 , Zr 50 Cu 30 Al 10 Ni 10 , and Zr 50 Cu 37 Al 10 Pd 3 in atomic percent. The fatigue-endurance limit of Zr 50 Cu 37 Al 10 Pd 3 was found to be significantly greater than those of Zr 50 Cu 40 Al 10 and Zr 50 Cu 30 Al 10 Ni 10 , which indicates that the inclusions of Pd and the resulting nano structures improve the fatigue resistances of the Zr-based BMGs. The fatigue lives in vacuum and air were generally found to be comparable

  6. Basing Strategies for Air Refueling Forces in Anti-access/Area-Denial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    likely, increase manpower allocations to provide specialist technician coverage at all locations. Connecting subunits by air or surface lift could re...at disaggregated bases also may be overwhelmed by local challenges ranging from base security breaches and supply shortages to the presence of...supported units offers some opportunity to protect tanker forces. But the requirement to establish supply warehouses , access agreements, and the like

  7. Measurement of air exchange rates in different indoor environments using continuous CO2 sensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan YOU; Can Niu; Jian Zhou; Yating Liu; Zhipeng Bai; Jiefeng Zhang; Fei He; Nan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    A new air exchange rate (AER) monitoring method using continuous CO2 sensors was developed and validated through both laboratory experiments and field studies.Controlled laboratory simulation tests were conducted in a 1-m3 environmental chamber at different AERs (0.1-10.0 hr-1).AERs were determined using the decay method based on box model assumptions.Field tests were conducted in classrooms,dormitories,meeting rooms and apartments during 2-5 weekdays using CO2 sensors coupled with data loggers.Indoor temperature,relative humidity (RH),and CO2 concentrations were continuously monitored while outdoor parameters combined with on-site climate conditions were recorded.Statistical results indicated that good laboratory performance was achieved:duplicate precision was within 10%,and the measured AERs were 90%-120% of the real AERs.Average AERs were 1.22,1.37,1.10,1.91 and 0.73 hr-1 in dormitories,air-conditioned classrooms,classrooms with an air circulation cooling system,reading rooms,and meeting rooms,respectively.In an elderly particulate matter exposure study,all the homes had AER values ranging from 0.29 to 3.46 hr-1 in fall,and 0.12 to 1.39 hr-1 in winter with a median AER of 1.15.

  8. Measurement of air exchange rates in different indoor environments using continuous CO2 sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yan; Niu, Can; Zhou, Jian; Liu, Yating; Bai, Zhipeng; Zhang, Jiefeng; He, Fei; Zhang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    A new air exchange rate (AER) monitoring method using continuous CO2 sensors was developed and validated through both laboratory experiments and field studies. Controlled laboratory simulation tests were conducted in a 1-m3 environmental chamber at different AERs (0.1-10.0 hr(-1)). AERs were determined using the decay method based on box model assumptions. Field tests were conducted in classrooms, dormitories, meeting rooms and apartments during 2-5 weekdays using CO2 sensors coupled with data loggers. Indoor temperature, relative humidity (RH), and CO2 concentrations were continuously monitored while outdoor parameters combined with on-site climate conditions were recorded. Statistical results indicated that good laboratory performance was achieved: duplicate precision was within 10%, and the measured AERs were 90%-120% of the real AERs. Average AERs were 1.22, 1.37, 1.10, 1.91 and 0.73 hr(-1) in dormitories, air-conditioned classrooms, classrooms with an air circulation cooling system, reading rooms, and meeting rooms, respectively. In an elderly particulate matter exposure study, all the homes had AER values ranging from 0.29 to 3.46 hr(-1) in fall, and 0.12 to 1.39 hr(-1) in winter with a median AER of 1.15.

  9. Long-term aging of Ag/a-C:H:O nanocomposite coatings in air and in aqueous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drábik, Martin; Pešička, Josef; Biederman, Hynek; Hegemann, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Nanocomposite coatings of silver particles embedded in a plasma polymer matrix possess interesting properties depending on their microstructure. The film microstructure is affected among others also by the RF power supplied during the deposition, as shown by transmission electron microscopy. The optical properties are characterized by UV-vis-NIR spectroscopy. An anomalous optical absorption peak from the Ag nanoparticles is observed and related to the microstructure of the nanocomposite films. Furthermore, a long-term aging of the coatings is studied in-depth in ambient air and in aqueous environments. It is shown that the studied films are not entirely stable. The deposition conditions and the microstructure of the films affect the processes taking place during their aging in both environments.

  10. Gene expression and protein secretion of apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100 in transition dairy cows under hot or thermoneutral environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Nardone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of hot season on gene expression and protein secretion of ApoB100 in transition dairy cows. Hot season strongly down-regulated ApoB100 gene and protein expression. This condition and the higher circulating NEFA were responsible for the higher lipid accumulation in liver of heat-stressed transition cows.

  11. Assessment of axillary temperature for the evaluation of normal body temperature of healthy young adults at rest in a thermoneutral environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marui, Shuri; Misawa, Ayaka; Tanaka, Yuki; Nagashima, Kei

    2017-02-22

    The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate whether recently introduced methods of measuring axillary temperature are reliable, (2) examine if individuals know their baseline body temperature based on an actual measurement, and (3) assess the factors affecting axillary temperature and reevaluate the meaning of the axillary temperature. Subjects were healthy young men and women (n = 76 and n = 65, respectively). Three measurements were obtained: (1) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a predictive mode requiring 10 s (T ax-10 s ), (2) axillary temperature using a digital thermometer in a standard mode requiring 10 min (T ax-10 min ), and (3) tympanic membrane temperature continuously measured by infrared thermometry (T ty ). The subjects answered questions about eating and exercise habits, sleep and menstrual cycles, and thermoregulation and reported what they believed their regular body temperature to be (T reg ). T reg , T ax-10 s , T ax-10 min , and T ty were 36.2 ± 0.4, 36.4 ± 0.5, 36.5 ± 0.4, and 36.8 ± 0.3 °C (mean ± SD), respectively. There were correlations between T ty and T ax-10 min , T ty and T ax-10 s , and T ax-10 min and T ax-10 s (r = .62, r = .46, and r = .59, respectively, P body mass indices and irregular menstrual cycles. Modern devices for measuring axillary temperature may have changed the range of body temperature that is recognized as normal. Core body temperature variations estimated by tympanic measurements were smaller than those estimated by axillary measurements. This variation of axillary temperature may be due to changes in the measurement methods introduced by modern devices and techniques. However, axillary temperature values correlated well with those of tympanic measurements, suggesting that the technique may reliably report an individual's state of health. It is important for individuals to know their baseline axillary temperature to evaluate subsequent temperature measurements as normal or abnormal. Moreover, axillary temperature variations may, in part, reflect fat mass and changes due to the menstrual cycle.

  12. The Shared Pathoetiological Effects of Particulate Air Pollution and the Social Environment on Fetal-Placental Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to particulate air pollution and socioeconomic risk factors are shown to be independently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes; however, their confounding relationship is an epidemiological challenge that requires understanding of their shared etiologic pathways affecting fetal-placental development. The purpose of this paper is to explore the etiological mechanisms associated with exposure to particulate air pollution in contributing to adverse pregnancy outcomes and how these mechanisms intersect with those related to socioeconomic status. Here we review the role of oxidative stress, inflammation and endocrine modification in the pathoetiology of deficient deep placentation and detail how the physical and social environments can act alone and collectively to mediate the established pathology linked to a spectrum of adverse pregnancy outcomes. We review the experimental and epidemiological literature showing that diet/nutrition, smoking, and psychosocial stress share similar pathways with that of particulate air pollution exposure to potentially exasperate the negative effects of either insult alone. Therefore, socially patterned risk factors often treated as nuisance parameters should be explored as potential effect modifiers that may operate at multiple levels of social geography. The degree to which deleterious exposures can be ameliorated or exacerbated via community-level social and environmental characteristics needs further exploration. PMID:25574176

  13. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of preschool environments (3–5 years old children)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Marta; Slezakova, Klara; Delerue-Matos, Cristina; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Morais, Simone

    2016-01-01

    This work characterizes levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in indoor and outdoor air of preschool environments, and assesses the respective risks for 3–5-years old children. Eighteen gaseous and particulate (PM_1 and PM_2_._5) PAHs were collected indoors and outdoors during 63 days at preschools in Portugal. Gaseous PAHs accounted for 94–98% of total concentration (Σ_P_A_H_s). PAHs with 5–6 rings were predominantly found in PM_1 (54–74% particulate Σ_P_A_H_s). Lighter PAHs originated mainly from indoor sources whereas congeners with 4–6 rings resulted mostly from outdoor emissions penetration (motor vehicle, fuel burning). Total cancer risks of children were negligible according to USEPA, but exceeded (8–13 times) WHO health-based guideline. Carcinogenic risks due to indoor exposure were higher than for outdoors (4–18 times). - Highlights: • Lighter PAHs originate from indoor sources, 4–6 rings PAHs result from outdoors. • Gaseous PAHs account for the majority of PAH content in indoor air of preschools. • Lifetime lung cancer risk values exceed WHO health-based guideline level of 10"−"5. • Carcinogenic risks due to preschool indoor exposure are higher than for outdoors. - This work fills gap providing information on levels, phase distribution (gas, PM_1, PM_2_._5) and risks of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of preschool settings.

  14. Tensile properties of aluminized V-5Cr-5Ti alloy after exposure in air environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K.; Soppet, W.K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The objectives of this task are to (a) develop procedures to modify surface regions of V-Cr-Ti alloys in order to minimize oxygen uptake by the alloys when exposed to environments that contain oxygen, (b) evaluate the oxygen uptake of the surface-modified V-Cr-Ti alloys as a function of temperature an oxygen partial pressure in the exposure environment, (c) characterize the microstructures of oxide scales and oxygen trapped at the grain boundaries of the substrate alloys, and (d) evaluate the influence of oxygen uptake on the tensile properties of the modified alloys at room and elevated temperatures.

  15. Evaluation of different numerical methodologies for dispersion of air pollutants in an urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mumovic, D.; Crowther, J.M.; Stevanovic, Z.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled but meanwhile the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In that same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. Apart from large point-sources of local air pollution, traffic induced pollution is now the most significant contributor to urban air quality in city centres, particularly for carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and fine particulate matter. Until recently, pollutant dispersion in urban areas has usually been numerically investigated by using empirical models, such as the Gaussian plume model, or by extensions of this technique to line sources and multiple sources. More recently, advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been attempted but have been mainly two-dimensional and often encompassing only a single street canyon. This paper provides a comprehensive, critical evaluation of dispersion of pollutants in urban areas. A three-dimensional flow model has been set-up for a staggered crossroad, using the Navier-Stokes equations and the conservation equation for species concentration. The effect of using several different turbulence models, including the k-ε model, modifications and extensions, has been investigated. Cartesian coordinates have been used in connection with the Partial Solution Algorithm (PARSOL) and Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC). The effects of several different numerical algorithms for discretization of differential equations have also been studied. More than thirty cases are analysed, and the main results are compared with wind tunnel experiments. The numerical results are presented as non-dimensional values to facilitate comparison between experimental and numerical studies. It has been shown that the numerical studies have been able to simulate the air-flow in urban areas and confirm, qualitatively, the previous field observations and wind tunnel results. This success encouraged the authors to extend such

  16. Evaluation of different numerical methodologies for dispersion of air pollutants in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumovic, D.; Crowther, J.M. [Glasgow Caledonian Univ., School of Built and Natural Environment, Glasgow (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: dmumov10@caledonian.ac.uk; Stevanovic, Z. [Univ. of Belgrade, Inst. of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2003-07-01

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled but meanwhile the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In that same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. Apart from large point-sources of local air pollution, traffic induced pollution is now the most significant contributor to urban air quality in city centres, particularly for carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and fine particulate matter. Until recently, pollutant dispersion in urban areas has usually been numerically investigated by using empirical models, such as the Gaussian plume model, or by extensions of this technique to line sources and multiple sources. More recently, advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations have been attempted but have been mainly two-dimensional and often encompassing only a single street canyon. This paper provides a comprehensive, critical evaluation of dispersion of pollutants in urban areas. A three-dimensional flow model has been set-up for a staggered crossroad, using the Navier-Stokes equations and the conservation equation for species concentration. The effect of using several different turbulence models, including the k-{epsilon} model, modifications and extensions, has been investigated. Cartesian coordinates have been used in connection with the Partial Solution Algorithm (PARSOL) and Body Fitted Coordinates (BFC). The effects of several different numerical algorithms for discretization of differential equations have also been studied. More than thirty cases are analysed, and the main results are compared with wind tunnel experiments. The numerical results are presented as non-dimensional values to facilitate comparison between experimental and numerical studies. It has been shown that the numerical studies have been able to simulate the air-flow in urban areas and confirm, qualitatively, the previous field observations and wind tunnel results. This success encouraged the authors to extend

  17. Project AIR FORCE Modeling Capabilities for Support of Combat Operations in Denied Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    within the Air Force and OSD.7 First, we thank Generals Herbert Carlisle, PACAF/CC, and Janet Wolfenbarger, AFMC/CC, for sponsoring this work. Gen...A5X, Brig Gen (s) John Cherrey, AF/A5XS, Col Jordan Thomas, AFA5XS, Lt Col Nathan Mead , AF/A5XS, Col Rich Gannon, AF/A9F, Ray Miller, AF/A9FC...linear programming (LP), which was developed in the 1940s by George Danzig to solve problems relevant to military logistics. Setting up MIP is

  18. Properties of aerosol floating in the air in a nuclear power plant workplace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, H.; Funabashi, M.; Ito, M.

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was carried out on properties of radioactive aerosol floating in the air at several workplaces in nuclear power plant. The principal results are as follows: the aerosol particle size distributions consisted of two particle groups, whose aerodynamic diameters ranged from 4 to 7 microns and from 0.4 to 0.6 microns; the radioactive aerosol particle size distribution were unimodal. The mean activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) was 6 microns, with geometric standard deviation microns; and, the average density of the aerosol was about 2.2g/cm 3 . (author)

  19. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of Zirconium Alloy with Nano structured Oxide Layer in Air Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. J.; Kim, J. W.; Park, J. W.; Cho, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    If the temperature of the cladding materials increases above 1000 .deg. C, which can be caused by a loss of coolant accident (LOCA), Zr becomes an auto-oxidation catalyst and hence produces a huge amount of hydrogen gas from water. Therefore, many investigations are being carried out to prevent (or reduce) the hydrogen production from Zr-based cladding materials in the nuclear reactors. Our team has developed an anodization technique by which nanostructured oxide can be formed on various flat metallic elements such as Al, Ti, and Zr-based alloy. Anodization is a simple electrochemical technique and requires only a power supply and an electrolyte. In this study, Zr-based alloys with nanostructured oxide layers were oxidized by using Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and compared with the pristine one. It reveals that the nanostructured oxide layer can prevent oxidation of substrate metal in air. Oxidation behavior of the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy and the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer evaluated by measuring weight gain (TGA). In comparison with the pristine Zr-Nb-Sn alloy, weight gain of the Zr-Nb-Sn alloy with nanostructured oxide layer is lower than 10% even for 12 hours oxidation in air.

  20. Acidification of air and precipitation and its consequences on the natural environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oden, S

    1968-01-01

    Changes in the chemistry of the atmosphere were discussed using 15 years of data collected by a European sampling network, beginning in 1952. Sulfur content of air and precipitation were closely related to air pollution from cities and industry, as a result of increasing use of sulfurous fuels. A special study of the acidity of 600 lakes in western Scandinavia showed that between 1959 and 1967 pH values declined an average of 0.4 units. Acid precipitation will eventually acidify rivers. The change in pH will depend on the buffering capacity of the catchment area and other factors. Negative trends have already been noted. Acificiation threatens aquatic organisms as most cannot exist in water below pH 4.0. Certain valuable fish such as salmon are threatened at pH 5.5 and catches have begun to decline. Soils may also be affected if the supply of neutralizing substances declines. Decreased crop production and reduced forest growth rate may result. The balance of nature is disturbed by the present atmospheric pollution of sulfuric and other acids. (MDF)

  1. The air quality and regional climate effects of widespread solar power generation under a changing regulatory environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millstein, D.; Zhai, P.; Menon, S.

    2011-12-01

    used to investigate the effects of the various solar generation scenarios given emissions projections that account for changing regulatory environment, economic and population growth, and technological change. The results will help to quantify the potential air quality benefits of promotion of solar electricity generation in regions containing high penetration of coal-fired power generation. Note current national solar incentives that are based only on solar generation capacity. Further investigation of changes to regional climate due to emission reductions of aerosols and relevant precursors will provide insight into the environmental effects that may occur if solar power generation becomes widespread.

  2. Scientific production on indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice: Bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Alexandro; Dominski, Fábio Hech; Coimbra, Danilo Reis

    2017-07-01

    In order to minimize adverse health effects and increase the benefits of physical activity, it is important to systematize indoor air quality study in environments used for physical exercise and sports. To investigate and analyze the scientific production related to indoor air quality of environments used for physical exercise and sports practice through a bibliometric analysis. The databases Scielo, Science Direct, Scopus, Lilacs, Medline via Pubmed, and SportDiscus were searched from their inception to March 2016. Bibliometric analysis was performed for authors, institutions, countries, and collaborative networks, in relation to publication year, theme, citation network, funding agency, and analysis of titles and keywords of publications. Country, area, and impact factor of the journals were analyzed. Of 1281 studies screened, 34 satisfied the inclusion criteria. The first publication occurred in 1975. An increase in publications was observed in the last 15 years. Most of the studies were performed by researchers in the USA, followed by Portugal and Italy. Seventeen different scientific journals have published studies on the subject, and most are in the area of Environmental Sciences. It was noted that the categories of author keywords associated with "Pollutants," "Sport Environment," and "Physical Exercise" were the most commonly used in most studies. A total of 68% of the studies had at least one funding agency, and 81% of studies published in the last decade had funding. Our results demonstrate that there is recent exponential growth, driven in the last decade by researchers in environmental science from European institutions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Escherichia coli in settled-dust and air samples collected in residential environments in Mexico City.

    OpenAIRE

    Rosas, I; Salinas, E; Yela, A; Calva, E; Eslava, C; Cravioto, A

    1997-01-01

    Escherichia coli, an important indicator of the presence of fecal material, was isolated from indoor and outdoor environments in Mexico City. The heterogeneity of E. coli was represented by 89 serotypes, most of them coming from settled-dust indoor samples; 21% of them presented antibiotic multiresistance. The numbers of plasmids were higher among the antibiotic-resistant strains. The results of this study suggest that intestinal infections produced by environmental strains could be of more e...

  4. Airpower and the Environment: The Ecological Implications of Modern Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    competency.54 Knowledge of the foundational concepts and domains of culture and enhancing behaviors such as cultural relativism will promote and sustain...ned as “the ability to adapt eec- tively in cross- cultural environments.” Sands, “ Cultural Relativism ,” 13. e DOD has identied 3C as a necessary... Relativism and the Convergence of Ethnography and 3C [cross- cultural competence].” Military Intelligence Professional Bulletin, PB-34-12-1 (January/March

  5. Healthy environment--indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoi, Ricardo H M; Godoi, Ana F L; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J; Paralovo, Sarah L; Borillo, Guilherme C; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G; Charello, Renata C; Rosário Filho, Nelson A; Grassi, Marco T; Yamamoto, Carlos I; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G; De Wael, Karolien; van Grieken, Rene

    2013-10-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009-2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO2; SO2; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC-MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at extrathoracic

  6. Interaction of Cr-Ti-Si coating on VN-3 niobium alloy with air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, Eh.M.; Kozlov, A.T.; Monakhova, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Investigation of heat-resistance, microstructure and phase composition of Cr-Ti-Si coating on VN-3 niobium alloy with air oxidation in the temperature interval of 1200-1600 deg C is conducted. Thermogravimetry, metallography, X-ray diffraction and microprobe analysis methods are used. It is ascertained that the coating is a dense niobium disilicide layer, luriched on the surface with chromium and titanium disilicides and separated and from the protected alloy by a narrow zone of the lowest niobium silicide Nb 5 Si 3 . The coating protective junctions are provided by a selective chromium and titanium disilicides oxidation as well as niobium disilicide oxidation at the temperature of 1600 deg C, and by the rates of niobium and silicon diffusion through Nb 5 SI 3 and NbSi 2 and oxygen diffusion through the amorphous SiO 2

  7. Dosimetry of Rn-222 in the air in environments located above and below ground level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazula, Camila Dias

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of the general population to ionizing radiation comes mainly from natural sources. The main contribution is due to inhalation of radon (Rn-222), a gas that occurs naturally (UNSCEAR, 2000). The Rn-222 concentration in the environment is controlled by factors such as soil permeability and water content, the weather variability, materials used in the foundation and the usual positive pressure differential between the soil and the internal environment. Studies indicate that the concentration of radon shows a wide variation in the basement, ground floor and upper floors of buildings. The objective of this study is to determine radon levels in basements, ground floor and floors above ground level, at a university in the city of Sao Paulo and in one residential building in the city of Peruibe. Rn-222 measurements were performed using the method with nuclear track of solid state detectors (CR-39). The studied environments present Rn-222 concentration well below the values recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, published in the 2009 document, of 300 Bq/m 3 for homes and 1000 Bq/m 3 for the workplace. In the residential building, the concentration of Ra-266, Th-232 and K-40 in the materials used in the building construction was also analyzed, by gamma spectrometry. The effective total dose for the resident due to external exposure was 0.8 mSv y -1 , lower than the annual dose limit for the general public of 1 mSv y -1 . (author)

  8. Tool for assessing health and equity impacts of interventions modifying air quality in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Yuri; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Brousselle, Astrid

    2015-12-01

    Urban outdoor air pollution (AP) is a major public health concern but the mechanisms by which interventions impact health and social inequities are rarely assessed. Health and equity impacts of policies and interventions are questioned, but managers and policy agents in various institutional contexts have very few practical tools to help them better orient interventions in sectors other than the health sector. Our objective was to create such a tool to facilitate the assessment of health impacts of urban outdoor AP interventions by non-public health experts. An iterative process of reviewing the academic literature, brainstorming, and consultation with experts was used to identify the chain of effects of urban outdoor AP and the major modifying factors. To test its applicability, the tool was applied to two interventions, the London Low Emission Zone and the Montréal BIXI public bicycle-sharing program. We identify the chain of effects, six categories of modifying factors: those controlling the source of emissions, the quantity of emissions, concentrations of emitted pollutants, their spatial distribution, personal exposure, and individual vulnerability. Modifiable and non-modifiable factors are also identified. Results are presented in the text but also graphically, as we wanted it to be a practical tool, from pollution sources to emission, exposure, and finally, health effects. The tool represents a practical first step to assessing AP-related interventions for health and equity impacts. Understanding how different factors affect health and equity through air pollution can provide insight to city policymakers pursuing Health in All Policies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Selective oxidation with nanoporous silica supported sensitizers: An environment friendly process using air and visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint-Cricq, Philippe; Pigot, Thierry; Blanc, Sylvie [Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physicochimie pour l' Environnement et les Materiaux, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Helioparc-2 Av. du President Angot, F-64053 Pau Cedex 09 (France); Lacombe, Sylvie, E-mail: sylvie.lacombe@univ-pau.fr [Institut des Sciences Analytiques et de Physicochimie pour l' Environnement et les Materiaux, Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, Helioparc-2 Av. du President Angot, F-64053 Pau Cedex 09 (France)

    2012-04-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photo-sensitizers were covalently grafted on silica matrices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Grafted powdered silica was characterized by diffuse reflectance and emission spectroscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selective solvent-free photo-oxygenation was carried out with air under visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Singlet generation and reactivity at the gas-solid interface was demonstrated. - Abstract: Transparent and porous silica xerogels containing various grafted photosensitizers (PSs) such as anthraquinone derivatives, Neutral Red, Acridine Yellow and a laboratory-made dicyano aromatics (DBTP) were prepared. In most cases, the xerogels were shown to be mainly microporous by porosimetry. The PSs were characterized in the powdered monoliths (form, aggregation, concentration) by electronic spectroscopy which also proved to be a useful tool for monitoring the material evolution after irradiation. These nanoporous xerogels were used as microreactors for gas/solid solvent-free photo-oxygenation of dimethylsulfide (DMS) using visible light and air as the sole reactant. All these PSs containing monoliths were efficient for gas-solid DMS oxidation, leading to sulfoxide and sulfone in varying ratios. As these polar oxidation products remained strongly adsorbed on the silica matrix, the gaseous flow at the outlet of the reactor was totally free of sulfide and odorless. The best results in term of yield and initial rate of degradation of DMS were obtained with DBTP containing xerogels. Moreover, as these materials were reusable without loss of efficiency and sensitizer photobleaching after a washing regeneration step, the concept of recyclable sensitizing materials was approved, opening the way to green process.

  10. Healthy environment — indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M.; Godoi, Ana F.L.; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J.; Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G.; Charello, Renata C.; Rosário Filho, Nelson A.; Grassi, Marco T.; Yamamoto, Carlos I.; Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja; Rotondo, Giuliana G.; De Wael, Karolien; Grieken, Rene van

    2013-01-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009–2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO 2 ; SO 2 ; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC–MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of particles at

  11. Healthy environment — indoor air quality of Brazilian elementary schools nearby petrochemical industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godoi, Ricardo H.M., E-mail: rhmgodoi@ufpr.br [Department of Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paran UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Godoi, Ana F.L.; Gonçalves Junior, Sérgio J.; Paralovo, Sarah L.; Borillo, Guilherme C.; Gonçalves Gregório Barbosa, Cybelli; Arantes, Manoela G.; Charello, Renata C. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Federal University of Paran UFPR, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rosário Filho, Nelson A. [Department of Pediatric, Div. of Allergy and Pneumol, Federal University of Paran Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Grassi, Marco T. [Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Yamamoto, Carlos I. [Department of Chemistry Engineering, Federal University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Potgieter-Vermaak, Sanja [Division of Chemistry and Environmental Science, School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom); Rotondo, Giuliana G.; De Wael, Karolien; Grieken, Rene van [Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2013-10-01

    The mitigation of pollution released to the environment originating from the industrial sector has been the aim of all policy-makers and its importance is evident if the adverse health effects on the world population are considered. Although this concern is controversial, petroleum refinery has been linked to some adverse health effects for people living nearby. Apart from home, school is the most important indoor environment for children and there is increasing concern about the school environment and its impact on health, also in developing countries where the prevalence of pollution is higher. As most of the children spend more than 40% of their time in schools, it is critical to evaluate the pollution level in such environment. In the metropolitan region of Curitiba, South Brazil, five schools nearby industries and highways with high density traffic, were selected to characterize the aerosol and gaseous compounds indoor and outdoor of the classrooms, during 2009–2011. Size segregated aerosol samples were collected for analyses of bulk and single particle elemental profiles. They were analyzed by electron probe X-ray micro-analysis (EPXMA), and by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), to investigate the elemental composition of individual particles and bulk samples. The concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX); NO{sub 2}; SO{sub 2}; acetic acid; and formic acid were assessed indoor and outdoor using passive diffusion tubes. BTEX were analyzed by GC–MS and other collected gasses by ion chromatography. Individual exposition of BTEX was assessed by personal passive diffusion tubes. Results are interpreted separately and as a whole with the specific aim of identifying compounds that could affect the health of the scholars. In view of the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, local deposition efficiencies in the children's respiratory systems were calculated, revealing the deposition of

  12. Effects of dietary selenium and vitamin E on immune response and biological blood parameters of broilers reared under thermoneutral or heat stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibian, Mahmood; Ghazi, Shahab; Moeini, Mohammad Mehdi; Abdolmohammadi, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted using 360 broiler chickens to evaluate the effects of dietary vitamin E (0, 125 and 250 mg/kg), selenium (Se, 0, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), or their different combinations on immune response and blood biological parameters of broilers raised under either thermoneutral (TN, 23.9 °C constant) or heat stress (HS, 23.9 to 37 °C cycling) conditions. Humoral immunity was assessed by intravenous injection of 7 % sheep red blood cell (SRBC) followed by evaluation of serum for antibody titers in primary and secondary responses. Heterophil to lymphocyte (H/L) ratio also determined as an indicator of stress. Furthermore, at the end of the experiment, birds were bled for determination of some biological parameters. There was a significant reduction in body weight and feed intake, but the feed conversion ratio increased when the birds were exposed to HS ( P vitamin E and Se ( P > 0.05), whereas feed conversion was improved significantly by 125 mg/kg vitamin E ( P vitamin E resulted in improvement of primary and secondary antibody responses both in TN and HS broilers ( P Vitamin E and Se had interactive effects on anti-SRBC titers; however, no consistent differences were found between dietary levels during the study. The H/L ratio decreased by feeding vitamin E at both levels either under HS or TN conditions ( P < 0.05). The serum concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were increased but serum HDL-cholesterol decreased in HS broilers ( P < 0.05).

