The thermodynamical foundation of electronic conduction in solids
Bringuier, E.
2018-03-01
In elementary textbooks, the microscopic justification of Ohm’s local law in a solid medium starts with Drude’s classical model of electron transport and next discusses the quantum-dynamical and statistical amendments. In this paper, emphasis is laid instead upon the thermodynamical background motivated by the Joule-Lenz heating effect accompanying conduction and the fact that the conduction electrons are thermalized at the lattice temperature. Both metals and n-type semiconductors are considered; but conduction under a magnetic field is not. Proficiency in second-year thermodynamics and vector analysis is required from an undergraduate university student in physics so that the content of the paper can be taught to third-year students. The necessary elements of quantum mechanics are posited in this paper without detailed justification. We start with the equilibrium-thermodynamic notion of the chemical potential of the electron gas, the value of which distinguishes metals from semiconductors. Then we turn to the usage of the electrochemical potential in the description of near-equilibrium electron transport. The response of charge carriers to the electrochemical gradient involves the mobility, which is the reciprocal of the coefficient of the effective friction force opposing the carrier drift. Drude’s calculation of mobility is restated with the dynamical requirements of quantum physics. Where the carrier density is inhomogeneous, there appears diffusion, the coefficient of which is thermodynamically related to the mobility. Next, it is remarked that the release of heat was ignored in Drude’s original model. In this paper, the flow of Joule heat is handled thermodynamically within an energy balance where the voltage generator, the conduction electrons and the host lattice are involved in an explicit way. The notion of dissipation is introduced as the rate of entropy creation in a steady state. The body of the paper is restricted to the case of one
Stability, electronic and thermodynamic properties of aluminene from first-principles calculations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuan, Junhui [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Yu, Niannian [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430070 (China); Xue, Kanhao, E-mail: xkh@hust.edu.cn [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Miao, Xiangshui [School of Optical and Electronic Information, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)
2017-07-01
Highlights: • We have predicted two NEW stable phases of atomic layer aluminum, buckled and 8-Pmmn aluminene. • We have revealed the electronic structures and bonding characteristics of aluminene. • Thermodynamic properties of aluminene were investigated based on phonon properties. - Abstract: Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the structure stability and electronic properties of both buckled and 8-Pmmn phase aluminene. Phonon dispersion analysis reveals that the buckled and 8-Pmmn aluminene are dynamically stable. The band structure shows that both the buckled and 8-Pmmn aluminene exhibit metallic behavior. Finally, the thermodynamic properties are investigated based on phonon properties.
Stability, electronic and thermodynamic properties of aluminene from first-principles calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Junhui; Yu, Niannian; Xue, Kanhao; Miao, Xiangshui
2017-01-01
Highlights: • We have predicted two NEW stable phases of atomic layer aluminum, buckled and 8-Pmmn aluminene. • We have revealed the electronic structures and bonding characteristics of aluminene. • Thermodynamic properties of aluminene were investigated based on phonon properties. - Abstract: Using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the structure stability and electronic properties of both buckled and 8-Pmmn phase aluminene. Phonon dispersion analysis reveals that the buckled and 8-Pmmn aluminene are dynamically stable. The band structure shows that both the buckled and 8-Pmmn aluminene exhibit metallic behavior. Finally, the thermodynamic properties are investigated based on phonon properties.
