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Sample records for thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor

  1. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zebarjadi, M., E-mail: m.zebarjadi@rutgers.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Institute of Advanced Materials, Devices, and Nanotechnology, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States)

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  2. A 3D TCAD simulation of a thermoelectric module configured for thermoelectric power generation, cooling and heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, C. A.; Shammas, N. Y. A.; Grainger, S.; Taylor, I.; Simpson, K.

    2012-06-01

    This paper documents the 3D modeling and simulation of a three couple thermoelectric module using the Synopsys Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) semiconductor simulation software. Simulation results are presented for thermoelectric power generation, cooling and heating, and successfully demonstrate the basic thermoelectric principles. The 3D TCAD simulation model of a three couple thermoelectric module can be used in the future to evaluate different thermoelectric materials, device structures, and improve the efficiency and performance of thermoelectric modules.

  3. Semiconductor thermoelectric generators

    CERN Document Server

    Fahrner, Wolfgang R

    2009-01-01

    It is well-known that fossil fuels are being rapidly depleted, and that atomic power is rejected by many people. As a consequence, there is a strong trend towards alternative sources such as wind, photovoltaics, solar heat and biomass. Strangely enough, quite another power source is generally neglected: namely, the thermoelectric generator (a device which converts heat, i.e. thermal energy, directly into electrical energy). The reason for this neglect is probably the low conversion efficiency, which is of the order of a few percent at most. However, there are two arguments in favor of the ther

  4. Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors for non-destructive analysis of works of art by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Cesareo, R; Castellano, A

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors, such as Si-PIN, Si-drift, Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te and HgI sub 2 , coupled to miniaturized low-power X-ray tubes, are well suited in portable systems for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), analysis of archaeological samples. The Si-PIN detector is characterized by a thickness of about 300 mu m, an area of about 2x3 mm sup 2 , an energy resolution of about 200-250 eV at 5.9 keV and an entrance window of 25-75 mu m. The Si-drift detector has approximately the same area and thickness, but an energy resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. The efficiency of these detectors is around 100% from 4 to 10 keV, and then decreases versus energy, reaching approx 9% at 30 keV. Coupled to a miniaturized 10 kV, 0.1 mA, Ca-anode or to a miniaturized 30 kV, 0.1 mA, W-anode X-ray tubes, portable systems can be constructed, which are able to analyse K-lines of elements up to about silver, and L-lines of heavy elements. The Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te detector ha...

  5. Dynamic thermoelectricity in uniform bipolar semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volovichev, I.N., E-mail: vin@ire.kharkov.ua

    2016-07-01

    The theory of the dynamic thermoelectric effect has been developed. The effect lies in an electric current flowing in a closed circuit that consists of a uniform bipolar semiconductor, in which a non-uniform temperature distribution in the form of the traveling wave is created. The calculations are performed for the one-dimensional model in the quasi-neutrality approximation. It was shown that the direct thermoelectric current prevails, despite the periodicity of the thermal excitation, the circuit homogeneity and the lack of rectifier properties of the semiconductor system. Several physical reasons underlining the dynamic thermoelectric effect are found. One of them is similar to the Dember photoelectric effect, its contribution to the current flowing is determined by the difference in the electron and hole mobilities, and is completely independent of the carrier Seebeck coefficients. The dependence of the thermoelectric short circuit current magnitude on the semiconductor parameters, as well as on the temperature wave amplitude, length and velocity is studied. It is shown that the magnitude of the thermoelectric current is proportional to the square of the temperature wave amplitude. The dependence of the thermoelectric short circuit current on the temperature wave length and velocity is the nonmonotonic function. The optimum values for the temperature wave length and velocity, at which the dynamic thermoelectric effect is the greatest, have been deduced. It is found that the thermoelectric short circuit current changes its direction with decreasing the temperature wave length under certain conditions. The prospects for the possible applications of the dynamic thermoelectric effect are also discussed.

  6. Mg2BIV: Narrow Bandgap Thermoelectric Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho

    2018-05-01

    Thermoelectric materials can convert thermal energy directly into electric energy and vice versa. The electricity generation from waste heat via thermoelectric devices can be considered as a new energy source. For instance, automotive exhaust gas and all industrial processes generate an enormous amount of waste heat that can be converted to electricity by using thermoelectric devices. Magnesium compound Mg2BIV (BIV = Si, Ge or Sn) has a favorable combination of physical and chemical properties and can be a good base for the development of new efficient thermoelectrics. Because they possess similar properties to those of group BIV elemental semiconductors, they have been recognized as good candidates for thermoelectric applications. Mg2Si, Mg2Ge and Mg2Sn with an antifluorite structure are narrow bandgap semiconductors with indirect band gaps of 0.77 eV, 0.74 eV, and 0.35 eV, respectively. Mg2BIV has been recognized as a promising material for thermoelectric energy conversion at temperatures ranging from 500 K to 800 K. Compared to other thermoelectric materials operating in the similar temperature range, such as PbTe and filled skutterudites, the important aspects of Mg2BIV are non-toxic and earth-abundant elements. Based on classical thermoelectric theory, the material factor β ( m* / m e)3/2μκ L -1 can be utilized as the criterion for thermoelectric material selection, where m* is the density-of-states effective mass, me is the mass of an electron, μ is the carrier mobility, and κL is the lattice thermal conductivity. The β for magnesium silicides is 14, which is very high compared to 0.8 for iron silicides, 1.4 for manganese silicides, and 2.6 for silicon-germanium alloys. In this paper, basic phenomena of thermoelectricity and transport parameters for thermoelectric materials were briefly introduced, and thermoelectric properties of Mg2BIV synthesized by using a solid-state reaction were reviewed. In addition, various Mg2BIV compounds were discussed

  7. Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-16

    Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology Sb. GRANT NUMBER N00173-14-1-G016 Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 82-2020-17 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...Magnetocaloric Effect and Thermoelectric Cooling - A Synergistic Cooling Technology NRL Grant N00173-14-l-G016 CODE 8200: Spacecraft Engineering Department...82-11-0 1: Space and Space Systems Technology General Engineering & Research, L.L.C. Technical & Administrative point of contact: Dr. Robin

  8. Design Optimization of a Thermoelectric Cooling Module Using Finite Element Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Muhammad; Somdalen, Ragnar; Rodrigo, Marina Sancho

    2018-05-01

    The thermoelectric industry is concerned about the size reduction, cooling performance and, ultimately, the production cost of thermoelectric modules. Optimization of the size and performance of a commercially available thermoelectric cooling module is considered using finite element simulations. Numerical simulations are performed on eight different three-dimensional geometries of a single thermocouple, and the results are further extended for a whole module as well. The maximum temperature rise at the hot and cold sides of a thermocouple is determined by altering its height and cross-sectional area. The influence of the soldering layer is analyzed numerically using temperature dependent and temperature independent thermoelectric properties of the solder material and the semiconductor pellets. Experiments are conducted to test the cooling performance of the thermoelectric module and the results are compared with the results obtained through simulations. Finally, cooling rate and maximum coefficient of performance (COPmax) are computed using convective and non-convective boundary conditions.

  9. Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors for non-destructive analysis of works of art by means of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesareo, Roberto; Ettore Gigante, Giovanni; Castellano, Alfredo

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectrically cooled semiconductor detectors, such as Si-PIN, Si-drift, Cd 1-x Zn x Te and HgI 2 , coupled to miniaturized low-power X-ray tubes, are well suited in portable systems for energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), analysis of archaeological samples. The Si-PIN detector is characterized by a thickness of about 300 μm, an area of about 2x3 mm 2 , an energy resolution of about 200-250 eV at 5.9 keV and an entrance window of 25-75 μm. The Si-drift detector has approximately the same area and thickness, but an energy resolution of 155 eV at 5.9 keV. The efficiency of these detectors is around 100% from 4 to 10 keV, and then decreases versus energy, reaching ∼9% at 30 keV. Coupled to a miniaturized 10 kV, 0.1 mA, Ca-anode or to a miniaturized 30 kV, 0.1 mA, W-anode X-ray tubes, portable systems can be constructed, which are able to analyse K-lines of elements up to about silver, and L-lines of heavy elements. The Cd 1-x Zn x Te detector has an area of 4 mm 2 and a thickness of 3 mm. It has an energy resolution of about 300 eV at 5.9 keV, and an efficiency of 100% over the whole range of X-rays. Finally the HgI 2 detector has an efficiency of about 100% in the whole range of X-rays, and an energy resolution of about 200 eV at 5.9 keV. Coupled to a small 50-60 kV, 1 mA, W-anode X-ray tube, portable systems can be constructed, for the analysis of practically all elements. These systems were applied to analysis in the field of archaeometry and in all applications for which portable systems are needed or at least useful (for example X-ray transmission measurements, X-ray microtomography and so on). Results of in-field use of these detectors and a comparison among these room temperature detectors in relation to concrete applications are presented. More specifically, concerning EDXRF analysis, ancient gold samples were analysed in Rome, in Mexico City and in Milan, ancient bronzes in Sassari, in Bologna, in Chieti and in Naples, and sulfur (due to

  10. A review of thermoelectric cooling: Materials, modeling and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Dongliang; Tan, Gang

    2014-01-01

    This study reviews the recent advances of thermoelectric materials, modeling approaches, and applications. Thermoelectric cooling systems have advantages over conventional cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no working fluid, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. In this study, historical development of thermoelectric cooling has been briefly introduced first. Next, the development of thermoelectric materials has been given and the achievements in past decade have been summarized. To improve thermoelectric cooling system's performance, the modeling techniques have been described for both the thermoelement modeling and thermoelectric cooler (TEC) modeling including standard simplified energy equilibrium model, one-dimensional and three-dimensional models, and numerical compact model. Finally, the thermoelectric cooling applications have been reviewed in aspects of domestic refrigeration, electronic cooling, scientific application, and automobile air conditioning and seat temperature control, with summaries for the commercially available thermoelectric modules and thermoelectric refrigerators. It is expected that this study will be beneficial to thermoelectric cooling system design, simulation, and analysis. - Highlights: •Thermoelectric cooling has great prospects with thermoelectric material's advances. •Modeling techniques for both thermoelement and TEC have been reviewed. •Principle thermoelectric cooling applications have been reviewed and summarized

  11. Studies of bulk materials for thermoelectric cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, J W; Nolas, G S; Volckmann, E H

    1997-07-01

    The authors discuss ongoing work in three areas of thermoelectric materials research: (1) broad band semiconductors featuring anion networks, (2) filled skutterudites, and (3) polycrystalline Bi-Sb alloys. Key results include: a preliminary evaluation of a previously untested ternary semiconductor, KSnSb; the first reported data in which Sn is used as a charge compensator in filled antimonide skutterudites; the finding that Sn doping does not effect polycrystalline Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x} as it does single crystal samples.

  12. Thermoelectricity in correlated narrow-gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Jan M.

    2018-05-01

    We review many-body effects, their microscopic origin, as well as their impact on thermoelectricity in correlated narrow-gap semiconductors. Members of this class—such as FeSi and FeSb2—display an unusual temperature dependence in various observables: insulating with large thermopowers at low temperatures, they turn bad metals at temperatures much smaller than the size of their gaps. This insulator-to-metal crossover is accompanied by spectral weight-transfers over large energies in the optical conductivity and by a gradual transition from activated to Curie–Weiss-like behaviour in the magnetic susceptibility. We show a retrospective of the understanding of these phenomena, discuss the relation to heavy-fermion Kondo insulators—such as Ce3Bi4Pt3 for which we present new results—and propose a general classification of paramagnetic insulators. From the latter, FeSi emerges as an orbital-selective Kondo insulator. Focussing on intermetallics such as silicides, antimonides, skutterudites, and Heusler compounds we showcase successes and challenges for the realistic simulation of transport properties in the presence of electronic correlations. Further, we explore new avenues in which electronic correlations may contribute to the improvement of thermoelectric performance.

  13. Thermoelectric properties of semiconductor nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyak, Oleksiy; Piryatinski, Andrei

    2016-03-01

    To examine the thermoelectric (TE) properties of a semiconductor nanowire (NW) network, we propose a theoretical approach mapping the TE network on a two-port network. In contrast to a conventional single-port (i.e., resistor) network model, our model allows for large scale calculations showing convergence of TE figure of merit, ZT, with an increasing number of junctions. Using this model, numerical simulations are performed for the Bi2Te3 branched nanowire (BNW) and Cayley tree NW (CTNW) network. We find that the phonon scattering at the network junctions plays a dominant role in enhancing the network ZT. Specifically, disordered BNW and CTNW demonstrate an order of magnitude higher ZT enhancement compared to their ordered counterparts. Formation of preferential TE pathways in CTNW makes the network effectively behave as its BNW counterpart. We provide formalism for simulating large scale nanowire networks hinged upon experimentally measurable TE parameters of a single T-junction.

  14. Theory of semiconductor laser cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupper, Greg

    Recently laser cooling of semiconductors has received renewed attention, with the hope that a semiconductor cooler might be able to achieve cryogenic temperatures. In order to study semiconductor laser cooling at cryogenic temperatures, it is crucial that the theory include both the effects of excitons and the electron-hole plasma. In this dissertation, I present a theoretical analysis of laser cooling of bulk GaAs based on a microscopic many-particle theory of absorption and luminescence of a partially ionized electron-hole plasma. This theory has been analyzed from a temperature 10K to 500K. It is shown that at high temperatures (above 300K), cooling can be modeled using older models with a few parameter changes. Below 200K, band filling effects dominate over Auger recombination. Below 30K excitonic effects are essential for laser cooling. In all cases, excitonic effects make cooling easier then predicted by a free carrier model. The initial cooling model is based on the assumption of a homogeneous undoped semiconductor. This model has been systematically modified to include effects that are present in real laser cooling experiments. The following modifications have been performed. (1) Propagation and polariton effects have been included. (2) The effect of p-doping has been included. (n-doping can be modeled in a similar fashion.) (3) In experiments, a passivation layer is required to minimize non-radiative recombination. The passivation results in a npn heterostructure. The effect of the npn heterostructure on cooling has been analyzed. (4) The effect of a Gaussian pump beam was analyzed and (5) Some of the parameters in the cooling model have a large uncertainty. The effect of modifying these parameters has been analyzed. Most of the extensions to the original theory have only had a modest effect on the overall results. However we find that the current passivation technique may not be sufficient to allow cooling. The passivation technique currently used appears

  15. Instrument for measuring metal-thermoelectric semiconductor contact resistence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanxner, M.; Nechmadi, M.; Meiri, B.; Schildkraut, I.

    1979-02-01

    An instrument for measuring electrical, metal-thermoelectric semiconductor contact resistance is described. The expected errors of measurement are indicated. The operation of the instrument which is based on potential traversing perpendicularly to the contact plane is illustrated for the case of contacts of palladium and bismuth telluride-based thermoelectric material

  16. Thermoelectric cooling container for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aivazov, A A; Shtern, Y I; Budaguan, B G; Makhrachev, K B; Pastor, M

    1997-07-01

    In this work the thermoelectric cooling container for storing and transportation of the medicine, particularly for insulin, is discussed. In the working volume the temperature is supported on the level of +4 C. The container can work in two operating conditions: with the power supply and without the power supply. Two removable blocks are used for this purpose. One block (thermoelectric) is used for the work with the power supply and another (passive)-for the work without power supply. The thermoelectric block has a 12V power supply, which is used in the automobiles, yachts and other kinds of transport. The temperature in the working volume is supported by the use of the Peltier effect. An electronic device is used in this block and stabilizes temperature on the level of +4 C and indicates information about working conditions. The thermoelectric container has a power supply block for work at 220(110)V. The working temperature in the container can be maintained in the absence of the power supply. In this case the necessary temperature conditions are supported by melting of the crystallized salt. For this purpose the container has a hermetic volume containing this salt and contacting with the working volume.

  17. Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

    2012-10-16

    An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

  18. Power semiconductor device adaptive cooling assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a power semiconductor device (100) cooling assembly for cooling a power semiconductor device (100), wherein the assembly comprises an actively cooled heat sink (102) and a controller (208; 300), wherein the controller (208; 300) is adapted for adjusting the cooling

  19. Thermoelectric cooler application in electronic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chein Reiyu; Huang Guanming

    2004-01-01

    This study addresses thermoelectric cooler (TEC) applications in the electronic cooling. The cold side temperature (T c ) and temperature difference between TEC cold and hot sides (ΔT=T h -T c , T h =temperature of hot side of TEC) were used as the parameters. The cooling capacity, junction temperature, coefficient of performance (COP) of TEC and the required heat sink thermal resistance at the TEC hot side were computed. The results indicated that the cooling capacity could be increased as T c increased and ΔT was reduced. The maximum cooling capacity and chip junction temperature obtained were 207 W and 88 deg. C, respectively. The required heat sink thermal resistance on TEC hot side was 0.054 deg. C/W. Larger cooling capacity and higher COP could be obtained when the TEC was operated in the enforced regimes (ΔT c values and heat sink thermal resistance at the TEC hot side. A microchannel heat sink using water or air as the coolant was demonstrated to meet the low thermal heat sink resistance requirement for TEC operated at maximum cooling capacity conditions

  20. Thermoelectric air-cooling module for electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yu-Wei; Chang, Chih-Chung; Ke, Ming-Tsun; Chen, Sih-Li

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the thermoelectric air-cooling module for electronic devices. The effects of heat load of heater and input current to thermoelectric cooler are experimentally determined. A theoretical model of thermal analogy network is developed to predict the thermal performance of the thermoelectric air-cooling module. The result shows that the prediction by the model agrees with the experimental data. At a specific heat load, the thermoelectric air-cooling module reaches the best cooling performance at an optimum input current. In this study, the optimum input currents are from 6 A to 7 A at the heat loads from 20 W to 100 W. The result also demonstrates that the thermoelectric air-cooling module performs better performance at a lower heat load. The lowest total temperature difference-heat load ratio is experimentally estimated as -0.54 W K -1 at the low heat load of 20 W, while it is 0.664 W K -1 at the high heat load of 100 W. In some conditions, the thermoelectric air-cooling module performs worse than the air-cooling heat sink only. This article shows the effective operating range in which the cooling performance of the thermoelectric air-cooling module excels that of the air-cooling heat sink only.

  1. Experimental and analytical study on thermoelectric self cooling of devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, A.; Astrain, D.; Rodriguez, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and studies the novel concept of thermoelectric self cooling, which can be introduced as the cooling and temperature control of a device using thermoelectric technology without electricity consumption. For this study, it is designed a device endowed with an internal heat source. Subsequently, a commonly used cooling system is attached to the device and the thermal performance is statistically assessed. Afterwards, it is developed and studied a thermoelectric self cooling system appropriate for the device. Experimental and analytical results show that the thermal resistance between the heat source and the environment reduced by 25-30% when the thermoelectric self cooling system is installed, and indicates the promising applicability of this technology to devices that generate large amounts of heat, such as electrical power converters, transformers and control systems. Likewise, it was statistically proved that the thermoelectric self cooling system leads to significant reductions in the temperature difference between the heat source and the environment, and, what is more, this reduction increases as the heat flow generated by the heat source increases, which makes evident the fact that thermoelectric self cooling systems work as temperature controllers. -- Highlights: → Novel concept of thermoelectric self cooling is presented and studied. → No extra electricity is needed. → Thermal resistance between the heat source and the environment reduces by 25-30%. → Increasing reduction in temperature difference between heat source and environment. → Great applicability to any device that generates heat and must be cooled.

  2. Laser Cooling of 2-6 Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-12

    AFRL-AFOSR-JP-TR-2016-0067 Laser Cooling of II-VI Semiconductors Qihua Xiong NANYANG TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY Final Report 08/12/2016 DISTRIBUTION A...From - To) 15 May 2013 to 14 May 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laser Cooling of II-VI Semiconductors 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA2386-13-1...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The breakthrough of laser cooling in semiconductor has stimulated strong interest in further scaling up towards

  3. Electronic fitness function for screening semiconductors as thermoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Guangzong; Sun, Jifeng; Li, Yuwei; Fan, Xiaofeng

    2017-01-01

    Here, we introduce a simple but efficient electronic fitness function (EFF) that describes the electronic aspect of the thermoelectric performance. This EFF finds materials that overcome the inverse relationship between σ and S based on the complexity of the electronic structures regardless of specific origin (e.g., isosurface corrugation, valley degeneracy, heavy-light bands mixture, valley anisotropy or reduced dimensionality). This function is well suited for application in high throughput screening. We applied this function to 75 different thermoelectric and potential thermoelectric materials including full- and half-Heuslers, binary semiconductors, and Zintl phases. We find an efficient screening using this transport function. The EFF identifies known high-performance p- and n-type Zintl phases and half-Heuslers. In addition, we find some previously unstudied phases with superior EFF.

  4. POWER, METALLURGICAL AND CHEMICAL MECHANICAL ENGINEERING THERMOELECTRIC EVENTS IN LIGHT-EMITTING BIPOLAR SEMICONDUCTOR STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Magomedova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The development of light-emitting bipolar semiconductor structures having a low level of parasitic heat release.Methods. A method for converting thermoelectric heat in bipolar semiconductor structures into optical radiation to divert the excess energy into the environment was developed. At the same time, the cooling effect on thermoelectric junctions remains. Instead of an inertial process of conductive or convective heat transfer, practically instantaneous heat removal from electronic components to the environment takes place.Results. As a result, light-emitting bipolar semiconductor structures will allow more powerful devices with greater speed and degree of integration to be created. It is possible to produce transparent LED matrices with a two-way arrangement of transparent solar cells and mirror metal electrodes along the perimeter. When current is applied, the LED matrix on one of the transitions will absorb thermal energy; on other electrodes, it will emit radiation that is completely recovered into electricity by means of transparent solar cells following repeated reflection between the mirror electrodes. The low efficiency of solar cells will be completely compensated for with the multiple passages of photons through these batteries.Conclusion. Light-emitting bipolar semiconductor structures will not only improve the reliability of electronic components in a wide range of performance characteristics, but also improve energy efficiency through the use of optical radiation recovery. Semiconductor thermoelectric devices using optical phenomena in conjunction with the Peltier effect allow a wide range of energy-efficient components of radio electronic equipment to be realised, both for discrete electronics and for microsystem techniques. Systems for obtaining ultra-low temperatures in order to achieve superconductivity are of particular value. 

  5. Thermoelectric self-cooling for power electronics: Increasing the cooling power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Alvaro; Astrain, David; Aranguren, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric self-cooling was firstly conceived to increase, without electricity consumption, the cooling power of passive cooling systems. This paper studies the combination of heat pipe exchangers and thermoelectric self-cooling, and demonstrates its applicability to the cooling of power electronics. Experimental tests indicate that source-to-ambient thermal resistance reduces by around 30% when thermoelectric self-cooling system is installed, compared to that of the heat pipe exchanger under natural convection. Neither additional electric power nor cooling fluids are required. This thermal resistance reaches 0.346 K/W for a heat flux of 24.1 kW/m"2, being one order of magnitude lower than that obtained in previous designs. In addition, the system adapts to the cooling demand, reducing this thermal resistance for increasing heat. Simulation tests have indicated that simple system modifications allow relevant improvements in the cooling power. Replacement of a thermoelectric module with a thermal bridge leads to 33.54 kW/m"2 of top cooling power. Likewise, thermoelectric modules with shorter legs and higher number of pairs lead to a top cooling power of 44.17 kW/m"2. These results demonstrate the applicability of thermoelectric self-cooling to power electronics. - Highlights: • Cooling power of passive systems increased. • No electric power consumption. • Applicable for the cooling of power electronics. • Up to 44.17 kW/m"2 of cooling power, one order of magnitude higher. • Source-to-ambient thermal resistance reduces by 30%.

  6. High efficiency semimetal/semiconductor nanocomposite thermoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zide, J. M. O.; Bahk, J.-H.; Zeng, G.; Bowers, J. E.; Singh, R.; Zebarjadi, M.; Bian, Z. X.; Shakouri, A.; Lu, H.; Gossard, A. C.; Feser, J. P.; Xu, D.; Singer, S. L.; Majumdar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Rare-earth impurities in III-V semiconductors are known to self-assemble into semimetallic nanoparticles which have been shown to reduce lattice thermal conductivity without harming electronic properties. Here, we show that adjusting the band alignment between ErAs and In 0.53 Ga 0.47-X Al X As allows energy-dependent scattering of carriers that can be used to increase thermoelectric power factor. Films of various Al concentrations were grown by molecular beam epitaxy, and thermoelectric properties were characterized. We observe concurrent increases in electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient with increasing temperatures, demonstrating energy-dependent scattering. We report the first simultaneous power factor enhancement and thermal conductivity reduction in a nanoparticle-based system, resulting in a high figure of merit, ZT=1.33 at 800 K.

  7. Thermoelectric transport properties of high mobility organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateshvaran, Deepak; Broch, Katharina; Warwick, Chris N.; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2016-09-01

    Transport in organic semiconductors has traditionally been investigated using measurements of the temperature and gate voltage dependent mobility of charge carriers within the channel of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). In such measurements, the behavior of charge carrier mobility with temperature and gate voltage, studied together with carrier activation energies, provide a metric to quantify the extent of disorder within these van der Waals bonded materials. In addition to the mobility and activation energy, another potent but often-overlooked transport coefficient useful in understanding disorder is the Seebeck coefficient (also known as thermoelectric power). Fundamentally, the Seebeck coefficient represents the entropy per charge carrier in the solid state, and thus proves powerful in distinguishing materials in which charge carriers move freely from those where a high degree of disorder causes the induced carriers to remain trapped. This paper briefly covers the recent highlights in the field of organic thermoelectrics, showing how significant strides have been made both from an applied standpoint as well as from a viewpoint of fundamental thermoelectric transport physics. It shall be illustrated how thermoelectric transport parameters in organic semiconductors can be tuned over a significant range, and how this tunability facilitates an enhanced performance for heat-to-electricity conversion as well as quantifies energetic disorder and the nature of the density of states (DOS). The work of the authors shall be spotlighted in this context, illustrating how Seebeck coefficient measurements in the polymer indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole (IDTBT) known for its ultra-low degree of torsion within the polymer backbone, has a trend consistent with low disorder. 1 Finally, using examples of the small molecules C8-BTBT and C10-DNTT, it shall be discussed how the Seebeck coefficient can aid the estimation of the density and distribution of trap states

  8. Thermoelectric transport and Peltier cooling of cold atomic gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier, Charles; Kollath, Corinna; Georges, Antoine

    2016-12-01

    This brief review presents the emerging field of mesoscopic physics with cold atoms, with an emphasis on thermal and 'thermoelectric' transport, i.e. coupled transport of particles and entropy. We review in particular the comparison between theoretically predicted and experimentally observed thermoelectric effects in such systems. We also show how combining well-designed transport properties and evaporative cooling leads to an equivalent of the Peltier effect with cold atoms, which can be used as a new cooling procedure with improved cooling power and efficiency compared to the evaporative cooling currently used in atomic gases. This could lead to a new generation of experiments probing strong correlation effects of ultracold fermionic atoms at low temperatures.

  9. Compact, single-tube scanning tunneling microscope with thermoelectric cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobbins, Matthew M; Agostino, Christopher J; Michel, Jolai D; Gans, Ashley R; Kandel, S Alex

    2013-10-01

    We have designed and built a scanning tunneling microscope with a compact inertial-approach mechanism that fits inside the piezoelectric scanner tube. Rigid construction allows the microscope to be operated without the use of external vibration isolators or acoustic enclosures. Thermoelectric cooling and a water-ice bath are used to increase temperature stability when scanning under ambient conditions.

  10. Thermoelectric Performance Enhancement by Surrounding Crystalline Semiconductors with Metallic Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; King, Glen C.; Park, Yeonjoon; Lee, Kunik; Choi, Sang H.

    2011-01-01

    Direct conversion of thermal energy to electricity by thermoelectric (TE) devices may play a key role in future energy production and utilization. However, relatively poor performance of current TE materials has slowed development of new energy conversion applications. Recent reports have shown that the dimensionless Figure of Merit, ZT, for TE devices can be increased beyond the state-of-the-art level by nanoscale structuring of materials to reduce their thermal conductivity. New morphologically designed TE materials have been fabricated at the NASA Langley Research Center, and their characterization is underway. These newly designed materials are based on semiconductor crystal grains whose surfaces are surrounded by metallic nanoparticles. The nanoscale particles are used to tailor the thermal and electrical conduction properties for TE applications by altering the phonon and electron transport pathways. A sample of bismuth telluride decorated with metallic nanoparticles showed less thermal conductivity and twice the electrical conductivity at room temperature as compared to pure Bi2Te3. Apparently, electrons cross easily between semiconductor crystal grains via the intervening metallic nanoparticle bridges, but phonons are scattered at the interfacing gaps. Hence, if the interfacing gap is larger than the mean free path of the phonon, thermal energy transmission from one grain to others is reduced. Here we describe the design and analysis of these new materials that offer substantial improvements in thermoelectric performance.

  11. Maximization of the Thermoelectric Cooling of a Graded Peltier Device by Analytical Heat-Equation Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiébaut, E.; Goupil, C.; Pesty, F.; D'Angelo, Y.; Guegan, G.; Lecoeur, P.

    2017-12-01

    Increasing the maximum cooling effect of a Peltier cooler can be achieved through material and device design. The use of inhomogeneous, functionally graded materials may be adopted in order to increase maximum cooling without improvement of the Z T (figure of merit); however, these systems are usually based on the assumption that the local optimization of the Z T is the suitable criterion to increase thermoelectric performance. We solve the heat equation in a graded material and perform both analytical and numerical analysis of a graded Peltier cooler. We find a local criterion that we use to assess the possible improvement of graded materials for thermoelectric cooling. A fair improvement of the cooling effect (up to 36%) is predicted for semiconductor materials, and the best graded system for cooling is described. The influence of the equation of state of the electronic gas of the material is discussed, and the difference in term of entropy production between the graded and the classical system is also described.

  12. UJI UNJUK KERJA PENDINGIN RUANGAN BERBASIS THERMOELECTRIC COOLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Nulhakim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric cooling (TEC teknologi dimana ketika arus DC dialirkan ke elemen peltier yang terdiri dari beberapa pasang sel semikonduktor tipe p dan tipe n dimana akan mengakibatkan salah satu sisi elemen peltier menjadi dingin dan sisi lainnya menjadi panas. Proses perakitan pendingin menggunakan 2 buah thermoelectric cooling tipe TEC1-12706, heatsink, fan dan rongga berbentuk persegi panjang dengan ukuran 80 x 80 x 150 mm dengan menggunakan isolator styrofoam. Pengujian dilakukan selama 30 menit dengan variasi tegangan 3, 6, 9 dan 12 V, variasi selain tegangan juga menggunakan variasi kecepatan udara pada sisi dingin 1, 2 dan 3 m/s. Hasil terbaik pada variasi dengan tegangan 12 V dan kecepatan 1 m/s yaitu 20 oC.

  13. Thermoelectric cooling of microelectronic circuits and waste heat electrical power generation in a desktop personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, C.A.; Shammas, N.Y.A.; Grainger, S.; Taylor, I.

    2011-01-01

    Thermoelectric cooling and micro-power generation from waste heat within a standard desktop computer has been demonstrated. A thermoelectric test system has been designed and constructed, with typical test results presented for thermoelectric cooling and micro-power generation when the computer is executing a number of different applications. A thermoelectric module, operating as a heat pump, can lower the operating temperature of the computer's microprocessor and graphics processor to temperatures below ambient conditions. A small amount of electrical power, typically in the micro-watt or milli-watt range, can be generated by a thermoelectric module attached to the outside of the computer's standard heat sink assembly, when a secondary heat sink is attached to the other side of the thermoelectric module. Maximum electrical power can be generated by the thermoelectric module when a water cooled heat sink is used as the secondary heat sink, as this produces the greatest temperature difference between both sides of the module.

  14. Performance evaluation of micro thermoelectric module for hot spot cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ook Joong; Lee, Kong Hoon

    2008-01-01

    The experimental and numerical study is carried out to investigate the availability of micro TEM for hot spot cooling of an IC chip. It is found that an acrylic plate integrating with copper plate and imbedded micro TEM represents good hot spot cooling of the IC chip when CO2 laser is used to hot spot heating. Effective active local cooling phenomena by the TEM are well investigated by experiment. The measured temperature drop in the hot spot point is compared to numerical result using the TAS program for every case. Numerical result shows good agreement with experiment using some appropriate thermal and thermoelectric properties of TEM and TIM obtained by trial and error. Measurement of thermo-physical properties such as contact thermal resistance and thickness of liquid TIM is difficult but can be estimated by numerical analysis

  15. CONVERTER SOLAR RADIATION INTO ELECTRICITY TO SUPPLY THE AUTOMOTIVE SEMICONDUCTOR THERMOELECTRIC AIR CONDITIONING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the possibility to increase the efficiency of converters of solar radiation into electricity by combining constructive photoelectric effect, See-beck thermoeffect and semiconductor solar cells, which will create integrated device to provide power semiconductor thermoelectric automobile air conditioner. 

  16. The Effects of Doping and Processing on the Thermoelectric Properties of Platinum Diantimonide Based Materials for Cryogenic Peltier Cooling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldrop, Spencer Laine

    The study of thermoelectrics is nearly two centuries old. In that time a large number of applications have been discovered for these materials which are capable of transforming thermal energy into electricity or using electrical work to create a thermal gradient. Current use of thermoelectric materials is in very niche applications with contemporary focus being upon their capability to recover waste heat. A relatively undeveloped region for thermoelectric application is focused upon Peltier cooling at low temperatures. Materials based on bismuth telluride semiconductors have been the gold standard for close to room temperature applications for over sixty years. For applications below room temperature, semiconductors based on bismuth antimony reign supreme with few other possible materials. The cause of this diculty in developing new, higher performing materials is due to the interplay of the thermoelectric properties of these materials. The Seebeck coecient, which characterizes the phenomenon of the conversion of heat to electricity, the electrical conductivity, and the thermal conductivity are all interconnected properties of a material which must be optimized to generate a high performance thermoelectric material. While for above room temperature applications many advancements have been made in the creation of highly ecient thermoelectric materials, the below room temperature regime has been stymied by ill-suited properties, low operating temperatures, and a lack of research. The focus of this work has been to investigate and optimize the thermoelectric properties of platinum diantimonide, PtSb2, a nearly zero gap semiconductor. The electronic properties of PtSb2 are very favorable for cryogenic Peltier applications, as it exhibits good conductivity and large Seebeck coecient below 200 K. It is shown that both n- and p-type doping may be applied to this compound to further improve its electronic properties. Through both solid solution formation and processing

  17. Quantum Effects in the Thermoelectric Power Factor of Low-Dimensional Semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen T; Hasdeo, Eddwi H; Nugraha, Ahmad R T; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Saito, Riichiro

    2016-07-15

    We theoretically investigate the interplay between the confinement length L and the thermal de Broglie wavelength Λ to optimize the thermoelectric power factor of semiconducting materials. An analytical formula for the power factor is derived based on the one-band model assuming nondegenerate semiconductors to describe quantum effects on the power factor of the low-dimensional semiconductors. The power factor is enhanced for one- and two-dimensional semiconductors when L is smaller than Λ of the semiconductors. In this case, the low-dimensional semiconductors having L smaller than their Λ will give a better thermoelectric performance compared to their bulk counterpart. On the other hand, when L is larger than Λ, bulk semiconductors may give a higher power factor compared to the lower dimensional ones.

  18. Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usami, Koji; Naesby, A.; Bagci, Tolga

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical oscillators can be optically cooled using a technique known as optical-cavity back-action. Cooling of composite metal–semiconductor mirrors, dielectric mirrors and dielectric membranes has been demonstrated. Here we report cavity cooling of mechanical modes in a high-quality-factor and......Mechanical oscillators can be optically cooled using a technique known as optical-cavity back-action. Cooling of composite metal–semiconductor mirrors, dielectric mirrors and dielectric membranes has been demonstrated. Here we report cavity cooling of mechanical modes in a high...

  19. Thermoelectric power of small polarons in magnetic semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.H.; Emin, D.

    1984-01-01

    The thermoelectric power (Seebeck coefficient) α of a small polaron in both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic semiconductors and insulators is calculated for the first time. In particular, we obtain the contribution to the Seebeck coefficient arising from exchange interactions between the severely localized carrier (i.e., small polaron) of charge q and the spins of the host lattice. In essence, we study the heat transported along with a carrier. This heat, the Peltier heat, Pi, is related to the Seebeck coefficient by the Kelvin relation: Pi = qTα, where T is the temperature. The heat per carrier is simply the product of the temperature and the change of the entropy of the system when a small polaron is added to it. The magnetic contribution to the Seebeck coefficient is therefore directly related to the change of the magnetic entropy of the system upon introduction of a charge carrier. We explicitly treat the intrasite and intersite exchange interactions between a small polaron and the spins of a spin-1/2 system. These magnetic interactions produce two competing contributions to the Seebeck coefficient. First, adding the carrier tends to provide extra spin freedom (e.g., spin up or spin down of the carrier). This effect augments the entropy of the system, thereby producing a positive contribution to the Peltier heat. Second, however, the additional exchange between the carrier and the sites about it enhances the exchange binding among these sites. This generally reduces the energetically allowable spin configurations. The concomitant reduction of the system's entropy provides a negative contribution to the Peltier heat. At the highest of temperatures, when kT exceeds the intrasite exchange energy, the first effect dominates. Then, the Peltier heat is simply augmented by kT ln2

  20. Development of CCD Imaging System Using Thermoelectric Cooling Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngsik Park

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed low light CCD imaging system using thermoelectric cooling method collaboration with a company to design a commercial model. It consists of Kodak KAF-0401E (768x512 pixels CCD chip,thermoelectric module manufactured by Thermotek. This TEC system can reach an operative temperature of -25deg. We employed an Uniblitz VS25S shutter and it has capability a minimum exposure time 80ms. The system components are an interface card using a Korea Astronomy Observatory (hereafter KAO ISA bus controller, image acquisition with AD9816 chip, that is 12bit video processor. The performance test with this imaging system showed good operation within the initial specification of our design. It shows a dark current less than 0.4e-/pixel/sec at a temperature of -10deg, a linearity 99.9+/-0.1%, gain 4.24e-adu, and system noise is 25.3e- (rms. For low temperature CCD operation, we designed a TEC, which uses a one-stage peltier module and forced air heat exchanger. This TEC imaging system enables accurate photometry (+/-0.01mag even though the CCD is not at 'conventional' cryogenic temperatures (140K. The system can be a useful instrument for any other imaging applications. Finally, with this system, we obtained several images of astronomical objects for system performance tests.

  1. Thermoelectric cooling in combination with photovoltaics and thermal energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skovajsa Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the usage of thermal energy storage device based on the phase change material (PCM. The technology improves the thermal capacity of the building and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology” so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic panels, solar thermal collectors, and heat pump. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermal energy storage in combination with a photovoltaic system and thermoelectric coolers. In the research, there were made measurements of the different operating modes and the results are presented in the text.

  2. Thermoelectric mini cooler coupled with micro thermosiphon for CPU cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Di; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Yang, Hong-Xing; Tang, Guang-Fa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a thermoelectric mini cooler coupling with a micro thermosiphon cooling system has been proposed for the purpose of CPU cooling. A mathematical model of heat transfer, depending on one-dimensional treatment of thermal and electric power, is firstly established for the thermoelectric module. Analytical results demonstrate the relationship between the maximal COP (Coefficient of Performance) and Q c with the figure of merit. Full-scale experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of thermoelectric operating voltage, power input of heat source, and thermoelectric module number on the performance of the cooling system. Experimental results indicated that the cooling production increases with promotion of thermoelectric operating voltage. Surface temperature of CPU heat source linearly increases with increasing of power input, and its maximum value reached 70 °C as the prototype CPU power input was equivalent to 84 W. Insulation between air and heat source surface can prevent the condensate water due to low surface temperature. In addition, thermal performance of this cooling system could be enhanced when the total dimension of thermoelectric module matched well with the dimension of CPU. This research could benefit the design of thermal dissipation of electronic chips and CPU units. - Highlights: • A cooling system coupled with thermoelectric module and loop thermosiphon is developed. • Thermoelectric module coupled with loop thermosiphon can achieve high heat-transfer efficiency. • A mathematical model of thermoelectric cooling is built. • An analysis of modeling results for design and experimental data are presented. • Influence of power input and operating voltage on the cooling system are researched

  3. High Tc Superconducting Magnet Excited by a Semiconductor Thermoelectric Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, T.; Ono, M.; Tabe, S.; Oguchi, A.; Okamura, T.

    2006-04-01

    A high Tc superconducting (HTS) magnet excited by a thermal electromotive force of a thermoelectric element is studied. This HTS magnet has the advantages of compactness, lightweight and continuous excitation in comparison with conventional HTS magnets, because this HTS magnet does not need a large external power source. In this system, a heat input into the cryogenic environment is necessary to excite the thermoelectric element for constant operation. This heat generation, however, causes a rise in temperature of an HTS coil and reduces the system performance. In this paper, a newly designed magnet system which adopted a two-stage GM cryocooler was investigated. It enabled us to control the temperature of a thermoelectric element and that of an HTS coil independently. The temperature of the HTS coil could be kept at 10-20 K at the second stage of the GM cryocooler, while the thermoelectric element could be excited at higher temperature in the range of 50-70 K at the first stage, where the performance of the thermoelectric element was higher. The experimental results on this HTS magnet are shown and the possibility of the thermoelectric element as a main power source of the HTS magnets is discussed.

  4. Numerical and experimental investigation of thermoelectric cooling in down-hole measuring tools; a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohitha Weerasinghe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Use of Peltier cooling in down-hole seismic tooling has been restricted by the performance of such devices at elevated temperatures. Present paper analyses the performance of Peltier cooling in temperatures suited for down-hole measuring equipment using measurements, predicted manufacturer data and computational fluid dynamic analysis. Peltier performance prediction techniques is presented with measurements. Validity of the extrapolation of thermoelectric cooling performance at elevated temperatures has been tested using computational models for thermoelectric cooling device. This method has been used to model cooling characteristics of a prototype downhole tool and the computational technique used has been proven valid.

  5. Soft Chemistry, Coloring and Polytypism in Filled Tetrahedral Semiconductors: Toward Enhanced Thermoelectric and Battery Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Miles A; Medina-Gonzalez, Alan M; Vela, Javier

    2018-03-12

    Filled tetrahedral semiconductors are a rich family of compounds with tunable electronic structure, making them ideal for applications in thermoelectrics, photovoltaics, and battery anodes. Furthermore, these materials crystallize in a plethora of related structures that are very close in energy, giving rise to polytypism through the manipulation of synthetic parameters. This Minireview highlights recent advances in the solution-phase synthesis and nanostructuring of these materials. These methods enable the synthesis of metastable phases and polytypes that were previously unobtainable. Additionally, samples synthesized in solution phase have enhanced thermoelectric performance due to their decreased grain size. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Improvement of Cooling Performance of a Compact Thermoelectric Air Conditioner Using a Direct Evaporative Cooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipsaenporm, W.; Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Bubphachot, B.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents the results of tests carried out to investigate the potential application of a direct evaporative cooling (DEC) system for improving the performance of a compact thermoelectric (TE) air conditioner. The compact TE air conditioner is composed of three TE modules. The cold and hot sides of the TE modules were fixed to rectangular fin heat sinks. The DEC system produced cooling air that was used to assist the release of heat from the heat sinks at the hot side of the TE modules. The results showed that the cooling air dry bulb temperature from the DEC system achieved drops of about 5.9°C in parallel with about a 33.4% rise in relative humidity. The cooling efficiency of the DEC system varies between 72.1% and 81.5%. It increases the cooling capacity of the compact TE air conditioner from 53.0 W to 74.5 W. The 21.5 W (40.6%) increase represents the difference between the compact air conditioner operating with ambient air flowing through the TE module's heat sinks, and the compact air conditioner operating with the cooler air from the DEC system flowing through the TE module's heat sinks. In both scenarios, electric current of 4.5 A was supplied to the TE modules. It also has been experimentally proven that the coefficient of performance (COP) of the compact TE air conditioner can be improved by up to 20.9% by incorporating the DEC system.

  7. Development of a prototype thermoelectric space cooling system using phase change material to improve the performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongliang

    The thermoelectric cooling system has advantages over conventional vapor compression cooling devices, including compact in size, light in weight, high reliability, no mechanical moving parts, no refrigerant, being powered by direct current, and easily switching between cooling and heating modes. However, it has been long suffering from its relatively high cost and low energy efficiency, which has restricted its usage to niche applications, such as space missions, portable cooling devices, scientific and medical equipment, where coefficient of performance (COP) is not as important as reliability, energy availability, and quiet operation environment. Enhancement of thermoelectric cooling system performance generally relies on two methods: improving thermoelectric material efficiency and through thermoelectric cooling system thermal design. This research has been focused on the latter one. A prototype thermoelectric cooling system integrated with phase change material (PCM) thermal energy storage unit for space cooling has been developed. The PCM thermal storage unit used for cold storage at night, functions as the thermoelectric cooling system's heat sink during daytime's cooling period and provides relatively lower hot side temperature for the thermoelectric cooling system. The experimental test of the prototype system in a reduced-scale chamber has realized an average cooling COP of 0.87, with the maximum value of 1.22. Another comparison test for efficacy of PCM thermal storage unit shows that 35.3% electrical energy has been saved from using PCM for the thermoelectric cooling system. In general, PCM faces difficulty of poor thermal conductivity at both solid and liquid phases. This system implemented a finned inner tube to increase heat transfer during PCM charging (melting) process that directly impacts thermoelectric system's performance. A simulation tool for the entire system has been developed including mathematical models for a single thermoelectric module

  8. Impact of energy filtering and carrier localization on the thermoelectric properties of granular semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narducci, Dario, E-mail: dario.narducci@unimib.it [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Selezneva, Ekaterina [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Cerofolini, Gianfranco [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Consorzio DeltaTi Research (Italy); Frabboni, Stefano; Ottaviani, Giampiero [Department of Physics, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Campi 213, 41100 Modena (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    Energy filtering has been widely considered as a suitable tool to increase the thermoelectric performances of several classes of materials. In its essence, energy filtering provides a way to increase the Seebeck coefficient by introducing a strongly energy-dependent scattering mechanism. Under certain conditions, however, potential barriers may lead to carrier localization, that may also affect the thermoelectric properties of a material. A model is proposed, actually showing that randomly distributed potential barriers (as those found, e.g., in polycrystalline films) may lead to the simultaneous occurrence of energy filtering and carrier localization. Localization is shown to cause a decrease of the actual carrier density that, along with the quantum tunneling of carriers, may result in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. The model is corroborated toward experimental data gathered by several authors on degenerate polycrystalline silicon and lead telluride. - Graphical abstract: In heavily doped semiconductors potential barriers may lead to both carrier energy filtering and localization. This may lead to an enhancement of the thermoelectric properties of the material, resulting in an unexpected increase of the power factor with the doping level. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential barriers are shown to lead to carrier localization in thermoelectric materials. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence is put forward of the formation of a mobility edge. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Energy filtering and localization may explain the enhancement of power factor in degenerate semiconductors.

  9. Direct evidence of strong local ferroelectric ordering in a thermoelectric semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aggarwal, Leena; Sekhon, Jagmeet S.; Arora, Ashima; Sheet, Goutam, E-mail: goutam@iisermohali.ac.in [Department of Physical Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali (IISER M), Sector 81, S. A. S. Nagar, Manauli PO-140306 (India); Guin, Satya N.; Negi, Devendra S.; Datta, Ranjan; Biswas, Kanishka, E-mail: kanishka@jncasr.ac.in [New Chemistry Unit and International Centre for Materials Science, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research (JNCASR), Jakkur, Bangalore 560064 (India)

    2014-09-15

    It is thought that the proposed new family of multi-functional materials, namely, the ferroelectric thermoelectrics may exhibit enhanced functionalities due to the coupling of the thermoelectric parameters with ferroelectric polarization in solids. Therefore, the ferroelectric thermoelectrics are expected to be of immense technological and fundamental significance. As a first step towards this direction, it is most important to identify the existing high performance thermoelectric materials exhibiting ferroelectricity. Herein, through the direct measurement of local polarization switching, we show that the recently discovered thermoelectric semiconductor AgSbSe{sub 2} has local ferroelectric ordering. Using piezo-response force microscopy, we demonstrate the existence of nanometer scale ferroelectric domains that can be switched by external electric field. These observations are intriguing as AgSbSe{sub 2} crystalizes in cubic rock-salt structure with centro-symmetric space group (Fm–3m), and therefore, no ferroelectricity is expected. However, from high resolution transmission electron microscopy measurement, we found the evidence of local superstructure formation which, we believe, leads to local distortion of the centro-symmetric arrangement in AgSbSe{sub 2} and gives rise to the observed ferroelectricity. Stereochemically active 5S{sup 2} lone-pair of Sb may also give rise to local structural distortion thereby creating ferroelectricity in AgSbSe{sub 2}.

  10. Methods for synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals and thermoelectric compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang (Inventor); Poudel, Bed (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Dresselhaus, Mildred (Inventor); Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Wang, Wenzhong (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    The present invention provides methods for synthesis of IV VI nanostructures, and thermoelectric compositions formed of such structures. In one aspect, the method includes forming a solution of a Group IV reagent, a Group VI reagent and a surfactant. A reducing agent can be added to the solution, and the resultant solution can be maintained at an elevated temperature, e.g., in a range of about 20.degree. C. to about 360.degree. C., for a duration sufficient for generating nanoparticles as binary alloys of the IV VI elements.

  11. Asymmetric Conductance Thermoelectric Cooling Modules for Cryogenic Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thermoelectric coolers (TECs) have long been noted for their compact construction, high reliability, and clean, quiet operation, and they are now widely used in...

  12. A proposal for Coulomb assisted laser cooling of piezoelectric semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nia, Iman Hassani; Mohseni, Hooman, E-mail: hmohseni@ece.northwestern.edu [Bio-Inspired Sensors and Optoelectronics Laboratory (BISOL), Department of Electrical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2014-07-28

    Anti-Stokes laser cooling of semiconductors as a compact and vibration-free method is very attractive. While it has achieved significant milestones, increasing its efficiency is highly desirable. The main limitation is the lack of the pristine material quality with high luminescence efficiency. Here, we theoretically demonstrate that the Coulomb interaction among electrons and holes in piezoelectric heterostructures could lead to coherent damping of acoustic phonons; rendering a significantly higher efficiency that leads to the possibility of cooling a broad range of semiconductors.

  13. Implementation of thermoelectric module for cooling process of microscale experimental room

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołebiowska, Justyna; Żelazna, Agnieszka; Zioło, Paweł

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectric modules, also known as Peltier modules, are used for cooling small devices and also, according to literature, in refrigeration. They can be an alternative to conventional refrigeration systems based on the use of compressors chillers powered by AC power. Peltier modules are powered by direct current (DC), which allows to power them directly supply by photovoltaic modules. In this paper operation of thermoelectric module used for cooling experimental room of cubature 0.125 m3 is presented. The study involves investigation of temperatures achieved on the cold and hot sides of module and inside the experimental room depending on the values of module supplying current. These studies provide an introduction to the assessment of the influence of different methods of heat removal on the hot side of thermoelectric module on cooling efficiency of whole system.

  14. Thermoelectric micro converters for cooling and energy-scavenging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, L M; Couto, C; Correia, J H; Alpuim, P

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the fabrication process of thermoelectric microconverters, based on n-type bismuth telluride (Bi 2 Te 3 ) and p-type antimony telluride (Sb 2 Te 3 ) thin films. The films are fabricated by thermal co-evaporation with thermoelectric properties comparable to those reported for the same materials in bulk form (used in conventional macro-scale Peltier modules). The absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient in the range of 150–250 µV K −1 and an in-plane electrical resistivity of 7–15 µΩ m were obtained. The influence of fabrication parameters on thermoelectric properties is reported. The films were patterned by photolithography and wet-etching techniques, using HNO 3 /HCl-based etchants. The influence of composition and concentration of etchants in the lithographic process is reported. A microcooler was fabricated

  15. Effect of Cooling Units on the Performance of an Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, C. Q.; Zhu, D. C.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, Y. P.; Liu, X.

    2017-05-01

    Currently, automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators (AETEGs) are a hot topic in energy recovery. In order to investigate the influence of coolant flow rate, coolant flow direction and cooling unit arrangement in the AETEG, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) model and a related test bench are constructed. Water cooling is adopted in this study. Due to the non-uniformity of the surface temperature of the heat source, the coolant flow direction would affect the output performance of the TEG. Changing the volumetric flow rate of coolant can increase the output power of multi-modules connected in series or/and parallel as it can improve the temperature uniformity of the cooling unit. Since the temperature uniformity of the cooling unit has a strong influence on the output power, two cooling units are connected in series or parallel to research the effect of cooling unit arrangements on the maximum output power of the TEG. Experimental and theoretical analyses reveal that the net output power is generally higher with cooling units connected in parallel than cooling units connected in series in the cooling system with two cooling units.

  16. Universal Curve of Optimum Thermoelectric Figures of Merit for Bulk and Low-Dimensional Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen T.; Nugraha, Ahmad R. T.; Saito, Riichiro

    2018-02-01

    This paper is a contribution to the Physical Review Applied collection in memory of Mildred S. Dresselhaus. Analytical formulas for thermoelectric figures of merit and power factors are derived based on the one-band model. We find that there is a direct relationship between the optimum figures of merit and the optimum power factors of semiconductors despite of the fact that the two quantities are generally given by different values of chemical potentials. By introducing a dimensionless parameter consisting of the optimum power factor and lattice thermal conductivity (without electronic thermal conductivity), it is possible to unify optimum figures of merit of both bulk and low-dimensional semiconductors into a single universal curve that covers many materials with different dimensionalities.

  17. A Solution-Doped Polymer Semiconductor:Insulator Blend for Thermoelectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Kiefer, David; Yu, Liyang; Fransson, Erik; Gó mez, André s; Primetzhofer, Daniel; Amassian, Aram; Campoy-Quiles, Mariano; Mü ller, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) is demonstrated to be a suitable matrix polymer for the solution-doped conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene). The polarity of the insulator combined with carefully chosen processing conditions permits the fabrication of tens of micrometer-thick films that feature a fine distribution of the F4TCNQ dopant:semiconductor complex. Changes in electrical conductivity from 0.1 to 0.3 S cm−1 and Seebeck coefficient from 100 to 60 μV K−1 upon addition of the insulator correlate with an increase in doping efficiency from 20% to 40% for heavily doped ternary blends. An invariant bulk thermal conductivity of about 0.3 W m−1 K−1 gives rise to a thermoelectric Figure of merit ZT ∼ 10−4 that remains unaltered for an insulator content of more than 60 wt%. Free-standing, mechanically robust tapes illustrate the versatility of the developed dopant:semiconductor:insulator ternary blends.