  13. A Sustainable Industry-Environment Model for the Identification of Urban Environmental Risk to Confront Air Pollution in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Gao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an optimized industry-environment model is proposed for identifying environmental risk under uncertainties. The strategy associated with an emission-permit trading mechanism has been introduced into the industrial-environment regulation (model for remitting the pressures of frequent/severe haze events in Beijing City. A dual stochastic mixed fuzzy risk analysis method with Laplace’s criterion (DSFRL can be embedded into industry-environment issues with a trading emission-permit trading mechanism (IEST for handling uncertainties regarded as possibility and probability distributions. Meanwhile, this can also reflect the environmental risks and corresponding system benefits due to the occurrence of a random event (such as random wind velocity. Based on the application of the proposed IEST with DSFRL, the numbers of the obtained results associated with production reduction, adjustment of industrial layout pattern, emission-permit transactions, pollutant mitigation and system benefits under various Laplace criterion cases can be analyzed. A tradeoff between production development and pollution mitigation based on the preference of policymakers can be used for rectifying current strategies with a sustainable mode, which can prompt an effort to confront air pollution

  14. Induced Environment Contamination Monitor (IECM), air sampler - Results from the Space Transport System (STS-2) flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, P. N.; Hester, H. B.; Bertsch, W.; Mayfield, H.; Zatko, D.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation involving sampling the rapidly changing environment of the Shuttle cargo bay is considered. Four time-integrated samples and one rapid acquisition sample were collected to determine the types and quantities of contaminants present during ascent and descent of the Shuttle. The sampling times for the various bottles were controlled by valves operated by the Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS) of the IECM. Many of the observed species were found to be common solvents used in cleaning surfaces. When the actual volume sampled is taken into account, the relative mass of organics sampled during descent is about 20 percent less than during ascent.

  15. Gaseous and air decontamination technologies for Clostridium difficile in the healthcare environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A; Pottage, T; Bennett, A; Walker, J

    2011-03-01

    The recent data for hospital-acquired infections suggest that infection rates for meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Clostridium difficile are beginning to decrease. However, while there is still pressure to maintain this trend, the resistance of C. difficile spores to standard detergents continues to present a problem for many UK hospitals trying to prevent its spread or control outbreaks. Alternative disinfection technologies such as gaseous decontamination are currently being marketed to the healthcare sector as an alternative/supplement to manual disinfection, and have been shown to be effective in reducing environmental contamination. When used correctly, they offer a complementary technology to manual cleaning that increases the probability of an effective reduction in viability and provides a comparatively uniform distribution of disinfectant. Three gaseous decontamination technologies are examined for their suitability in reducing environmental contamination with C. difficile: gaseous hydrogen peroxide, chlorine dioxide and ozone. Air decontamination and UV-based technologies are also briefly described. We conclude that while there is a role to play for these new technologies in the decontamination of ward surfaces contaminated with C. difficile, the requirement for both a preclean before use and the limited 'in vivo' evidence means that extensive field trials are necessary to determine their cost-effectiveness in a healthcare setting. Copyright © 2010 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Combustion of Methanol Droplets in Air-Diluent Environments with Reduced and Normal Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Shaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reduced and normal gravity combustion experiments were performed with fiber-supported methanol droplets with initial diameters in the 1 mm size range. Experiments were performed with air-diluent mixtures at about 0.101 MPa and 298 K, where carbon dioxide, helium, or xenon was separately used as the diluent gas. Results indicate that ambient gas transport properties play an important role in determining flammability and combustion behaviors including burning rates and radiant heat output histories of the droplets. Droplets would burn with significantly higher mole fractions of xenon than helium or carbon dioxide. In reduced gravity, droplets would burn steadily with a xenon mole fraction of 0.50 but would not burn steadily if helium or carbon dioxide mole fractions were 0.50. Comparison with previous experimental data shows that ignitability and combustion characteristics of droplets are influenced by the fuel type and also the gravitational level. Burning rates were about 40% to 70% higher in normal gravity than in reduced gravity. Methanol droplets also had burning rates that were typically larger than 1-propanol burning rates by about 20% in reduced gravity. In normal gravity, however, burning rate differences between the two fuels were significantly smaller.

  17. Geochemical atlas of Radovish and the environs and the distribution of heavy metals in the air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stafilov, Trajche; Bacheva, Katerina; Boev, Blazho; Shajn, Robert; Balabanova, Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Mining activities, ore processing and processing of waste are potential emitters of heavy metals in air. As more important are mining activities on surface excavation of ore due to the large number of direct polluting factors that are difficult to control and manage. Special emphasis is given to the organization of the pit (road movement of dampers carrying ore waste), waste management (ore and flotation tailings) as well as the frequency of explosions for excavation of mining minerals. One of the major emission sources of some metals in the eastern part of the R. Macedonia is Buchim copper mine and flotation, near the town of Radovish. The mine and plant for the preparation of ore are in function from the late seventies of the last century. Ore excavation is from open pit and the ore tailings are stored in the open, in mine vicinity. The produced copper ore from the mine is processed in the flotation tailings are separated, disposed of and deposited on a dump site in an adjacent valley near the village Topolnica.

  18. Air Traffic Controller Performance and Acceptability of Multiple UAS in a Simulated NAS Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas; Chiappe, Dan; Morales, Greg; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Robert Jay

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we showed that air traffic controllers (ATCos) rated UAS pilot verbal response latencies as acceptable when a 1.5 s delay was added to the UAS pilot responses, but a 5 s delay was rated as mostly unacceptable. In the present study we determined whether a 1.5 s added delay in the UAS pilots' verbal communications would affect ATCos interactions with UAS and other conventional aircraft when the number and speed of the UAS were manipulated. Eight radar-certified ATCos participated in this simulation. The ATCos managed a medium altitude sector containing arrival aircraft, en route aircraft, and one to four UAS. The UAS were conducting a surveillance mission and flew at either a "slow" or "fast" speed. We measured both UAS and conventional pilots' verbal communication latencies, and obtained ATCos' acceptability ratings for these latencies. Although the UAS pilot response latencies were longer than those of conventional pilots, the ATCos rated UAS pilot verbal communication latencies to be as acceptable as those of conventional pilots. Because the overall traffic load within the sector was held constant, ATCos only performed slightly worse when multiple UAS were in their sector compared to when only one UAS was in the sector. Implications of these findings for UAS integration in the NAS are discussed.

  19. Electron densities and energies of a guided argon streamer in argon and air environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hübner, S; Hofmann, S; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Bruggeman, P J

    2013-01-01

    In this study we report the temporally and spatially resolved electron densities and mean energies of a guided argon streamer in ambient argon and air obtained by Thomson laser scattering. The plasma is driven by a positive monopolar 3.5 kV pulse, with a pulse width of 500 ns and a frequency of 5 kHz which is synchronized with the high repetition rate laser system. This configuration enables us to use the spatial and temporal stability of the guided streamer to accumulate a multitude of laser/plasma shots by a triple grating spectrometer equipped with an ICCD camera and to determine the electron parameters. We found a strong initial n e -overshoot with a maximum of 7 × 10 19  m −3 and a mean electron energy of 4.5 eV. This maximum is followed by a fast decay toward the streamer channel. Moreover, a 2D distribution of the electron density is obtained which exhibits a peculiar mushroom-like shape of the streamer head with a diameter significantly larger than that of the emission profile. A correlation of the width of the streamer head with the expected pre-ionization channel is found. (paper)

  20. Impact of Isotonic Beverage on the Hydration Status of Healthy Chinese Adults in Air-Conditioned Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phei Ching Siow

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available People living in tropical climates spend much of their time in confined air-conditioned spaces, performing normal daily activities. This study investigated the effect of distilled water (W or isotonic beverage (IB on the hydration status in subjects living under these conditions. In a randomized crossover design, forty-nine healthy male subjects either consumed beverage or IB over a period of 8 h (8 h in a controlled air-conditioned environment. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after 8 h. Hydration status was assessed by body mass, urine output, blood and plasma volume, fluid retention, osmolality, electrolyte concentration and salivary flow rate. In the IB group, urine output (1862 ± 86 mL vs. 2104 ± 98 mL was significantly lower and more fluids were retained (17% ± 3% vs. 7% ± 3% as compared to W (p < 0.05 after 8 h. IB also resulted in body mass gain (0.14 ± 0.06 kg, while W led to body mass loss (−0.04 ± 0.05 kg (p = 0.01. A significantly smaller drop in blood volume and lower free water clearance was observed in IB (−1.18% ± 0.43%; 0.55 ± 0.26 mL/min compared to W (−2.11% ± 0.41%; 1.35 ± 0.24 mL/min (p < 0.05. IB increased salivary flow rate (0.54 ± 0.05 g/min 0.62 ± 0.04 g/min. In indoor environments, performing routine activities and even without excessive sweating, isotonic beverages may be more effective at retaining fluids and maintaining hydration status by up to 10% compared to distilled water.

  1. Impact of air pollution in deterioration of carbonate building materials in Italian urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barca, Donatella; Comite, Valeria; Belfiore, Cristina M.; Bonazza, Alessandra; La Russa, Mauro F.; Ruffolo, Silvestro A.; Crisci, Gino M.; Pezzino, Antonino; Sabbioni, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Geochemical study of black crusts developed on three monuments located in Milan, Florence and Rome. • Trace element composition of the black crusts is greatly influenced by anthropogenic pollution. • Geochemical characterization of black crusts can be used as a reliable indicator of environmental pollution. - Abstract: This work presents results from a petrographic, morphological and chemical study of the black crusts developing on monuments in three Italian cities, the Cathedral of Milan, the Cathedral of St. Maria del Fiore in Florence, and the Vittoriano Monument in Rome. Black crusts (BCs) were studied with traditional techniques such as optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR), in combination with laser ablation inductively coupled mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which has shown itself to be particularly useful in determining concentrations of heavy metals in BCs. Although the BCs of the three monuments show general enrichment in heavy metals with respect to the substrate (S), interesting differences were observed among them. The BCs from Milan are the richest in heavy metals, particularly Pb and Zn, reflecting the severe air pollution of this very large city, which, in addition to its intense traffic, is located in the most highly industrialized area of Northern Italy. The BCs from the south-eastern side of the Cathedral of St. Maria del Fiore in Florence, facing a pedestrian area, show little enrichment in heavy metals, and those from the Vittoriano Monument in Rome, which is exposed to intense road traffic, display variable enrichment, attributable to mobile emission sources. Results show that the various enrichment trends in heavy metals observed in the BCs of these three monuments are due to many factors: various sources of anthropogenic pollution, sampling height, exposure, orientation, and the shape of the deposition

  2. Autonomous Landing and Ingress of Micro-Air-Vehicles in Urban Environments Based on Monocular Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockers, Roland; Bouffard, Patrick; Ma, Jeremy; Matthies, Larry; Tomlin, Claire

    2011-01-01

    Unmanned micro air vehicles (MAVs) will play an important role in future reconnaissance and search and rescue applications. In order to conduct persistent surveillance and to conserve energy, MAVs need the ability to land, and they need the ability to enter (ingress) buildings and other structures to conduct reconnaissance. To be safe and practical under a wide range of environmental conditions, landing and ingress maneuvers must be autonomous, using real-time, onboard sensor feedback. To address these key behaviors, we present a novel method for vision-based autonomous MAV landing and ingress using a single camera for two urban scenarios: landing on an elevated surface, representative of a rooftop, and ingress through a rectangular opening, representative of a door or window. Real-world scenarios will not include special navigation markers, so we rely on tracking arbitrary scene features; however, we do currently exploit planarity of the scene. Our vision system uses a planar homography decomposition to detect navigation targets and to produce approach waypoints as inputs to the vehicle control algorithm. Scene perception, planning, and control run onboard in real-time; at present we obtain aircraft position knowledge from an external motion capture system, but we expect to replace this in the near future with a fully self-contained, onboard, vision-aided state estimation algorithm. We demonstrate autonomous vision-based landing and ingress target detection with two different quadrotor MAV platforms. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of onboard, vision-based autonomous landing and ingress algorithms that do not use special purpose scene markers to identify the destination.

  3. The environment of nature reserves under anthropogenic load: air transport of pollution to the North of European Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradova, A. A.; Ivanova, Yu. A.; Veremeychik, A. O.

    2012-04-01

    Nature reserves are created to keep in their original states natural environment, flora and fauna of various ecological systems, territories, climatic zones, etc. Now natural objects everywhere exist under anthropogenic loading from man-made activities. It is impossible to avoid atmospheric or river transport of pollution to the environment of reserved territories. The main idea of the work is to analyze atmospheric transport of anthropogenic metals (Ni, Cu, Pb, Fe, Al), as well as of soot (black carbon - BC) from Russian large industrial areas (source-regions) to the territories of nature reserves at the North of European Russia - the Kostomukshsky reserve (KR) in Karelia (64.57°N, 30.67°E) and the Nenetzky reserve (NR) at the Pechora River mouth (68,5°N, 53,5°E). The basic data for these 2 points were back trajectories of air mass transport calculated for every day of January, April, July, and October during 10 years from 2001 to 2010. We used NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis Data Files with HYSPLIT 4 model and two approaches for analyzing the trajectories. The main source-regions were chosen for each reserve. The annual source emissions for the last decade are generalized from the data published by Roshydromet of Russia (http://www.nii-atmosphere.ru/files/PUBL/Eg_2008.doc). The deposition velocity was a sum of dry and wet components. The equal values of deposition velocities onto the surface were assumed for all impurities because they are mainly on submicron aerosol particles under atmospheric transport for a long distance. The seasonal and spatial variations of averaged deposition velocity were accounted in accordance with surface properties and precipitation regimes. As a result, the maximal air concentrations of aerosol pollutants are observed in cold seasons, whereas the maximal fluxes onto the surface occur in warm period. Thus, it's possible that the cleanest air does not indicate the same surface. Fe and Al are the crust (dust or soil) elements. Thus, their main

  4. PHOTOCITYTEX - A LIFE project on the air pollution treatment in European urban environments by means of photocatalytic textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Milagros; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borrás, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Carreño, Javier; López, Ramón; Gimeno, Cristina; Catota, Marlon; Muñoz, Amalia

    2016-04-01

    In urban areas, air pollution from traffic is becoming a growing problem. In recent years the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove these pollutants. TiO2 is now commercially available and used in construction material or paints for environmental purposes. Further work, however, is still required to clarify the potential impacts from wider TiO2 use. Specific test conditions are required to provide objective and accurate knowledge. Under the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project, the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in building textiles as a way of improving the air quality in urban areas will be assessed. Moreover, information on secondary products formed during the tests will be obtained, yielding a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. For this purpose, a series of demonstrations are foreseen, comprising 1. lab-test and development of textile prototypes at lab scale, 2. larger scale demonstration of the use of photocatalytic textiles in the depollution of urban environments employing the EUPHORE chambers to simulate a number of environmental conditions of various European cities and 3. field demonstrations installing the photocatalytic textiles in two urban locations in Quart de Poblet, a tunnel and a school. A one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaign has already being carried out to characterize the selected urban sites before the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, and a similar campaign after their installation is ongoing. Also, more comprehensive intensive active measurement campaigns have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. In parallel, lab-tests have already been completed to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, followed by experiments at EUPHORE. Information on the deployment of the campaigns is given together with laboratory conclusions and first

  5. MEASURING AIR AND TERRESTRIAL TRANSPORT COMPANY REPUTATION: TOURISM INTANGIBLES EXPRESSED IN THE DIGITAL ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia M.Q. Ramos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The reputation of companies within the transport industry is influenced by competitive dynamics within the sector: low-cost flights, the attractiveness of destinations, online user-generated content about users’ experiences, and more. At the same time, social media provides a means for companies to manage issues of tourism intangibles. Thus, it is relevant to analyse transport reputation in the digital environment, taking into consideration the resources for managing these intangibles. This paper presents a method for measuring transport reputation based on an analysis of tourism consumers’ digital opinions and passengers’ comments about their experiences with these firms. The use of social media, such as TripAdvisor and Facebook, conjugated with business intelligence tools and complemented by data mining techniques, can contribute to the development of metrics that consider intangibles like emotions and experiences, with the aim of measuring, analysing, and visualizing the complex relationships between these intangibles and transport companies’ reputations. The results present the impacts of these intangibles through clusters and positioning maps focusing on these issues. This investigation contributes to our knowledge about airlines and terrestrial transport companies that seek to differentiate their positioning in tourism markets through their reputations.

  6. Autocalibrating vision guided navigation of unmanned air vehicles via tactical monocular cameras in GPS denied environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Koray

    This thesis presents a novel robotic navigation strategy by using a conventional tactical monocular camera, proving the feasibility of using a monocular camera as the sole proximity sensing, object avoidance, mapping, and path-planning mechanism to fly and navigate small to medium scale unmanned rotary-wing aircraft in an autonomous manner. The range measurement strategy is scalable, self-calibrating, indoor-outdoor capable, and has been biologically inspired by the key adaptive mechanisms for depth perception and pattern recognition found in humans and intelligent animals (particularly bats), designed to assume operations in previously unknown, GPS-denied environments. It proposes novel electronics, aircraft, aircraft systems, systems, and procedures and algorithms that come together to form airborne systems which measure absolute ranges from a monocular camera via passive photometry, mimicking that of a human-pilot like judgement. The research is intended to bridge the gap between practical GPS coverage and precision localization and mapping problem in a small aircraft. In the context of this study, several robotic platforms, airborne and ground alike, have been developed, some of which have been integrated in real-life field trials, for experimental validation. Albeit the emphasis on miniature robotic aircraft this research has been tested and found compatible with tactical vests and helmets, and it can be used to augment the reliability of many other types of proximity sensors.

  7. The coastal environment affects lead and sodium uptake by the moss Hypnum cupressiforme used as an air pollution biomonitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudin, Marie; Leblond, Sébastien; Meyer, Caroline; Rose, Christophe; Lequy, Emeline

    2018-02-01

    Several studies suggest that potential competition exists between marine cations and heavy metals for binding sites on the cell wall of mosses. This competition would impact the heavy metal concentration measured in mosses by biomonitoring programs, which may underestimate air pollution by heavy metals in a coastal environment. In the present study, we aim to identify possible mechanisms affecting lead uptake by mosses in a coastal environment, specifically, the competition between lead (Pb 2+ ) and sodium (Na + ) for binding sites in Hypnum cupressiforme (Hc). We also compared the response of continental and coastal Hc populations to Pb 2+ exposure by immersing the moss samples in artificial solutions that comprised six experimental treatments and subsequently locating and quantifying Pb 2+ and Na + using the sequential elution technique and X-ray microanalyses with a scanning electron microscope. We demonstrated that high concentrations of Pb 2+ prevented Na + from binding to the cell wall. We also examined the effect of the salt acclimation of Hc on Pb 2+ and Na + accumulation. Coastal Hc populations accumulated more Na and less Pb than continental Hc populations in all treatments. Moreover, our results showed treatment effects on the intra/extracellular distribution of Na + , as well as site. This feedback on the influence of salt stress tolerance on Pb 2+ uptake by mosses requires further study and can be investigated for other heavy metals, leading to a better use of mosses as biomonitoring tools. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oligo-cyclic damage and behaviour of a 304 L austenitic stainless steel according to environment (vacuum, air, PWR primary water) at 300 C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Baglion, L.

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, for nuclear power plants licensing or operating life extensions, various safety authorities require the consideration of the primary water environment effect on the fatigue life of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) components. Thus, this work focused on the study of low cycle fatigue damage kinetics and mechanisms, of a type 304L austenitic stainless steel. Several parameters effects such as temperature, strain rate or strain amplitude were investigated in air as in PWR water. Thanks to targeted in-vacuum tests, the intrinsic influence of these parameters and environments on the fatigue behaviour of the material was studied. It appears that compared with vacuum, air is already an active environment which is responsible for a strong decrease in fatigue lifetime of this steel, especially at 300 C and low strain amplitude. The PWR water coolant environment is more active than air and leads to increased damage kinetics, without any modifications of the initiation sites or propagation modes. Moreover, the decreased fatigue life in PWR water is essentially attributed to an enhancement of both initiation and micropropagation of 'short cracks'. Finally, the deleterious influence of low strain rates on the 304L austenitic stainless steel fatigue lifetime was observed in PWR water environment, in air and also in vacuum without any environmental effects. This intrinsic strain rate effect is attributed to the occurrence of the Dynamic Strain Aging phenomenon which is responsible for a change in deformation modes and for an enhancement of cracks initiation. (author)

  9. Proof-of-Concept of a Networked Validation Environment for Distributed Air/Ground NextGen Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisham, James; Larson, Natalie; Nelson, Justin; Reed, Joshua; Suggs, Marvin; Underwood, Matthew; Papelis, Yiannis; Ballin, Mark G.

    2013-01-01

    The National Airspace System (NAS) must be improved to increase capacity, reduce flight delays, and minimize environmental impacts of air travel. NASA has been tasked with aiding the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) in NAS modernization. Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is an enabling technology that is fundamental to realization of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). Despite the 2020 FAA mandate requiring ADS-B Out equipage, airspace users are lacking incentives to equip with the requisite ADS-B avionics. A need exists to validate in flight tests advanced concepts of operation (ConOps) that rely on ADS-B and other data links without requiring costly equipage. A potential solution is presented in this paper. It is possible to emulate future data link capabilities using the existing in-flight Internet and reduced-cost test equipment. To establish proof-of-concept, a high-fidelity traffic operations simulation was modified to include a module that simulated Internet transmission of ADS-B messages. An advanced NASA ConOp, Flight Deck Interval Management (FIM), was used to evaluate technical feasibility. A preliminary assessment of the effects of latency and dropout rate on FIM was performed. Flight hardware that would be used by proposed test environment was connected to the simulation so that data transfer from aircraft systems to test equipment could be verified. The results indicate that the FIM ConOp, and therefore, many other advanced ConOps with equal or lesser response characteristics and data requirements, can be evaluated in flight using the proposed concept.

  10. Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntyre, A.D.; Turnbull, R.G.H.

    1992-01-01

    The development of the hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea has resulted in both offshore and onshore environmental repercussions, involving the existing physical attributes of the sea and seabed, the coastline and adjoining land. The social and economic repercussions of the industry were equally widespread. The dramatic and speedy impact of the exploration and exploitation of the northern North Sea resources in the early 1970s, on the physical resources of Scotland was quickly realised together with the concern that any environmental and social damage to the physical and social fabric should be kept to a minimum. To this end, a wide range of research and other activities by central and local government, and other interested agencies was undertaken to extend existing knowledge on the marine and terrestrial environments that might be affected by the oil and gas industry. The outcome of these activities is summarized in this paper. The topics covered include a survey of the marine ecosystems of the North Sea, the fishing industry, the impact of oil pollution on seabirds and fish stocks, the ecology of the Scottish coastline and the impact of the petroleum industry on a selection of particular sites. (author)

  11. Ophthalmic requirements and considerations for the en route air traffic control specialist : an ergonomic analysis of the visual work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The Federal Air Surgeon requested continued investigation of visual disorders and vision corrective devices as to their relevance to the medical certification of airmen and controllers. The en route Air Traffic Control Specialist (ATCS) works with a ...

  12. Cyclic variations of gonad development of an air-breathing fish, Channa striata in the lentic and lotic environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasim Al Mahmud

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was conducted to know the cyclic changes in gonadal maturation and to investigate the developmental stages of oocytes and testicular germ cells of an air-breathing fish, Channa striata. Fish were sampled monthly from lentic and lotic environments of three geographical locations of Bangladesh from December to November and the histological analysis of their gonad was done to evaluate the objectives. The highest mean GSI was 5.95 ± 0.20 for female in July and 0.14 ± 0.01 for male also in July showing that the gonadal development reached its peak during this month. The highest mean oocyte diameter was 1257.50 ± 24.17 μm observed in July implying that the oocyte reached maturity in this month. Histological study of ovary revealed the evidence of early yolk granule stage and late yolk granule stage from April to July. In case of male four stages of spermatogenesis were distinguished and spermatozoa were highly abundant in June and July. So the monthly pooled values of GSI and the analysis of gonadal histology indicated that the peak breeding season of C. striata occurred in July in the lentic and lotic environments. Samples collected from lentic and lotic habitats are suggestive of no difference in the development of the gonad. The results of the present study will be useful for selective breeding programme, conservation and sustainable fishery management of C. striata in its natural habitat.

  13. Evaluation of the vibration attenuation properties of an air-inflated cushion with two different heavy machinery seats in multi-axis vibration environments including jolts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaoxu; Eger, Tammy R; Dickey, James P

    2017-03-01

    Seats and cushions can attenuate whole-body vibration (WBV) exposures and minimize health risks for heavy machine operators. We successfully developed neural network (NN) algorithms to identify the vibration attenuation properties for four different seating conditions (seat/cushion combinations), and implemented each of the NN models to predict the equivalent daily exposure A(8) values for various vehicles in the forestry and mining environments. We also evaluated the performance of the new prototype No-Jolt™ air-inflated cushion and the original cushion of each seat with jolt exposures. We observed that the air cushion significantly improved the vibration attenuation properties of the seat that initially had good performance, but not for the seat that had relatively poor vibration attenuation properties. In addition, operator's anthropometrics and sex influenced the performance of the air-inflated cushion when the vibration environment included jolt exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Indoor air quality in low-energy houses in the Netherlands: Does mechanical ventilation provide a healthy indoor environment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balvers, J.R.; Boxem, G.; Wit, de M.H.; Strøm-Tejsen, P; Olesen, B.W.; Wargocki, P; Zukowska, D; Toftum, J

    2008-01-01

    Increasing environmental awareness has led to new, energy-efficient building standards such as the German Passivhaus-standard. This study was designed to investigate the indoor air quality (IAQ) of four different Dutch low-energy houses built according to this standard. Air flow, indoor air

  15. Numerical modeling on air quality in an urban environment with changes of the aspect ratio and wind direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F

    2013-06-01

    Due to heavy traffic emissions within an urban environment, air quality during the last decade becomes worse year by year and hazard to public health. In the present work, numerical modeling of flow and dispersion of gaseous emissions from vehicle exhaust in a street canyon were investigated under changes of the aspect ratio and wind direction. The three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model which was numerically solved using Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The diffusion flow field in the atmospheric boundary layer within the street canyon was studied for different aspect ratios (W/H=1/2, 3/4, and 1) and wind directions (θ=90°, 112.5°, 135°, and 157.5°). The numerical models were validated against wind tunnel results to optimize the turbulence model. The numerical results agreed well with the wind tunnel results. The simulation demonstrated that the minimum concentration at the human respiration height within the street canyon was on the windward side for aspect ratios W/H=1/2 and 1 and wind directions θ=112.5°, 135°, and 157.5°. The pollutant concentration level decreases as the wind direction and aspect ratio increase. The wind velocity and turbulence intensity increase as the aspect ratio and wind direction increase.

  16. Inverse identification of unknown finite-duration air pollutant release from a point source in urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalets, Ivan V.; Efthimiou, George C.; Andronopoulos, Spyros; Venetsanos, Alexander G.; Argyropoulos, Christos D.; Kakosimos, Konstantinos E.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we present an inverse computational method for the identification of the location, start time, duration and quantity of emitted substance of an unknown air pollution source of finite time duration in an urban environment. We considered a problem of transient pollutant dispersion under stationary meteorological fields, which is a reasonable assumption for the assimilation of available concentration measurements within 1 h from the start of an incident. We optimized the calculation of the source-receptor function by developing a method which requires integrating as many backward adjoint equations as the available measurement stations. This resulted in high numerical efficiency of the method. The source parameters are computed by maximizing the correlation function of the simulated and observed concentrations. The method has been integrated into the CFD code ADREA-HF and it has been tested successfully by performing a series of source inversion runs using the data of 200 individual realizations of puff releases, previously generated in a wind tunnel experiment.