Zhang, Peng; Yuly, Jonathon L; Lubner, Carolyn E; Mulder, David W; King, Paul W; Peters, John W; Beratan, David N
2017-09-19
How can proteins drive two electrons from a redox active donor onto two acceptors at very different potentials and distances? And how can this transaction be conducted without dissipating very much energy or violating the laws of thermodynamics? Nature appears to have addressed these challenges by coupling thermodynamically uphill and downhill electron transfer reactions, using two-electron donor cofactors that have very different potentials for the removal of the first and second electron. Although electron bifurcation is carried out with near perfection from the standpoint of energy conservation and electron delivery yields, it is a biological energy transduction paradigm that has only come into focus recently. This Account provides an exegesis of the biophysical principles that underpin electron bifurcation. Remarkably, bifurcating electron transfer (ET) proteins typically send one electron uphill and one electron downhill by similar energies, such that the overall reaction is spontaneous, but not profligate. Electron bifurcation in the NADH-dependent reduced ferredoxin: NADP + oxidoreductase I (Nfn) is explored in detail here. Recent experimental progress in understanding the structure and function of Nfn allows us to dissect its workings in the framework of modern ET theory. The first electron that leaves the two-electron donor flavin (L-FAD) executes a positive free energy "uphill" reaction, and the departure of this electron switches on a second thermodynamically spontaneous ET reaction from the flavin along a second pathway that moves electrons in the opposite direction and at a very different potential. The singly reduced ET products formed from the bifurcating flavin are more than two nanometers distant from each other. In Nfn, the second electron to leave the flavin is much more reducing than the first: the potentials are said to be "crossed." The eventually reduced cofactors, NADH and ferredoxin in the case of Nfn, perform crucial downstream redox
A thermodynamical analysis of rf current drive with fast electrons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bizarro, João P. S., E-mail: bizarro@ipfn.tecnico.ulisboa.pt [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2015-08-15
The problem of rf current drive (CD) by pushing fast electrons with high-parallel-phase-velocity waves, such as lower-hybrid (LH) or electron-cyclotron (EC) waves, is revisited using the first and second laws, the former to retrieve the well-known one-dimensional (1D) steady-state CD efficiency, and the latter to calculate a lower bound for the rate of entropy production when approaching steady state. The laws of thermodynamics are written in a form that explicitly takes care of frictional dissipation and are thus applied to a population of fast electrons evolving under the influence of a dc electric field, rf waves, and collisions while in contact with a thermal, Maxwellian reservoir with a well-defined temperature. Besides the laws of macroscopic thermodynamics, there is recourse to basic elements of kinetic theory only, being assumed a residual dc electric field and a strong rf drive, capable of sustaining in the resonant region, where waves interact with electrons, a raised fast-electron tail distribution, which becomes an essentially flat plateau in the case of the 1D theory for LHCD. Within the 1D model, particularly suited for LHCD as it solely retains fast-electron dynamics in velocity space parallel to the ambient magnetic field, an H theorem for rf CD is also derived, which is written in different forms, and additional physics is recovered, such as the synergy between the dc and rf power sources, including the rf-induced hot conductivity, as well as the equation for electron-bulk heating. As much as possible 1D results are extended to 2D, to account for ECCD by also considering fast-electron velocity-space dynamics in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field, which leads to a detailed discussion on how the definition of an rf-induced conductivity may depend on whether one works at constant rf current or power. Moreover, working out the collisional dissipated power and entropy-production rate written in terms of the fast-electron distribution, it
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Peng; Yuly, Jonathon L.; Lubner, Carolyn E. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Mulder, David W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; King, Paul W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado 80401, United States; Peters, John W. [Institute; Beratan, David N. [Department
2017-08-23
How can proteins drive two electrons from a redox active donor onto two acceptors at very different potentials and distances? And how can this transaction be conducted without dissipating very much energy or violating the laws of thermodynamics? Nature appears to have addressed these challenges by coupling thermodynamically uphill and downhill electron transfer reactions, using two-electron donor cofactors that have very different potentials for the removal of the first and second electron. Although electron bifurcation is carried out with near perfection from the standpoint of energy conservation and electron delivery yields, it is a biological energy transduction paradigm that has only come into focus recently. This Account provides an exegesis of the biophysical principles that underpin electron bifurcation.
Askerov, Bahram M
2010-01-01
This book deals with theoretical thermodynamics and the statistical physics of electron and particle gases. While treating the laws of thermodynamics from both classical and quantum theoretical viewpoints, it posits that the basis of the statistical theory of macroscopic properties of a system is the microcanonical distribution of isolated systems, from which all canonical distributions stem. To calculate the free energy, the Gibbs method is applied to ideal and non-ideal gases, and also to a crystalline solid. Considerable attention is paid to the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein quantum statistics and its application to different quantum gases, and electron gas in both metals and semiconductors is considered in a nonequilibrium state. A separate chapter treats the statistical theory of thermodynamic properties of an electron gas in a quantizing magnetic field.