  18. A Solution-Doped Polymer Semiconductor:Insulator Blend for Thermoelectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Kiefer, David

    2016-09-01

    Poly(ethylene oxide) is demonstrated to be a suitable matrix polymer for the solution-doped conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene). The polarity of the insulator combined with carefully chosen processing conditions permits the fabrication of tens of micrometer-thick films that feature a fine distribution of the F4TCNQ dopant:semiconductor complex. Changes in electrical conductivity from 0.1 to 0.3 S cm−1 and Seebeck coefficient from 100 to 60 μV K−1 upon addition of the insulator correlate with an increase in doping efficiency from 20% to 40% for heavily doped ternary blends. An invariant bulk thermal conductivity of about 0.3 W m−1 K−1 gives rise to a thermoelectric Figure of merit ZT ∼ 10−4 that remains unaltered for an insulator content of more than 60 wt%. Free-standing, mechanically robust tapes illustrate the versatility of the developed dopant:semiconductor:insulator ternary blends.

  19. Thermal conductivity anisotropy in holey silicon nanostructures and its impact on thermoelectric cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongqing; Lee, Jaeho

    2018-01-01

    Artificial nanostructures have improved prospects of thermoelectric systems by enabling selective scattering of phonons and demonstrating significant thermal conductivity reductions. While the low thermal conductivity provides necessary temperature gradients for thermoelectric conversion, the heat generation is detrimental to electronic systems where high thermal conductivity are preferred. The contrasting needs of thermal conductivity are evident in thermoelectric cooling systems, which call for a fundamental breakthrough. Here we show a silicon nanostructure with vertically etched holes, or holey silicon, uniquely combines the low thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction and the high thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction, and that the anisotropy is ideal for lateral thermoelectric cooling. The low in-plane thermal conductivity due to substantial phonon boundary scattering in small necks sustains large temperature gradients for lateral Peltier junctions. The high cross-plane thermal conductivity due to persistent long-wavelength phonons effectively dissipates heat from a hot spot to the on-chip cooling system. Our scaling analysis based on spectral phonon properties captures the anisotropic size effects in holey silicon and predicts the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 20. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the thermoelectric cooling effectiveness of holey silicon is at least 30% greater than that of high-thermal-conductivity bulk silicon and 400% greater than that of low-thermal-conductivity chalcogenides; these results contrast with the conventional perception preferring either high or low thermal conductivity materials. The thermal conductivity anisotropy is even more favorable in laterally confined systems and will provide effective thermal management solutions for advanced electronics.

  20. Thermal conductivity anisotropy in holey silicon nanostructures and its impact on thermoelectric cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zongqing; Lee, Jaeho

    2018-01-26

    Artificial nanostructures have improved prospects of thermoelectric systems by enabling selective scattering of phonons and demonstrating significant thermal conductivity reductions. While the low thermal conductivity provides necessary temperature gradients for thermoelectric conversion, the heat generation is detrimental to electronic systems where high thermal conductivity are preferred. The contrasting needs of thermal conductivity are evident in thermoelectric cooling systems, which call for a fundamental breakthrough. Here we show a silicon nanostructure with vertically etched holes, or holey silicon, uniquely combines the low thermal conductivity in the in-plane direction and the high thermal conductivity in the cross-plane direction, and that the anisotropy is ideal for lateral thermoelectric cooling. The low in-plane thermal conductivity due to substantial phonon boundary scattering in small necks sustains large temperature gradients for lateral Peltier junctions. The high cross-plane thermal conductivity due to persistent long-wavelength phonons effectively dissipates heat from a hot spot to the on-chip cooling system. Our scaling analysis based on spectral phonon properties captures the anisotropic size effects in holey silicon and predicts the thermal conductivity anisotropy ratio up to 20. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the thermoelectric cooling effectiveness of holey silicon is at least 30% greater than that of high-thermal-conductivity bulk silicon and 400% greater than that of low-thermal-conductivity chalcogenides; these results contrast with the conventional perception preferring either high or low thermal conductivity materials. The thermal conductivity anisotropy is even more favorable in laterally confined systems and will provide effective thermal management solutions for advanced electronics.

  1. Semimetals and the problem of cryogenic thermoelectric cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodiul, P.; Gitsu, D.; Konopko, L.; Nikolaeva, A.; Huber, T.

    2002-01-01

    Reviewed are some specific peculiarities of the electronic transport phenomena in bismuth and its alloys single crystals, the impurity states behaviour and the crystal sizes influence with the purpose to determine the convenient method for the improvement of the thermoelectric efficiency in these materials. High temperature superconductivity has open new possibilities for the development of the cryoelectronics. However, for their realisation, it is essential to obtain low temperatures (T c ∼ 5 mm at T = 4.2 K), and technological parameters, bismuth and its alloys are of a special interest for nanoelectronics. The given paper is a brief review of some specific peculiarities of galvano-thermomagnetic phenomena in the bismuth and its alloys single crystals, behaviour of impurity states and the influence of the crystal sizes. (authors)

  2. An On-Site Thermoelectric Cooling Device for Cryotherapy and Control of Skin Blood Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Natalia; Dedow, Karl; Nguy, Lindsey; Sullivan, Patrick; Khoshnevis, Sepideh; Diller, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    Cryotherapy involves the surface application of low temperatures to enhance the healing of soft tissue injuries. Typical devices embody a remote source of chilled water that is pumped through a circulation bladder placed on the treatment site. In contrast, the present device uses thermoelectric refrigeration modules to bring the cooling source directly to the tissue to be treated, thereby achieving significant improvements in control of therapeutic temperature while having a reduced size and weight. A prototype system was applied to test an oscillating cooling and heating protocol for efficacy in regulating skin blood perfusion in the treatment area. Data on 12 human subjects indicate that thermoelectric coolers (TECs) delivered significant and sustainable changes in perfusion for both heating (increase by (±SE) 173.0 ± 66.0%, P device for cryotherapy with local temperature regulation.

  3. Methodology on sizing and selecting thermoelectric cooler from different TEC manufacturers in cooling system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, F.L.; Fok, S.C.

    2008-01-01

    The search and selection for a suitable thermoelectric cooler (TEC) to optimize a cooling system design can be a tedious task as there are many product ranges from several TEC manufacturers. Although the manufacturers do provide proprietary manuals or electronic search facilities for their products, the process is still cumbersome as these facilities are incompatible. The electronic facilities often have different user interfaces and functionalities, while the manual facilities have different presentations of the performance characteristics. This paper presents a methodology to assist the designer to size and select the TECs from different manufacturers. The approach will allow designers to find quickly and to evaluate the devices from different TEC manufacturers. Based on the approach, the article introduces a new operational framework for an Internet based thermoelectric cooling system design process that would promote the interaction and collaboration between the designers and TEC manufacturers. It is hoped that this work would be useful for the advancement of future tools to assist designers to develop, analyze and optimize thermoelectric cooling system design in minimal time using the latest TECs available on the market

  4. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on the Performance of a Thermoelectric Cooling Automotive Seat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chuqi; Dong, Wenbin; Deng, Yadong; Wang, Yiping; Liu, Xun

    2018-06-01

    Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) is the most significant auxiliary load in vehicles and largely increases extra emissions. Therefore, thermoelectric cooling automotive seat, a relatively new technology, is used in an attempt to reduce HVAC consumption and improve thermal comfort. In this study, three design schemes of the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) are proposed. Then the numerical simulation is used to analyze their heat transfer performance, and evaluate the improvement of the seat cooling in terms of the occupant back thermal comfort. Moreover, an experiment is conducted to validate the accuracy of the simulation results. The experimental results show that: (1) an average reduction in air temperature of 4°C in 60 s is obtained; (2) the temperature of the occupant's back drops from 33.5°C to 25.7°C in cooperation with the HVAC system; (3) back thermal comfort is greatly improved. As expected, the thermoelectric cooling automotive seat is able to provide an improvement in the occupant's thermal comfort at a reduced energy consumption rate, which makes it promising for vehicular application.

  5. Evaluation of fiber reinforced polymers using active infrared thermography system with thermoelectric cooling modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chady, Tomasz; Gorący, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    Active infrared thermography is increasingly used for nondestructive testing of various materials. Properties of this method are creating a unique possibility to utilize it for inspection of composites. In the case of active thermography, an external energy source is usually used to induce a thermal contrast inside tested objects. The conventional heating methods (like halogen lamps or flash lamps) are utilized for this purpose. In this study, we propose to use a cooling unit. The proposed system consists of a thermal imaging infrared camera, which is used to observe the surface of the inspected specimen and a specially designed cooling unit with thermoelectric modules (the Peltier modules).

  6. Variable cooling circuit for thermoelectric generator and engine and method of control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Gregory P

    2012-10-30

    An apparatus is provided that includes an engine, an exhaust system, and a thermoelectric generator (TEG) operatively connected to the exhaust system and configured to allow exhaust gas flow therethrough. A first radiator is operatively connected to the engine. An openable and closable engine valve is configured to open to permit coolant to circulate through the engine and the first radiator when coolant temperature is greater than a predetermined minimum coolant temperature. A first and a second valve are controllable to route cooling fluid from the TEG to the engine through coolant passages under a first set of operating conditions to establish a first cooling circuit, and from the TEG to a second radiator through at least some other coolant passages under a second set of operating conditions to establish a second cooling circuit. A method of controlling a cooling circuit is also provided.

  7. Thermoelectric cooler concepts and the limit for maximum cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifert, W; Hinsche, N F; Pluschke, V

    2014-01-01

    The conventional analysis of a Peltier cooler approximates the material properties as independent of temperature using a constant properties model (CPM). Alternative concepts have been published by Bian and Shakouri (2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 89 212101), Bian (et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 245208) and Snyder et al (2012 Phys. Rev. B 86 045202). While Snyder's Thomson cooler concept results from a consideration of compatibility, the method of Bian et al focuses on the redistribution of heat. Thus, both approaches are based on different principles. In this paper we compare the new concepts to CPM and we reconsider the limit for maximum cooling. The results provide a new perspective on maximum cooling. (paper)

  8. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Liu, Wenshi [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Vidic, Radisav D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A process simulation model has been developed using Aspen Plus® with the OLI (OLI System, Inc.) water chemistry model to predict water quality in the recirculating cooling loop utilizing secondary- and tertiary-treated municipal wastewater as the source of makeup water. Simulation results were compared with pilot-scale experimental data on makeup water alkalinity, loop pH, and ammonia evaporation. The effects of various parameters including makeup water quality, salt formation, NH3 and CO2 evaporation mass transfer coefficients, heat load, and operating temperatures were investigated. The results indicate that, although the simulation model can capture the general trends in the loop pH, experimental data on the rates of salt precipitation in the system are needed for more accurate prediction of the loop pH. It was also found that stripping of ammonia and carbon dioxide in the cooling tower can influence the cooling loop pH significantly. The effects of the NH3 mass transfer coefficient on cooling loop pH appear to be more significant at lower values (e.g., kNH3 < 4×10-3 m/s) when the makeup water alkalinity is low (e.g., <90 mg/L as CaCO3). The effect of the CO2 mass transfer coefficient was found to be significant only at lower alkalinity values (e.g., kCO2<4×10-6 m/s).

  9. Analysis and Experimental Investigation of Optimum Design of Thermoelectric Cooling/Heating System for Car Seat Climate Control (CSCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elarusi, Abdulmunaem; Attar, Alaa; Lee, HoSung

    2018-02-01

    The optimum design of a thermoelectric system for application in car seat climate control has been modeled and its performance evaluated experimentally. The optimum design of the thermoelectric device combining two heat exchangers was obtained by using a newly developed optimization method based on the dimensional technique. Based on the analytical optimum design results, commercial thermoelectric cooler and heat sinks were selected to design and construct the climate control heat pump. This work focuses on testing the system performance in both cooling and heating modes to ensure accurate analytical modeling. Although the analytical performance was calculated using the simple ideal thermoelectric equations with effective thermoelectric material properties, it showed very good agreement with experiment for most operating conditions.

  10. Experimental study of a thermoelectrically-driven liquid chiller in terms of COP and cooling down period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraji, Amir Yadollah; Goldsmid, H.J.; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A COP of 0.8 is achievable for a thermoelectrically-driven water chiller. • With two market available TEC modules with ZT around 0.7 sub-zero temperatures became applicable. • Forced air convection heat exchangers have better COP and CDP compared with natural convection. • A PID controller has several advantages against on–off controller for controlling TEC module. - Abstract: To study COP and other cooling parameters of a thermoelectically-driven liquid chiller, a 430 ml capacity liquid chiller incorporating two commercially available thermoelectric modules as its active components, has been designed, built and assessed. The system can use natural or forced air convection in heat exchangers attached to the thermoelectric module surfaces. The coefficient of performance (COP) and cooling down period (CDP) of the system for different thermoelectric input voltages have been measured. The COP of the thermoelectric chiller was found to be in the range 0.2–1.4 for forced convection and 0.2–1 for natural convection at a cooled liquid temperature of 10 °C and an ambient temperature of 18 °C. For the chiller, heat pumping capacity, minimum achievable water temperature, and temperature difference across the thermoelectric surfaces were investigated for input voltages of 3 V, 5 V, 7 V, 10 V and 12 V. Furthermore, as a basis for reliable and convenient control of the chiller, a proportional integral derivative (PID) controller has been proposed

  11. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV panel performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  12. Effect of Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC) module and the water flow heatsink on Photovoltaic (PV) panel performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelia, A. R.; Jusoh, MA; Shamira Idris, Ida

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) panel suffers in low conversion efficiency of the output performance affected by the elevated operating temperature of the PV panel. It is important to keep the PV panel to operate at low temperature. To address this issue, this paper proposes the cooling system using thermoelectric cooling (TEC) and water block heatsink for enhancing the PV panel output performance. These both types cooling system were designed located on the back side of the PV panel to cool down the operating temperature of the PV panel. To evaluate the function for the existing cooling systems, the experiment was subsequently performed for PV panel without and with different design of the cooling system in outdoor weather conditions. By comparing the experimental results, it is concluded that by the hybrid cooling system which combining TEC module and the water block heatsink could improve the output performance of the PV panel. By the reduction temperature of the PV panel by 16.04 %, the average output power of the PV panel has been boosted up from 8.59 W to 9.03 W. In short, the output power of the PV panel was enhanced by the reduction of the operating temperature of the PV panel.

  13. Experimental and theoretical analysis of a hybrid solar thermoelectric generator with forced convection cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundarraj, Pradeepkumar; Taylor, Robert A.; Banerjee, Debosmita; Maity, Dipak; Sinha Roy, Susanta

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid solar thermoelectric generators (HSTEGs) have garnered significant research attention recently due to their potential ability to cogenerate heat and electricity. In this paper, theoretical and experimental investigations of the electrical and thermal performance of a HSTEG system are reported. In order to validate the theoretical model, a laboratory scale HSTEG system (based on forced convection cooling) is developed. The HSTEG consists of six thermoelectric generator modules, an electrical heater, and a stainless steel cooling block. Our experimental analysis shows that the HSTEG is capable of producing a maximum electrical power output of 4.7 W, an electrical efficiency of 1.2% and thermal efficiency of 61% for an average temperature difference of 92 °C across the TEG modules with a heater power input of 382 W. These experimental results of the HSTEG system are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. This experimental/theoretical analysis can also serve as a guide for evaluating the performance of the HSTEG system with forced convection cooling.

  14. Influence of the effectiveness of raw materials on the reliability of thermoelectric cooling devices. Part I: single-stage TEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaikov V. P.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Increase of the reliability of information systems depends on the reliability improvement of their component elements, including cooling devices, providing efficiency of thermally loaded components. Thermoelectric devices based on the Peltier effect have significant advantages compared with air and liquid systems for thermal modes of the radio-electronic equipment. This happens due to the absence of moving parts, which account for the failure rate. The article presents research results on how thermoelectric efficiency modules affect the failure rate and the probability of non-failure operation in the range of working temperature of thermoelectric coolers. The authors investigate a model of relative failure rate and the probability of failure-free operation single-stage thermoelectric devices depending on the main relevant parameters: the operating current flowing through the thermocouple and resistance, temperature changes, the magnitude of the heat load and the number of elements in the module. It is shown that the increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of the primary material for a variety of thermocouple temperature changes causes the following: maximum temperature difference increases by 18%; the number of elements in the module decreases; cooling coefficient increases; failure rate reduces and the probability of non-failure operation of thermoelectric cooling device increases. Material efficiency increase by 1% allows reducing failure rate by 2,6—4,3% in maximum refrigeration capacity mode and by 4,2—5,0% in minimal failure rate mode when temperature difference changes in the range of 40—60 K. Thus, the increase in the thermoelectric efficiency of initial materials of thermocouples can significantly reduce the failure rate and increase the probability of failure of thermoelectric coolers depending on the temperature difference and the current operating mode.

  15. Dynamic heat transfer modeling and parametric study of thermoelectric radiant cooling and heating panel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yongqiang; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Zhongbing; Wang, Yingzi; Wu, Jing; Wang, Xiliang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic model of thermoelectric radiant panel system is established. • The internal parameters of thermoelectric module are dynamically calculated in simulation. • Both artificial neural networks model and system model are verified through experiment data. • Optimized system structure is obtained through parametric study. - Abstract: Radiant panel system can optimize indoor thermal comfort with lower energy consumption. The thermoelectric radiant panel (TERP) system is a new and effective prototype of radiant system using thermoelectric module (TEM) instead of conventional water pipes, as heat source. The TERP can realize more stable and easier system control as well as lower initial and operative cost. In this study, an improved system dynamic model was established by combining analytical system model and artificial neural networks (ANN) as well as the dynamic calculation functions of internal parameters of TEM. The double integral was used for the calculation of surface average temperature of TERP. The ANN model and system model were in good agreement with experiment data in both cooling and heating mode. In order to optimize the system design structure, parametric study was conducted in terms of the thickness of aluminum panel and insulation, as well as the arrangement of TEMs on the surface of radiant panel. It was found through simulation results that the optimum thickness of aluminum panel and insulation are respectively around 1–2 mm and 40–50 mm. In addition, TEMs should be uniformly installed on the surface of radiant panel and each TEM should stand at the central position of a square-shaped typical region with length around 0.387–0.548 m.

  16. Phase Change Material Based Accumulation Panels in Combination with Renewable Energy Sources and Thermoelectric Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Skovajsa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the use of modern materials and technologies that can improve the thermal comfort in buildings. The article describes the design and usage of a special accumulation device, which is composed of thermal panels based on phase change materials (PCMs. The thermal panels have an integrated tube heat exchanger and heating foils. The technology can be used as a passive or active system for heating and cooling. It is designed as a “green technology”, so it is able to use renewable energy sources, e.g., photovoltaic (PV panels, solar thermal collectors and heat pumps. Moreover, an interesting possibility is the ability to use thermoelectric coolers. In the research, measurements of the different operating modes were made, and the results are presented in the text. The measurement approves that the technology improves the thermal capacity of the building, and it is possible to use it for active heating and cooling.

  17. Crystallization and Thermoelectric Transport in Semiconductor Micro- and Nanostructures Under Extreme Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gokirmak, Ali [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States); Silva, Helena [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2017-08-30

    This project focused on thermoelectric transport in semiconductor micro and nanostructures where moderate and typical operating voltages and currents lead to extreme thermal gradients and current densities. Models that describe behavior of semiconducting materials typically assume an equilibrium condition or slight deviations from it. In these cases the generation-recombination processes are assumed to have reached a local equilibrium for a given temperature. Hence, free carrier concentrations and their mobilities, band-gap, thermal conductivity, thermoelectric properties, mobility of atoms and mechanical properties of the material, can be described as a function of temperature. In the case of PN junctions under electrical bias, carrier concentrations can change up to ~ 1020 cm-3 and a drift-diffusion approximation is typically used to obtain the carrier concentrations while assuming that the material properties do not change. In non-equilibrium conditions, the assumption that the material properties remain the same may not be valid. While the increased conduction-band electron concentration may not have a drastic effect on the material, large hole concentration is expected to soften the material as ‘a hole’ comes into existence as a broken bond in the lattice. As the hole density approaches 1022 cm-3, the number of bonds holding the lattice together is significantly reduced, making it easier to break additional bonds, reduce band-gap and inhibit phonon transport. As these holes move away from where they were generated, local properties are expected to deviate significantly from the equilibrium case. Hence, temperature alone is not sufficient to describe the behavior of the material. The behavior of the solid material close to a molten region (liquid-solid interfaces) is also expected to deviate from the equilibrium case as a function of hole injection rate, which can be drastically increased or decreased in the presence of an electric field. In the past years

  18. Solar thermoelectric cooling using closed loop heat exchangers with macro channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Raghied M.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper we describe the design, analysis and experimental study of an advanced coolant air conditioning system which cools or warms airflow using thermoelectric (TE) devices powered by solar cells. Both faces of the TE devices are directly connected to closed-loop highly efficient channels plates with macro scale channels and liquid-to-air heat exchangers. The hot side of the system consists of a pump that moves a coolant through the hot face of the TE modules, a radiator that drives heat away into the air, and a fan that transfer the heat over the radiator by forced convection. The cold side of the system consists also of a pump that moves coolant through the cold face of the TE modules, a radiator that drives cold away into the air, and a fan that blows cold air off the radiator. The system was integrated with solar panels, tested and its thermal performance was assessed. The experimental results verify the possibility of heating or cooling air using TE modules with a relatively high coefficient of performance (COP). The system was able to cool a closed space of 30 m3 by 14 °C below ambient within 90 min. The maximum COP of the whole system was 0.72 when the TE modules were running at 11.2 Å and 12 V. This improvement in the system COP over the air cooled heat sink is due to the improvement of the system heat exchange by means of channels plates.

  19. Numerical Modeling and Design of Thermoelectric Cooling Systems and Its Application to Manufacturing Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, A.; Arana, A.; Oyanguren, A.; García, G.; Barbero, A.; Larrañaga, J.; Ulacia, I.

    2013-07-01

    In this work the properties of thermoelectric modules (TEMs) and their behavior have been numerically modeled. Moreover, their applications very often require modeling not only of the TEM but also of the working environment and the product in which they will be working. A clear example is the fact that TEMs are very often installed with heat-dissipating elements such as fans, heat sinks, and heat exchangers; thus, the module will only work according to the heat dissipation conditions that these external sources can provide in a certain environment. In this context, analytic approaches, even though they have been proved to be useful, do not provide enough, accurate information in this regard. Therefore, numerical modeling has been identified as a powerful tool to improve detailed designs of thermoelectric solutions. This paper presents numerical simulations of a TEM in different working conditions, as well as with different commercial dissipation devices. The objective is to obtain the characteristic curve of a TEM using a valid numerical model that can be introduced into larger models of different applications. Also, the numerical model of the module and different cooling devices is provided. Both of them are compared against real tested modules, so that the deviation between them can be measured and discussed. Finally, the TEM is introduced into a manufacturing application and results are discussed to validate the model for further use.

  20. Thermoelectric properties of thin film and superlattice structure of IV-VI and V-VI compound semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumers, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    The basic material property governing the efficiency of thermoelectric applications is the thermoelectric figure of merit Z=S 2 .σ/k, where S is the Seebeck-coefficient, σ is the electrical conductivity and k the thermal conductivity. A promising concept of increasing Z by one and two dimensional quantum well superlattices (QW-SL) was introduced in the early 1990s in terms of theoretical predictions. The realization of such low dimensional systems is done by use of semiconductor compounds with different energy gaps. The ambition of the Nitherma project was to investigate the thermoelectric properties of superlattices and Multi-Quantum-Well-structures (MQW) made of Pb 1-x Sr x Te and Bi 2 (Se x Te 1-x ) 3 , respectively. Therefore SL- and MQW-structures of this materials were grown and Z was determined by measuring of S, σ and κ parallel to the layer planes. Aim of this thesis is the interpretation of the transport measurements (S,σ,κ) of low dimensional structures and the improvement of preparation and measurement techniques. The influence of low dimensionality on the thermal conductivity in SL- and MQW-structures was investigated by measurements on structures with different layer thicknesses. In addition, measurements of the Seebeck-coefficient were performed, also to verify the results of the participating groups.

  1. Flash crystallization kinetics of methane (sI) hydrate in a thermoelectrically-cooled microreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiqi; Pinho, Bruno; Hartman, Ryan L

    2017-09-12

    The crystallization kinetics of methane (sI) hydrate were investigated in a thermoelectrically-cooled microreactor with in situ Raman spectroscopy. Step-wise and precise control of the temperature allowed acquisition of reproducible data within minutes, while the nucleation of methane hydrates can take up to 24 h in traditional batch reactors. The propagation rates of methane hydrate (from 3.1-196.3 μm s -1 ) at the gas-liquid interface were measured for different Reynolds' numbers (0.7-68.9), pressures (30.0-80.9 bar), and sub-cooling temperatures (1.0-4.0 K). The precise measurement of the propagation rates and their subsequent analyses revealed a transition from mixed heat-transfer-crystallization-rate-limited to mixed heat-transfer-mass-transfer-crystallization-rate-limited kinetics. A theoretical model, based on heat transfer, mass transfer, and intrinsic crystallization kinetics, was derived for the first time to understand the non-linear relationship between the propagation rate and sub-cooling temperature. The molecular diffusivity of methane within a stagnant film (ahead of the propagation front) was discovered to follow Stokes-Einstein, while calculated Hatta (0.50-0.68), Lewis (128-207), and beta (0.79-116) numbers also confirmed that the diffusive flux influences crystal growth. Understanding methane hydrate crystal growth is important to the atmospheric, oceanic, and planetary sciences and to energy production, storage, and transportation. Our discoveries could someday advance the science of other multiphase, high-pressure, and sub-cooled crystallizations.

  2. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Sensor and Cooling Devices Based on Elaborated Bismuth-Telluride Alloy Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Boulouz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal motivation of this work is the development and realization of smart cooling and sensors devices based on the elaborated and characterized semiconducting thermoelectric thin film materials. For the first time, the details design of our sensor and the principal results are published. Fabrication and characterization of Bi/Sb/Te (BST semiconducting thin films have been successfully investigated. The best values of Seebeck coefficient (α(T at room temperature for Bi2Te3, and (Bi1−xSbx2Te3 with x = 0.77 are found to be −220 µV/K and +240 µV/K, respectively. Fabrication and evaluation of performance devices are reported. 2.60°C of cooling of only one Peltier module device for an optimal current of Iopt=2.50 mA is obtained. The values of temperature measured by infrared camera, by simulation, and those measured by the integrated and external thermocouple are reported. A sensitivity of the sensors of 5 mV Torr−1 mW−1 for the pressure sensor has been found with a response time of about 600 ms.

  3. Thermal Management of Power Semiconductor Packages - Matching Cooling Technologies with Packaging Technologies (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennion, K.; Moreno, G.

    2010-04-27

    Heat removal for power semiconductor devices is critical for robust operation. Because there are different packaging options, different thermal management technologies, and a range of applications, there is a need for a methodology to match cooling technologies and package configurations to target applications. To meet this need, a methodology was developed to compare the sensitivity of cooling technologies on the overall package thermal performance over a range of power semiconductor packaging configurations. The results provide insight into the trade-offs associated with cooling technologies and package configurations. The approach provides a method for comparing new developments in power semiconductor packages and identifying potential thermal control technologies for the package. The results can help users select the appropriate combination of packaging configuration and cooling technology for the desired application.

  4. Experimental study on the thermal management of high-power LED headlight cooling device integrated with thermoelectric cooler package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Xin-Jie; Cai, Yi-Xi; Zhang, Chun; Bao, Wei-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel TEC cooling system for multi-chip LED module was successfully developed. • Influences of liquid velocity on the system thermal performance were investigated. • TEC system is more sensitive to the input current than that of the mere air cooling. • The junction temperature can be maintained below 61.8 °C (liquid cooling & TEC). - Abstract: In view of the characteristics of high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs), such as strict junction temperature (T j ) control, the enhanced cooling models based on the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) were presented to meet the thermal demand of high-power LED headlight. The cooling performance of different devices (air cooling & TEC, liquid cooling & TEC) was evaluated and compared by measuring the LED case temperature. Details of the heat transfer performance, particularly, the start-up performances of the TEC cooler, as well as the influence of the fan rotate speed or liquid velocity on the system thermal performance were obtained. It was found that the thermal performance had been elevated dramatically due to the reduction of the hot side temperature, and the thermoelectric cooler was more sensitive to the external fan speed or liquid velocity than purely air cooling or liquid cooling. In addition, the optimal current for air cooling & TEC was 3A, and 5A for liquid cooling + TEC. Investigations of the simulated ambient temperature on junction temperature, forward voltage, and output light were conducted. Results indicated that the case temperature changed linear basically with the increase in heating power or the simulated ambient temperature. When the ambient temperature was within its severe level (60–65 °C), the junction temperature could be calculated to 59.5 °C, and the corresponding output light was 1607.3 lm

  5. Fast infrared array spectrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled 160-element PbSe detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Jun; Gore, Jay P.; Sivathanu, Yudaya R.; Lim, Jongmook

    2004-01-01

    A fast infrared array spectrometer (FIAS) with a thermoelectrically cooled 160-element PbSe detector was demonstrated using measurements of instantaneous infrared radiation intensities simultaneously over the 1.8-4.9 μm wavelength range at a sampling rate of 390 Hz. A three-point second-degree Lagrange interpolation polynomial was constructed to calibrate the FIAS because of the nonlinear response of the infrared array detector to the incident radiation beam. This calibration method gave excellent measurements of blackbody radiation spectra except for a narrow band at wavelength of 4.3 μm due to absorption by room carbon dioxide, which is one of the two major gas radiation peaks (2.7 and 4.3 μm) from the lean premixed hydrocarbon/air combustion products in the midinfrared spectrum. Therefore, the absorption coefficient of room carbon dioxide was conveniently measured on site with the blackbody reference source, and was used in the calibration of the FIAS and also in the calculations of the radiation spectra. Blackbody tests showed that this procedure was effective in correcting for the room carbon dioxide absorption in the radiation spectra measured by the FIAS. For an example of its application, the calibrated FIAS was used to measure spectral radiation intensities from three lean premixed laminar flames and a premixed turbulent jet flame for which reference data with a grating spectrometer were available for comparison. The agreement between the FIAS measurements and the reference data was excellent

  6. Empirical Analysis for the Heat Exchange Effectiveness of a Thermoelectric Liquid Cooling and Heating Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansol Lim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to estimate the performance of thermoelectric module (TEM heat pump for simultaneous liquid cooling and heating and propose empirical models for predicting the heat exchange effectiveness. The experiments were conducted to investigate and collect the performance data of TEM heat pump where the working fluid was water. A total of 57 sets of experimental data were statistically analyzed to estimate the effects of each independent variable on the heat exchange effectiveness using analysis of variance (ANOVA. To develop the empirical model, the six design parameters were measured: the number of transfer units (NTU of the heat exchangers (i.e., water blocks, the inlet water temperatures and temperatures of water blocks at the cold and hot sides of the TEM. As a result, two polynomial equations predicting heat exchange effectiveness at the cold and hot sides of the TEM heat pump were derived as a function of the six selected design parameters. Also, the proposed models and theoretical model of conventional condenser and evaporator for heat exchange effectiveness were compared with the additional measurement data to validate the reliability of the proposed models. Consequently, two conclusions have been made: (1 the possibility of using the TEM heat pump for simultaneous cooling and heating was examined with the maximum temperature difference of 30 °C between cold and hot side of TEM, and (2 it is revealed that TEM heat pump has difference with the conventional evaporator and condenser from the comparison results between the proposed models and theoretical model due to the heat conduction and Joule effect in TEM.

  7. Wetland Water Cooling Partnership: The Use of Constructed Wetlands to Enhance Thermoelectric Power Plant Cooling and Mitigate the Demand of Surface Water Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfelbaum, Steven L. [Applied Ecological Services Inc., Brodhead, WI (United States); Duvall, Kenneth W. [Sterling Energy Services, LLC, Atlanta, GA (United States); Nelson, Theresa M. [Applied Ecological Services Inc., Brodhead, WI (United States); Mensing, Douglas M. [Applied Ecological Services Inc., Brodhead, WI (United States); Bengtson, Harlan H. [Sterling Energy Services, LLC, Atlanta, GA (United States); Eppich, John [Waterflow Consultants, Champaign, IL (United States); Penhallegon, Clayton [Sterling Energy Services, LLC, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thompson, Ry L. [Applied Ecological Services Inc., Brodhead, WI (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Through the Phase I study segment of contract #DE-NT0006644 with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory, Applied Ecological Services, Inc. and Sterling Energy Services, LLC (the AES/SES Team) explored the use of constructed wetlands to help address stresses on surface water and groundwater resources from thermoelectric power plant cooling and makeup water requirements. The project objectives were crafted to explore and develop implementable water conservation and cooling strategies using constructed wetlands (not existing, naturally occurring wetlands), with the goal of determining if this strategy has the potential to reduce surface water and groundwater withdrawals of thermoelectric power plants throughout the country. Our team’s exploratory work has documented what appears to be a significant and practical potential for augmenting power plant cooling water resources for makeup supply at many, but not all, thermoelectric power plant sites. The intent is to help alleviate stress on existing surface water and groundwater resources through harvesting, storing, polishing and beneficially re-using critical water resources. Through literature review, development of conceptual created wetland plans, and STELLA-based modeling, the AES/SES team has developed heat and water balances for conventional thermoelectric power plants to evaluate wetland size requirements, water use, and comparative cooling technology costs. The ecological literature on organism tolerances to heated waters was used to understand the range of ecological outcomes achievable in created wetlands. This study suggests that wetlands and water harvesting can provide a practical and cost-effective strategy to augment cooling waters for thermoelectric power plants in many geographic settings of the United States, particularly east of the 100th meridian, and in coastal and riverine locations. The study concluded that constructed wetlands can have significant positive

  8. Temperature-induced assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals into fractal architectures and thermoelectric power properties in Au/Ge bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Quanbao; Wang Jian; Jiao Zheng [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Wu Minghong, E-mail: mhwu@staff.shu.edu.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Shek, Chan-Hung; Lawrence Wu, C.M.; Lai, Joseph K.L. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Chen Zhiwen, E-mail: cnzwchen@yahoo.com.cn [Shanghai Applied Radiation Institute, Institute of Nanochemistry and Nanobiology, School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > Ge fractal architectures were achieved by temperature-induced assembly. > The appearance of fractal architectures influences the thermoelectric power. > But it has little effect on the resistivity. > The values of the superlocalization exponent were within 1.22 {<=} {xi} {<=} 1.29. > It was higher than expected for two-dimension fractal system. - Abstract: Fractal architectures of semiconductor nanocrystals were successfully achieved by temperature-induced assembly of semiconductor nanocrystals in gold/germanium (Au/Ge) bilayer films. New assessment strategies of fractal architectures are of fundamental importance in the development of micro/nano-devices. Temperature-dependent properties including resistivity and thermoelectric power (TEP) of Au/Ge bilayer films with self-similar fractal patterns were investigated in detail. Experimental results indicated that the microstructure of Au film plays an important role in the characteristics of Au/Ge bilayer films after annealing and the crystallization processes of amorphous Ge accompany by fractal formation of Ge nanocrystals via temperature-induced assembly. The appearance of fractal architectures has significantly influence on the TEP but little effect on the resistivity of the annealed bilayer film. By analysis of the data, we found that the values of superlocalization exponent are within 1.22 {<=} {xi} {<=} 1.29, which are higher than expected for two-dimension fractal systems. The results provided possible evidence for the superlocalization on fractal architectures in Au/Ge bilayer films. The TEP measurements are considered a more effective method than the conductivity for investigating superlocalization in a percolating system.

  9. Importance of non-parabolic band effects in the thermoelectric properties of semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Parker, David; Singh, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We present an analysis of the thermoelectric properties of of n-type GeTe and SnTe in relation to the lead chalcogenides PbTe and PbSe. We find that the singly degenerate conduction bands of semiconducting GeTe and SnTe are highly non-ellipsoidal, even very close to the band edges. This leads to isoenergy surfaces with a strongly corrugated shape that is clearly evident at carrier concentrations well below 0.005 e per formula unit (7–9 × 1019 cm−3 depending on material). Analysis within Boltzmann theory suggests that this corrugation may be favorable for the thermoelectric transport. Our calculations also indicate that values of the power factor for these two materials may well exceed those of PbTe and PbSe. As a result these materials may exhibit n-type performance exceeding that of the lead chalcogenides. PMID:24196778

  10. Possible High Thermoelectric Power in Semiconducting Carbon Nanotubes ˜A Case Study of Doped One-Dimensional Semiconductors˜

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahiro; Fukuyama, Hidetoshi

    2018-02-01

    We have theoretically investigated the thermoelectric properties of impurity-doped one-dimensional semiconductors, focusing on nitrogen-substituted (N-substituted) carbon nanotubes (CNTs), using the Kubo formula combined with a self-consistent t-matrix approximation. N-substituted CNTs exhibit extremely high thermoelectric power factor (PF) values originating from a characteristic of one-dimensional materials where decrease in the carrier density increase both the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient in the low-N regime. The chemical potential dependence of the PF values of semiconducting CNTs has also been studied as a field-effect transistor and it turns out that the PF values show a noticeable maximum in the vicinity of the band edges. This result demonstrates that "band-edge engineering" will be crucial for solid development of high-performance thermoelectric materials.

  11. Improvement In The COP Of Thermoelectric Cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatin Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper described the study for heat transfer through thermoelectric cooler TEC by use of multistage thermoelectric module. To satisfy the heat dissipation of modern electronic element thermal designers have to increase fin area and fan speed to improve its cooling capacity. However the increase of fin area is restricted by the space. Besides the increase of fan speed would induce noise which damages human health. So air cooling by fan is hardly to meet the requirement of modern electronic component. Recently thermoelectric cooler TEC is applied to electronic cooling with the advantages of small size quietness and reliability. A typical thermoelectric cooler consists of p-type and n-type semiconductor pellets connected electrically in series and sandwiched between two ceramic substrates. Whenever direct current passes through the circuit it causes temperature differential between TEC sides. As a result one face of TEC which is called cold side will be cooled while its opposite face which is called hot side is simultaneously heated. The main problem over the use of TEC is the limited COP and its thermal performance. But these can be eliminated by use of multistage thermoelectric cooler.

  12. Thermoelectric Cooling-Aided Bead Geometry Regulation in Wire and Arc-Based Additive Manufacturing of Thin-Walled Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Wire and arc-based additive manufacturing (WAAM is a rapidly developing technology which employs a welding arc to melt metal wire for additive manufacturing purposes. During WAAM of thin-walled structures, as the wall height increases, the heat dissipation to the substrate is slowed down gradually and so is the solidification of the molten pool, leading to variation of the bead geometry. Though gradually reducing the heat input via adjusting the process parameters can alleviate this issue, as suggested by previous studies, it relies on experience to a large extent and inevitably sacrifices the deposition rate because the wire feed rate is directly coupled with the heat input. This study introduces for the first time an in-process active cooling system based on thermoelectric cooling technology into WAAM, which aims to eliminate the difference in heat dissipation between upper and lower layers. The case study shows that, with the aid of thermoelectric cooling, the bead width error is reduced by 56.8%, the total fabrication time is reduced by 60.9%, and the average grain size is refined by 25%. The proposed technique provides new insight into bead geometry regulation during WAAM with various benefits in terms of geometric accuracy, productivity, and microstructure.

  13. The Influence of the Inner Topology of Cooling Units on the Performance of Automotive Exhaust-Based Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D. C.; Su, C. Q.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, Y. P.; Liu, X.

    2018-06-01

    Automotive exhaust-based thermoelectric generators are currently a hot topic in energy recovery. The waste heat of automotive exhaust gas can be converted into electricity by means of thermoelectric modules. Generally, inserting fins into the cooling unit contributes to enhancing the heat transfer for a higher power output. However, the introduction of fins will result in a pressure drop in the cooling system. In current research, in order to enhance the heat transfer and avoid a large pressure drop, a cooling unit with cylindrical grooves on the interior surface was proposed. To evaluate the performance of the cylindrical grooves, different inner topologies, including a smooth interior surface,a smooth interior surface with inserted fins and an interior surface with cylindrical grooves, were compared. The results revealed that compared with the smooth interior surface, the smooth interior surface with inserted fins and the interior surface with cylindrical grooves both enhanced the heat transfer, but the interior surface with cylindrical grooves obtained a lower pressure drop. To improve the performance of the cylindrical grooves, different groove-depth ratios were tried, and the results showed that a groove-depth ratio of 0.081 could provide the best overall performance.

  14. Horizontal cooling towers: riverine ecosystem services and the fate of thermoelectric heat in the contemporary Northeast US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Robert J; Wollheim, Wilfred M; Lammers, Richard B; Miara, Ariel; Vörösmarty, Charles J; Fekete, Balazs; Rosenzweig, Bernice

    2013-01-01

    The electricity sector is dependent on rivers to provide ecosystem services that help regulate excess heat, either through provision of water for evaporative cooling or by conveying, diluting and attenuating waste heat inputs. Reliance on these ecosystem services alters flow and temperature regimes, which impact fish habitat and other aquatic ecosystem services. We demonstrate the contemporary (2000–2010) dependence of the electricity sector on riverine ecosystem services and associated aquatic impacts in the Northeast US, a region with a high density of thermoelectric power plants. We quantify these dynamics using a spatially distributed hydrology and water temperature model (the framework for aquatic modeling in the Earth system), coupled with the thermoelectric power and thermal pollution model. We find that 28.4% of thermoelectric heat production is transferred to rivers, whereas 25.9% is directed to vertical cooling towers. Regionally, only 11.3% of heat transferred to rivers is dissipated to the atmosphere and the rest is delivered to coasts, in part due to the distribution of power plants within the river system. Impacts to the flow regime are minimal, while impacts to the thermal regime include increased river lengths of unsuitable habitats for fish with maximum thermal tolerances of 24.0, 29.0, and 34.0 ° C in segments downstream of plants by 0.6%, 9.8%, and 53.9%, respectively. Our analysis highlights the interactions among electricity production, cooling technologies, aquatic impacts, and ecosystem services, and can be used to assess the full costs and tradeoffs of electricity production at regional scales. (letter)

  15. Development and computational simulation of thermoelectric electromagnetic pumps for controlling the fluid flow in liquid metal cooled space nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    Thermoelectric Electromagnetic (TEEM) Pumps can be used for controlling the fluid flow in the primary and secondary circuits of liquid metal cooled space nuclear reactor. In order to simulate and to evaluate the pumps performance, in steady-state, the computer program BEMTE has been developed to study the main operational parameters and to determine the system actuation point, for a given reactor operating power. The results for each stage of the program were satisfactory, compared to experimental data. The program shows to be adequate for the design and simulating of direct current electromagnetic pumps. (author)

  16. Thermoelectric conversion efficiency in IV-VI semiconductors with reduced thermal conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Ishida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Mid-temperature thermoelectric conversion efficiencies of the IV-VI materials were calculated under the Boltzmann transport theory of carriers, taking the Seebeck, Peltier, and Thomson effects into account. The conversion efficiency was discussed with respect to the lattice thermal conductivity, keeping other parameters such as Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity to the same values. If room temperature lattice thermal conductivity is decreased up to 0.5W/mK, the conversion efficiency of a PbS based material becomes as high as 15% with the temperature difference of 500K between 800K and 300K.

  17. Energy efficiency enhancements for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software achieved in cool silicon cluster project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellinger, Frank; Mikolajick, Thomas; Fettweis, Gerhard; Hentschel, Dieter; Kolodinski, Sabine; Warnecke, Helmut; Reppe, Thomas; Tzschoppe, Christoph; Dohl, Jan; Carta, Corrado; Fritsche, David; Tretter, Gregor; Wiatr, Maciej; Detlef Kronholz, Stefan; Mikalo, Ricardo Pablo; Heinrich, Harald; Paulo, Robert; Wolf, Robert; Hübner, Johannes; Waltsgott, Johannes; Meißner, Klaus; Richter, Robert; Michler, Oliver; Bausinger, Markus; Mehlich, Heiko; Hahmann, Martin; Möller, Henning; Wiemer, Maik; Holland, Hans-Jürgen; Gärtner, Roberto; Schubert, Stefan; Richter, Alexander; Strobel, Axel; Fehske, Albrecht; Cech, Sebastian; Aßmann, Uwe; Pawlak, Andreas; Schröter, Michael; Finger, Wolfgang; Schumann, Stefan; Höppner, Sebastian; Walter, Dennis; Eisenreich, Holger; Schüffny, René

    2013-07-01

    An overview about the German cluster project Cool Silicon aiming at increasing the energy efficiency for semiconductors, communications, sensors and software is presented. Examples for achievements are: 1000 times reduced gate leakage in transistors using high-fc (HKMG) materials compared to conventional poly-gate (SiON) devices at the same technology node; 700 V transistors integrated in standard 0.35 μm CMOS; solar cell efficiencies above 19% at cars Contribution to the Topical Issue “International Semiconductor Conference Dresden-Grenoble - ISCDG 2012”, Edited by Gérard Ghibaudo, Francis Balestra and Simon Deleonibus.

  18. Electron transport in erbium arsenide:indium gallium(aluminum)arsenide metal/semiconductor nanocomposites for thermoelectric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, Je-Hyeong

    Electron transport in thin film ErAs:InGa(Al)As metal/semiconductor nanocomposite materials grown by molecular beam epitaxy is investigated experimentally and theoretically for efficient thermoelectric power generation. Thermoelectric properties such as the Seebeck coefficient, the electrical conductivity, and the thermal conductivity are measured for the various compositions of the material up to 840 K. A special sample preparation method is proposed to protect the thin films from damage and/or decomposition, and prevent the parasitic substrate conduction effect during the high temperature measurements. The sample preparation method includes surface passivation, high temperature metallization with a diffusion barrier, and the covalent oxide bonding technique for substrate removal. The experimental results for the nanocomposite materials are analyzed using the Boltzmann transport equation under the relaxation time approximation. The scattering characteristics of free electrons in the InGa(Al)As is defined by four major scattering mechanisms such as the polar optical phonon scattering, the ionized impurity scattering, the alloy scattering, and the acoustic phonon deformation potential scattering. Combining these scattering mechanisms, the electron transport model successfully fits the temperature-dependent thermoelectric properties of Si-doped InGaAlAs materials, and predicts the figure of merits at various doping levels in various Al compositions. The nanoparticle-electron interaction is modeled as a momentum scattering for free electrons caused by the electrostatic potential perturbation around nanoparticles and the band offset at the interface. The ErAs nanoparticles are assumed to be semi-metals that can donate electrons to the matrix, and positively charged after the charge transfer to build up the screened coulomb potential outside them. The nanoparticle scattering rate is calculated for this potential profile using the partial wave method, and used to analyze

  19. Band structure and thermoelectric properties of half-Heusler semiconductors from many-body perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahedifar, Maedeh; Kratzer, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Various ab initio approaches to the band structure of A NiSn and A CoSb half-Heusler compounds (A = Ti, Zr, Hf) are compared and their consequences for the prediction of thermoelectric properties are explored. Density functional theory with the generalized-gradient approximation (GGA), as well as the hybrid density functional HSE06 and ab initio many-body perturbation theory in the form of the G W0 approach, are employed. The G W0 calculations confirm the trend of a smaller band gap (0.75 to 1.05 eV) in A NiSn compared to the A CoSb compounds (1.13 to 1.44 eV) already expected from the GGA calculations. While in A NiSn materials the G W0 band gap is 20% to 50% larger than in HSE06, the fundamental gap of A CoSb materials is smaller in G W0 compared to HSE06. This is because G W0 , similar to PBE, locates the valence band maximum at the L point of the Brillouin zone, whereas it is at the Γ point in the HSE06 calculations. The differences are attributed to the observation that the relative positions of the d levels of the transition metal atoms vary among the different methods. Using the calculated band structures and scattering rates taking into account the band effective masses at the extrema, the Seebeck coefficients, thermoelectric power factors, and figures of merit Z T are predicted for all six half-Heusler compounds. Comparable performance is predicted for the n -type A NiSn materials, whereas clear differences are found for the p -type A CoSb materials. Using the most reliable G W0 electronic structure, ZrCoSb is predicted to be the most efficient material with a power factor of up to 0.07 W/(K2 m) at a temperature of 600 K. We find strong variations among the different ab initio methods not only in the prediction of the maximum power factor and Z T value of a given material, but also in comparing different materials to each other, in particular in the p -type thermoelectric materials. Thus we conclude that the most elaborate, but also most costly G W0

  20. Electroforming of Bi(1-x)Sb(x) nanowires for high-efficiency micro-thermoelectric cooling devices on a chip.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overmyer, Donald L.; Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III (,; ); Siegal, Michael P.; Yelton, William Graham

    2006-11-01

    Active cooling of electronic systems for space-based and terrestrial National Security missions has demanded use of Stirling, reverse-Brayton, closed Joule-Thompson, pulse tube and more elaborate refrigeration cycles. Such cryocoolers are large systems that are expensive, demand large powers, often contain moving parts and are difficult to integrate with electronic systems. On-chip, solid-state, active cooling would greatly enhance the capabilities of future systems by reducing the size, cost and inefficiencies compared to existing solutions. We proposed to develop the technology for a thermoelectric cooler capable of reaching 77K by replacing bulk thermoelectric materials with arrays of Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires. Furthermore, the Sandia-developed technique we will use to produce the oriented nanowires occurs at room temperature and can be applied directly to a silicon substrate. Key obstacles include (1) optimizing the Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} alloy composition for thermoelectric properties; (2) increasing wire aspect ratios to 3000:1; and (3) increasing the array density to {ge} 10{sup 9} wires/cm{sup 2}. The primary objective of this LDRD was to fabricate and test the thermoelectric properties of arrays of Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x} nanowires. With this proof-of-concept data under our belts we are positioned to engage National Security systems customers to invest in the integration of on-chip thermoelectric coolers for future missions.

  1. Reuse of Treated Internal or External Wastewaters in the Cooling Systems of Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav Vidic; David Dzombak; Ming-Kai Hsieh; Heng Li; Shih-Hsiang Chien; Yinghua Feng; Indranil Chowdhury; Jason Monnell

    2009-06-30

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using three impaired waters - secondary treated municipal wastewater, passively treated abandoned mine drainage (AMD), and effluent from ash sedimentation ponds at power plants - for use as makeup water in recirculating cooling water systems at thermoelectric power plants. The evaluation included assessment of water availability based on proximity and relevant regulations as well as feasibility of managing cooling water quality with traditional chemical management schemes. Options for chemical treatment to prevent corrosion, scaling, and biofouling were identified through review of current practices, and were tested at bench and pilot-scale. Secondary treated wastewater is the most widely available impaired water that can serve as a reliable source of cooling water makeup. There are no federal regulations specifically related to impaired water reuse but a number of states have introduced regulations with primary focus on water aerosol 'drift' emitted from cooling towers, which has the potential to contain elevated concentrations of chemicals and microorganisms and may pose health risk to the public. It was determined that corrosion, scaling, and biofouling can be controlled adequately in cooling systems using secondary treated municipal wastewater at 4-6 cycles of concentration. The high concentration of dissolved solids in treated AMD rendered difficulties in scaling inhibition and requires more comprehensive pretreatment and scaling controls. Addition of appropriate chemicals can adequately control corrosion, scaling and biological growth in ash transport water, which typically has the best water quality among the three waters evaluated in this study. The high TDS in the blowdown from pilot-scale testing units with both passively treated mine drainage and secondary treated municipal wastewater and the high sulfate concentration in the mine drainage blowdown water were identified as the main challenges for blowdown

  2. Effect mutual carrying away of electrons and photons on thermomagnet and thermoelectric phenomena in semiconductors with generated statistics of current carriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuliev, I.G.

    2000-01-01

    One studied the effects of the mutual carrying away of electrons and phonons on the thermomagnetic and thermoelectric phenomena in semiconductors with the degenerated statistics of current carriers. One estimated the conduction current within nonequilibrium electron-phonon system in the linear approximation on the basis of the degeneration parameter. Under the isothermal conductors the mutual carrying away was shown to affect essentially the values of the Nernst-Ettingshausen effects. One estimated the heat flow and analyzed the dependence of heat conductivity and of the Muggy-Regge (MR) effect on the magnetic field. The contribution of the mutual carrying away into the isothermal MR-effect was determined to be proportional to the degeneration parameter. One studied thermomagnetic and thermoelectric effects in the degenerated conductors with regard to the mutual carrying away of electrons and phonons both under the isothermal and under the adiabatic conditions [ru

  3. Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This book deals with process and measurement of semiconductor. It contains 20 chapters, which goes as follows; semiconductor industry, introduction of semiconductor manufacturing, yield of semiconductor process, materials, crystal growth and a wafer forming, PN, control pollution, oxidation, photomasking photoresist chemistry, photomasking technologies, diffusion and ion injection, chemical vapor deposition, metallization, wafer test and way of evaluation, semiconductor elements, integrated circuit and semiconductor circuit technology.

  4. Thermoelectric properties of the 3C, 2H, 4H, and 6H polytypes of the wide-band-gap semiconductors SiC, GaN, and ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of the 3C, 2H, 4H, and 6H polytypes of the wide-band-gap(n-type semiconductors SiC, GaN, and ZnO based on first-principles calculations and Boltzmann transport theory. Our results show that the thermoelectric performance increases from 3C to 6H, 4H, and 2H structures with an increase of hexagonality for SiC. However, for GaN and ZnO, their power factors show a very weak dependence on the polytype. Detailed analysis of the thermoelectric properties with respect to temperature and carrier concentration of 4H-SiC, 2H-GaN, and 2H-ZnO shows that the figure of merit of these three compounds increases with temperature, indicating the promising potential applications of these thermoelectric materials at high temperature. The significant difference of the polytype-dependent thermoelectric properties among SiC, GaN, and ZnO might be related to the competition between covalency and ionicity in these semiconductors. Our calculations may provide a new way to enhance the thermoelectric properties of wide-band-gap semiconductors through atomic structure design, especially hexagonality design for SiC.

  5. A semiconductor device thermal model taking into account non-linearity and multhipathing of the cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Górecki, K; Zarȩbski, J

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to modelling thermal properties of semiconductor devices at the steady state. The dc thermal model of a semiconductor device taking into account the multipath heat flow is proposed. Some results of calculations and measurements of thermal resistance of a power MOSFET operating at different cooling conditions are presented. The obtained results of calculations fit the results of measurements, which proves the correctness of the proposed model.