  17. Gender, airborne chemical monitoring, and physical work environment are related to indoor air symptoms among nonindustrial workers in the Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syazwan, Aizat Ismail; Hafizan, Juahir; Baharudin, Mohd Rafee; Azman, Ahmad Zaid Fattah; Izwyn, Zulkapri; Zulfadhli, Ismail; Syahidatussyakirah, Katis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of airborne chemicals and the physical work environment risk element on the indoor air symptoms of nonindustrial workers. A cross-sectional study consisting of 200 office workers. A random selection of 200 buildings was analyzed for exposure and indoor air symptoms based on a pilot study in the Klang Valley, Malaysia. A set of modified published questionnaires by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH), Malaysia and a previous study (MM040NA questionnaire) pertaining to indoor air symptoms was used in the evaluation process of the indoor air symptoms. Statistical analyses involving logistic regression and linear regression were used to determine the relationship between exposure and indoor air symptoms for use in the development of an indoor risk matrix. The results indicate that some indoor air pollutants (carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compound, and dust) are related to indoor air symptoms of men and women. Temperature and relative humidity showed a positive association with complaints related to the perceived indoor environmental condition (drafts and inconsistency of temperature). Men predominantly reported general symptoms when stratification of gender involved exposure to formaldehyde. Women reported high levels of complaints related to mucosal and general symptoms from exposure to the dust level indoors. Exposure to pollutants (total volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and formaldehyde) and physical stressors (air temperature and relative humidity) influence reported symptoms of office workers. These parameters should be focused upon and graded as one of the important elements in the grading procedure when qualitatively evaluating the indoor environment.

  18. Experimental evaluation on energy performance of innovative clean air heat pump for indoor environment control in summer and winter seasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor, an innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed, developed and investigated through experimental studies. The CAHP integrated air purification, dehumidification and heating/cooling in one unit. A prototype of the CAHP...... was developed. Laboratory experimental studies were conducted to investigate its energy performance under different outdoor climates including cold, mild-cold, mild-hot and extremely hot and humid climates. The energy performance of the CAHP was then evaluated by comparing with a conventional air source heat...... pump. The results showed that to keep same indoor air quality, the CAHP could save substantial amount of energy. For example, compared to the conventional air source heat pump, the CAHP could save up to 59%, 40%, 30% of electricity for ventilation and air conditioning in a test room in summer...

  19. Effect of duration of exposure to polluted air environment on lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Al-Drees, Abdul Majeed; Rasheed, Shahzad; Meo, Imran Mu; Khan, Muhammad Mujahid; Al-Saadi, Muslim M; Alkandari, Jasem Ramadan

    2009-01-01

    Oil spill in sea water represents a huge environmental disaster for marine life and humans in the vicinity. The aim was to investigate the effect of duration of exposure to polluted air environment on lung function in subjects exposed to crude oil spill into sea water. The present study was conducted under the supervision of Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Khalid University Hospital, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, during the period July 2003 - December 2004. This was a comparative study of spirometry in 31 apparently healthy, non smoking, male workers, exposed to crude oil spill environment during the oil cleaning operation. The exposed group was matched with similar number of male, non smoking control subjects. Pulmonary function test was performed by using an electronic spirometer. Subjects exposed to polluted air for periods longer than 15 days showed a significant reduction in Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in First Second (FEV1), Forced Expiratory Flow in 25-25% (FEF25-75%) and Maximal Voluntary Ventilation (MVV). Air environment polluted due to crude oil spill into sea water caused impaired lung function and this impairment was associated with dose response effect of duration of exposure to air polluted by crude oil spill into sea water.

  20. 210Po and 210Pb emissions to air from the thermal phosphorus plant in Europe: measurements in the environment and dose assessment for regulatory purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanzi, C.P.; Knetsch, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    In 1983 in The Netherlands, an environmental survey at a river estuary revealed elevated radionuclide concentrations above the background level. The source was identified as an industrial plant producing elemental phosphorus, by means of a thermal process. Within a few years a permit for emissions of radionuclides to the environment was requested under the prevailing Nuclear Energy Act, and granted. Since 1987 the industry reports its emission data to the mandated Ministry. This phosphorus plant contributes the highest release of 210 Po and 210 Pb to air in the Netherlands. The difficulty of identifying the enhanced activity due to the elemental phosphorus through environmental measurement is here illustrated by showing, by means of an air dispersion model, that the radioactivity added by the phosphorus plant to the environment is comparable to the natural background level. The estimate of the excess air concentration given exclusively by a continuous annual emission of 500 GBq, bound to aerosols of size less than 1 micron, varies from 450 to 750 micro Bq/m 3 at a distance of 3.5 km from the phosphorus plant, depending on yearly weather variations. This may be compared to the natural background level as it is measured at a distance of over 100 km inland from the phosphorus plant, at RIVM, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. The yearly average measured 210 Pb activity concentration in air is 363±5 micro Bq/m 3 in 2009 which is within range of other years. At the coastal site where the phosphorus plant is located, the natural background will be lower. The gross beta activity concentration near the phosphorus plant is 296 micro Bq/m 3 in 2009: this includes the emissions to air from the sintering process. The emission to air for the year 2009 reported by the phosphorus plan is 80 GBq/y of 210 Pb

  1. Investigation of molecular metabolites in expired air of healthy man in condition of long-term isolation in hermetical confined environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsarkov, Dmitriy; Mardanov, Robert; Markin, Andrey; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    Investigation of intermediary metabolites, produced in cells, in expired air of healthy man is directed on determination of molecular markers which are reflecting normal physiological pro-cesses in an organism, as well as on determination and validation of biomarkers for objective screening and non-invasive prenosological diagnostics of disorders in metabolic processes caused by negative effect of live environment. Investigation of influence of long-term isolation in her-metical confined environment on composition of healthy human expired air was made during experiment with 105 days isolation in condition of controlled environment and standard food ra-tion. Expired air samples were analyzed on gas chromatograph associated with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The investigation results show that at rest hydroxy ketones, mostly 1-hydroxy-prorapanone-2 (acetol), aldehydes (decenal, benzaldehyde), acetophenone, phenol and fatty acids were determined. After physical performance (oxidative stress) the content of ke-tones (heptanone-2, heptanone-3), phenol, determined aldehydes (decenal, octadecenal) and acetol in expired air of volunteers decreased. It can be concerned with prevailing of alternative -methylglyoxalic metabolic pathway and caused by oxidative stress. Analysis of expired air samples taken on 30, 60 and 90 day of isolation showed that in conditions of long-term iso-lation concentration of heptanone-2, heptanone-3, 2,3-butadione, acetol, furanones, aldehydes (decenal, benzaldehyde) and acetophenone is increasing while concentration of phenol and fatty acids is decreasing as compared to samples taken before isolation. It was shown that dynamics of concentration of saturated hydrocarbons in expired air can be informative marker for estima-tion of organism response to oxidative stress, while the level of acetol can be used as indicator of man's training status, validity of exercise load and as a marker of hypoxic state.

  2. High temperature corrosion studies on friction welded low alloy steel and stainless steel in air and molten salt environment at 650 oC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arivazhagan, N.; Narayanan, S.; Singh, Surendra; Prakash, Satya; Reddy, G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → Thermogravimetric analysis on friction welded AISI 304 with AISI 4140 exposed in air and molten salt environment. → Comparative study on friction welded AISI 4140 with AISI 304 exposed in air, Na 2 SO 4 -60%V 2 O 5 and NaCl-50%Na 2 SO 4 at 650 o C. → SEM/EDAX, XRD analysis on corroded dissimilar AISI 304 and AISI 4140 materials. -- Abstract: The investigation on high-temperature corrosion resistance of the weldments is necessary for prolonged service lifetime of the components used in corrosive environments. This paper reports on the performance of friction welded low alloy steel AISI 4140 and stainless steel AISI 304 in air as well as molten salt environment of Na 2 SO 4 -60%V 2 O 5 and NaCl-50%Na 2 SO 4 at 650 o C. This paper reports several studies carried out for characterizing the weldments corrosion behavior. Initially thermogravimetric technique was used to establish the kinetics of corrosion. For analyzing the corrosion products, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive analysis and electron probe micro analysis techniques were used. From the results of the experiments, it is observed that the weldments suffered accelerated corrosion in NaCl-Na 2 SO 4 environment and showed spalling/sputtering of the oxide scale. Furthermore, corrosion resistance of weld interface was found to be lower than that of parent metals in molten salt environment. Weight gain kinetics in air oxidation studies reveals a steady-state parabolic rate law while the kinetics with salt deposits displays multi-stage growth rates. Moreover NaCl is the main corrosive species in high temperature corrosion, involving mixtures of NaCl and Na 2 SO 4 which is responsible for formation of internal attack.

  3. Air quality in a simulated office environment as a result of reducing pollution sources and increasing ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Bako-Biro, Zsolt; Clausen, Geo

    2002-01-01

    Air quality was studied in an office space classified as low-polluting and ventilated with outdoor air at a rate of 1 h-1. The pollution load in the space was changed by introducing or removing common building-related indoor pollution sources (linoleum, sealant and wooden shelves with books and p...

  4. Gender, airborne chemical monitoring, and physical work environment are related to indoor air symptoms among nonindustrial workers in the Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syazwan AI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aizat Ismail Syazwan,1 Juahir Hafizan,2 Mohd Rafee Baharudin,1 Ahmad Zaid Fattah Azman,1 Zulkapri Izwyn,3 Ismail Zulfadhli,4 Katis Syahidatussyakirah11Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia; 2Department of Environmental Science/Environmental Forensics Research Center (ENFORCE, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor, 3Department of Biosciences and Health Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia; 4Faculty of Built Environment, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor, MalaysiaObjectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of airborne chemicals and the physical work environment risk element on the indoor air symptoms of nonindustrial workers.Design: A cross-sectional study consisting of 200 office workers. A random selection of 200 buildings was analyzed for exposure and indoor air symptoms based on a pilot study in the Klang Valley, Malaysia.Methods: A set of modified published questionnaires by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH, Malaysia and a previous study (MM040NA questionnaire pertaining to indoor air symptoms was used in the evaluation process of the indoor air symptoms. Statistical analyses involving logistic regression and linear regression were used to determine the relationship between exposure and indoor air symptoms for use in the development of an indoor risk matrix.Results: The results indicate that some indoor air pollutants (carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compound, and dust are related to indoor air symptoms of men and women. Temperature and relative humidity showed a positive association with complaints related to the perceived indoor environmental condition (drafts and inconsistency of temperature. Men predominantly reported general symptoms when stratification of gender involved exposure to formaldehyde. Women reported high levels of complaints related to mucosal and general symptoms from exposure to the dust

  5. Molecular investigation of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the patients, personnel, air and environment of an ICU in a hospital in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaii, Mehdi; Emaneini, Mohammad; Jabalameli, Fereshteh; Halimi, Shahnaz; Taherikalani, Morovat

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the patients, staff, air and environments of an ICU in a hospital in Tehran. During this study, 37 S. aureus isolates were collected and analyzed via the spa typing method. Of the 37 S. aureus isolates, 35 (94%) were methicillin resistant (MRSA), 28 (76%) were identified as SCCmec types III or IIIA, four (10%) were identified as SCCmec types I or IA and three (8%) were identified a SCCmec type IV. All of the MRSA isolates were resistant to oxacillin and contained mecA. The isolates were all spa typed and found to comprise 11 spa types, including t7688, t7689, and t7789, which have not previously been reported. The spa type t7688 was isolated from the hands of two ICU personnel. The spa type t7689 was observed among five isolates from the air and the environment. The spa type t7789 was observed among three isolates from the patients, ventilators and the air. The majority of the isolates (43%) belonged to spa types t030 and t037. Our results revealed that MRSA strains that were isolated from the air, the environment of the ICU and the patients who were colonized or infected with MRSA often exhibited the same spa and SCCmec types. These results also reveal that the isolates from the patients and environment were usually indistinguishable. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Utilisation of an Air-conditioning System to Control the Levels of Radon and Radon Progeny in a Workplace Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, F.

    2000-01-01

    From long-term real-time radon and radon progeny measurements taken in a relatively large retail store, cyclical patterns were evident, which were found to relate to the overriding influence of the timed air-conditioning system. Concentration of radon, radon progeny and the variability of F factor were found to depend significantly on the intermittent operation of this ventilation-air-conditioning system. After pressure equalisation remedial measures proved ineffective, the air-movement system was utilised to reduce the levels of radon and radon progeny to well within established norms applicable during working hours. It is demonstrated that the average levels for radon and radon progeny are reduced in absolute terms. This amounted to less than 12% of the general level, during designated work periods. Where air movement systems are already installed, as well as other circumstances, their regulation provides an economical solution to meeting legal and other standards for radon in the workplace. (author)

  7. Interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, socio-demographic and built environment) on preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental exposures are often measured individually, though many occur in tandem. To address aggregate exposures, a county-level Environmental Quality Index (EQI) representing five environmental domains (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic) was constructed. Recent st...

  8. Methodology for setup and data processing of mobile air quality measurements to assess the spatial variability of concentrations in urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Poppel, Martine; Peters, Jan; Bleux, Nico

    2013-01-01

    A case study is presented to illustrate a methodology for mobile monitoring in urban environments. A dataset of UFP, PM 2.5 and BC concentrations was collected. We showed that repeated mobile measurements could give insight in spatial variability of pollutants at different micro-environments in a city. Streets of contrasting traffic intensity showed increased concentrations by a factor 2–3 for UFP and BC and by 2.5 . The first quartile (P25) of the mobile measurements at an urban background zone seems to be good estimate of the urban background concentration. The local component of the pollutant concentrations was determined by background correction. The use of background correction reduced the number of runs needed to obtain representative results. The results presented, are a first attempt to establish a methodology for setup and data processing of mobile air quality measurements to assess the spatial variability of concentrations in urban environments. -- Highlights: ► Mobile measurements are used to assess the variability of air pollutants in urban environments. ► PM 2.5 , BC and UFP concentrations are presented for zones with different traffic characteristics. ► A methodology for background correction based on the mobile measurements is presented. ► The background concentration is estimated as the 25th percentile of the urban background data. ► The minimum numbers of runs for a representative estimate is reduced after background correction. -- This paper shows that the spatial variability of air pollutants in an urban environment can be assessed by a mobile monitoring methodology including background correction

  9. Development of methods for evaluating options for improving air quality in Santiago, Chile and its environs. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.D.; Brown, M.J.

    1993-10-01

    Santiago, Chile has a serious air pollution problem. Aerosols reach very high levels and ozone exceeds US ambient standards on over 100 days a year. Chileans are very concerned about the poor air quality of Santiago and the effect of emissions from their copper smelters both near Santiago and at other sites. Officials from both the Santiago metropolitan air quality commission (La Comision Especial de Descontaminacion de le Region Metropolitana) and a government owned copper development company (La Empress Nacional de Mineria (ENAMI)) have asked for assistance to deal with the air quality problems in the city and associated with smelter emissions. This report describes the first steps in that effort. Santiago lies in a valley between a small coastal range to the west and the towering Andes to the cast. Air motion is greatly affected by the major topographical features which include the Pacific Ocean, the coastal range, and the Andes. In this first year of work the authors concentrated on gathering information on the meteorology, topography, and air quality of the metropolitan region. They examined two smelter sites and applied models to them to help their understanding and to provide assistance to ENAMI. One smelter, Ventanas, was located on the Pacific coast to the northwest of Santiago, while the other, Paipote, was located several hundred kilometers to the north. The Ventanas emissions may potentially affect Santiago air quality. Several advantages of working with the smelters in the first phase of the project are: (1) there is more monitoring in the vicinity of the smelters, (2) the development of a useful emission inventory is easier, (3) they pose a simpler problem of immediate interest whose resolution will provide an early benefit to the Chilean colleagues, and (4) the authors gain important experience as they prepare to delve deeper into Santiago`s air pollution problems.

  10. Re-Examination of Mixed Media Communication: The Impact of Voice, Data Link, and Mixed Air Traffic Control Environments on the Flight Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Melisa; McGann, Alison; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Lozito, Sandra; Ashford, Rose (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation in the B747-400 was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center that compared how crews handled voice and data link air traffic control (ATC) messages in a single medium versus a mixed voice and data link ATC environment The interval between ATC messages was also varied to examine the influence of time pressure in voice, data link, and mixed ATC environments. For messages sent via voice, transaction times were lengthened in the mixed media environment for closely spaced messages. The type of environment did not affect data link times. However, messages times were lengthened in both single and mixed-modality environments under time pressure. Closely spaced messages also increased the number of requests for clarification for voice messages in the mixed environment and review menu use for data link messages. Results indicated that when time pressure is introduced, the mix of voice and data link does not necessarily capitalize on the advantages of both media. These findings emphasize the need to develop procedures for managing communication in mixed voice and data link environments.

  11. Investigation of the quality of stored red blood cells after simulated air drop in the maritime environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Athinoula; Hancock, Vicky; Doughty, Heidi; Smedley, Steve; Cardigan, Rebecca; Wiltshire, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Maritime medical capability may be compromised by blood resupply. Air-dropped red blood cells (RBCs) is a possible mitigation factor. This study set out to evaluate RBC storage variables after a simulated parachute air drop into the sea, as limited data exist. The air load construction for the air drop of blood was subject to static drop assessment to simulate a worst-case parachute drop scenario. One control and two test Golden Hour shipping containers were each packaged with 10 RBC units. The control box was not dropped; Test Boxes 1 and 2 were further reinforced with waterproof boxes and underwent a simulated air drop on Day 7 or Day 8 postdonation, respectively. One day after the drop and once a week thereafter until Day 43 of storage, RBCs from each box were sampled and tested for full blood counts, hemolysis, adenosine triphosphate, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, pH, extracellular potassium, glucose, lactate, deformability, and RBC microvesicles. The packaging configuration completed the air drop with no water ingress or physical damage. All units met UK specifications for volume, hemoglobin, and hemolysis. There were no significant differences for any of the variables studied between RBCs in the control box compared to RBCs in Test Boxes 1 and 2 combined over storage. The test proved that the packaging solution and the impact of a maritime air drop as performed in this study, on Day 7 or Day 8 postdonation, did not affect the in vitro quality of RBCs in SAGM over storage for 35 days. © 2017 AABB.

  12. A Sustainable Industry-Environment Model for the Identification of Urban Environmental Risk to Confront Air Pollution in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Guilin Gao; Xueting Zeng; Chunjiang An; Lei Yu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an optimized industry-environment model is proposed for identifying environmental risk under uncertainties. The strategy associated with an emission-permit trading mechanism has been introduced into the industrial-environment regulation (model) for remitting the pressures of frequent/severe haze events in Beijing City. A dual stochastic mixed fuzzy risk analysis method with Laplace’s criterion (DSFRL) can be embedded into industry-environment issues with a trading emission-perm...

  13. Determination and behaviour of plutonium emitted with liquid effluents and exhaust air into the environment of the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuettelkopf, H.; Pimpl, M.

    1986-01-01

    The plutonium concentrations in the surroundings of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Centre (KfK) are in the range of variation of the global plutonium contamination caused by fallout of atmospheric nuclear tests. Exclusively in the sediments of the Old River Rhine, which serves as main canal for the liquid effluents, higher plutonium concentrations could be detected. The dose exposure of the population living in the environment of the KfK caused by the measured plutonium concentrations is negligible low. From the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant (WAK) and the facilities needed to decontaminate radioactive wastes 0.48 GBq (13 mCi) plutonium alpha activity has been emitted within 11 years of operation until 1982 - 1/3 with the liquid effluents and 2/3 with the exhaust air. Following the pathway with the exhaust air, plutonium concentrations in the environment of the Karlsruhe Reprocessing Plant were measured in groundlevel air, in soil, in plants, in food and in animal tissues. Radioecological parameters like dispersion factors, deposition velocities, migration velocities in soil and transfer soil-to-plant were investigated. Following the pathway with the liquid effluents, plutonium concentrations were measured in surface waters, sediments, water plants, plankton and animals. Dilution and sedimentation behaviour were studied as well as the transfer water-to-plant and water-to-animals. (orig.) [de

  14. Extensive Viable Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus Contamination in Air and Surrounding Environment in MERS Isolation Wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Han; Chang, So Young; Sung, Minki; Park, Ji Hoon; Bin Kim, Hong; Lee, Heeyoung; Choi, Jae-Phil; Choi, Won Suk; Min, Ji-Young

    2016-08-01

    The largest outbreak of Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outside the Middle East occurred in South Korea in 2015 and resulted in 186 laboratory-confirmed infections, including 36 (19%) deaths. Some hospitals were considered epicenters of infection and voluntarily shut down most of their operations after nearly half of all transmissions occurred in hospital settings. However, the ways that MERS-CoV is transmitted in healthcare settings are not well defined. We explored the possible contribution of contaminated hospital air and surfaces to MERS transmission by collecting air and swabbing environmental surfaces in 2 hospitals treating MERS-CoV patients. The samples were tested by viral culture with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) using MERS-CoV Spike antibody, and electron microscopy (EM). The presence of MERS-CoV was confirmed by RT-PCR of viral cultures of 4 of 7 air samples from 2 patients' rooms, 1 patient's restroom, and 1 common corridor. In addition, MERS-CoV was detected in 15 of 68 surface swabs by viral cultures. IFA on the cultures of the air and swab samples revealed the presence of MERS-CoV. EM images also revealed intact particles of MERS-CoV in viral cultures of the air and swab samples. These data provide experimental evidence for extensive viable MERS-CoV contamination of the air and surrounding materials in MERS outbreak units. Thus, our findings call for epidemiologic investigation of the possible scenarios for contact and airborne transmission, and raise concern regarding the adequacy of current infection control procedures. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Landscapes, depositional environments and human occupation at Middle Paleolithic open-air sites in the southern Levant, with new insights from Nesher Ramla, Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidner, Yossi; Frumkin, Amos; Friesem, David; Tsatskin, Alexander; Shahack-Gross, Ruth

    2016-04-01

    Middle Paleolithic human occupation in the Levant (250-50 ka ago) has been recorded in roofed (cave and rockshelter) and open-air sites. Research at these different types of sites yielded different perspectives on the Middle Paleolithic human behavior and evolution. Until recently, open-air Middle Paleolithic sites in the Levant were found in three major sedimentary environments: fluvial, lake-margin and spring. Here we describe a unique depositional environment and formation processes at the recently discovered open-air site of Nesher Ramla (Israel) and discuss their contribution to understanding site formation processes in open-air sites in the Levant. The site is 8-m-thick Middle Paleolithic sequence (OSL dated to 170-80 ka) that is located in a karst sinkhole formed by gravitational deformation and sagging into underground voids. The sedimentary sequence was shaped by gravitational collapse, cyclic colluviation of soil and gravel into the depression, waterlogging, in situ pedogenesis and human occupation. Original bedding and combustion features are well-preserved in the Lower archaeological sequence, a rare occurrence in comparison to other open-air archaeological sites. This phenomenon coincides with episodes of fast sedimentation/burial, which also allowed better preservation of microscopic remains such as ash. The Upper archaeological sequence does not exhibit bedding or preservation of ash, despite presence of heat-affected lithic artifacts, which makes it similar to other open-air sites in the Levant. We suggest that rate of burial is the major factor that caused the difference between the Upper and Lower sequences. The differences in the burial rate may be connected to environmental and vegetation changes at the end of MIS 6. We also identified an interplay between sediment in-wash and density of human activity remains, i.e. during episodes of low natural sediment input the density of artifacts is higher relative to episodes with high rate of sediment in

  16. Environment of care: Is it time to reassess microbial contamination of the operating room air as a risk factor for surgical site infection in total joint arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvizi, Javad; Barnes, Sue; Shohat, Noam; Edmiston, Charles E

    2017-11-01

    In the modern operating room (OR), traditional surgical mask, frequent air exchanges, and architectural barriers are viewed as effective in reducing airborne microbial populations. Intraoperative sampling of airborne particulates is rarely performed in the OR because of technical difficulties associated with sampling methodologies and a common belief that airborne contamination is infrequently associated with surgical site infections (SSIs). Recent studies suggest that viable airborne particulates are readily disseminated throughout the OR, placing patients at risk for postoperative SSI. In 2017, virtually all surgical disciplines are engaged in the implantation of selective biomedical devices, and these implants have been documented to be at high risk for intraoperative contamination. Approximately 1.2 million arthroplasties are performed annually in the United States, and that number is expected to increase to 3.8 million by the year 2030. The incidence of periprosthetic joint infection is perceived to be low (<2.5%); however, the personal and fiscal morbidity is significant. Although the pharmaceutic and computer industries enforce stringent air quality standards on their manufacturing processes, there is currently no U.S. standard for acceptable air quality within the OR environment. This review documents the contribution of air contamination to the etiology of periprosthetic joint infection, and evidence for selective innovative strategies to reduce the risk of intraoperative microbial aerosols. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Satellite-Surface Perspectives of Air Quality and Aerosol-Cloud Effects on the Environment: An Overview of 7-SEAS BASELInE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Maring, Hal B.; Lin, Neng-Huei; Buntoung, Sumaman; Chantara, Somporn; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Gabriel, Philip M.; Goodloe, Colby S.; Holben, Brent N.; Hsiao, Ta-Chih; hide

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of 7-SEASBASELInE (Seven SouthEast Asian Studies Biomass-burning Aerosols and Stratocumulus Environment: Lifecycles and Interactions Experiment) campaigns in spring 2013-2015 were to synergize measurements from uniquely distributed ground-based networks (e.g., AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork)), MPLNET ( NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network)) and sophisticated platforms (e.g.,SMARTLabs (Surface-based Mobile Atmospheric Research and Testbed Laboratories), regional contributing instruments), along with satellite observations retrievals and regional atmospheric transport chemical models to establish a critically needed database, and to advance our understanding of biomass-burning aerosols and trace gases in Southeast Asia (SEA). We present a satellite-surface perspective of 7-SEASBASELInE and highlight scientific findings concerning: (1) regional meteorology of moisture fields conducive to the production and maintenance of low-level stratiform clouds over land; (2) atmospheric composition in a biomass-burning environment, particularly tracers-markers to serve as important indicators for assessing the state and evolution of atmospheric constituents; (3) applications of remote sensing to air quality and impact on radiative energetics, examining the effect of diurnal variability of boundary-layer height on aerosol loading; (4) aerosol hygroscopicity and ground-based cloud radar measurements in aerosol-cloud processes by advanced cloud ensemble models; and (5) implications of air quality, in terms of toxicity of nanoparticles and trace gases, to human health. This volume is the third 7-SEAS special issue (after Atmospheric Research, vol. 122, 2013; and Atmospheric Environment, vol. 78, 2013) and includes 27 papers published, with emphasis on air quality and aerosol-cloud effects on the environment. BASELInE observations of stratiform clouds over SEA are unique, such clouds are embedded in a heavy aerosol-laden environment and feature characteristically greater

  18. Development of a High-Fidelity Simulation Environment for Shadow-Mode Assessments of Air Traffic Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, John E., III; Lee, Alan; Lai, Chok Fung

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the Shadow-Mode Assessment Using Realistic Technologies for the National Airspace System (SMART-NAS) Test Bed. The SMART-NAS Test Bed is an air traffic simulation platform being developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The SMART-NAS Test Bed's core purpose is to conduct high-fidelity, real-time, human-in-the-loop and automation-in-the-loop simulations of current and proposed future air traffic concepts for the United States' Next Generation Air Transportation System called NextGen. The setup, configuration, coordination, and execution of realtime, human-in-the-loop air traffic management simulations are complex, tedious, time intensive, and expensive. The SMART-NAS Test Bed framework is an alternative to the current approach and will provide services throughout the simulation workflow pipeline to help alleviate these shortcomings. The principle concepts to be simulated include advanced gate-to-gate, trajectory-based operations, widespread integration of novel aircraft such as unmanned vehicles, and real-time safety assurance technologies to enable autonomous operations. To make this possible, SNTB will utilize Web-based technologies, cloud resources, and real-time, scalable, communication middleware. This paper describes the SMART-NAS Test Bed's vision, purpose, its concept of use, and the potential benefits, key capabilities, high-level requirements, architecture, software design, and usage.