Wu, Yundang; Liu, Tongxu; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Fangbai
2014-08-19
Despite the importance of exogenous electron shuttles (ESs) in extracellular electron transfer (EET), a lack of understanding of the key properties of ESs is a concern given their different influences on EET processes. Here, the ES-mediated EET capacity of Shewanella putrefaciens 200 (SP200) was evaluated by examining the electricity generated in a microbial fuel cell. The results indicated that all the ESs substantially accelerated the current generation compared to only SP200. The current and polarization parameters were linearly correlated with both the standard redox potential (E(ES)(0)) and the electron accepting capacity (EAC) of the ESs. A thermodynamic analysis of the electron transfer from the electron donor to the electrode suggested that the EET from c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts) to ESs is a crucial step causing the differences in EET capacities among various ESs. Based on the derived equations, both E(ES)(0) and EAC can quantitatively determine potential losses (ΔE) that reflect the potential loss of the ES-mediated EET. In situ spectral kinetic analysis of ES reduction by c-Cyts in a living SP200 suspension was first investigated with the E(ES), E(c-Cyt), and ΔE values being calculated. This study can provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of ESs in EET.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horing, Norman J Morgenstern; Glasser, M Lawrence; Dong Bing
2006-01-01
We carry out a theoretical analysis of quantum well electron dynamics in a parallel magnetic field of arbitrary strength, for a narrow quantum well. An explicit analytical closed-form solution is obtained for the retarded Green's function for Landau-quantized electrons in skipping states of motion between the narrow well walls, effectively involving in-plane translational motion, and hybridized with the zero-field lowest subband energy eigenstate. The dispersion relation for electron eigenstates is examined, and we find a plethora of such discrete Landau-quantized modes coupled to the subband state. In the weak field limit, we determine low magnetic field corrections to the lowest subband state energy associated with close-packing (phase averaging) of the Landau levels in the skipping states. At higher fields the discrete energy levels of the well lie between adjacent Landau levels, but they are not equally spaced, albeit undamped. Furthermore, we also examine the associated thermodynamic Green's function for Landau-quantized electrons in a thin quantum well in a parallel magnetic field and construct the (grand) thermodynamic potential (logarithm of the grand partition function) determining the statistical thermodynamics of the system
Advanced thermodynamic (exergetic) analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsatsaronis, G; Morosuk, T
2012-01-01
Exergy analysis is a powerful tool for developing, evaluating and improving an energy conversion system. However, the lack of a formal procedure in using the results obtained by an exergy analysis is one of the reasons for exergy analysis not being very popular among energy practitioners. Such a formal procedure cannot be developed as long as the interactions among components of the overall system are not being taken properly into account. Splitting the exergy destruction into unavoidable and avoidable parts in a component provides a realistic measure of the potential for improving the thermodynamic efficiency of this component. Alternatively splitting the exergy destruction into endogenous and exogenous parts provides information on the interactions among system components. Distinctions between avoidable and unavoidable exergy destruction on one side and endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction on the other side allow the engineer to focus on the thermodynamic inefficiencies that can be avoided and to consider the interactions among system components. The avoidable endogenous and the avoidable exogenous exergy destruction provide the best guidance for improving the thermodynamic performance of energy conversion systems.
Thermodynamic analysis of elastic-plastic deformation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lubarda, V.
1981-01-01
The complete set of constitutive equations which fully describes the behaviour of material in elastic-plastic deformation is derived on the basis of thermodynamic analysis of the deformation process. The analysis is done after the matrix decomposition of the deformation gradient is introduced into the structure of thermodynamics with internal state variables. The free energy function, is decomposed. Derive the expressions for the stress response, entropy and heat flux, and establish the evolution equation. Finally, we establish the thermodynamic restrictions of the deformation process. (Author) [pt
Phonon spectra, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of WS2 nanotubes.