  6. Utilization of municipal wastewater for cooling in thermoelectric power plants: Evaluation of the combined cost of makeup water treatment and increased condenser fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Michael E. [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Theregowda, Ranjani B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Safari, Iman [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Abbasian, Javad [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Arastoopour, Hamid [Illinois Inst. of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering; Dzombak, David A. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept of Civil and Mechanical Engineering; Hsieh, Ming-Kai [Tamkang Univ., Taipei (Taiwan). Waer Resources Management and Policy Research Center; Miller, David C. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2013-10-01

    A methodology is presented to calculate the total combined cost (TCC) of water sourcing, water treatment and condenser fouling in the recirculating cooling systems of thermoelectric power plants. The methodology is employed to evaluate the economic viability of using treated municipal wastewater (MWW) to replace the use of freshwater as makeup water to power plant cooling systems. Cost analyses are presented for a reference power plant and five different tertiary treatment scenarios to reduce the scaling tendencies of MWW. Results indicate that a 550 MW sub-critical coal fired power plant with a makeup water requirement of 29.3 ML/day has a TCC of $3.0 - 3.2 million/yr associated with the use of treated MWW for cooling. (All costs USD 2009). This translates to a freshwater conservation cost of $0.29/kL, which is considerably lower than that of dry air cooling technology, $1.5/kL, as well as the 2020 conservation cost target set by the U.S. Department of Energy, $0.74/kL. Results also show that if the available price of freshwater exceeds that of secondary-treated MWW by more than $0.13-0.14/kL, it can be economically advantageous to purchase secondary MWW and treat it for utilization in the recirculating cooling system of a thermoelectric power plant.

  7. High Performance High Temperature Thermoelectric Composites with Metallic Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, James M. (Inventor); Bux, Sabah K. (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Ravi, Vilupanur A. (Inventor); Firdosy, Samad A. (Inventor); Star, Kurt (Inventor); Kaner, Richard B. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention provides a composite thermoelectric material. The composite thermoelectric material can include a semiconductor material comprising a rare earth metal. The atomic percent of the rare earth metal in the semiconductor material can be at least about 20%. The composite thermoelectric material can further include a metal forming metallic inclusions distributed throughout the semiconductor material. The present invention also provides a method of forming this composite thermoelectric material.

  8. Thermoelectric properties of low-dimensional clathrates from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasinathan, Deepa; Rosner, Helge

    2011-03-01

    Type-I inorganic clathrates are host-guest structures with the guest atoms trapped in the framework of the host structure. From a thermoelectric point of view, they are interesting because they are semiconductors with adjustable bandgaps. Investigations in the past decade have shown that type-I clathrates X8 Ga 16 Ge 30 (X = Ba, Sr, Eu) may have the unusual property of ``phonon glass-electron crystal'' for good thermoelectric materials. Among the known clathrates, Ba 8 Ga 16 Ge 30 has the highest figure of merit (ZT~1). To enable a more widespread usage of thermoelectric technology power generation and heating/cooling applications, ZT of at least 2-3 is required. Two different research approaches have been proposed for developing next generation thermoelectric materials: one investigating new families of advanced bulk materials, and the other studying low-dimensional materials. In our work, we concentrate on understanding the thermoelectric properties of the nanostructured Ba-based clathrates. We use semi-classical Boltzmann transport equations to calculate the various thermoelectric properties as a function of reduced dimensions. We observe that there exists a delicate balance between the electrical conductivity and the electronic part of the thermal conductivity in reduced dimensions. Insights from these results can directly be used to control particle size in nanostructuring experiments.

  9. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on the thermoelectric properties of the ɛ-polytype of InSe, GaSe, and InGaSe2 semiconductor compounds: an ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, H.; Olguín, D.; Cantarero, A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents an ab initio study of the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the Seebeck coefficients and thermoelectric power factors of the ɛ-polytype of InSe, GaSe, and InGaSe2 semiconductor compounds. Our study is performed using the semi-classical Boltzmann theory and the rigid band approach. The electronic band structures of these materials are calculated using the full-potential linearized augmented plane-wave method. The obtained thermoelectric properties are discussed in terms of the results of the electronic structure calculations. As we will show, our calculated Seebeck coefficient values indicate that these materials are good alternatives to other well-studied thermoelectric systems.

  10. Experimental study and performance analysis of a thermoelectric cooling and heating system driven by a photovoltaic/thermal system in summer and winter operation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Wei; Zhou, JinZhi; Chen, Chi; Ji, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric heating system driven by heat pipe PV/T system was built and test. • Theoretical analysis has been done and simulation results have been validated by experiments. • The energetic efficiency and exergetic efficiency in summer and winter operation mode was analyzed and compared. - Abstract: This paper presents theoretical and experimental investigations of the winter operation mode of a thermoelectric cooling and heating system driven by a heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) panel. And the energy and exergy analysis of this system in summer and winter operation modes are also done. The winter operation mode of this system is tested in an experimental room which temperature is controlled at 18 °C. The results indicate the average coefficient of performance (COP) of thermoelectric module of this system can be about 1.7, the electrical efficiency of the PV/T panel can reach 16.7%, and the thermal efficiency of this system can reach 23.5%. The energy and exergy analysis show the energetic efficiency of the system in summer operation mode is higher than that of it in winter operation mode, but the exergetic efficiency in summer operation mode is lower than that in winter operation mode, on the contrary

  11. Influence of temperature on thermoelectric properties of Fe{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}S{sub 2} thin films: A semiconductor to semimetal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clamagirand, J.M.; Ares, J.R., E-mail: joser.ares@uam.es; Flores, E.; Diaz-Chao, P.; Leardini, F.; Ferrer, I.J.; Sánchez, C.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, we investigate the thermoelectric properties of p and n-type thin films obtained by cobalt doping of FeS{sub 2}. Films were synthesized by direct sulfuration of Co–Fe thin bilayers at 300 °C. It is found that at room temperature (RT), the Seebeck coefficient is reduced from 80 μV/K to − 70 μV/K when Co concentration is increased and the electrical resistivity of the films is decreased two orders of magnitude. X-ray diffraction and Raman measurements point out that Co is replacing Fe into the pyrite lattice and, subsequently is promoting a semiconductor to semimetal conversion. The influence of temperature on transport properties of different Fe{sub x}Co{sub 1−x}S{sub 2} films has been investigated. Whereas the Seebeck coefficient is hardly modified, the film resistivity is drastically decreased when temperature increases what has been attributed to the thermal activation of electrical carriers. The influence of Co doping on the band scheme of FeS{sub 2} is shown. To this aim, donor and acceptor states are included into its forbidden gap. Whereas the band scheme of FeS{sub 2} exhibits an acceptor level with an E = 0.11 ± 0.03 eV above the top of the valence band due to iron vacancies, a wide donor level close to the bottom of the conduction band (E = 0.08 ± 0.05 eV) is created by the progressive replacement of iron by cobalt into the FeS{sub 2} lattice. - Highlights: • Thermoelectric properties of pyrite and Co-doped pyrite thin films were measured. • Whereas ρ decreases, S remains practically unaltered on increasing temperature (RT-300 °C). • On increasing Co-concentration, films exhibit a p semiconductor to n type semimetal conversion. • Donor states close to the botton of the conduction band are created by Co doping. • Energy of the donor level decreases and gets wider due to Co-concentration.

  12. Thermoelectrode for thermoelectric converter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodiul, Pavel; Bondarciuc, Nicolae; Ghitu, Dumitru; Nikolaeva, Albina; Konopko, Leonid; Turcan, Ana

    2008-01-01

    The invention relates to the electronic engneering and can be used for manufacturing of thermoelectrodes for thermoelectric converters. The thermoelectrode is made of semiconductor anisotropic material in the form of thread in glass insulation. At the same timer, the thread is made of stannum-doped tellurium in the ratio of 0.1...3 at.%.

  13. Design and construction of radiant panel for cooling and heating with photovoltaic and thermoelectric element modules; Taiyo denchi to netsuden soshi module wo mochiita fukusha reidanbo panel no sekkei oyobi shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, M; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Kadotani, K; Imaizumi, H [Komatsu Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Utilizing cooling properties and current voltage characteristics of a small cooling panel using thermoelectric elements which had been fabricated previously on a trial basis, design and prototype production were executed on a large radiant cooling and heating panel driven by photovoltaic cell modules. The panel design set the cooling area to about 0.5 m {sup 2} and the number of elements to 70 pieces, and optimum number of elements in series and parallel connection was derived. As a result of the analysis, it was made clear that the optimum number of thermoelectric module arrays in series and parallel connection varies depending on insolation intensity. It was found preferable that the number of parallel connection array be set to one to two in a region or time period in which low insolation intensity is distributed in greater amount. In the case where high insolation intensity is distributed in a greater amount, setting it to two to three is preferable. By using the structured design method and the HASP Tokyo data, thermoelectric element modules were interconnected with 35 modules in series and two in parallel on a cooling panel installed on the roof of the Science University of Tokyo. A simulation result revealed that the average temperature difference on the cooled surface in summer is 4.37 degC, and the solar cell utilization rate is 0.67. It is necessary in the future to improve heat dissipation efficiency and area ratio. 1 ref., 12 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Methods of synthesizing thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei-Shu; Wang, Hengzhi; Wang, Hui; Yu, Bo; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-05

    Methods for synthesis of thermoelectric materials are disclosed. In some embodiments, a method of fabricating a thermoelectric material includes generating a plurality of nanoparticles from a starting material comprising one or more chalcogens and one or more transition metals; and consolidating the nanoparticles under elevated pressure and temperature, wherein the nanoparticles are heated and cooled at a controlled rate.

  15. From phase-change materials to thermoelectrics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Matthias N.; Rosenthal, Tobias; Oeckler, Oliver [Dept. of Chemistry, Ludwig Maximilian Univ. Munich (Germany); Stiewe, Christian [German Aerospace Center, Cologne (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Metastable tellurides play an important role as phase-change materials in data storage media and non-volatile RAM devices. The corresponding crystalline phases with very simple basic structures are not stable as bulk materials at ambient conditions, however, for a broad range of compositions they represent stable high-temperature phases. In the system Ge/Sb/Te, rocksalt-type high-temperature phases are characterized by a large number of vacancies randomly distributed over the cation position, which order as 2D vacancy layers upon cooling. Short-range order in quenched samples produces pronounced nanostructures by the formation of twin domains and finite intersecting vacancy layers. As phase-change materials are usually semimetals or small-bandgap semiconductors and efficient data storage requires low thermal conductivity, bulk materials with similar compositions and properties can be expected to exhibit promising thermoelectric characteristics. Nanostructuring by phase transitions that involve partial vacancy ordering may enhance the efficiency of such thermoelectrics. We have shown that germanium antimony tellurides with compositions close to those used as phase-change materials in rewritable Blu-Ray Discs, e.g. (GeTe){sub 12}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, exhibit thermoelectric figures of merit of up to ZT = 1.3 at 450 C if a nanodomain structure is induced by rapidly quenching the cubic high-temperature phase. Structural changes have been elucidated by X-ray diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy. (orig.)

  16. Technical Feasibility Evaluation on The Use of A Peltier Thermoelectric Module to Recover Automobile Exhaust Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiartha, N.; Sastra Negara, P.

    2018-01-01

    A thermoelectric module composes of integrated p-n semiconductors as hot and cold side junctions and uses Seebeck effect between them to function as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) to directly convert heat into electrical power. Exhaust heat from engines as otherwise wasted to the atmosphere is one of the heat sources freely available to drive the TEG. This paper evaluates technical feasibility on the use of a Peltier thermoelectric module for energy recovery application of such kind of waste heat. An experimental apparatus has been setup to simulate real conditions of automobile engine exhaust piping system. It includes a square section aluminium ducting, an aluminium fin heat sink and a TEC1 12706 thermoelectric module. A heater and a cooling fan are employed to simulate hot exhaust gas and ambient air flows, respectively. Electrical loading is controlled by resistors. Dependent variables measured during the test are cold and hot side temperatures, open and loaded circuit output voltages and electrical current. The test results revealed a promising application of the Peltier thermoelectric module for the engine exhaust heat recovery, though the loaded output power produced and loaded output voltage are still far lower than the commercially thermoelectric module originally purposed for the TEG application.

  17. Thermoelectric conversion at the divertor plates and the first wall of a fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Sagara, A. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Komori, A. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Tazima, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Motojima, O. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Iiyoshi, A. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Matsubara, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)]|[Yamaguchi Univ. (Japan); Onozuka, M. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)]|[Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan); Koganezawa, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)]|[Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd. (Japan); Matsuda, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)]|[Toyo Tanso Co. Ltd. (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    We investigated thermoelectric conversion on the first wall and the divertor plates. Carbon, B{sub 4}C, and other carbon-based materials were tested as components of a thermoelectric element. The heat flux from the plasma was assumed to be 400 kW/m{sup 2}, and the cooling side temperature the fixed design parameter of either 350 K or 650 K. While differential radiation cooling was not considered in this study, a computer programme was used to estimate the distribution of temperature and thermal stress over the thermoelectric element. The three-legged element was conceived to be 20 cm long and 12 cm wide. The temperature in its arches reached almost 2500 K, and the maximal thermal stress was 80 MPa - still within the acceptable range for the ITER design parameter. The high thermoelectric power of B{sub 4}C accounts for the thermal efficiency of 2.8% (for 650 K) or 3.3% (for 350 K). If we find an N-type semi-conductor material with the same high absolute value as B{sub 4}C to replace carbon, the efficiency will improve to 9.4% (for 650 K) or 11% (for 350 K). Since plasma is a current-conducting medium, we discuss aspects of a plasma-connected thermoelectric element. Its efficiency would depend on the connection length of magnetic field and plasma parameters near the wall. (orig.).

  18. Introduction to thermoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmid, H Julian

    2016-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of thermoelectric energy conversion. It covers both theory and practice. The book is timely as it refers to the many improvements that have come about in the last few years through the use of nanostructures. The concept of semiconductor thermoelements led to major advances during the second half of the twentieth century, making Peltier refrigeration a widely used technique. The latest materials herald thermoelectric generation as the preferred technique for exploiting low-grade heat. The book shows how progress has been made by increasing the thermal resistivity of the lattice until it is almost as large as it is for glass. It points the way towards the attainment of similar improvements in the electronic parameters. It does not neglect practical considerations, such as the desirability of making thermocouples from inexpensive and environmentally acceptable materials. The second edition was extended to also include recent advances in thermoelectric ener...

  19. Thermoelectric properties of thin film and superlattice structure of IV-VI and V-VI compound semiconductors; Thermoelektrische Eigenschaften duenner Schichten und Uebergitterstrukturen von IV-VI- und V-VI-Verbundhalbleitern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blumers, Mathias

    2012-02-29

    The basic material property governing the efficiency of thermoelectric applications is the thermoelectric figure of merit Z=S{sup 2}.{sigma}/k, where S is the Seebeck-coefficient, {sigma} is the electrical conductivity and k the thermal conductivity. A promising concept of increasing Z by one and two dimensional quantum well superlattices (QW-SL) was introduced in the early 1990s in terms of theoretical predictions. The realization of such low dimensional systems is done by use of semiconductor compounds with different energy gaps. The ambition of the Nitherma project was to investigate the thermoelectric properties of superlattices and Multi-Quantum-Well-structures (MQW) made of Pb{sub 1-x}Sr{sub x}Te and Bi{sub 2}(Se{sub x}Te{sub 1-x}){sub 3}, respectively. Therefore SL- and MQW-structures of this materials were grown and Z was determined by measuring of S, {sigma} and {kappa} parallel to the layer planes. Aim of this thesis is the interpretation of the transport measurements (S,{sigma},{kappa}) of low dimensional structures and the improvement of preparation and measurement techniques. The influence of low dimensionality on the thermal conductivity in SL- and MQW-structures was investigated by measurements on structures with different layer thicknesses. In addition, measurements of the Seebeck-coefficient were performed, also to verify the results of the participating groups.

  20. Simple experiments with a thermoelectric module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2005-01-01

    The Seebeck and Peltier effects are explored with a commercially available thermoelectric module and a data-acquisition system. Five topics are presented: (i) thermoelectric heating and cooling, (ii) the Seebeck coefficient, (iii) efficiency of a thermoelectric generator, (iv) the maximum temperature difference provided by a thermoelectric cooler and (v) the Peltier coefficient and the coefficient of performance. Using a data-acquisition system, the measurements are carried out in a reasonably short time. It is shown how to deduce quantities important for the theory and applications of thermoelectric devices

  1. High Thermoelectric Performance by Convergence of Bands in IV-VI Semiconductors, Heavily Doped PbTe, and Alloys/Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Pei, Yanzhong (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention teaches an effective mechanism for enhancing thermoelectric performance through additional conductive bands. Using heavily doped p-PbTe materials as an example, a quantitative explanation is disclosed, as to why and how these additional bands affect the figure of merit. A high zT of approaching 2 at high temperatures makes these simple, likely more stable (than nanostructured materials) and Tl-free materials excellent for thermoelectric applications.

  2. Performance study of thermo-electric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit, G.; Manaswini, D.; Kotebavi, Vinod; R, Nagaraja S.

    2017-07-01

    Devices like automobiles, stoves, ovens, boilers, kilns and heaters dissipate large amount of waste heat. Since most of this waste heat goes unused, the efficiency of these devices is drastically reduced. A lot of research is being conducted on the recovery of the waste heat, among which Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) is one of the popular method. TEG is a semiconductor device that produces electric potential difference when a thermal gradient develops on it. This paper deals with the study of performance of a TEG module for different hot surface temperatures. Performance characteristics used here are voltage, current and power developed by the TEG. One side of the TEG was kept on a hot plate where uniform heat flux was supplied to that. And the other side was cooled by supplying cold water. The results show that the output power increases significantly with increase in the temperature of the hot surface.

  3. Fluorocarbon evaporative cooling developments for the ATLAS pixel and semiconductor tracking detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Anderssen, E; Berry, S; Bonneau, P; Bosteels, Michel; Bouvier, P; Cragg, D; English, R; Godlewski, J; Górski, B; Grohmann, S; Hallewell, G D; Hayler, T; Ilie, S; Jones, T; Kadlec, J; Lindsay, S; Miller, W; Niinikoski, T O; Olcese, M; Olszowska, J; Payne, B; Pilling, A; Perrin, E; Sandaker, H; Seytre, J F; Thadome, J; Vacek, V

    1999-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients 2-5.103 Wm-2K-1 have been measured in a 3.6 mm I.D. heated tube dissipating 100 Watts - close to the full equivalent power (~110 W) of a barrel SCT detector "stave" - over a range of power dissipations and mass flows in the above fluids. Aspects of full-scale evaporative cooling circulator design for the ATLAS experiment are discussed, together with plans for future development.

  4. Thermoelectric properties control due to doping level and sintering conditions for FGM thermoelectric element

    CERN Document Server

    Kajikawa, T; Shiraishi, K; Ohmori, M; Hirai, T

    1999-01-01

    Thermoelectric performance is determined with three factors, namely, Seebeck coefficient, electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity. For metal and single crystalline semiconductor, those factors have close interrelation each $9 other. However, as the sintered thermoelectric element has various levels of superstructure from macro scale and micro scale in terms of the thermoelectric mechanism, the relationship among them is more complex than that for the $9 melt- grown element, so it is suggested that the control of the temperature dependence of thermoelectric properties is possible to enhance the thermoelectric performance for wide temperature range due to FGM approach. The research $9 objective is to investigate the characteristics of the thermoelectric properties for various doping levels and hot-pressed conditions to make the thermoelectric elements for which the temperature dependence of the performance is $9 controlled due to FGM approach varying the doping levels and sintering conditions. By usage ...

  5. Thermoelectricity for future sustainable energy technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidenkaff Anke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectricity is a general term for a number of effects describing the direct interconversion of heat and electricity. Thermoelectric devices are therefore promising, environmental-friendly alternatives to conventional power generators or cooling units. Since the mid-90s, research on thermoelectric properties and their applications has steadily increased. In the course of years, the development of high-temperature resistant TE materials and devices has emerged as one of the main areas of interest focusing both on basic research and practical applications. A wide range of innovative and cost-efficient material classes has been studied and their properties improved. This has also led to advances in synthesis and metrology. The paper starts out with thermoelectric history, basic effects underlying thermoelectric conversion and selected examples of application. The main part focuses on thermoelectric materials including an outline of the design rules, a review on the most common materials and the feasibility of improved future high-temperature thermoelectric converters.

  6. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falco, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized

  7. Thermoelectric characterization of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films deposited by ALD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zastrow, Sebastian; Schumacher, Christian; Nielsch, Kornelius [University of Hamburg (Germany); Regus, Matthias [University of Kiel (Germany); Schulz, Stephan [University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Thermoelectric materials can be used as temperature sensors or peltier cooling devices as well as to recover a part of the massive losses of energy due to the waste heat generated in fossil-fuel driven power plants and vehicles. Antimony Telluride (Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) is a p-doped semiconductor and in the focus of interest for room temperature applications because of its thermoelectric peak performance at around 350 K. However, thermoelectric properties of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} ALD thin films have not been reported yet. Based on the work of Pore et al., Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} is deposited with a home-made reactor on SiO{sub 2} by using (Et{sub 3}Si){sub 2}Te and SbCl{sub 3}. The surface roughness as well as the growth rate depend strongly on the deposition temperature as reported by Cu et al. To check the preferential growth directions and the composition, XRD and EDX measurements are carried out. The thermoelectric properties are influenced by the deposition parameters. Therefore, spatial scans of the Seebeck coefficient are performed and the electrical resistivity is measured. In order to enhance the thermoelectric performance, a first optimization by short annealing processes is done under helium atmosphere up to 570 K. The authors would like to thank the ''Karl-Vossloh-Stiftung''.

  8. Research for Actively Reducing Infrared Radiation by Thermoelectric Refrigerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hoon; Kim, Kyomin; Kim, Woochul [Yonsei Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    We introduced a technology for reducing infrared radiation through the active cooling of hot surfaces by using a thermoelectric refrigerator. Certain surfaces were heated by aerodynamic heating, and the heat generation processes are proposed here. We calculated the temperatures and radiations from surfaces, while using thermoelectric refrigerators to cool the surfaces. The results showed that the contrast between the radiations of certain surfaces and the ambient environments can be removed using thermoelectric refrigerators.

  9. Thermoelectric effects in magnetic nanostructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatami, Moosa; Bauer, Gerrit E.W.; Zhang, Q.F.; Kelly, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    We model and evaluate the Peltier and Seebeck effects in magnetic multilayer nanostructures by a finite-element theory of thermoelectric properties. We present analytical expressions for the thermopower and the current-induced temperature changes due to Peltier cooling/heating. The thermopower of a

  10. Development of the external cooling device of increase the productivity of neutron-transmutation-doped silicon semiconductor (NTD-Si) (Joint research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Akira; Wada, Shigeru; Sasajima, Fumio; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Kameyama, Iwao; Aizawa, Ryouji; Kikuchi, Naoyuki

    2007-01-01

    Neutron-Transmutation-Doped Silicon Semiconductor (hereinafter referred as 'NTD-Si') is the best semiconductor for the power device. The needs of NTD-Si increase recently in proportion to the popularization of hybrid-cars. A fission research reactor, which is a steady state neutron source, is being expected as the best device to meet the needs. So far, we have reconsidered the existing approach which is employed for NTD-Si production works at the research reactors JRR-3, JRR-4 and JMTR of JAEA so as to meet the needs. As one of the effective measures, we found out that the productivity can be increased by incorporating a new device to cool down radioactivity of irradiated silicon ingots at the place outside the main stream from the loading of silicon ingots to the withdrawal of irradiated ingots to the existing JRR-3 Uniformity Irradiation System. Consequently, we developed and installed the device (hereinafter referred as 'external cooling device'). After an ingot was irradiated once, it is turned over manually and irradiated again in order to irradiate the ingot uniformly. With the conventional system, it was necessary to wait the radioactivity of ingot decrease less than the permissible level with holding the ingot in the irradiation equipment. It was effective to shorten the waiting period by using an external cooling device for production increase of NTD-Si. It is expected that the productivity of NTD-Si will be increased by using the external cooling device. This report mentions the design of the external cooling device and verification between its design specifications and the performance of the device completed. (author)

  11. Development in Zn4Sb-based thermoelectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Hao

    or thermopower,  the electrical conductivity, the thermal conductivity and T the absolute temperature. The best thermoelectrics are heavily doped semiconductors with high thermoelectric power factors and low thermal conductivities, known as “Phonon Glasses Electrical Crystals”. Zn4Sb3 is one such material......-section. The following part reports the effect of nano-particles on the thermoelectric properties and thermal stability of Zn4Sb3. Though TiO2 nano particles have remarkably enhanced the stability, the thermoelectric performance of all the nano-composites deteriorates. Optimization of the content of the nano...

  12. Homostructured ZnO-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors deposited at low temperature by vapor cooling condensation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Tzu-Shun [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 701 Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lee, Ching-Ting, E-mail: ctlee@ee.ncku.edu.tw [Institute of Nanotechnology and Microsystems Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 701 Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China); Institute of Microelectronics, Department of Electrical Engineering, Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, 701 Tainan, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2015-11-01

    Highlights: • The vapor cooling condensation system was designed and used to deposit homostructured ZnO-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. • The resulting homostructured ZnO-based MOSFETs operated at a reverse voltage of −6 V had a very low gate leakage current of 24 nA. • The associated I{sub DSS} and the g{sub m(max)} were 5.64 mA/mm and 1.31 mS/mm, respectively. - Abstract: The vapor cooling condensation system was designed and used to deposit homostructured ZnO-based metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on sapphire substrates. Owing to the high quality of the deposited, various ZnO films and interfaces, the resulting MOSFETs manifested attractive characteristics, such as the low gate leakage current of 24 nA, the low average interface state density of 2.92 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}, and the complete pinch-off performance. The saturation drain–source current, the maximum transconductance, and the gate voltage swing of the resulting homostructured ZnO-based MOSFETs were 5.64 mA/mm, 1.31 mS/mm, and 3.2 V, respectively.

  13. Silicon nanowire networks for multi-stage thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Kate J.; Garrett, Matthew P.; Zhang, Junce; Coleman, Elane; Tompa, Gary S.; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fabricated flexible single, double, and quadruple stacked Si thermoelectric modules. • Measured an enhanced power production of 27%, showing vertical stacking is scalable. • Vertically scalable thermoelectric module design of semiconducting nanowires. • Design can utilize either p or n-type semiconductors, both types are not required. • ΔT increases with thickness therefore power/area can increase as modules are stacked. - Abstract: We present the fabrication and characterization of single, double, and quadruple stacked flexible silicon nanowire network based thermoelectric modules. From double to quadruple stacked modules, power production increased 27%, demonstrating that stacking multiple nanowire thermoelectric devices in series is a scalable method to generate power by supplying larger temperature gradient. We present a vertically scalable multi-stage thermoelectric module design using semiconducting nanowires, eliminating the need for both n-type and p-type semiconductors for modules

  14. Enhanced thermoelectric power in ultrathin topological insulators with magnetic doping

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.

    2014-09-07

    We derive analytical expressions for the magnetic moment and orbital magnetization as well as for the corresponding thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of a topological insulator film. We demonstrate enhancement of the thermoelectric transport for decreasing film thickness and for application of an exchange field due to the tunable band gap. Combining hybridization and exchange field is particularly suitable for heat to electric energy conversion and thermoelectric cooling.

  15. Enhanced thermoelectric power in ultrathin topological insulators with magnetic doping

    KAUST Repository

    Tahir, M.; Manchon, Aurelien; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2014-01-01

    We derive analytical expressions for the magnetic moment and orbital magnetization as well as for the corresponding thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power of a topological insulator film. We demonstrate enhancement of the thermoelectric transport for decreasing film thickness and for application of an exchange field due to the tunable band gap. Combining hybridization and exchange field is particularly suitable for heat to electric energy conversion and thermoelectric cooling.

  16. General Approach for Composite Thermoelectric Systems with Thermal Coupling: The Case of a Dual Thermoelectric Cooler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuautli Yanehowi Flores-Niño

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we show a general approach for inhomogeneous composite thermoelectric systems, and as an illustrative case, we consider a dual thermoelectric cooler. This composite cooler consists of two thermoelectric modules (TEMs connected thermally in parallel and electrically in series. Each TEM has different thermoelectric (TE properties, namely thermal conductance, electrical resistance and the Seebeck coefficient. The system is coupled by thermal conductances to heat reservoirs. The proposed approach consists of derivation of the dimensionless thermoelectric properties for the whole system. Thus, we obtain an equivalent figure of merit whose impact and meaning is discussed. We make use of dimensionless equations to study the impact of the thermal conductance matching on the cooling capacity and the coefficient of the performance of the system. The equivalent thermoelectric properties derived with our formalism include the external conductances and all intrinsic thermoelectric properties of each component of the system. Our proposed approach permits us changing the thermoelectric parameters of the TEMs and the working conditions of the composite system. Furthermore, our analysis shows the effect of the number of thermocouples on the system. These considerations are very useful for the design of thermoelectric composite systems. We reproduce the qualitative behavior of a commercial composite TEM connected electrically in series.

  17. Calculation of Nonlinear Thermoelectric Coefficients of InAs1-xSbx Using Monte Carlo Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghian, RB; Bahk, JH; Bian, ZX; Shakouri, A

    2011-12-28

    It was found that the nonlinear Peltier effect could take place and increase the cooling power density when a lightly doped thermoelectric material is under a large electrical field. This effect is due to the Seebeck coefficient enhancement from an electron distribution far from equilibrium. In the nonequilibrium transport regime, the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation in the relaxation-time approximation ceases to apply. The Monte Carlo method, on the other hand, proves to be a capable tool for simulation of semiconductor devices at small scales as well as thermoelectric effects with local nonequilibrium charge distribution. InAs1-xSb is a favorable thermoelectric material for nonlinear operation owing to its high mobility inherited from the binary compounds InSb and InAs. In this work we report simulation results on the nonlinear Peltier power of InAs1-xSb at low doping levels, at room temperature and at low temperatures. The thermoelectric power factor in nonlinear operation is compared with the maximum value that can be achieved with optimal doping in the linear transport regime.

  18. NANOSTRUCTURING AS A WAY FOR THERMOELECTRIC EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Bochkov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of thermoelectric energy conversion is proved. Perspectives of nanostructures usage as thermoelectric materials are shown. The authors have systematized and generalized the methods and investigation results of bulk nanostructure thermoelectrics based on Bi-Sb-Te solid solutions. Ways of nanoparticles fabrication and their subsequent sintering into a bulk sample, results of structure study of the received materials are shown by methods of electronic microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy, results of mechanical properties investigation. Methods of manufacturing suggested with the authors’ participation and properties of thermoelectric nanocomposites, fabricated with addition of fullerene, thermally split graphite, graphene and molybdenum disulphide are discussed. Methods for prevention of recrystallization, measurement methods of thermoelectric properties of studied nanothermoelectrics are considered, including electric and thermal conductivities, thermoemf and the figure of merit. Factors that influence on thermoelectric figure of merit, including the tunneling of carriers through interfaces between nanograins, the additional phonon scattering on nanograin borders and the energy filtration of carriers through barriers have been theoretically investigated. Mechanisms and ways for improvement of the figure of merit are determined. Experimental confirmation for thermoelectric figure of merit increase is received. Physical mechanisms of thermoelectric figure of merit increase are shown by perceptivity of nanostructures utilization. The growth of thermoelectric figure of merit means an expansion of areas for rational application of thermoelectric energy generation and thermoelectric cooling.

  19. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  20. Improvement to Air2Air Technology to Reduce Fresh-Water Evaporative Cooling Loss at Coal-Based Thermoelectric Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Mortensen

    2011-12-31

    This program was undertaken to enhance the manufacturability, constructability, and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation and Plume Abatement Cooling Tower, giving a validated cost basis and capability. Air2Air{TM} water conservation technology recovers a portion of the traditional cooling tower evaporate. The Condensing Module provides an air-to-air heat exchanger above the wet fill media, extracting the heat from the hot saturated moist air leaving in the cooling tower and condensing water. The rate of evaporate water recovery is typically 10% - 25% annually, depending on the cooling tower location (climate). This program improved the efficiency and cost of the Air2Air{TM} Water Conservation Cooling Tower capability, and led to the first commercial sale of the product, as described.

  1. Semiconductor annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.M.; Scovell, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    A process for annealing crystal damage in ion implanted semiconductor devices in which the device is rapidly heated to a temperature between 450 and 900 0 C and allowed to cool. It has been found that such heating of the device to these relatively low temperatures results in rapid annealing. In one application the device may be heated on a graphite element mounted between electrodes in an inert atmosphere in a chamber. (author)

  2. PV-hybrid and thermoelectric collectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rockendorf, G.; Sillmann, R. [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung GmbH, Emmerthal (Germany); Podlowski, L.; Litzenburger, B. [SolarWerk GmbH, Teltow (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    Two different principles of thermoelectric cogeneration solar collectors have been realized and investigated. Concerning the first principle, the thermoelectric collector (TEC) delivers electricity indirectly by first producing heat and subsequently generating electricity by means of a thermoelectric generator. Concerning the second principle, the photovoltaic-hybrid collector (PVHC) uses photovoltaic cells, which are cooled by a liquid heat-transfer medium. The characteristics of both collector types are described. Simulation modules have been developed and implemented in TRNSYS 14.1 (1994), in order to simulate their behaviour in typical domestic hot-water systems. The discussion of the results shows that the electric output of the PV-hybrid collector is significantly higher than that of the thermoelectric collector. (author)

  3. Thermoelectric materials and devices made therewith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    The disclosed invention includes improved devices and materials for thermoelectric conversion, particularly for operation at temperatures of 300 0 C. and below. Disordered p-type semiconductor elements incorporate compound adjuvants of silver and lead to achieve enhanced ''figure of merit'' values and corresponding increased efficiencies of thermoelectric conversion. Similar results are obtained with disordered n-type elements by employing lowered selenium contents, preferably in combination with cuprous bromide. Improved conversion devices include powder pressed elements from one or both of these materials

  4. Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Berkun, Isil; Schmidt, Robert D.; Luzenski, Matthew F.; Lu, Xu; Bordon Sarac, Patricia; Case, Eldon D.; Hogan, Timothy P.

    2014-06-01

    Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds are promising candidate low-cost, lightweight, nontoxic thermoelectric materials made from abundant elements and are suited for power generation applications in the intermediate temperature range of 600 K to 800 K. Knowledge on the transport and mechanical properties of Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds is essential to the design of Mg2(Si,Sn)-based thermoelectric devices. In this work, such materials were synthesized using the molten-salt sealing method and were powder processed, followed by pulsed electric sintering densification. A set of Mg2.08Si0.4- x Sn0.6Sb x (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.072) compounds were investigated, and a peak ZT of 1.50 was obtained at 716 K in Mg2.08Si0.364Sn0.6Sb0.036. The high ZT is attributed to a high electrical conductivity in these samples, possibly caused by a magnesium deficiency in the final product. The mechanical response of the material to stresses is a function of the elastic moduli. The temperature-dependent Young's modulus, shear modulus, bulk modulus, Poisson's ratio, acoustic wave speeds, and acoustic Debye temperature of the undoped Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds were measured using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy from 295 K to 603 K. In addition, the hardness and fracture toughness were measured at room temperature.

  5. Review—Organic Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Cowen, Lewis M.; Atoyo, Jonathan; Carnie, Matthew J.; Baran, Derya; Schroeder, Bob C.

    2017-01-01

    Organic semiconductor materials have been promising alternatives to their inorganic counterparts in several electronic applications such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, field effect transistors as well as thermoelectric generators. Their low cost, light weight and flexibility make them appealing in future applications such as foldable electronics and wearable circuits using printing techniques. In this report, we present a mini-review on the organic materials that have been used for thermoelectric energy generation.

  6. Method of manufacturing a layer thermoelectric battery. Herstellungsverfahren fuer Schichtthermobatterien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lidorenko, N.S.; Kolomoets, N.V.; Daschevsky, Z.M.; Granovsky, V.I.; Schemtschuschina, E.A.; Chernousov, L.N.; Schmidt, I.A.; Nikolaschina, L.A.; Gelfgat, D.M.; Sgibnev, I.V.

    1980-08-21

    A method of manufacturing a layer thermoelectric battery is described, whereby a film of a thermoelectric semiconductor material which is an n-type stoichiometric solid solution containing Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 is deposited on a substrate. Then heating is effected so that adjacent arms of the film are at different temperatures, some at a temperature of not above 300/sup 0/C, and others at a temperature of not less than 350/sup 0/C.

  7. Review—Organic Materials for Thermoelectric Energy Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Cowen, Lewis M.

    2017-01-29

    Organic semiconductor materials have been promising alternatives to their inorganic counterparts in several electronic applications such as solar cells, light emitting diodes, field effect transistors as well as thermoelectric generators. Their low cost, light weight and flexibility make them appealing in future applications such as foldable electronics and wearable circuits using printing techniques. In this report, we present a mini-review on the organic materials that have been used for thermoelectric energy generation.

  8. Indium antimonide nanowires arrays for promising thermoelectric converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorokh G. G.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors have theoretically substantiated the possibility to create promising thermoelectric converters based on quantum wires. The calculations have shown that the use of quantum wires with lateral dimensions smaller than quantum confinement values and high concentration and mobility of electrons, can lead to a substantial cooling of one of the contacts up to tens of degrees and to the heating of the other. The technological methods of manufacturing of indium antimonide nanowires arrays with high aspect ratio of the nanowire diameters to their length in the modified nanoporous anodic alumina matrixes were developed and tested. The microstructure and composition of the formed nanostructures were investigated. The electron microscopy allowed establishing that within each pore nanowires are formed with diameters of 35 nm and a length of 35 microns (equal to the matrix thickness. The electron probe x-ray microanalysis has shown that the atomic ratio of indium and antimony in the semiconductor nanostructures amounted to 38,26% and 61,74%, respectively. The current-voltage measurement between the upper and lower contacts of Cu/InSb/Cu structure (1 mm2 has shown that at 2.82 V negative voltage at the emitter contact, current density is 129,8 A/cм2, and the collector contact is heated up to 75 degrees during 150 sec. Thus, the experimental results confirmed the theoretical findings that the quantum wire systems can be used to create thermoelectric devices, which can be widely applied in electronics, in particular, for cooling integrated circuits (processors, thermal controlling of the electrical circuits by changing voltage value.

  9. Advanced thermoelectric materials and systems for automotive applications in the next millennium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morelli, D T

    1997-07-01

    A combination of environmental, economic, and technological drivers has led to a reassessment of the potential for using thermoelectric devices in several automotive applications. In order for this technology to achieve its ultimate potential, new materials with enhanced thermoelectric properties are required. Experimental results on the fundamental physical properties of some new thermoelectric materials, including filled skutterudites and 1-1-1 intermetallic semiconductors, are presented.

  10. Thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, D.L.

    1978-01-01

    The main components of a thermoelectric generator are housed in an evacuated cylindrical vessel. In the middle of it there is the radioactive heat source, e.g. 90 Sr or 238 Pu, enclosed by a gamma radiation shield. This one is surrounded by a heat-insulating screen from getter material or indicidual sheets of titanium. In the bottom of the screen there are arranged several thermocouples on a circle. The thermocouples themselves are contained within casings sealed gas-tight and filled with an inert gas, e.g. argon. By separating the internal space of the generator vessel from the thermocouple casings, made of e.g. n- respectively p-doped lead telluride cylinders, for both the optimal gas state may be obtained. (DG) [de

  11. Mechanical Response of Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Case, Eldon D. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-05-01

    A sufficient mechanical response of thermoelectric materials (TEMats) to structural loadings is a prerequisite to the exploitation of any candidate TEMat's thermoelectric efficiency. If a TEMat is mechanically damaged or cracks from service-induced stresses, then its thermal and electrical functions can be compromised or even cease. Semiconductor TEMats tend to be quite brittle and have a high coefficient of thermal expansion; therefore, they can be quite susceptible to mechanical failure when subjected to operational thermal gradients. Because of this, sufficient mechanical response (vis-a-vis, mechanical properties) of any candidate TEMat must be achieved and sustained in the context of the service-induced stress state to which it is subjected. This report provides an overview of the mechanical responses of state-of-the-art TEMats; discusses the relevant properties that are associated with those responses and their measurement; and describes important, nonequilibrium phenomena that further complicate their use in thermoelectric devices. For reference purposes, the report also includes several appendixes that list published data on elastic properties and strengths of a variety of TEMats.

  12. Metal-doped semiconductor nanoparticles and methods of synthesis thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Poudel, Bed (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Wang, Wenzhong (Inventor); Dresselhaus, Mildred (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention generally relates to binary or higher order semiconductor nanoparticles doped with a metallic element, and thermoelectric compositions incorporating such nanoparticles. In one aspect, the present invention provides a thermoelectric composition comprising a plurality of nanoparticles each of which includes an alloy matrix formed of a Group IV element and Group VI element and a metallic dopant distributed within the matrix.

  13. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, M. T H; van Beek, L. P H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/14749799X; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/341387819; Bierkens, M. F P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/125022794

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved understanding

  14. Semiconductor annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, J.M.; Scovell, P.D.

    1981-01-01

    A process for annealing crystal damage in ion implanted semiconductor devices is described in which the device is rapidly heated to a temperature between 450 and 600 0 C and allowed to cool. It has been found that such heating of the device to these relatively low temperatures results in rapid annealing. In one application the device may be heated on a graphite element mounted between electrodes in an inert atmosphere in a chamber. The process may be enhanced by the application of optical radiation from a Xenon lamp. (author)

  15. Thermoelectric Control Of Temperatures Of Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.; West, James W.; Hutchinson, Mark A.; Lawrence, Robert M.; Crum, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Prototype controlled-temperature enclosure containing thermoelectric devices developed to house electronically scanned array of pressure sensors. Enclosure needed because (1) temperatures of transducers in sensors must be maintained at specified set point to ensure proper operation and calibration and (2) sensors sometimes used to measure pressure in hostile environments (wind tunnels in original application) that are hotter or colder than set point. Thus, depending on temperature of pressure-measurement environment, thermoelectric devices in enclosure used to heat or cool transducers to keep them at set point.

  16. Optimal operation of thermoelectric cooler driven by solar thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khattab, N.M.; El Shenawy, E.T.

    2006-01-01

    The possibility of using a solar thermoelectric generator (TEG) to drive a small thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is studied in the present work. The study includes the theory of both the TEG and the TEC, giving special consideration to determination of the number of TEG modules required to power the TEC to achieve the best performance of the TEG-TEC system all year round. Commercially available thermoelectric modules (TE) are used in the system. The TEG contains 49 thermocouples and the TEC contains 127 thermocouples. A simple arrangement of plane reflectors that are designed to receive maximum solar energy during noon time is used to heat the TEG. Performance tests are conducted to determine both the physical properties and the performance curves of the available TE modules. Also, empirical relations describing the performance of the TEG and TEC modules have been established. These relations are used to develop a mathematical model simulating the TEG-TEC system to predict its performance all year round under the actual climatic conditions of Cairo, Egypt (30 deg. N latitude). The model results are used to determine the number of TEG modules required to drive a single TEC module at maximum cooling capacity. The results show that five thermocouples of the TEG can drive one thermocouple of the TEC, which coincides with the previous theory of the TEG-TEC. This means that 10 of the used TEG modules are required to power the used TEC at optimum performance most times of the year

  17. Test System for Thermoelectric Modules and Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejtmánek, J.; Knížek, K.; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-10-01

    We present a design for a complex measuring device that enables its user to assess the parameters of power-generating thermoelectric modules (TEMs) (or bulk thermoelectric materials) under a wide range of temperatures ( T cold = 25°C to 90°C, T hot TEM, the actual heat flow through the module, and its mechanical load, which can be varied during the measurement. Key components of our testing setup are (i) a measuring chamber where the TEM/material is compressed between thermally shielded heating blocks equipped with a mechanical loading system and water-cooled copper-based cooler, (ii) an electrical load system, (iii) a type K thermocouple array connected to a data acquisition computer, and (iv) a thermostatic water-based cooling system with electronically controlled flow rate and temperature of cooling water. Our testing setup represents a useful tool able to assess, e.g., the thermoelectric parameters of newly developed TEMs and materials or to evaluate the thermoelectric parameters of commercially available modules and materials for comparison with values declared by the manufacturer.

  18. Nanoscale thermoelectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failamani, F.

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) materials directly convert thermal energy to electrical energy when subjected to a temperature gradient, whereas if electricity is applied to thermoelectric materials, a temperature gradient is formed. The performance of thermoelectric materials is characterized by a dimensionless figure of merit (ZT = S2T/ρλ), which consists of three parameters, Seebeck coefficient (S), electrical resistivity (ρ) and thermal conductivity (λ). To achieve good performance of thermoelectric power generation and cooling, ZT's of thermoelectric materials must be as high as possible, preferably above unity. This thesis comprises three main parts, which are distributed into six chapters: (i) nanostructuring to improve TE performance of trivalent rare earth-filled skutterudites (chapter 1 and 2), (ii) interactions of skutterudite thermolectrics with group V metals as potential electrode or diffusion barrier for TE devices (chapter 3 and 4), and (iii) search for new materials for TE application (chapter 5 and 6). Addition of secondary phases, especially nano sized phases can cause additional reduction of the thermal conductivity of a filled skutterudite which improves the figure of merit (ZT) of thermoelectric materials. In chapter 1 we investigated the effect of various types of secondary phases (silicides, borides, etc.) on the TE properties of trivalent rare earth filled Sb-based skutterudites as commercially potential TE materials. In this context the possibilty to introduce borides as nano-particles (via ball-milling in terms of a skutterudite/boride composite) is also elucidated in chapter 2. As a preliminary study, crystal structure of novel high temperature FeB-type phases found in the ternary Ta-{Ti,Zr,Hf,}-B systems were investigated. In case of Ti and Hf this phase is the high temperature stabilization of binary group IV metal monoborides, whereas single crystal study of (Ta,Zr)B proves that it is a true ternary phase as no stable monoboride exist in the

  19. Thermal effect of a thermoelectric generator on parallel microchannel heat sink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEG) convert heat energy to electrical power by means of semiconductor charge carriers serving as working fluid. In this work, a TEG is applied to a parallel microchannel heat sink. The effect of the inlet plenum arrangement on the laminar flow distribution...... in the channels is considered at a wide range of the pressure drop along the heat sink. The particular focus of this study is geometrical effect of the TEG on the heat transfer characteristics in the micro-heat sink. The hydraulic diameter of the microchannels is 270 μm, and three heat fluxes are applied...... on the hot surface of the TEG. By considering the maximum temperature limitation for Bi_2 Te_3 material and using the microchannel heat sink for cooling down the TEG system, an optimum pumping power is achieved. The results are in a good agreement with the previous experimental and theoretical studies....

  20. Holistic quantum design of thermoelectric niobium oxynitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Denis; Bliem, Pascal; Hans, Marcus

    2015-06-01

    We have applied holistic quantum design to thermoelectric NbON (space group Pm-3m). Even though transport properties are central in designing efficient thermoelectrics, mechanical properties should also be considered to minimize their thermal fatigue during multiple heating/cooling cycles. Using density functional theory, elastic constants of NbON were predicted and validated by nanoindentation measurements on reactively sputtered thin films. Based on large bulk-to-shear modulus ratio and positive Cauchy pressure, ceramic NbON appears ductile. These unusual properties may be understood by analyzing the electronic structure. Nb-O bonding is of covalent-ionic nature with metallic contributions. Second neighbor O-N bonds exhibit covalent-ionic character. Upon shear loading, these O-N bonds break giving rise to easily shearable planes. Ductile NbON, together with large Seebeck coefficient and low thermal expansion, is promising for thermoelectric applications.

  1. The system of thermoelectric air conditioning based on permeable thermoelements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkez R. G.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available There is thermoelectric air conditioner unit on the basis of permeable cooling thermoelements presented. In thermoelectric air conditioner unit the thermoelectric effects and the Joule–Thomson effect have been used for the air stream cooling. There have been described the method of temperature distribution analysis, the determinations of energy conversion power characteristics and design style of permeable thermoelement with maximum coefficient of performance described. The results of computer analysis concerning the application of the thermoelement legs material on the basis of Bi2Te3 have shown the possibility of coefficient of performance increase by a factor of 1,6—1,7 as compared with conventional thermoelectric systems.

  2. Thermoelectric materials having porosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

    2014-08-05

    A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

  3. Geometric optimization of thermoelectric coolers in a confined volume using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.-H.; Lin, W.-K.

    2005-01-01

    The demand for thermoelectric coolers (TEC) has grown significantly because of the need for a steady, low-temperature operating environment for various electronic devices such as laser diodes, semiconductor equipment, infrared detectors and others. The cooling capacity and its coefficient of performance (COP) are both extremely important in considering applications. Optimizing the dimensions of the TEC legs provides the advantage of increasing the cooling capacity, while simultaneously considering its minimum COP. This study proposed a method of optimizing the dimensions of the TEC legs using genetic algorithms (GAs), to maximize the cooling capacity. A confined volume in which the TEC can be placed and the technological limitation in manufacturing a TEC leg were considered, and three parameters - leg length, leg area and the number of legs - were taken as the variables to be optimized. The constraints of minimum COP and maximum cost of the material were set, and a genetic search was performed to determine the optimal dimensions of the TEC legs. This work reveals that optimizing the dimensions of the TEC can increase its cooling capacity. The results also show that GAs can determine the optimal dimensions according to various input currents and various cold-side operating temperatures

  4. Ge/SiGe superlattices for nanostructured thermoelectric modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrastina, D.; Cecchi, S.; Hague, J.P.; Frigerio, J.; Samarelli, A.; Ferre–Llin, L.; Paul, D.J.; Müller, E.; Etzelstorfer, T.; Stangl, J.; Isella, G.

    2013-01-01

    Thermoelectrics are presently used in a number of applications for both turning heat into electricity and also for using electricity to produce cooling. Mature Si/SiGe and Ge/SiGe heteroepitaxial growth technology would allow highly efficient thermoelectric materials to be engineered, which would be compatible and integrable with complementary metal oxide silicon micropower circuits used in autonomous systems. A high thermoelectric figure of merit requires that electrical conductivity be maintained while thermal conductivity is reduced; thermoelectric figures of merit can be improved with respect to bulk thermoelectric materials by fabricating low-dimensional structures which enhance the density of states near the Fermi level and through phonon scattering at heterointerfaces. We have grown and characterized Ge-rich Ge/SiGe/Si superlattices for nanofabricated thermoelectric generators. Low-energy plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition has been used to obtain nanoscale-heterostructured material which is several microns thick. Crystal quality and strain control have been investigated by means of high resolution X-ray diffraction. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirm the material and interface quality. Electrical conductivity has been characterized by the mobility spectrum technique. - Highlights: ► High-quality Ge/SiGe multiple quantum wells for thermoelectric applications ► Mobility spectra of systems featuring a large number of parallel conduction channels ► Competitive thermoelectric properties measured in single devices

  5. Quasi-two-dimensional thermoelectricity in SnSe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayari, V.; Senkovskiy, B. V.; Rybkovskiy, D.; Ehlen, N.; Fedorov, A.; Chen, C.-Y.; Avila, J.; Asensio, M.; Perucchi, A.; di Pietro, P.; Yashina, L.; Fakih, I.; Hemsworth, N.; Petrescu, M.; Gervais, G.; Grüneis, A.; Szkopek, T.

    2018-01-01

    Stannous selenide is a layered semiconductor that is a polar analog of black phosphorus and of great interest as a thermoelectric material. Unusually, hole doped SnSe supports a large Seebeck coefficient at high conductivity, which has not been explained to date. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, optical reflection spectroscopy, and magnetotransport measurements reveal a multiple-valley valence-band structure and a quasi-two-dimensional dispersion, realizing a Hicks-Dresselhaus thermoelectric contributing to the high Seebeck coefficient at high carrier density. We further demonstrate that the hole accumulation layer in exfoliated SnSe transistors exhibits a field effect mobility of up to 250 cm2/V s at T =1.3 K . SnSe is thus found to be a high-quality quasi-two-dimensional semiconductor ideal for thermoelectric applications.

  6. Thermoelectrics and its energy harvesting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rowe, David Michael

    2012-01-01

    .... It details the latest techniques for the preparation of thermoelectric materials employed in energy harvesting, together with advances in the thermoelectric characterisation of nanoscale material...

  7. On-Chip Sensing of Thermoelectric Thin Film’s Merit

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Zhigang; Zhu, Xiaoshan

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric thin films have been widely explored for thermal-to-electrical energy conversion or solid-state cooling, because they can remove heat from integrated circuit (IC) chips or micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) devices without involving any moving mechanical parts. In this paper, we report using silicon diode-based temperature sensors and specific thermoelectric devices to characterize the merit of thermoelectric thin films. The silicon diode temperature sensors and thermoelect...

  8. Introduction to thermoelectricity

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmid, H Julian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction to Thermoelectricity is the latest work by Professor Julian Goldsmid drawing on his 55 years experience in the field. The theory of the thermoelectric and related phenomena is presented in sufficient detail to enable researchers to understand their observations and develop improved thermoelectric materials. The methods for the selection of materials and their improvement are discussed. Thermoelectric materials for use in refrigeration and electrical generation are reviewed. Experimental techniques for the measurement of properties and for the production of thermoelements are described. Special emphasis is placed on nanotechnology which promises to yield great improvements in the efficiency of thermoelectric devices. Chapters are also devoted to transverse thermoelectric effects and thermionic energy conversion, both techniques offering the promise of important applications in the future.

  9. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Park, S. H.; Lee, W. G.; Ha, J. H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1945, Van Heerden measured α, β and γ radiations with the cooled AgCl crystal. It was the first radiation measurement using the compound semiconductor detector. Since then the compound semiconductor has been extensively studied as radiation detector. Generally the radiation detector can be divided into the gas detector, the scintillator and the semiconductor detector. The semiconductor detector has good points comparing to other radiation detectors. Since the density of the semiconductor detector is higher than that of the gas detector, the semiconductor detector can be made with the compact size to measure the high energy radiation. In the scintillator, the radiation is measured with the two-step process. That is, the radiation is converted into the photons, which are changed into electrons by a photo-detector, inside the scintillator. However in the semiconductor radiation detector, the radiation is measured only with the one-step process. The electron-hole pairs are generated from the radiation interaction inside the semiconductor detector, and these electrons and charged ions are directly collected to get the signal. The energy resolution of the semiconductor detector is generally better than that of the scintillator. At present, the commonly used semiconductors as the radiation detector are Si and Ge. However, these semiconductor detectors have weak points. That is, one needs thick material to measure the high energy radiation because of the relatively low atomic number of the composite material. In Ge case, the dark current of the detector is large at room temperature because of the small band-gap energy. Recently the compound semiconductor detectors have been extensively studied to overcome these problems. In this paper, we will briefly summarize the recent research topics about the compound semiconductor detector. We will introduce the research activities of our group, too

  10. Thermoelectricity in liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Said, Suhana; Nordin, Abdul Rahman; Abdullah, Norbani; Balamurugan, S.