  19. Levels, distribution and air-soil exchange fluxes of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment of Punjab Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Jabir Hussain; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C

    2013-11-01

    An initial survey of the concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) compounds in air and soils across industrial and agricultural areas of Punjab Province, Pakistan, was conducted from January to March 2011. The total concentration of all PCBs (31 PCBs) ranged from 34 to 389pgm(-3) in air and from 7 to 45ngg(-1) dry weight in soils, where both ranges were similar to the average ranges in other areas of the world. PCBs were elevated across industrial regions near urban and industrial sources. Consistently low air concentrations of PCBs at the agricultural sites suggest that they are less widespread or uniformly distributed in the Pakistani atmosphere. The calculated air and soil fugacity fraction values indicated that soils are a potential secondary source of PCBs in agricultural areas, whereas they are in equilibrium or atmospheric deposition in industrial and urban areas. TEQ concentrations of dioxin-like PCBs for soil samples met the Canadian standard. However, local authorities should address the human health threats from urban and industrial soils in Punjab Province, Pakistan. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Economic growth and the environment: reassessing the environmental Kuznets Curve for air pollution emissions in OECD countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Georgiev, E.S.; Mihaylov, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper tests the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for four local (SOx, NOx , CO, VOC) and two global (CO2, GHG) air pollutants. Using a panel data set of thirty OECD countries, the paper finds that the postulated inverted U-shaped relationship between income and pollution does not

  1. A regression-based method for mapping traffic-related air pollution. Application and testing in four contrasting urban environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, D.J.; De Hoogh, C.; Elliot, P.; Gulliver, J.; Wills, J.; Kingham, S.; Smallbone, K.

    2000-01-01

    Accurate, high-resolution maps of traffic-related air pollution are needed both as a basis for assessing exposures as part of epidemiological studies, and to inform urban air-quality policy and traffic management. This paper assesses the use of a GIS-based, regression mapping technique to model spatial patterns of traffic-related air pollution. The model - developed using data from 80 passive sampler sites in Huddersfield, as part of the SAVIAH (Small Area Variations in Air Quality and Health) project - uses data on traffic flows and land cover in the 300-m buffer zone around each site, and altitude of the site, as predictors of NO 2 concentrations. It was tested here by application in four urban areas in the UK: Huddersfield (for the year following that used for initial model development), Sheffield, Northampton, and part of London. In each case, a GIS was built in ArcInfo, integrating relevant data on road traffic, urban land use and topography. Monitoring of NO 2 was undertaken using replicate passive samplers (in London, data were obtained from surveys carried out as part of the London network). In Huddersfield, Sheffield and Northampton, the model was first calibrated by comparing modelled results with monitored NO 2 concentrations at 10 randomly selected sites; the calibrated model was then validated against data from a further 10-28 sites. In London, where data for only 11 sites were available, validation was not undertaken. Results showed that the model performed well in all cases. After local calibration, the model gave estimates of mean annual NO 2 concentrations within a factor of 1.5 of the actual mean (approx. 70-90%) of the time and within a factor of 2 between 70 and 100% of the time. r 2 values between modelled and observed concentrations are in the range of 0.58-0.76. These results are comparable to those achieved by more sophisticated dispersion models. The model also has several advantages over dispersion modelling. It is able, for example, to

  2. Application of the Monte Carlo method in calculation of energy-time distribution from a pulsed photon source in homogeneous air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic, R.D.; Vojvodic, V.I.; Orlic, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    The stochastic nature of photon interactions with matter and the characteristics of photon transport through real materials, are very well suited for applications of the Monte Carlo method in calculations of the energy-space distribution of photons. Starting from general principles of the Monte Carlo method, physical-mathematical model of photon transport from a pulsed source is given for the homogeneous air environment. Based on that model, a computer program is written which is applied in calculations of scattered photons delay spectra and changes of the photon energy spectrum. Obtained results provide the estimation of the timespace function of the electromagnetic field generated by photon from a pulsed source. (author)

  3. Air pollution around the Keihin heavy chemical industrial zone, and living environment and health injury in the inhabitants therein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazaki, I

    1975-08-01

    A survey of air pollution levels and the health of high school pupils and their parents was conducted in a heavily industrialized area of Kawasaki, Japan. The concentration of sulfur oxides in 1974 was about half of that in 1970 (0.029 ppM). The concentration of nitrogen oxides ranged from 0.030 to 0.040 ppM. There was a correlation between the concentrations of oxides of sulfur nitrogen. According to questionnaires, about 32 percent of the inhabitants showed concern about air pollution and photochemical smog. About 22 percent of the inhabitants complained of symptoms such as cold, rhinitis, and pharyngitis; and there was a correlation between total subjective symptoms and concentration of sulfur oxides. Near roadsides the concentration of nitrogen oxides was very high. Green plants are gradually disappearing from the heavily polluted area. Further industrialization in this area appears to be very dangerous for man and other living things.

  4. Effect of air pollution and racism on ethnic differences in respiratory health among adolescents living in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Maynard, Maria J; Lenguerrand, Erik; Whitrow, Melissa J; Molaodi, Oarabile R; Harding, Seeromanie

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies suggest that stress can amplify the harm of air pollution. We examined whether experience of racism and exposure to particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 µm and 10 µm (PM2.5 and PM10) had a synergistic influence on ethnic differences in asthma and lung function across adolescence. Analyses using multilevel models showed lower forced expiratory volume (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and lower rates of asthma among some ethnic minorities compared to Whites, but higher exposure to PM2.5, PM10 and racism. Racism appeared to amplify the relationship between asthma and air pollution for all ethnic groups, but did not explain ethnic differences in respiratory health. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. AQB - air quality biomonitoring an innovative and standardized approach for the evaluation of traffic pollutant diffusion in the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virano, M. [SITAF Spa, Susa (Italy); Orsi, M. [Consulagri Srl., Torino (Italy); Badino, G. [Univ. degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell' Uomo; Ostacoli, G.; Zelano, V.; Gastaldi, D. [Univ. degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica Analitica; Parodi, A. [Univ. degli Studi di Torino, Torino (Italy). Dipt. di Biologia Animale e dell' Uomo]|[Consulagri Srl., Torino (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    AQB - Air Quality Biomonitoring - is a wide scale, effective and valid biorecording system at both a scientific and an economic level. It enables a detailed evaluation of pollutant diffusion in space, as well as their accumulation over time. The data relate to the diffusion of pollutants (PAH and heavy metals) due to traffic emissions on the A32 Turin-Bardonecchia motorway. Results were obtained using aeroponic culture biostations equipped with vegetal biosensors: Brassica oleracea and Holcus lanatus. (orig.)

  6. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Rooftop Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Bargach, Youssef [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for Low-Global Warming Potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants relative to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in packaged or Rooftop Unit (RTU) air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  7. Non-technical skills evaluation in the critical care air ambulance environment: introduction of an adapted rating instrument--an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Julia A; Powell, David M C; Psirides, Alex; Hathaway, Karyn; Aldington, Sarah; Haney, Michael F

    2016-03-08

    In the isolated and dynamic health-care setting of critical care air ambulance transport, the quality of clinical care is strongly influenced by non-technical skills such as anticipating, recognising and understanding, decision making, and teamwork. However there are no published reports identifying or applying a non-technical skills framework specific to an intensive care air ambulance setting. The objective of this study was to adapt and evaluate a non-technical skills rating framework for the air ambulance clinical environment. In the first phase of the project the anaesthetists' non-technical skills (ANTS) framework was adapted to the air ambulance setting, using data collected directly from clinician groups, published literature, and field observation. In the second phase experienced and inexperienced inter-hospital transport clinicians completed a simulated critical care air transport scenario, and their non-technical skills performance was independently rated by two blinded assessors. Observed and self-rated general clinical performance ratings were also collected. Rank-based statistical tests were used to examine differences in the performance of experienced and inexperienced clinicians, and relationships between different assessment approaches and assessors. The framework developed during phase one was referred to as an aeromedical non-technical skills framework, or AeroNOTS. During phase two 16 physicians from speciality training programmes in intensive care, emergency medicine and anaesthesia took part in the clinical simulation study. Clinicians with inter-hospital transport experience performed more highly than those without experience, according to both AeroNOTS non-technical skills ratings (p = 0.001) and general performance ratings (p = 0.003). Self-ratings did not distinguish experienced from inexperienced transport clinicians (p = 0.32) and were not strongly associated with either observed general performance (r(s) = 0.4, p = 0

  8. Air-sea interactions of semi-volatile organic compounds in the tropical environment of Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balasubramanian R.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Major urban and industrial centers increase loadings of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs to proximate sea waters through riverine transport, atmospheric deposition via dry particle deposition, wet deposition, and air-sea gas exchange. In addition to acting as sinks for SVOCs, oceans can act as sources of SVOCs to coastal atmospheres and play important roles in the global biogeochemistry of SVOCs. Particle-sorbed SVOCs can settle to the ocean surface by dry particle deposition, a uni-directional advective transport process from the atmosphere to the water, the removal rate by which is a function of the physical and chemical properties of the aerosols and bound pollutants, meteorological conditions and surface characteristics. In addition, SVOCs are removed from the atmosphere and transported to the waters by precipitation scavenging of atmospheric vapors and particles, which are incorporated into the rain within or below the clouds. After SVOCs are deposited into the bulk seawater, water-column partitioning can affect the distribution of pollutants between the dissolved aqueous and the solid phases and eventually impact the fate of these compounds in oceans. Other than the abovementioned processes, air-sea exchange can make SVOCs diffuse across the air-sea interface; however, the sea surface microlayer (SML, a unique compartment at the air-sea boundary defined operationally as the upper millimeter (1 ∼ 1000 μm of the sea surface, has large storage capacity to delay the transport of SVOCs across the interface. This article reports the dry particle deposition and wet deposition of selected SVOCs based on an extensive set of yearly data collected in Singapore. Singapore, a representative country of Southeast Asia (SEA, is a small but highly developed island with dense industrial parks in the Southwestern part, where the terrestrial sources affect the surrounding coasts. In this study, Singapore’s Southern coastline was chosen during

  9. Comparative levels of radioactive air pollutants from industry and fallout. A progress report of radioecological investigations of airborne radioactivity in the Utah environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pendleton, R.C.

    1972-01-01

    Results are reported of measurements carried on during the year 1971 and the first two months of 1972 on the radioactivity from natural as compared to artificial radiation sources in the environment in Utah. During this time, a major portion of our work was devoted to analyses of the data and preparation of a report related to the Baneberry venting event and the accumulation of data on fallout from the January 7, 1972 Chinese nuclear explosion. Calibration procedures were developed for air samplers for the establishment of the numbers of pCi/m 3 in air. The responses of the air monitors in relationship to the ventilation index, seasonal effect, and the industrial complexity of the area were analyzed. Continuous measurements were made of the levels of radioactive materials in soils and vegetation and the results of these studies are presented mainly in tabular form. Comparisons have been made of the levels of radioactive materials in soils on the basis of square mile levels and the distribution of the radioactive materials in the soil profiles. Measurements of farm crops, including the major sources from which dairy products would be produced, have been made, and some comparisons by year and location have been made. Studies of secondary aerosols have been made using the dust accumulated on farm implements as the indicator of the kinds of secondary aerosols to which farmers and outdoorsmen might be exposed. These results would also be indicative of the kinds of dusts produced when high winds resuspend soil deposited radionuclides

  10. A novel genetic score approach using instruments to investigate interactions between pathways and environment: application to air pollution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Abele Bind

    Full Text Available Air pollution has been associated with increased systemic inflammation markers. We developed a new pathway analysis approach to investigate whether gene variants within relevant pathways (oxidative stress, endothelial function, and metal processing modified the association between particulate air pollution and fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1. Our study population consisted of 822 elderly participants of the Normative Aging Study (1999-2011. To investigate the role of biological mechanisms and to reduce the number of comparisons in the analysis, we created pathway-specific scores using gene variants related to each pathway. To select the most appropriate gene variants, we used the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso to relate independent outcomes representative of each pathway (8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine for oxidative stress, augmentation index for endothelial function, and patella lead for metal processing to gene variants. A high genetic score corresponds to a higher allelic risk profile. We fit mixed-effects models to examine modification by the genetic score of the weekly air pollution association with the outcome. Among participants with higher genetic scores within the oxidative stress pathway, we observed significant associations between particle number and fibrinogen, while we did not find any association among participants with lower scores (p(interaction = 0.04. Compared to individuals with low genetic scores of metal processing gene variants, participants with higher scores had greater effects of particle number on fibrinogen (p(interaction = 0.12, CRP (p(interaction = 0.02, and ICAM-1 (pinteraction = 0.08. This two-stage penalization method is easy to implement and can be used for large-scale genetic applications.

  11. Two Methods of Automatic Evaluation of Speech Signal Enhancement Recorded in the Open-Air MRI Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Přibil, Jiří; Přibilová, Anna; Frollo, Ivan

    2017-12-01

    The paper focuses on two methods of evaluation of successfulness of speech signal enhancement recorded in the open-air magnetic resonance imager during phonation for the 3D human vocal tract modeling. The first approach enables to obtain a comparison based on statistical analysis by ANOVA and hypothesis tests. The second method is based on classification by Gaussian mixture models (GMM). The performed experiments have confirmed that the proposed ANOVA and GMM classifiers for automatic evaluation of the speech quality are functional and produce fully comparable results with the standard evaluation based on the listening test method.

  12. Additive Interaction between Heterogeneous Environmental Quality Domains (Air, Water, Land, Sociodemographic, and Built Environment) on Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabich, Shannon C; Rappazzo, Kristen M; Gray, Christine L; Jagai, Jyotsna S; Jian, Yun; Messer, Lynne C; Lobdell, Danelle T

    2016-01-01

    Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI) domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000 to 2005. The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built, and sociodemographic) using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates ( n  = 3141) were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PDs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for (a) each individual domain main effect, (b) the interaction contrast, and (c) the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e., the "net effect") to show departure from additivity for the all U.S. counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction) associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interactions, between the sociodemographic/air domains [net effect (i.e., the association, including main effects and interaction effects) PD: -0.004 (95% CI: -0.007, 0.000), interaction contrast: -0.013 (95% CI: -0.020, -0.007)] and built/air domains [net effect PD: 0.008 (95% CI 0.004, 0.011), interaction contrast: -0.008 (95% CI: -0.015, -0.002)]. Most interactions were between the air domain and other respective domains. Interactions differed by urbanicity, with more interactions observed in non-metropolitan regions. Observed

  13. Additive interaction between heterogeneous environmental quality domains (air, water, land, sociodemographic and built environment on preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Grabich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Environmental exposures often occur in tandem; however, epidemiological research often focuses on singular exposures. Statistical interactions among broad, well-characterized environmental domains have not yet been evaluated in association with health. We address this gap by conducting a county-level cross-sectional analysis of interactions between Environmental Quality Index (EQI domain indices on preterm birth in the Unites States from 2000-2005.METHODS: The EQI, a county-level index constructed for the 2000-2005 time period, was constructed from five domain-specific indices (air, water, land, built and sociodemographic using principal component analyses. County-level preterm birth rates (n=3141 were estimated using live births from the National Center for Health Statistics. Linear regression was used to estimate prevalence differences (PD and 95% confidence intervals (CI comparing worse environmental quality to the better quality for each model for a each individual domain main effect b the interaction contrast and c the two main effects plus interaction effect (i.e., the net effect to show departure from additivity for the all U.S counties. Analyses were also performed for subgroupings by four urban/rural strata. RESULTS: We found the suggestion of antagonistic interactions but no synergism, along with several purely additive (i.e., no interaction associations. In the non-stratified model, we observed antagonistic interactions, between the sociodemographic/air domains (net effect (i.e. the association including main effects and interaction effects PD: -0.004 (95% CI:-0.007, 0.000, interaction contrast: -0.013 (95% CI:-0.020, -0.007 and built/air domains (net effect PD: 0.008 (95% CI 0.004, 0.011, interaction contrast: -0.008 (95% CI:-0.015, -0.002. Most interactions were between the air domain and other respective domains. Interactions differed by urbanicity, with more interactions observed in non-metropolitan regions

  14. Remote Sensing and Spatial Growth Modeling Coupled With Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, D. A.; Estes, M. G.; Crosson, W. L.; Johnson, H.; Khan, M.

    2006-05-01

    compared with USGS 1km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the Georgia Environmental Protection Division to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality. The coupled SGM and air quality modeling approach provides insight on what the impacts of Atlanta's growth will be on the local and regional environment and exists as a mechanism that can be used by policy makers to make rational decisions on urban growth and sustainability for the metropolitan area in the future.

  15. Spatial Growth Modeling and High Resolution Remote Sensing Data Coupled with Air Quality Modeling to Assess the Impact of Atlanta, Georgia on the Local and Regional Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Johnson, Hoyt; Khan, Maudood

    2006-01-01

    with USGS lkm land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the Georgia Environmental Protection Division to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality. The coupled SGM and air quality modeling approach provides insight on what the impacts of Atlanta s growth will be on the local and regional environment and exists as a mechanism that can be used by policy makers to make rational decisions on urban growth and sustainability for the metropolitan area in the future.

  16. FISSION 2120: a program for assessing the need for engineered safety feature grade air cleaning systems in post accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G. Jr.; Michlewicz, D.; Thomas, J.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program FISSION 2120, has been developed to evaluate the need for various engineered Safety Feature grade air cleaning systems to mitigate radiation exposures resulting from accidential releases of radioactivity. Those systems which are generally investigated include containment sprays with chemical additives, containment fan coolers with charcoal filters, and negative pressure maintenance systems for double barrier containments with either one-pass filtration or recirculation with filtration. The program can also be used to calculate the radiation doses to control room personnel. This type of analysis is directed towards the various protection aspects of the emergency ventilation system and involves the modeling of the radiological source terms and the atmospheric transport of the radioactive releases. The modeling is enhanced by the inherent capability of the program to accommodate simultaneous release of activity from several sources and to perform a dose evaluation for a wide range of the design characteristics of control room emergency air filtration systems. Use of the program has resulted in considerable savings in the time required to perform such analyses and in the selection of the most cost-effective Engineered Safety Features

  17. Active vibration control of a cylindrical structure using flexible piezoactuators: experimental work in air and water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jung Woo; Choi, Seung-Bok

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the modal characteristics and vibration control performance of a cylindrical structure in air and water are experimentally investigated, and the results are presented in time and frequency domains. In order to achieve this goal, an end-capped cylindrical shell structure is considered as a host structure, and MFC (macro fiber composite) actuators, which are flexible, are bonded on the surface of the structure. After manufacturing a cylindrical shell structure with aluminum, a modal test is carried out, and the natural frequencies of the proposed structure are obtained and analyzed. To verify the modal test results, a finite element analysis is also performed, and the results are compared with the modal test results. By using the experimentally obtained modal characteristics, a state space control model is established. An optimal controller is then designed in order to control the unwanted vibration and is experimentally realized. It has been shown that the structural vibration can be effectively decreased with the optimal control methodology in both air and water environmental conditions. (technical note)

  18. Quantum chemistry in arbitrary dielectric environments: Theory and implementation of nonequilibrium Poisson boundary conditions and application to compute vertical ionization energies at the air/water interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coons, Marc P.; Herbert, John M.

    2018-06-01

    Widely used continuum solvation models for electronic structure calculations, including popular polarizable continuum models (PCMs), usually assume that the continuum environment is isotropic and characterized by a scalar dielectric constant, ɛ. This assumption is invalid at a liquid/vapor interface or any other anisotropic solvation environment. To address such scenarios, we introduce a more general formalism based on solution of Poisson's equation for a spatially varying dielectric function, ɛ(r). Inspired by nonequilibrium versions of PCMs, we develop a similar formalism within the context of Poisson's equation that includes the out-of-equilibrium dielectric response that accompanies a sudden change in the electron density of the solute, such as that which occurs in a vertical ionization process. A multigrid solver for Poisson's equation is developed to accommodate the large spatial grids necessary to discretize the three-dimensional electron density. We apply this methodology to compute vertical ionization energies (VIEs) of various solutes at the air/water interface and compare them to VIEs computed in bulk water, finding only very small differences between the two environments. VIEs computed using approximately two solvation shells of explicit water molecules are in excellent agreement with experiment for F-(aq), Cl-(aq), neat liquid water, and the hydrated electron, although errors for Li+(aq) and Na+(aq) are somewhat larger. Nonequilibrium corrections modify VIEs by up to 1.2 eV, relative to models based only on the static dielectric constant, and are therefore essential to obtain agreement with experiment. Given that the experiments (liquid microjet photoelectron spectroscopy) may be more sensitive to solutes situated at the air/water interface as compared to those in bulk water, our calculations provide some confidence that these experiments can indeed be interpreted as measurements of VIEs in bulk water.

  19. Annual report 2004 of the air-quality and meteorological measurements of the Federal Environment Agency Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spangl, W.; Nagl, C.; Leeb, C.

    2005-01-01

    The air quality and meteorological measurements performed in several stations (Enzenkirchen, Illmitz, Pillersdorf, St. Koloman, St. Sigmund, Sonnblick, Stolzalpe, Sulzberg, Vorhegg and Zoebelboden) in Austria during 2004 are given. These activities were performed to fulfill the Emissions Protection law (Immissionsschutzgesetz-Luft) and the Ozone Law (Ozongesetz) as well as to collaborate with the Global Atmosphere Watch-measurement program of the World Meteorological Organization. The following pollutants were measured: ozone, PM10, PM2.5, PM1, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, nickel), VOC (benzene, toluene, xylenes, alkenes, alkanes), atmospheric precipitations (SO 4 2- , NO 3 - -N, NH 4 + -N, Na + , Mg 2+ , Ca 2+ , Cl - , K + ), methane. The meteorological measurements were wind, temperature, global radiations, duration of sun shine, rainfall precipitation. figs. 32, tabs. 45 (nevyjel)

  20. Corrosion product identification and relative rates of corrosion of candidate metals in an irradiated air-steam environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.; Swayambunathan, V.; Tani, B.S.; Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    Previously reported work by others indicates that dicopper trihydroxide nitrate, Cu 2 NO 3 (OH) 3 , forms on copper and copper alloys subjected to irradiated moist air near room temperature. We have performed experiments over a range of temperature and humidity, and have found that this species is formed at temperatures up to at least 150 degree C if low to intermediate relative humidities are present. At 150 degree C and 100% relative humidity, only Cu 2 O and CuO were observed. The relative general corrosion rates of the copper materials tested in 1-month experiments at dose rates of 0.7 and 2.0 kGy/h were Cu > 70/30 Cu--Ni > Al-bronze. High-nickel alloy 825 showed no observable corrosion. 29 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Mechanical characterization of metallic materials for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors in air and in helium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sainfort, G.; Cappelaere, M.; Gregoire, J.; Sannier, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the French R and D program for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), three metallic alloys were studied: steel Chromesco-3 with 2.25% chromium, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy-X. The Chromesco-3 and alloy 800H creep behavior is the same in air and in HTGR atmosphere (helium). The tensile tests of Hastelloy-X specimens reveal that aging has embrittlement and hardening effects up to 700 0 C, but the creep tests at 800 0 C show opposite effects. This particular behavior could be due to induced precipitation by aging and the depletion of hardening elements from the matrix. Tests show a low influence of cobalt content on mechanical properties of Hastelloy-X

  2. Land use and air quality in urban environments: Human health risk assessment due to inhalation of airborne particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, A C; Amarillo, A C; Carreras, H A; González, C M

    2018-02-01

    Particle matter (PM) and its associated compounds are a serious problem for urban air quality and a threat to human health. In the present study, we assessed the intraurban variation of PM, and characterized the human health risk associated to the inhalation of particles measured on PM filters, considering different land use areas in the urban area of Cordoba city (Argentina) and different age groups. To assess the intraurban variation of PM, a biomonitoring network of T. capillaris was established in 15 sampling sites with different land use and the bioaccumulation of Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn was quantified. After that, particles were collected by instrumental monitors placed at the most representative sampling sites of each land use category and an inhalation risk was calculated. A remarkable intraurban difference in the heavy metals content measured in the biomonitors was observed, in relation with the sampling site land use. The higher content was detected at industrial areas as well as in sites with intense vehicular traffic. Mean PM 10 levels exceeded the standard suggested by the U.S. EPA in all land use areas, except for the downtown. Hazard Index values were below EPA's safe limit in all land use areas and in the different age groups. In contrast, the carcinogenic risk analysis showed that all urban areas exceeded the acceptable limit (1 × 10 -6 ), while the industrial sampling sites and the elder group presented a carcinogenic risk higher that the unacceptable limit. These findings validate the use of T. capillaris to assess intraurban air quality and also show there is an important intraurban variation in human health risk associated to different land use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Atmospheric dry deposition in the vicinity of the Salton Sea, California - I: Air pollution and deposition in a desert environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, R.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Boarman, W.I.

    2005-01-01

    Air pollutant concentrations and atmospheric dry deposition were monitored seasonally at the Salton Sea, southern California. Measurements of ozone (O 3), nitric acid vapor (HNO3), ammonia (NH3), nitric oxide (NO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2) were performed using passive samplers. Deposition rates of NO 3-, NH4+, Cl-, SO 42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ to creosote bush branches and nylon filters as surrogate surfaces were determined for one-week long exposure periods. Maximum O3 values were recorded in spring with 24-h average values of 108.8 ??g m-3. Concentrations of NO and NO2 were low and within ranges of the non-urban areas in California (0.4-5.6 and 3.3-16.2 ??g m-3 ranges, respectively). Concentrations of HNO3 (2.0-6.7 ??g m-3) and NH 3 (6.4-15.7 ??g m-3) were elevated and above the levels typical for remote locations in California. Deposition rates of Cl-, SO42-, Na+, K+ and Ca2+ were related to the influence of sea spray or to suspended soil particles, and no strong enrichments caused by ions originated by human activities were detected. Dry deposition rates of NO3- and NH4+ were similar to values registered in areas where symptoms of nitrogen saturation and changes in species composition have been described. Deposition of nitrogenous compounds might be contributing to eutrophication processes at the Salton Sea. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Special solution with air curtain to guarantee a draft-free environment; Speciale oplossing met luchtgordijn waarborgt tochtvrije omgeving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attema, A. [Biddle, Kootstertille (Netherlands)

    2002-01-01

    The impact of air curtains in the luggage dispatch facility of the Dutch airport Schiphol on the working conditions is discussed. [Dutch] Om het klimaat in een grote ruimte op een aangenaam niveau te houden, zoeken werkgevers vaak naar een oplossing, waarbij de luchtstromen in die ruimte voor de werknemers aanvaardbaar zijn. Vooral voor een gebouw dat onderhevig is aan sterke windaanvallen dient de oplossing met grote zorgvuldigheid te worden gekozen. De bagageruimte op de D-pier van luchthaven Schiphol staat op een plaats met ongunstige windstromingen. De vier openingen in de bagageruimte, waar bagagewagentjes in en uitrijden, zijn om die reden voorzien van industrie-luchtgordijnen. Per deur is gekozen voor een oplossing met ongeveer tien toestellen, die in drie rijen achter elkaar zijn geinstalleerd. Afhankelijk van de buiten emperatuur en de windinvloed worden de ventilatoren trapsgewijze ingeschakeld, zodra de pendeldeuren open gaan. De luchtgordijnen laten een onbelemmerde toegang tot de bagageruinite toe en realiseren een optimale scheiding van bet binnen- en buitenklimaat.

  5. Report of a workshop on environment and health. Evaluating European air quality research and translating priorities into actions 19-20 January 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taalman, R.; Rushton, E.; Minsavage, G.

    2010-11-01

    Scientists, academics, regulators, and representatives of industry and non-governmental organizations from some 18 countries around the world convened at the Bedford Hotel and Congress Centre, Brussels, Belgium on January 19-20, 2009 to participate in a Workshop on Environment and Health: Evaluating European Air Quality Research and Translating Priorities into Actions. The Workshop was organized by CONCAWE with contributions from the European Commission.s DG Research, Session Chairpersons and other distinguished presenters. The workshop provided scientific updates in a number of key areas including toxicology, epidemiology and exposure assessment of airborne pollutants. Invited platform presentations and submitted posters followed by facilitated discussions amongst participants resulted in a series of recommendations which are summarized in the present report.

  6. MEASUREMENT OF INDOOR RADON-THORON IN AIR AND EXHALATION FROM SOIL IN THE ENVIRONMENT OF WESTERN HARYANA, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Nisha; Kumar, Amit; Kumar, Sushil; Chauhan, R P

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of indoor radon and thoron is important because the inhalation of radon-thoron and their daughters contributes more than 50 % of the total dose from natural sources. One of the important parameters to find out the contribution of soil and building materials towards indoor radon is radon exhalation rates, which can be used for estimation of indoor radon levels. The indoor radon and thoron levels from the air and radon exhalation rates from soil samples collected from two districts (Hisar and Fatehabad) of Western Haryana are measured using pin-hole-based radon-thoron dosimeter and LR-115 solid-state nuclear track detector by canister technique. The results show that the indoor radon and thoron levels from Hisar district varied from 11 to 112 and 11 to 80 Bq m -3 , while for Fatehabad district from 5 to 24 and 59 to 105 Bq m -3 , respectively, in summer season. In winter season, indoor radon and thoron levels from Hisar district varied from 15 to 43 and 32 to 102 Bq m -3 , while for Fatehabad district from 18 to 31 and 11 to 80 Bq m -3 , respectively. The indoor radon levels of 95 % locations lie well below the limit recommended by International Commission of Radiation Protection, 2011. The radon mass exhalation rate varied from 6 to 56 mBq kg -1 h -1 The radon mass exhalation rates from the soil samples were lower than the worldwide average, i.e. 56 mBq kg -1 h -1 There exists a poor correlation between indoor radon and exhalation rates. More investigations of measurement of radionuclide contents from rock and stone of study area can improve the understanding. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Variability of carbonaceous aerosols in remote, rural, urban and industrial environments in Spain: implications for air quality policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Reche, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Ripoll, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Karanasiou, A.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Vázquez, R.; Plana, F.; Dall'Osto, M.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Fernández-Camacho, R.; Rodríguez, S.; Pio, C.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Titos, G.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández Patier, R.

    2013-07-01

    NO2 / (OC + EC) ratios as these standards have been much less effective for the abatement of NOx exhaust emissions in passenger diesel cars. This study concludes that EC, EBC, and especially nmC and OC + EC are very good candidates for new air quality standards since they cover both emission impact and health-related issues.

  8. Air Quality Management Process Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality management are activities a regulatory authority undertakes to protect human health and the environment from the harmful effects of air pollution. The process of managing air quality can be illustrated as a cycle of inter-related elements.

  9. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besis, Athanasios; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Samara, Constantini

    2014-05-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑21PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g(-1) with a median value of 1092 ng g(-1), while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day(-1) (median 12 ng day(-1)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Is It Possible to Detect Activated Brown Adipose Tissue in Humans Using Single-Time-Point Infrared Thermography under Thermoneutral Conditions? Impact of BMI and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Thickness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergios Gatidis

    Full Text Available To evaluate the feasibility to detect activated brown adipose tissue (BAT using single-time-point infrared thermography of the supraclavicular skin region under thermoneutral conditions. To this end, infrared thermography was compared with 18-F-FDG PET, the current reference standard for the detection of activated BAT.120 patients were enrolled in this study. After exclusion of 18 patients, 102 patients (44 female, 58 male, mean age 58±17 years were included for final analysis. All patients underwent a clinically indicated 18F-FDG-PET/CT examination. Immediately prior to tracer injection skin temperatures of the supraclavicular, presternal and jugular regions were measured using spatially resolved infrared thermography at room temperature. The presence of activated BAT was determined in PET by typical FDG uptake within the supraclavicular adipose tissue compartments. Local thickness of supraclavicular subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT was measured on CT. Measured skin temperatures were statistically correlated with the presence of activated BAT and anthropometric data.Activated BAT was detected in 9 of 102 patients (8.8%. Local skin temperature of the supraclavicular region was significantly higher in individuals with active BAT compared to individuals without active BAT. However, after statistical correction for the influence of BMI, no predictive value of activated BAT on skin temperature of the supraclavicular region could be observed. Supraclavicular skin temperature was significantly negatively correlated with supraclavicular SCAT thickness.We conclude that supraclavicular SCAT thickness influences supraclavicular skin temperature and thus makes a specific detection of activated BAT using single-time-point thermography difficult. Further studies are necessary to evaluate the possibility of BAT detection using alternative thermographic methods, e.g. dynamic thermography or MR-based thermometry taking into account BMI as a confounding factor.

  11. Banco de semillas en ambientes de las sierras de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina con distinta intensidad de disturbios Seed bank in environments of the Azul sierras (Buenos Aires, Argentina with different disturbance intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gianaccini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A fin de evaluar el impacto de la agricultura sobre la flora potencial de pastizales serranos en el Partido de Azul (Buenos Aires, Argentina, se comparó el banco de semillas en los 20 cm superficiales del suelo entre dos sectores adyacentes en las primeras estribaciones serranas. Uno de ellos está sometido a agricultura permanente y el otro conserva un pastizal natural bajo pastoreo y quemas no programados. Este último sector presentó en promedio una densidad de 70.000 sem m-2 contra 36.720 sem m-2 en el primero. La representación de semillas de especies nativas se redujo notablemente en el ambiente agrícola. Stipa caudata con 31360 sem m-2 resultó la especie más abundante en el pastizal. En el ambiente de cultivo, su densidad se redujo a 9940 sem m-2 y fue superada por Chenopodium album con 10560 sem m-2. La similitud en la composición del banco fue de 55% en términos cualitativos y 27% en términos cuantitativos. Estos resultados evidencian que, en el área de estudio, el reemplazo del pastizal natural por agricultura reduce notoriamente las reservas de semillas y modifica la composición cualitativa y cuantitativa del banco con una elevada pérdida en la proporción de especies nativas.In order to evaluate the impact of agriculture on the potential flora of grasslands of the sierras of Azul (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, the soil seed bank in the top 20 cm from two adjacent areas on the first foothill spurs were compared. One is submitted to continuous agriculture. The other area has grasslands under grazing and non programmed burning. The latter showed a mean density of 70.000 seeds m-2 against a mean density of 36.720 seeds m-2 in the first area. The proportional representation of native species seeds decreased strongly in the agricultural environment. The most abundant species in the grasslands was Stipa caudata (31.360 seeds m-2. In the agricultural environment, its density decreased to 9940 seeds m-2. It was surpassed by

  12. Radiation chemical effects in experiments to study the reaction of glass in an environment of gamma-irradiated air, groundwater, and tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Konynenburg, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    The results of experiments performed by John K. Bates et al. on the reaction of nuclear waste glass with a gamma-irradiated 90 0 C aqueous solution were analyzed using theory developed from past research in radiation chemistry. The aqueous solution they used is similar to what would be expected in a water-saturated environment in a nuclear waste repository in tuff. The purpose of our study was to develop an understanding of the radiation-chemical processes that occurred in the Bates et al. experiments so the results could be applied to the design and performance analysis of a proposed repository in unsaturated tuff in Nevada. For the Bates et al. experiments at the highest dose (269 Mrad), which originally contained about 16 ml of ''equilibrated'' water taken from Nevada Test Site Well J-13 and 5.4 ml of air, we predicted that water decomposition to H 2 and O 2 would produce a pressure increase of at least 1.0 MPa at 20 0 C. We also predicted that nitrogen fixation from the air would occur, producing an increase of 1.6 x 10 -4 M in total fixed nitrogen concentration in solution. In addition, an equimolar production of H + would occur, which would be buffered by the HCO 3 - in the water. The fixed nitrogen in solution was predicted to be present as NO 2 - and NO 3 - with the ratio influenced by the presence of materials catalytic to the decomposition of H 2 O 2 . We found reasonable agreement between our predictions and the observations of Bates et al., where comparisons were possible. We apply the results to the proposed Nevada repository to the degree possible, given the different expected conditions

  13. Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in central air-conditioner filter dust and relevance of non-dietary exposure in occupational indoor environments in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besis, Athanasios; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Botsaropoulou, Elisavet; Samara, Constantini

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) are ubiquitous in the indoor environment owing to their use in consumer products and various studies around the world have found higher concentrations indoors than outdoors. Central air conditioner (A/C) systems have been widely used in many workplaces, therefore, studying of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust is useful to better understand the occurrences and health implications of PBDEs in indoor environments. The present study examined the occurrence of PBDEs in central A/C filter dust collected from various workplaces (n = 20) in Thessaloniki, Greece. The sum concentrations of 21 target congeners (∑ 21 PBDE) in A/C dust ranged between 84 and 4062 ng g −1 with a median value of 1092 ng g −1 , while BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. The daily intake via dust ingestion of PBDEs estimated for the employees of the occupational settings ranged from 3 to 45 ng day −1 (median 12 ng day −1 ). - Highlights: • PBDEs were investigated in dust of A/C filters in occupational settings in Thessaloniki, Greece. • BDE-209 was found to be the most abundant BDE congener. • High levels of PBDEs were found in a newspaper building, internet cafes and electronic shops. • PBDEs were attributable to the extensive presence and/or usage of electronic devices. • Exposure of employees to PBDEs via indoor dust ingestion was estimated at 12 ng day −1 . - PBDEs were for the first time measured in dust from central A/C filters in workplaces of Greece and their concentrations were used to estimate the non-dietary human exposure

  14. Development of a management protocol for the reduction of fuel consumption and decreasing of the emanations of CO2 as contaminant of environment in air service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya Maroto, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    A management protocol is developed for air services companies to improve the eco-efficiency of its processes. The application of operational procedures have allowed the reduction of fuel consumption and decreased the emanations of CO 2 into the environment. The methodology of the research has consisted in quantitative and qualitative analysis of the variables and processes that have influenced significantly in the operation of airline fleet. An integral analysis is realized of the procedures of management and use of resources in the cockpits of the aircraft (Cockpit Resource Management) and navigation based in performance (NBP). The results of analysis are used to elaborate a protocol to minimize the fuel consumption and energy through the application of practices and operational procedures more efficient and safe. The environmental burdens associated with the services that are provided in the airline industry are minimized. The application of methods of improvement and procedures that are updated continuously have achieved the sustainability of the protocol. The operational procedures are applied to decrease the fuel consumption. Sensitization programs are developed for the utilization of more efficient operational practices and friendly with the environment. An incentive program is implemented to optimize the fuel consumption safely by pilots. A new procedure of flight scheduling is modified based on performance of the pilots and fleet degradation factors, assigning the pilots who have had higher consumption to airplanes with lower degradation, and the pilots who have had lower consumption, to airplanes with higher degradation. A self-liquidating incentive plan is developed based on the savings achieved in the operation in high-performance, could reinforce the change of attitude necessary for the group of pilots can support the implementation of the protocol [es

  15. A comparative study of creep rupture behaviour of modified 316L(N) base metal and 316L(N)/16-8-2 weldment in air and liquid sodium environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, M.P.; Mathew, M.D.; Mannan, S.L.; Rodriguez, P.; Borgstedt, H.U.

    1997-01-01

    Creep rupture behaviour of modified type 316L(N) stainless steel base metal and weldments prepared with 16-8-2 filler wire has been investigated in air and flowing sodium environments at 823 K. No adverse environmental effects have been noticed due to sodium on the creep rupture behaviour of these weldments for tests up to 10 000 h. Rupture lives of the weldment were higher in the sodium environment than those in air. Rupture lives of the weldments were found to be lower than those of the base metal by a factor of two to five in both air and sodium environments. Minimum creep rates were essentially the same for the weldment as well as for the base metal in both the environments, whereas rupture strain was usually lower for the weldment than that of the base metal. The reduction in area of the weldment specimens increased with increase in stress. Failures in the specimens of weldments were in the weld metal region. Microstructural studies carried out on failed weldment specimens after the creep rupture tests revealed extensive cavitation in the weld metal region in air tested specimens predominantly at the austerite/δ-ferrite interphase. However, no cavitation was observed in specimens tested in sodium. (author)

  16. Indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Trine Susanne; Recevska, Ieva

     The objective of the 35th specific agreement is to provide support to the EEA activities in Environment and Health (E&H) on the topic of indoor air quality. The specific objectives have been to provide an overview of indoor air related projects in EU and indoor air related policies as well...... as idenfiying "good practices" to reduce health impact of indoor air exposure and suggest areas for future improvements....

  17. 环境风对直接空冷岛换热的影响%The Effects of Environment Wind on Heat Transfer of Direct Air Cooled Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁振宇; 陈巍; 田永兴; 李学智

    2011-01-01

    以国内蒙达电厂600MW直接空冷机组为例,针对当前直接空冷机组运行中的突出问题--环境风的不利影响,利用CFD数值模拟软件Fluent,对空冷岛外部流场进行数值模拟.发现炉后来风、热风回流、倒灌是造成空冷岛换热效率下降的主要因素,分析了炉后来风、热风回流、倒灌等对空冷岛外部流场和换热性能的影响机理,并得到环境风速与热风回流和倒灌的关系.%Taking Mengda 600MW direct air-cooled units ii our country into consideration,in view of serious hurdles of air-cooled units available-the unfavorable influences of Ambient Wind,we tentatively proceeds to making numerical simulation research on external flow field of direct air-cooled island by using CFD software Fluent. Found that the wind generating from the boiler house afterwards,hot air re-circulation and air inverse flow are the main factors of decline in the efficiency of air-cooled island heat. This paper proposed the mechanism of ambient wind impacts,and the analysis on such effects of the wind generating from the boiler house afterwards,hot air re-circulation and air inverse flow on external flow field and heat exchange efficiency of air-cooled island was thus been within reach, found out hot air re-circulation and air inverse flow relationship between the wind speed.

  18. Pesticides and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticides and the Environment Related Topics: What Happens to Pesticides Released into the Environment? Pesticide Storage Pesticide Disposal Pesticide Products Integrated Pest Management (IPM) How Safe

  19. Evaluation of the impact of general phosphate fertilizers factories company on the surrounding environment by determining natural radionuclides and some trace elements in air particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Kharfan, K.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Al-Shamali, K.

    2004-01-01

    Natural radionuclides and some trace element levels in air particulates of the areas surrounding the phosphate fertilizers factory in Homs have been determined Mean total air particulates concentration ranged from 31 μg/m3 in Kerba Al-Teen in Autumn period. While trace element concentrations in air particulates were relatively high in air particulates collected from AECS center and other sites situated north east of the factory; about 1.7 ng/m3 in AECS site and 1.7 ng/m3 in Abel for uranium and cadmium, respectively. In addition, radioactivity analysis of air particulates has shown low levels of polonium 210 and lead 210; a value of 2 mBq/m3 in Kerba Al-Teen has not been exceeded. However, air particulate, natural radionuclides and the studied trace elements concentrations in the surrounding areas were within the natural levels. Therefore, air emissions from the factory containing radioactive materials and trace elements are relatively low. This is due to strict control procedures on transport and loading processes of phosphate in addition to the high efficiency of filters used for air emissions from the phosphate fertilizers factory during the study period (2002). (author)

  20. Assessment of the thermal environment effects on human comfort and health for the development of novel air conditioning system in tropical regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookchaiya, Thammanoon; Monyakul, Veerapol; Thepa, Sirichai [Division of Energy Technology, School of Energy Environment and Materials, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2010-10-15

    This research shows the result of a brainstorming by medical experts in the first ranking university medical school and hospital of Thailand. It was based on Delphi technique. The objective of this research was to study both direct and indirect effects of humidity and temperature on human health in air-conditioned buildings in Thailand. Afterwards, the result was used to design and develop split type air conditioner (conventional air conditioner) which could control relative humidity and temperature with precision air conditioning system to comply with the climate and the suitability of the people living in Thailand building. The result of operation with precision inverter air conditioning system showed that the temperature inside the room changed from the default value around {+-}0.2 C (Case 1) and around {+-}0.35 C (Case 2) and it could control relative humidity as a desired condition between 50-60% (both cases) which was the appropriate range for Thai climate. Moreover, energy consumption of precision inverter air conditioning system was still less than conventional air conditioning system for about 7.5%. This research could provide people living in Thailand air conditioned building with human thermal comfort and health. (author)

  1. Community Air Sensor Network (CAIRSENSE) project: Evaluation of low-cost sensor performance in a suburban environment in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advances in air pollution sensor technology have enabled the development of small and low cost systems to measure outdoor air pollution. The deployment of a large number of sensors across a small geographic area would have potential benefits to supplement traditional monitoring n...

  2. Evaluation of the impact of general phosphate fertilizers factories company on the surrounding environment by determining natural radionuclides and some trace elements in air particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M. S.; Al-Kharfan, K.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Al-Shmali, K.; Abdul Haleem, M.

    2003-12-01

    Natural radionuclides and some trace element levels in air particulates of the areas surrounding the phosphate fertilizers factory in Homs have been determined mean total air particulates concentration ranged from 31μg/m 3 in Kerba Al-Teen in autumn period. While trace element concentrations in air particulates were relatively high in air particulates collected from AECS center and other sites situated north east of the factory: about 1.7 ng/m 3 in AECS site and 1.7 ng/m 3 in Abel for uranium and cadmium, respectively. In addition, radioactivity analysis of air particulates have shown low levels of polonium 210 and lead 210, a value of 2 mBg/m 3 in Kerba Al-Teen has not been exceeded. However, air particulate, natural radionuclides and the studied trace elements concentrations in the surrounding areas were within the natural levels. Therefore, air emissions from the factory containing radioactive materials and trace elements are relatively low. This is due to strict control procedures on transport and loading processes of phosphate in addition to the high efficiency of filters used for air emissions from the phosphate fertilizers factory during the study period (2002).(author)

  3. Environment control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammarone, D.G.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a system for controlling the environment of an enclosed area in nuclear reactor installations. The system permits the changing of the environment from nitrogen to air, or from air to nitrogen, without the release of any radioactivity or process gas to the outside atmosphere

  4. Study of alternatives for improving air quality in the town of Itagui, the result of an examination under the scheme of analysis Environment Energy Economy with the MARKAL model and evaluation of goals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Builes J, Luis A; Franco M, Cristina; Rave Claudia C

    2008-01-01

    For the integrated analysis and assessment of the air quality improvement guidelines in the Aburra Valley region and its municipality Itagui, it is used a multi-period optimization model Markal for an Energy-Environment-Economy scenario analysis on industry and transport sector and, a Targets evaluation methodology for policy assessment on air quality, environmental noise and morbidity. The methodological approach offers the possibility to integrate different variables and decisions to analyze this very complex problem, review different technological scenarios and to analyze their relationships with land use policies among others. The results provide a more integrated panorama of the air quality problematic to policy design and assessment including externalises indicators. The proposed methodology is replicable in other municipalities of the region.

  5. Indoor Environment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daisey, J.M.

    1993-06-01

    This paper reports progress during the year 1992 in the Indoor Environment Program in the Energy and Environment Division of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Studies in the following areas are reported: energy performance and ventilation in buildings; physical and chemical characterization of indoor air pollutants; indoor radon; indoor air quality; exposure to indoor air pollutants and risk analysis. Pollutants of particular interest include: radon; volatile, semi-volatile and particulate organic compounds; and combustion emissions including environmental tobacco smoke, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides

  6. Individually Controlled Indoor Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    The thermal environment and inhaled air quality in buildings to which occupants are exposed has an effect on their health, comfort, performance and productivity. Heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) of buildings today is designed to provide a uniform environment. However, large...... individual differences in physiological and psychological response, clothing insulation, activity, preference for air temperature and movement, etc., exist between people. Environmental conditions acceptable for most of the occupants in buildings may be achieved by providing each occupant...

  7. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  8. A Fleet of Low-Cost Sensor Based Air Quality Monitors Is Used to Measure Carbon Dioxide and Carbon Monoxide in Two Settings: In the Ambient Environment to Explore the Regional-Scale Spatial Variability of These Compounds Via a Distributed Network, and in Homes to Investigate How Heating during Winter Months can Impact Indoor Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, J. G.; Hannigan, M.; Collier, A. M.; Coffey, E.; Piedrahita, R.

    2016-12-01

    Affordable, small, portable, quiet tools to measure atmospheric trace gases and air quality enable novel experimental design and new findings. Members of the Hannigan Lab at the University of Colorado in Boulder have been working over the last few years to integrate emerging affordable gas sensors into such an air quality monitor. Presented here are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements from two field experiments that utilized these tools. In the first experiment, ten air quality monitors were located northeast of Boulder throughout the Denver Julesburg oil and gas basin. The Colorado Department of Health and Environment has several air quality monitoring sites in this broader region, each in an Urban center. One goal of the experiment was to determine whether or not significant spatial variability of EPA criteria pollutants like CO, exists on a sub-regulatory monitoring grid scale. Another goal of the experiment was to compare rural sampling locations with urban sites. The monitors collected continuous data (sampling every 15 seconds) at each location over the course of several months. Our sensor calibration procedures are presented along with our observations and an analysis of the spatial and temporal variability in CO and CO2. In the second experiment, we used eight of our air quality monitors to better understand how home heating fuel type can impact indoor air quality in two communities on the Navajo Nation. We sought to compare air quality in homes using one of four different fuels for heat (wood, wood plus coal, pellet, and gas). There are many factors that contribute to indoor air quality and the impact of an emission source, like a woodstove, within a home. Having multiple, easily deployable, air quality monitors allowed us to account for many of these factors. We sampled four homes at a time, aiming for one home from each of our fuel groups in each sampling period. We sampled inside and outside of each home for a period of 3-4 days

  9. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This chapter of the 'Assessment of the state of the environment in Lebanon' describes the air quality and identifies the most important air quality issues. Baseline information about the factors affecting dispersion and the climate of Lebanon presents as well and overall estimation of total emissions in Lebanon. Emissions from vehicles, electricity and power plants generation are described. Industrial emitters of air pollutants are described for each kind of industry i.e.cement plants, Selaata fertilizer factory, sugar-beet factory, refineries and for those derived from the use of leaded fuel . Impact of economic and human activities on air quality in Lebanon (especially in Beirut and Tripoli) are quantified by quantities of CO 2 , SO 2 , NO x , total suspended particulates(TSP), deposition and their environmental effects on health. In abscence of emissions monitoring, data available are expressed in terms of fuel use, output and appropriate empirical factors, national output and workfores sizes. Finally key issues and some potential mitigation /management approaches are presented

  10. Short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in air and soil of subtropical terrestrial environment in the pearl river delta, South China: distribution, composition, atmospheric deposition fluxes, and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Li, Jun; Cheng, Zhineng; Li, Qilu; Pan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Ruijie; Liu, Di; Luo, Chunling; Liu, Xiang; Katsoyiannis, Athanasios; Zhang, Gan

    2013-03-19

    Research on the environmental fate of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs and MCCPs) in highly industrialized subtropical areas is still scarce. Air, soil, and atmospheric deposition process in the Pearl River Delta of South China were investigated, and the average SCCP and MCCP concentrations were 5.2 μg/sampler (17.69 ng/m(3)) and 4.1 μg/sampler for passive air samples, 18.3 and 59.3 ng/g for soil samples, and 5.0 and 5.3 μg/(m(2)d) for deposition samples, respectively. Influenced by primary sources and the properties of chlorinated paraffins (CPs), a gradient trend of concentrations and a fractionation of composition from more to less industrialized areas were discovered. Intense seasonal variations with high levels in summer air and winter deposition samples indicated that the air and deposition CP levels were controlled mainly by the vapor and particle phase, respectively. Complex environmental processes like volatilization and fractionation resulted in different CP profiles in different environment matrixes and sampling locations, with C(10-11) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-7), C(10-12) C(l6-7) and C(14) C(l6-8), and C(11-12) C(l6-8) and C(14) C(l7-8) dominating in air, soil, and atmospheric deposition, respectively. Shorter-chain and less chlorinated congeners were enriched in air in the less industrialized areas, while longer-chain and higher chlorinated congeners were concentrated in soil in the more industrialized areas. This is suggesting that the gaseous transport of CPs is the dominant mechanism responsible for the higher concentrations of lighter and likely more mobile CPs in the rural areas.

  11. Towards the year 2000: Critical issues in the global environment. A summary of the 9th World Clean Air Congress of the International Union of Air Pollution Prevention Associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The global impact of environmental issues, such as sustainable development, technology transfer North to South and the link between economics and environmental protection, was a central theme at the 9th World Clean Air Congress. The Congress supported increased cooperation among individuals, organizations, governments and companies by providing a forum to share environmental concerns and problem-solving approaches

  12. Health and Safety Laboratory environmental quarterly, March 1, 1977--June 1, 1977. [Air pollution in environs of Cu smelter and fallout radionuclides in food chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, E.P. Jr.

    1977-07-01

    This report presents current information from the HASL environmental programs, The Technical University of Wroclaw, Poland, and the Radiological and Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory. The initial section consists of interpretive reports and notes on environmental levels of lead and mercury in the area of a copper smelter, radionuclide uptake by cultivated dusts in crops, and fallout strontium-90 in diet through 1976. Subsequent sections include tabulations of radionuclide concentrations in stratospheric air, radionuclide and stable lead concentrations in surface air, strontium-90 in deposition, milk, diet, and tapwater and cesium-137 in diet and tapwater. A bibliography of recent publications related to environmental studies is also presented.

  13. AirPEx. Air Pollution Exposure Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freijer, J.I.; Bloemen, H.J.Th.; De Loos, S.; Marra, M.; Rombout, P.J.A.; Steentjes, G.M.; Van Veen, M.P.

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants. 57 refs.

  14. Bad traffic, bad air

    OpenAIRE

    Duca, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is one of Malta’s greatest concerns. Transportation is the principal source with over 300,000 vehicles belching out smoke, which damages our environment and health. Emissions from vehicles need to be monitored and controlled, and the information used to improve the current system and ensure an acceptable air quality. By using the pollution data set, Nicolette Formosa (supervised by Dr Kenneth Scerri) mapped the air pollution levels and major sources around Malta. http://www....

  15. [CHEMICAL AIR POLLUTION OF THE OCCUPATIONAL ENVIRONMENT AS A FACTOR FOR PROFESSIONAL RISK FOR WORKERS OF MAIN OCCUPATIONS IN THE COPPER AND NICKEL METALLURGY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, G Ia; Adrianovskiĭ, V I; Gogoleva, O I

    2015-01-01

    There are presented the results of hygienic researches of the harmful substances content in the air of the working area ofthe copper and nickel metallurgy. Sulfur-containing gases (primarily sulfur dioxide), to the effects of which there are exposed workers of drying, smelting, converter conversion, are shown to play a leading role among professional factors.

  16. Air Conditioner/Dehumidifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    An ordinary air conditioner in a very humid environment must overcool the room air, then reheat it. Mr. Dinh, a former STAC associate, devised a heat pipe based humidifier under a NASA Contract. The system used heat pipes to precool the air; the air conditioner's cooling coil removes heat and humidity, then the heat pipes restore the overcooled air to a comfortable temperature. The heat pipes use no energy, and typical savings are from 15-20%. The Dinh Company also manufactures a "Z" coil, a retrofit cooling coil which may be installed on an existing heater/air conditioner. It will also provide free hot water. The company has also developed a photovoltaic air conditioner and solar powered water pump.

  17. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, it's ...

  18. A Discussion of Patient Safety Programs in the United States Air Force Ground Medical Expeditionary Environment and an Analysis of Potential Solutions for Increasing Their Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    deployed environment . Finally, recommendations are introduced to help realize the ultimate trusted care goal of “zero (patient) harm,” wherever care may...Defense Medical Treatment Facilities (MTFs).10 Specifically, Department of Defense health care organizations were now required to establish “a...expeditionary environment , to the maximum extent possible. Trusted Care begins with me, you, and us all – everywhere and anywhere care may be provided

  19. Open and Shut: The Case for Optimizing Air Component Resilient Basing Strategies in an Anti-Access/Area Denial Operating Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-09

    explain the definitions of the associated terminology adequately. That is not done here in an attempt to prescribe definitions, but rather as a means to...internal medical capability such as public health and advanced life support.”7 That is a significant amount of responsibility and requires a large...in knowledge and analysis when the nation’s leading air mobility proponents are using somewhat dissimilar terminology from the rest of the joint

  20. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL; Linkous, Randall Lee [ORNL; Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc.; Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc.

    2015-08-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient Temperature Testing Program for Low-GWP Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-Global Warming Potential (low-GWP) alternatives to Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and Hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high ambient temperature conditions. This interim working paper describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerants selection process, the test procedures, and the preliminary results.