    2015-09-01

    The thermoelectric effect, also known as the Seebeck effect, describes the conversion of a temperature gradient into electricity. A Figure of Merit (ZT) is used to describe the thermoelectric ability of a material. It is directly dependent on its Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity, and inversely dependent on its thermal conductivity. There is usually a compromise between these parameters, which limit the performance of thermoelectric materials. The current achievement for ZT~2.2 falls short of the expected threshold of ZT=3 to allow its viability in commercial applications. In recent times, advances in organic thermoelectrics been significant, improving by over 3 orders of magnitude over a period of about 10 years. Liquid crystals are newly investigated as candidate thermoelectric materials, given their low thermal conductivity, inherent ordering, and in some cases, reasonable electrical conductivity. In this work the thermoelectric behaviour of a discotic liquid crystal, is discussed. The DLC was filled into cells coated with a charge injector, and an alignment of the columnar axis perpendicular to the substrate was allowed to form. This thermoelectric behavior can be correlated to the order-disorder transition. A reasonable thermoelectric power in the liquid crystal temperature regime was noted. In summary, thermoelectric liquid crystals may have the potential to be utilised in flexible devices, as a standalone power source.

  11. Thermoelectric Effects under Adiabatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Levy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates not fully explained voltage offsets observed by several researchers during the measurement of the Seebeck coefficient of high Z materials. These offsets, traditionally attributed to faulty laboratory procedures, have proven to have an irreducible component that cannot be fully eliminated in spite of careful laboratory procedures. In fact, these offsets are commonly observed and routinely subtracted out of commercially available Seebeck measurement systems. This paper offers a possible explanation based on the spontaneous formation of an adiabatic temperature gradient in the presence of a force field. The diffusion-diffusion heat transport mechanism is formulated and applied to predict two new thermoelectric effects. The first is the existence of a temperature gradient across a potential barrier in a semiconductor and the second is the Onsager reciprocal of the first, that is, the presence of a measureable voltage that arises across a junction when the temperature gradient is forced to zero by a thermal clamp. Suggested future research includes strategies for utilizing the new thermoelectric effects.

  12. Efficiency Study of a Commercial Thermoelectric Power Generator (TEG) Under Thermal Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzikraniotis, E.; Zorbas, K. T.; Samaras, I.; Kyratsi, Th.; Paraskevopoulos, K. M.

    2010-09-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) make use of the Seebeck effect in semiconductors for the direct conversion of heat to electrical energy. The possible use of a device consisting of numerous TEG modules for waste heat recovery from an internal combustion (IC) engine could considerably help worldwide efforts towards energy saving. However, commercially available TEGs operate at temperatures much lower than the actual operating temperature range in the exhaust pipe of an automobile, which could cause structural failure of the thermoelectric elements. Furthermore, continuous thermal cycling could lead to reduced efficiency and lifetime of the TEG. In this work we investigate the long-term performance and stability of a commercially available TEG under temperature and power cycling. The module was subjected to sequential hot-side heating (at 200°C) and cooling for long times (3000 h) in order to measure changes in the TEG’s performance. A reduction in Seebeck coefficient and an increase in resistivity were observed. Alternating-current (AC) impedance measurements and scanning electron microscope (SEM) observations were performed on the module, and results are presented and discussed.

  13. A design approach for integrating thermoelectric devices using topology optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soprani, S.; Haertel, J.H.K.; Lazarov, B.S.; Sigmund, O.; Engelbrecht, K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The integration of a thermoelectric (TE) cooler into a robotic tool is optimized. • Topology optimization is suggested as design tool for TE integrated systems. • A 3D optimization technique using temperature dependent TE properties is presented. • The sensitivity of the optimization process to the boundary conditions is studied. • A working prototype is constructed and compared to the model results. - Abstract: Efficient operation of thermoelectric devices strongly relies on the thermal integration into the energy conversion system in which they operate. Effective thermal integration reduces the temperature differences between the thermoelectric module and its thermal reservoirs, allowing the system to operate more efficiently. This work proposes and experimentally demonstrates a topology optimization approach as a design tool for efficient integration of thermoelectric modules into systems with specific design constraints. The approach allows thermal layout optimization of thermoelectric systems for different operating conditions and objective functions, such as temperature span, efficiency, and power recovery rate. As a specific application, the integration of a thermoelectric cooler into the electronics section of a downhole oil well intervention tool is investigated, with the objective of minimizing the temperature of the cooled electronics. Several challenges are addressed: ensuring effective heat transfer from the load, minimizing the thermal resistances within the integrated system, maximizing the thermal protection of the cooled zone, and enhancing the conduction of the rejected heat to the oil well. The design method incorporates temperature dependent properties of the thermoelectric device and other materials. The 3D topology optimization model developed in this work was used to design a thermoelectric system, complete with insulation and heat sink, that was produced and tested. Good agreement between experimental results and

  14. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Owens, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Although elemental semiconductors such as silicon and germanium are standard for energy dispersive spectroscopy in the laboratory, their use for an increasing range of applications is becoming marginalized by their physical limitations, namely the need for ancillary cooling, their modest stopping powers, and radiation intolerance. Compound semiconductors, on the other hand, encompass such a wide range of physical and electronic properties that they have become viable competitors in a number of applications. Compound Semiconductor Radiation Detectors is a consolidated source of information on all aspects of the use of compound semiconductors for radiation detection and measurement. Serious Competitors to Germanium and Silicon Radiation Detectors Wide-gap compound semiconductors offer the ability to operate in a range of hostile thermal and radiation environments while still maintaining sub-keV spectral resolution at X-ray wavelengths. Narrow-gap materials offer the potential of exceeding the spectral resolutio...

  15. Cross-plane Thermoelectric Transport in p-type La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/LaMnO3 Oxide Metal/Semiconductor Superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-07

    fre- quency of 5 Hz, and temperature maintained at 750 C measured using an infrared pyrometer (STO emissivity of 0.8). The target was mechanically...thermoelectric transport Thermal conductivity of LSMO/LMO superlattices was measured using a photo- acoustic (PA) technique.18,19 The high resistivity...multilayer material,” J. Appl. Phys. 86(7), 3953 (1999). 19X. W. Wang, H. P. Hu, and X. F. Xu, “Photo- acoustic measurement of thermal conductivity of

  16. Thermoelectricity: materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elberg, S.; Mathonnet, P.

    1975-01-01

    After a brief recall of the basic principles of thermoelectricity, the essential characteristics intervening in the different thermoelectric devices operating modes are defined. Properties of the materials the most used nowadays and performances of the apparatus that they allow to realize are indicated. Advantages and drawbacks of the principal applications in the form of electrical generators, refrigerators and heat pumps are pointed out [fr

  17. Nano-Micro Materials Enabled Thermoelectricity From Window Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Inayat, Salman Bin

    2012-11-03

    and n type thermoelectric materials, this novel energy generation technique promises 304 watts of thermoelectricity from a 9 m2 glass window utilizing temperature difference of 20 OC. In addition to be useful even during off sunshine hours of the day, these energy harvesting windows will be capable of power generation even in the absence of a cooling systems inside the building as long as a natural temperature gradient exists between the two counter environments. With an increasing trend of having the exterior of buildings and high rises entirely made up of glass, this work offers an innovative transformation of these building exteriors into mass scale energy harvesters capable of running average lighting loads inside the building hence providing a complimentary source of electricity to the main power grid.

  18. Modelling of thermoelectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Lasse

    In order to discover new good thermoelectric materials, there are essentially two ways. One way is to go to the laboratory, synthesise a new material, and measure the thermoelectric properties. The amount of compounds, which can be investigated this way is limited because the process is time...... consuming. Another approach is to model the thermoelectric properties of a material on a computer. Several crystal structures can be investigated this way without use of much man power. I have chosen the latter approach. Using density functional theory I am able to calculate the band structure of a material....... This band structure I can then use to calculate the thermoelectric properties of the material. With these results I have investigated several materials and found the optimum theoretical doping concentration. If materials with these doping concentrations be synthesised, considerably better thermoelectric...

  19. The question about increasing of thermoelectrical Q and percent of the yield of the semiconductor material on the basis of chalcogenides of the bismuth and antimony under conditions of experimental-industrial production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magerramov, A.A.; Barkhalov, B.S.

    2005-01-01

    Full text : Different methods of the receiving of monocrystalline ingots of the semiconductor materials for thermo electrical inverter of energy have been considered. On the basis of the analyses of theoretical and experimental data generated series of recommendations, directed to increase thermo electrical Q receiving from thermo electrical materials and increasing percent of yield of semiconductor materials on the basis of chalcogenides of the bismuth and antimony on the basis of industrial production

  20. Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this work is developing new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200 to...

  1. Efficient Space Hardy Thermoelectric Materials with Broad Temperature Range, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this work is to develop new thermoelectric materials for use in fabricating solid state cooling devices and electrical power generators, which are 200 to...

  2. Production and exploitation of thermoelectric air conditioning systems for vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnik, Vladimir [Conditioner Ltd, Gagarin (Russian Federation); Skipidarov, Sergey [SCTB NORD, Moskau (Russian Federation); Rapp, Axel [Quick-Ohm Kupper und Co. GmbH, Wuppertal-Cronenberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    In the paper more than 10-year experience of thermoelectric devices batch manufacturing is described for the field of their obvious advantages. This field of application includes thermoelectric air conditioning systems which have shown their competitive advantage when used in vehicles of elevated vibration where compressor equipment application is difficult because of leakage of refrigerant. Energy characteristics of air conditioners for tractors, excavators, tanks, locomotive driver's cabins and cranes are described. Thermoelectric (TE) air conditioners mechanical test data as well as operation experience in vehicles are presented. It is shown that consumption of tellurium, which is a strategic component for thermoelectric materials manufacturing, may be lowered to 40 grams per 1 kW of cooling. (orig.)

  3. The thermoelectric process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vining, C B

    1997-07-01

    The efficiency of thermoelectric technology today is limited by the properties of available thermoelectric materials and a wide variety of new approaches to developing better materials have recently been suggested. The key goal is to find a material with a large ZT, the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit. However, if an analogy is drawn between thermoelectric technology and gas-cycle engines then selecting different materials for the thermoelements is analogous to selecting a different working gas for the mechanical engine. And an attempt to improve ZT is analogous to an attempt to improve certain thermodynamic properties of the working-gas. An alternative approach is to focus on the thermoelectric process itself (rather than on ZT), which is analogous to considering alternate cycles such as Stirling vs. Brayton vs. Rankine etc., rather than merely considering alternative gases. Focusing on the process is a radically different approach compared to previous studies focusing on ZT. Aspects of the thermoelectric process and alternative approaches to efficient thermoelectric conversion are discussed.

  4. Personal Cooling Fabric Based on Polymeric Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-28

    There are also concerns about environmental impact given their toxic heavy metal content. Despite these limitations and the lack of improvement in...polymeric TE materials were studied, they offered the additional advantages (over metallic materials) of low density, no toxic heavy metals (bismuth, lead...First, fluorene was reacted with two equivalents of bromoethane under basic conditions to afford 9,9’-diethyl fluorine , which was bromomethylated

  5. Potency of Thermoelectric Generator for Hybrid Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Putra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectric Generator (TEG has been known as electricity generation for many years. If the temperature difference occurred between two difference semi conductor materials, the current will flow in the material and produced difference voltage. This principle is known as Seebeck effect that is the opposite of Peltier effect Thermoelectric Cooling (TEC. This research was conducted to test the potential of electric source from twelve peltier modules. Then, these thermoelectric generators were applied in hybrid car by using waste heat from the combustion engine. The experiment has been conducted with variations of peltier module arrangements (series and parallels and heater as heat source for the thermoelectric generator, with variations of heater voltage input (110V and 220V applied. The experimental result showed that twelve of peltier modules arranged in series and heater voltage of 220V generated power output of 8.11 Watts with average temperature difference of 42.82°C. This result shows that TEG has a bright prospect as alternative electric source.

  6. Decoupling interrelated parameters for designing high performance thermoelectric materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Chong; Li, Zhou; Li, Kun; Huang, Pengcheng; Xie, Yi

    2014-04-15

    The world's supply of fossil fuels is quickly being exhausted, and the impact of their overuse is contributing to both climate change and global political unrest. In order to help solve these escalating problems, scientists must find a way to either replace combustion engines or reduce their use. Thermoelectric materials have attracted widespread research interest because of their potential applications as clean and renewable energy sources. They are reliable, lightweight, robust, and environmentally friendly and can reversibly convert between heat and electricity. However, after decades of development, the energy conversion efficiency of thermoelectric devices has been hovering around 10%. This is far below the theoretical predictions, mainly due to the interdependence and coupling between electrical and thermal parameters, which are strongly interrelated through the electronic structure of the materials. Therefore, any strategy that balances or decouples these parameters, in addition to optimizing the materials' intrinsic electronic structure, should be critical to the development of thermoelectric technology. In this Account, we discuss our recently developed strategies to decouple thermoelectric parameters for the synergistic optimization of electrical and thermal transport. We first highlight the phase transition, which is accompanied by an abrupt change of electrical transport, such as with a metal-insulator and semiconductor-superionic conductor transition. This should be a universal and effective strategy to optimize the thermoelectric performance, which takes advantage of modulated electronic structure and critical scattering across phase transitions to decouple the power factor and thermal conductivity. We propose that solid-solution homojunction nanoplates with disordered lattices are promising thermoelectric materials to meet the "phonon glass electron crystal" approach. The formation of a solid solution, coupled with homojunctions, allows for

  7. P-type Al-doped Cr-deficient CrN thin films for thermoelectrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Febvrier, Arnaud le; Van Nong, Ngo; Abadias, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    Thermoelectric properties of chromium nitride (CrN)-based films grown on c-plane sapphire by dc reactive magnetron sputtering were investigated. In this work, aluminum doping was introduced in CrN (degenerate n-type semiconductor) by co-deposition. Under the present deposition conditions, over......-type/n-type thermoelectric materials based on chromium nitride films, which are cheap and routinely grown on the industrial scale....

  8. Solar thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toberer, Eric S.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Warren, Emily L.

    2016-05-03

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from concentrated sunlight. A novel detailed balance model for STEGs is provided and applied to both state-of-the-art and idealized materials. STEGs can produce electricity by using sunlight to heat one side of a thermoelectric generator. While concentrated sunlight can be used to achieve extremely high temperatures (and thus improved generator efficiency), the solar absorber also emits a significant amount of black body radiation. This emitted light is the dominant loss mechanism in these generators. In this invention, we propose a solution to this problem that eliminates virtually all of the emitted black body radiation. This enables solar thermoelectric generators to operate at higher efficiency and achieve said efficient with lower levels of optical concentration. The solution is suitable for both single and dual axis solar thermoelectric generators.

  9. Thermoelectric transport in superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinecke, T L; Broido, D A

    1997-07-01

    The thermoelectric transport properties of superlattices have been studied using an exact solution of the Boltzmann equation. The role of heat transport along the barrier layers, of carrier tunneling through the barriers, of valley degeneracy and of the well width and energy dependences of the carrier-phonon scattering rates on the thermoelectric figure of merit are given. Calculations are given for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and for PbTe, and the results of recent experiments are discussed.

  10. Experimental evaluation of an active solar thermoelectric radiant wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, ZhongBing; Zhang, Ling; Gong, GuangCai; Han, TianHe

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel active solar thermoelectric radiant wall are proposed and tested. • The novel wall can control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy. • The novel wall can eliminate building envelop thermal loads and provide cooling capacity for space cooling. • Typical application issues including connection strategies, coupling with PV system etc. are discussed. - Abstract: Active solar thermoelectric radiant wall (ASTRW) system is a new solar wall technology which integrates thermoelectric radiant cooling and photovoltaic (PV) technologies. In ASTRW system, a PV system transfers solar energy directly into electrical energy to power thermoelectric cooling modes. Both the thermoelectric cooling modes and PV system are integrated into one enclosure surface as radiant panel for space cooling and heating. Hence, ASTRW system presents fundamental shift from minimizing building envelope energy losses by optimizing the insulation thickness to a new regime where active solar envelop is designed to eliminate thermal loads and increase the building’s solar gains while providing occupant comfort in all seasons. This article presents an experimental study of an ASTRW system with a dimension of 1580 × 810 mm. Experimental results showed that the inner surface temperature of the ASTRW is 3–8 °C lower than the indoor temperature of the test room, which indicated that the ASTRW system has the ability to control thermal flux of building envelope by using solar energy and reduce the air conditioning system requirements. Based on the optimal operating current of TE modules and the analysis based upon PV modeling theories, the number and type of the electrical connections for the TE modules in ASTRW system are discussed in order to get an excellent performance in the operation of the ASTRW system

  11. Universal Majorana thermoelectric noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Sergey

    2018-04-01

    Thermoelectric phenomena resulting from an interplay between particle flows induced by electric fields and temperature inhomogeneities are extremely insightful as a tool providing substantial knowledge about the microscopic structure of a given system. By tuning, e.g., parameters of a nanoscopic system coupled via tunneling mechanisms to two contacts, one may achieve various situations where the electric current induced by an external bias voltage competes with the electric current excited by the temperature difference of the two contacts. Even more exciting physics emerges when the system's electronic degrees freedom split to form Majorana fermions which make the thermoelectric dynamics universal. Here, we propose revealing these unique universal signatures of Majorana fermions in strongly nonequilibrium quantum dots via noise of the thermoelectric transport beyond linear response. It is demonstrated that whereas mean thermoelectric quantities are only universal at large-bias voltages, the noise of the electric current excited by an external bias voltage and the temperature difference of the contacts is universal at any bias voltage. We provide truly universal, i.e., independent of the system's parameters, thermoelectric ratios between nonlinear response coefficients of the noise and mean current at large-bias voltages where experiments may easily be performed to uniquely detect these truly universal Majorana thermoelectric signatures.

  12. Efficient p-n junction-based thermoelectric generator that can operate at extreme temperature conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chavez, Ruben; Angst, Sebastian; Hall, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    In many industrial processes a large proportion of energy is lost in the form of heat. Thermoelectric generators can convert this waste heat into electricity by means of the Seebeck effect. However, the use of thermoelectric generators in practical applications on an industrial scale is limited...... in part because electrical, thermal, and mechanical bonding contacts between the semiconductor materials and the metal electrodes in current designs are not capable of withstanding thermal-mechanical stress and alloying of the metal-semiconductor interface when exposed to the high temperatures occurring...... in many real-world applications. Here we demonstrate a concept for thermoelectric generators that can address this issue by replacing the metallization and electrode bonding on the hot side of the device by a p-n junction between the two semiconductor materials, making the device robust against...

  13. A Review of SnSe: Growth and Thermoelectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Van Quang; Kim, Jungdae; Cho, Sunglae

    2018-04-01

    SnSe is a 2D semiconductor with an indirect energy gap of 0.86 - 1 eV; it is widely used in solar cell, optoelectronics, and electronic device applications. Recently, SnSe has been considered as a robust candidate for energy conversion applications due to its high thermoelectric performance ( ZT = 2.6 in p-type and 2.2 in n-type), which is assigned mainly to its anhamornic bonding leading to an ultralow thermal conductivity. In this review, we first discuss the crystalline and electronic structures of SnSe and the source of its p-type characteristic. Then, some typical single crystal and polycrystal growth techniques, as well as an epitaxial thin film growth technique, are outlined. The reported thermoelectric properties of SnSe grown by using each technique are also reviewed. Finally, we will describe some remaining issues concerning the use of SnSe for thermoelectric applications.

  14. Peltier cooling in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Longji; Miao, Ruijiao; Wang, Kun; Thompson, Dakotah; Zotti, Linda Angela; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2018-02-01

    The study of thermoelectricity in molecular junctions is of fundamental interest for the development of various technologies including cooling (refrigeration) and heat-to-electricity conversion1-4. Recent experimental progress in probing the thermopower (Seebeck effect) of molecular junctions5-9 has enabled studies of the relationship between thermoelectricity and molecular structure10,11. However, observations of Peltier cooling in molecular junctions—a critical step for establishing molecular-based refrigeration—have remained inaccessible. Here, we report direct experimental observations of Peltier cooling in molecular junctions. By integrating conducting-probe atomic force microscopy12,13 with custom-fabricated picowatt-resolution calorimetric microdevices, we created an experimental platform that enables the unified characterization of electrical, thermoelectric and energy dissipation characteristics of molecular junctions. Using this platform, we studied gold junctions with prototypical molecules (Au-biphenyl-4,4'-dithiol-Au, Au-terphenyl-4,4''-dithiol-Au and Au-4,4'-bipyridine-Au) and revealed the relationship between heating or cooling and charge transmission characteristics. Our experimental conclusions are supported by self-energy-corrected density functional theory calculations. We expect these advances to stimulate studies of both thermal and thermoelectric transport in molecular junctions where the possibility of extraordinarily efficient energy conversion has been theoretically predicted2-4,14.

  15. Thermoelectric applications as related to biomedical engineering for NASA Johnson Space Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, C D

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents current NASA biomedical developments and applications using thermoelectrics. Discussion will include future technology enhancements that would be most beneficial to the application of thermoelectric technology. A great deal of thermoelectric applications have focused on electronic cooling. As with all technological developments within NASA, if the application cannot be related to the average consumer, the technology will not be mass-produced and widely available to the public (a key to research and development expenditures and thermoelectric companies). Included are discussions of thermoelectric applications to cool astronauts during launch and reentry. The earth-based applications, or spin-offs, include such innovations as tank and race car driver cooling, to cooling infants with high temperatures, as well as, the prevention of hair loss during chemotherapy. In order to preserve the scientific value of metabolic samples during long-term space missions, cooling is required to enable scientific studies. Results of one such study should provide a better understanding of osteoporosis and may lead to a possible cure for the disease. In the space environment, noise has to be kept to a minimum. In long-term space applications such as the International Space Station, thermoelectric technology provides the acoustic relief and the reliability for food, as well as, scientific refrigeration/freezers. Applications and future needs are discussed as NASA moves closer to a continued space presence in Mir, International Space Station, and Lunar-Mars Exploration.

  16. Transverse Seebeck and Peltier effect in tilted metal-semiconductor multilayer structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitmaier, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Whether in aerospace, automobile industry or in home appliances, thermoelectric effects find use in many areas of technology. This work deals with the investigation of a special form of these effects, the transversal Seebeck- and Peltier effect. Via modelling under variation of the sample parameters the cooling efficiencies, the attainable temperature differences and the Figures of merit are optimised and than suitable samples are produced according to these specifications. With these tilted metal semiconductor multilayer structures consisting of lead and bismuth telluride a transversal Peltier effect is observed. Moreover, the generation of electric power is examined via the transversal Seebeck effect. In tilted Pb-Bi2Te3 multilayers the efficiency is measured with the conversion by heat in electric power and is compared to model calculations. (orig.)

  17. DEVICES FOR COOLING ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS

    OpenAIRE

    T. A. Ismailov; D. V. Evdulov; A. G. Mustafaev; D. K. Ramazanova

    2014-01-01

    In the work described structural variants of devices for cooling electronic circuit boards, made on the basis of thermoelectric batteries and consumable working substances, implementing uneven process of removing heat from heat-generating components. A comparison of temperature fields of electronic circuit simulator with his uniform and non-uniform cooling

  18. DEVICES FOR COOLING ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work described structural variants of devices for cooling electronic circuit boards, made on the basis of thermoelectric batteries and consumable working substances, implementing uneven process of removing heat from heat-generating components. A comparison of temperature fields of electronic circuit simulator with his uniform and non-uniform cooling

  19. Optimization of Thermoelectric Components for Automobile Waste Heat Recovery Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumeet; Heister, Stephen D.; Xu, Xianfan; Salvador, James R.

    2015-10-01

    For a typical spark ignition engine approximately 40% of available thermal energy is lost as hot exhaust gas. To improve fuel economy, researchers are currently evaluating technology which exploits exhaust stream thermal power by use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) that operate on the basis of the Seebeck effect. A 5% improvement in fuel economy, achieved by use of TEG output power, is a stated objective for light-duty trucks and personal automobiles. System modeling of thermoelectric (TE) components requires solution of coupled thermal and electric fluxes through the n and p-type semiconductor legs, given appropriate thermal boundary conditions at the junctions. Such applications have large thermal gradients along the semiconductor legs, and material properties are highly dependent on spatially varying temperature profiles. In this work, one-dimensional heat flux and temperature variations across thermoelectric legs were solved by using an iterative numerical approach to optimize both TE module and TEG designs. Design traits were investigated by assuming use of skutterudite as a thermoelectric material with potential for automotive applications in which exhaust gas and heat exchanger temperatures typically vary from 100°C to over 600°C. Dependence of leg efficiency, thermal fluxes and electric power generation on leg geometry, fill fractions, electric current, thermal boundary conditions, etc., were studied in detail. Optimum leg geometries were computed for a variety of automotive exhaust conditions.

  20. Investigation of Solar Hybrid Electric/Thermal System with Radiation Concentrator and Thermoelectric Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Arturo Chávez Urbiola

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study of a solar-concentrating system based on thermoelectric generators (TEGs was performed. The system included an electrical generating unit with 6 serially connected TEGs using a traditional semiconductor material, Bi2Te3, which was illuminated by concentrated solar radiation on one side and cooled by running water on the other side. A sun-tracking concentrator with a mosaic set of mirrors was used; its orientation towards the sun was achieved with two pairs of radiation sensors, a differential amplifier, and two servomotors. The hot side of the TEGs at midday has a temperature of around 200°C, and the cold side is approximately 50°C. The thermosiphon cooling system was designed to absorb the heat passing through the TEGs and provide optimal working conditions. The system generates 20 W of electrical energy and 200 W of thermal energy stored in water with a temperature of around 50°C. The hybrid system studied can be considered as an alternative to photovoltaic/thermal systems, especially in countries with abundant solar radiation, such as Mexico, China, and India.

  1. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1987-01-01

    In-depth exploration of the implications of carrier populations and Fermi energies examines distribution of electrons in energy bands and impurity levels of semiconductors. Also: kinetics of semiconductors containing excess carriers, particularly in terms of trapping, excitation, and recombination.

  2. A note on the electrochemical nature of the thermoelectric power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apertet, Y.; Ouerdane, H.; Goupil, C.; Lecoeur, Ph.

    2016-04-01

    While thermoelectric transport theory is well established and widely applied, it is not always clear in the literature whether the Seebeck coefficient, which is a measure of the strength of the mutual interaction between electric charge transport and heat transport, is to be related to the gradient of the system's chemical potential or to the gradient of its electrochemical potential. The present article aims to clarify the thermodynamic definition of the thermoelectric coupling. First, we recall how the Seebeck coefficient is experimentally determined. We then turn to the analysis of the relationship between the thermoelectric power and the relevant potentials in the thermoelectric system: As the definitions of the chemical and electrochemical potentials are clarified, we show that, with a proper consideration of each potential, one may derive the Seebeck coefficient of a non-degenerate semiconductor without the need to introduce a contact potential as seen sometimes in the literature. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the phenomenological expression of the electrical current resulting from thermoelectric effects may be directly obtained from the drift-diffusion equation.

  3. Americium-241 radioisotope thermoelectric generator development for space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambrosi, Richard; Williams, Hugo; Samara-Ratna, Piyal

    2013-01-01

    Space nuclear power systems are under development in the UK in collaboration with European partners as part of a European Space Agency (ESA) programme. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) are an important element of this new capability in Europe. RTG systems being developed in Europe are targeting the 10 W electric to 50 W electric power generation range adopting a modular scalable approach to the design. Radiogenic decay heat from radioisotopes can be converted to electrical power by using appropriate semiconductor based thermoelectric materials. The plan for Europe is to develop radioisotope space nuclear power systems based on both thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion systems. Although primarily focused on delivering up to 50 W of electrical power, the European radioisotope thermoelectric system development programme is targeting americium-241 as a fuel source and is maximizing the use of commercially available thermoelectric manufacturing processes in order to accelerate the development of power conversion systems. The use of americium provides an economic solution at high isotopic purity and is product of a separation process from stored plutonium produced during the reprocessing of civil nuclear fuel. A laboratory prototype that uses electrical heating as a substitute for the radioisotope was developed to validate the designs. This prototype has now been tested. This paper outlines the requirements for a European americium-241 fuelled RTG, describes the most recent updates in system design and provides further insight into recent laboratory prototype test campaigns. (author)

  4. Americium-241 radioisotope thermoelectric generator development for space applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosi, Richard; Williams, Hugo; Samara-Ratna, Piyal, E-mail: rma8@le.ac.uk [University of Leicester, (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-07-01

    Space nuclear power systems are under development in the UK in collaboration with European partners as part of a European Space Agency (ESA) programme. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) are an important element of this new capability in Europe. RTG systems being developed in Europe are targeting the 10 W electric to 50 W electric power generation range adopting a modular scalable approach to the design. Radiogenic decay heat from radioisotopes can be converted to electrical power by using appropriate semiconductor based thermoelectric materials. The plan for Europe is to develop radioisotope space nuclear power systems based on both thermoelectric and Stirling power conversion systems. Although primarily focused on delivering up to 50 W of electrical power, the European radioisotope thermoelectric system development programme is targeting americium-241 as a fuel source and is maximizing the use of commercially available thermoelectric manufacturing processes in order to accelerate the development of power conversion systems. The use of americium provides an economic solution at high isotopic purity and is product of a separation process from stored plutonium produced during the reprocessing of civil nuclear fuel. A laboratory prototype that uses electrical heating as a substitute for the radioisotope was developed to validate the designs. This prototype has now been tested. This paper outlines the requirements for a European americium-241 fuelled RTG, describes the most recent updates in system design and provides further insight into recent laboratory prototype test campaigns. (author)

  5. The thermo-electric nature of the Debye temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithun Bhowmick

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Debye temperature is typically associated with the heat capacity of a solid and the cut-off of the possible lattice vibrations, but not necessarily to the electric conductivity of the material. By investigating III-V and II-VI compound semiconductors, we reveal that the Debye temperature represents a thermo-electric material parameter, connecting the thermal and electronic properties of a solid via a distinct power law.

  6. Modeling and Experimentation of New Thermoelectric Cooler–Thermoelectric Generator Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Teffah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a modeling and experimental study of a new thermoelectric cooler–thermoelectric generator (TEC-TEG module is investigated. The studied module is composed of TEC, TEG and total system heatsink, all connected thermally in series. An input voltage (1–5 V passes through the TEC where the electrons by means of Peltier effect entrain the heat from the upper side of the module to the lower one creating temperature difference; TEG plays the role of a partial heatsink for the TEC by transferring this waste heat to the total system heatsink and converting an amount of this heat into electricity by a phenomenon called Seebeck effect, of the thermoelectric modules. The performance of the TEG as partial heatsink of TEC at different input voltages is demonstrated theoretically using the modeling software COMSOL Multiphysics. Moreover, the experiment validates the simulation result which smooths the path for a new manufacturing thermoelectric cascade model for the cooling and the immediate electric power generation.

  7. Semiconductor physics

    CERN Document Server

    Böer, Karl W

    2018-01-01

    This handbook gives a complete survey of the important topics and results in semiconductor physics. It addresses every fundamental principle and most research topics and areas of application in the field of semiconductor physics. Comprehensive information is provided on crystalline bulk and low-dimensional as well as amporphous semiconductors, including optical, transport, and dynamic properties.

  8. Overview of industry interest in new thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyon, Jr, H B

    1997-07-01

    The technology base for air conditioning, refrigeration, component cooling below ambient temperatures and power generation will be required to meet several new challenges. The main lines of these challenges will be presented in a way which relates them to the several new thermoelectric materials and materials engineering options being pursued by the research community. The potential benefits of thermoelectric devices are only partially met by enhancing the figure of merit ZT, the nature of the design challenge and the resulting systems approach are presented. The research and the industry are entering into a new era.

  9. A Thermoelectric Generator Replacing Radiator for Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiho Kim

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed and developed a low temperature thermoelectric generator (TEG using engine water coolant of light-duty vehicles. Experimental results from test vehicle, of which engine size is about 2.0 liters, show that fabricated prototype Thermoelectric Generator generates more than 75W for driving condition of 80 km/hour, and output power is about 28W during idle condition. The proposed TEG can replace conventional radiator without additional water pumps or mechanical devices except for basic components of legacy water cooling system of radiator.

  10. Thermoelectricity from wasted heat of integrated circuits

    KAUST Repository

    Fahad, Hossain M.

    2012-05-22

    We demonstrate that waste heat from integrated circuits especially computer microprocessors can be recycled as valuable electricity to power up a portion of the circuitry or other important accessories such as on-chip cooling modules, etc. This gives a positive spin to a negative effect of ever increasing heat dissipation associated with increased power consumption aligned with shrinking down trend of transistor dimension. This concept can also be used as an important vehicle for self-powered systemson- chip. We provide theoretical analysis supported by simulation data followed by experimental verification of on-chip thermoelectricity generation from dissipated (otherwise wasted) heat of a microprocessor.

  11. The practical performance forecast and analysis of thermoelectric module from macro to micro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Limei; Chen, Huanxin; Xiao, Fu; Wang, Shengwei

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyze the practical performance of TEMs to meet specific requirements. • The influence of different input power sources are discussed. • The step-change phenomena of thermoelectric cooling are found and discussed. • The influence ratio of hot side heat exchanger and input power source is compared. - Abstract: The practical operating conditions of thermoelectric products, such as the input power source and the thermal resistance of hot side heat exchanger, are different from the theoretical study. Thus the equations, which are used to estimate the practical maximum cooling performance just according to the datum in datasheet of commercial thermoelectric module (TEM), are given. The nested loop method is adopted to solve the numerical model. This study provides a method to choose a suitable TEM for thermoelectric product to meet the application requirement. It finds that the minimum cold side temperature increase and the voltage for achieving the minimum cold side temperature step decrease with the increase of thermal resistance of hot side heat exchanger, respectively. The maximum temperature difference increase and the voltage for achieving the maximum temperature difference step increase with the increase of thermal resistance of hot side heat exchanger, respectively. According to the dimension, three kinds of thermoelectric module, bulk TEM, miniature TEM and micro TEM, are studied. The novel scale effect are discovered by comparing these TEMs. It found that the step-change phenomenon become more and more obvious with the decrease of the dimension of thermoelectric module. The influence ratio of thermal resistance of hot side heat exchanger on the maximum cooling performance increases and the influence ratio of input power source decreases from macro to micro, respectively. It forecasts that there exists a critical value for the dimension of thermoelectric module, when the dimension of thermoelectric module is smaller than this critical

  12. Electric drive systems including smoothing capacitor cooling devices and systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dede, Ercan Mehmet; Zhou, Feng

    2017-02-28

    An electric drive system includes a smoothing capacitor including at least one terminal, a bus bar electrically coupled to the at least one terminal, a thermoelectric device including a first side and a second side positioned opposite the first side, where the first side is thermally coupled to at least one of the at least one terminal and the bus bar, and a cooling element thermally coupled to the second side of the thermoelectric device, where the cooling element dissipates heat from the thermoelectric device.

  13. Correlated evolution of colossal thermoelectric effect and Kondo insulating behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Fuccillo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the magnetic and transport properties of the Ru1−xFexSb2 solid solution, showing how the colossal thermoelectric performance of FeSb2 evolves due to changes in the amount of 3d vs. 4d electron character. The physical property trends shed light on the physical picture underlying one of the best low-T thermoelectric power factors known to date. Some of the compositions warrant further study as possible n- and p-type thermoelements for Peltier cooling well below 300 K. Our findings enable us to suggest possible new Kondo insulating systems that might behave similarly to FeSb2 as advanced thermoelectrics.

  14. Nano-materials Enabled Thermoelectricity from Window Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Inayat, Salman Bin

    2012-11-13

    With a projection of nearly doubling up the world population by 2050, we need wide variety of renewable and clean energy sources to meet the increased energy demand. Solar energy is considered as the leading promising alternate energy source with the pertinent challenge of off sunshine period and uneven worldwide distribution of usable sun light. Although thermoelectricity is considered as a reasonable renewable energy from wasted heat, its mass scale usage is yet to be developed. Here we show, large scale integration of nano-manufactured pellets of thermoelectric nano-materials, embedded into window glasses to generate thermoelectricity using the temperature difference between hot outside and cool inside. For the first time, this work offers an opportunity to potentially generate 304 watts of usable power from 9 m2 window at a 206C temperature gradient. If a natural temperature gradient exists, this can serve as a sustainable energy source for green building technology.

  15. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Oxides for Energy Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2015-01-01

    of thermoelectrics are still limited to one materials system, namely SiGe, since the traditional thermoelectric materials degrade and oxidize at high temperature. Therefore, oxide thermoelectrics emerge as a promising class of materials since they can operate

  16. Thermoelectric materials -- New directions and approaches. Materials Research Society symposium proceedings, Volume 478

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tritt, T M; Kanatzidis, M G; Lyon, Jr, H B; Mahan, G D [eds.

    1997-07-01

    Thermoelectric materials are utilized in a wide variety of applications related to solid-state refrigeration or small-scale power generation. Thermoelectric cooling is an environmentally friendly method of small-scale cooling in specific applications such as cooling computer chips and laser diodes. Thermoelectric materials are used in a wide range of applications from beverage coolers to power generation for deep-space probes such as the Voyager missions. Over the past thirty years, alloys based on the Bi-Te systems {l{underscore}brace}(Bi{sub 1{minus}x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2} (Te{sub 1{minus}x}Se{sub x}){sub 3}{r{underscore}brace} and Si{sub 1{minus}x}Ge{sub x} systems have been extensively studied and optimized for their use as thermoelectric materials to perform a variety of solid-state thermoelectric refrigeration and power generation tasks. Despite this extensive investigation of the traditional thermoelectric materials, there is still a substantial need and room for improvement, and thus, entirely new classes of compounds will have to be investigated. Over the past two-to-three years, research in the field of thermoelectric materials has been undergoing a rapid rebirth. The enhanced interest in better thermoelectric materials has been driven by the need for much higher performance and new temperature regimes for thermoelectric devices in many applications. The essence of a good thermoelectric is given by the determination of the material's dimensionless figure of merit, ZT = ({alpha}{sup 2}{sigma}/{lambda})T, where {alpha} is the Seebeck coefficient, {sigma} the electrical conductivity and {lambda} the total thermal conductivity. The best thermoelectric materials have a value of ZT = 1. This ZT = 1 has been an upper limit for more than 30 years, yet no theoretical or thermodynamic reason exits for why it can not be larger. The focus of the symposium is embodied in the title, Thermoelectric Materials: New Directions and Approaches. Many of the researchers in the

  17. Green thermoelectrics: Observation and analysis of plant thermoelectric response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goupil Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants are sensitive to thermal and electrical effects; yet the coupling of both, known as thermoelectricity, and its quantitative measurement in vegetal systems never were reported. We recorded the thermoelectric response of bean sprouts under various thermal conditions and stress. The obtained experimental data unambiguously demonstrate that a temperature difference between the roots and the leaves of a bean sprout induces a thermoelectric voltage between these two points. Basing our analysis of the data on the force-flux formalism of linear response theory, we found that the strength of the vegetal equivalent to the thermoelectric coupling is one order of magnitude larger than that in the best thermoelectric materials. Experimental data also show the importance of the thermal stress variation rate in the plant’s electrophysiological response. therefore, thermoelectric effects are sufficiently important to partake in the complex and intertwined processes of energy and matter transport within plants.

  18. In-situ thermoelectric temperature monitoring and "Closed-loop integrated control" system for concentrator photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolley, Matthew H.; Sweet, Tracy K. N.; Min, Gao

    2017-09-01

    This work demonstrates a new technique that capitalizes on the inherent flexibility of the thermoelectric module to provide a multifunctional platform, and exhibits a unique advantage only available within CPV-TE hybrid architectures. This system is the first to use the thermoelectric itself for hot-side temperature feedback to a PID control system, needing no additional thermocouple or thermistor to be attached to the cell - eliminating shading, and complex mechanical designs for mounting. Temperature measurement accuracy and thermoelectric active cooling functionality is preserved. Dynamic "per-cell" condition monitoring and protection is feasible using this technique, with direct cell-specific temperature measurement accurate to 1°C demonstrated over the entire experimental range. The extrapolation accuracy potential of the technique was also evaluated.

  19. Nanostructured silicon for thermoelectric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stranz, A.; Kähler, J.; Waag, A.; Peiner, E.

    2011-06-01

    Thermoelectric modules convert thermal energy into electrical energy and vice versa. At present bismuth telluride is the most widely commercial used material for thermoelectric energy conversion. There are many applications where bismuth telluride modules are installed, mainly for refrigeration. However, bismuth telluride as material for energy generation in large scale has some disadvantages. Its availability is limited, it is hot stable at higher temperatures (>250°C) and manufacturing cost is relatively high. An alternative material for energy conversion in the future could be silicon. The technological processing of silicon is well advanced due to the rapid development of microelectronics in recent years. Silicon is largely available and environmentally friendly. The operating temperature of silicon thermoelectric generators can be much higher than of bismuth telluride. Today silicon is rarely used as a thermoelectric material because of its high thermal conductivity. In order to use silicon as an efficient thermoelectric material, it is necessary to reduce its thermal conductivity, while maintaining high electrical conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient. This can be done by nanostructuring into arrays of pillars. Fabrication of silicon pillars using ICP-cryogenic dry etching (Inductive Coupled Plasma) will be described. Their uniform height of the pillars allows simultaneous connecting of all pillars of an array. The pillars have diameters down to 180 nm and their height was selected between 1 micron and 10 microns. Measurement of electrical resistance of single silicon pillars will be presented which is done in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with nanomanipulators. Furthermore, measurement of thermal conductivity of single pillars with different diameters using the 3ω method will be shown.

  20. High-performance and flexible thermoelectric films by screen printing solution-processed nanoplate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Tony; Hollar, Courtney; Richardson, Joseph; Kempf, Nicholas; Han, Chao; Gamarachchi, Pasindu; Estrada, David; Mehta, Rutvik J; Zhang, Yanliang

    2016-09-12

    Screen printing allows for direct conversion of thermoelectric nanocrystals into flexible energy harvesters and coolers. However, obtaining flexible thermoelectric materials with high figure of merit ZT through printing is an exacting challenge due to the difficulties to synthesize high-performance thermoelectric inks and the poor density and electrical conductivity of the printed films. Here, we demonstrate high-performance flexible films and devices by screen printing bismuth telluride based nanocrystal inks synthesized using a microwave-stimulated wet-chemical method. Thermoelectric films of several tens of microns thickness were screen printed onto a flexible polyimide substrate followed by cold compaction and sintering. The n-type films demonstrate a peak ZT of 0.43 along with superior flexibility, which is among the highest reported ZT values in flexible thermoelectric materials. A flexible thermoelectric device fabricated using the printed films produces a high power density of 4.1 mW/cm(2) with 60 °C temperature difference between the hot side and cold side. The highly scalable and low cost process to fabricate flexible thermoelectric materials and devices demonstrated here opens up many opportunities to transform thermoelectric energy harvesting and cooling applications.

  1. Laser cooling of solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epstein, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor [UNM

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  2. Development of Perovskite-Type Materials for Thermoelectric Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingjun Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxide perovskite materials have a long history of being investigated for thermoelectric applications. Compared to the state-of-the-art tin and lead chalcogenides, these perovskite compounds have advantages of low toxicity, eco-friendliness, and high elemental abundance. However, because of low electrical conductivity and high thermal conductivity, the total thermoelectric performance of oxide perovskites is relatively poor. Variety of methods were used to enhance the TE properties of oxide perovskite materials, such as doping, inducing oxygen vacancy, embedding crystal imperfection, and so on. Recently, hybrid perovskite materials started to draw attention for thermoelectric application. Due to the low thermal conductivity and high Seebeck coefficient feature of hybrid perovskites materials, they can be promising thermoelectric materials and hold the potential for the application of wearable energy generators and cooling devices. This mini-review will build a bridge between oxide perovskites and burgeoning hybrid halide perovskites in the research of thermoelectric properties with an aim to further enhance the relevant performance of perovskite-type materials.

  3. Thermoelectric materials - Compromising between high efficiency and materials abundance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homm, G.; Klar, P.J. [I. Physikalisches Institut, Justus-Liebig-Universitaet, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 16, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2011-09-15

    In the context of CO{sub 2} neutral and regenerative energy production, the field of thermoelectrics has shifted more and more into the focus of scientific research in the last few years. Particularly a lot of research projects were started in the field of energy autarkic sensor technology and the so called energy harvesting, i.e. the recycling of otherwise lost energy. A potentially huge industrial branch for thermoelectric applications is the automotive industry with a main emphasis on generating electricity out of the waste heat of combustion engines with the help of thermoelectric generators or using Peltier cooling to replace conventional air conditioning in the passenger compartment. In addition, many niche applications are possible, e.g. as sensors for measuring the air pressure of tires etc. The applications of thermoelectric devices are very versatile. We analyse the potential of the state-of-the-art thermoelectric materials SiGe, PbTe, Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}, FeSi{sub 2} and potentially ZnO with respect to employment in four types of applications, classified by mobile vs stationary and specialized vs. mass application. The selection criteria comprise efficiency, materials availability, costs, environmental friendliness and toxicity. Based on these criteria, a decision matrix for choosing the appropriate material system for a specific application is defined. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Dismantling and chemical characterization of spent Peltier thermoelectric devices for antimony, bismuth and tellurium recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balva, Maxime; Legeai, Sophie; Garoux, Laetitia; Leclerc, Nathalie; Meux, Eric

    2017-04-01

    Major uses of thermoelectricity concern refrigeration purposes, using Peltier devices, mainly composed of antimony, bismuth and tellurium. Antimony was identified as a critical raw material by EU and resources of bismuth and tellurium are not inexhaustible, so it is necessary to imagine the recycling of thermoelectric devices. That for, a complete characterization is needed, which is the aim of this work. Peltier devices were manually dismantled in three parts: the thermoelectric legs, the alumina plates on which remain the electrical contacts and the silicone paste used to connect the plates. The characterization was performed using five Peltier devices. It includes mass balances of the components, X-ray diffraction analysis of the thermoelectric legs and elemental analysis of each part of the device. It appears that alumina represents 45% of a Peltier device in weight. The electrical contacts are mainly composed of copper and tin, and the thermoelectric legs of bismuth, tellurium and antimony. Thermoelectric legs appear to be Se-doped Bi 2 Te 3 and (Bi 0,5 Sb 1,5 )Te 3 for n type and p type semiconductors, respectively. This work shows that Peltier devices can be considered as a copper ore and that thermoelectric legs contain high amounts of bismuth, tellurium and antimony compared to their traditional resources.

  5. Optimization Strategies for a Portable Thermoelectric Vaccine Refrigeration System in Developing Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohara, B.; Sitar, R.; Soares, J.; Novisoff, P.; Nunez-Perez, A.; Lee, H.

    2015-06-01

    The traditional approach to determine an optimum current for thermoelectric cooling assumes that a refrigeration chamber is insulated and has no thermal resistance to a thermoelectric module. As a result, minimum temperature occurs when Peltier cooling matches with parasitic heat transfer and Joule heating. In practical application, minimum temperature happens when heat addition from the environment is matched with heat extracted by a thermoelectric module, and the optimum current differs from that anticipated by the traditional approach. Hence, consideration for insulation and thermal resistances via thermoelectric module should be made to achieve desirable cooling performance/refrigeration temperature. This paper presents a modeling approach to determine the optimum current as well as the optimum geometry to power a small thermoelectric vaccine delivery system for developing communities under the World Health Organization requirements. The model is derived from three energy conservation equations for temperatures at both ends of the thermoelectric materials within a module, as well as the refrigeration chamber temperature. A prototype was built and demonstrated a minimum temperature of 3.4°C. With optimized module geometry, the system is estimated to reduce power consumption by over 50% while achieving twice the temperature difference.

  6. Thermoelectric properties by high temperature annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng (Inventor); Chen, Gang (Inventor); Kumar, Shankar (Inventor); Lee, Hohyun (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention generally provides methods of improving thermoelectric properties of alloys by subjecting them to one or more high temperature annealing steps, performed at temperatures at which the alloys exhibit a mixed solid/liquid phase, followed by cooling steps. For example, in one aspect, such a method of the invention can include subjecting an alloy sample to a temperature that is sufficiently elevated to cause partial melting of at least some of the grains. The sample can then be cooled so as to solidify the melted grain portions such that each solidified grain portion exhibits an average chemical composition, characterized by a relative concentration of elements forming the alloy, that is different than that of the remainder of the grain.

  7. Development and Analysis of Hybrid Thermoelectric Refrigerator Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifizi, M.; Zakaria, M. S.; Yaacob, Sazali; Wan, Khairunizam

    2018-03-01

    Thermoelectric module (TEM) is a type of solid-state devices which has the capability to maintain the accuracy of small temperature variation application. In this study, a hybrid thermoelectric refrigerator system is introduced by utilizing TEMs; direct and air to air thermoelectric heat pump to cool down and maintain low temperature for vaccines storage. Two different materials which are aluminum and stainless steel are used as container in hybrid thermoelectric refrigerator (HTER) configuration to investigate the response of every system in transient and steady state mode. A proper temperature sensor calibration technique is implemented to make certain real time data acquisition of the systems are not affected very much from the noise generated. From step response analysis, it is indicated that HTER I (aluminum) has rapid settling time from transient to steady state than HTER II (stainless steel) since aluminum has better thermal conductivity as compared to stainless steel. It is found that HTER I is better in cooling capability with the same input current instead of HTER II which required a longer time to achieve steady state mode. Besides, in Pseudo Random Binary Sequence (PRBS) response analysis injected to both systems shows HTER I is very sensitive to current input as the sequence length of HTER I is shorter than HTER II. However both systems depict the varying temperature in the range of 4 oC due to differences in thermal conductivity of container.

  8. Applications of nuclear-powered thermoelectric generators in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The source of electrical power which enables information to be transmitted from the space crafts Voyager 1 and 2 back to Earth after a time period of more than a decade and at a distance of more than a billion miles is known as an RTG (radioisotope thermoelectric generator). It utilises the Seebeck effect in producing electricity from heat. In essence it consists of a large number of semiconductor thermocouples connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel. A temperature difference is maintained across the thermocouples by providing a heat source, which in the case of an RTG is a radioactive isotope, and the heat sink is space. The combination of an energy-conversion system, free of moving parts and a long-life, high energy-density heat source, provides a supply of electrical power typically in the range of tens to hundred of watts and which operates reliably over extended periods of time. An electric power source, based upon thermoelectric conversion by which utilises a nuclear reactor as a heat source, has also been deployed in space and a 100-kW system is being developed to provide electrical power to a variety of commercial and military projects including SDI. Developments in thermoelectrics that have taken place in the western world during the past 30 years are primarily due to United States interest and involvement in the exploration of space. This paper reviews US applications of nuclear-powered thermoelectric generators in space. (author)

  9. Thermoelectric Power Factor Limit of a 1D Nanowire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I.-Ju; Burke, Adam; Svilans, Artis; Linke, Heiner; Thelander, Claes

    2018-04-01

    In the past decade, there has been significant interest in the potentially advantageous thermoelectric properties of one-dimensional (1D) nanowires, but it has been challenging to find high thermoelectric power factors based on 1D effects in practice. Here we point out that there is an upper limit to the thermoelectric power factor of nonballistic 1D nanowires, as a consequence of the recently established quantum bound of thermoelectric power output. We experimentally test this limit in quasiballistic InAs nanowires by extracting the maximum power factor of the first 1D subband through I -V characterization, finding that the measured maximum power factors conform to the theoretical limit. The established limit allows the prediction of the achievable power factor of a specific nanowire material system with 1D electronic transport based on the nanowire dimension and mean free path. The power factor of state-of-the-art semiconductor nanowires with small cross section and high crystal quality can be expected to be highly competitive (on the order of mW /m K2 ) at low temperatures. However, they have no clear advantage over bulk materials at, or above, room temperature.

  10. Fine Art of Thermoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brus, Viktor V; Gluba, Marc; Rappich, Jörg; Lang, Felix; Maryanchuk, Pavlo D; Nickel, Norbert H

    2018-02-07

    A detailed study of hitherto unknown electrical and thermoelectric properties of graphite pencil traces on paper was carried out by measuring the Hall and Seebeck effects. We show that the combination of pencil-drawn graphite and brush-painted poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) films on regular office paper results in extremely simple, low-cost, and environmentally friendly thermoelectric power generators with promising output characteristics at low-temperature gradients. The working characteristics can be improved even further by incorporating n-type InSe flakes. The combination of pencil-drawn n-InSe:graphite nanocomposites and brush-painted PEDOT:PSS increases the power output by 1 order of magnitude.

  11. Microwatt thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goslee, D.E.; Bustard, T.S.

    1976-01-01

    A microwatt thermoelectric generator suitable for implanting in the body is described. The generator utilizes a nuclear energy source. Provision is made for temporary electrical connection to the generator for testing purposes, and for ensuring that the heat generated by the nuclear source does not bypass the pile. Also disclosed is a getter which is resistant to shrinkage during sintering, and a foil configuration for controlling the radiation of heat from the nuclear source to the hot plate of the pile

  12. Microwatt thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goslee, D.E.

    1976-01-01

    A microwatt thermoelectric generator suitable for implanting in the body is described. The disclosed generator utilizes a nuclear energy source. Provision is made for temporary electrical connection to the generator for testing purposes, and for ensuring that the heat generated by the nuclear source does not bypass the pile. Also disclosed is a getter which is resistant to shrinkage during sintering, and a foil configuration for controlling the radiation of heat from the nuclear source to the hot plate of the pile

  13. Opto-thermoelectric nanotweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Linhan; Wang, Mingsong; Peng, Xiaolei; Lissek, Emanuel N.; Mao, Zhangming; Scarabelli, Leonardo; Adkins, Emily; Coskun, Sahin; Unalan, Husnu Emrah; Korgel, Brian A.; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.; Florin, Ernst-Ludwig; Zheng, Yuebing

    2018-04-01

    Optical manipulation of plasmonic nanoparticles provides opportunities for fundamental and technical innovation in nanophotonics. Optical heating arising from the photon-to-phonon conversion is considered as an intrinsic loss in metal nanoparticles, which limits their applications. We show here that this drawback can be turned into an advantage, by developing an extremely low-power optical tweezing technique, termed opto-thermoelectric nanotweezers. By optically heating a thermoplasmonic substrate, a light-directed thermoelectric field can be generated due to spatial separation of dissolved ions within the heating laser spot, which allows us to manipulate metal nanoparticles of a wide range of materials, sizes and shapes with single-particle resolution. In combination with dark-field optical imaging, nanoparticles can be selectively trapped and their spectroscopic response can be resolved in situ. With its simple optics, versatile low-power operation, applicability to diverse nanoparticles and tunable working wavelength, opto-thermoelectric nanotweezers will become a powerful tool in colloid science and nanotechnology.