  1. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and R-410A Alternatives for Mini-Split Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Shrestha, Som S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Munk, Jeffrey D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Guernsey, Matt [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Kassuga, Theo [Navigant Consulting Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High-Ambient-Temperature Evaluation Program for low– global warming potential (Low-GWP) Refrigerants aims to develop an understanding of the performance of low-GWP alternative refrigerants to hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants in mini-split air conditioners under high-ambient-temperature conditions. This final report describes the parties involved, the alternative refrigerant selection process, the test procedures, and the final results.

  2. Análisis del entorno sinóptico asociado con eventos de Bow-Echo en la Provincia de Buenos Aires Synoptic Environment Analysis Associated With Bow - Echo Events In The Province Of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Torres Brizuela

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante la madrugada del día 21 de Octubre de 2008 se desarrollaron tres líneas convectivas en la provincia de Buenos Aires, captadas por los radares meteorológicos de las localidades de Ezeiza y Pergamino. La estructura espacial y evolución temporal del campo de reflectividad de estos sistemas, configuración de línea en arco, responde al modo convectivo conocido con el nombre de “bow-echo”. La imagen doppler del radar de Ezeiza registró un fenómeno típico en la parte posterior de estas líneas en arco: los vientos intensos mayores a 20 m.s-1. El objetivo principal de este estudio es comprender las condiciones sinópticas que acompañaron la ocurrencia de estos sistemas para poder contribuir al pronóstico de su ocurrencia. En este evento las condiciones de humedad especifica en la zona del norte de la provincia de Buenos Aires (q≥ 12-14 g.kg-1, así como la de cortante vertical del viento por debajo del nivel de 700 hPa (Us>15 m.s-1 coinciden en indicar al entorno como favorable al desarrollo del mismo, aunque no así los valores disponibles de CAPE evaluados para parcelas que se elevan desde superficie.During the morning hours on October 21 2008, three convective lines developed over the Buenos Aires province, and were captured by the meteorological radars located at Ezeiza and Pergamino. The spatial structure and temporal evolution of the reflectivity field of these convective systems present the attributes of the particular convective system referred to as a “bow-echo”. Ezeiza doppler radar images, captured winds stronger than 20 m.s-1 behind these arc lines, a phenomenon that frequently characterizes the presence of a bow-echo. The main objective of this study is to understand the synoptic weather conditions accompanying the occurrence of these bow echo events to enhance the weather forecasting of these systems. On this particular case the specific humidity field over the northern part of the Buenos Aires province (q

  3. Air system in the hot cell for injectable radiopharmaceutical production: requirements for personnel and environment safety and protection of the product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Fabio E.; Araujo, Elaine B., E-mail: fecampos@ipen.b, E-mail: ebaraujo@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are applied in Nuclear Medicine in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and must be manufactured in accordance with the basic principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for sterile pharmaceutical products. In order to prevent the uncontrolled spread of radioactive contamination, the processing of radioactive materials requires an exhausted and shielded special enclosure called hot cell. The quality of air inside the hot cell must be controlled in order to prevent the contamination of the product with particulate material or microorganisms. On the other hand, the hot cell must prevent external contamination with radioactive material. The aim of this work is to discuss the special requirements for hot cells taking in account the national rules for injectable pharmaceutical products and international standards available. Ventilation of radiopharmaceutical production facilities should meet the requirement to prevent the contamination of products and the exposure of working personnel to radioactivity. Positive pressure areas should be used to process sterile products. In general, any radioactivity should handle within specifically designed areas maintained under negative pressures. The production of sterile radioactive products should therefore be carried out under negative pressure surrounded by a positive pressure zone ensuring that appropriate air quality requirements are met. Some of the recent developments in the use of radioisotopes in medical field have also significantly impacted on the evolution of handling facilities. Application of pharmaceutical GMP requirements for air quality and processing conditions in the handling facilities of radioactive pharmaceuticals has led to significant improvements in the construction of isolator-like hot cells and clean rooms with HEPA filtered ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Clean grade A (class 100) air quality hot cells are now available commercially, but in a high cost

  4. Air system in the hot cell for injectable radiopharmaceutical production: requirements for personnel and environment safety and protection of the product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos, Fabio E.; Araujo, Elaine B.

    2009-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are applied in Nuclear Medicine in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and must be manufactured in accordance with the basic principles of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for sterile pharmaceutical products. In order to prevent the uncontrolled spread of radioactive contamination, the processing of radioactive materials requires an exhausted and shielded special enclosure called hot cell. The quality of air inside the hot cell must be controlled in order to prevent the contamination of the product with particulate material or microorganisms. On the other hand, the hot cell must prevent external contamination with radioactive material. The aim of this work is to discuss the special requirements for hot cells taking in account the national rules for injectable pharmaceutical products and international standards available. Ventilation of radiopharmaceutical production facilities should meet the requirement to prevent the contamination of products and the exposure of working personnel to radioactivity. Positive pressure areas should be used to process sterile products. In general, any radioactivity should handle within specifically designed areas maintained under negative pressures. The production of sterile radioactive products should therefore be carried out under negative pressure surrounded by a positive pressure zone ensuring that appropriate air quality requirements are met. Some of the recent developments in the use of radioisotopes in medical field have also significantly impacted on the evolution of handling facilities. Application of pharmaceutical GMP requirements for air quality and processing conditions in the handling facilities of radioactive pharmaceuticals has led to significant improvements in the construction of isolator-like hot cells and clean rooms with HEPA filtered ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Clean grade A (class 100) air quality hot cells are now available commercially, but in a high cost

  5. An experimental and mathematical modeling study comparing the reactivity and burnout of pulverized coal in air (O{sub 2}/N{sub 2}) and oxyfuel (O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}) environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liza Elliott; Yinghui Liu; Bart Buhre; Jennifer Martin; Raj Gupta; Terry Wall [University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development, Chemical Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Carbon dioxide in flue gas from conventional combustion processes is present as a dilute gas. CO{sub 2} capture is more easily achieved from a concentrated CO{sub 2} stream, which can be achieved by firing fuels with oxygen to obtain a sequestration ready gas stream, called oxy-fuel combustion. In this technology, the oxygen stream is usually diluted by recycled flue gas (RFG), so that the coal burns in an environment which is primarily O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2}. A size cut of a number of pulverised coals were devolatalised in N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}. These sized coals were also combusted in a drop-tube furnace in an O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} environment simulating air combustion, and O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} simulating oxyfuel combustion, with varying O{sub 2} levels from 3 to 30% v/v. Measurements of the extent of devolatilisation and coal burnout were completed. The detailed data provided for one coal indicated that the devolatilisation process in the O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} environments is influenced by char gasification, and the char reaction rates are fitted better by a fractional order rate than first order in oxygen. Combustion rates in the oxyfuel environment were slightly higher. Estimates of the burnout for furnaces retrofitted from air to oxyfuel indicate that a better burnout can be expected. These trends were common for all coals. 14 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Components of the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This report of the Ministry of the Environment of the Slovak Republic deals with the components of the environment. The results of monitoring of air (emission situation), ambient air quality, atmospheric precipitation, tropospheric ozone, water (surface water, groundwater resources, waste water and drinking water), geological factors (geothermal energy, fuel deposits, ore deposits, non-metallic ore deposits), soil (area statistics, soil contamination. soil reaction and active extractable aluminium, soil erosion), flora and fauna (national strategy of biodiversity protection) are presented

  7. Respostas fisiológicas de caprinos nativos mantidos em temperatura termoneutra e em estresse térmico Physiological responses of native goats maintained in thermoneutral temperature and thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz F. de A. Lucena

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, analisar as respostas fisiológicas de duas raças de caprinos nativos do semiárido brasileiro submetidos a ambiente com temperatura e umidade relativa controladas; utilizaram-se 12 animais machos, 6 Canindés e 6 Moxotós, com pesos médios iniciais de 19,6 ± 1,9 kg e 20,4 ± 1,6 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial (2 x 4, duas raças e quatro níveis de temperatura (20,6, 24,8, 27,8 e 31,6°C, com 6 repetições, e umidade relativa média do ar de 60 ± 5% e velocidade do vento de 0,5m s-1. Na temperatura entre 20,6 e 27,8°C a média da frequência respiratória (25,7 mov min-1 e frequência cardíaca (76,7 mov min-1 dos animais ficaram dentro da normalidade, sendo que a 31,6°C ocorreu elevação da frequência respiratória (134,5 mov min-1 e da frequência cardíaca (104,3 mov min-1. A temperatura retal foi semelhante em todas as temperaturas com média de 39,5°C, dentro da faixa de normalidade para a espécie. A temperatura superficial elevou-se com o aumento da temperatura ambiente. A faixa de temperatura de 20,6 a 27,8 °C pode ser considerada a zona de conforto térmico para caprinos nativos Moxotó e Canindé.The objective of this study was to determine the physiological response of two caprine races from the Brazilian semiarid, submitted to a controlled thermal conditions in a climatic chamber. Twelve male animals were used, 6 Canindés e 6 Moxotós, with mean weight of 19,6 ± 1,9 kg and 20,4 ± 1,6 kg distributed in a completely randomized design, in factorial scheme (2 x 4, two races and four temperature levels (20.6, 24.8, 27.8 and 31,6°C, with six repetitions, with mean relative air humidity of 60 ± 5% and wind speed of 0.5 m s-1. In the temperature between 20.6 and 27.8°C the mean respiratory frequency (25.7 mov min-1 and cardiac frequency (76.7 mov min-1 of the animals were within normality, however, at 31.6°C, occurred elevation to 134.5 and

  8. Air pollution engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduna, Karolina; Tomašić, Vesna

    2017-11-01

    Air pollution is an environmental and a social problem which leads to a multitude of adverse effects on human health and standard of human life, state of the ecosystems and global change of climate. Air pollutants are emitted from natural, but mostly from anthropogenic sources and may be transported over long distances. Some air pollutants are extremely stable in the atmosphere and may accumulate in the environment and in the food chain, affecting human beings, animals and natural biodiversity. Obviously, air pollution is a complex problem that poses multiple challenges in terms of management and abatements of the pollutants emission. Effective approach to the problems of air pollution requires a good understanding of the sources that cause it, knowledge of air quality status and future trends as well as its impact on humans and ecosystems. This chapter deals with the complexities of the air pollution and presents an overview of different technical processes and equipment for air pollution control, as well as basic principles of their work. The problems of air protection as well as protection of other ecosystems can be solved only by the coordinated endeavors of various scientific and engineering disciplines, such as chemistry, physics, biology, medicine, chemical engineering and social sciences. The most important engineering contribution is mostly focused on development, design and operation of equipment for the abatement of harmful emissions into environment.

  9. A poluição do ar em ambientes internos e a síndrome dos edifícios doentes Air pollution in internal environments and sick building syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldir Nagel Schirmer

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A Qualidade do Ar Interno (QAI surgiu como ciência a partir da década de 70 com a crise energética e a consequente construção dos edifícios selados (desprovidos de ventilação natural, principalmente nos países desenvolvidos, e se destacou após a descoberta de que a diminuição das taxas de troca de ar nesses ambientes era a grande responsável pelo aumento da concentração de poluentes no ar interno. Admite-se que a ventilação seja um dos principais fatores que interferem na qualidade do ar interno e que os próprios ocupantes dos edifícios contribuem substancialmente com a poluição destes ambientes através de suas atividades. Sabe-se ainda que a má qualidade do ar interno está associada a doenças (como tosse, rinite, alergia, etc. e à Síndrome dos Edifícios Doentes (SED. Para amostragem de substâncias gasosas no ar de ambientes internos dispõe-se de diversas metodologias, sendo as principais: sistemas passivos de monitoramento, sistemas ativos e automáticos. Para a efetiva promoção de um ambiente saudável, deve-se conciliar a aplicação de legislações específicas com pesquisas e conscientização dos ocupantes dos edifícios. Essa revisão objetiva relacionar os diferentes contaminantes encontrados em ambientes internos, seus efeitos à saúde humana e suas metodologias de amostragem.Indoor Air Quality (IAQ emerged as a science from the 1970s onwards with the energy crisis and the subsequent construction of sealed buildings (without natural ventilation. This mainly occurred in developed countries and it soon came to public attention that lower levels of air exchange in these environments was the main culprit for the increase in concentration of indoor air pollutants. It is common knowledge that ventilation is one of the principal factors that interfere with air quality in indoor environments and that the occupants contribute to the pollution of these environments with their activities. Furthermore, poor indoor

  10. Studies of the terrestrial environment and ambient air quality in the vicinity of the Eldorado Resources Ltd. Refinery at Blind River, Ontario 1981-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spires, A.C.; Negusanti, J.J.; Bazinet, D.J.

    1989-08-01

    In 1981, a program was initiated to obtain background data on soils and vegetation in the vicinity of the Eldorado uranium trioxide plant in Blind River, Ontario prior to operational startup in 1983. Soil and vegetation samples have been collected annually for chemical analyses at 7 plot sites between 1981 and 1987. All samples were anlayzed for U, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Co, Fe, S, Ca, Mg, and K. Of these elements, only uranium showed an increase in concentration in foliage samples collected in close proximity to the refinery following startup. Uranium accumulation occurred in red and white pine needles up to a level of 100 [mu]g/g. Uranium levels found in all soil and wild edible samples were considered normal. The increase of uranium content observed over time in the collected vegetation samples shows deposition from the refinery is being retained in annual vegetation and accumulated in conifers. Since uranium levels are low in soil, the levels in vegetation result from deposition and not uptake. A high-volume air sampling program was also initiated in 1982 in Blind River. Air sampler filters were weighed to determine total suspended particulate and were subjected to radiological analysis. Particulate levels were found to be low and no increase in particulate or radiological parameter levels was observed since the startup of the refinery. 9 refs., 4 figs., 17 tabs.

  11. Long-term behaviour of plutonium in air and deposition and the role of resuspension in a semi-rural environment in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R. [GSF-National Research Center for Environment and Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Neuherberg (Germany)

    1997-03-05

    Despite a long while since the last surface nuclear weapons test (China, 1980), and since the Chernobyl accident (1986), very small concentrations of plutonium in air and deposition are still observable. The present paper reports and discusses results from our sampling site at Munich-Neuherberg from 1970 to the end of 1991, emphasizing the period since 1985. The methods of sample collection, preparation and radiochemical plutonium analysis are indicated in brief. To obtain Pu values above the detection limit, after 1985 our regular monthly samples were combined to yearly ones, except during the Chernobyl period. The annual mean values of {sup 239+240}Pu air concentration (e.g. 6-2 nBq m{sup -3} between 1987 and 1991) and annual sums of total deposition (e.g. 9-2 mBq m{sup -2} between 1987 and 1991) are reported as well as the Pu specific activities in the top soil layers (0-1, 1-2, 2-5 cm) in 1987 and 1993. The temporal variation of these quantities and the role of resuspension in interpreting the presently observed Pu concentrations are discussed. A practically constant resuspension factor K, 1.20{+-}0.05{center_dot}10{sup -9} m{sup -1}, is obtained for {sup 239+240}Pu from 1989 through 1991, provided the decrease of Pu in the top 0-1 cm soil layer is taken into account.

  12. Long-term behaviour of plutonium in air and deposition and the role of resuspension in a semi-rural environment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, G.; Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1997-01-01

    Despite a long while since the last surface nuclear weapons test (China, 1980), and since the Chernobyl accident (1986), very small concentrations of plutonium in air and deposition are still observable. The present paper reports and discusses results from our sampling site at Munich-Neuherberg from 1970 to the end of 1991, emphasizing the period since 1985. The methods of sample collection, preparation and radiochemical plutonium analysis are indicated in brief. To obtain Pu values above the detection limit, after 1985 our regular monthly samples were combined to yearly ones, except during the Chernobyl period. The annual mean values of 239+240 Pu air concentration (e.g. 6-2 nBq m -3 between 1987 and 1991) and annual sums of total deposition (e.g. 9-2 mBq m -2 between 1987 and 1991) are reported as well as the Pu specific activities in the top soil layers (0-1, 1-2, 2-5 cm) in 1987 and 1993. The temporal variation of these quantities and the role of resuspension in interpreting the presently observed Pu concentrations are discussed. A practically constant resuspension factor K, 1.20±0.05·10 -9 m -1 , is obtained for 239+240 Pu from 1989 through 1991, provided the decrease of Pu in the top 0-1 cm soil layer is taken into account

  13. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air ... will perform any procedures that use air-abrasion technology. Ask your dentist if he or she uses ...

  14. Electronic environments in Ni{sub 3}Pb{sub 2}S{sub 2} (shandite) and its initial oxidation in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, William M.; Qian, Gujie [Ian Wark Research Institute, ARC Special Research Centre for Particle and Material Interfaces, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia); Buckley, Alan N., E-mail: a.buckley@unsw.edu.au [School of Chemistry, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Polycrystalline Ni{sub 3}Pb{sub 2}S{sub 2} (shandite) was synthesised as a non-porous ingot to enable representative surfaces prepared by fracture under UHV to be characterised by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) before and after exposure to air. For an unoxidised surface, the S 2p{sub 3/2} binding energy was found to be significantly lower than those reported previously for shandite itself and other sulfides having shandite structure, and consistent with the physical and chemical properties of the shandites. The core electron binding energies for the three constituent elements were in agreement with the formal oxidation state representation Ni{sup 0}{sub 3}Pb{sup II}{sub 2}S{sup −II}{sub 2}, analogous to that deduced previously for Ni{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}S{sub 2}. Shandite surfaces were found to oxidise rapidly when initially exposed to air under ambient conditions, and concomitant with the formation of the Ni–O and Pb–O species, to restructure to NiS- and PbS-like surface phases having S core electron binding energies no higher than those for shandite. - Graphical abstract: Shandite ingot fracture surface in sample holder. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Shandite synthesised as ingot so that fracture surfaces were representative of bulk. • Surfaces prepared by fracture in vacuum characterised by XPS. • S 2p{sub 3/2} binding energy in range expected and lower than reported previously. • Ni, Pb and S core electron binding energies consistent with Ni{sup 0}{sub 3}Pb{sup II}{sub 2}S{sup −II}{sub 2}.

  15. Adaptive Automation Triggered by EEG-Based Mental Workload Index: A Passive Brain-Computer Interface Application in Realistic Air Traffic Control Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Pietro; Borghini, Gianluca; Di Flumeri, Gianluca; Colosimo, Alfredo; Bonelli, Stefano; Golfetti, Alessia; Pozzi, Simone; Imbert, Jean-Paul; Granger, Géraud; Benhacene, Raïlane; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive Automation (AA) is a promising approach to keep the task workload demand within appropriate levels in order to avoid both the under - and over-load conditions, hence enhancing the overall performance and safety of the human-machine system. The main issue on the use of AA is how to trigger the AA solutions without affecting the operative task. In this regard, passive Brain-Computer Interface (pBCI) systems are a good candidate to activate automation, since they are able to gather information about the covert behavior (e.g., mental workload) of a subject by analyzing its neurophysiological signals (i.e., brain activity), and without interfering with the ongoing operational activity. We proposed a pBCI system able to trigger AA solutions integrated in a realistic Air Traffic Management (ATM) research simulator developed and hosted at ENAC (É cole Nationale de l'Aviation Civile of Toulouse, France). Twelve Air Traffic Controller (ATCO) students have been involved in the experiment and they have been asked to perform ATM scenarios with and without the support of the AA solutions. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed pBCI system, since it enabled the AA mostly during the high-demanding conditions (i.e., overload situations) inducing a reduction of the mental workload under which the ATCOs were operating. On the contrary, as desired, the AA was not activated when workload level was under the threshold, to prevent too low demanding conditions that could bring the operator's workload level toward potentially dangerous conditions of underload.

  16. Characterizing the annual cycle of African dust transport to the Caribbean Basin and South America and its impact on the environment and air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prospero, Joseph M.; Collard, François-Xavier; Molinié, Jack; Jeannot, Alexis

    2014-07-01

    Decades of aerosol measurements on Barbados have yielded a detailed picture of African mineral dust transport to the Caribbean Basin that shows a strong seasonal cycle with a maximum in boreal summer and a minimum in winter. Satellite aerosol products suggest that in spring, there is a comparable transport to northeastern South America. Here we characterize the complete annual cycle of dust transport to the western Atlantic by linking the Barbados record to multiyear records of airborne particulate matter less than 10 µm diameter (PM10) measured in air quality programs at Cayenne (French Guiana) and Guadeloupe. Comparisons of PM10 at these sites with concurrent dust measurements at Barbados demonstrate that high PM10 levels are almost entirely due to dust. Cayenne PM10 peaks in spring in a cycle which is consistent with satellite aerosol optical depth and suggests that the Sahel is the dominant source. The persistent transport of dust during much of the year could impact a wide range of environmental processes over a broad region that extends from the southern United States to the Amazon Basin. Finally, the average 24 h PM10 concentrations at Cayenne and Guadeloupe frequently exceed the World Health Organization air quality guideline. Thus soil dust PM10 could be a significant, but generally unrecognized, health factor at western Atlantic sites and also in other relatively remote regions affected by long-range dust from Africa. Because dust emissions and transport are highly sensitive to climate variability, climate change in coming decades could greatly affect a wide range of biogeochemical processes and human health in this region.

  17. Environment annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    In the 1993 Environment Annual Report for BNFL, data are presented for radioactive discharges to the environment and their associated doses to the criteria group members of the public in the vicinity of Sellafield, Drigg, Chapelcross, Springfields and Capenhurst. Similarly, data are also presented for non-radioactive discharges to water and air for each site. (UK)

  18. Advanced air distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2011-01-01

    The aim of total volume air distribution (TVAD) involves achieving uniform temperature and velocity in the occupied zone and environment designed for an average occupant. The supply of large amounts of clean and cool air are needed to maintain temperature and pollution concentration at acceptable...... levels in the entire space, leading to increased energy consumption and the use of large and costly HVAC and duct systems. The performance of desk installed PV combined with background TVAD used for room temperature control has been studied in an office building located in a hot and humid climate....... Ventilation in hospitals is essential to decrease the risk of airborne cross-infection. At present, mixing air distribution at a minimum of 12 ach is used in infection wards. Advanced air distribution has the potential to aid in achieving healthy, comfortable and productive indoor environments at levels...

  19. New and improved methods for monitoring air quality and the terrestrial environment: Applications at Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood area. Annual report, 1 April--14 November 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bromenshenk, J.J.; Smith, G.C.

    1998-03-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) have been shown to be multi-media monitors of chemical exposures and resultant effects. This five-year project has developed an automated system to assess in real-time colony behavioral responses to stressors, both anthropogenic and natural, including inclement weather. Field trials at the Aberdeen Proving Ground-Edgewood included the Old O Field and J field landfills, the Canal Creek and Bush River areas, and a Churchville, MD reference site. Preliminary results show varying concentrations of bioavailable inorganic elements and chlorinated hydrocarbons in bee colonies from all Maryland sites. Industrial solvents in the air inside beehives exhibited the greatest between site differences, with the highest levels occurring in hives near landfills at Old O Field, J Field, and at some sites in the Bush River and Canal Creek areas. Compared to 1996, the 1997 levels of solvents in Old O Field hives decreased by an order of magnitude, and colony performance significantly improved, probably as a consequence of capping the landfill. Recent chemical monitoring accomplishments include development of a new apparatus to quantitatively calibrate TD/GC/MS analysis, a QA/QC assessment of factors that limit the precision of these analyses, and confirmation of transport of aqueous contaminants into the hive. Real-time effects monitoring advances include development of an extensive array of software tools for automated data display, inspection, and numerical analysis and the ability to deliver data from remote locations in real time through Internet or Intranet connections.

  20. Fluctuations of the number of adsorbed micro/nanoparticles in sensors for measurement of particle concentration in air and liquid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokić Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical model of fluctuations of the number of adsorbed micro/nanoparticles in environmental sensors operating in air and liquids is presented, taking into account the effects of the mass transfer processes of the target particles in a sensor reaction chamber. The expressions for the total power of the corresponding adsorption-desorption noise, and for the corresponding signal-to-noise ratio are also derived. The presented analysis shows that the transfer processes can have a significant influence on the sensors limiting performance. The influence on both the fluctuations spectrum and the signal-to-noise ratio is estimated at different values of target particles concentration, functionalization sites surface density, and adsorption and desorption rate constants (the values are chosen from the ranges corresponding to real conditions. The analysis provides the guidelines for optimization of sensor design and operating conditions for the given target substance and sensor functionalization, in order to decrease the influence of the mass transfer, thus improving the ultimate performance (e.g. minimal detectable signal, signal-to-noise ratio of sensors for particle detection. The calculations we performed show that it is possible to increase the signal-to-noise ratio for as much as two orders of magnitude by using the optimization that eliminates the mass transfer influence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR32008

  1. Air-stable nZVI formation mediated by glutamic acid: solid-state storable material exhibiting 2D chain morphology and high reactivity in aqueous environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskova, Karolina; Tucek, Jiri; Machala, Libor; Otyepkova, Eva; Filip, Jan; Safarova, Klara; Pechousek, Jiri; Zboril, Radek

    2012-03-01

    We report a new chemical approach toward air-stable nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI). The uniformly sized (approx. 80 nm) particles, formed by the reduction of Fe(II) salt by borohydride in the presence of glutamic acid, are coated by a thin inner shell of amorphous ferric oxide/hydroxide and a secondary shell consisting of glutamic acid. The as-prepared nanoparticles stabilized by the inorganic-organic double shell create 2D chain morphologies. They are storable for several months under ambient atmosphere without the loss of Fe(0) relative content. They show one order of magnitude higher rate constant for trichlorethene decomposition compared with the pristine particles possessing only the inorganic shell as a protective layer. This is the first example of the inorganic-organic (consisting of low-molecular weight species) double-shell stabilized nanoscale zero-valent iron material being safely transportable in solid-state, storable on long-term basis under ambient conditions, environmentally acceptable for in situ applications, and extraordinarily reactive if contacted with reducible pollutants, all in one.

  2. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Soysal; Yucel Demiral

    2007-01-01

    The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas...

  3. Ventilating Air-Conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Khanh

    1994-01-01

    Air-conditioner provides ventilation designed to be used alone or incorporated into cooling or heating system operates efficiently only by recirculating stale air within building. Energy needed to operate overall ventilating cooling or heating system slightly greater than operating nonventilating cooling or heating system. Helps to preserve energy efficiency while satisfying need for increased forced ventilation to prevent accumulation of undesired gases like radon and formaldehyde. Provides fresh treated air to variety of confined spaces: hospital surgeries, laboratories, clean rooms, and printing shops and other places where solvents used. In mobile homes and portable classrooms, eliminates irritant chemicals exuded by carpets, panels, and other materials, ensuring healthy indoor environment for occupants.

  4. Air quality assessment by tree bark biomonitoring in urban, industrial and rural environments of the Rhine Valley: PCDD/Fs, PCBs and trace metal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguen, Florence; Stille, Peter; Millet, Maurice

    2011-09-01

    Tree barks were used as biomonitors to evaluate past atmospheric pollution within and around the industrial zones of Strasbourg (France) and Kehl (Germany) in the Rhine Valley. The here estimated residence time for trace metals, PCBs and PCDD/Fs in tree bark is >10 years. Thus, all pollution observed by tree bark biomonitoring can be older than 10 years. The PCB baseline concentration (sum of seven PCB indicators (Σ(7)PCB(ind))) determined on tree barks from a remote area in the Vosges mountains is 4 ng g(-1) and corresponds to 0.36 × 10(-3)ng toxic equivalent (TEQ) g(-1) for the dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs). The northern Rhine harbor suffered especially from steel plant, waste incinerator and thermal power plant emissions. The polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) concentrations analyzed in tree barks from this industrial area range between 392 and 1420 ng kg(-1) dry-weight (dw) corresponding to 3.9 ng TEQ(PCDD/Fs) kg(-1) to 17.8 ng TEQ(PCDD/Fs) kg(-1), respectively. Highest PCDD/F values of 7.2 ng TEQ kg(-1) to 17.8 ng TEQ kg(-1) have been observed close to and at a distance of fires might have been the reasons of these PCB enrichments. Other urban environments of the cities of Kehl and Strasbourg show significantly lower Σ(7)PCB(ind) concentrations. They suffer especially from road and river traffic and have typically Σ(7)PCB(ind) concentrations ranging from 11 ng g(-1) to 29 ng g(-1). The PCB concentration of 29 ng g(-1) has been found in tree bark close to the railway station of Strasbourg. Nevertheless, the corresponding TEQ(DL-PCB) are low and range between 0.2 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1) and 7 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1). Samples collected near road traffic are enriched in Fe, Sb, Sn and Pb. Cd enrichments were found close to almost all types of industries. Rural environments not far from industrial sites suffered from organic and inorganic pollution. In this case, TEQ(DL-PCB) values may reach up to 58 × 10(-3) ng TEQ g(-1) and the

  5. Determination of soil degradation in argentine semi-arid environments from remote sensors: case department of patagones, province of buenos aires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezzola, Alejandro; Cacella, Alejandra; Enrique, Mario; Winschel, Cristina

    2017-04-01

    The continental territory of the Argentine Republic owns 75% of its surface under arid and semiarid conditions to the west of the meridian of 64°. Wind erosion is the main physical cause of desertification. In the Pampena area, studies showed that the sandy loam soils were more pronounced than the sandy loam with significant losses of organic matter, decreases in the cation exchange capacity and modification of the mineral composition of the very fine sand fraction (From 73 to 100 μm), with increases in the proportion of heavy minerals (magnetite) relative to light (quartz). In the Patagones department, Buenos Aires province, the soils with a sandy-loamy texture, which are transported by wind and deposited on calcium carbonate (tosca), with little moisture retention and susceptible to wind erosion. In the 1980s and 1990s, increases in rainfall above the historical average led to a shift of the isohytes towards the southwest, leading to agricultural intensification that caused greater pressure on the soil and native vegetation. This advance on the native vegetation within the Patagones produced a reduction between 1975 and 2009 of 432,280 ha, leaving only 31% of the area covered by native forest - shrub xerophyte today. Between 2005-2009, the call "agricultural drought" caused losses in crops, wheat - oats and natural pastures associated with the native forest, causing a significant deterioration of the soil, exposing them to wind erosion. Remote sensors represent a very valuable technology for the mapping and evaluation of soil erosion. The availability of multispectral images allows the mapping and monitoring of changes in the dynamics of the erosion process. The objective of this work was to make an expeditious diagnosis of the surface affected by wind erosion and to evaluate the degree to which the soils destined for agriculture and livestock were affected. For this purpose, Terra's MODIS (Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor information was

  6. A flight management algorithm and guidance for fuel-conservative descents in a time-based metered air traffic environment: Development and flight test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    A simple airborne flight management descent algorithm designed to define a flight profile subject to the constraints of using idle thrust, a clean airplane configuration (landing gear up, flaps zero, and speed brakes retracted), and fixed-time end conditions was developed and flight tested in the NASA TSRV B-737 research airplane. The research test flights, conducted in the Denver ARTCC automated time-based metering LFM/PD ATC environment, demonstrated that time guidance and control in the cockpit was acceptable to the pilots and ATC controllers and resulted in arrival of the airplane over the metering fix with standard deviations in airspeed error of 6.5 knots, in altitude error of 23.7 m (77.8 ft), and in arrival time accuracy of 12 sec. These accuracies indicated a good representation of airplane performance and wind modeling. Fuel savings will be obtained on a fleet-wide basis through a reduction of the time error dispersions at the metering fix and on a single-airplane basis by presenting the pilot with guidance for a fuel-efficient descent.

  7. Indoor thermal environment, air exchange rates, and carbon dioxide concentrations before and after energy retro fits in Finnish and Lithuanian multi-family buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leivo, Virpi; Prasauskas, Tadas; Du, Liuliu; Turunen, Mari; Kiviste, Mihkel; Aaltonen, Anu; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla

    2018-04-15

    Impacts of energy retrofits on indoor thermal environment, i.e. temperature (T) and relative humidity (RH), as well as ventilation rates and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentrations, were assessed in 46 Finnish and 20 Lithuanian multi-family buildings, including 39 retrofitted case buildings in Finland and 15 in Lithuania (the remaining buildings were control buildings with no retrofits). In the Finnish buildings, high indoor T along with low RH levels was commonly observed both before and after the retrofits. Ventilation rates (l/s per person) were higher after the retrofits in buildings with mechanical exhaust ventilation than the corresponding values before the retrofits. Measured CO 2 levels were low in vast majority of buildings. In Lithuania, average indoor T levels were low before the retrofits and there was a significant increase in the average T after the retrofits. In addition, average ventilation rate was lower and CO 2 levels were higher after the retrofits in the case buildings (N=15), both in apartments with natural and mixed ventilation. Based on the results, assessment of thermal conditions and ventilation rates after energy retrofits is crucial for optimal indoor environmental quality and energy use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Maria Chiara; De Felice, Marco; Morlino, Roberta; Fuselli, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6), concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a) node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b) node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c) node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW) non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%); most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design.

  9. Short-term monitoring of benzene air concentration in an urban area: a preliminary study of application of Kruskal-Wallis non-parametric test to assess pollutant impact on global environment and indoor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Mura

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In step with the need to develop statistical procedures to manage small-size environmental samples, in this work we have used concentration values of benzene (C6H6, concurrently detected by seven outdoor and indoor monitoring stations over 12 000 minutes, in order to assess the representativeness of collected data and the impact of the pollutant on indoor environment. Clearly, the former issue is strictly connected to sampling-site geometry, which proves critical to correctly retrieving information from analysis of pollutants of sanitary interest. Therefore, according to current criteria for network-planning, single stations have been interpreted as nodes of a set of adjoining triangles; then, a node pairs have been taken into account in order to estimate pollutant stationarity on triangle sides, as well as b node triplets, to statistically associate data from air-monitoring with the corresponding territory area, and c node sextuplets, to assess the impact probability of the outdoor pollutant on indoor environment for each area. Distributions from the various node combinations are all non-Gaussian, in the consequently, Kruskal-Wallis (KW non-parametric statistics has been exploited to test variability on continuous density function from each pair, triplet and sextuplet. Results from the above-mentioned statistical analysis have shown randomness of site selection, which has not allowed a reliable generalization of monitoring data to the entire selected territory, except for a single "forced" case (70%; most important, they suggest a possible procedure to optimize network design.

  10. Characterization of volatile organic compounds at a roadside environment in Hong Kong: An investigation of influences after air pollution control strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Ling, Zhen Hao; Lee, Shun Cheng; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Cao, Jun Ji; Blake, Donald R.; Cheng, Yan; Lai, Sen Chao; Ho, Kin Fai; Gao, Yuan; Cui, Long; Louie, Peter K. K.

    2015-12-01

    Vehicular emission is one of the important anthropogenic pollution sources for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Four characterization campaigns were conducted at a representative urban roadside environment in Hong Kong between May 2011 and February 2012. Carbon monoxide (CO) and VOCs including methane (CH4), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), halocarbons, and alkyl nitrates were quantified. Both mixing ratios and compositions of the target VOCs show ignorable seasonal variations. Except CO, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) tracers of propane, i-butane and n-butane are the three most abundant VOCs, which increased significantly as compared with the data measured at the same location in 2003. Meanwhile, the mixing ratios of diesel- and gasoline tracers such as ethyne, alkenes, aromatics, halogenated, and nitrated hydrocarbons decreased by at least of 37%. The application of advanced multivariate receptor modeling technique of positive matrix factorization (PMF) evidenced that the LPG fuel consumption is the largest pollution source, accounting for 60 ± 5% of the total quantified VOCs at the roadside location. The sum of ozone formation potential (OFP) for the target VOCs was 300.9 μg-O3 m-3, which was 47% lower than the value of 567.3 μg-O3 m-3 measured in 2003. The utilization of LPG as fuel in public transport (i.e., taxis and mini-buses) contributed 51% of the sum of OFP, significantly higher than the contributions from gasoline- (16%) and diesel-fueled (12%) engine emissions. Our results demonstrated the effectiveness of the switch from diesel to LPG-fueled engine for taxis and mini-buses implemented by the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) Government between the recent ten years, in additional to the execution of substitution to LPG-fueled engine and restrictions of the vehicular emissions in compliance with the updated European emission standards.

  11. Trace Contaminant Control: An In-Depth Study of a Silica-Titania Composite for Photocatalytic Remediation of Closed-Environment Habitat Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.

    2013-01-01

    This collection of studies focuses on a PCO system for the oxidation of a model compound, ethanol, using an adsorption-enhanced silica-TiO2 composite (STC) as the photocatalyst; studies are aimed at addressing the optimization of various parameters including light source, humidity, temperature, and possible poisoning events for use as part of a system for gaseous trace-contaminant control system in closed-environment habitats. The first goal focused on distinguishing the effect of photon flux (i.e., photons per unit time reaching a surface) from that of photon energy (i.e., wavelength) of a photon source on the PCO of ethanol. Experiments were conducted in a bench-scale annular reactor packed with STC pellets and irradiated with either a UV-A fluorescent black light blue lamp O max=365 nm) at its maximum light intensity or a UV-C germicidal lamp O. max=254 nm) at three levels of light intensity. The STC-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol was found to follow zero-order kinetics with respect to CO2 production, regardless of the photon source. Increased photon flux led to increased EtOH removal, mineralization, and oxidation rate accompanied by lower intermediate concentration in the effluent. The oxidation rate was higher in the reactor irradiated by UV-C than by UV-A (38.4 vs. 31.9 nM s-1 ) at the same photon flux, with similar trends for mineralization (53.9 vs. 43.4%) and reaction quantum efficiency (i.e., photonic efficiency, 63.3 vs. 50.1 nmol C02 mol photons-1 ). UV-C irradiation also led to decreased intermediate concentration in the effluent compared to UV -A irradiation. These results demonstrated that STC-catalyzed oxidation is enhanced by both increased photon flux and photon energy. The effect of temperature and relative humidity on the STC-catalyzed degradation of ethanol was also determined using the UV-A light source at its maximum intensity.

  12. AIR for Javascript Developers Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, Mike; Hoyt, Kevin; Georgita, Dragos

    2009-01-01

    This book is the official guide to Adobe ® AIR[TM], written by members of the AIR team. With Adobe AIR, web developers can use technologies like HTML and JavaScript to build and deploy web applications to the desktop. Packed with examples, this book explains how AIR works and features recipes for performing common runtime tasks. Part of the Adobe Developer Library, this concise pocket guide explains: What Adobe AIR is, and the problems this runtime aims to solveHow to set up your development environmentThe HTML and JavaScript environments within AIRHow to create your first AIR application

  13. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act...

  14. 40 CFR 52.884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.884 Section 52.884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of section 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act, as amended...

  15. 40 CFR 52.382 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.382 Section 52.382 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  16. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 89.325 Section 89.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air...

  17. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  18. Indoor air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    Indoor Air Quality is rapidly becoming a major environmental concern because a significant amount of people spend a substantial amount of time in a variety of different indoor environments. Health effects from indoor pollutants fall into two categories: those that are experienced immediately after exposure and those that do not show up until years later. They are: radon, formaldehyde, asbestos, lead and household organic chemicals. The authors presented a source-by-source look at the most common indoor air pollutants, their potential health effects, and ways to reduce their levels in the home. There are three basic strategies to improve indoor air quality: one method is source control, another is through ventilation improvements, and the third is the utilization of some sort of mechanical device such as air cleaners

  19. 40 CFR 52.683 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.683 Section 52.683 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Idaho Rules for Control of Air Pollution in Idaho, specifically... the Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of...

  20. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  1. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  4. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  9. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.738 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.738 Section 52.738 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  12. 40 CFR 52.96 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.96 Section 52.96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The State of Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation Air Quality... deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met...

  13. 40 CFR 52.793 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.793 Section 52.793 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.432 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.432 Section 52.432 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.632 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.632 Section 52.632 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met... air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions...

  17. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air... type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply system...

  18. 40 CFR 89.414 - Air flow measurement specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air flow measurement specifications... Emission Test Procedures § 89.414 Air flow measurement specifications. (a) The air flow measurement method... incorporates devices that affect the air flow measurement (such as air bleeds) that result in understated...

  19. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air...

  20. Solar air heaters and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  1. Evaluation of air quality in environmental impact assessments. Evaluation criteria and standards with a view to effective precautionary care of the environment; Die Bewertung der Luftqualitaet bei Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefungen. Bewertungsmassstaebe und Standards zur Konkretisierung einer wirksamen Umweltvorsorge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehling, W.; Peters, H.J.

    1994-12-31

    Since the beginning of the debate surrounding the environmental impact statement in Germany, opinion is divided over what yardsticks should be applied in assessing a scheme`s environmental impact, and what consequences they involve for the environment. This book is a comprehensive compilation of air quality standards by substances and objects of protection containing a definition of the term ``active precautionary care of the environment`` as mentioned in section 1 of the act on environmental impact statements (UVPG). The reasons that the book is important for day-to-day work with environmental impact statements lie, for one thing, in its technical relevance and, for the other, in the fact that the proposed assessment criteria are legally unobjectionable. The book stakes out the legal boundaries, points out differentiated criteria for the definition of standards, selects relevant substances, explains the procedure in defining standards and the evaluation grid used, demonstrates how the standards are applied, and contains a tabulated summary. Part two of the book deals with the investigated compounds and groups of compounds. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Seit der UVP-Debatte in Deutschland ist strittig, welcher Massstab bei der Beurteilung der Umweltvertraeglichkeit einer Massnahme anzulegen ist und wie deren Umweltauswirkungen zu bewerten sind. Mit der vorliegenden Arbeit liegt eine umfassende stoff- und schutzgutorientierte Zusammenstellung von Luftqualitaetsstandards und eine Interpretation des Begriffes ``wirksame Umweltvorsorge`` nach Para. 1 UVPG vor. Die Bedeutung der Arbeit fuer die UVP-Praxis liegt neben der fachwissenschaftlichen Relevanz vor allem auch in der juristischen Absicherung der vorgeschlagenen Bewertungsmassstaebe. (orig./HP)

  2. Elephant logging and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tin-Aung-Hla

    1995-01-01

    The natural environment comprises non-biological elements such as air, water, light, heat and biological elements of animal and plant life; all interact with each other to create an ecosystem. Human activities like over-exploitation of forest results in deforestation and desertification. This consequently changes ecological balance. Topics on: (1) history of elephants utilization; (2) elephant logging; (3) classification of elephants; (4) dragging gear; (5) elephant power; (6) elephant logging and environment, are discussed

  3. Weather and the Built Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course provides broadcast meteorologists, educators, and the public with an overview of the evolution of our modern urban environment with a focus on impacts on the urban watershed, air quality, and climate.

  4. Simulated Air Launch Environment. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-10-01

    area. The same is true at the aft end where the large steel fairing provides a considerable heat sink. One would, of course, expect similar gradients...111 SZ-110 TZ-51 C0-17 C2-15 C2-16":, T2-17 T2- 15 TZ- 16:’" TZ-1 TZ-2 T2-3 TZ-4 TZ-5 IM H13 N3-44 N3-43 N3-45 T3-44 T3-43 T3-108 S3-104 N3-47 C3-20...Of course, routing of the lead wires must bbe compatible with tooling . 0 The GFE gages used in this program were of poor quality which compromised the

  5. Air movement - good or bad?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftum, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    when air movement is desirable and when it is not. At temperatures up to 22-23oC, at sedentary activity and with occupants feeling neutral or cooler there is a risk of air movement being perceived as unacceptable, even at low velocities. In particular, a cool overall thermal sensation negatively...... influences the subjective perception of air movement. With occupants feeling warmer than neutral, at temperatures above 23oC or at raised activity levels, humans generally do not feel draught at air velocities typical for indoor environments (up to around 0.4 m/s). In the higher temperature range, very high...

  6. Air pollution

    OpenAIRE

    MacKenbach, JP; Henschel, S; Goodman, P; McKee, M

    2013-01-01

    The human costs of air pollution are considerable in Jordan. According to a report published in 2000 by the World Bank under the Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP), approximately 600 people die prematurely each year in Jordan because of urban pollution. 50-90% of air pollution in Jordanian towns is caused by road traffic. Readings taken in 2007 by Jordanian researchers showed that levels of black carbon particles in the air were higher in urban areas (caused by v...

  7. Mercury in Your Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basic information about mercury, how it gets in the air, how people are exposed to it and health effects associated with exposure; what EPA and other organizations are doing to limit exposures; what citizens should know to minimize exposures and to reduce mercury in the environment; and information about products that contain mercury.

  8. Air the excellent canopy

    CERN Document Server

    Fahy, F

    2013-01-01

    We take it for granted, but without it we perish and if we continue to abuse it, it may kill us in the end. This fascinating text provides an understanding and appreciation of the role that air plays in our environment and its importance in relation to human life and technology. Aimed at those who are scientifically curious but who have no specialist training, it contains no mathematical equations and relies upon the qualitative descriptions and analogies to explain the more technical parts of the text together with simple home experiments to illustrate a range of air-based phenomena. Liberall

  9. Air quality on biomass harvesting operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana Mitchell

    2011-01-01

    The working environment around logging operations can be very dusty. But, air quality around logging operations is not well documented. Equipment movements and trafficking on the landing can cause dust to rise into the air. The addition of a biomass chipper creates different air flow patterns and may stir up additional dust. This project addresses two topics related to...

  10. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized. (DLS)

  11. Workshop on indoor air quality research needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Workshop participants report on indoor air quality research needs including the monitoring of indoor air quality, report of the instrumentation subgroup of indoor air quality, health effects, and the report of the control technology session. Risk analysis studies addressing indoor environments were also summarized

  12. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  13. 40 CFR 240.205 - Air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air quality. 240.205 Section 240.205 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES GUIDELINES FOR THE THERMAL PROCESSING OF SOLID WASTES Requirements and Recommended Procedures § 240.205 Air quality. ...

  14. Actions for the environment

    CERN Document Server

    Colloca, C

    2003-01-01

    As an International Organization, one the most important issues that CERN has to respect and guarantee is the protection of the environment. Several of ST activities and operations have a direct impact on the environment: civil engineering works, electrical (transformers) and air-cooling operation, chemical products storage, various waste disposal etc.... Important measures, taken in the past, have to be kept and new ones should be applied in order to insure the conformity of the infrastructure with existing legislation, the correct operation of equipment and systems, the constant monitoring of the different situations and the traceability of the events. Moreover good management of the environment would bring large savings to CERN.

  15. Air lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palkovich, P.; Gruber, J.; Madlener, W.

    1974-01-01

    The patent refers to an air lock system preferably for nuclear stations for the transport of heavy loads by means of a trolley on rails. For opening and closing of the air lock parts of the rails are removed, e.g. by a second rail system perpendicular to the main rails. (P.K.)

  16. Air pollution - health and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, W; Runca, E; Suess, M J [eds.

    1984-01-01

    The proceedings of a joint workshop of the World Health Organization and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis are presented. The workshop was to review the interaction between man's industrial and urban activities and the environment, and the relationship between ambient air quality and human health, and to examine the effectiveness of proper management on the control and abatement of air pollution. The discussion topics included atmospheric processes and respective modelling, air pollution impact on human health, effects of air pollutants on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, air pollution episode cycles and management of control. A selected list of 11ASA and WHO/EURO publications related to air pollution is included. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers in this book.

  17. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 221-226

  18. INDOOR AIR POLLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Soysal

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The existance of hazardious materials including biological, chemical, and physical agents such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, radon, volotile organic compounds, microorganisms in houses and the other non-industrilized buildings have been defined as “indoor air pollution”. Indoor air pollutants could possible arised from inside or outside environment and categorized into six subgroups. Almost 80% Turkish population have living in the urban areas and people in the cities have spending approximetely 90% of their time in the closed enviroments, health problems could increased due to indoor air pollution. Moreover, currently there is no specific regulation on this area. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(3: 221-226

  19. Air pollution and vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numata, M

    1975-01-01

    Although the direct effects of each air pollutant have been fairly well studied for specific species of plants used as indicators, studies on the synecological level have not been done. Clement's communities can be used as indicators. The effects of air pollution should be studied as one in a complex of factors. The characteristic features of biological indicators are described in detail with emphasis on applying the results to human beings in polluted environments. The methods of determining the effects of pollution are described, using a community phytometer and remote sensing methods. Directly connecting the level of air pollution to the wilting of trees in general is dangerous unless it is a matter of an acute episode.

  20. Environment-quality demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    In the framework of the Environment Quality Requirements (MKE) project a model has been designed in which environment-quality demands have been defined and quantified, and a measuring strategy has been developed. In the model it is required for the quality of the environment that the radionuclide concentration in the various environment compartiments remains limited in order to keep the effective dose equivalence for the 'reference man' under a certain reference level. In order to be able to determine the maximum nuclide concentration it is necessary to quantify the relation between the concentration in the environment and the dose for the people. The quantitative relation between concentration and dose has been established on the base of parameters (Derived Activity Limits (DAL's) which have to be calculated for each environment compartiment, each nuclide and each exposure pathway. This model has been described and, as example, the DAL's have been calculated for the compartiment air (for which the two exposure pathways inhalation and direct radiation were considered). For the other environment compartiments a similar elaboration is needed. The feasibility of application of the MKE-model in the actual practice of measurements in the environment and examination of dose for the population depends upon the possibility for performing nuclide specific measurements in all environment compartiments, the level of the dose resulting from the contamination of the environment and the related accurateness of the measurements

  1. ASPECTS REGARDING AIR QUALITY IN DEVA AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARMEN DRAGOTA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Aspects regarding air quality in Deva area. The attenuation of air quality in the urban environment is determined by artificial warming, a result of the radiation emitted by constructions, economic activities, as well as the climatic elements characteristics. In the survey regarding air quality in Deva we will analyse the concentrations of NO2, O3, SO2 and their implications on air quality.

  2. Medio ambiente urbano: Una mirada desde la historia de las ideas científicas y las profesiones de la ciudad. Buenos Aires 1850-1915. / The urban environment: A view from the history of scientific ideas and professions of the city. Buenos Aires 1850-1915.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva, Verónica

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Desde la década de 1960 en adelante, el medio ambiente se ha convertido en un tema prioritario en el nivel mundial. En lo que a estudios históricos se refiere la mayor parte de las investigaciones sobre historia ambiental han sido producidas desde la perspectiva ecológica, es decir de una mirada que toma conceptos actuales del debate ambiental (relación sociedad-naturaleza, entropía, etc investigando en qué medida las sociedades históricas han sido más o menos cuidadosas del ambiente. En este artículo mi interés es abordar la temática del medio urbano porteño entre 1850 y 1915 desde otra perspectiva que considero que puede enriquecer el cuerpo actual de conocimientos sobre historia ambiental, profundizando especialmente sobre las concepciones científicas que por aquel entonces, guiaron la práctica profesional en materia de medio urbano./This article will approach the issue of urban Buenos Aires between 1850 and 1915 from a perspective that can enrich the existing body of knowledge on environmental history, especially deepening scientific conceptions that guided the practice in the field of urban environment.

  3. Air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, W; Mainwaring, S J

    1984-01-01

    This book deals with the nature of air pollution. The numerous sources of unwanted gases and dust particles in the air are discussed. Details are presented of the effects of pollutants on man, animals, vegetation and on inanimate materials. Methods used to measure, monitor and control air pollution are presented. The authors include information on the socio-economic factors which impinge on pollution control and on the problems the future will bring as methods of generating energy change and industries provide new sources of pollutants.

  4. Air lasing

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Ya

    2018-01-01

    This book presents the first comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of the rapidly developing field of air lasing. In most applications of lasers, such as cutting and engraving, the laser source is brought to the point of service where the laser beam is needed to perform its function. However, in some important applications such as remote atmospheric sensing, placing the laser at a convenient location is not an option. Current sensing schemes rely on the detection of weak backscattering of ground-based, forward-propagating optical probes, and possess limited sensitivity. The concept of air lasing (or atmospheric lasing) relies on the idea that the constituents of the air itself can be used as an active laser medium, creating a backward-propagating, impulsive, laser-like radiation emanating from a remote location in the atmosphere. This book provides important insights into the current state of development of air lasing and its applications.

  5. REVIEW - Thermal Physiology of Laboratory Mice: Defining Thermoneutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    In terms of total number of publications, the laboratory mouse (Mus musculus) has emerged as the most popular test subject in biomedical research. Mice are used as models to study obesity, diabetes, eNS diseases and variety of other pathologies. Mice are classified as homeotherms...

  6. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) All applications and other information...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new and...

  8. 40 CFR 52.181 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.181 Section 52.181 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Arkansas as follows: (1) April 23, 1981...

  9. 40 CFR 52.581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.581 Section 52.581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 of this...

  10. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.530 Section 52.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) EPA approves the Florida Prevention of Significant Deterioration program, as...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and modified...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.1477 - Nevada air pollution emergency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Nevada air pollution emergency plan. 52.1477 Section 52.1477 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Nevada § 52.1477 Nevada air pollution emergency plan. Section 6.1.5 of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.274 - California air pollution emergency plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false California air pollution emergency plan. 52.274 Section 52.274 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.274 California air pollution emergency plan. (a) Since the...

  17. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature measurement. 90.309 Section 90.309 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...

  18. Air Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    genus as its predecessor of pre-war days. It would, however, be erroneous to conclude from this that the military value of each new development was...the paucity of communications, its conduct, when acting alone, has of necessity to be somewhat stereotyped in nature, and to con- form to a pre...the air, the attack commander, provided his command be equipped with defensive air power, has a rôle to perform which is simple and stereotyped in

  19. Air conditioner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masaaki

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides an air conditioner which can prevent an undesirable effects on a human body due to radon daughter nuclides in a closed space. That is, the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the air in the closed space is continuously measured. A necessary amount of ventilation air is determined based on the measured concentration to generate control signals. External air is introduced into the closed space by the generated control signals. With such procedures, necessary amount of external air is taken from the atmospheric air which can be regarded to have the radon daughter nuclide concentration substantially at zero, thereby enabling to reduce the concentration of the radon daughter nuclides in the closed space. As a result, undesired effects on the human body due to the radon daughter nuclides staying in the closed space can be prevented. According to simulation, the radon daughter nuclides are rapidly decreased only by ventilation only for three times or so in one hour. Accordingly, ventilation is extremely effective and convenient means as a countermeasure for the radon daughter nuclides. (I.S.)

  20. 40 CFR 52.931 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.931 Section 52.931 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The..., the Kentucky Division for Air Quality has determined that the application complies with the applicable...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. [56 FR 5656, Feb. 12, 1991, as amended at 68 FR 11324...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.343 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.343 Section 52.343 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are not met for the following categories of sources for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  4. 40 CFR 52.833 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.833 Section 52.833 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act are met... for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The provisions of § 52.21 except paragraph (a...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1116 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1116 Section 52.1116 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) The following provisions of 40 CFR 52.21 are hereby incorporated and made a...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The plan...

  8. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality, the...

  9. Parent's Guide to School Indoor Air Quality. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Schools Network, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Air pollution is air pollution, indoors or out. Good indoor air quality (IAQ) contributes to a favorable learning environment for students, protects health, and supports the productivity of school personnel. In schools in poor repair, leaky roofs and crumbling walls have caused additional indoor air quality problems, including contamination with…

  10. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... measurement. 91.309 Section 91.309 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 100 cm of the air-intake of the engine. The measurement location must be either in...

  11. 40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the engine...

  12. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake and cooling air measurements....108 Intake and cooling air measurements. (a) Intake air flow measurement. Measurement of the flow rate..., the measurement technique shall conform to the following: (1) The air flow measurement method used...