  14. Semiconductor Manufacturing equipment introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jong Sun

    2001-02-01

    This book deals with semiconductor manufacturing equipment. It is comprised of nine chapters, which are manufacturing process of semiconductor device, history of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, kinds and role of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, construction and method of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, introduction of various semiconductor manufacturing equipment, spots of semiconductor manufacturing, technical elements of semiconductor manufacturing equipment, road map of technology of semiconductor manufacturing equipment and semiconductor manufacturing equipment in the 21st century.

  15. Intrinsically High Thermoelectric Performance in AgInSe2 n-Type Diamond-Like Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Pengfei; Qin, Yuting; Zhang, Qihao; Li, Ruoxi; Yang, Jiong; Song, Qingfeng; Tang, Yunshan; Bai, Shengqiang; Shi, Xun; Chen, Lidong

    2018-03-01

    Diamond-like compounds are a promising class of thermoelectric materials, very suitable for real applications. However, almost all high-performance diamond-like thermoelectric materials are p-type semiconductors. The lack of high-performance n-type diamond-like thermoelectric materials greatly restricts the fabrication of diamond-like material-based modules and their real applications. In this work, it is revealed that n-type AgInSe 2 diamond-like compound has intrinsically high thermoelectric performance with a figure of merit ( zT ) of 1.1 at 900 K, comparable to the best p-type diamond-like thermoelectric materials reported before. Such high zT is mainly due to the ultralow lattice thermal conductivity, which is fundamentally limited by the low-frequency Ag-Se "cluster vibrations," as confirmed by ab initio lattice dynamic calculations. Doping Cd at Ag sites significantly improves the thermoelectric performance in the low and medium temperature ranges. By using such high-performance n-type AgInSe 2 -based compounds, the diamond-like thermoelectric module has been fabricated for the first time. An output power of 0.06 W under a temperature difference of 520 K between the two ends of the module is obtained. This work opens a new window for the applications using the diamond-like thermoelectric materials.

  16. Heat-pipe assisted thermoelectric generators for exhaust gas applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, L. M.; Martins, Jorge; Antunes, Joaquim; Rocha, Romeu; Brito, F. P.

    2012-01-01

    Millions of hybrid cars are already running on our roads with the purpose of reducing fossil fuel dependence. One of their main advantages is the recovery of wasted energy, namely by brake recovery. However, there are other sources of wasted energy in a car powered by an internal combustion engine, such as the heat lost through the cooling system, lubrication system (oil coolers) and in the exhaust system. These energies can be recuperated by the use of thermoelectric generators (TEG) based o...

  17. Semiconductor spintronics

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Jianbai; Chang, Kai

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductor Spintronics, as an emerging research discipline and an important advanced field in physics, has developed quickly and obtained fruitful results in recent decades. This volume is the first monograph summarizing the physical foundation and the experimental results obtained in this field. With the culmination of the authors' extensive working experiences, this book presents the developing history of semiconductor spintronics, its basic concepts and theories, experimental results, and the prospected future development. This unique book intends to provide a systematic and modern foundation for semiconductor spintronics aimed at researchers, professors, post-doctorates, and graduate students, and to help them master the overall knowledge of spintronics.

  18. Engineering half-Heusler thermoelectric materials using Zintl chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeier, Wolfgang G.; Schmitt, Jennifer; Hautier, Geoffroy; Aydemir, Umut; Gibbs, Zachary M.; Felser, Claudia; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2016-06-01

    Half-Heusler compounds based on XNiSn and XCoSb (X = Ti, Zr or Hf) have rapidly become important thermoelectric materials for converting waste heat into electricity. In this Review, we provide an overview on the electronic properties of half-Heusler compounds in an attempt to understand their basic structural chemistry and physical properties, and to guide their further development. Half-Heusler compounds can exhibit semiconducting transport behaviour even though they are described as ‘intermetallic’ compounds. Therefore, it is most useful to consider these systems as rigid-band semiconductors within the framework of Zintl (or valence-precise) compounds. These considerations aid our understanding of their properties, such as the bandgap and low hole mobility because of interstitial Ni defects in XNiSn. Understanding the structural and bonding characteristics, including the presence of defects, will help to develop different strategies to improve and design better half-Heusler thermoelectric materials.

  19. Thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO_3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Chandra Kr.; Bhamu, K. C.; Sharma, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We have studied the structural stability, electronic structure, optical properties and thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO_3 by full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The electronic structure of BaHfO_3 doped with Sr shows enhances the indirect band gaps of 3.53 eV, 3.58 eV. The charge density plots show strong ionic bonding in Ba-Hf, and ionic and covalent bonding between Hf and O. Calculations of the optical spectra, viz., the dielectric function, refractive index and extinction coefficient are performed for the energy range are calculated and analyzed. Thermoelectric properties of semi conducting are also reported first time. The doped BaHfO_3 is approximately wide band gap semiconductor with the large p-type Seebeck coefficient. The power factor of BaHfO_3 is increased with Sr doping, decreases because of low electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity.

  20. Laser cooling of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Petrushkin, S V

    2009-01-01

    Laser cooling is an important emerging technology in such areas as the cooling of semiconductors. The book examines and suggests solutions for a range of problems in the development of miniature solid-state laser refrigerators, self-cooling solid-state lasers and optical echo-processors. It begins by looking at the basic theory of laser cooling before considering such topics as self-cooling of active elements of solid-state lasers, laser cooling of solid-state information media of optical echo-processors, and problems of cooling solid-state quantum processors. Laser Cooling of Solids is an important contribution to the development of compact laser-powered cryogenic refrigerators, both for the academic community and those in the microelectronics and other industries. Provides a timely review of this promising field of research and discusses the fundamentals and theory of laser cooling Particular attention is given to the physics of cooling processes and the mathematical description of these processes Reviews p...

  1. Single frequency semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Fang, Zujie; Chen, Gaoting; Qu, Ronghui

    2017-01-01

    This book systematically introduces the single frequency semiconductor laser, which is widely used in many vital advanced technologies, such as the laser cooling of atoms and atomic clock, high-precision measurements and spectroscopy, coherent optical communications, and advanced optical sensors. It presents both the fundamentals and characteristics of semiconductor lasers, including basic F-P structure and monolithic integrated structures; interprets laser noises and their measurements; and explains mechanisms and technologies relating to the main aspects of single frequency lasers, including external cavity lasers, frequency stabilization technologies, frequency sweeping, optical phase locked loops, and so on. It paints a clear, physical picture of related technologies and reviews new developments in the field as well. It will be a useful reference to graduate students, researchers, and engineers in the field.

  2. Planar Nernst effect and Mott relation in (In,Fe)Sb ferromagnetic semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, Cong Tinh; Garcia, Christina A. C.; Tu, Nguyen Thanh; Tanaka, Masaaki; Hai, Pham Nam

    2018-05-01

    Transverse magneto-thermoelectric effects were studied in an (In,Fe)Sb ferromagnetic semiconductor thin film under an in-plane magnetic field. We find that the thermal voltage is governed by the planar Nernst effect. We show that the magnetic field intensity dependence, magnetic field direction dependence, and temperature dependence of the transverse Seebeck coefficient can be explained by assuming a Mott relation between the in-plane magneto-transport and magneto-thermoelectric phenomena in (In,Fe)Sb.

  3. Thermoelectric Devices: Solid-State Refrigerators and Electrical Generators in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, Edmund J.; Ellis, Arthur B.; Lisensky, George C.

    1996-10-01

    Thermoelectric devices are solid-state devices that convert thermal energy from a temperature gradient into electrical energy (the Seebeck effect) or convert electrical energy into a temperature gradient (the Peltier effect). The first application is used most notably in spacecraft power generation systems (for example, in Voyager I and II) and in thermocouples for temperature measurement, while the second application is largely used in specialized cooling applications. Both applications can be demonstrated in the lecture hall to illustrate thermodynamic principles in a compelling manner. They also provide insight into the workings of a high-tech system that is achieving more widespread consumer use. The most visible consumer use of thermoelectric devices utilizing the Peltier effect is in portable electric food coolers/warmers that plug into an automobile cigarette lighter. Conventional cooling systems such as those used in refrigerators utilize a compressor and a working fluid to transfer heat. Thermal energy is absorbed and released as the working fluid undergoes expansion and compression and changes phase from liquid to vapor and back, respectively (1). Semiconductor thermoelectric coolers (also known as Peltier coolers) offer several advantages over conventional systems. They are entirely solid-state devices, with no moving parts; this makes them rugged, reliable, and quiet. They use no ozone-depleting chlorofluorocarbons, potentially offering a more environmentally responsible alternative to conventional refrigeration. They can be extremely compact, much more so than compressor-based systems. Precise temperature control (screws have to be removed to access the thermoelectric module. The module comes equipped with finned aluminum heat sinks attached to both sides; one of these has to be detached in order to remove the module from the lid. The heat sink is then reattached to the module, as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1. Thermoelectric module with attached heat

  4. Performance Evaluation of Waste Heat Recovery in a Charcoal Stove using a Thermo-Electric Module

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnamdi Judges Ajah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Charcoal stoves have widespread use among the poorer households and outdoor food vendors in Nigeria. In order to improve the efficiency of charcoal stoves, various researches have tried integrating a thermoelectric module in the charcoal stove. The researches, however did not exploit the performance of the thermoelectric modules at different ambient temperatures. To evaluate the performance of thermoelectric integrated charcoal stoves in the sub-Saharan Africa, a self-powered, forced air induced thermoelectric charcoal stove experiment was carried out at five different ambient temperatures of 36ºC, 33ºC, 32ºC, 30ºC and 29ºC and an average fuel hotbed temperature of 1023.75ºC. The thermoelectric charcoal stove generated a maximum voltage of 5.25V at an ambient temperature of 29ºC. The least maximum voltage was generated at the highest ambient temperature of 36ºC. It was observed that the maximum voltage increased with decreasing ambient temperature, this could be attributed to the ambient air being used to cool the thermoelectric generator. Therefore, it could be said that the performance of a forced draft thermoelectric charcoal stove increases with decrease in ambient temperature.

  5. Nonlinear thermoelectric effects in high-field superconductor-ferromagnet tunnel junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kolenda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thermoelectric effects result from the coupling of charge and heat transport and can be used for thermometry, cooling and harvesting of thermal energy. The microscopic origin of thermoelectric effects is a broken electron–hole symmetry, which is usually quite small in metal structures. In addition, thermoelectric effects decrease towards low temperatures, which usually makes them vanishingly small in metal nanostructures in the sub-Kelvin regime.Results: We report on a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of thermoelectric effects in superconductor/ferromagnet hybrid structures. We investigate the dependence of thermoelectric currents on the thermal excitation, as well as on the presence of a dc bias voltage across the junction.Conclusion: Large thermoelectric effects are observed in superconductor/ferromagnet and superconductor/normal-metal hybrid structures. The spin-independent signals observed under finite voltage bias are shown to be reciprocal to the physics of superconductor/normal-metal microrefrigerators. The spin-dependent thermoelectric signals in the linear regime are due to the coupling of spin and heat transport, and can be used to design more efficient refrigerators.

  6. Optimization of materials for thermomagnetic cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliori, A; Darling, T W; Freibert, F; Trugman, S A; Moshopoulou, E; Sarrao, J L

    1997-07-01

    The authors review thermoelectric transport in a magnetic field. The key physical effect for thermomagnetic cooling is the Ettingshausen effect. They describe the design principles, measurement difficulties and areas where more work can prove fruitful in an exploration of cryogenic refrigeration based on this effect. New principles are discussed to guide the search for new materials and their development.

  7. Multi-model assessment of global hydropower and cooling water discharge potential under climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Beek, van L.P.H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M.F.P.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, 98% of total electricity is currently produced by thermoelectric power and hydropower. Climate change is expected to directly impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power. Improved

  8. High thermoelectric power factor in two-dimensional crystals of Mo S2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippalgaonkar, Kedar; Wang, Ying; Ye, Yu; Qiu, Diana Y.; Zhu, Hanyu; Wang, Yuan; Moore, Joel; Louie, Steven G.; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-03-01

    The quest for high-efficiency heat-to-electricity conversion has been one of the major driving forces toward renewable energy production for the future. Efficient thermoelectric devices require high voltage generation from a temperature gradient and a large electrical conductivity while maintaining a low thermal conductivity. For a given thermal conductivity and temperature, the thermoelectric power factor is determined by the electronic structure of the material. Low dimensionality (1D and 2D) opens new routes to a high power factor due to the unique density of states (DOS) of confined electrons and holes. The 2D transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) semiconductors represent a new class of thermoelectric materials not only due to such confinement effects but especially due to their large effective masses and valley degeneracies. Here, we report a power factor of Mo S2 as large as 8.5 mW m-1K-2 at room temperature, which is among the highest measured in traditional, gapped thermoelectric materials. To obtain these high power factors, we perform thermoelectric measurements on few-layer Mo S2 in the metallic regime, which allows us to access the 2D DOS near the conduction band edge and exploit the effect of 2D confinement on electron scattering rates, resulting in a large Seebeck coefficient. The demonstrated high, electronically modulated power factor in 2D TMDCs holds promise for efficient thermoelectric energy conversion.

  9. CuAlTe{sub 2}: A promising bulk thermoelectric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudelli, Vijay Kumar [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailaram 502 205, Telangana (India); Kanchana, V., E-mail: kanchana@iith.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Hyderabad, Ordnance Factory Estate, Yeddumailaram 502 205, Telangana (India); Vaitheeswaran, G. [Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Prof. C. R. Rao Road, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500 046, Telangana (India)

    2015-11-05

    Transport properties of Cu-based chalcopyrite materials are presented using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method and Boltzmann Semi-classical theory. All the studied compounds appear to be direct band gap semiconductors evaluated based on the Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson potential. The heavy and light band combination found near the valence band maximum (VBM) drive these materials to possess good thermoelectric properties. Among the studied compounds, CuAlTe{sub 2} is found to be more promising, in comparison with CuGaTe{sub 2}, which is reported to be an efficient thermoelectric material with appreciable figure of merit. Another interesting fact about CuAlTe{sub 2} is the comparable thermoelectric properties possessed by both n- type and p-type carriers, which might attract good device applications and are explained in detail using the electronic structure calculations. - Highlights: • Band structure calculation of Cu(Al,Ga)Ch{sub 2} compounds with the TB-mBJ functional. • Mixed heavy-light bands near Fermi level might favour good thermoelectric properties. • Among the investigated compounds CuAlTe{sub 2} appears to be more promising. • Thermoelectric properties of CuAlTe{sub 2} are almost comparable with CuGaTe{sub 2}. • Both n,p-type thermoelectric properties of CuAlTe{sub 2} can attract device applications.

  10. Microwatt thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hittman, F.; Bustard, T.S.

    1976-01-01

    A microwatt thermoelectric generator suitable for implanting in the body is described. The generator utilizes a nuclear energy source. Provision is made for temporary electrical connection to the generator for testing purposes, and for ensuring that the heat generated by the nuclear source does not bypass the pile. Also disclosed is a getter which is resistant to shrinkage during sintering, and a foil configuration for controlling the radiation of heat from the nuclear source to the hot plate of the pile. 2 claims, 4 drawing figures

  11. Microwatt thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, H.N.

    1978-01-01

    A microwatt thermoelectric generator suitable for implanting in the body is described. The disclosed generator utilizes a nuclear energy source. Provision is made for temporary electrical connection to the generator for testing purposes, and for ensuring that the heat generated by the nuclear source does not bypass the pile. Also disclosed is a getter which is resistant to shrinkage during sintering, and a foil configuration for controlling the radiation of heat from the nuclear source to the hot plate of the pile. 4 claims, 4 figures

  12. Superlattices in thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofo, J.O.; Mahan, G.D.; Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN

    1994-08-01

    The electrical conductivity, thermopower and the electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of a superlattice, are calculated with the electric field and the thermal gradient applied parallel to the interfaces. Tunneling between quantum wells is included. The broadening of the lowest subband when the period of the superlattice is decreased produces a reduction of the thermoelectric figure of merit. However, we found that a moderate increase of the figure of merit may be expected for intermediate values of the period, due to the enhancement of the density of states produced by the superlattice structure

  13. Hall and thermoelectric evaluation of p-type InAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagener, M.C., E-mail: magnus.wagener@nmmu.ac.z [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa); Wagener, V.; Botha, J.R. [Department of Physics, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth (South Africa)

    2009-12-15

    This paper compares the galvanometric and thermoelectric evaluation of the electrical characteristics of narrow gap semiconductors. In particular, the influence of a surface inversion layer is incorporated into the analysis of the temperature-dependent Hall and thermoelectric measurements of p-type InAs. The temperature at which the Seebeck coefficient of p-type material changes sign is shown to be unaffected by the presence of degenerate conduction paths. This finding consequently facilitated the direct determination of the acceptor density of lightly doped thin film InAs.

  14. Hall and thermoelectric evaluation of p-type InAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagener, M.C.; Wagener, V.; Botha, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the galvanometric and thermoelectric evaluation of the electrical characteristics of narrow gap semiconductors. In particular, the influence of a surface inversion layer is incorporated into the analysis of the temperature-dependent Hall and thermoelectric measurements of p-type InAs. The temperature at which the Seebeck coefficient of p-type material changes sign is shown to be unaffected by the presence of degenerate conduction paths. This finding consequently facilitated the direct determination of the acceptor density of lightly doped thin film InAs.

  15. Semiconductor spintronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabian, J.; Abiague, A.M.; Ertler, Ch.; Stano, P.; Zutic, I.

    2007-01-01

    Spintronics refers commonly to phenomena in which the spin of electrons in a solid state environment plays the determining role. In a more narrow sense spintronics is an emerging research field of electronics: spintronics devices are based on a spin control of electronics, or on an electrical and optical control of spin of magnetism. While metal spintronics has already found its niche in the computer industry - giant magnetoresistance systems are used as hard disk read heads - semiconductor spintronics is vet demonstrate its full potential. This review presents selected themes of semiconductor spintronics, introducing important concepts in spin transport, spin transport, spin injection. Silsbee-Johnson spin-charge coupling, and spin-dependent tunneling, as well as spin relaxation and spin dynamics. The most fundamental spin-dependent interaction in nonmagnetic semiconductors is spin-orbit coupling. Depending on the crystal symmetries of the material, as well as on the structural properties of semiconductor based heterostructures, the spin-orbit coupling takes on different functional forms, giving a nice playground of effective spin-orbit Hamiltonians. The effective Hamiltonians for the most relevant classes of materials and heterostructures are derived here from realistic electronic band structure descriptions. Most semiconductor device systems are still theoretical concepts, waiting for experimental demonstrations. A review of selected proposed, and a few demonstrated devices is presented, with detailed description of two important classes: magnetic resonant tunnel structures and bipolar magnetic diodes and transistors. In view of the importance of ferromagnetic semiconductor material, a brief discussion of diluted magnetic semiconductors is included. In most cases the presentation is of tutorial style, introducing the essential theoretical formalism at an accessible level, with case-study-like illustrations of actual experimental results, as well as with brief

  16. Thermoelectric Generation Of Current - Theoretical And Experimental Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruciński, Adam; Rusowicz, Artur

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides some information about thermoelectric technology. Some new materials with improved figures of merit are presented. These materials in Peltier modules make it possible to generate electric current thanks to a temperature difference. The paper indicates possible applications of thermoelectric modules as interesting tools for using various waste heat sources. Some zero-dimensional equations describing the conditions of electric power generation are given. Also, operating parameters of Peltier modules, such as voltage and electric current, are analyzed. The paper shows chosen characteristics of power generation parameters. Then, an experimental stand for ongoing research and experimental measurements are described. The authors consider the resistance of a receiver placed in the electric circuit with thermoelectric elements. Finally, both the analysis of experimental results and conclusions drawn from theoretical findings are presented. Voltage generation of about 1.5 to 2.5 V for the temperature difference from 65 to 85 K was observed when a bismuth telluride thermoelectric couple (traditionally used in cooling technology) was used.

  17. Thermoelectric Generation Of Current – Theoretical And Experimental Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruciński Adam

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides some information about thermoelectric technology. Some new materials with improved figures of merit are presented. These materials in Peltier modules make it possible to generate electric current thanks to a temperature difference. The paper indicates possible applications of thermoelectric modules as interesting tools for using various waste heat sources. Some zero-dimensional equations describing the conditions of electric power generation are given. Also, operating parameters of Peltier modules, such as voltage and electric current, are analyzed. The paper shows chosen characteristics of power generation parameters. Then, an experimental stand for ongoing research and experimental measurements are described. The authors consider the resistance of a receiver placed in the electric circuit with thermoelectric elements. Finally, both the analysis of experimental results and conclusions drawn from theoretical findings are presented. Voltage generation of about 1.5 to 2.5 V for the temperature difference from 65 to 85 K was observed when a bismuth telluride thermoelectric couple (traditionally used in cooling technology was used.

  18. Revealing the optoelectronic and thermoelectric properties of the Zintl quaternary arsenides ACdGeAs{sub 2} (A = K, Rb)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azam, Sikander; Khan, Saleem Ayaz [New Technologies—Research Center, University of West Bohemia, Univerzitni 8, 306 14 Pilsen (Czech Republic); Goumri-Said, Souraya, E-mail: Souraya.Goumri-Said@chemistry.gatech.edu [School of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0400 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Zintl tetragonal phase ACdGeAs{sub 2} (A = K, Rb) are chalcopyrite and semiconductors. • Their direct band gap is suitable for PV, optolectronic and thermoelectric applications. • Combination of DFT and Boltzmann transport theory is employed. • The present arsenides are found to be covalent materials. - Abstract: Chalcopyrite semiconductors have attracted much attention due to their potential implications in photovoltaic and thermoelectric applications. First principle calculations were performed to investigate the electronic, optical and thermoelectric properties of the Zintl tetragonal phase ACdGeAs{sub 2} (A = K, Rb) using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method and the Engle–Vosko GGA (EV–GGA) approximation. The present compounds are found semiconductors with direct band gap and covalent bonding character. The optical transitions are investigated via the dielectric function (real and imaginary parts) along with other related optical constants including refractive index, reflectivity and energy-loss spectrum. Combining results from DFT and Boltzmann transport theory, we reported the thermoelectric properties such as the Seebeck’s coefficient, electrical and thermal conductivity, figure of merit and power factor as function of temperatures. The present chalcopyrite Zintl quaternary arsenides deserve to be explored for their potential applications as thermoelectric materials and for photovoltaic devices.

  19. Transverse Seebeck and Peltier effect in tilted metal-semiconductor multilayer structures; Transversaler Seebeck- und Peltier-Effekt in verkippten Metall-Halbleiter-Multilagenstrukturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitmaier, Christina

    2012-07-01

    Whether in aerospace, automobile industry or in home appliances, thermoelectric effects find use in many areas of technology. This work deals with the investigation of a special form of these effects, the transversal Seebeck- and Peltier effect. Via modelling under variation of the sample parameters the cooling efficiencies, the attainable temperature differences and the Figures of merit are optimised and than suitable samples are produced according to these specifications. With these tilted metal semiconductor multilayer structures consisting of lead and bismuth telluride a transversal Peltier effect is observed. Moreover, the generation of electric power is examined via the transversal Seebeck effect. In tilted Pb-Bi2Te3 multilayers the efficiency is measured with the conversion by heat in electric power and is compared to model calculations. (orig.)

  20. Oxide semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Svensson, Bengt G; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2013-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scient

  1. Semiconductor statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Blakemore, J S

    1962-01-01

    Semiconductor Statistics presents statistics aimed at complementing existing books on the relationships between carrier densities and transport effects. The book is divided into two parts. Part I provides introductory material on the electron theory of solids, and then discusses carrier statistics for semiconductors in thermal equilibrium. Of course a solid cannot be in true thermodynamic equilibrium if any electrical current is passed; but when currents are reasonably small the distribution function is but little perturbed, and the carrier distribution for such a """"quasi-equilibrium"""" co

  2. Compliant Interfacial Layers in Thermoelectric Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdosy, Samad A. (Inventor); Li, Billy Chun-Yip (Inventor); Ravi, Vilupanur A. (Inventor); Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Anjunyan, Harut (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A thermoelectric power generation device is disclosed using one or more mechanically compliant and thermally and electrically conductive layers at the thermoelectric material interfaces to accommodate high temperature differentials and stresses induced thereby. The compliant material may be metal foam or metal graphite composite (e.g. using nickel) and is particularly beneficial in high temperature thermoelectric generators employing Zintl thermoelectric materials. The compliant material may be disposed between the thermoelectric segments of the device or between a thermoelectric segment and the hot or cold side interconnect of the device.

  3. Interfacial reactions in thermoelectric modules

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hsin-jay; Wu, Albert T.; Wei, Pei-chun; Chen, Sinn-wen

    2018-01-01

    Engineering transport properties of thermoelectric (TE) materials leads to incessantly breakthroughs in the zT values. Nevertheless, modular design holds a key factor to advance the TE technology. Herein, we discuss the structures of TE module

  4. Material parameters for thermoelectric performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thermoelectric performance of a thermoelement is ideally defined in terms of the so-called ... However, there are other parameters which are fairly good indicators ... Whereas a final deciding factor reflecting on .... matter of a future work.

  5. Cooling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    After an introduction to the general concepts of cooling of charged particle beams, some specific cooling methods are discussed, namely stochastic, electron and laser cooling. The treatment concentrates on the physical ideas of the cooling methods and only very crude derivations of cooling times are given. At the end three other proposed cooling schemes are briefly discussed. (orig.)

  6. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  7. Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina, E.

    2007-01-01

    Particle detectors based on semiconductor materials are among the few devices used for particle detection that are available to the public at large. In fact we are surrounded by them in our daily lives: they are used in photoelectric cells for opening doors, in digital photographic and video camera, and in bar code readers at supermarket cash registers. (Author)

  8. Development and Testing of an Integrated Sandia Cooler Thermoelectric Device (SCTD).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry A.; Staats, Wayne Lawrence,; Leick, Michael Thomas; Zimmerman, Mark D.; Radermacher, Reinhard; Martin, Cara; Nasuta, Dennis; Kalinowski, Paul; Hoffman, William

    2014-12-01

    This report describes a FY14 effort to develop an integrated Sandia Cooler T hermoelectric D evice (SCTD) . The project included a review of feasible thermoelectric (TE) cooling applications, baseline performance testing of an existing TE device, analysis and design development of an integrated SCTD assembly, and performance measurement and validation of the integrated SCTD prototype.

  9. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  10. Apparatus, System, and Method for On-Chip Thermoelectricity Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa; Fahad, Hossain M.; Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus, system, and method for a thermoelectric generator. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric generator comprises a first thermoelectric region and a second thermoelectric region, where the second thermoelectric region may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region by a first conductor. In some embodiments, a second conductor may be coupled to the first thermoelectric region and a third conductor may be coupled to the second thermoelectric region. In some embodiments, the first conductor may be in a first plane, the first thermoelectric region and the second thermoelectric region may be in a second plane, and the second conductor and the third conductor may be in a third plane.

  11. Method for thermoelectric cooler utilization using manufacturer's technical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiwiguna, Tri Ayodha; Nugroho, Rio; Ismardi, Abrar

    2018-03-01

    Thermoelectric cooler (TEC) module has been widely used for many applications. In this study, a procedure to use TEC module for specific requirement is developed based on manufacturer's technical data. For study case, the cooling system using TEC module is designed and tested to maintain 6.6 liter of water at 24 °C while surrounding temperature is 26 °C. First, cooling load estimation is performed empirically by observing the temperature change when cold water is inside the container. Second, the working temperature on hot side and cold side of TEC are determined. Third, the parameters of Seebeck coefficient, thermal resistance and electrical resistance are predicted by using information from the manufacturer. Fourth, the operating current is determined by the assumption the voltage across the TEC is 12V. Fifth, cooling capacity of TEC module is calculated by using energy balance equation of TEC. Sixth, the cooling load and cooling capacity are compared to determine the number of TEC module needed. The result of these calculations showed that one TEC module is enough for cooling system since the cooling load is 17.5 W while the cooling capacity is 18.87 W. From the experimental result, the set point temperature was achieved using one TEC module as predicted in calculations steps.

  12. Materials growth and characterization of thermoelectric and resistive switching devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Kate J.

    In the 74 years since diode rectifier based radar technology helped the allied forces win WWII, semiconductors have transformed the world we live in. From our smart phones to semiconductor-based energy conversion, semiconductors touch every aspect of our lives. With this thesis I hope to expand human knowledge of semiconductor thermoelectric devices and resistive switching devices through experimentation with materials growth and subsequent materials characterization. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was the primary method of materials growth utilized in these studies. Additionally, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD), atomic layer deposition (ALD),ion beam sputter deposition, reactive sputter deposition and electron-beam (e-beam) evaporation were also used in this research for device fabrication. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were the primary characterization methods utilized for this research. Additional device and materials characterization techniques employed include: current-voltage measurements, thermoelectric measurements, x-ray diffraction (XRD), reflection absorption infra-red spectroscopy (RAIRS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), photoluminescence (PL), and raman spectroscopy. As society has become more aware of its impact on the planet and its limited resources, there has been a push toward developing technologies to sustainably produce the energy we need. Thermoelectric devices convert heat directly into electricity. Thermoelectric devices have the potential to save huge amounts of energy that we currently waste as heat, if we can make them cost-effective. Semiconducting thin films and nanowires appear to be promising avenues of research to attain this goal. Specifically, in this work we will explore the use of ErSb thin films as well as Si and InP nanowire networks for thermoelectric applications. First we will discuss the growth of

  13. Encapsulation of high temperature thermoelectric modules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvador, James R.; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Park, Youngsam

    2017-07-11

    A method of encapsulating a thermoelectric device and its associated thermoelectric elements in an inert atmosphere and a thermoelectric device fabricated by such method are described. These thermoelectric devices may be intended for use under conditions which would otherwise promote oxidation of the thermoelectric elements. The capsule is formed by securing a suitably-sized thin-walled strip of oxidation-resistant metal to the ceramic substrates which support the thermoelectric elements. The thin-walled metal strip is positioned to enclose the edges of the thermoelectric device and is secured to the substrates using gap-filling materials. The strip, substrates and gap-filling materials cooperatively encapsulate the thermoelectric elements and exclude oxygen and water vapor from atmospheric air so that the elements may be maintained in an inert, non-oxidizing environment.

  14. Deployable Thermoelectric Metamaterial Energy Harvesting Monitoring System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will combine a novel asynchronous monitoring system with the first-of-its-kind thermoelectric metamaterial.  The thermoelectric prototype is constructed...

  15. Experimental investigation of a portable desalination unit configured by a thermoelectric cooler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yıldırım, Cihan; Soylu, Sezgi Koçak; Atmaca, İbrahim; Solmuş, İsmail

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Portable humidification–dehumidification desalination system configured by a thermoelectric cooler is experimentally studied. • Effect of feed water mass flow rate and air flow velocity on COP value of TEC and system productivity are investigated. • Maximum daily yield of system and COP value of TEC unit were recorded as 143.6 g and 0.78, respectively. - Abstract: Possible use of a novel portable desalination system was investigated experimentally. The system is based on humidification–dehumidification principle and thermoelectric cooling technique. A thermoelectric cooler was integrated into the system to enhance the process of both humidification and dehumidification. A prototype was fabricated and its performance was tested for various working conditions of the prototype to observe complex relation between psychrometric and thermoelectric phenomena. The effect of feed water mass flow rate and air flow velocity on the COP value of the thermoelectric cooler and clean water production of the system were examined. The maximum daily yield of the system and the COP value of the thermoelectric cooler unit were recorded as 143.6 g and 0.78, respectively

  16. Automotive Thermoelectric Generator impact on the efficiency of a drive system with a combustion engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziolkowski Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the combustion engine drive systems efficiency is currently being achieved by structural changes in internal combustion engines and its equipment, which are geared towards limiting mechanical, thermal and outlet losses. For this reason, downsizing. In addition to these changes, all manner of exhaust gas energy recovery systems are being investigated and implemented, including turbocompound, turbogenerators and thermoelectric generators. The article presents the author’s idea of a thermoelectric generator system of automotive applications ATEG (Automotive Thermoelectric Generator and the study of the recovery of exhaust gas energy stream. The ATEG consists of a heat exchanger, thermoelectric modules and a cooling system. In this solution, 24 commercial thermoelectric modules based on Bi2Te3 (bismuth telluride were used. Measurements were made at two engine test sites on which SI and CI engines were installed. The exhaust gas parameters (temperature and mass flow rate, fuel consumption and operating parameters of the ATEG – the intensity and the voltage generated by the thermoelectric modules and the temperature on the walls of the heat exchanger – were all measured in the experiments. Based on the obtained results, the exhaust gas energy flow and the power of the ATEG were determined as well as its effect on the diesel engine drive system efficiency.

  17. Semiconductor Nanowire and Nanoribbon Thermoelectrics: A Comprehensive Computational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    August 17-20, 2010). Available online through IEEE Xplore . http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NANO.2010.5698047 4. Z. Aksamija and I. Knezevic...Korea (August 17-20, 2010). Available online through IEEE Xplore . http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/NANO.2010.5697827 5. D. Vasileska, K. Raleva, S. M...IWCE 2010) Available online through IEEE Xplore , http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/IWCE.2010.5677916 6. E. B. Ramayya and I. Knezevic, “Ultrascaled

  18. From Modules to a Generator: An Integrated Heat Exchanger Concept for Car Applications of a Thermoelectric Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Henry

    2016-03-01

    A heat exchanger concept for a thermoelectric generator with integrated planar modules for passenger car applications is introduced. The module housings, made of deep drawn stainless steel sheet metal, are brazed onto the exhaust gas channel to achieve an optimal heat transfer on the hot side of the modules. The cooling side consists of winding fluid channels, which are mounted directly onto the cold side of the modules. Only a thin foil separates the cooling media from the modules for an almost direct heat contact on the cooling side. Thermoelectric generators with up to 20 modules made of PbTe and Bi2Te3, respectively, are manufactured and tested on a hot gas generator to investigate electrical power output and performance of the thermoelectric generator. The proof of concept of the light weight heat exchanger design made of sheet metal with integrated modules is positively accomplished.

  19. Microstructures and thermoelectric properties of GeSbTe based layered compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, F.; Zhu, T.J.; Zhao, X.B. [Zhejiang University, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Hangzhou (China); Dong, S.R. [Zhejiang University, Department of Information and Electronics Engineering, Hangzhou (China)

    2007-08-15

    Microstructures and thermoelectric properties of Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} and Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} chalcogenide semiconductors have been investigated to explore the possibility of their thermoelectric applications. The phase transformation from the face-centered cubic to hexagonal structure was observed in Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} compounds prepared by the melt spinning technique. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity of the alloys were increased due to the enhanced scattering of charge carriers at grain boundaries. The maximum power factors of the rapidly solidified Ge{sub 1}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 4} and Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} attained 0.975 x 10{sup -3} Wm{sup -1}K{sup -2} at 750 K and 0.767 x 10{sup -3} Wm{sup -1}K{sup -2} at 643 K respectively, higher than those of water quenched counterparts, implying that thermoelectric properties of GeSbTe based layered compounds can be improved by grain refinement. The present results show this class of chalcogenide semiconductors is promising for thermoelectric applications. (orig.)

  20. Semiconductor sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Frank

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor sensors have been around since the 1950s and today, every high energy physics experiment has one in its repertoire. In Lepton as well as Hadron colliders, silicon vertex and tracking detectors led to the most amazing physics and will continue doing so in the future. This contribution tries to depict the history of these devices exemplarily without being able to honor all important developments and installations. The current understanding of radiation damage mechanisms and recent R and D topics demonstrating the future challenges and possible technical solutions for the SLHC detectors are presented. Consequently semiconductor sensor candidates for an LHC upgrade and a future linear collider are also briefly introduced. The work presented here is a collage of the work of many individual silicon experts spread over several collaborations across the world.

  1. Semiconductor Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Klingshirn, Claus F

    2012-01-01

    This updated and enlarged new edition of Semiconductor Optics provides an introduction to and an overview of semiconductor optics from the IR through the visible to the UV, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, dynamics, magneto and electrooptics, high-excitation effects and laser processes, some applications, experimental techniques and group theory. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered extend from physics to materials science and optoelectronics. Significantly updated chapters add coverage of current topics such as electron hole plasma, Bose condensation of excitons and meta materials. Over 120 problems, chapter introductions and a detailed index make it the key textbook for graduate students in physics. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered ...

  2. A lightweight scalable agarose-gel-synthesized thermoelectric composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Ho; Fernandes, Gustavo E.; Lee, Do-Joong; Hirst, Elizabeth S.; Osgood, Richard M., III; Xu, Jimmy

    2018-03-01

    Electronic devices are now advancing beyond classical, rigid systems and moving into lighweight flexible regimes, enabling new applications such as body-wearables and ‘e-textiles’. To support this new electronic platform, composite materials that are highly conductive yet scalable, flexible, and wearable are needed. Materials with high electrical conductivity often have poor thermoelectric properties because their thermal transport is made greater by the same factors as their electronic conductivity. We demonstrate, in proof-of-principle experiments, that a novel binary composite can disrupt thermal (phononic) transport, while maintaining high electrical conductivity, thus yielding promising thermoelectric properties. Highly conductive Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotube (MWCNT) composites are combined with a low-band gap semiconductor, PbS. The work functions of the two materials are closely matched, minimizing the electrical contact resistance within the composite. Disparities in the speed of sound in MWCNTs and PbS help to inhibit phonon propagation, and boundary layer scattering at interfaces between these two materials lead to large Seebeck coefficient (> 150 μV/K) (Mott N F and Davis E A 1971 Electronic Processes in Non-crystalline Materials (Oxford: Clarendon), p 47) and a power factor as high as 10 μW/(K2 m). The overall fabrication process is not only scalable but also conformal and compatible with large-area flexible hosts including metal sheets, films, coatings, possibly arrays of fibers, textiles and fabrics. We explain the behavior of this novel thermoelectric material platform in terms of differing length scales for electrical conductivity and phononic heat transfer, and explore new material configurations for potentially lightweight and flexible thermoelectric devices that could be networked in a textile.

  3. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2011-03-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, triaxially textured, single-crystal or single-crystal-like, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  4. Integrated three-dimensional module heat exchanger for power electronics cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Kevin; Lustbader, Jason

    2013-09-24

    Embodiments discussed herein are directed to a power semiconductor packaging that removes heat from a semiconductor package through one or more cooling zones that are located in a laterally oriented position with respect to the semiconductor package. Additional embodiments are directed to circuit elements that are constructed from one or more modular power semiconductor packages.

  5. Conductivity-limiting bipolar thermal conductivity in semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shanyu; Yang, Jiong; Toll, Trevor; Yang, Jihui; Zhang, Wenqing; Tang, Xinfeng

    2015-01-01

    Intriguing experimental results raised the question about the fundamental mechanisms governing the electron-hole coupling induced bipolar thermal conduction in semiconductors. Our combined theoretical analysis and experimental measurements show that in semiconductors bipolar thermal transport is in general a “conductivity-limiting” phenomenon, and it is thus controlled by the carrier mobility ratio and by the minority carrier partial electrical conductivity for the intrinsic and extrinsic cases, respectively. Our numerical method quantifies the role of electronic band structure and carrier scattering mechanisms. We have successfully demonstrated bipolar thermal conductivity reduction in doped semiconductors via electronic band structure modulation and/or preferential minority carrier scatterings. We expect this study to be beneficial to the current interests in optimizing thermoelectric properties of narrow gap semiconductors. PMID:25970560

  6. Efficient p-n junction-based thermoelectric generator that can operate at extreme temperature conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Ruben; Angst, Sebastian; Hall, Joseph; Maculewicz, Franziska; Stoetzel, Julia; Wiggers, Hartmut; Thanh Hung, Le; Van Nong, Ngo; Pryds, Nini; Span, Gerhard; Wolf, Dietrich E.; Schmechel, Roland; Schierning, Gabi

    2018-01-01

    In many industrial processes, a large proportion of energy is lost in the form of heat. Thermoelectric generators can convert this waste heat into electricity by means of the Seebeck effect. However, the use of thermoelectric generators in practical applications on an industrial scale is limited in part because electrical, thermal, and mechanical bonding contacts between the semiconductor materials and the metal electrodes in current designs are not capable of withstanding thermal-mechanical stress and alloying of the metal-semiconductor interface when exposed to the high temperatures occurring in many real-world applications. Here we demonstrate a concept for thermoelectric generators that can address this issue by replacing the metallization and electrode bonding on the hot side of the device by a p-n junction between the two semiconductor materials, making the device robust against temperature induced failure. In our proof-of-principle demonstration, a p-n junction device made from nanocrystalline silicon is at least comparable in its efficiency and power output to conventional devices of the same material and fabrication process, but with the advantage of sustaining high hot side temperatures and oxidative atmosphere.

  7. Fabrication of flexible thermoelectric microcoolers using planar thin-film technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, L. M.; Rocha, J. G.; Couto, Carlos; Alpuim, P.; Min, Gao; Rowe, D. M.; Correia, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    The present work reports on the fabrication and characterization of a planar Peltier cooler on a flexible substrate. The device was fabricated on a 12 νm thick Kapton(c) polyimide substrate using Bi2Te3 and Sb2Te3 thermoelectric elements deposited by thermal co-evaporation. The cold area of the device is cooled with four thermoelectric junctions, connected in series using metal contacts. Plastic substrates add uncommon mechanical properties to the composite film-substrate and enable integrati...

  8. Low cost thermoelectric module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpeerapun, T.; Hirunlabh, J. [King Mongkut Univ. of Technology, Bangkok (Thailand); Zeghmati, B. [Perpignan Univ., Perpignan (France). Faculty of Sciences; Scherrer, H.; Dauscher, A.; Weber, S.; Jahed, H.M.; Lernoir, B.; Kosalathip, V. [Ecole des Mines, Nancy (France). Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux; Khedari, J. [South-East Asia Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The properties of a bismuth-telluride-antimony (Bi{sub x}Sb{sub 2-8}Te{sub 3}) polycrystalline thermoelectric material prepared using a novel melting and hot pressing process were investigated. The aim of the study was to synthesize the materials without the need for doping. Materials were weighed and placed in a quartz tube, which was sealed under vacuum and heated in a rocking furnace from room temperature to 750 degrees C over a period of 1 hour. Temperatures were maintained at 750 degrees C for a further 2 hours. The sample was then removed from the furnace and suddenly quenched in water. The ingot was then crushed into a powder using an agate mortar and sieved. Samples exhibiting a cylindrical shape were reserved. Samples were then examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine their morphology and homogeneity. A sample pellet was then prepared for thermal conductivity measurements at room temperature. the pellet was nickel-plated on both sides and stacked between circular copper disks with thermocouples. Data were collected when the system reached thermal equilibrium. The Seebeck coefficient was measured by applying a small temperature difference. Results showed that the process effectively transformed the base materials into an alloy. It was concluded that the hot pressing successfully synthesized the materials. 6 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  9. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.

    2013-08-08

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  10. Apparatuses And Systems For Embedded Thermoelectric Generators

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad M.; Inayat, Salman Bin; Smith, Casey Eben

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus and a system for embedded thermoelectric generators are disclosed. In one embodiment, the apparatus is embedded in an interface where the ambient temperatures on two sides of the interface are different. In one embodiment, the apparatus is fabricated with the interface in integrity as a unitary piece. In one embodiment, the apparatus includes a first thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The apparatus further includes a second thermoelectric material embedded through the interface. The first thermoelectric material is electrically coupled to the second thermoelectric material. In one embodiment, the apparatus further includes an output structure coupled to the first thermoelectric material and the second thermoelectric material and configured to output a voltage.

  11. Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardy, Melissa Anne

    In recent years semiconductor nanowires and nanotubes have garnered increased attention for their unique properties. With their nanoscale dimensions comes high surface area and quantum confinement, promising enhancements in a wide range of applications. 1-dimensional nanostructures are especially attractive for energy conversion applications where photons, phonons, and electrons come into play. Since the bohr exciton radius and phonon and electron mean free paths are on the same length scales as nanowire diameters, optical, thermal, and electrical properties can be tuned by simple nanowire size adjustments. In addition, the high surface area inherent to nanowires and nanotubes lends them towards efficient charge separation and superior catalytic performance. In thermoelectric power generation, the nanoscale wire diameter can effectively scatter phonons, promoting reductions in thermal conductivity and enhancements in the thermoelectric figure of merit. To that end, single-crystalline arrays of PbS, PbSe, and PbTe nanowires have been synthesized by a chemical vapor transport approach. The electrical and thermal transport properties of the nanowires were characterized to investigate their potential as thermoelectric materials. Compared to bulk, the lead chalcogenide nanowires exhibit reduced thermal conductivity below 100 K by up to 3 orders of magnitude, suggesting that they may be promising thermoelectric materials. Smaller diameters and increased surface roughness are expected to give additional enhancements. The solution-phase synthesis of PbSe nanowires via oriented attachment of nanoparticles enables facile surface engineering and diameter control. Branched PbSe nanowires synthesized by this approach showed near degenerately doped charge carrier concentrations. Compared to the bulk, the PbSe nanowires exhibited a similar Seebeck coefficient and a significant reduction in thermal conductivity in the temperature range 20 K to 300 K. Thermal annealing of the Pb

  12. Electron and nuclear spin system polarization in semiconductors by light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharchenya, B; Flejsher, V

    1981-02-01

    Discussed are the principles of optical electron spin orientation, dynamic polarization and cooling of nuclear spin systems in optical electron orientation, and behavioural characteristics of bound electron and nuclear spin systems of a semiconductor in the optical orientation situation.

  13. Nanostructured layers of thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, Jeffrey J.; Lynch, Jared; Coates, Nelson; Forster, Jason; Sahu, Ayaskanta; Chabinyc, Michael; Russ, Boris

    2018-01-30

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to thermoelectric materials. In one aspect, a method includes providing a plurality of nanostructures. The plurality of nanostructures comprise a thermoelectric material, with each nanostructure of the plurality of nanostructures having first ligands disposed on a surface of the nanostructure. The plurality of nanostructures is mixed with a solution containing second ligands and a ligand exchange process occurs in which the first ligands disposed on the plurality of nanostructures are replaced with the second ligands. The plurality of nanostructures is deposited on a substrate to form a layer. The layer is thermally annealed.

  14. On the Placement of Thermoelectric Generators in Automobiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzhuev, M. A.; Katin, I. V.

    2010-09-01

    The placement of thermoelectric generators (TEGs) in vehicles is analyzed, taking into account the interaction of the TEG with the internal combustion engine (ICE). Alternative locations of the TEG directly in the ICE, on the exhaust pipe, and on the cooling system are considered. In all three cases there is a conflict between the two thermal machines, which reduces the total efficiency of the thermodynamic (ICE + TEG) system. It is shown that the cause of the conflict is the low efficiency of the TEG ( η TEG effect in TEG legs are discussed.

  15. Magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bihler, Christoph

    2009-04-15

    In this thesis we investigated in detail the properties of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P, and Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}N dilute magnetic semiconductor thin films with a focus on the magnetic anisotropy and the changes of their properties upon hydrogenation. We applied two complementary spectroscopic techniques to address the position of H in magnetic semiconductors: (i) Electron paramagnetic resonance, which provides direct information on the symmetry of the crystal field of the Mn{sup 2+} atoms and (ii) x-ray absorption fine structure analysis which allows to probe the local crystallographic neighborhood of the absorbing Mn atom via analysing the fine structure at the Mn K absorption edge. Finally, we discussed the obstacles that have to be overcome to achieve Curie temperatures above the current maximum in Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As of 185 K. Here, we outlined in detail the generic problem of the formation of precipitates at the example of Ge:MN. (orig.)

  16. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gang [MIT; Ren, Zhifeng [University of Houston

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  17. Independent Power Generation in a Modern Electrical Substation Based on Thermoelectric Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z. M.; Zhao, Y. Q.; Liu, W.; Wei, B.; Qiu, M.; Lai, X. K.

    2017-05-01

    Because of many types of electrical equipment with high power in substations, the potentiality of energy conservation is quite large. From this viewpoint, thermoelectric materials may be chosen to produce electrical energy using the waste heat produced in substations. Hence, a thermoelectric generation system which can recycle the waste heat from electric transformers was proposed to improve the energy efficiency and reduce the burden of the oil cooling system. An experimental prototype was fabricated to perform the experiment and to verify the feasibility. The experimental results showed that the output power could achieve 16 W from waste heat of 900 W, and that the power conversion efficiency was approximately 1.8%. Therefore, power generation is feasible by using the waste heat from the transformers based on thermoelectric technology.

  18. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  19. Superatom Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ΔT - array of fuel cooling paths - Heat capacity of fuel as heat sink - Air inlet drag limitations - Altitude - convection Power - No...rotating shaft - High electrical power requirements - Inlet air drag - Altitude – air breathing technologies • X-51 Waverider: Longest duration... deep vacuum deposition chamber •Used magnetron sputtering to deposit zinc and thermal evaporator to deposit C60 •Based on redox potentials of

  20. Material parameters for thermoelectric performance

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The thermoelectric performance of a thermoelement is ideally defined in terms of the so-called figure-of-merit = 2 / , where , and refer respectively to the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the thermoelement material. However, there are other parameters which are fairly good ...

  1. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng [Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States)

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  2. Metallization for Yb14MnSb11-Based Thermoelectric Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdosy, Samad; Li, Billy Chun-Yip; Ravi, Vilupanur; Sakamoto, Jeffrey; Caillat, Thierry; Ewell, Richard C.; Brandon, Erik J.

    2011-01-01

    Thermoelectric materials provide a means for converting heat into electrical power using a fully solid-state device. Power-generating devices (which include individual couples as well as multicouple modules) require the use of ntype and p-type thermoelectric materials, typically comprising highly doped narrow band-gap semiconductors which are connected to a heat collector and electrodes. To achieve greater device efficiency and greater specific power will require using new thermoelectric materials, in more complex combinations. One such material is the p-type compound semiconductor Yb14MnSb11 (YMS), which has been demonstrated to have one of the highest ZT values at 1,000 C, the desired operational temperature of many space-based radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Despite the favorable attributes of the bulk YMS material, it must ultimately be incorporated into a power-generating device using a suitable joining technology. Typically, processes such as diffusion bonding and/or brazing are used to join thermoelectric materials to the heat collector and electrodes, with the goal of providing a stable, ohmic contact with high thermal conductivity at the required operating temperature. Since YMS is an inorganic compound featuring chemical bonds with a mixture of covalent and ionic character, simple metallurgical diffusion bonding is difficult to implement. Furthermore, the Sb within YMS readily reacts with most metals to form antimonide compounds with a wide range of stoichiometries. Although choosing metals that react to form high-melting-point antimonides could be employed to form a stable reaction bond, it is difficult to limit the reactivity of Sb in YMS such that the electrode is not completely consumed at an operating temperature of 1,000 C. Previous attempts to form suitable metallization layers resulted in poor bonding, complete consumption of the metallization layer or fracture within the YMS thermoelement (or leg).

  3. Proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustakas, T.D.; Pankove, J.I.; Hamakawa, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of wide band gap semiconductors. Wide band gap semiconductors are under intense study because of their potential applications in photonic devices in the visible and ultraviolet part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and devices for high temperature, high frequency and high power electronics. Additionally, due to their unique mechanical, thermal, optical, chemical, and electronic properties many wide band gap semiconductors are anticipated to find applications in thermoelectric, electrooptic, piezoelectric and acoustooptic devices as well as protective coatings, hard coatings and heat sinks. Material systems covered in this symposium include diamond, II-VI compounds, III-V nitrides, silicon carbide, boron compounds, amorphous and microcrystalline semiconductors, chalcopyrites, oxides and halides. The various papers addressed recent experimental and theoretical developments. They covered issues related to crystal growth (bulk and thin films), structure and microstructure, defects, doping, optoelectronic properties and device applications. A theoretical session was dedicated to identifying common themes in the heteroepitaxy and the role of defects in doping, compensation and phase stability of this unique class of materials. Important experimental milestones included the demonstrations of bright blue injection luminescence at room temperatures from junctions based on III-V nitrides and a similar result from multiple quantum wells in a ZnSe double heterojunction at liquid nitrogen temperatures

  4. Phase transition enhanced thermoelectric figure-of-merit in copper chalcogenides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Brown

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available While thermoelectric materials can be used for solid state cooling, waste heat recovery, and solar electricity generation, low values of the thermoelectric figure of merit, zT, have led to an efficiency too low for widespread use. Thermoelectric effects are characterized by the Seebeck coefficient or thermopower, which is related to the entropy associated with charge transport. For example, coupling spin entropy with the presence of charge carriers has enabled the enhancement of zT in cobalt oxides. We demonstrate that the coupling of a continuous phase transition to carrier transport in Cu2Se over a broad (360–410 K temperature range results in a dramatic peak in thermopower, an increase in phonon and electron scattering, and a corresponding doubling of zT (to 0.7 at 406 K, and a similar but larger increase over a wider temperature range in the zT of Cu1.97Ag.03Se (almost 1.0 at 400 K. The use of structural entropy for enhanced thermopower could lead to new engineering approaches for thermoelectric materials with high zT and new green applications for thermoelectrics.

  5. Direct electronic measurement of Peltier cooling and heating in graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vera-Marun, I. J.; van den Berg, J. J.; Dejene, F. K.; van Wees, B. J.

    Thermoelectric effects allow the generation of electrical power from waste heat and the electrical control of cooling and heating. Remarkably, these effects are also highly sensitive to the asymmetry in the density of states around the Fermi energy and can therefore be exploited as probes of

  6. Riverine ecosystem services and the thermoelectric sector: strategic issues facing the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miara, A.; Vorosmarty, C. J.; Stewart, R.; Wollheim, W. M.; Rosenzweig, B.

    2013-12-01

    Major strategic issues facing the global thermoelectric sector include environmental regulation, climate change and increasing electricity demand. We have addressed such issues by modeling thermoelectric generation in the Northeastern United States that is reliant on cooling under five sensitivity tests to evaluate losses/gains in power production, thermal pollution and suitable aquatic habitat, comparing the contemporary baseline (2000-2010) with potential future states. Integral to the analysis, we developed a methodology to quantify river water availability for cooling, which we define as an ecosystem service. Projected climate conditions reduce river water available for efficient power plant operations and the river's capacity to absorb waste heat, causing a loss of regional thermoelectric generation (RTG) (2.5%) in some summers that, compared to the contemporary baseline, is equal to the summertime electricity consumption of 1.3 million Northeastern US homes. Vulnerabilities to warm temperatures and thermal pollution can be alleviated through the use of more efficient natural gas (NG) power plants that have a reduced reliance on cooling water. Conversion of once-through (OT) to cooling tower (CT) systems and the Clean Water Act (CWA) temperature limit regulation, both of which reduce efficiencies at the single plant level, show potential to yield beneficial increases in RTG. This is achieved by obviating the need for large volumes of river water, thereby reducing plant-to-plant interferences through lowering the impact of upstream thermal pollution and preserving a minimum standard of cooling water. The results and methodology framework presented here, which can be extrapolated to other regional assessments with contrasting climates and thermoelectric profiles, can identify opportunities and support decision-making to achieve more efficient energy systems and riverine ecosystem protection.

  7. Riverine ecosystem services and the thermoelectric sector: strategic issues facing the Northeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miara, Ariel; Vörösmarty, Charles J; Rosenzweig, Bernice; Stewart, Robert J; Wollheim, Wilfred M

    2013-01-01

    Major strategic issues facing the global thermoelectric sector include environmental regulation, climate change and increasing electricity demand. We have addressed such issues by modeling thermoelectric generation in the Northeastern United States that is reliant on cooling under five sensitivity tests to evaluate losses/gains in power production, thermal pollution and suitable aquatic habitat, comparing the contemporary baseline (2000–2010) with potential future states. Integral to the analysis, we developed a methodology to quantify river water availability for cooling, which we define as an ecosystem service. Projected climate conditions reduce river water available for efficient power plant operations and the river’s capacity to absorb waste heat, causing a loss of regional thermoelectric generation (RTG) (2.5%) in some summers that, compared to the contemporary baseline, is equal to the summertime electricity consumption of 1.3 million Northeastern US homes. Vulnerabilities to warm temperatures and thermal pollution can be alleviated through the use of more efficient natural gas (NG) power plants that have a reduced reliance on cooling water. Conversion of once-through (OT) to cooling tower (CT) systems and the Clean Water Act (CWA) temperature limit regulation, both of which reduce efficiencies at the single plant level, show potential to yield beneficial increases in RTG. This is achieved by obviating the need for large volumes of river water, thereby reducing plant-to-plant interferences through lowering the impact of upstream thermal pollution and preserving a minimum standard of cooling water. The results and methodology framework presented here, which can be extrapolated to other regional assessments with contrasting climates and thermoelectric profiles, can identify opportunities and support decision-making to achieve more efficient energy systems and riverine ecosystem protection. (letter)

  8. Semiconductor laser shearing interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming Hai; Li Ming; Chen Nong; Xie Jiaping

    1988-03-01

    The application of semiconductor laser on grating shearing interferometry is studied experimentally in the present paper. The method measuring the coherence of semiconductor laser beam by ion etching double frequency grating is proposed. The experimental result of lens aberration with semiconductor laser shearing interferometer is given. Talbot shearing interferometry of semiconductor laser is also described. (author). 2 refs, 9 figs

  9. Investigation of mesoporous structures for thermoelectric applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, A.; Carstensen, J.; Foell, H.; Boor, J.; Schmidt, V.

    2011-01-01

    Mesoporous silicon is an attractive material for thermoelectric application. For pore wall thicknesses around <100 nm, phonons can not penetrate the porous layer while electrons still can, due to there smaller mean free path length. The resulting good electrical and bad thermal conductivity is a premise for efficient thermoelectric devices. This paper presents results regarding homogeneity, high porosity, and optimal pore wall thicknesses for porous silicon based thermoelectric devices.

  10. Design and analysis of solar thermoelectric power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatcharasathien, Narong; Hirunlabh, Jongjit; Khedari, Joseph; Daguenet, Michel

    2005-09-01

    This article reports on the design and performance analysis of a solar thermoelectric power generation plant (STEPG). The system considers both truncated compound parabolic collectors (CPCs) with a flat receiver and conventional flat-plate collectors, thermoelectric (TE) cooling and power generator modules and appropriate connecting pipes and control devices. The design tool uses TRNSYS IIsibat-15 program with a new component we developed for the TE modules. The main input data of the system are the specifications of TE module, the maximum hot side temperature of TE modules, and the desired power output. Examples of the design using truncated CPC and flat-plate collectors are reported and discussed for various slope angle and half-acceptance angle of CPC. To minimize system cost, seasonal adjustment of the slope angle between 0° and 30° was considered, which could give relatively high power output under Bangkok ambient condition. Two small-scale STEPGs were built. One of them uses electrical heater, whereas the other used a CPC with locally made aluminum foil reflector. Measured data showed reasonable agreement with the model outputs. TE cooling modules were found to be more appropriate. Therefore, the TRNSYS software and the developed TE component offer an extremely powerful tool for the design and performance analysis of STEPG plant.

  11. Alkaline earth lead and tin compounds Ae2Pb, Ae2Sn, Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba, as thermoelectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parker and David J Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a detailed theoretical study of three alkaline earth compounds Ca2Pb, Sr2Pb and Ba2Pb, which have undergone little previous study, calculating electronic band structures and Boltzmann transport and bulk moduli using density functional theory. We also study the corresponding tin compounds Ca2Sn, Sr2Sn and Ba2Sn. We find that these are all narrow band gap semiconductors with an electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance, with substantial thermopowers for the lead compounds at temperature ranges from 300 to 800 K. For the lead compounds, we further find very low calculated bulk moduli—roughly half of the values for the lead chalcogenides, suggestive of soft phonons and hence low lattice thermal conductivity. All these facts indicate that these materials merit experimental investigation as potential high performance thermoelectrics. We find good potential for thermoelectric performance in the environmentally friendly stannide materials, particularly at high temperature.

  12. Alkaline earth lead and tin compounds Ae2Pb, Ae2Sn, Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba, as thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, David; Singh, David J

    2013-01-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study of three alkaline earth compounds Ca2Pb, Sr2Pb and Ba2Pb, which have undergone little previous study, calculating electronic band structures and Boltzmann transport and bulk moduli using density functional theory. We also study the corresponding tin compounds Ca2Sn, Sr2Sn and Ba2Sn. We find that these are all narrow band gap semiconductors with an electronic structure favorable for thermoelectric performance, with substantial thermopowers for the lead compounds at temperature ranges from 300 to 800 K. For the lead compounds, we further find very low calculated bulk moduli—roughly half of the values for the lead chalcogenides, suggestive of soft phonons and hence low lattice thermal conductivity. All these facts indicate that these materials merit experimental investigation as potential high performance thermoelectrics. We find good potential for thermoelectric performance in the environmentally friendly stannide materials, particularly at high temperature. PMID:27877610

  13. ELECTRONIC CIRCUIT BOARDS NON-UNIFORM COOLING SYSTEM MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Yevdulov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The paper considers a mathematical model of non-uniform cooling of electronic circuit boards. The block diagram of the system implementing this approach, the method of calculation of the electronic board temperature field, as well as the principle of its thermal performance optimizing are presented. In the considered scheme the main heat elimination from electronic board is produced by the radiator system, and additional cooling of the most temperature-sensitive components is produced by thermoelectric batteries. Are given the two-dimensional temperature fields of the electronic board during its uniform and non-uniform cooling, is carried out their comparison. As follows from the calculations results, when using a uniform overall cooling of electronic unit there is a waste of energy for the cooling 0f electronic board parts which temperature is within acceptable temperature range without the cooling system. This approach leads to the increase in the cooling capacity of used thermoelectric batteries in comparison with the desired values. This largely reduces the efficiency of heat elimination system. The use for electronic boards cooling of non-uniform local heat elimination removes this disadvantage. The obtained dependences show that in this case, the energy required to create a given temperature is smaller than when using a common uniform cooling. In this approach the temperature field of the electronic board is more uniform and the cooling is more efficient. 

  14. Investigation of Nanophase Materials for Thermoelectric Applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stokes, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    .... We have also made contributions to new, pressure-dependent thermoelectric transport measurement techniques and chemical techniques for creating ordered nanoparticle assemblies consisting of two different nanoparticle materials.

  15. Development of low grade waste heat thermoelectric power generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvit Punnachaiya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a 50 watt thermoelectric power generator using low grade waste heat as a heat source,in order to recover and utilize the excess heat in cooling systems of industrial processes and high activity radioisotope sources. Electricity generation was based on the reverse operation of a thermoelectric cooling (TEC device. The TEC devices weremodified and assembled into a set of thermal cell modules operating at a temperature less than 100°C. The developed powergenerator consisted of 4 modules, each generating 15 watts. Two cascade modules were connected in parallel. Each modulecomprised of 96 TEC devices, which were connected in series. The hot side of each module was mounted on an aluminumheat transfer pipe with dimensions 12.212.250 cm. Heat sinks were installed on the cold side with cooling fans to provideforced air cooling.To test electricity generation in the experiment, water steam was used as a heat source instead of low grade waste heat.The open-circuit direct current (DC of 250 V and the short-circuit current of 1.2 A was achieved with the following operatingconditions: a hot side temperature of 96°C and a temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of 25°C. The DC poweroutput was inverted to an AC power source of 220 V with 50 Hz frequency, which can continuously supply more than 50 wattsof power to a resistive load as long as the heat source was applied to the system. The system achieved an electrical conversionefficiency of about 0.47 percent with the capital cost of 70 US$/W.

  16. Analysis Of Power Characteristics Of Model Thermoelectric Generator TEG Small Modular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisman H. Mahmud

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectrically Generator TEG can generate electricity from the temperature difference between hot and cold at the junction thermoelectric module with two different semiconductor materials there will be a flow of current through the junction so as to produce a voltage. This principle uses the Seebeck effect thermoelectric generator as a base. By using these principles this research was conducted to determine the potential of the electric energy of the two peltier modules which would be an alternative source for mobile charger using heat from source of methylated. The focus in this research is the testing of the model TEG Thermoelectric Generator Small Modular to generate power with a variety of different materials of 4 namely Bi2Te3 Bismuth Telluride PbTe-Bite CMO and CMO Cascade-32-62S-32-62S Calcium Mangan oxide to use the cold side heat sink and a fan to simulate heat aluminum plate attached to the hot side of the TEG modules with heat source of methylated. Test results on the TEG Small Modular Model for mobile charger output voltage obtained from 2 pieces Bi2Te3 module Bismuth Telluride Peltier strung together a series of 3.01 Volt with amp916T of 22.7 C which produce power of 0.091 Watt.

  17. Enhanced thermoelectric efficiency via orthogonal electrical and thermal conductances in phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Ruixiang; Faghaninia, Alireza; Soklaski, Ryan; Yan, Jia-An; Lo, Cynthia; Yang, Li

    2014-11-12

    Thermoelectric devices that utilize the Seebeck effect convert heat flow into electrical energy and are highly desirable for the development of portable, solid state, passively powered electronic systems. The conversion efficiencies of such devices are quantified by the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT), which is proportional to the ratio of a device's electrical conductance to its thermal conductance. In this paper, a recently fabricated two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor called phosphorene (monolayer black phosphorus) is assessed for its thermoelectric capabilities. First-principles and model calculations reveal not only that phosphorene possesses a spatially anisotropic electrical conductance, but that its lattice thermal conductance exhibits a pronounced spatial-anisotropy as well. The prominent electrical and thermal conducting directions are orthogonal to one another, enhancing the ratio of these conductances. As a result, ZT may reach the criterion for commercial deployment along the armchair direction of phosphorene at T = 500 K and is close to 1 even at room temperature given moderate doping (∼2 × 10(16) m(-2) or 2 × 10(12) cm(-2)). Ultimately, phosphorene hopefully stands out as an environmentally sound thermoelectric material with unprecedented qualities. Intrinsically, it is a mechanically flexible material that converts heat energy with high efficiency at low temperatures (∼300 K), one whose performance does not require any sophisticated engineering techniques.

  18. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boernke, F.

    1975-01-01

    The need for the use of cooling systems in power plant engineering is dealt with from the point of view of a non-polluting form of energy production. The various cooling system concepts up to the modern natural-draught cooling towers are illustrated by examples. (TK/AK) [de

  19. Thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Chandra Kr., E-mail: ckparadise@gmail.com, E-mail: sharmarameshfgiet@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Dr. Shakuntala Misra National Rehabilitation University, Lucknow-229001, U.P India (India); Bhamu, K. C. [Department of Physics, Goa University, Goa-403 206 (India); Sharma, Ramesh, E-mail: ckparadise@gmail.com, E-mail: sharmarameshfgiet@gmail.com [Dept. of Physics, Feroze Gandhi Institute of Engineering & Technology, Raebareli-229001, U.P India (India)

    2016-05-06

    We have studied the structural stability, electronic structure, optical properties and thermoelectric properties of doped BaHfO{sub 3} by full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method. The electronic structure of BaHfO{sub 3} doped with Sr shows enhances the indirect band gaps of 3.53 eV, 3.58 eV. The charge density plots show strong ionic bonding in Ba-Hf, and ionic and covalent bonding between Hf and O. Calculations of the optical spectra, viz., the dielectric function, refractive index and extinction coefficient are performed for the energy range are calculated and analyzed. Thermoelectric properties of semi conducting are also reported first time. The doped BaHfO{sub 3} is approximately wide band gap semiconductor with the large p-type Seebeck coefficient. The power factor of BaHfO{sub 3} is increased with Sr doping, decreases because of low electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity.

  20. Thermoelectric effects of amorphous Ga-Sn-O thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Uenuma, Mutsunori; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-07-01

    The thermoelectric effects of an amorphous Ga-Sn-O (a-GTO) thin film have been evaluated as a physical parameter of a novel oxide semiconductor. Currently, a-GTO thin films are greatly desired not only because they do not contain rare metals and are therefore free from problems on the exhaustion of resources and the increase in cost but also because their initial characteristics and performance stabilities are excellent when they are used in thin-film transistors. In this study, an a-GTO thin film was deposited on a quartz substrate by RF magnetron sputtering and postannealing was performed in air at 350 °C for 1 h using an annealing furnace. The Seebeck coefficient and electrical conductivity of the a-GTO thin film were -137 µV/K and 31.8 S/cm at room temperature, and -183 µV/K and 43.8 S/cm at 397 K, respectively, and as a result, the power factor was 1.47 µW/(cm·K2) at 397 K; these values were roughly as high as those of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) thin films. Therefore, a-GTO thin films will be a candidate material for thermoelectric devices fabricated in a large area at a low cost by controlling the carrier mobility, carrier density, device structures, and so forth.

  1. Performance estimation of photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xuan, Yimin; Yang, Lili

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical model for evaluating the efficiency of concentrating PV–TE (photovoltaic–thermoelectric) hybrid system is developed in this paper. Hybrid systems with different photovoltaic cells are studied, including crystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, silicon thin-film photovoltaic cell, polymer photovoltaic cell and copper indium gallium selenide photovoltaic cell. The influence of temperature on the efficiency of photovoltaic cell has been taken into account based on the semiconductor equations, which reveals different efficiency temperature characteristic of polymer photovoltaic cells. It is demonstrated that the polycrystalline silicon thin-film photovoltaic cell is suitable for concentrating PV–TE hybrid system through optimization of the convection heat transfer coefficient and concentrating ratio. The polymer photovoltaic cell is proved to be suitable for non-concentrating PV–TE hybrid system. - Highlights: • Performances of four types of photovoltaic–thermoelectric hybrid systems are studied. • Temperature is one of dominant factors of affecting the conversion efficiency of PV–TE systems. • One can select a proper PV–TE assembly system according to given operating conditions

  2. Thermoelectric single-photon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzanyan, A A; Petrosyan, V A; Kuzanyan, A S

    2012-01-01

    The ability to detect a single photon is the ultimate level of sensitivity in the measurement of optical radiation. Sensors capable of detecting single photons and determining their energy have many scientific and technological applications. Kondo-enhanced Seebeck effect cryogenic detectors are based on thermoelectric heat-to-voltage conversion and voltage readout. We evaluate the prospects of CeB 6 and (La,Ce)B 6 hexaboride crystals for their application as a sensitive element in this type of detectors. We conclude that such detectors can register a single UV photon, have a fast count rate (up to 45 MHz) and a high spectral resolution of 0.1 eV. We calculate the electric potential generated along the thermoelectric sensor upon registering a UV single photon.

  3. Thermoelectric coolers as power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, E.J.; Buist, R.J.

    1984-01-01

    There are many applications where thermoelectric (TE) coolers can be used effectively as power generators. The literature available on this subject is scarce and very limited in scope. This paper describes the configuration, capability, limitations and performance of TE coolers to be used as power generators. Also presented are performance curves enabling the user to design the optimum TE module for any given power generation application

  4. Temperature-dependent thermal and thermoelectric properties of n -type and p -type S c1 -xM gxN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Bivas; Perez-Taborda, Jaime Andres; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Koh, Yee Rui; Shakouri, Ali; Martin-Gonzalez, Marisol; Sands, Timothy D.

    2018-02-01

    Scandium Nitride (ScN) is an emerging rocksalt semiconductor with octahedral coordination and an indirect bandgap. ScN has attracted significant attention in recent years for its potential thermoelectric applications, as a component material in epitaxial metal/semiconductor superlattices, and as a substrate for defect-free GaN growth. Sputter-deposited ScN thin films are highly degenerate n -type semiconductors and exhibit a large thermoelectric power factor of ˜3.5 ×10-3W /m -K2 at 600-800 K. Since practical thermoelectric devices require both n- and p-type materials with high thermoelectric figures-of-merit, development and demonstration of highly efficient p-type ScN is extremely important. Recently, the authors have demonstrated p-type S c1 -xM gxN thin film alloys with low M gxNy mole-fractions within the ScN matrix. In this article, we demonstrate temperature dependent thermal and thermoelectric transport properties, including large thermoelectric power factors in both n- and p-type S c1 -xM gxN thin film alloys at high temperatures (up to 850 K). Employing a combination of temperature-dependent Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity measurements, as well as detailed Boltzmann transport-based modeling analyses of the transport properties, we demonstrate that p-type S c1 -xM gxN thin film alloys exhibit a maximum thermoelectric power factor of ˜0.8 ×10-3W /m -K2 at 850 K. The thermoelectric properties are tunable by adjusting the M gxNy mole-fraction inside the ScN matrix, thereby shifting the Fermi energy in the alloy films from inside the conduction band in case of undoped n -type ScN to inside the valence band in highly hole-doped p -type S c1 -xM gxN thin film alloys. The thermal conductivities of both the n- and p-type films were found to be undesirably large for thermoelectric applications. Thus, future work should address strategies to reduce the thermal conductivity of S c1 -xM gxN thin-film alloys, without affecting

  5. Experimental nuclear thermoelectric assembly open-quotes Gammaclose quotes-a prototype of an unattended self-regulating nuclear thermoelectric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buinitskii, B.A.; Kaplar, E.P.; Kondrat'ev, F.V.; Leppik, P.A.; Nafikov, D.Ya.; Pavelko, V.I.; Rychev, A.S.; Tarasov, V.P.; Khlopkin, N.S.

    1993-01-01

    At the beginning of the seventies, the concept of building small atomic power stations with direct conversion of the thermal energy of a reactor for supplying electricity and heat to consumers located at remote and inaccessible regions was developed on the basis of assessment calculations and technical studies made in the I.V. Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy. When new technical solutions were adopted to put this concept into practice, combined trials on a test stand were required. For this purpose, the nuclear thermoelectric test-demonstration assembly open-quotes Gammaclose quotes was built and put into operation in 1981. It is based on the three principles which determine the development of unattended self-regulating nuclear thermoelectric stations: using a water-water reactor with self-regulation of the power as a source of heat; using a cooling system without pumps but with natural circulation of the coolant in the primary and intermediate circuits for removing the hend thermoelectric conversion of heat into electricity. During the ten years of operation of the open-quotes Gammaclose quotes assembly, a research program on the principles of unattended self-regulating nuclear thermoelectric stations was carried out and the results are summarized

  6. Thermoelectric behavior of conducting polymers: On the possibility of off-diagonal thermoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateeva, N; Niculescu, H; Schlenoff, J; Testardi, L

    1997-07-01

    Non-cubic materials, when structurally aligned, possess sufficient anisotropy to exhibit thermoelectric effects where the electrical and thermal currents are orthogonal (off-diagonal thermoelectricity). The authors discuss the benefits of this form of thermoelectricity for devices and describe a search for suitable properties in the air-stable conducting polymers polyaniline and polypyrrole. They find the simple and general correlation that the logarithm of the electrical conductivity scales linearly with the Seebeck coefficient on doping but with proportionality in excess of the conventional prediction for thermoelectricity. The correlation is unexpected in its universality and unfavorable for thermoelectric applications. A simple model suggests that mobile charges of both signs exist in these polymers, and this leads to reduced thermoelectric efficiency. They also briefly discuss non air-stable polyacetylene, where ambipolar transport does not appear to occur, and where properties seem more favorable for thermoelectricity.

  7. In situ neutron scattering study of nanostructured PbTe-PbS bulk thermoelectric material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Fei [Temple University; Schmidt, Robert D [ORNL; Case, Eldon D [Michigan State University, East Lansing; An, Ke [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Nanostructures play an important role in thermoelectric materials. Their thermal stability, such as phase change and evolution at elevated temperatures, is thus of great interest to the thermoelectric community. In this study, in situ neutron diffraction was used to examine the phase evolution of nanostructured bulk PbTe-PbS materials fabricated using hot pressing and pulsed electrical current sintering (PECS). The PbS second phase was observed in all samples in the as-pressed condition. The temperature dependent lattice parameter and phase composition data show an initial formation of PbS precipitates followed by a redissolution during heating. The redissolution process started around 570 600 K, and completed at approximately 780 K. During cooling, the PECS sample followed a reversible curve while the heating/cooling behavior of the hot pressed sample was irreversible.

  8. Enhancement of thermoelectric power factor of Sr2CoMoO6 double perovskite by annealing in reducing atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Khagesh; Saxena, Mandvi; Maiti, Tanmoy

    2017-10-01

    In general, n-type thermoelectric materials are rather difficult to design. This study particularly pivoted on designing potential environmentally benign oxides based n-type thermoelectric material. We synthesized Sr2CoMoO6 (SCMO) polycrystalline ceramics via the solid-state synthesis route. XRD, SEM, and thermoelectric measurements were carried out for phase constitution, microstructure analysis, and to determine its potential for thermoelectric applications. As-sintered SCMO sample showed an insulator like behavior till 640 °C after which it exhibited an n-type non-degenerate semiconductor behavior followed by a p-n type conduction switching. To stabilize a high temperature n-type behavior, annealing of SCMO in reducing atmosphere (H2) at 1000 °C was carried out. After annealing, the SCMO demonstrated an n-type semiconductor behavior throughout the temperature range of measurement. The electrical conductivity (σ) and the power factor (S2σ) were found to be increased manifold in the annealed SCMO double perovskite.

  9. Semiconductor nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marstein Erik Stensrud

    2003-07-01

    This thesis presents a study of two material systems containing semiconductor nanocrystals, namely porous silicon (PSi) films and germanium (Ge) nanocrystals embedded in silicon dioxide (SiO2) films. The PSi films were made by anodic etching of silicon (Si) substrates in an electrolyte containing hydrofluoric acid. The PSi films were doped with erbium (Er) using two different doping methods. electrochemical doping and doping by immersing the PSi films in a solution containing Er. The resulting Er concentration profiles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEN1) combined with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS). The main subject of the work on PSi presented in this thesis was investigating and comparing these two doping methods. Ge nanocrystals were made by implanting Ge ions into Si02 films that were subsequently annealed. However. nanocrystal formation occurred only for certain sets of processing parameters. The dependence of the microstructure of the Ge implanted Si02 films on the processing parameters were therefore investigated. A range of methods were employed for these investigations, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM) combined with EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). The observed structures, ranging from Ge nanocrystals to voids with diameters of several tens of nanometers and Ge rich Si02 films without any nanocrystals is described. A model explaining the void formation is also presented. For certain sets of processing parameters. An accumulation of Ge at the Si-Si02 interface was observed. The effect of this accumulation on the electrical properties of MOS structures made from Ge implanted SiO2 films was investigated using CV-measurements. (Author)

  10. METHOD OF PHYSIOTHERAPY MEDICAL PROCEDURES FOR THERMAL IMPACT ON SELECTED AREAS WITH HUMAN HANDS THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Sulin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The device for thermal impact on separate zones of a hand of the person executed on the basis of thermoelectric converters of energy is considered. The advantages consisting in high environmental friendliness, noiselessness, reliability, functionality, universality are noted it. The technique of carrying out medical (preventive physiotherapeutic procedures, the hands of the person consisting in contrast thermal impact on a site with various level of heating and cooling, and also lasting expositions is described.

  11. INTENSIFICATION OF HEAT TRANSFER FROM THE IC CHIP TO THE HEAT SINK THROUGH THE USE OF NANOFILM THERMOELECTRIC HEAT PUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Ismailov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the to enhance the efficiency the thermoelectric heat pump by making the branches of semiconductor p- and n-type as nanofilms and creating conditions for the emergence of additional thermoeffect between the hot and cold junctions of dissimilar metals that will create a more efficient heat pumps with small dimensions.

  12. A Flue Gas Tube for Thermoelectric Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The invention relates to a flue gas tube (FGT) (1) for generation of thermoelectric power having thermoelectric elements (8) that are integrated in the tube. The FTG may be used in combined heat and power (CHP) system (13) to produce directly electricity from waste heat from, e.g. a biomass boiler...

  13. Test system for thermoelectric modules and materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejtmánek, Jiří; Knížek, Karel; Švejda, V.; Horna, P.; Sikora, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 10 (2014), s. 3726-3732 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17538S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : thermoelectric power module * automatic thermoelectric testing setup * heat flow measurement * power generation * heat recovery Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.798, year: 2014

  14. Fundamentals of semiconductor devices

    CERN Document Server

    Lindmayer, Joseph

    1965-01-01

    Semiconductor properties ; semiconductor junctions or diodes ; transistor fundamentals ; inhomogeneous impurity distributions, drift or graded-base transistors ; high-frequency properties of transistors ; band structure of semiconductors ; high current densities and mechanisms of carrier transport ; transistor transient response and recombination processes ; surfaces, field-effect transistors, and composite junctions ; additional semiconductor characteristics ; additional semiconductor devices and microcircuits ; more metal, insulator, and semiconductor combinations for devices ; four-pole parameters and configuration rotation ; four-poles of combined networks and devices ; equivalent circuits ; the error function and its properties ; Fermi-Dirac statistics ; useful physical constants.

  15. P-type Al-doped Cr-deficient CrN thin films for thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Febvrier, Arnaud; Van Nong, Ngo; Abadias, Gregory; Eklund, Per

    2018-05-01

    Thermoelectric properties of chromium nitride (CrN)-based films grown on c-plane sapphire by dc reactive magnetron sputtering were investigated. In this work, aluminum doping was introduced in CrN (degenerate n-type semiconductor) by co-deposition. Under the present deposition conditions, over-stoichiometry in nitrogen (CrN1+δ) rock-salt structure is obtained. A p-type conduction is observed with nitrogen-rich CrN combined with aluminum doping. The Cr0.96Al0.04N1.17 film exhibited a high Seebeck coefficient and a sufficient power factor at 300 °C. These results are a starting point for designing p-type/n-type thermoelectric materials based on chromium nitride films, which are cheap and routinely grown on the industrial scale.

  16. Analytic modeling of a high temperature thermoelectric module for wireless sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, J E; Staaf, L G H; Palmqvist, A E C; Enoksson, P

    2014-01-01

    A novel high temperature thermoelectric module with thermoelectric materials never before combined in a module is currently researched. The module placement in the cooling channels of a jet engine where the cold side will be cooled by high flow cooling air (550° C) and the hot side will be at the wall (800° C). The aim of the project is to drastically reduce the length of the wires by replacing wired sensors with wireless sensors and power these (3-10mW) with thermoelectric harvesters. To optimize the design for the temperature range and the environment an analytic model was constructed. Using known models for this purpose was not possible for this project, as many of the models have too many assumptions, e.g. that the temperature gradient is relatively low, that thick electrodes with very low resistance can be used, that the heat transfer through the base plates are perfect or that the aim of the design is to maximize the efficiency. The analytical model in this paper is a combination of several known models with the aim to examine what materials to use in this specific environment to achieve the highest possible specific power (mW/g)

  17. Integration of Research for an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator and the Outer Flow Field of a Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, T.; Su, C. Q.; Deng, Y. D.; Wang, Y. P.

    2017-05-01

    The exhaust thermoelectric generator (TEG) can generate electric power from a car engine's waste heat. It is important to maintain a sufficient temperature difference across the thermoelectric modules. The radiator is connected to the cooling units of the thermoelectric modules and used to take away the heat from the TEG system. This paper focuses on the research for the integration of a TEG radiator and the flow field of the car chassis, aiming to cool the radiator by the high speed flow around the chassis. What is more, the TEG radiator is designed as a spoiler to optimize the flow field around the car chassis and even reduce the aerodynamic drag. Concentrating on the flow pressure of the radiator and the aerodynamic drag force, a sedan model with eight different schemes of radiator configurations are studied by computational fluid dynamics simulation. Finally, the simulation results indicate that a reasonable radiator configuration can not only generate high flow pressure to improve the cooling performance, which provides a better support for the TEG system, but also acts as a spoiler to reduce the aerodynamic drag force.

  18. Development of a hybrid refrigerator combining thermoelectric and vapor compression technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vian, J.G.; Astrain, D.

    2009-01-01

    A domestic refrigerator with three compartments has been developed: refrigerator compartment, at 4 deg. C (vapor compression cooling system); freezer compartment, at -22 deg. C (vapor compression cooling system); and a new super-conservation compartment, at 0 deg. C (thermoelectric cooling system). The thermoelectric system designed for the super-conservation compartment eliminates the oscillation of its temperature due to the start and stop compressor cycles, obtaining a constant temperature and thus, a better preservation of the food. For the design and optimization of this application, a computational model, based in the numerical method of finite differences, has been developed. This model allows to simulate the complete hybrid refrigerator (vapor compression-thermoelectricity). The accuracy of the model has been experimentally checked, with a maximum error of 1.2 deg. C for temperature values, and 8% for electric power consumption. By simulations with the computational model, the design of the refrigerator has been optimized, obtaining a final prototype highly competitive, by the features on food preservation and power consumption: 1.15 kW h per day (48.1 W) for an ambient temperature of 25 deg. C. According to European rules, this power consumption value means that this new refrigerator could be included on energy efficiency class B.

  19. semiconducting nanostructures: morphology and thermoelectric properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Mario; Torán, Raquel; Gómez, Clara M.; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-08-01

    Semiconducting metallic oxides, especially perosvkite materials, are great candidates for thermoelectric applications due to several advantages over traditionally metallic alloys such as low production costs and high chemical stability at high temperatures. Nanostructuration can be the key to develop highly efficient thermoelectric materials. In this work, La 1- x Ca x MnO 3 perosvkite nanostructures with Ca as a dopant have been synthesized by the hydrothermal method to be used in thermoelectric applications at room temperature. Several heat treatments have been made in all samples, leading to a change in their morphology and thermoelectric properties. The best thermoelectric efficiency has been obtained for a Ca content of x=0.5. The electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient are strongly related to the calcium content.

  20. Modeling, experiments and optimization of an on-pipe thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jie; Zuo, Lei; Wu, Yongjia; Klein, Jackson

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel design of on-pipe thermoelectric generator using heat pipe. • A heat pipe is used and increases power output by more than 6 times. • Detailed system level modeling on the heat transfer and energy conversion. • Lab-based experiments shows that system can harvest more than 2 W of energy. • An optimization towards the design indicates further improvement can be achieved. - Abstract: A thermoelectric energy harvester composed of two thermoelectric modules, a wicked copper-water heat pipe, and finned heat sinks has been designed, modeled, and tested. The harvester is proposed to power sensor nodes on heating/cooling, steam, or exhaust pipes like these in power stations, chemical plants and vehicle systems. A model to analyze the heat transfer and thermoelectric performance of the energy harvesting system has been developed and validated against experiments. The results show that the model predicts the system power output and temperature response with reasonable accuracy. The model developed in this paper can be adapted for use with general heat sink, heat pipe, and thermoelectric systems. The design, incorporating a heat pipe and two 1.1″ by 1.1″ Bi_2Te_3 modules generates 2.25 W ± 0.13 W power output with a temperature difference of 128 °C ± 1.12 °C and source temperature of 246 °C ± 1.9 °C, which is more than enough to operate wireless sensors or some actuators. The use of a heat pipe in this design increased the power output by 6 times over conventional designs. Based on the model, further improvement of the power output and energy harvesting efficiency of the system has been suggested by optimizing the number of thermoelectric modules.

  1. Maximum Efficiency of Thermoelectric Heat Conversion in High-Temperature Power Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Khvesyuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern trends in development of aircraft engineering go with development of vehicles of the fifth generation. The features of aircrafts of the fifth generation are motivation to use new high-performance systems of onboard power supply. The operating temperature of the outer walls of engines is of 800–1000 K. This corresponds to radiation heat flux of 10 kW/m2 . The thermal energy including radiation of the engine wall may potentially be converted into electricity. The main objective of this paper is to analyze if it is possible to use a high efficiency thermoelectric conversion of heat into electricity. The paper considers issues such as working processes, choice of materials, and optimization of thermoelectric conversion. It presents the analysis results of operating conditions of thermoelectric generator (TEG used in advanced hightemperature power devices. A high-temperature heat source is a favorable factor for the thermoelectric conversion of heat. It is shown that for existing thermoelectric materials a theoretical conversion efficiency can reach the level of 15–20% at temperatures up to 1500 K and available values of Ioffe parameter being ZT = 2–3 (Z is figure of merit, T is temperature. To ensure temperature regime and high efficiency thermoelectric conversion simultaneously it is necessary to have a certain match between TEG power, temperature of hot and cold surfaces, and heat transfer coefficient of the cooling system. The paper discusses a concept of radiation absorber on the TEG hot surface. The analysis has demonstrated a number of potentialities for highly efficient conversion through using the TEG in high-temperature power devices. This work has been implemented under support of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation; project No. 1145 (the programme “Organization of Research Engineering Activities”.

  2. Cryogenic semiconductor high-intensity radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieri, V.G.; Bell, W.H.; Borer, K.; Casagrande, L.; Da Via, C.; Devine, S.R.H.; Dezillie, B.; Esposito, A.; Granata, V.; Hauler, F.; Jungermann, L.; Li, Z.; Lourenco, C.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Shea, V. O'; Ruggiero, G.; Sonderegger, P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a novel technique to monitor high-intensity particle beams by means of a semiconductor detector. It consists of cooling a semiconductor detector down to cryogenic temperature to suppress the thermally generated leakage current and to precisely measure the integrated ionization signal. It will be shown that such a device provides very good linearity and a dynamic range wider than is possible with existing techniques. Moreover, thanks to the Lazarus effect, extreme radiation hardness can be achieved providing in turn absolute intensity measurements against precise calibration of the device at low beam flux

  3. Thermoelectric generators: A review of applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champier, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper reviews the state of the art of thermoelectric generators. • The latest thermoelectric modules are introduced. • Waste heat recovery in transport and industry with thermoelectric generators. • Domestic and industrial applications of thermoelectric generators. • Thermoelectric generators in space, micro-generation and solar conversion. - Abstract: In past centuries, men have mainly looked to increase their production of energy in order to develop their industry, means of transport and quality of life. Since the recent energy crisis, researchers and industrials have looked mainly to manage energy in a better way, especially by increasing energy system efficiency. This context explains the growing interest for thermoelectric generators. Today, thermoelectric generators allow lost thermal energy to be recovered, energy to be produced in extreme environments, electric power to be generated in remote areas and microsensors to be powered. Direct solar thermal energy can also be used to produce electricity. This review begins with the basic principles of thermoelectricity and a presentation of existing and future materials. Design and optimization of generators are addressed. Finally in this paper, we developed an exhaustive presentation of thermoelectric generation applications covering electricity generation in extreme environments, waste heat recovery in transport and industry, domestic production in developing and developed countries, micro-generation for sensors and microelectronics and solar thermoelectric generators. Many recent applications are presented, as well as the future applications which are currently being studied in research laboratories or in industry. The main purpose of this paper is to clearly demonstrate that, almost anywhere in industry or in domestic uses, it is worth checking whether a TEG can be added whenever heat is moving from a hot source to a cold source.

  4. Parametric analysis of temperature gradient across thermoelectric power generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Chahine

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a parametric analysis of power generation from thermoelectric generators (TEGs. The aim of the parametric analysis is to provide recommendations with respect to the applications of TEGs. To proceed, the one-dimensional steady-state solution of the heat diffusion equation is considered with various boundary conditions representing real encountered cases. Four configurations are tested. The first configuration corresponds to the TEG heated with constant temperature at its lower surface and cooled with a fluid at its upper surface. The second configuration corresponds to the TEG heated with constant heat flux at its lower surface and cooled with a fluid at its upper surface. The third configuration corresponds to the TEG heated with constant heat flux at its lower surface and cooled by a constant temperature at its upper surface. The fourth configuration corresponds to the TEG heated by a fluid at its lower surface and cooled by a fluid at its upper surface. It was shown that the most promising configuration is the fourth one and temperature differences up to 70˚C can be achieved at 150˚C heat source. Finally, a new concept is implemented based on configuration four and tested experimentally.

  5. Direct electronic measurement of Peltier cooling and heating in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Marun, I J; van den Berg, J J; Dejene, F K; van Wees, B J

    2016-05-10

    Thermoelectric effects allow the generation of electrical power from waste heat and the electrical control of cooling and heating. Remarkably, these effects are also highly sensitive to the asymmetry in the density of states around the Fermi energy and can therefore be exploited as probes of distortions in the electronic structure at the nanoscale. Here we consider two-dimensional graphene as an excellent nanoscale carbon material for exploring the interaction between electronic and thermal transport phenomena, by presenting a direct and quantitative measurement of the Peltier component to electronic cooling and heating in graphene. Thanks to an architecture including nanoscale thermometers, we detected Peltier component modulation of up to 15 mK for currents of 20 μA at room temperature and observed a full reversal between Peltier cooling and heating for electron and hole regimes. This fundamental thermodynamic property is a complementary tool for the study of nanoscale thermoelectric transport in two-dimensional materials.

  6. Spray cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollin, Philippe.

    1975-01-01

    Spray cooling - using water spraying in air - is surveyed as a possible system for make-up (peak clipping in open circuit) or major cooling (in closed circuit) of the cooling water of the condensers in thermal power plants. Indications are given on the experiments made in France and the systems recently developed in USA, questions relating to performance, cost and environmental effects of spray devices are then dealt with [fr

  7. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Oxides for Energy Harvesting Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Abutaha, Anas I.

    2015-11-24

    As the world strives to adapt to the increasing demand for electrical power, sustainable energy sources are attracting significant interest. Around 60% of energy utilized in the world is wasted as heat. Different industrial processes, home heating, and exhausts in cars, all generate a huge amount of unused waste heat. With such a huge potential, there is also significant interest in discovering inexpensive technologies for power generation from waste heat. As a result, thermoelectric materials have become important for many renewable energy research programs. While significant advancements have been done in improving the thermoelectric properties of the conventional heavy-element based materials (such as Bi2Te3 and PbTe), high-temperature applications of thermoelectrics are still limited to one materials system, namely SiGe, since the traditional thermoelectric materials degrade and oxidize at high temperature. Therefore, oxide thermoelectrics emerge as a promising class of materials since they can operate athigher temperatures and in harsher environments compared to non-oxide thermoelectrics. Furthermore, oxides are abundant and friendly to the environment. Among oxides, crystalline SrTiO3 and ZnO are promising thermoelectric materials. The main objective of this work is therefore to pursue focused investigations of SrTiO3 and ZnO thin films and superlattices grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD), with the goal of optimizing their thermoelectric properties by following different strategies. First, the effect of laser fluence on the thermoelectric properties of La doped epitaxial SrTiO3 films is discussed. Films grown at higher laser fluences exhibit better thermoelectric performance. Second, the role of crystal orientation in determining the thermoelectric properties of epitaxial Al doped ZnO (AZO) films is explained. Vertically aligned (c-axis) AZO films have superior thermoelectric properties compared to other films with different crystal orientations. Third

  8. Promising bulk nanostructured Cu2Se thermoelectrics via high throughput and rapid chemical synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tafti, Mohsen Y.; Ballikaya, Sedat; Khachatourian, Adrine Malek

    2016-01-01

    of Cu2Se were synthesized. Powder samples and compacted pellets have been characterized in detail for their structural, microstructural and transport properties. α to β phase transition of Cu2Se was confirmed using temperature dependent X-ray powder diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry...... truncated morphology. Through a detailed investigation of different parameters in the compaction process, such as applied load, heating rate, and cooling profiles, pellets with preserved nanostructured grains were obtained. An applied load during the controlled cooling profile was demonstrated to have a big...... impact on the final thermoelectric efficiency of the consolidated pellets. A very high thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) above 2 was obtained at 900 K for SPS-compacted Cu2Se nanopowders in the absence of the applied load during the controlled cooling step. The obtained ZT exceeds the state of the art...

  9. Augmented cooling vest system subassembly: Design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Angelo, Maurissa; D’Angelo, Joseph; Almajali, Mohammad; Lafdi, Khalid; Delort, Antoine; Elmansori, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermoelectric cooler (TEC) was employed to provide cooling air to cooling vest. • Aluminum cooling fins were used to exchange heat for hot and cold sides of TEC. • Performance of the system was determined and the experimental technique was described. • Heat sink is capable to remove additional heat and heat exchanger provides cooling air. • Future work is proposed to optimize the efficiency of the system. - Abstract: A prototype cooling engine consisting of thermoelectric coolers (TECs) was developed and designed. In this prototype, aluminum cooling fins were employed as the heat exchange method for both the hot and cold sides of the TEC. Aluminum fins were used to cool the ambient air through a heat exchanger and dissipate heat build up from the heat sink. This system was modeled and performance capabilities were determined. The experimental technique used to monitor parameters affecting the efficiency of the designed system was described. These parameters include the temperatures of the inlets and outlets of both heat exchanger and heat sink and the flow rate of the cooled air. The experiment was run under three input DC powers; 15 V, 18 V, and 21 V. As the power increased, both the flow rate and the temperature difference between the hot and cold side of thermoelectric cooler increased, demonstrating the heat sink capability to remove the additional heat. However, the temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger decreases as the power increase. The findings demonstrated the effectiveness of this cooling system and future work is proposed to optimize the heat

  10. Solid spectroscopy: semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, C.E.T.G. da

    1983-01-01

    Photoemission as technique of study of the semiconductor electronic structure is shortly discussed. Homogeneous and heterogeneous semiconductors, where volume and surface electronic structure, core levels and O and H chemisorption in GaAs, Schottky barrier are treated, respectively. Amorphous semiconductors are also discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Electronic structure and high thermoelectric properties of a new material Ba{sub 3}Cu{sub 20}Te{sub 13}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Gui, E-mail: kuiziyang@126.com [College of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan, 455000 (China); Wu, Jinghe [Department of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Henan Institute of Education, Zhengzhou, 450046 (China); Zhang, Jing; Ma, Dongwei [College of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Anyang Normal University, Anyang, Henan, 455000 (China)

    2016-09-05

    The electronic structure and high thermoelectric properties of Ba{sub 3}Cu{sub 20}Te{sub 13} are studied using first principles calculations and the semiclassical Boltzmann theory. The coexistence of ionic and covalent bonding in Ba{sub 3}Cu{sub 20}Te{sub 13} indicates that it is a Zintl phase compound. The calculated band structure shows that the compound is a semiconductor with an indirect band gap ∼0.45 eV, which is an appropriate band for the high thermoelectric performance. The transport calculations based on the electronic structure indicate that it exhibits relatively large Seebeck coefficients, high electrical conductivities, and high power factor. For Ba{sub 3}Cu{sub 20}Te{sub 13}, the n-type doping may achieve a higher thermoelectric performance than that of p-type doping. It is worth noting that the thermoelectric parameters of Ba{sub 3}Cu{sub 20}Te{sub 13} are comparable or larger than that of Ca{sub 5}Al{sub 2}Sb{sub 6}, a typical Zintl compound representative with high thermoelectric performance. - Highlights: • The electronic structure and thermoelectric(TE) properties are firstly studied. • The heavy and light bands near the Fermi level benefit TE properties. • The comparison indicates Ba{sub 3}Cu{sub 20}Te{sub 13} is a potential high TE material.

  12. High temperature thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.

    1986-01-01

    Considerable advances were made in the late '50's and early early '60's in the theory and development of materials for high-temperature thermoelectric energy conversion. This early work culminated in a variety of materials, spanning a range of temperatures, with the product of the figure of merit, Z, and temperature, T, i.e., the dimensionless figure of merit, ZT, of the order of one. This experimental limitation appeared to be universal and led a number of investigators to explore the possibility that a ZT - also represents a theoretical limitation. It was found not to be so

  13. Heat-transfer, inside of the ground heat-transfer units, from liquid, additionally cooling the oil-immersed transformer

    OpenAIRE

    Madyshev Ilnur; Dmitrieva Oksana; Dmitriev Andrey

    2017-01-01

    A device for cooling the oil-immersed transformer by means of thermoelectric transducers has been developed. Their operating principle is based on the fact that at night at minimum ambient temperature, the cold is accumulated inside of a vessel due to formation of water ice layer on the developed surfaces of thermoelectric transducers` ribs. Melting of this layer is used in the hottest time of a day for additional cooling of transformer oil in the cooling system of the transformer. Pre-coolin...

  14. Thermoelectric Energy Conversion: Materials, Devices, and Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present a discussion of challenges, progresses, and opportunities in thermoelectric energy conversion technology. We will start with an introduction to thermoelectric technology, followed by discussing advances in thermoelectric materials, devices, and systems. Thermoelectric energy conversion exploits the Seebeck effect to convert thermal energy into electricity, or the Peltier effect for heat pumping applications. Thermoelectric devices are scalable, capable of generating power from nano Watts to mega Watts. One key issue is to improve materials thermoelectric figure- of-merit that is linearly proportional to the Seebeck coefficient, the square of the electrical conductivity, and inversely proportional to the thermal conductivity. Improving the figure-of-merit requires good understanding of electron and phonon transport as their properties are often contradictory in trends. Over the past decade, excellent progresses have been made in the understanding of electron and phonon transport in thermoelectric materials, and in improving existing and identify new materials, especially by exploring nanoscale size effects. Taking materials to real world applications, however, faces more challenges in terms of materials stability, device fabrication, thermal management and system design. Progresses and lessons learnt from our effort in fabricating thermoelectric devices will be discussed. We have demonstrated device thermal-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency ∼10% and solar-thermoelectric generator efficiency at 4.6% without optical concentration of sunlight (Figure 1) and ∼8-9% efficiency with optical concentration. Great opportunities exist in advancing materials as well as in using existing materials for energy efficiency improvements and renewable energy utilization, as well as mobile applications. (paper)

  15. Numerical modeling of the thermoelectric cooler with a complementary equation for heat circulation in air gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, En; Wu, Xiaojie; Yu, Yuesen; Xiu, Junrui

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a numerical model is developed by combining thermodynamics with heat transfer theory. Taking inner and external multi-irreversibility into account, it is with a complementary equation for heat circulation in air gaps of a steady cooling system with commercial thermoelectric modules operating in refrigeration mode. With two modes concerned, the equation presents the heat flowing through air gaps which forms heat circulations between both sides of thermoelectric coolers (TECs). In numerical modelling, a TEC is separated as two temperature controlled constant heat flux reservoirs in a thermal resistance network. In order to obtain the parameter values, an experimental apparatus with a commercial thermoelectric cooler was built to characterize the performance of a TEC with heat source and sink assembly. At constant power dissipation, steady temperatures of heat source and both sides of the thermoelectric cooler were compared with those in a standard numerical model. The method displayed that the relationship between Φf and the ratio Φ_{c}'/Φ_{c} was linear as expected. Then, for verifying the accuracy of proposed numerical model, the data in another system were recorded. It is evident that the experimental results are in good agreement with simulation(proposed model) data at different heat transfer rates. The error is small and mainly results from the instabilities of thermal resistances with temperature change and heat flux, heat loss of the device vertical surfaces and measurements.

  16. A comparison of micro-structured flat-plate and cross-cut heat sinks for thermoelectric generation application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezania, Alireza; Rosendahl, L. A.

    2015-01-01

    . In this study, a micro-structured plate-fin heat sink is compared to a modified design of cross-cut heat sink applied to TEGs over a range of temperatures and thermal conductivities. The particular focus of this study is to explore the net power output from the TEG module. The three-dimensional governing...... equations for the flow and heat transfer are solved using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) in conjunction with the thermoelectric characteristics of the TEG over a wide range of flow inlet velocities. The results show that at small flow inlet velocity, the maximum net power output in TEG with plate......Heat sink configuration has strong impact on net power output from thermoelectric generators (TEGs). A weak cooling strategy can even cause negative net power output from the thermoelectric device. However, the net power output can be significantly improved by optimal design of the heat sink...

  17. Thermoelectricity an introduction to the principles

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, D K C

    2006-01-01

    This introductory treatment provides an understanding of the fundamental concepts and principles involved in the study of thermoelectricity in solids and of conduction in general. Aimed at graduate-level students and those interested in basic theory, it will be especially valuable to experimental physicists working in fields connected with electron transport and to theoreticians seeking a survey of thermoelectricity and related questions.Chronicling the early history of thermoelectricity from its discovery to modern times, this text features a considerable amount of experimental data and discu

  18. Thermoelectric power and topological transitions in quasi-two-dimensional electronic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanter, Ya.M.; Pantsulaya, A.V.; Varlamov, A.A.

    1991-05-01

    Electron-impurity relaxation time and the thermoelectric power (TEP) of quasi-two-dimensional electron gas are calculated. Two cases are discussed: the isotropic spectrum and the electronic topological transition (ETT) of the ''neck-breaking'' type. Methods of thermal diagramatic technique are used for the calculation. It is found that the TEP in the vicinity of the ETT greatly exceeds its background value. The results of experimental investigations of the TEP in the metal-oxide-semiconductor structures are compared with the predictions of the proposed theory. (author). 17 refs, 5 figs

  19. Thermal resistance analysis and optimization of photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Ershuai; Li, Qiang; Xuan, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed thermal resistance analysis of the PV-TE hybrid system is proposed. • c-Si PV and p-Si PV cells are proved to be inapplicable for the PV-TE hybrid system. • Some criteria for selecting coupling devices and optimal design are obtained. • A detailed process of designing the practical PV-TE hybrid system is provided. - Abstract: The thermal resistance theory is introduced into the theoretical model of the photovoltaic-thermoelectric (PV-TE) hybrid system. A detailed thermal resistance analysis is proposed to optimize the design of the coupled system in terms of optimal total conversion efficiency. Systems using four types of photovoltaic cells are investigated, including monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, polycrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell, amorphous silicon photovoltaic cell and polymer photovoltaic cell. Three cooling methods, including natural cooling, forced air cooling and water cooling, are compared, which demonstrates a significant superiority of water cooling for the concentrating photovoltaic-thermoelectric hybrid system. Influences of the optical concentrating ratio and velocity of water are studied together and the optimal values are revealed. The impacts of the thermal resistances of the contact surface, TE generator and the upper heat loss thermal resistance on the property of the coupled system are investigated, respectively. The results indicate that amorphous silicon PV cell and polymer PV cell are more appropriate for the concentrating hybrid system. Enlarging the thermal resistance of the thermoelectric generator can significantly increase the performance of the coupled system using amorphous silicon PV cell or polymer PV cell.

  20. Modeling and simulation of thermoelectric device working as a heat pump and an electric generator under Mediterranean climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Nimr, Moh'd A.; Tashtoush, Bourhan M.; Jaradat, Ahmad A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study of a small thermoelectric device used primarily as a heat pump and secondarily as an electricity generator when space heating and cooling are not required and incident solar radiation is sufficient. As a power generator, the thermoelectric device is integrated with an evacuated solar collector to utilize solar power. Performance of the thermoelectric device as a heat pump and as an electric generator is simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The purpose of this study is to estimate the energy savings from using the thermoelectric device in its electricity generation mode. The potential of energy saving because of this electricity generation mode function, has been examined in three different cases. These cases represent the operation of the dual mode thermoelectric system in typical home, school and office buildings in the Mediterranean region. In addition, the effects of different parameters, such as the solar radiation and ambient conditions, on the device performance were investigated for both modes as well as parameters related to the device itself. Furthermore, hours of operation were estimated and the economic feasibility of the device was evaluated. Results of this study include performance curves of the thermoelectric device in both modes as well as the estimation of the payback period for Mediterranean regions. - Highlights: • A thermoelectric device in dual mode integrated with an evacuated tube is studied. • The device is used as a heat pump and as an electricity generator. • Performance curves describing the behavior of the system have been resulted. • Energy saving by the system are calculated and presented for a period of one year. • Economic analysis of the system has been included.

  1. Geometric Optimization of Thermo-electric Coolers Using Simulated Annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanh, D V K; Vasant, P M; Elamvazuthi, I; Dieu, V N

    2015-01-01

    The field of thermo-electric coolers (TECs) has grown drastically in recent years. In an extreme environment as thermal energy and gas drilling operations, TEC is an effective cooling mechanism for instrument. However, limitations such as the relatively low energy conversion efficiency and ability to dissipate only a limited amount of heat flux may seriously damage the lifetime and performance of the instrument. Until now, many researches were conducted to expand the efficiency of TECs. The material parameters are the most significant, but they are restricted by currently available materials and module fabricating technologies. Therefore, the main objective of finding the optimal TECs design is to define a set of design parameters. In this paper, a new method of optimizing the dimension of TECs using simulated annealing (SA), to maximize the rate of refrigeration (ROR) was proposed. Equality constraint and inequality constraint were taken into consideration. This work reveals that SA shows better performance than Cheng's work. (paper)

  2. Small-Scale Pellet Boiler with Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Wilhelm; Friedl, Guenther; Haslinger, Walter [Austrian Bioenergy Centre GmbH, Wieselburg (Austria); Hofbauer, Hermann [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-07-15

    Pellet burners need auxiliary electrical power to provide CO{sub 2}-balanced heat in a comfortable and environment-friendly way. The idea is to produce this and some extra electricity within the furnace in order to save resources and to gain operation reliability and independency. Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) allow the direct conversion of heat to electrical power to a certain extent. They have the advantages of a maintenance-free long life and soundless operation without moving parts or any working fluid. A novel kind of decentralised small-scale biomass-based combined heat and power generation will be developed. The basic system allows grid-independent operation of automatically running biomass furnaces including fuel delivery from storage and circulating the cooling respectively heating water or air. The advanced system also provides electricity for network supply or for other electrical devices and is an additional benefit.