  13. Response of wheat growth, grain yield and water use to elevated CO2 under a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment and modelling in a semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Garry J; Christy, Brendan; Nuttall, James; Huth, Neil; Cammarano, Davide; Stöckle, Claudio; Basso, Bruno; Shcherbak, Iurii; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Luo, Qunying; Farre-Codina, Immaculada; Palta, Jairo; Asseng, Senthold

    2014-12-05

    The response of wheat crops to elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) was measured and modelled with the Australian Grains Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment experiment, located at Horsham, Australia. Treatments included CO 2 by water, N and temperature. The location represents a semi-arid environment with a seasonal VPD of around 0.5 kPa. Over 3 years, the observed mean biomass at anthesis and grain yield ranged from 4200 to 10 200 kg ha -1 and 1600 to 3900 kg ha -1 , respectively, over various sowing times and irrigation regimes. The mean observed response to daytime eCO 2 (from 365 to 550 μmol mol -1 CO 2 ) was relatively consistent for biomass at stem elongation and at anthesis and LAI at anthesis and grain yield with 21%, 23%, 21% and 26%, respectively. Seasonal water use was decreased from 320 to 301 mm (P = 0.10) by eCO 2 , increasing water use efficiency for biomass and yield, 36% and 31%, respectively. The performance of six models (APSIM-Wheat, APSIM-Nwheat, CAT-Wheat, CROPSYST, OLEARY-CONNOR and SALUS) in simulating crop responses to eCO 2 was similar and within or close to the experimental error for accumulated biomass, yield and water use response, despite some variations in early growth and LAI. The primary mechanism of biomass accumulation via radiation use efficiency (RUE) or transpiration efficiency (TE) was not critical to define the overall response to eCO 2 . However, under irrigation, the effect of late sowing on response to eCO 2 to biomass accumulation at DC65 was substantial in the observed data (~40%), but the simulated response was smaller, ranging from 17% to 28%. Simulated response from all six models under no water or nitrogen stress showed similar response to eCO 2 under irrigation, but the differences compared to the dryland treatment were small. Further experimental work on the interactive effects of eCO 2 , water and temperature is required to resolve these model discrepancies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Measurements of air quality in Skogn and Levanger, October 1997 - September 1998, in connection with evaluations of consequences for the environment of NOx emissions from a power heating plant at the Fiborgtangen, Skogn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, Leif Otto

    1999-01-01

    As basis for studying the effects of emissions to air from a power heating plant at the Fiborgtangen in Skogn on the environmental conditions Norwegian Institute for Air Research (NILU) has made measurements of air and precipitation quality and meteorological conditions in the area. The registrations show that the car traffic is the main source of nitrogen oxides in the area. The concentrations of SO 2 are very low. The average concentrations and wet deposition of main components and heavy metals in precipitation were higher than at the background stations in the area but at the same time lower than at background stations in south and west of Norway. Most of the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority (Statens forurensningstilsyn) air quality criteria for O 3 were exceeded but concentrations were somewhat lower than at the background stations

  15. Air distribution and ventilation effectiveness in an occupied room heated by warm air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krajcik, Michal; Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    and at different simulated outside conditions, internal heat gains and air change rates. Floor heating was also simulated and compared with the warm air heating system. Vertical air temperature profiles, air velocity profiles and equivalent temperatures were derived in order to describe the thermal environment...... floor heating system was simulated, the cooler ventilation air introduced to the room mixed well and created uniform conditions with a ventilation effectiveness of about 1.......Air distribution, ventilation effectiveness and thermal environment were experimentally studied in a simulated room in a low-energy building heated and ventilated by warm air supplied by a mixing ventilation system. Measurements were performed for various positions of the air terminal devices...

  16. Natural radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vohra, K.G.; Mishra, U.C.; Pillai, K.C.; Sadasivan, S.

    1982-01-01

    The volume presented contains papers presented at the Second Special Symposium on Natural Radiation Environment held at Bombay, India, during January 1981. The papers deal with such topics as : 1)high natural radiation background areas; 2)environmental natural radioactivity; 3)measurement techniques; 4)technologically enhanced radioactivity; 5)indoor radiation environment; 6)radon and daughters in ambient air, and 7)applications in Geosciences. Each of the 87 papers presented has been abstracted and indexed for the U.S. Department of Energy Technical Information Center's Energy Data Base

  17. Air surveillance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995)

  18. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  19. Environment report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    A brief account of activities in environment protection carried out by the Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s. in 1999 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Address; (2) Electricity generation and consumption in the Slovak Republic; (3) Air protection; (4) Water management; (5) Waste management; (6) Environmental management system at Slovenske Elektrarne, a.s.; (7) Environmental protection funds; (8) Structure of SE, a.s., power installations

  20. Indoor Air Pollution and Health Risks among Rural Dwellers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol.3 No.2 2010 ... occurrence of air pollution related health problems among the rural dwellers, one ... Key words: Indoor environment, air quality, rural health, fuel-wood.

  1. Contamination of nebulisers and surrounding air at the bedside of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An air sampler was used to collect air samples from the surrounding bedside environment. .... individualised resealable plastic bags and stored upside down in a cooler .... conventional and mesh technology nebulisers used at home by adults.

  2. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feugier, A.

    1996-01-01

    The air pollution results from the combustion of petroleum products, natural gas, coal, wastes and transports. Some compounds are considered as particularly pollutants: the carbon monoxide, the nitrogen oxides, the tropospheric ozone and the sulfur dioxides. Their environmental and biological effects are described. The present political guide lines concerns the combustion plants, the ozone, the wastes incineration and the vehicles emissions. The aim is at some future date to control the air quality, to reduce the volatile organic compounds emissions and to limit the sulfur rate of some petroleum products. (O.L.)

  3. Indoor air humidity, air quality, and health - An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkoff, Peder

    2018-04-01

    There is a long-standing dispute about indoor air humidity and perceived indoor air quality (IAQ) and associated health effects. Complaints about sensory irritation in eyes and upper airways are generally among top-two symptoms together with the perception "dry air" in office environments. This calls for an integrated analysis of indoor air humidity and eye and airway health effects. This overview has reviewed the literature about the effects of extended exposure to low humidity on perceived IAQ, sensory irritation symptoms in eyes and airways, work performance, sleep quality, virus survival, and voice disruption. Elevation of the indoor air humidity may positively impact perceived IAQ, eye symptomatology, and possibly work performance in the office environment; however, mice inhalation studies do not show exacerbation of sensory irritation in the airways by low humidity. Elevated humidified indoor air appears to reduce nasal symptoms in patients suffering from obstructive apnea syndrome, while no clear improvement on voice production has been identified, except for those with vocal fatigue. Both low and high RH, and perhaps even better absolute humidity (water vapor), favors transmission and survival of influenza virus in many studies, but the relationship between temperature, humidity, and the virus and aerosol dynamics is complex, which in the end depends on the individual virus type and its physical/chemical properties. Dry and humid air perception continues to be reported in offices and in residential areas, despite the IAQ parameter "dry air" (or "wet/humid air") is semantically misleading, because a sensory organ for humidity is non-existing in humans. This IAQ parameter appears to reflect different perceptions among other odor, dustiness, and possibly exacerbated by desiccation effect of low air humidity. It is salient to distinguish between indoor air humidity (relative or absolute) near the breathing and ocular zone and phenomena caused by moisture

  4. Counting systems characterization for air activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Balamurugan, M.; Ravi, P.M.

    2018-01-01

    Air activity measurements are carried out continuously at all the nuclear power plant (NPP) sites both during pre-operational phase and also during operation of nuclear facility. These measurements provide a trend line for the background air activity in the surrounding environments of an operating NPP. Any increase in air activity over the benchmark level becomes very handy to investigate the releases from the station and to give feedback to the operators of NPP about the prevailing air activity levels and their correlation to the plant releases. This paper compiles the results obtained for air filter samples using different counters operating in GM region and also plastic scintillators

  5. Fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljaljević-Grbić Milica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungi have been implicated as quantitatively the most important bioaerosol component of indoor air associated with contaminated air-conditioning systems. rarely, indoor fungi may cause human infections, but more commonly allergenic responses ranging from pneumonitis to asthma-like symptoms. From all air conditioner filters analyzed, 16 fungal taxa were isolated and identified. Aspergillus fumigatus causes more lethal infections worldwide than any other mold. Air-conditioning filters that adsorb moisture and volatile organics appear to provide suitable substrates for fungal colonization. It is important to stress that fungal colonization of air-conditioning systems should not be ignored, especially in hospital environments.

  6. Current Indoor Air Quality in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Hideto

    2016-01-01

    People spend more than two thirds of their daily time indoors. Hence, maintaining a healthy indoor environment is indispensable for the prevention of building related illness. In Japan, guidelines for indoor air quality have been established for 13 volatile/semi-volatile organic compounds (VOCs/SVOCs). These guidelines are now under revision by the Committee on Sick House Syndrome: Indoor Air Pollution. In order to gain information on the current indoor air pollutants and their levels, we carried out a nation-wide survey of VOCs and aldehydes in indoor residential air during 2012-2013. In this review, I concisely summarized the current indoor air quality of Japan.

  7. Fungal pollution of indoor environments and its management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem Khan, A A; Mohan Karuppayil, S

    2012-10-01

    Indoor environments play important roles in human health. The health hazards posed by polluted indoor environments include allergy, infections and toxicity. Life style changes have resulted in a shift from open air environments to air tight, energy efficient, environments, in which people spend a substantial portion of their time. Most indoor air pollution comes from the hazardous non biological agents and biological agents. Fungi are ubiquitous in distribution and are a serious threat to public health in indoor environments. In this communication, we have reviewed the current status on biotic indoor air pollution, role of fungi as biological contaminants and their impact on human health.

  8. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution has accompanied and developed with the industrial age, since its beginnings. This very complete review furnishes the toxicological data available for the principal pollutants and assesses the epidemiologic studies thus far conducted. It also describes European regulations and international commitments for the reduction of emissions. (author)

  9. Fungal contamination in hospital environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L; Sartini, M; Spagnolo, A M; Dallera, M; Ottria, G; Lombardi, R; Grimaldi, M; Orlando, P

    2006-01-01

    To assess the degree of fungal contamination in hospital environments and to evaluate the ability of air conditioning systems to reduce such contamination. We monitored airborne microbial concentrations in various environments in 10 hospitals equipped with air conditioning. Sampling was performed with a portable Surface Air System impactor with replicate organism detection and counting plates containing a fungus-selective medium. The total fungal concentration was determined 72-120 hours after sampling. The genera most involved in infection were identified by macroscopic and microscopic observation. The mean concentration of airborne fungi in the set of environments examined was 19 +/- 19 colony-forming units (cfu) per cubic meter. Analysis of the fungal concentration in the different types of environments revealed different levels of contamination: the lowest mean values (12 +/- 14 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in operating theaters, and the highest (45 +/- 37 cfu/m(3)) were recorded in kitchens. Analyses revealed statistically significant differences between median values for the various environments. The fungal genus most commonly encountered was Penicillium, which, in kitchens, displayed the highest mean airborne concentration (8 +/- 2.4 cfu/m(3)). The percentage (35%) of Aspergillus documented in the wards was higher than that in any of the other environments monitored. The fungal concentrations recorded in the present study are comparable to those recorded in other studies conducted in hospital environments and are considerably lower than those seen in other indoor environments that are not air conditioned. These findings demonstrate the effectiveness of air-handling systems in reducing fungal contamination.

  10. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  11. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  12. Atmospheric pollution in our environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanvir, G.

    1986-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with all the activities of humans. It is becoming a serious problem in coming years so it is relevant to find out how seriously our atmosphere is being polluted and how this pollution affects human and plant life in our environment. Not only the human activities are the source of our pollution but nature causes more pollution. Air pollution that is due to the pressure of foreign substances in air, effects the quality and concentration of air substances. It is not only injurious to property, but also to vegetation and animal life. Air pollution is one of our most serious environmental problems. The sources vary from smoke-stacks and automobiles to noise and foreon containing aerosols. (orig./A.B.)

  13. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Xx of... - Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hazardous Air Pollutants 1 Table 1 to Subpart XX of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Operations Pt. 63, Subpt. XX, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart XX of Part 63—Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air...

  14. Air quality in Europe - 2011 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, C.; Larssen, S. (Norsk Inst. for Luftforskning (NILU), Lillestroem (Norway)); Leeuw, F. de (RIVM, Bilthoven (Netherlands)); Foltescu, V. (EEA, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2011-11-15

    The annual report 'Air quality in Europe' summarises the most recent evaluation of Europe's air quality status. It is mainly based on air quality measurement data that have been made available officially by 32 EEA member countries as well as 6 EEA cooperating countries. The report includes maps and analyses of air quality status over the calendar year 2009. It also analyses air quality trends over the past years. The evaluation of the status and trends of air quality is based on ambient air measurements, in conjunction with reported anthropogenic emissions. The report summarizes the main effects of different air pollutants on human health, the environment and the climate. An overview of policies and measures at European level is also given for each pollutant. This report reviews progress towards meeting the requirements of the two air quality directives in force as well as the air quality guidelines set by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report is produced in support of European and national policy development and implementation in the field of air quality. It also supports air quality management and informs the general public on the current status and trends of air quality in Europe. (Author)

  15. Cooperative Agreement Funding for Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Indoor Environments Division has created partnership with public and private sector entities to help encourage the public to take action to minimize their risk and mitigate indoor air quality problems.

  16. Disparities in the Impact of Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et al. Health, Wealth, and Air Pollution: Advancing Theory and Methods. Environ Health Perspect. 2003; 111: 1861- ... error: function() { console.log("An error occurred while processing XML file."); } }); } } --> ... LUNG HEALTH INFORMATION Lung Disease List Warning Signs of Lung Disease ...

  17. Petroleum refining and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the methods which may be developed in petroleum refineries or during petroleum products using for air pollution abatement: petroleum products desulfurization, lead elimination in gasoline and catalytic converters to reduce sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides in exhaust gases. Investments and costs estimation to adapt petroleum refineries for environment protection is also given. 1 ref., 6 figs., 6 tabs

  18. Radioruthenium in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwashima, Kiyoshi; Morita, Shigeki.

    1979-01-01

    A change in the amount of radioruthenium in the environment (due to nuclear tests and drainage from atomic energy plants) and the exposure dose are discussed. The level of 106 Ru in the environment due to radioactive fallout, changes in the level, and the characteristics of these changes are reported. Pollution caused by 106 Ru in drainage from atomic energy plants, especially from the Windscale reprocessing factory in the United Kingdom (which release Ru in the greatest amount), changes in the amount of Ru released and in the levels of environmental pollution, and the movement of Ru in the environment are considered. The intake of Ru into the human body by consumption of food produced in polluted areas and by inspiration of Ru present in the air is estimated. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The anthropic pollution sources are essentially industrial or bound to transport. A phenomenon of these last twenty years is the decreasing of the industrial pollution and the increasing of pollution coming from automobiles. Emissions of furans and dioxines coming from municipal wastes are measured. A special attention is mentioned for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons coming from incomplete combustions. A last aspect of air pollution is studied with the effect on man, ecosystems and materials, by modeling or direct measurements. (N.C.)

  20. Air pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, P.

    2000-01-01

    Australian cites experience a number of current and emerging air pollution problems. Concentrations of traditional primary pollutants such as CO, lead and dust have fallen in recent years as a consequence of air pollutant control measures, and the widespread introduction of lead-free petrol. However, recommended guidelines for ozone, the principal component of photochemical smog, are regularly exceeded in major capital cities in the summer months. In addition, it is predicted that extensive urban expansion will lead to much greater dependence on the motor vehicle as the primary means of transportation. Effects of air pollution are felt at a variety of scales. Traditionally, concerns about gaseous and particulate emissions from industrial and vehicular sources were focused on local impacts due to exposure to toxic species such as CO and lead. As noted above, concentrations of these pollutants have been reduced by a variety of control measures. Pollutants which have effects at a regional scale, such as photochemically-produced ozone, and acidic gases and particles have proved more difficult to reduce. In general, these pollutants arc not the result of direct emissions to atmosphere, but result from complex secondary processes driven by photochemical reactions of species such as NO 2 and aldehydes. In addition, global effects of gaseous and particulate emissions to the atmosphere have received significant recent attention, concentrations of atmospheric CO 2 with predicted impacts on global climate, and ozone depletion due to anthropogenic emissions of chlorine-containing chemicals are the two major examples. Combustion processes from petrol- and diesel-fuelled vehicles, make major contributions to air pollution, and the magnitude of this contribution is discussed in this article

  1. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  2. Air medical transportation in India: Our experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Khurana

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Cardiac and central nervous system ailments are the most common indication for air medical transportation. These patients may need attention and interventions as any critical patient in the hospital but in a difficult environment lacking space and help. Air medical transport carries no more risk than ground transportation.

  3. Indoor Air Quality: A Guide for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Indoor air quality is a major concern for educators involved in the development of new school facilities, or the remodeling and maintenance of existing ones. This guide addresses the issue of air quality, the health concerns involved, and procedures for minimizing the impact of pollutants in the school environment. It defines common indoor air…

  4. 40 CFR 61.34 - Air sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Air sampling. 61.34 Section 61.34... sampling. (a) Stationary sources subject to § 61.32(b) shall locate air sampling sites in accordance with a... concentrations calculated within 30 days after filters are collected. Records of concentrations at all sampling...

  5. Urban Air Pollution Climates Throughout the World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Goodsite, Michael Evan

    2009-01-01

    The extent of the urban area, the local emission density, and the temporal pattern in the releases govern the local contribution to air pollution levels in urban environments. However, meteorological conditions also heavily affect the actual pollution levels as they govern the dispersion conditio...... population and provide the right basis for future urban air pollution management....

  6. Air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clench-Aas, Jocelyn; Guerreiro, Cristina; Bartonova, Alena

    1999-06-01

    This report proposes and describes in detail several air quality indicators that may be used to describe population exposure. The suggested indicators account for temporal and spatial patterns of pollution and movements of individuals between different micro-environments. The Air Quality Indicator /AQI) should represent both the spatial and temporal aspects of pollution exposure that may have important effects on health. Two indicators are needed, the Population Air Quality Indicator and the Individual Air Quality Indicator. Mean concentrations, 98th percentile and maximum values are the traditional indicators for estimating exposure. the temporal variability of PM-10 and NO 2 , however, is here described by means of: 1) The rate of change of pollution as the difference between two consecutive hourly values and of 2) episodes, described in terms of number, duration and winter episode period, maximum concentration in the episode and integrated episode exposure (episode AOT50/100). The spatial variation of AQIs can be described in several ways, e.g.: 1) Concentrations in neighbouring grid squares can be compared as an indication of spatial variation and 2) point estimates can be compared to grid values for a description of variation within a grid. Both methods are presented here. A test of the representativity of static point estimates for pollution exposure is to compare them to an estimate of air pollution exposure accounting for movements between different locations, obtained using diaries. The ultimate aim of AQIs is to describe the population exposure to ambient pollution. This is done by estimating the number of people exposed using different characteristics of AQIs. The data used to describe these indicators originates from dispersion modelling of short-term air pollution concentrations in Oslo. Two series of data are used. One represents hour-for hour concentrations in the 1 km 2 grid system covering the city of Oslo, winter 1994/95, calculated by the grid

  7. Air quality management in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modupe O. Akinola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines air pollution situation and the history of air quality management in Botswana. The current air quality management in Botswana is still largely underpinned by the Atmospheric Pollution Prevention Act of 1971, supplemented by the more recently enacted legislations such as the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA Act of 2010 and the Ambient Air Quality - Limits for Common Pollutants of 2012 published by the Botswana Bureau of Standards. Though commendable efforts have been made toward legislating against air and other forms of pollution, these have not yielded expected results in view of the prevailing levels of air pollutants like sulphur dioxide and fine particulate matters in the country’s atmospheric environment. Legislation as a sole measure may not be effective in tackling this challenge. Rather, government should also address some root-causes of the problem by making policies and programmes that will reduce unemployment and increase the earning capacity of citizenry. This will, among other things, effectively check poverty-induced biomass burning in the country. The paper looks at some other challenges of air pollution management and suggestions are made to tackle the identified problems.

  8. 40 CFR 81.77 - Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.77 Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region. The Puerto Rico Air Quality Control Region...

  9. 40 CFR 81.76 - State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false State of Hawaii Air Quality Control... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.76 State of Hawaii Air Quality Control Region. The State of Hawaii Air Quality...

  10. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Main menu Environmental Topics Air Bed Bugs Chemicals and Toxics Environmental Information by Location Greener Living Health Land, ... regulate toxic air pollutants, also known as air toxics, from categories of industrial facilities in two phases . About Hazardous Air Pollutants ...

  11. Air Quality System (AQS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Air Quality System (AQS) database contains measurements of air pollutant concentrations from throughout the United States and its territories. The measurements include both criteria air pollutants and hazardous air pollutants.

  12. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  13. Large scale air monitoring: Biological indicators versus air particulate matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossbach, M.; Jayasekera, R.; Kniewald, G.

    2000-01-01

    Biological indicator organisms are widely used for monitoring and banking purposes since many years. Although the complexity of the interactions between bioorganisms and their environment is generally not easily comprehensible, environmental quality assessment using the bioindicator approach offers some convincing advantages compared to direct analysis of soil, water, or air. Direct measurement of air particulates is restricted to experienced laboratories with access to expensive sampling equipment. Additionally, the amount of material collected generally is just enough for one determination per sampling and no multidimensional characterization might be possible. Further, fluctuations in air masses have a pronounced effect on the results from air filter sampling. Combining the integrating property of bioindicators with the world wide availability and uniform matrix characteristics of air particulates as a prerequisite for global monitoring of air pollution will be discussed. A new approach for sampling urban dust using large volume filtering devices installed in air conditioners of large hotel buildings is assessed. A first experiment was initiated to collect air particulates (300 to 500 g each) from a number of hotels during a period of three to four months by successive vacuum cleaning of used inlet filters from high volume air conditioning installations reflecting average concentrations per three months in different large cities. This approach is expected to be upgraded and applied for global monitoring. Highly positive correlated elements were found in lichen such as K/S, Zn/P, the rare earth elements (REE) and a significant negative correlation between Fig and Cu was observed in these samples. The ratio of concentrations of elements in dust and Usnea spp. is highest for Cr, Zn, and Fe (400-200) and lowest for elements such as Ca, Rb, and Sr (20-10). (author)

  14. Encapsulated environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, Tom M.; Daanen, Hein A M; Cheung, Stephen S.

    2013-01-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  15. Encapsulated Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.; Cheung, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    In many occupational settings, clothing must be worn to protect individuals from hazards in their work environment. However, personal protective clothing (PPC) restricts heat exchange with the environment due to high thermal resistance and low water vapor permeability. As a consequence, individuals

  16. Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsdingen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Helsdingen, A. S. (2010, March). Judgments of Learning in Collaborative Learning Environments. Poster presented at the 1st International Air Transport and Operations Symposium (ATOS 2010), Delft, The Netherlands: Delft University of Technology.

  17. Air Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, K.; And Others

    Pollution of the general environment, which exposes an entire population group for an indeterminate period of time, certainly constitutes a problem in public health. Serious aid pollution episodes have resulted in increased mortality and a possible relationship between chronic exposure to a polluted atmosphere and certain diseases has been…

  18. Gas fuels and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Environment protection is one of the major concerns for public and local authorities worldwide. Automotive transports are in a large part responsible of the daily pollution of urban areas. Gaseous fuels can notably contribute to a reduction of this pollution. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part analyses the reasons and components of pollution in the transport sector: increasing use of private cars with respect to public transport systems for short distance travels, preponderance of road transport for long distance goods delivery, increase of air traffic for passengers and freight transports. For the air pollution itself, three levels are considered: the local CO, VOC (volatile organic compounds), SO 2 , NOx and particulates concentration, the regional pollution which corresponds to spatially diluted pollutants over a wider zone (acid rain and photochemical pollution), and the worldwide pollution with the greenhouse effect and the high altitude ozone problem. The vehicles noise in another important source of urban pollution. The second part of the paper analyses the environmental advantages of gaseous fuels and compares the combustion properties and the pollutants and noise emissions from natural gas for vehicles and LPG with respect to the classical liquid fuels used for private cars and trucks. The third part of the paper is devoted to the US Clean Air Act which regroups the actions developed since 1970 to fight against the photochemical pollution and the 'smog' phenomena. Its historical evolution is summarized: the creation of the Environment Protection Agency (EPA), the norms for air quality (NAAQS) and the 1990's eleven amendments about the classification of States pollution, the pollutants emission norms and the development of clean vehicles. (J.S.)

  19. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  20. Indoor air quality: a UK perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadge, A.

    1995-01-01

    Outdoor air quality has generally improved in the UK over the last 2 decades but during this period changing conditions within the home have tended to reduce ventilation and increase the opportunity for accumulation of undesirable levels of indoor air pollutants. Information obtained from laboratory and epidemiological studies suggest that indoor air pollutants are an important cause of avoidable morbidity and mortality in the UK. This paper reviews the major indoor air pollutants of concern in the UK and considers some of the special issues relevant to indoor environment. (author) 3 figs., 37 refs

  1. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Room Air Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    2004-01-01

    on the mass fraction transport equation. The importance of ?false? or numerical diffusion is also addressed in connection with the simple description of a supply opening. The different aspects of boundary conditions in the indoor environment as e.g. the simulation of Air Terminal Devices and the simulation......Nielsen, P.V. Computational Fluid Dynamics and Room Air Movement. Indoor Air, International Journal of Indoor Environment and Health, Vol. 14, Supplement 7, pp. 134-143, 2004. ABSTRACT Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and new developments of CFD in the indoor environment as well as quality...... considerations are important elements in the study of energy consumption, thermal comfort and indoor air quality in buildings. The paper discusses the quality level of Computational Fluid Dynamics and the involved schemes (first, second and third order schemes) by the use of the Smith and Hutton problem...

  2. Air Officer’s Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    variety and relationships of living organisms and the influences of heredity and environment in the evolution of life. A review of the field of science...by bold thinking done in the Air Force or not at all. The so-called Air Defense will not protect the United States and its productive plant from the...atomic bomb. It may be that this plant has to take on a different shape and for this reason economics in our sense of the term is a compulsory

  3. 40 CFR 51.860 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 51... Federal Actions to State or Federal Implementation Plans § 51.860 Mitigation of air quality impacts. Link... mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and the process for implementation and enforcement of such...

  4. 40 CFR 93.160 - Mitigation of air quality impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mitigation of air quality impacts. 93... quality impacts. (a) Any measures that are intended to mitigate air quality impacts must be identified and..., the revised text is set forth as follows: § 93.160 Mitigation of air quality impacts. (e) When...

  5. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states. (2...

  6. 40 CFR 52.270 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.270 Section 52.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) With the exception of the areas listed in paragraph (b) of this section: (1... plan does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  7. 40 CFR 52.144 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.144 Section 52.144 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Act are not met... lands does not include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality...

  8. 40 CFR 52.60 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.60 Section 52.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52.21 from... “Guideline on Air Quality Models (Revised)” or other models approved by EPA. [42 FR 22869, May 5, 1977, as...

  9. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) [Reserved] (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165... provisions for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality at 40 CFR 52.21 are applicable to the...

  10. 40 CFR 52.986 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.986 Section 52.986 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of Louisiana on August 14, 1984 (as adopted... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. (b) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the...

  11. 40 CFR 52.1634 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1634 Section 52.1634 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by the Governor of New Mexico on February 21... adopted by the NMEID on March 9, 1990), Air Quality Control Regulation 707—Permits, Prevention of...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200, 202...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1778 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1778 Section 52.1778 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) [Reserved] (c) All applications and other information... Resources, Division of Air Quality, 1641 Mail Service Center, Raleigh, North Carolina 27699-1641 or local...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the...

  17. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity...

  18. Robotic environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bier, H.H.

    2011-01-01

    Technological and conceptual advances in fields such as artificial intelligence, robotics, and material science have enabled robotic architectural environments to be implemented and tested in the last decade in virtual and physical prototypes. These prototypes are incorporating sensing-actuating

  19. Performative Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bo Stjerne

    2008-01-01

    The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing on ...... of local interactions and network behaviour, building becomes social infrastructure and prompts an understanding of architectural structures as quasiobjects, which can retain both variation and recognisability in changing social constellations.......The paper explores how performative architecture can act as a collective environment localizing urban flows and establishing public domains through the integration of pervasive computing and animation techniques. The NoRA project introduces the concept of ‘performative environments,' focusing...

  20. Environment protection and energy politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grawe, J.

    1993-01-01

    The lecture first deals with the aims and legal basis in German and European law of environment protection with regard to energy politics. It then goes to deal with European regulations for environment protection and their effects on the energy supply: Air pollution abatement, tax for the protection of the climate, internalisation of external costs. The following European energy-political measures impinge on environment protection: Sponsored projects, least-cost planning, third-party access to the public electricity supply. The discrepancy between European and national policies can be lessened or resolved by the following means: Harmonisation, subsidiarity principle, and scope for entrepreneurial solutions. (orig.) [de