  3. Recent Progress on PEDOT-Based Thermoelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qingshuo; Mukaida, Masakazu; Kirihara, Kazuhiro; Naitoh, Yasuhisa; Ishida, Takao

    2015-02-16

    The thermoelectric properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT)-based materials have attracted attention recently because of their remarkable electrical conductivity, power factor, and figure of merit. In this review, we summarize recent efforts toward improving the thermoelectric properties of PEDOT-based materials. We also discuss thermoelectric measurement techniques and several unsolved problems with the PEDOT system such as the effect of water absorption from the air and the anisotropic thermoelectric properties. In the last part, we describe our work on improving the power output of thermoelectric modules by using PEDOT, and we outline the potential applications of polymer thermoelectric generators.

  4. Review on Polymers for Thermoelectric Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Culebras

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we report the state-of-the-art of polymers in thermoelectricity. Classically, a number of inorganic compounds have been considered as the best thermoelectric materials. Since the prediction of the improvement of the figure of merit by means of electronic confinement in 1993, it has been improved by a factor of 3–4. In the mean time, organic materials, in particular intrinsically conducting polymers, had been considered as competitors of classical thermoelectrics, since their figure of merit has been improved several orders of magnitude in the last few years. We review here the evolution of the figure of merit or the power factor during the last years, and the best candidates to compete with inorganic materials. We also outline the best polymers to substitute classical thermoelectric materials and the advantages they present in comparison with inorganic systems.

  5. Flexible Thermoelectric Generators on Silicon Fabric

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, the development of a Thermoelectric Generator on Flexible Silicon Fabric is explored to extend silicon electronics for flexible platforms. Low cost, easily deployable plastic based flexible electronics are of great interest for smart

  6. Review on Polymers for Thermoelectric Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, Mario; Gómez, Clara M; Cantarero, Andrés

    2014-09-18

    In this review, we report the state-of-the-art of polymers in thermoelectricity. Classically, a number of inorganic compounds have been considered as the best thermoelectric materials. Since the prediction of the improvement of the figure of merit by means of electronic confinement in 1993, it has been improved by a factor of 3-4. In the mean time, organic materials, in particular intrinsically conducting polymers, had been considered as competitors of classical thermoelectrics, since their figure of merit has been improved several orders of magnitude in the last few years. We review here the evolution of the figure of merit or the power factor during the last years, and the best candidates to compete with inorganic materials. We also outline the best polymers to substitute classical thermoelectric materials and the advantages they present in comparison with inorganic systems.

  7. Effective thermal conductivity in thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baranowski, LL; Snyder, GJ; Toberer, ES

    2013-05-28

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from a temperature gradient. Optimizing these devices for maximum power production can be difficult due to the many heat transport mechanisms occurring simultaneously within the TEG. In this paper, we develop a model for heat transport in thermoelectric materials in which an "effective thermal conductivity" (kappa(eff)) encompasses both the one dimensional steady-state Fourier conduction and the heat generation/consumption due to secondary thermoelectric effects. This model is especially powerful in that the value of kappa(eff) does not depend upon the operating conditions of the TEG but rather on the transport properties of the TE materials themselves. We analyze a variety of thermoelectric materials and generator designs using this concept and demonstrate that kappa(eff) predicts the heat fluxes within these devices to 5% of the exact value. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  8. Thermal and electrical performance of a hybrid design of a solar-thermoelectric system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, K.S.; Naghavi, M.S.; Lim, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hybrid solar-thermoelectric system studied under outdoor conditions. • Electrical output voltage and hot water temperatures peaked around 15.30. • Total electrical efficiency was very low, about 0.16% at around 15.30 h. - Abstract: An evacuated tube heat pipe solar collector was fitted with four thermoelectric modules and four water cooling jackets on the condenser side to produce electricity and hot water simultaneously. Each cooling jacket had six mini water-flow channels inside it. Solar heat was absorbed and collected by the evaporator section. Experiments were conducted under outdoor environment with various water coolant flow rates. Once-through coolant water flow was adopted as a first step. Further investigations would be conducted to incorporate an insulated hot water storage tank to evaluate the system economic viability as a power producer and hot water generator. Temperatures were recorded along the evaporator and condenser sections of the heat pipe, thermoelectric junction temperatures and inlet/outlet water channels. This paper presents the experimental results obtained. Typical daily experimental results showed that electrical output voltage and hot water temperatures peaked around 15.30 before decreasing towards the evening. Total electrical efficiency was very low, about 0.16% at around 15.30 h.

  9. Performance Analysis of a Thermoelectric Solar Collector Integrated with a Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lertsatitthanakorn, C.; Jamradloedluk, J.; Rungsiyopas, M.; Therdyothin, A.; Soponronnarit, S.

    2013-07-01

    A novel heat pump system is proposed. A thermoelectric solar collector was coupled to a solar-assisted heat pump (TESC-HP) to work as an evaporator. The cooling effect of the system's refrigerant allowed the cold side of the system's thermoelectric modules to work at lower temperature, improving the conversion efficiency. The TESC-HP system mainly consisted of transparent glass, an air gap, an absorber plate that acted as a direct expansion-type collector/evaporator, an R-134a piston-type hermetic compressor, a water-cooled plate-type condenser, thermoelectric modules, and a water storage tank. Test results indicated that the TESC-HP has better coefficient of performance (COP) and conversion efficiency than the separate units. For the meteorological conditions in Mahasarakham, the COP of the TESC-HP system can reach 5.48 when the average temperature of 100 L of water is increased from 28°C to 40°C in 60 min with average ambient temperature of 32.5°C and average solar intensity of 815 W/m2, whereas the conversion efficiency of the TE power generator was around 2.03%.

  10. Ventilative Cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Kolokotroni, Maria

    This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state-of-the-art of ventil......This report, by venticool, summarises the outcome of the work of the initial working phase of IEA ECB Annex 62 Ventilative Cooling and is based on the findings in the participating countries. It presents a summary of the first official Annex 62 report that describes the state......-of-the-art of ventilative cooling potentials and limitations, its consideration in current energy performance regulations, available building components and control strategies and analysis methods and tools. In addition, the report provides twenty six examples of operational buildings using ventilative cooling ranging from...

  11. A thermoelectric cap for seafloor hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a thermoelectric cap (TC) to harvest hydrothermal energy. • The TC was deployed at a hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, Taiwan. • The TC monitored the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the field test. • The TC could make the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids a viable power source. - Abstract: Long-term in situ monitoring is crucial to seafloor scientific investigations. One of the challenges of operating sensors in seabed is the lifespan of the sensors. Such sensors are commonly powered by batteries when other alternatives, such as tidal or solar energy, are unavailable. However, the batteries have a limited lifespan and must be recharged or replaced periodically, which is costly and impractical. A thermoelectric cap, which harvests the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids through a conduction pipe and converts the heat to electrical energy by using thermoelectric generators, was developed to avoid these inconveniences. The thermoelectric cap was combined with a power and temperature measurement system that enables the thermoelectric cap to power a light-emitting diode lamp, an electronic load (60 Ω), and 16 thermocouples continuously. The thermoelectric cap was field tested at a shallow hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan. By using the thermal gradient between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, the thermoelectric cap obtained a sustained power of 0.2–0.5 W during the field test. The thermoelectric cap successfully powered the 16 thermocouples and recorded the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the entire field test. Our results show that the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids can be an alternative renewable power source for oceanographic research.

  12. Thermoelectric nanomaterials materials design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-01-01

    Presently, there is an intense race throughout the world to develop good enough thermoelectric materials which can be used in wide scale applications. This book focuses comprehensively on very recent up-to-date breakthroughs in thermoelectrics utilizing nanomaterials and methods based in nanoscience. Importantly, it provides the readers with methodology and concepts utilizing atomic scale and nanoscale materials design (such as superlattice structuring, atomic network structuring and properties control, electron correlation design, low dimensionality, nanostructuring, etc.). Furthermore, also

  13. Semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices on {110} oriented substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2014-08-05

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices on {110} textured substrates are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  14. [100] or [110] aligned, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit

    2015-03-24

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, large-area, [100] or [110] textured, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  15. {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100}, semiconductor-based, large-area, flexible, electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Amit [Knoxville, TN

    2012-05-15

    Novel articles and methods to fabricate the same resulting in flexible, {100} or 45.degree.-rotated {100} oriented, semiconductor-based, electronic devices are disclosed. Potential applications of resulting articles are in areas of photovoltaic devices, flat-panel displays, thermophotovoltaic devices, ferroelectric devices, light emitting diode devices, computer hard disc drive devices, magnetoresistance based devices, photoluminescence based devices, non-volatile memory devices, dielectric devices, thermoelectric devices and quantum dot laser devices.

  16. Semiconductor apparatus and method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor apparatus (1) and a method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus (1), wherein the semiconductor apparatus (1) comprises a semiconductor layer (2) and a passivation layer (3), arranged on a surface of the semiconductor layer (2), for passivating the

  17. Temperature control of power semiconductor devices in traction applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugachev, A. A.; Strekalov, N. N.

    2017-02-01

    The peculiarity of thermal management of traction frequency converters of a railway rolling stock is highlighted. The topology and the operation principle of the automatic temperature control system of power semiconductor modules of the traction frequency converter are designed and discussed. The features of semiconductors as an object of temperature control are considered; the equivalent circuit of thermal processes in the semiconductors is suggested, the power losses in the two-level voltage source inverters are evaluated and analyzed. The dynamic properties and characteristics of the cooling fan induction motor electric drive with the scalar control are presented. The results of simulation in Matlab are shown for the steady state of thermal processes.

  18. Changes in the thermoelectric response of vitreous carbon due to the irradiation by γ-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culebras, M.; Madroñero, A.; Mota, C.; Gómez, C. M.; Amo, Jose M.; Cantarero, A.

    2014-07-01

    In order to study variations in the thermoelectric properties, some commercial glassy carbon samples were subjected to a sequence of steps consisting of a combination of irradiation with γ-rays produced by radioisotopes 60Co, and hydrogen adsorption when the samples were put in an over pressured atmosphere of this gas. With this procedure it was possible to observe that the irradiation decreases the electrical conductivity of glassy carbon samples and the hydrogenation changes the sign of Seebeck coefficient. The material initially is an n-type semiconductor, but with hydrogenation changes to p-type semiconductor. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the hydrogenated vitreous carbon is more amorphous than the pristine material and the γ-rays irradiation produces changes in the crystallite size and shape.

  19. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  20. Semiconductor Physical Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Sheng

    2006-01-01

    Semiconductor Physical Electronics, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of fundamental semiconductor physics that is essential to an understanding of the physical and operational principles of a wide variety of semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. This text presents a unified and balanced treatment of the physics, characterization, and applications of semiconductor materials and devices for physicists and material scientists who need further exposure to semiconductor and photonic devices, and for device engineers who need additional background on the underlying physical principles. This updated and revised second edition reflects advances in semicondutor technologies over the past decade, including many new semiconductor devices that have emerged and entered into the marketplace. It is suitable for graduate students in electrical engineering, materials science, physics, and chemical engineering, and as a general reference for processing and device engineers working in the semicondi...

  1. Interfacial reactions in thermoelectric modules

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Hsin-jay

    2018-02-21

    Engineering transport properties of thermoelectric (TE) materials leads to incessantly breakthroughs in the zT values. Nevertheless, modular design holds a key factor to advance the TE technology. Herein, we discuss the structures of TE module and illustrate the inter-diffusions across the interface of constituent layers. For Bi2Te3-based module, soldering is the primary bonding method, giving rise to the investigations on the selections of solder, diffusion barrier layer and electrode. For mid-temperature PbTe-based TE module, hot-pressing or spark plasma sintering are alternative bonding approaches; the inter-diffusions between the diffusion barrier layer, electrode and TE substrate are addressed as well.

  2. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits

  3. The development of a thermoelectric power generator dedicated to stove-fireplaces with heat accumulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sornek, Krzysztof; Filipowicz, Mariusz; Rzepka, Kamila

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of thermoelectric generators in the stove-fireplace with accumulation. • Construction of the thermoelectric generator is limited by the heat accumulation. • Variants of the heat exchanger’s construction are discussed. • The control method is related on velocity of flue gas and water cooling. • The power limit of 30 W for self-sufficient operation is sufficient. - Abstract: A significant part of the world’s population (about 40%) cooks their meals and provides heating for their homes using wood-burning heating devices. Due to the relatively low cost of fuel and their aesthetic design, solid fuel stoves capable of heat accumulation are convenient and common. The use of dedicated small-scale power generators provides also additional benefits. This paper presents the results of a study conducted to verify the possibility of generating power using stove-fireplaces with heat accumulation systems. In such units, the temperature of the flue gas should be kept at a certain level for the purposes of storing heat, which results from certain limitations of the thermoelectric generators. To verify the possibility of applying thermoelectric modules in such heating devices, a dedicated system with thermoelectric generators was selected from among various microcogeneration systems and implemented. Three types of heat exchangers were studied and the most efficient unit was selected for further testing. Two types of generators, with maximum operating temperatures of 320 and 175 °C, were compared. Subsequently, the characteristics of the latter were determined. The conducted tests allowed to determine the performance and the total efficiency of the generators that were used. It has been demonstrated that the maximum power of the generator would not exceed ca. 30 W e and that there is no economic justification for such a device. However, providing a self-powered and self-sufficient operation of stove-fireplaces with heat accumulation systems

  4. Dry cooling with night cool storage to enhance solar power plants performance in extreme conditions areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, J.; Martínez-Val, J.M.; Abbas, R.; Abánades, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar thermo-electric power plants with thermal storage for condenser cooling. ► Technology to mitigate the negative effect on Rankine cycles of the day-time high temperatures in deserts. ► Electricity production augmentation in demand-peak hours by the use of day-night temperature difference. -- Abstract: Solar thermal power plants are usually installed in locations with high yearly average solar radiation, often deserts. In such conditions, cooling water required for thermodynamic cycles is rarely available. Moreover, when solar radiation is high, ambient temperature is very high as well; this leads to excessive condensation temperature, especially when air-condensers are used, and decreases the plant efficiency. However, temperature variation in deserts is often very high, which drives to relatively low temperatures during the night. This fact can be exploited with the use of a closed cooling system, so that the coolant (water) is chilled during the night and store. Chilled water is then used during peak temperature hours to cool the condenser (dry cooling), thus enhancing power output and efficiency. The present work analyzes the performance improvement achieved by night thermal cool storage, compared to its equivalent air cooled power plant. Dry cooling is proved to be energy-effective for moderately high day–night temperature differences (20 °C), often found in desert locations. The storage volume requirement for different power plant efficiencies has also been studied, resulting on an asymptotic tendency.

  5. Modeling and Simulations on the Intramural Thermoelectric Generator of Lower-Re-fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zheng; Zheng, Ding; Chen, Yushan

    The thermoelectric conversion with lower Renault number (Re) fluid, such as waste heat from industry boiler, and engine's circled cooling water, which can be designed as intramural generator structure. In this research, a thermoelectric project analysis model and the description of an intensified system are presented, its generator with the aligned or staggered platoon structure has strengthened heat-transfer property, and the heat convection coefficient ratio has increased times than plain tube; For the fluid kinetic energy's loss is influenced by the whirlpool, the pressure difference is several hundred Pa level which changes along with geometric parameters of transform components; what's more, heat transfer area increase distinctly under the same generator volume, which has built the foundation for the enhancement output electric power.

  6. Optimal Integration of Cascade Thermoelectric Cooler into Electronic Housing: Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeniuk, V.; Protsenko, D.

    2018-06-01

    The problem of the optimal integration of thermoelectrically cooled optoelectronic components into an electronic housing is studied with the emphasis on practical implementation. The lines of 2-stage and 3-stage thermoelectric coolers (TECs) compatible with TO8 housing have been developed, and their parameters are measured in a wide range of heat sink temperatures. The TECs are optimized to receive a temperature difference of 100-110 K under a heat load from 70 mW to 100 mW with minimal power consumption. To fit into a standard housing interior, all the TECs have the same overall dimensions, regardless of the number of stages. Details of the TEC configurations and their performance characteristics are presented and discussed.

  7. Thermoelectric detection of spherical tin inclusions in copper by magnetic sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreon, Hector; Nagy, Peter B.; Nayfeh, Adnan H.

    2000-01-01

    Inclusions and other types of imperfections in metals can be nondestructively detected by noncontacting magnetic measurements that sense the thermoelectric currents around such flaws when the specimen is subjected to directional heating and cooling. This article presents experimental data for the magnetic field produced by thermoelectric currents around surface-breaking spherical tin inclusions in copper under external thermal excitation for different lift-off distances between the sensor and the surface of the specimen. The diameter of the inclusions and the lift-off distance varied from 2.4 to 12.7 mm and from 12 to 20 mm, respectively. A fairly modest 0.7 o C/cm temperature gradient in the specimen produced peak magnetic flux densities ranging from 1 to 250 nT. These results were found to be in good agreement with recently published theoretical predictions [P. B. Nagy and A. H. Nayfeh, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 7481 (2000)

  8. Contacts to semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tove, P.A.

    1975-08-01

    Contacts to semiconductors play an important role in most semiconductor devices. These devices range from microelectronics to power components, from high-sensitivity light or radiation detectors to light-emitting of microwave-generating components. Silicon is the dominating material but compound semiconductors are increasing in importance. The following survey is an attempt to classify contact properties and the physical mechanisms involved, as well as fabrication methods and methods of investigation. The main interest is in metal-semiconductor type contacts where a few basic concepts are dealt with in some detail. (Auth.)

  9. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  10. Simulating the Water Use of Thermoelectric Power Plants in the United States: Model Development and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betrie, G.; Yan, E.; Clark, C.

    2016-12-01

    Thermoelectric power plants use the highest amount of freshwater second to the agriculture sector. However, there is scarcity of information that characterizes the freshwater use of these plants in the United States. This could be attributed to the lack of model and data that are required to conduct analysis and gain insights. The competition for freshwater among sectors will increase in the future as the amount of freshwater gets limited due climate change and population growth. A model that makes use of less data is urgently needed to conduct analysis and identify adaptation strategies. The objectives of this study are to develop a model and simulate the water use of thermoelectric power plants in the United States. The developed model has heat-balance, climate, cooling system, and optimization modules. It computes the amount of heat rejected to the environment, estimates the quantity of heat exchanged through latent and sensible heat to the environment, and computes the amount of water required per unit generation of electricity. To verify the model, we simulated a total of 876 fossil-fired, nuclear and gas-turbine power plants with different cooling systems (CS) using 2010-2014 data obtained from Energy Information Administration. The CS includes once-through with cooling pond, once-through without cooling ponds, recirculating with induced draft and recirculating with induced draft natural draft. The results show that the model reproduced the observed water use per unit generation of electricity for the most of the power plants. It is also noticed that the model slightly overestimates the water use during the summer period when the input water temperatures are higher. We are investigating the possible reasons for the overestimation and address it in the future work. The model could be used individually or coupled to regional models to analyze various adaptation strategies and improve the water use efficiency of thermoelectric power plants.

  11. Model Thermoelectric Generator TEG Small Modular As Micro Electricity Plant At Indonesia Part 1 Design And Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kisman M. Mahmud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermoelectrically Generator TEG can generate electricity from the temperature difference between hot and cold at the junction thermoelectric module with two different semiconductor materials there will be a flow of current through the junction so as to produce a voltage. This principle uses the Seebeck effect thermoelectric generator as a base. By using these principles this study was conducted to determine the potential of the electric energy of the two Peltier modules which would be an alternative source for micro electricity plant using heat from methylated. The focus of this research is to design a model TEG Thermoelectric Generator Small Modular to produce the kind of material that is optimum for a TEG on the simulation Computer Aided Design CAD with a variety of four different materials that Bi2Te3 Bismuth Telluride PbTe-BiTe CMO-32 -62S Cascade and CMO-32-62S Calcium Manganese Oxide to its cold side using the heat sink fan and simulating heat aluminum plate attached to the hot side of the TEG modules with heat source of methylated. Model simulation results on TEG Small Modular micro electrical plant material obtained CMO-32-62S Cascade thermal material that has a value greater than 3 other material.

  12. Structural and thermoelectric properties of zintl-phase CaLiPn (Pn=As, Sb, Bi)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandran, Anoop K.; Gudelli, Vijay Kumar; Sreeparvathy, P.C.; Kanchana, V., E-mail: kanchana@iith.ac.in

    2016-11-15

    First-principles calculations were carried out to study the structural, mechanical, dynamical and transport properties of zintl phase materials CaLiPn (Pn=As, Sb and Bi). We have used two different approaches to solve the system based on density functional theory. The plane wave pseudopotential approach has been used to study the structural and dynamical properties whereas, full potential linear augment plane wave method is used to examine the electronic structure, mechanical and thermoelectric properties. The calculated ground-state properties agree quite well with experimental values. The computed electronic structure shows the investigated compounds to be direct band gap semiconductors. Further, we have calculated the thermoelectric properties of all the investigated compounds for both the carriers at various temperatures. We found a high thermopower for both the carriers, especially n-type doping to be more favourable, which enabled us to predict that CaLiPn might have promising applications as a good thermoelectric material. Further, the phonon dispersion curves of the investigated compounds showed flat phonon modes and we also find lower optical and acoustic modes to cut each other at the lower frequency range, which further indicate the investigated compounds to possess reasonably low thermal conductivity. We have also analysed the low value of the thermal conductivity through the empirical relations and discussions are presented here. - Highlights: • Electronic band structure and chemical bonding. • Single crystalline elastic constants and poly crystalline elastic moduli. • Thermoelectric properties of zintl phase. • Lattice dynamics and phonon density of states.

  13. Hierarchical thermoelectrics : Crystal grain boundaries as scalable phonon scatterers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selli, Daniele; Boulfelfel, Salah Eddine; Schapotschnikow, PZ; Donadio, Davide; Leoni, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Thermoelectric materials are strategically valuable for sustainable development, as they allow for the generation of electrical energy from wasted heat. In recent years several strategies have demonstrated some efficiency in improving thermoelectric properties. Dopants affect carrier

  14. Nano-Micro Materials Enabled Thermoelectricity From Window Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Inayat, Salman Bin

    2012-01-01

    of individual glass strips to form the thickness depth of the glass on subsequent curing of the strips, and c) embedding nano-manufactured thermoelectric pillars, have been implemented for innovative integration of thermoelectric materials into window glasses

  15. Disordered Zinc in Zn4Sb3 with Phonon-Glass and Electron-Crystal Thermoelectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Christensen, Mogens; Nishibori, Eiji; Caillat, Thierry; Brummerstedt Iversen, Bo

    2004-01-01

    By converting waste heat into electricity, thermoelectric generators could be an important part of the solution to today's energy challenges. The compound Zn4Sb3 is one of the most efficient thermoelectric materials known. Its high efficiency results from an extraordinarily low thermal conductivity in conjunction with the electronic structure of a heavily doped semiconductor. Previous structural studies have been unable to explain this unusual combination of properties. Here, we show through a comprehensive structural analysis using single-crystal X-ray and powder-synchrotron-radiation diffraction methods, that both the electronic and thermal properties of Zn4Sb3 can be understood in terms of unique structural features that have been previously overlooked. The identification of Sb3- ions and Sb-2(4-) dimers reveals that Zn4Sb3 is a valence semiconductor with the ideal stoichiometry Zn13Sb10. In addition, the structure contains significant disorder, with zinc atoms distributed over multiple positions. The discovery of glass-like interstitial sites uncovers a highly effective mechanism for reducing thermal conductivity. Thus Zn4Sb3 is in many ways an ideal 'phonon glass, electron crystal' thermoelectric material.

  16. Cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korik, L.; Burger, R.

    1992-01-01

    What is the effect of 0.6C (1F) temperature rise across turbines, compressors, or evaporators? Enthalpy charts indicate for every 0.6C (1F) hotter water off the cooling tower will require an additional 2 1/2% more energy cost. Therefore, running 2.2C (4F) warmer due to substandard cooling towers could result in a 10% penalty for overcoming high heads and temperatures. If it costs $1,250,000.00 a year to operate the system, $125,000.00 is the energy penalty for hotter water. This paper investigates extra fuel costs involved in maintaining design electric production with cooling water 0.6C (1F) to 3C (5.5F) hotter than design. If design KWH cannot be maintained, paper will calculate dollar loss of saleable electricity. The presentation will conclude with examining the main causes of deficient cold water production. State-of-the-art upgrading and methodology available to retrofit existing cooling towers to optimize lower cooling water temperatures will be discussed

  17. High thermoelectric power factor from multilayer solution-processed organic films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guangzheng; Andersson, Olof; Abdalla, Hassan; Kemerink, Martijn

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the suitability of the "sequential doping" method of organic semiconductors for thermoelectric applications. The method consists of depositing a dopant (F4TCNQ) containing solution on a previously cast semiconductor (P3HT) thin film to achieve high conductivity, while preserving the morphology. For very thin films (˜25 nm), we achieve a high power factor around 8 μW/mK-2 with a conductivity over 500 S/m. For the increasing film thickness, conductivity and power factor show a decreasing trend, which we attribute to the inability to dope the deeper parts of the film. Since thick films are required to extract significant power from thermoelectric generators, we developed a simple additive technique that allows the deposition of an arbitrary number of layers without significant loss in conductivity or power factor that, for 5 subsequent layers, remain at ˜300 S/m and ˜5 μW/mK-2, respectively, whereas the power output increases almost one order of magnitude as compared to a single layer. The efficient doping in multilayers is further confirmed by an increased intensity of (bi)polaronic features in the UV-Vis spectra.

  18. Parametric modeling of energy filtering by energy barriers in thermoelectric nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zianni, Xanthippi, E-mail: xzianni@teiste.gr, E-mail: xzianni@gmail.com [Department of Aircraft Technology, Technological Educational Institution of Sterea Ellada, 34400 Psachna (Greece); Department of Microelectronics, INN, NCSR “Demokritos,” 15310 Athens (Greece); Narducci, Dario [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano Bicocca, 20125 Milano (Italy)

    2015-01-21

    We present a parametric modeling of the thermoelectric transport coefficients based on a model previously used to interpret experimental measurements on the conductivity, σ, and Seebeck coefficient, S, in highly Boron-doped polycrystalline Si, where a very significant thermoelectric power factor (TPF) enhancement was observed. We have derived analytical formalism for the transport coefficients in the presence of an energy barrier assuming thermionic emission over the barrier for (i) non-degenerate and (ii) degenerate one-band semiconductor. Simple generic parametric equations are found that are in agreement with the exact Boltzmann transport formalism in a wide range of parameters. Moreover, we explore the effect of energy barriers in 1-d composite semiconductors in the presence of two phases: (a) the bulk-like phase and (b) the barrier phase. It is pointed out that significant TPF enhancement can be achieved in the composite structure of two phases with different thermal conductivities. The TPF enhancement is estimated as a function of temperature, the Fermi energy position, the type of scattering, and the barrier height. The derived modeling provides guidance for experiments and device design.

  19. Morphology, thermoelectric properties and wet-chemical doping of laser-sintered germanium nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoib, Benedikt; Langmann, Tim; Matich, Sonja; Sachsenhauser, Matthias; Stutzmann, Martin; Brandt, Martin S.; Petermann, Nils; Wiggers, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Porous, highly doped semiconductors are potential candidates for thermoelectric energy conversion elements. We report on the fabrication of thin films of Ge via short-pulse laser-sintering of Ge nanoparticles (NPs) in vacuum and study the macroporous morphology of the samples by secondary electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. The temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient of undoped Ge is discussed in conjunction with the formation of a defect band near the valence band. We further introduce a versatile method of doping the resulting films with a variety of common dopant elements in group-IV semiconductors by using a liquid containing the dopant atoms. This method is fully compatible with laser-direct writing and suited to fabricate small scale thermoelectric generators. The incorporation of the dopants is verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and their electrical activation is studied by conductivity and thermopower measurements. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norbaeck, P; Heneby, H

    1976-01-22

    Cooling towers to be transported on road vehicles as a unit are not allowed to exceed certain dimensions. In order to improve the efficiency of such a cooling tower (of cross-flow design and box-type body) with given dimensions, it is proposed to arrange at least one of the scrubbing bodies displaceable within a module or box. Then it can be moved out of the casing into working position, thereby increasing the front surface available for the inlet of air (and with it the efficiency) by nearly a factor of two.

  1. Using of the Modern Semiconductor Devices Based on the SiC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Drabek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with possibility of application of the semiconductor devices based on the SiC (Silicon Carbide inthe power electronics. Basic synopsis of SiC based materials problems are presented, appreciation of their properties incomparison with current using power semiconductor devices ((IGBT, MOSFET, CoolFET transistors.

  2. Synthesis, Processing, and Thermoelectric Properties of Germanium-Antimony-Tellurium Based Compounds and Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jared Brett

    Society has become increasingly more aware of the negative impacts which nonrenewable energy sources have on the environment, and therefore the search for new and more efficient means of energy production has become an important research endeavor. Thermoelectric modules possess the unique ability to convert wasted heat into useful electrical energy via solid state processes, which could vastly improve the efficiency of a number of applications. The materials which accomplish this are typically comprised of semiconductors which exhibit high electrical conductivity, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal resistivity. Together these properties give us a gauge for the overall efficiency of the thermal to electrical energy conversion. Phase change materials are a class of materials primarily used for optical data storage in CDs, DVDs, and Blu-Ray discs. Today's state of the art phase change materials are based on alloys of GeTe and Sb2Te3. These materials have also been found to exhibit high thermoelectric efficiencies. These high efficiencies stem from their complex crystal structure and degenerate semiconducting nature. The purpose of this work was to study and engineer the thermoelectric properties of various alloys and compounds which belong to this family of materials. Specifically studied were the compounds Ge4SbTe5 and Ge17Sb2Te20. In each case various synthesis and processing strategies were implemented to increase the thermoelectric performance and better understand the fundamental electrical and thermal properties. Finally various proposals for future work on these materials are presented, all of which are based on the findings described herein.

  3. High Thermoelectric Power Factor of High-Mobility 2D Electron Gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Hiromichi; Kim, Sung Wng; Kaneki, Shota; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Hashizume, Tamotsu

    2018-01-01

    Thermoelectric conversion is an energy harvesting technology that directly converts waste heat from various sources into electricity by the Seebeck effect of thermoelectric materials with a large thermopower ( S ), high electrical conductivity (σ), and low thermal conductivity (κ). State-of-the-art nanostructuring techniques that significantly reduce κ have realized high-performance thermoelectric materials with a figure of merit ( ZT = S 2 ∙σ∙ T ∙κ -1 ) between 1.5 and 2. Although the power factor (PF = S 2 ∙σ) must also be enhanced to further improve ZT , the maximum PF remains near 1.5-4 mW m -1 K -2 due to the well-known trade-off relationship between S and σ. At a maximized PF, σ is much lower than the ideal value since impurity doping suppresses the carrier mobility. A metal-oxide-semiconductor high electron mobility transistor (MOS-HEMT) structure on an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure is prepared. Applying a gate electric field to the MOS-HEMT simultaneously modulates S and σ of the high-mobility electron gas from -490 µV K -1 and ≈10 -1 S cm -1 to -90 µV K -1 and ≈10 4 S cm -1 , while maintaining a high carrier mobility (≈1500 cm 2 V -1 s -1 ). The maximized PF of the high-mobility electron gas is ≈9 mW m -1 K -2 , which is a two- to sixfold increase compared to state-of-the-art practical thermoelectric materials.

  4. Mapping the impacts of thermoelectric power generation: a global, spatially explicit database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raptis, Catherine; Pfister, Stephan

    2017-04-01

    Thermoelectric power generation is associated with environmental pressures resulting from emissions to air and water, as well as water consumption. The need to achieve global coverage in related studies has become pressing in view of climate change. At the same time, the ability to quantify impacts from power production on a high resolution remains pertinent, given their highly regionalized nature, particularly when it comes to water-related impacts. Efforts towards global coverage have increased in recent years, but most work on the impacts of global electricity production presents a coarse geographical differentiation. Over the past few years we have begun a concerted effort to create and make available a global georeferenced inventory of thermoelectric power plant operational characteristics and emissions, by modelling the relevant processes on the highest possible level: that of a generating unit. Our work extends and enhances a commercially available global power plant database, and so far includes: - Georeferencing the generating units and populating the gaps in their steam properties. - Identifying the cooling system for 92% of the global installed thermoelectric power capacity. - Using the completed steam property data, along with local environmental temperature data, to systematically solve the Rankine cycle for each generating unit, involving: i) distinguishing between simple, reheat, and cogenerative cycles, and accounting for particularities in nuclear power cycles; ii) accounting for the effect of different cooling systems (once-through, recirculating (wet tower), dry cooling) on the thermodynamic cycle. One of the direct outcomes of solving the Rankine cycle is the cycle efficiency, an indispensable parameter in any study related to power production, including the quantification of air emissions and water consumption. Another direct output, for those units employing once-through cooling, is the rate of heat rejection to water, which can lead to

  5. Semiconductors data handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Madelung, Otfried

    2004-01-01

    This volume Semiconductors: Data Handbook contains frequently used data from the corresponding larger Landolt-Börnstein handbooks in a low price book for the individual scientist working in the laboratory. The Handbook contain important information about a large number of semiconductors

  6. Semiconductor radiation detection systems

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Covers research in semiconductor detector and integrated circuit design in the context of medical imaging using ionizing radiation. This book explores other applications of semiconductor radiation detection systems in security applications such as luggage scanning, dirty bomb detection and border control.

  7. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Dyakonov, Mikhail I

    2008-01-01

    This book describes beautiful optical and transport phenomena related to the electron and nuclear spins in semiconductors with emphasis on a clear presentation of the physics involved. Recent results on quantum wells and quantum dots are reviewed. The book is intended for students and researchers in the fields of semiconductor physics and nanoelectronics.

  8. Terahertz semiconductor nonlinear optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hvam, Jørn Märcher; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this proceedings we describe our recent results on semiconductor nonlinear optics, investigated using single-cycle THz pulses. We demonstrate the nonlinear absorption and self-phase modulation of strong-field THz pulses in doped semiconductors, using n-GaAs as a model system. The THz...... nonlinearity in doped semiconductors originates from the near-instantaneous heating of free electrons in the ponderomotive potential created by electric field of the THz pulse, leading to ultrafast increase of electron effective mass by intervalley scattering. Modification of effective mass in turn leads...... to a decrease of plasma frequency in semiconductor and produces a substantial modification of THz-range material dielectric function, described by the Drude model. As a result, the nonlinearity of both absorption coefficient and refractive index of the semiconductor is observed. In particular we demonstrate...

  9. Organic semiconductor crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengliang; Dong, Huanli; Jiang, Lang; Hu, Wenping

    2018-01-22

    Organic semiconductors have attracted a lot of attention since the discovery of highly doped conductive polymers, due to the potential application in field-effect transistors (OFETs), light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and photovoltaic cells (OPVs). Single crystals of organic semiconductors are particularly intriguing because they are free of grain boundaries and have long-range periodic order as well as minimal traps and defects. Hence, organic semiconductor crystals provide a powerful tool for revealing the intrinsic properties, examining the structure-property relationships, demonstrating the important factors for high performance devices and uncovering fundamental physics in organic semiconductors. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the molecular packing, morphology and charge transport features of organic semiconductor crystals, the control of crystallization for achieving high quality crystals and the device physics in the three main applications. We hope that this comprehensive summary can give a clear picture of the state-of-art status and guide future work in this area.

  10. Thermoelectric transport through quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merker, Lukas Heinrich

    2016-06-30

    In this thesis the thermoelectric properties (electrical conductance, Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductance)of quantum dots described by the Anderson impurity model have been investigated by using the numerical renormalization group (NRG) method. In order to make accurate calculations for thermoelectric properties of quantum impurity systems, a number of recent developments and refinements of the NRG have been implemented. These include the z-averaging and Campo discretization scheme, which enable the evaluation of physical quantities on an arbitrary temperature grid and at large discretization parameter Λ and the full density matrix (FDM) approach, which allows a more accurate calculation of spectral functions and transport coefficients. The implementation of the z-averaging and Campo discretization scheme has been tested within a new method for specific heats of quantum impurities. The accuracy of this new method was established by comparison with the numerical solution of the Bethe-ansatz equations for the Anderson model. The FDM approach was implemented and tested within a new approach to the calculation of impurity contributions to the uniform susceptibilities. Within this method a non-negligible contribution from the ''environmental'' degrees of freedom needs to be taken into account to recover the correct susceptibility, as shown by comparison with the Bethe-ansatz approach. An accurate method to calculate the conductance of a quantum dot is implemented, enabling the extraction of the Fermi liquid scaling coefficients c{sub T} and c{sub B} to high accuracy, being able to verify the results of the renormalized super perturbation theory approach (within its regime of validity). The method was generalized to higher order moments of the local level spectral function. This, as well as reduction of the SU(2) code to the U(1) symmetry, enabled the investigation of the effect of a magnetic field on the thermoelectric properties of quantum

  11. Thermoelectric potential in UO2 and (U,Pu)O2 and its influence on oxygen migration in presence of a temperature gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Annucci, F.

    1979-09-01

    Measurement of the thermoelectric power have been carried out in sintered pellets of uranium-oxide and uranium-plutonium mixed oxides up to 1800 K. For the thermal treatment an inducting furnace is used. The temperatures and the thermoelectric potential are measured with two thermocouples wich are contained in two holes in the lower end of the pellet. During the experiments a temperature difference of 80 K is maintained between the two measuring points. The Seebeck coefficients are calculated from the EMF measurements as a function of temperature and of the O/M ratio. The results show that these oxides have the typical electric properties of a classic semiconductor. The conductivity is of p-type up to a defined temperature wich is a function of the stoichiometry. The Seebeck coefficients are characterized by a defined energy of activation wich is independent from the stochiometry in the regions of hypo- and hyperstochiometric oxides. The thermoelectric forces and the lattice forces drive ions along the temperature gradients. Both forces can be described by the heat of transport of oxygen ions wich contains a thermoelectric and a thermal part. The thermoelectric part of the heat of transport is calculated with the values of the Seebeck coefficients and the contribution to the total heat of transport is discussed. (orig.) [de

  12. Stochastic Drought Risk Analysis and Projection Methods For Thermoelectric Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekera, Behailu Belamo

    Combined effects of socio-economic, environmental, technological and political factors impact fresh cooling water availability, which is among the most important elements of thermoelectric power plant site selection and evaluation criteria. With increased variability and changes in hydrologic statistical stationarity, one concern is the increased occurrence of extreme drought events that may be attributable to climatic changes. As hydrological systems are altered, operators of thermoelectric power plants need to ensure a reliable supply of water for cooling and generation requirements. The effects of climate change are expected to influence hydrological systems at multiple scales, possibly leading to reduced efficiency of thermoelectric power plants. This study models and analyzes drought characteristics from a thermoelectric systems operational and regulation perspective. A systematic approach to characterize a stream environment in relation to extreme drought occurrence, duration and deficit-volume is proposed and demonstrated. More specifically, the objective of this research is to propose a stochastic water supply risk analysis and projection methods from thermoelectric power systems operation and management perspectives. The study defines thermoelectric drought as a shortage of cooling water due to stressed supply or beyond operable water temperature limits for an extended period of time requiring power plants to reduce production or completely shut down. It presents a thermoelectric drought risk characterization framework that considers heat content and water quantity facets of adequate water availability for uninterrupted operation of such plants and safety of its surroundings. In addition, it outlines mechanisms to identify rate of occurrences of the said droughts and stochastically quantify subsequent potential losses to the sector. This mechanism is enabled through a model based on compound Nonhomogeneous Poisson Process. This study also demonstrates how

  13. Coupled Thermoelectric Devices: Theory and Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaziel A. Rojas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we address theoretically and experimentally the optimization problem of the heat transfer occurring in two coupled thermoelectric devices. A simple experimental set up is used. The optimization parameters are the applied electric currents. When one thermoelectric is analysed, the temperature difference Δ T between the thermoelectric boundaries shows a parabolic profile with respect to the applied electric current. This behaviour agrees qualitatively with the corresponding experimental measurement. The global entropy generation shows a monotonous increase with the electric current. In the case of two coupled thermoelectric devices, elliptic isocontours for Δ T are obtained in applying an electric current through each of the thermoelectrics. The isocontours also fit well with measurements. Optimal figure of merit is found for a specific set of values of the applied electric currents. The entropy generation-thermal figure of merit relationship is studied. It is shown that, given a value of the thermal figure of merit, the device can be operated in a state of minimum entropy production.

  14. Silicon Germanium Quantum Well Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anthony Lee, III

    Today's growing energy demands require new technologies to provide high efficiency clean energy. Thermoelectrics that convert heat to electrical energy directly can provide a method for the automobile industry to recover waste heat to power vehicle electronics, hence improving fuel economy. If large enough efficiencies can be obtained then the internal combustion engine could even be replaced. Exhaust temperature for automotive application range from 400 to 800 K. In this temperature range the current state of the art materials are bulk Si1-xGex alloys. By alternating layers of Si and Si1-xGex alloy device performance may be enhanced through quantum well effects and variations in material thermal properties. In this study, superlattices designed for in-plane operation with varying period and crystallinity are examined to determine the effect on electrical and thermal properties. In-plane electrical resistivity of these materials was found to be below the bulk material at a similar doping at room temperature, confirming the role of quantum wells in electron transport. As period is reduced in the structures boundary scattering limits electron propagation leading to increased resistivity. The Seebeck coefficient measured at room temperature is higher than the bulk material, additionally lending proof to the effects of quantum wells. When examining cross-plane operation the low doping in the Si layers of the device produce high resistivity resulting from boundary scattering. Thermal conductivity was measured from 77 K up to 674 K and shows little variation due to periodicity and temperature, however an order of magnitude reduction over bulk Si1-xGex is shown in all samples. A model is developed that suggests a combination of phonon dispersion effects and strong boundary scattering. Further study of the phonon dispersion effects was achieved through the examination of the heat capacity by combining thermal diffusivity with thermal conductivity. All superlattices show a

  15. Active Cooling and Thermal Management of a Downhole Tool Electronics Section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soprani, Stefano; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Just Nørgaard, Anders

    2015-01-01

    combines active and passive cooling techniques, aiming at an efficient thermal management, preserving the tool compactness and avoiding the use of moving parts. Thermoelectric coolers were used to transfer the dissipated heat from the temperature-sensitive electronics to the external environment. Thermal...... contact resistances were minimized and thermally insulating foam protected the refrigerated microenvironment from the hot surroundings....

  16. Stochastic cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisognano, J.; Leemann, C.

    1982-03-01

    Stochastic cooling is the damping of betatron oscillations and momentum spread of a particle beam by a feedback system. In its simplest form, a pickup electrode detects the transverse positions or momenta of particles in a storage ring, and the signal produced is amplified and applied downstream to a kicker. The time delay of the cable and electronics is designed to match the transit time of particles along the arc of the storage ring between the pickup and kicker so that an individual particle receives the amplified version of the signal it produced at the pick-up. If there were only a single particle in the ring, it is obvious that betatron oscillations and momentum offset could be damped. However, in addition to its own signal, a particle receives signals from other beam particles. In the limit of an infinite number of particles, no damping could be achieved; we have Liouville's theorem with constant density of the phase space fluid. For a finite, albeit large number of particles, there remains a residue of the single particle damping which is of practical use in accumulating low phase space density beams of particles such as antiprotons. It was the realization of this fact that led to the invention of stochastic cooling by S. van der Meer in 1968. Since its conception, stochastic cooling has been the subject of much theoretical and experimental work. The earliest experiments were performed at the ISR in 1974, with the subsequent ICE studies firmly establishing the stochastic cooling technique. This work directly led to the design and construction of the Antiproton Accumulator at CERN and the beginnings of p anti p colliding beam physics at the SPS. Experiments in stochastic cooling have been performed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBL, and a design is currently under development for a anti p accumulator for the Tevatron

  17. A thermoelectric voltage effect in polyethylene oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, B; Kliem, H

    2003-01-01

    The conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) is described with a three-dimensional hopping model considering electrostatic interactions between the ions. Ions fluctuate over energy-barriers in a multi-well potential. To decide whether positive or negative charges are responsible for this conductivity, the thermoelectric voltage is measured. The samples are embedded between two aluminium-electrodes. The oxide on the interface between the electrodes and the PEO serves as a blocking layer. The temperature of each electrode is controlled by a Peltier element. A temperature step is applied to one electrode by changing the temperature of one of the Peltier elements. Due to this temperature gradient, the mobile charges fluctuate thermally activated from the warmer side to the colder side of the sample. The direction of the measured thermoelectric voltage indicates the type of mobile charges. It is found that positive charges are mobile. Further, it is shown that the absolute value of the thermoelectric voltage depen...

  18. Peridynamic Formulation for Coupled Thermoelectric Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Migbar Assefa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling of heat and electrical current flow simultaneously in thermoelectric convertor using classical theories do not consider the influence of defects in the material. This is because traditional methods are developed based on partial differential equations (PDEs and lead to infinite fluxes at the discontinuities. The usual way of solving such PDEs is by using numerical technique, like Finite Element Method (FEM. Although FEM is robust and versatile, it is not suitable to model evolving discontinuities. To avoid such shortcomings, we propose the concept of peridynamic theory to derive the balance of energy and charge equations in the coupled thermoelectric phenomena. Therefore, this paper presents the transport of heat and charge in thermoelectric material in the framework of peridynamic (PD theory. To illustrate the reliability of the PD formulation, numerical examples are presented and results are compared with those from literature, analytical solutions, or finite element solutions.

  19. Measurement and characterization techniques for thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tritt, T M

    1997-07-01

    Characterization of thermoelectric materials can pose many problems. A temperature difference can be established across these materials as an electrical current is passed due to the Peltier effect. The thermopower of these materials is quite large and thus large thermal voltages can contribute to many of the measurements necessary to investigate these materials. This paper will discuss the chracterization techniques necessary to investigate these materials and provide an overview of some of the potential systematic errors which can arise. It will also discuss some of the corrections one needs to consider. This should provide an introduction to the characterization and measurement of thermoelectric materials and provide references for a more in depth discussion of the concepts. It should also serve as an indication of the care that must be taken while working with thermoelectric materials.

  20. Method of operating a thermoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-11-05

    A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.

  1. Graphite moderated reactor for thermoelectric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akazawa, Issei; Yamada, Akira; Mizogami, Yorikata

    1998-01-01

    Fuel rods filled with cladded fuel particles distributed and filled are buried each at a predetermined distance in graphite blocks situated in a reactor core. Perforation channels for helium gas as coolants are formed to the periphery thereof passing through vertically. An alkali metal thermoelectric power generation module is disposed to the upper lid of a reactor container while being supported by a securing receptacle. Helium gas in the coolant channels in the graphite blocks in the reactor core absorbs nuclear reaction heat, to be heated to a high temperature, rises upwardly by the reduction of the specific gravity, and then flows into an upper space above the laminated graphite block layer. Then the gas collides against a ceiling and turns, and flows down in a circular gap around the circumference of the alkali metal thermoelectric generation module. In this case, it transfers heat to the alkali metal thermoelectric generation module. (I.N.)

  2. Knudsen pump driven by a thermoelectric material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharas, Kunal; McNamara, Shamus

    2010-01-01

    The first use of a thermoelectric material in the bidirectional operation of a gas pump using thermal transpiration has been demonstrated. The thermoelectric material maintains a higher temperature difference which favors thermal transpiration and thus increases the efficiency of gas pumping. Since the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric material are reversible, the direction of the pump may be changed by reversing the electrical current direction. Two different pump designs are presented that illustrate some of the design tradeoffs. The pumps are characterized by measuring the pressure difference that may be generated and by measuring the flow rate in the forward and reverse directions. For a pump composed of a porous material with a pore size of 100 nm, a maximum flow rate of 0.74 cm 3 min −1 and a maximum pressure of 1.69 kPa are achieved

  3. Electron and nuclear spin system polarization in semiconductors by light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharchenya, B.; Flejsher, V.

    1981-01-01

    Discussed are the principles of optical electron spin orientation, dynamic polarization and cooling of nuclear spin systems in optical electron orientation, and behavioural characteristics of bound electron and nuclear spin systems of a semiconductor in the optical orientation situation. (J.P.)

  4. A very cool cooling system

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The NA62 Gigatracker is a jewel of technology: its sensor, which delivers the time of the crossing particles with a precision of less than 200 picoseconds (better than similar LHC detectors), has a cooling system that might become the precursor to a completely new detector technique.   The 115 metre long vacuum tank of the NA62 experiment. The NA62 Gigatracker (GTK) is composed of a set of three innovative silicon pixel detectors, whose job is to measure the arrival time and the position of the incoming beam particles. Installed in the heart of the NA62 detector, the silicon sensors are cooled down (to about -20 degrees Celsius) by a microfluidic silicon device. “The cooling system is needed to remove the heat produced by the readout chips the silicon sensor is bonded to,” explains Alessandro Mapelli, microsystems engineer working in the Physics department. “For the NA62 Gigatracker we have designed a cooling plate on top of which both the silicon sensor and the...

  5. Development and experimental validation of a thermoelectric test bench for laboratory lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The refrigeration process reduces the temperature of a space or a given volume while the power generation process employs a source of thermal energy to generate electrical power. Because of the importance of these two processes, training of engineers in this area is of great interest. In engineering courses it is normally studied the vapor compression and absorption refrigeration, and power generation systems such as gas turbine and steam turbine. Another type of cooling and generation less studied within the engineering curriculum, having a great interest, it is cooling and thermal generation based on Peltier and Seebeck effects. The theoretical concepts are useful, but students have difficulties understanding the physical meaning of their possible applications. Providing students with tools to test and apply the theory in real applications, will lead to a better understanding of the subject. Engineers must have strong theoretical, computational and also experimental skills. A prototype test bench has been built and experimentally validated to perform practical lessons of thermoelectric generation and refrigeration. Using this prototype students learn the most effective way of cooling systems and thermal power generation as well as basic concepts associated with thermoelectricity. It has been proven that students learn the process of data acquisition, and the technology used in thermoelectric devices. These practical lessons are implemented for a 60 people group of students in the development of subject of Thermodynamic including in the Degree in Engineering in Industrial Technologies of Public University of Navarra. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE Significant enhancement in thermoelectric performance of nanostructured higher manganese silicides synthesized employing a melt spinning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Saravanan; Singh, R C; Pathak, B D; Avasthi, Piyush Kumar; Kumar, Rishikesh; Kumar, Anil; Srivastava, A K; Dhar, Ajay

    2018-01-25

    The limited thermoelectric performance of p-type Higher Manganese Silicides (HMS) in terms of their low figure-of-merit (ZT), which is far below unity, is the main bottle-neck for realising an efficient HMS based thermoelectric generator, which has been recognized as the most promising material for harnessing waste-heat in the mid-temperature range, owing to its thermal stability, earth-abundant and environmentally friendly nature of its constituent elements. We report a significant enhancement in the thermoelectric performance of nanostructured HMS synthesized using rapid solidification by optimizing the cooling rates during melt-spinning followed by spark plasma sintering of the resulting melt-spun ribbons. By employing this experimental strategy, an unprecedented ZT ∼ 0.82 at 800 K was realized in spark plasma sintered 5 at% Al-doped MnSi 1.73 HMS, melt spun at an optimized high cooling rate of ∼2 × 10 7 K s -1 . This enhancement in ZT represents a ∼25% increase over the best reported values thus far for HMS and primarily originates from a nano-crystalline microstructure consisting of a HMS matrix (20-40 nm) with excess Si (3-9 nm) uniformly distributed in it. This nanostructure, resulting from the high cooling rates employed during the melt-spinning of HMS, introduces a high density of nano-crystallite boundaries in a wide spectrum of nano-scale dimensions, which scatter the low-to-mid-wavelength heat-carrying phonons. This abundant phonon scattering results in a significantly reduced thermal conductivity of ∼1.5 W m -1 K -1 at 800 K, which primarily contributes to the enhancement in ZT.

  6. Transport and first-principles study of novel thermoelectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Hang

    Thermoelectric materials can recover waste industrial heat and convert it to electricity as well as provide efficient local cooling of electronic devices. The efficiency of such environmentally responsible and exceptionally reliable solid state energy conversion is determined by the dimensionless figure-of-merit ZT = alpha2 sigmaT/kappa, where alpha is the Seebeck coefficient, sigma is the electrical conductivity, kappa is the thermal conductivity, and T is the absolute temperature. The goal of the thesis is to (i) illustrate the physics to achieve high ZT of advanced thermoelectric materials and (ii) explore fundamental structure and transport properties in novel condensed matter systems, via an approach combining comprehensive experimental techniques and state-of-the-art first-principles simulation methods. Thermo-galvanomagnetic transport coefficients are derived from Onsager's reciprocal relations and evaluated via solving Boltzmann transport equation using Fermi-Dirac statistics, under the relaxation time approximation. Such understanding provides insights on enhancing ZT through two physically intuitive and very effective routes: (i) improving power factor PF = alpha2sigma; and (ii) reducing thermal conductivity kappa, as demonstrated in the cases of Mg2Si1-xSnx solid solution and Ge/Te double substituted skutterudites CoSb3(1-x)Ge1.5x Te1.5x, respectively. Motivated by recent theoretical predictions of enhanced thermoelectric performance in highly mismatched alloys, ZnTe:N molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) films deposited on GaAs (100) substrates are carefully examined, which leads to a surprising discovery of significant phonon-drag thermopower (reaching 1-2 mV/K-1) at ~13 K. Further systematic study in Bi2Te3 MBE thin films grown on sapphire (0001) and/or BaF2 (111) substrates, reveal that the peak of phonon drag can be tuned by the choice of substrates with different Debye temperatures. Moreover, the detailed transport and structure studies of Bi2-xTl xTe3

  7. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, N. B. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Bass, J. C. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Ghamaty, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Krommenhoek, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Kushch, A. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Snowden, D. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Marchetti, S. [Hi-Z Technology, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of

  8. Semiconductor optoelectronic infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingworth, A.R.

    2001-08-01

    We use spectroscopy to study infrared optoelectronic inter and intraband semiconductor carrier dynamics. The overall aim of this thesis was to study both III-V and Pb chalcogenide material systems in order to show their future potential use in infrared emitters. The effects of bandstructure engineering have been studied in the output characteristics of mid-IR III-V laser diodes to show which processes (defects, radiative, Auger and phonon) dominate and whether non-radiative processes can be suppressed. A new three-beam pump probe experiment was used to investigate interband recombination directly in passive materials. Experiments on PbSe and theory for non-parabolic near-mirror bands and non-degenerate statistics were in good agreement. Comparisons with HgCdTe showed a reduction in the Auger coefficient of 1-2 orders of magnitude in the PbSe. Using Landau confinement to model spatial confinement in quantum dots (QDs) 'phonon bottlenecking' was studied. The results obtained from pump probe and cyclotron resonance saturation measurements showed a clear suppression in the cooling of carriers when Landau level separation was not resonant with LO phonon energy. When a bulk laser diode was placed in a magnetic field to produce a quasi quantum wire device the resulting enhanced differential gain and reduced Auger recombination lowered I th by 30%. This result showed many peaks in the light output which occurred when the LO phonon energy was a multiple of the Landau level separation. This showed for the first time evidence of the phonon bottleneck in a working laser device. A new technique called time resolved optically detected cyclotron resonance, was used as a precursor to finding the carrier dynamics within a spatially confined quantum dot. By moving to the case of a spatial QD using an optically detected intraband resonance it was possible to measure the energy separation interband levels and conduction and valence sublevels within the dot simultaneously. Furthermore

  9. Spin thermoelectric effects in organic single-molecule devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, H.L.; Wang, M.X.; Qian, C.; Hong, X.K.; Zhang, D.B.; Liu, Y.S.; Yang, X.F., E-mail: xfyang@cslg.edu.cn

    2017-05-25

    Highlights: • A stronger spin thermoelectric performance in a polyacetylene device is observed. • For the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering, a transport gap is opened. Thus the thermoelectric effects are largely enhanced. - Abstract: The spin thermoelectric performance of a polyacetylene chain bridging two zigzag graphene nanoribbons (ZGNRs) is investigated based on first principles method. Two different edge spin arrangements in ZGNRs are considered. For ferromagnetic (FM) ordering, transmission eigenstates with different spin indices distributed below and above Fermi level are observed, leading directly to a strong spin thermoelectric effect in a wide temperature range. With the edge spins arranged in the antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering, an obvious transport gap appears in the system, which greatly enhances the thermoelectric effects. The presence of a small spin splitting also induces a spin thermoelectric effect greater than the charge thermoelectric effect in certain temperature range. In general, the single-molecule junction exhibits the potential to be used for the design of perfect thermospin devices.

  10. Cooling pancakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bond, J.R.; Wilson, J.R.

    1984-01-01

    In theories of galaxy formation with a damping cut-off in the density fluctuation spectrum, the first non-linear structures to form are Zeldovich pancakes in which dissipation separates gas from any collisionless dark matter then present. One-dimensional numerical simulations of the collapse, shock heating, and subsequent thermal evolution of pancakes are described. Neutrinos (or any other cool collisionless particles) are followed by direct N-body methods and the gas by Eulerian hydrodynamics with conduction as well as cooling included. It is found that the pressure is relatively uniform within the shocked region and approximately equals the instantaneous ram pressure acting at the shock front. An analytic theory based upon this result accurately describes the numerical calculations. (author)

  11. Cool Sportswear

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    New athletic wear design based on the circulating liquid cooling system used in the astronaut's space suits, allows athletes to perform more strenuous activity without becoming overheated. Techni-Clothes gear incorporates packets containing a heat-absorbing gel that slips into an insulated pocket of the athletic garment and is positioned near parts of the body where heat transfer is most efficient. A gel packet is good for about one hour. Easily replaced from a supply of spares in an insulated container worn on the belt. The products, targeted primarily for runners and joggers and any other athlete whose performance may be affected by hot weather, include cooling headbands, wrist bands and running shorts with gel-pack pockets.

  12. Defects in semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pimentel, C.A.F.

    1983-01-01

    Some problems openned in the study of defects in semiconductors are presented. In particular, a review is made of the more important problems in Si monocrystals of basic and technological interest: microdefects and the presence of oxigen and carbon. The techniques usually utilized in the semiconductor material characterization are emphatized according its potentialities. Some applications of x-ray techniques in the epitaxial shell characterization in heterostructures, importants in electronic optics, are shown. The increase in the efficiency of these defect analysis methods in semiconductor materials with the use of synchrotron x-ray sources is shown. (L.C.) [pt

  13. Introduction to Semiconductor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Kevin F.

    2005-03-01

    This volume offers a solid foundation for understanding the most important devices used in the hottest areas of electronic engineering today, from semiconductor fundamentals to state-of-the-art semiconductor devices in the telecommunications and computing industries. Kevin Brennan describes future approaches to computing hardware and RF power amplifiers, and explains how emerging trends and system demands of computing and telecommunications systems influence the choice, design and operation of semiconductor devices. In addition, he covers MODFETs and MOSFETs, short channel effects, and the challenges faced by continuing miniaturization. His book is both an excellent senior/graduate text and a valuable reference for practicing engineers and researchers.

  14. Spin physics in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book offers an extensive introduction to the extremely rich and intriguing field of spin-related phenomena in semiconductors. In this second edition, all chapters have been updated to include the latest experimental and theoretical research. Furthermore, it covers the entire field: bulk semiconductors, two-dimensional semiconductor structures, quantum dots, optical and electric effects, spin-related effects, electron-nuclei spin interactions, Spin Hall effect, spin torques, etc. Thanks to its self-contained style, the book is ideally suited for graduate students and researchers new to the field.

  15. Physics of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Mroziewicz, B; Nakwaski, W

    2013-01-01

    Written for readers who have some background in solid state physics but do not necessarily possess any knowledge of semiconductor lasers, this book provides a comprehensive and concise account of fundamental semiconductor laser physics, technology and properties. The principles of operation of these lasers are therefore discussed in detail with the interrelations between their design and optical, electrical and thermal properties. The relative merits of a large number of laser structures and their parameters are described to acquaint the reader with the various aspects of the semiconductor l

  16. Semiconductors bonds and bands

    CERN Document Server

    Ferry, David K

    2013-01-01

    As we settle into this second decade of the twenty-first century, it is evident that the advances in micro-electronics have truly revolutionized our day-to-day lifestyle. The technology is built upon semiconductors, materials in which the band gap has been engineered for special values suitable to the particular application. This book, written specifically for a one semester course for graduate students, provides a thorough understanding of the key solid state physics of semiconductors. It describes how quantum mechanics gives semiconductors unique properties that enabled the micro-electronics revolution, and sustain the ever-growing importance of this revolution.

  17. Defects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Lucia; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2015-01-01

    This volume, number 91 in the Semiconductor and Semimetals series, focuses on defects in semiconductors. Defects in semiconductors help to explain several phenomena, from diffusion to getter, and to draw theories on materials' behavior in response to electrical or mechanical fields. The volume includes chapters focusing specifically on electron and proton irradiation of silicon, point defects in zinc oxide and gallium nitride, ion implantation defects and shallow junctions in silicon and germanium, and much more. It will help support students and scientists in their experimental and theoret

  18. Cooling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutant, C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress on the thermal effects project is reported with regard to physiology and distribution of Corbicula; power plant effects studies on burrowing mayfly populations; comparative thermal responses of largemouth bass from northern and southern populations; temperature selection by striped bass in Cherokee Reservoir; fish population studies; and predictive thermoregulation by fishes. Progress is also reported on the following; cause and ecological ramifications of threadfin shad impingement; entrainment project; aquaculture project; pathogenic amoeba project; and cooling tower drift project

  19. Compatibility of Segments of Thermoelectric Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Ursell, Tristan

    2009-01-01

    A method of calculating (usually for the purpose of maximizing) the power-conversion efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator is based on equations derived from the fundamental equations of thermoelectricity. Because it is directly traceable to first principles, the method provides physical explanations in addition to predictions of phenomena involved in segmentation. In comparison with the finite-element method used heretofore to predict (without being able to explain) the behavior of a segmented thermoelectric generator, this method is much simpler to implement in practice: in particular, the efficiency of a segmented thermoelectric generator can be estimated by evaluating equations using only hand-held calculator with this method. In addition, the method provides for determination of cascading ratios. The concept of cascading is illustrated in the figure and the definition of the cascading ratio is defined in the figure caption. An important aspect of the method is its approach to the issue of compatibility among segments, in combination with introduction of the concept of compatibility within a segment. Prior approaches involved the use of only averaged material properties. Two materials in direct contact could be examined for compatibility with each other, but there was no general framework for analysis of compatibility. The present method establishes such a framework. The mathematical derivation of the method begins with the definition of reduced efficiency of a thermoelectric generator as the ratio between (1) its thermal-to-electric power-conversion efficiency and (2) its Carnot efficiency (the maximum efficiency theoretically attainable, given its hot- and cold-side temperatures). The derivation involves calculation of the reduced efficiency of a model thermoelectric generator for which the hot-side temperature is only infinitesimally greater than the cold-side temperature. The derivation includes consideration of the ratio (u) between the

  1. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  2. Peltier coefficient measurement in a thermoelectric module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido, Javier; Casanovas, Alejandro; Chimeno, José María

    2013-01-01

    A new method for measuring the Peltier coefficient in a thermocouple X/Y based on the energy balance at the junction has been proposed recently. This technique needs only the hot and cold temperatures of a thermoelectric module when an electric current flows through it as the operational variables. The temperature evolutions of the two module sides provide an evident and accurate idea of the Peltier effect. From these temperatures, the heat transfer between the module and the ambient is also evaluated. The thermoelectric phenomena are described in the framework of an observable theory. Based on this procedure, an experiment is presented for a university teaching laboratory at the undergraduate level. (paper)

  3. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  4. Temperature and Voltage Offsets in High-ZT Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, George S.

    2017-10-01

    Thermodynamic temperature can take on different meanings. Kinetic temperature is an expectation value and a function of the kinetic energy distribution. Statistical temperature is a parameter of the distribution. Kinetic temperature and statistical temperature, identical in Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, can differ in other statistics such as those of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein when a field is present. Thermal equilibrium corresponds to zero statistical temperature gradient, not zero kinetic temperature gradient. Since heat carriers in thermoelectrics are fermions, the difference between these two temperatures may explain voltage and temperature offsets observed during meticulous Seebeck measurements in which the temperature-voltage curve does not go through the origin. In conventional semiconductors, temperature offsets produced by fermionic electrical carriers are not observable because they are shorted by heat phonons in the lattice. In high-ZT materials, however, these offsets have been detected but attributed to faulty laboratory procedures. Additional supporting evidence for spontaneous voltages and temperature gradients includes data collected in epistatic experiments and in the plasma Q-machine. Device fabrication guidelines for testing the hypothesis are suggested including using unipolar junctions stacked in a superlattice, alternating n/n + and p/p + junctions, selecting appropriate dimensions, doping, and loading.

  5. Temperature and Voltage Offsets in High- ZT Thermoelectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, George S.

    2018-06-01

    Thermodynamic temperature can take on different meanings. Kinetic temperature is an expectation value and a function of the kinetic energy distribution. Statistical temperature is a parameter of the distribution. Kinetic temperature and statistical temperature, identical in Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics, can differ in other statistics such as those of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein when a field is present. Thermal equilibrium corresponds to zero statistical temperature gradient, not zero kinetic temperature gradient. Since heat carriers in thermoelectrics are fermions, the difference between these two temperatures may explain voltage and temperature offsets observed during meticulous Seebeck measurements in which the temperature-voltage curve does not go through the origin. In conventional semiconductors, temperature offsets produced by fermionic electrical carriers are not observable because they are shorted by heat phonons in the lattice. In high- ZT materials, however, these offsets have been detected but attributed to faulty laboratory procedures. Additional supporting evidence for spontaneous voltages and temperature gradients includes data collected in epistatic experiments and in the plasma Q-machine. Device fabrication guidelines for testing the hypothesis are suggested including using unipolar junctions stacked in a superlattice, alternating n/ n + and p/ p + junctions, selecting appropriate dimensions, doping, and loading.

  6. Thermoelectric cross-plane properties on p- and n-Ge/Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferre Llin, L.; Samarelli, A. [University of Glasgow, School of Engineering, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom); Cecchi, S.; Chrastina, D.; Isella, G. [L-NESS, Politecnico di Milano, Via Anzani 42, 22100 Como (Italy); Müller Gubler, E. [ETH, Electron Microscopy ETH Zurich, Wolgang-Pauli-Str. Ch-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Etzelstorfer, T.; Stangl, J. [Johannes Kepler Universität, Institute of Semiconductor and Solid State Physics, A-4040 Linz (Austria); Paul, D.J., E-mail: Douglas.Paul@glasgow.ac.uk [University of Glasgow, School of Engineering, Oakfield Avenue, Glasgow G12 8LT (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-01

    Silicon and germanium materials have demonstrated an increasing attraction for energy harvesting, due to their sustainability and integrability with complementary metal oxide semiconductor and micro-electro-mechanical-system technology. The thermoelectric efficiencies for these materials, however, are very poor at room temperature and so it is necessary to engineer them in order to compete with telluride based materials, which have demonstrated at room temperature the highest performances in literature [1]. Micro-fabricated devices consisting of mesa structures with integrated heaters, thermometers and Ohmic contacts were used to extract the cross-plane values of the Seebeck coefficient and the thermal conductivity from p- and n-Ge/Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x} superlattices. A second device consisting in a modified circular transfer line method structure was used to extract the electrical conductivity of the materials. A range of p-Ge/Si{sub 0.5}Ge{sub 0.5} superlattices with different doping levels was investigated in detail to determine the role of the doping density in dictating the thermoelectric properties. A second set of n-Ge/Si{sub 0.3}Ge{sub 0.7} superlattices was fabricated to study the impact that quantum well thickness might have on the two thermoelectric figures of merit, and also to demonstrate a further reduction of the thermal conductivity by scattering phonons at different wavelengths. This technique has demonstrated to lower the thermal conductivity by a 25% by adding different barrier thicknesses per period. - Highlights: • Growth of epitaxial Ge/SiGe superlattices on Si substrates as energy harvesters • Study of cross-plane thermoelectric properties of Ge/SiGe superlattices at 300 K • Thermoelectric figures of merit studied as a function of doping density • Phonon scattering at different wavelengths to reduce thermal transport.

  7. Experimental investigation of thermoelectric power generation versus coolant pumping power in a microchannel heat sink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Rosendahl, Lasse; Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    2012-01-01

    The coolant heat sinks in thermoelectric generators (TEG) play an important role in order to power generation in the energy systems. This paper explores the effective pumping power required for the TEGs cooling at five temperature difference of the hot and cold sides of the TEG. In addition......, the temperature distribution and the pressure drop in sample microchannels are considered at four sample coolant flow rates. The heat sink contains twenty plate-fin microchannels with hydraulic diameter equal to 0.93 mm. The experimental results show that there is a unique flow rate that gives maximum net-power...

  8. Thermal design heat sinks, thermoelectrics, heat pipes, compact heat exchangers, and solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H S

    2010-01-01

    The proposed is written as a senior undergraduate or the first-year graduate textbook,covering modern thermal devices such as heat sinks, thermoelectric generators and coolers, heat pipes, and heat exchangers as design components in larger systems. These devices are becoming increasingly important and fundamental in thermal design across such diverse areas as microelectronic cooling, green or thermal energy conversion, and thermal control and management in space, etc. However, there is no textbook available covering this range of topics. The proposed book may be used as a capstone design cours

  9. THERMOELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF HOT-PRESSED p-TYPE Mg2Si0.3Sn0.7 SOLID SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Isachenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that thermoelectric energy conversion which gives the possibility for utilizing a low potential heat is one of the ways for adoption of energy-saving technologies; and semiconductor materials with p-type and n-type conductivities having high thermoelectric figure of merit are necessary for operation of thermoelectric generators. The paper deals with possibility of usage of the p-Mg2Si0.3Sn0.7 solid solution (with a nanostructured modification as a couple for the well studied thermoelectric material based on n-Mg2Si-Mg2Sn. A technological scheme for fabrication of heavily doped Mg2Si0.3Sn0.7 solid solution of p-type by hot pressing from nanopowder is developed. The given technology has made it possible to reduce duration of a homogeneous material fabrication and has improved its physical and chemical properties. The samples were made by three ways: direct fusion for polycrystals fabrication; hot pressing from microparticles; nanostructuring, i.e. hot pressing from nanoparticles. By X-ray diffraction it is shown that sizes of structural elements in the fabricated samples are about 40 nm. The probe technique is used for measurement of electric conductivity and Seebeck coefficient. The stationary absolute method is used for measurement of thermal conductivity. Thermoelectric figure of merit is defined by measured values of kinetic coefficients in the temperatures range of 77 – 800 K. It was demonstrated, that electric conductivity, Seebeck coefficient and the power factor do not depend practically on a way of solid solution preparation. Thermal conductivity of samples pressed from nanoparticles has appeared to be higher, than of samples, obtained by direct fusion; i.e. in this case nanostructuring has not led to increase of thermoelectric figure of merit. The conclusion is drawn, that polycrystalline semiconductor Mg2Si0.3Sn0.7 can be used as a p-branch for a thermoelectric generator though nanostructuring has not led to the figure of

  10. An oxide-based thermoelectric generator: Transversal thermoelectric strip-device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, S.; Bochmann, A.; Reimann, T.; Schulz, T.; Dreßler, C.; Töpfer, J.

    2015-07-01

    A special design of an oxide-based transversal thermoelectric device utilizing thermoelectric oxides in combination with a ceramic multilayer technology is proposed. Metal strips within the ceramic matrix replace the tilted stack of alternating layers used in artificial anisotropic transversal thermoelectric devices. Numerical three-dimensional simulations of both device types reveal better thermoelectric performance data for the device with metal stripes. A monolithic transversal strip-device based on the material combination La1.97Sr0.03CuO4/Ag6Pd1 was prepared and electrically characterized. A maximum power output of 4.0 mW was determined at ΔT = 225 K for the monolithic device. The observed results are in remarkable agreement with three-dimensional numerical simulations utilizing the transport parameters of the two materials and the geometry data of the device.

  11. Benchmarking of a novel contactless characterisation method for micro thermoelectric modules (μTEMs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickey, S; Punch, J; Jeffers, N

    2014-01-01

    Significant challenges exist in the thermal control of Photonics Integrated Circuits (PICs) for use in optical communications. Increasing component density coupled with greater functionality is leading to higher device-level heat fluxes, stretching the capabilities of conventional cooling methods using thermoelectric modules (TEMs). A tailored thermal control solution incorporating micro thermoelectric modules (μTEMs) to individually address hotspots within PICs could provide an energy efficient alternative to existing control methods. Performance characterisation is required to establish the suitability of commercially-available μTEMs for the operating conditions in current and next generation PICs. The objective of this paper is to outline a novel method for the characterisation of thermoelectric modules (TEMs), which utilises infra-red (IR) heat transfer and temperature measurement to obviate the need for mechanical stress on the upper surface of low compression tolerance (∼0.5N) μTEMs. The method is benchmarked using a commercially-available macro scale TEM, comparing experimental data to the manufacturer's performance data sheet.

  12. Optimized operation of a solar driven thermoelectric dehumidification system for fresh water production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jradi, M.; Ghaddar, N.; Ghali, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, American University of Beirut (Lebanon)], Email: maj18@aub.edu.lb, email: farah@aub.edu.lb, email: ka04@aub.edu.lb

    2011-07-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing humanity is the scarcity of water resources; around 15% of people in the Arab world who do not have access to fresh water. A solar-driven thermoelectric system has been designed to dehumidify air and generate fresh water and combined with a solar distiller, which humidifies the air, the quantity of fresh water produced is further increased. The aim of this study is to assess the performance of this system. A case study was carried out in the Lebanese coastal humid climate zone on a residential space of 80m2 with water needs of 10 liters per day during summer months. Results showed that water requirements can be met with 5 thermoelectrically cooled channels and a solar distiller and that it would result in energy savings of from 17 to 45% during summer. This study demonstrated that the association of solar-driven thermoelectric systems and a solar distiller can provide fresh water at a low cost.

  13. Benchmarking of a novel contactless characterisation method for micro thermoelectric modules (μTEMs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, S.; Punch, J.; Jeffers, N.

    2014-07-01

    Significant challenges exist in the thermal control of Photonics Integrated Circuits (PICs) for use in optical communications. Increasing component density coupled with greater functionality is leading to higher device-level heat fluxes, stretching the capabilities of conventional cooling methods using thermoelectric modules (TEMs). A tailored thermal control solution incorporating micro thermoelectric modules (μTEMs) to individually address hotspots within PICs could provide an energy efficient alternative to existing control methods. Performance characterisation is required to establish the suitability of commercially-available μTEMs for the operating conditions in current and next generation PICs. The objective of this paper is to outline a novel method for the characterisation of thermoelectric modules (TEMs), which utilises infra-red (IR) heat transfer and temperature measurement to obviate the need for mechanical stress on the upper surface of low compression tolerance (~0.5N) μTEMs. The method is benchmarked using a commercially-available macro scale TEM, comparing experimental data to the manufacturer's performance data sheet.

  14. Megavolt nanosecond generator with semiconductor current breaker

    CERN Document Server

    Bushlyakov, A I; Rukin, S N; Slovikovskij, B G; Timoshenkov, S P

    2002-01-01

    The heavy-current nanosecond generator with the pulse capacity up to 1.6 GW and output voltage of 0.5-1 MW is described. The generator contains four capacity storages, one induction storage and six solid body commutators: one thyristor, four magnetic commutators and a semiconductor current breaker on the SOS-diodes. The results of studies on the energy change-over efficiency through a semiconductor breaker by various external resistance loads as well as the results of the thermal and frequency tests are presented. It is established that selection of the optimal cooling system provides for the generator continuous mode of operation with the pulse sequence frequency from 300 Hz up to 850 Hz

  15. Biggest semiconductor installed

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Scientists and technicians at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, commonly known by its French acronym CERN (Centre Europen pour la Recherche Nuclaire), have completed the installation of the largest semiconductor silicon detector.

  16. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  17. Radiation effects in semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to understand and combat potential radiation damage problems in semiconductor devices and circuits. Written by international experts, this book explains the effects of radiation on semiconductor devices, radiation detectors, and electronic devices and components. These contributors explore emerging applications, detector technologies, circuit design techniques, new materials, and innovative system approaches. The text focuses on how the technology is being used rather than the mathematical foundations behind it. It covers CMOS radiation-tolerant circuit implementations, CMOS pr

  18. Market survey of semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackintosh, I.M.; Diegel, D.; Brown, A.; Brinker, C.S. den

    1977-06-01

    Examination of technology and product trends over the range of current and future products in integrated circuits and optoelectronic displays. Analysis and forecast of major economic influences that affect the production costs of integrated circuits and optoelectronic displays. Forecast of the applications and markets for integrated circuits up to 1985 in West Europe, the USA and Japan. Historic development of the semiconductor industry and the prevailing tendencies - factors which influence success in the semiconductor industry. (orig.) [de

  19. Electronic properties of semiconductor heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einevoll, G.T.

    1991-02-01

    Ten papers on the electronic properties of semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures constitute the backbone of this thesis. Four papers address the form and validity of the single-band effective mass approximation for semiconductor heterostructures. In four other papers properties of acceptor states in bulk semiconductors and semiconductor heterostructures are studied using the novel effective bond-orbital model. The last two papers deal with localized excitions. 122 refs

  20. Study on a Battery Thermal Management System Based on a Thermoelectric Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan-Wei Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As is known to all, a battery pack is significantly important for electric vehicles. However, its performance is easily affected by temperature. In order to address this problem, an enhanced battery thermal management system is proposed, which includes two parts: a modified cooling structure and a control unit. In this paper, more attention has been paid to the structure part. According to the heat generation mechanism of a battery and a thermoelectric chip, a simplified heat generation model for a single cell and a special cooling model were created in ANSYS 17.0. The effects of inlet velocity on the performance of different heat exchanger structures were studied. The results show that the U loop structure is more reasonable and the flow field distribution is the most uniform at the inlet velocity of 1.0 m/s. Then, on the basis of the above heat exchanger and the liquid flow velocity, the cooling effect of the improved battery temperature adjustment structure and the traditional liquid temperature regulating structure were analyzed. It can be seen that the liquid cooling structure combined with thermoelectric cooling demonstrates a better performance. With respect to the control system, the corresponding hardware and software were also developed. In general, the design process for this enhanced battery thermal management system can provide a wealth of guidelines for solving similar problems. The H commutation circuit, matrix switch circuit, temperature measurement circuit, and wireless communication modules were designed in the control system and the temperature control strategy was also developed.

  1. Printing and Folding: A Solution for High-Throughput Processing of Organic Thin-Film Thermoelectric Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortazavinatanzi, Seyedmohammad; Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2018-01-01

    implantable sensors. Introducing new semiconductor materials like organic thermoelectric materials and advancing manufacturing techniques are paving the way to overcome the barriers associated with the bulky and inflexible nature of the common TEGs and are making it possible to fabricate flexible...... and biocompatible modules. Yet, the lower efficiency of these materials in comparison with bulk-inorganic counterparts as well as applying them mostly in the form of thin layers on flexible substrates limits their applications. This research aims to improve the functionality of thin and flexible organic...

  2. Thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler, Ulrike

    2007-07-01

    This work focuses on the thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds. The measurements of the thermal conductivity, thermopower, and Nernst coefficient are supplemented by investigations of other quantities as magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the relevant physical concepts. Section 1 of that chapter summarizes the characteristic properties of rare-earth systems; section 2 gives an overview on thermoelectric transport processes in magnetic fields. The applied experimental techniques as well as the new experimental setup are described in detail in Chapter 3. The experimental results are presented in Chapter 4-6, of which each concentrates on a different subject. In Chapter 4, various Eu clathrates and the skutterudite-like Ce{sub 3}Rh{sub 4}Sn{sub 13} are presented, which have been investigated as potential thermoelectric materials for applications. Chapter 5 focusses on the study of the energy scales in the heavy-fermion series Lu{sub 1-x}Yb{sub x}Rh{sub 2}Si{sub 2} and Ce{sub x}La{sub 1-x}Ni{sub 2}Ge{sub 2} by means of thermopower investigations. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the thermoelectric transport properties of the correlated semimetal CeNiSn with special emphasis on the Nernst coefficient of this compound. (orig.)

  3. Thermoelectric Generator Emulator for MPPT Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Man, Elena Anamaria; Sera, Dezso; Máthé, Lászlo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to use a DC power supply as a thermoelectric generator (TEG) emulator to perform static and dynamic maximum power point tracking (MPPT). First, the electrical characterization of a calcium-manganese-oxide module is performed on a TEG test rig. Afterwards...

  4. Experimental Study of a Thermoelectric Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Junpeng; Gao, Junling; Chen, Min

    2011-01-01

    . System-level simulation is carried out using a quasi-one-dimensional numerical model that enables direct comparison with experimental results. The results of both experiment and simulation will provide a foundation to improve and optimize complex thermoelectric generation systems....

  5. Thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, Ulrike

    2007-01-01

    This work focuses on the thermoelectric transport in rare-earth compounds. The measurements of the thermal conductivity, thermopower, and Nernst coefficient are supplemented by investigations of other quantities as magnetic susceptibility and specific heat. Chapter 2 provides an introduction to the relevant physical concepts. Section 1 of that chapter summarizes the characteristic properties of rare-earth systems; section 2 gives an overview on thermoelectric transport processes in magnetic fields. The applied experimental techniques as well as the new experimental setup are described in detail in Chapter 3. The experimental results are presented in Chapter 4-6, of which each concentrates on a different subject. In Chapter 4, various Eu clathrates and the skutterudite-like Ce 3 Rh 4 Sn 13 are presented, which have been investigated as potential thermoelectric materials for applications. Chapter 5 focusses on the study of the energy scales in the heavy-fermion series Lu 1-x Yb x Rh 2 Si 2 and Ce x La 1-x Ni 2 Ge 2 by means of thermopower investigations. Chapter 6 is dedicated to the thermoelectric transport properties of the correlated semimetal CeNiSn with special emphasis on the Nernst coefficient of this compound. (orig.)

  6. Thermoelectric devices and applications for the same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Larry C.; DeSteese, John G.; Martin, Peter M.; Johnston, John W.; Peters, Timothy J.

    2016-03-08

    High performance thin film thermoelectric couples and methods of making the same are disclosed. Such couples allow fabrication of at least microwatt to watt-level power supply devices operating at voltages greater than one volt even when activated by only small temperature differences.

  7. Thermoelectric neutron dosimetry: a short introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, F.; Meier, R.; Debrue, J.; Leonard, F.; Schubert, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives a short introduction and state-of-the-art account of an unconventional, non destructive neutron dosimetry method based on monitoring the neutron fluence dependent changes of the thermoelectric properties of base metals and alloys. The basic principles are exposed and illustrated with experimental data obtained during an exploratory irradiation in the BR2 reactor

  8. High thermoelectric performance of graphite nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Van-Truong; Saint-Martin, Jérôme; Dollfus, Philippe; Volz, Sebastian

    2018-02-22

    Graphite nanofibers (GNFs) have been demonstrated to be a promising material for hydrogen storage and heat management in electronic devices. Here, by means of first-principles and transport simulations, we show that GNFs can also be an excellent material for thermoelectric applications thanks to the interlayer weak van der Waals interaction that induces low thermal conductance and a step-like shape in the electronic transmission with mini-gaps, which are necessary ingredients to achieve high thermoelectric performance. This study unveils that the platelet form of GNFs in which graphite layers are perpendicular to the fiber axis can exhibit outstanding thermoelectric properties with a figure of merit ZT reaching 3.55 in a 0.5 nm diameter fiber and 1.1 in a 1.1 nm diameter one. Interestingly, by introducing 14 C isotope doping, ZT can even be enhanced up to more than 5, and more than 8 if we include the effect of finite phonon mean free path, which demonstrates the amazing thermoelectric potential of GNFs.

  9. Design concepts for improved thermoelectric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slack, G A

    1997-07-01

    Some new guidelines are given that should be useful in the search for thermoelectric materials that are better than those currently available. In particular, clathrate and cryptoclathrate compounds with filler atoms in their cages offer the ability to substantially lower the lattice thermal conductivity.

  10. Interference enhanced thermoelectricity in quinoid type structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strange, M., E-mail: strange@chem.ku.dk; Solomon, G. C. [Nano-Science Center and Department of Chemistry, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 5, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Seldenthuis, J. S.; Verzijl, C. J. O.; Thijssen, J. M. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CJ Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-02-28

    Quantum interference (QI) effects in molecular junctions may be used to obtain large thermoelectric responses. We study the electrical conductance G and the thermoelectric response of a series of molecules featuring a quinoid core using density functional theory, as well as a semi-empirical interacting model Hamiltonian describing the π-system of the molecule which we treat in the GW approximation. Molecules with a quinoid type structure are shown to have two distinct destructive QI features close to the frontier orbital energies. These manifest themselves as two dips in the transmission, that remain separated, even when either electron donating or withdrawing side groups are added. We find that the position of the dips in the transmission and the frontier molecular levels can be chemically controlled by varying the electron donating or withdrawing character of the side groups as well as the conjugation length inside the molecule. This feature results in a very high thermoelectric power factor S{sup 2}G and figure of merit ZT, where S is the Seebeck coefficient, making quinoid type molecules potential candidates for efficient thermoelectric devices.

  11. Decontamination in the Electron Probe Microanalysis with a Peltier-Cooled Cold Finger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buse, Ben; Kearns, Stuart; Clapham, Charles; Hawley, Donovan

    2016-10-01

    A prototype Peltier thermoelectric cooling unit has been constructed to cool a cold finger on an electron microprobe. The Peltier unit was tested at 15 and 96 W, achieving cold finger temperatures of -10 and -27°C, respectively. The Peltier unit did not adversely affect the analytical stability of the instrument. Heat conduction between the Peltier unit mounted outside the vacuum and the cold finger was found to be very efficient. Under Peltier cooling, the vacuum improvement associated with water vapor deposition was not achieved; this has the advantage of avoiding severe degradation of the vacuum observed when warming up a cold finger from liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperatures. Carbon contamination rates were reduced as cooling commenced; by -27°C contamination rates were found to be comparable with LN2-cooled devices. Peltier cooling, therefore, provides a viable alternative to LN2-cooled cold fingers, with few of their associated disadvantages.

  12. Automotive Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Gregory P.

    2015-03-01

    Considerable fuel energy, as much as 70%, is not converted to useful work by internal combustion engines but is instead rejected as waste heat, and more than half of the waste heat, nearly 40% of fuel energy, is contained in vehicle exhaust gas. This provides an opportunity to recover some of the wasted fuel energy and convert it from heat into useful work, subject to the laws of thermodynamics, and thereby improve vehicle energy efficiency. Thermoelectric (TE) materials have been extensively researched and TE devices are now being developed for operation at high temperatures corresponding to automotive exhaust gases for direct solid-state conversion of heat into electricity. This has stimulated substantial progress in the development of practical TE generator (TEG) systems for large-scale commercialization. A significant enabler of this progress has been the US Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Program through funding for low cost solutions for automotive TE waste heat recovery to improve fuel economy. Our current project at General Motors has culminated in the identification of the potential supply chain for all components and assembly of an automotive TEG. A significant focus has been to develop integrated and iterative modeling tools for a fully optimized TEG design that includes all components and subsystems (TE modules, heat exchangers, thermal interfaces, electrical interconnects, power conditioning, and vehicle integration for maximal use of TEG power). We have built and tested a new, low-cost Initial TEG prototype based on state-of-the-art production-scale skutterudite TE modules, novel heat exchanger designs, and practical solutions to the many technical challenges for optimum TEG performance. We will use the results for our Initial TEG prototype to refine our modeling and design tools for a Final automotive TEG system prototype. Our recent results will be presented. Thanks to: J.R. Salvador, E.R. Gundlach, D. Thompson, N.K. Bucknor, M

  13. Peltier battery thermostat for semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caini, V.

    1980-01-01

    The description is given of a Peltier battery cooling thermostat for semiconductor detectors, whose sensing element is the detector itself. A signal proportional to the leakage current is amplified and compared with a chosen reference voltage. The difference, amplified and sensed, regulates the cooling current to the Peltier battery. Special mechanical devices speed up measurement-taking. The leakage current proved to be reducible to as little as 1/1000 of that at ambient temperature and the stabilization obtained is between +-5 nA (although between +-1 nA is also feasible). Hence it is possible to use very high load resistance preamplifiers to reduce noise and to improve stability and pulse height resolution in α spectroscopy, even with a detector unsuitable for work at very low temperatures. Other applications can be foreseen. (orig.)

  14. Critical review of thermoelectrics in modern power generation applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqr Khalid M.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermoelectric complementary effects have been discovered in the nineteenth century. However, their role in engineering applications has been very limited until the first half of the twentieth century, the beginning of space exploration era. Radioisotope thermoelectric generators have been the actual motive for the research community to develop efficient, reliable and advanced thermoelectrics. The efficiency of thermoelectric materials has been doubled several times during the past three decades. Nevertheless, there are numerous challenges to be resolved in order to develop thermoelectric systems for our modern applications. This paper discusses the recent advances in thermoelectric power systems and sheds the light on the main problematic concerns which confront contemporary research efforts in that field.

  15. The thermoelectric performance of bulk three-dimensional graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhi, E-mail: yangzhi@tyut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Transducers and Intelligent Control System, Ministry of Education and Shanxi Province, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Lan, Guoqiang; Ouyang, Bin [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 0C5 (Canada); Xu, Li-Chun; Liu, Ruiping [College of Physics and Optoelectronics, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Liu, Xuguang, E-mail: liuxuguang@tyut.edu.cn [Key Lab of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Song, Jun [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, Montreal H3A 0C5 (Canada)

    2016-11-01

    The electronic and thermoelectric properties of a new carbon bulk material, three-dimensional (3D) graphene, are investigated in this study. Our results show that 3D graphene has unique electronic structure, i.e., near the Fermi level there exist Dirac cones. More importantly, the thermoelectric performance of 3D graphene is excellent, at room temperature the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) is 0.21, an order of magnitude higher than that of graphene. By introducing line defects, the ZT of 3D graphene could be enhanced to 1.52, indicating 3D graphene is a powerful candidate for constructing novel thermoelectric materials. - Highlights: • There exist Dirac cones in three-dimensional (3D) graphene. • The thermoelectric performance of 3D graphene is excellent. • The defective 3D graphene has better thermoelectric performance.

  16. Applications of thermoelectric modules on heat flow detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leephakpreeda, Thananchai

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents quantitative analysis and practical scenarios of implementation of the thermoelectric module for heat flow detection. Mathematical models of the thermoelectric effects are derived to describe the heat flow from/to the detected media. It is observed that the amount of the heat flow through the thermoelectric module proportionally induces the conduction heat owing to the temperature difference between the hot side and the cold side of the thermoelectric module. In turn, the Seebeck effect takes place in the thermoelectric module where the temperature difference is converted to the electric voltage. Hence, the heat flow from/to the detected media can be observed from both the amount and the polarity of the voltage across the thermoelectric module. Two experiments are demonstrated for viability of the proposed technique by the measurements of the heat flux through the building wall and thermal radiation from the outdoor environment during daytime. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Method of doping a semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.Y.; Rapp, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method is disclosed for doping semiconductor material. An interface is established between a solid electrolyte and a semiconductor to be doped. The electrolyte is chosen to be an ionic conductor of the selected impurity and the semiconductor material and electrolyte are jointly chosen so that any compound formed from the impurity and the semiconductor will have a free energy no lower than the electrolyte. A potential is then established across the interface so as to allow the impurity ions to diffuse into the semiconductor. In one embodiment the semiconductor and electrolyte may be heated so as to increase the diffusion coefficient

  18. CCST [Center for Compound Semiconductor Technology] research briefs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipperian, T.E.; Voelker, E.R.

    1989-12-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: theoretical predictions of valence and conduction band offsets in III-V semiconductors; reflectance modulation of a semiconductor superlattice optical mirror; magnetoquantum oscillations of the phonon-drag thermoelectric power in quantum wells; correlation between photoluminescence line shape and device performance of p-channel strained-layer materials; control of threading dislocations in heteroepitaxial structures; improved growth of CdTe on GaAs by patterning; role of structure threading dislocations in relaxation of highly strained single-quantum-well structures; InAlAs growth optimization using reflection mass spectrometry; nonvolatile charge storage in III-V heterostructures; optically triggered thyristor switches; InAsSb strained-layer superlattice infrared detectors with high detectivities; resonant periodic gain surface-emitting semiconductor lasers; performance advantages of strained-quantum-well lasers in AlGaAs/InGaAs; optical integrated circuit for phased-array radar antenna control; and deposition and novel device fabrication from Tl 2 Ca 2 Ba 2 Cu 3 O y thin films

  19. Cool snacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Brock, Steen; Brunsø, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Young people snack and their snacking habits are not always healthy. We address the questions whether it is possible to develop a new snack product that adolescents will find attractive, even though it is based on ingredients as healthy as fruits and vegetables, and we argue that developing...... such a product requires an interdisciplinary effort where researchers with backgrounds in psychology, anthropology, media science, philosophy, sensory science and food science join forces. We present the COOL SNACKS project, where such a blend of competences was used first to obtain thorough insight into young...... people's snacking behaviour and then to develop and test new, healthier snacking solutions. These new snacking solutions were tested and found to be favourably accepted by young people. The paper therefore provides a proof of principle that the development of snacks that are both healthy and attractive...

  20. Cool visitors

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Pictured, from left to right: Tim Izo (saxophone, flute, guitar), Bobby Grant (tour manager), George Pajon (guitar). What do the LHC and a world-famous hip-hop group have in common? They are cool! On Saturday, 1st July, before their appearance at the Montreux Jazz Festival, three members of the 'Black Eyed Peas' came on a surprise visit to CERN, inspired by Dan Brown's Angels and Demons. At short notice, Connie Potter (Head of the ATLAS secretariat) organized a guided tour of ATLAS and the AD 'antimatter factory'. Still curious, lead vocalist Will.I.Am met CERN physicist Rolf Landua after the concert to ask many more questions on particles, CERN, and the origin of the Universe.

  1. Effects of Channel Geometry and Coolant Fluid on Thermoelectric Net Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaniakolaei, Alireza; Rosendahl, Lasse; Sørensen, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Channel geometry has a strong influence on the heat transfer coefficient and cooling energy input in a heat sink. The net power output in a thermoelectric generator (TEG) can be defined as power generation minus the required cooling energy in TEG. This study aims to evaluate the net power generat......, and the maximum net power output occurs at smaller Reynolds number when the channel hydraulic diameter reduces....... generation in TEG for different size of hydraulic diameter of plate-fin heat sink and over a wide range of Reynolds number. The particular focus of this study is to find optimal Reynolds number in each considered channel hydraulic diameter and to explore optimal channel hydraulic diameter for maximum TEG net...

  2. Portable Thermoelectric Power Generator Coupled with Phase Change Material

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Chong C.; Al-Kayiem Hussain H.; Sing Chin Y.

    2014-01-01

    Solar is the intermittent source of renewable energy and all thermal solar systems having a setback on non-functioning during the night and cloudy environment. This paper presents alternative solution for power generation using thermoelectric which is the direct conversion of temperature gradient of hot side and cold side of thermoelectric material to electric voltage. Phase change material with latent heat effect would help to prolong the temperature gradient across thermoelectric material f...

  3. Magnetic and thermoelectric properties of electron doped Ca{sub 0.85}Pr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain Khan, Momin [Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Pal, Sudipta, E-mail: sudipta.pal@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Bose, Esa [Department of Engineering Physics, B. P. P. I. M.T, Kolkata 700052, West Bengal (India)

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated temperature-dependent magnetization (M), magnetic susceptibility (χ) and thermoelectric (S) properties of the electron-doped Ca{sub 0.85}Pr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3}. With decrease of temperature, paramagnetic (PM) to antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transition occurs with a well-defined Néel temperature (T{sub N}=122 K). Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that the paramagnetic state involves modified Curie–Weiss paramagnetism. Field cooled and zero field cooled magnetization measurements indicate a signature of magnetic frustration. Ferromagnetic (FM) double-exchange interactions associated with doped e{sub g} electrons are favored over competing AFM interactions below T{sub irr}=112 K. Magnetization data also shows a second-order phase transition. The sign reversal in S(T) has been interpreted in terms of the change in the electronic structure relating to the orbital degrees of freedom of the doped e{sub g} electron. Low temperature (5–140 K) thermoelectric power, S (T) signifies the importance of electron–magnon scattering process. - Highlights: • Magnetic and thermoelectric properties have been investigated in Ca{sub 0.85}Pr{sub 0.15}MnO{sub 3}. • It shows a PM–AFM second order phase transition at T{sub N}=122 K. • PM state involves modified Curie–Weiss paramagnetism. • The electron–magnon scattering dominates temperature dependent thermoelectric power.

  4. Modeling of Thermoelectric Generator Power Characteristics for Motorcycle-Type Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipkov, Alexey; Poshekhonov, Roman; Arutyunyan, Georgy; Basov, Andrey; Safonov, Roman

    2017-10-01

    Thermoelectric generation in vehicles such as motorcycles, all-terrain vehicles, and snowmobiles opens the possibility of additional electrical energy generation by means of exhaust heat utilization. This is beneficial because replacing the mechanical generator used in such vehicles with a more powerful one in cases of electrical power deficiency is impossible. This paper proposes a calculation model for the thermoelectric generator (TEG) operational characteristics of the low-capacity internal combustion engines used in these vehicles. Two TEG structures are considered: (1) TEG with air cooling and (2) TEG with water cooling. Modeling consists of two calculation stages. In the first stage, the heat exchange coefficients of the hot and cold exchangers are determined using computational fluid dynamics. In the second stage, the TEG operational characteristics are modeled based on the nonlinear equations of the heat transfer and power balance. On the basis of the modeling results, the dependence of the TEG's major operating characteristics (such as the electrical power generated by the TEG and its efficiency and mass) on operating conditions or design parameters is determined. For example, the electrical power generated by a TEG for a Yamaha WR450F motorcycle engine with a volume of 0.449 × 10-3 m3 was calculated to be as much as 100 W. Use of the TEG arrangements proposed is justified by the additional electrical power generation for small capacity vehicles, without the need for internal combustion engine redesign.

  5. Hybrid photovoltaic-thermoelectric system for concentrated solar energy conversion: Experimental realization and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeri, Ofer; Rotem, Oded; Hazan, Eden; Katz, Eugene A.; Braun, Avi; Gelbstein, Yaniv

    2015-09-01

    An experimental demonstration of the combined photovoltaic (PV) and thermoelectric conversion of concentrated sunlight (with concentration factor, X, up to ˜300) into electricity is presented. The hybrid system is based on a multi-junction PV cell and a thermoelectric generator (TEG). The latter increases the electric power of the system and dissipates some of the excessive heat. For X ≤ 200, the system's maximal efficiency, ˜32%, was mostly due to the contribution from the PV cell. With increasing X and system temperature, the PV cell's efficiency decreased while that of the TEG increased. Accordingly, the direct electrical contribution of the TEG started to dominate in the total system power, reaching ˜20% at X ≈ 290. Using a simple steady state finite element modeling, the cooling effect of the TEG on the hybrid system's efficiency was proved to be even more significant than its direct electrical contribution for high solar concentrations. As a result, the total efficiency contribution of the TEG reached ˜40% at X ≈ 200. This suggests a new system optimization concept that takes into account the PV cell's temperature dependence and the trade-off between the direct electrical generation and cooling capabilities of the TEG. It is shown that the hybrid system has a real potential to exceed 50% total efficiency by using more advanced PV cells and TE materials.

  6. Fundamentals of semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Numai, Takahiro

    2015-01-01

    This book explains physics under the operating principles of semiconductor lasers in detail based on the experience of the author, dealing with the first manufacturing of phase-shifted DFB-LDs and recent research on transverse modes.   The book also bridges a wide gap between journal papers and textbooks, requiring only an undergraduate-level knowledge of electromagnetism and quantum mechanics, and helps readers to understand journal papers where definitions of some technical terms vary, depending on the paper. Two definitions of the photon density in the rate equations and two definitions of the phase-shift in the phase-shifted DFB-LD are explained, and differences in the calculated results are indicated, depending on the definitions.    Readers can understand the physics of semiconductor lasers and analytical tools for Fabry-Perot LDs, DFB-LDs, and VCSELs and will be stimulated to develop semiconductor lasers themselves.

  7. Coherent dynamics in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    enhanced in quantum confined lower-dimensional systems, where exciton and biexciton effects dominate the spectra even at room temperature. The coherent dynamics of excitons are at modest densities well described by the optical Bloch equations and a number of the dynamical effects known from atomic......Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...

  8. Hydrogen in semiconductors II

    CERN Document Server

    Nickel, Norbert H; Weber, Eicke R; Nickel, Norbert H

    1999-01-01

    Since its inception in 1966, the series of numbered volumes known as Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. The "Willardson and Beer" Series, as it is widely known, has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. Not only did many of these volumes make an impact at the time of their publication, but they continue to be well-cited years after their original release. Recently, Professor Eicke R. Weber of the University of California at Berkeley joined as a co-editor of the series. Professor Weber, a well-known expert in the field of semiconductor materials, will further contribute to continuing the series' tradition of publishing timely, highly relevant, and long-impacting volumes. Some of the recent volumes, such as Hydrogen in Semiconductors, Imperfections in III/V Materials, Epitaxial Microstructures, High-Speed Heterostructure Devices, Oxygen in Silicon, and others promise that this tradition ...

  9. Photoelectronic properties of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Bube, Richard H

    1992-01-01

    The interaction between light and electrons in semiconductors forms the basis for many interesting and practically significant properties. This book examines the fundamental physics underlying this rich complexity of photoelectronic properties of semiconductors, and will familiarise the reader with the relatively simple models that are useful in describing these fundamentals. The basic physics is also illustrated with typical recent examples of experimental data and observations. Following introductory material on the basic concepts, the book moves on to consider a wide range of phenomena, including photoconductivity, recombination effects, photoelectronic methods of defect analysis, photoeffects at grain boundaries, amorphous semiconductors, photovoltaic effects and photoeffects in quantum wells and superlattices. The author is Professor of Materials Science and Electrical Engineering at Stanford University, and has taught this material for many years. He is an experienced author, his earlier books having fo...

  10. Effects of Coupling Lens on Optical Refrigeration of Semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai, Ding; Yi-Ping, Zeng

    2008-01-01

    Optical refrigeration of semiconductors is encountering efficiency difficulties caused by nonradiative recombination and luminescence trapping. A commonly used approach for enhancing luminescence efficiency of a semiconductor device is coupling a lens with the device. We quantitatively study the effects of a coupling lens on optical refrigeration based on rate equations and photon recycling, and calculated cooling efficiencies of different coupling mechanisms and of different lens materials. A GaAs/GaInP heterostructure coupled with a homo-epitaxial GaInP hemispherical lens is recommended. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  11. Heat-transfer, inside of the ground heat-transfer units, from liquid, additionally cooling the oil-immersed transformer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madyshev Ilnur

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A device for cooling the oil-immersed transformer by means of thermoelectric transducers has been developed. Their operating principle is based on the fact that at night at minimum ambient temperature, the cold is accumulated inside of a vessel due to formation of water ice layer on the developed surfaces of thermoelectric transducers` ribs. Melting of this layer is used in the hottest time of a day for additional cooling of transformer oil in the cooling system of the transformer. Pre-cooling of the circulating water takes place in vertical ground heat-transfer units (VGHT units, mounted into ground drilled boreholes. Certain estimate calculations of the heat-transfer process have been carried out.

  12. Laser assisted hybrid additive manufacturing of thermoelectric modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Tewolde, Mahder; Longtin, Jon P.; Hwang, David J.

    2017-02-01

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are an attractive means to produce electricity, particular from waste heat applications. However, TEGs are almost exclusively manufactured as flat, rigid modules of limited size and shape, and therefore an appropriate mounting for intimate contact of TEGs modules onto arbitrary surfaces represents a significant challenge. In this study, we introduce laser assisted additive manufacturing method to produce multi-layered thermoelectric generator device directly on flat and non-flat surfaces for waste heat recovery. The laser assisted processing spans from laser scribing of thermal sprayed thin films, curing of dispensed thermoelectric inks and selective laser sintering to functionalize thermoelectric materials.

  13. Advances in semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Coleman, James J; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2012-01-01

    Semiconductors and Semimetals has distinguished itself through the careful selection of well-known authors, editors, and contributors. Originally widely known as the ""Willardson and Beer"" Series, it has succeeded in publishing numerous landmark volumes and chapters. The series publishes timely, highly relevant volumes intended for long-term impact and reflecting the truly interdisciplinary nature of the field. The volumes in Semiconductors and Semimetals have been and will continue to be of great interest to physicists, chemists, materials scientists, and device engineers in academia, scien

  14. Superconductivity in doped semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr

    2015-07-15

    A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.

  15. Semiconductor opto-electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Moss, TS; Ellis, B

    1972-01-01

    Semiconductor Opto-Electronics focuses on opto-electronics, covering the basic physical phenomena and device behavior that arise from the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and electrons in a solid. The first nine chapters of this book are devoted to theoretical topics, discussing the interaction of electromagnetic waves with solids, dispersion theory and absorption processes, magneto-optical effects, and non-linear phenomena. Theories of photo-effects and photo-detectors are treated in detail, including the theories of radiation generation and the behavior of semiconductor lasers a

  16. Ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Shay, J L; Pamplin, B R

    2013-01-01

    Ternary Chalcopyrite Semiconductors: Growth, Electronic Properties, and Applications covers the developments of work in the I-III-VI2 and II-IV-V2 ternary chalcopyrite compounds. This book is composed of eight chapters that focus on the crystal growth, characterization, and applications of these compounds to optical communications systems. After briefly dealing with the status of ternary chalcopyrite compounds, this book goes on describing the crystal growth of II-IV-V2 and I-III-VI2 single crystals. Chapters 3 and 4 examine the energy band structure of these semiconductor compounds, illustrat

  17. Compound semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tiwari, Sandip

    2013-01-01

    This book provides one of the most rigorous treatments of compound semiconductor device physics yet published. A complete understanding of modern devices requires a working knowledge of low-dimensional physics, the use of statistical methods, and the use of one-, two-, and three-dimensional analytical and numerical analysis techniques. With its systematic and detailed**discussion of these topics, this book is ideal for both the researcher and the student. Although the emphasis of this text is on compound semiconductor devices, many of the principles discussed will also be useful to those inter

  18. Introductory semiconductor device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Greg

    2004-01-01

    ATOMS AND BONDINGThe Periodic TableIonic BondingCovalent BondingMetallic bondingvan der Waals BondingStart a DatabaseENERGY BANDS AND EFFECTIVE MASSSemiconductors, Insulators and MetalsSemiconductorsInsulatorsMetalsThe Concept of Effective MassCARRIER CONCENTRATIONS IN SEMICONDUCTORSDonors and AcceptorsFermi-LevelCarrier Concentration EquationsDonors and Acceptors Both PresentCONDUCTION IN SEMICONDUCTORSCarrier DriftCarrier MobilitySaturated Drift VelocityMobility Variation with TemperatureA Derivation of Ohm's LawDrift Current EquationsSemiconductor Band Diagrams with an Electric Field Presen

  19. Relationship between the merit factor of thermoelectric materials and the air conditioning unit of urban electric cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffet, J.

    1994-01-01

    The main benefit of electric cars is to reduce air pollution in cities that is thus desirable to equip them with non polluting air conditioning units and this rules out frigorific compressors operating with CFC. The planned replacement of CFC by HFC is at best an interim solution. The best solution is certainly to use thermoelectric air conditioning units, which are inherently pollution-free. However, these have a fairly low COPF when compared to traditional compressor units. We study the relationship between the cooling of the interior of urban electric cars and the merit factor of the thermoelectric material in their Peltier unit. This should help provide concrete target properties of future T E materials. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  20. Tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    A tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device includes at least one elongated structure at least partially fabricated from one or more semiconductor materials exhibiting a bandgap characteristic including one or more energy transitions whose energies correspond to photon energies of light