Evarestov, Robert A; Bandura, Andrei V; Porsev, Vitaly V; Kovalenko, Alexey V
2017-11-15
Hybrid density functional theory calculations are performed for the first time on the phonon dispersion and thermodynamic properties of WS 2 -based single-wall nanotubes. Symmetry analysis is presented for phonon modes in nanotubes using the standard (crystallographic) factorization for line groups. Symmetry and the number of infra-red and Raman active modes in achiral WS 2 nanotubes are given for armchair and zigzag chiralities. It is demonstrated that a number of infrared and Raman active modes is independent on the nanotube diameter. The zone-folding approach is applied to find out an impact of curvature on electron and phonon band structure of nanotubes rolled up from the monolayer. Phonon frequencies obtained both for layers and nanotubes are used to compute the thermal contributions to their thermodynamic functions. The temperature dependences of energy, entropy, and heat capacity of nanotubes are estimated with respect to those of the monolayer. The role of phonons in the stability estimation of nanotubes is discussed based on Helmholtz free energy calculations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Xia, Ke; Shen, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Xiao-Qing
2015-06-14
32 F420 coenzyme models with alkylation of the three different N atoms (N1, N3 and N10) in the core structure (XFH(-)) were designed and synthesized and the thermodynamic driving forces (defined in terms of the molar enthalpy changes or the standard redox potentials in this work) of the 32 XFH(-) releasing hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and electrons, the thermodynamic driving forces of the 32 XFH˙ releasing protons and hydrogen atoms and the thermodynamic driving forces of XF(-)˙ releasing electrons in acetonitrile were determined using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The effects of the methyl group at N1, N3 and N10 and a negative charge on N1 and N10 atoms on the six thermodynamic driving forces of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates were examined; the results show that seating arrangements of the methyl group and the negative charge have remarkably different effects on the thermodynamic properties of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates. The effects of the substituents at C7 and C8 on the six thermodynamic driving forces of the F420 coenzyme models and their related reaction intermediates were also examined; the results show that the substituents at C7 and C8 have good Hammett linear free energy relationships with the six thermodynamic parameters. Meanwhile, a reasonable determination of possible reactions between members of the F420 family and NADH family in vivo was given according to a thermodynamic analysis platform constructed using the elementary step thermodynamic parameter of F420 coenzyme model 2FH(-) and NADH model MNAH releasing hydride ions in acetonitrile. The information disclosed in this work can not only fill a gap in the chemical thermodynamics of F420 coenzyme models as a class of very important organic sources of electrons, hydride ions, hydrogen atoms and protons, but also strongly promote the fast development of the chemistry and applications of F420 coenzyme.
Multi-pressure boiler thermodynamics analysis code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lorenzoni, G.
1992-01-01
A new method and the relative FORTRAN program for the thermodynamics design analysis of a multipressure boiler are reported. This method permits the thermodynamics design optimization with regard to total exergy production and a preliminary costs
Thermodynamical analysis of human thermal comfort
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prek, Matjaz
2006-01-01
Traditional methods of human thermal comfort analysis are based on the first law of thermodynamics. These methods use an energy balance of the human body to determine heat transfer between the body and its environment. By contrast, the second law of thermodynamics introduces the useful concept of exergy. It enables the determination of the exergy consumption within the human body dependent on human and environmental factors. Human body exergy consumption varies with the combination of environmental (room) conditions. This process is related to human thermal comfort in connection with temperature, heat, and mass transfer. In this paper a thermodynamic analysis of human heat and mass transfer based on the 2nd law of thermodynamics in presented. It is shown that the human body's exergy consumption in relation to selected human parameters exhibits a minimal value at certain combinations of environmental parameters. The expected thermal sensation also shows that there is a correlation between exergy consumption and thermal sensation. Thus, our analysis represents an improvement in human thermal modelling and gives more information about the environmental impact on expected human thermal sensation
Li, X. D.; Li, K.; Wei, C. H.; Han, W. D.; Zhou, N. G.
2018-06-01
The structural, electronic, elastic, and thermodynamic properties of CaSi, Ca2Si, and CaSi2 are systematically investigated by using first-principles calculations method based on density functional theory (DFT). The calculated formation enthalpies and cohesive energies show that CaSi2 possesses the greatest structural stability and CaSi has the strongest alloying ability. The structural stability of the three phases is compared according to electronic structures. Further analysis on electronic structures indicates that the bonding of these phases exhibits the combinations of metallic, covalent, and ionic bonds. The elastic constants are calculated, and the bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and anisotropy factor of polycrystalline materials are deduced. Additionally, the thermodynamic properties were theoretically predicted and discussed.
Thermodynamic Ground States of Complex Oxide Heterointerfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gunkel, F.; Hoffmann-Eifert, S.; Heinen, R. A.
2017-01-01
The formation mechanism of 2-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at heterointerfaces between nominally insulating oxides is addressed with a thermodynamical approach. We provide a comprehensive analysis of the thermodynamic ground states of various 2DEG systems directly probed in high temperature...
Thermodynamic analysis of algal biocrude production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beal, C.M.; Hebner, R.E.; Webber, M.E.
2012-01-01
Although algal biofuels possess great potential, profitable production is quite challenging. Much of this challenge is rooted in the thermodynamic constraints associated with producing fuels with high energy, low entropy, and high exergy from dispersed materials. In this study, a preliminary thermodynamic analysis is presented that calculates the energy, entropy, and exergy of the intermediate products for algal biocrude production. These values are also used in an initial attempt to characterize the thermodynamic efficiency of that system. The production pathway is simplified by assuming ideal solutions throughout. Results for the energy and exergy efficiencies, and the first-order energy and exergy return on investment, of the system are given. The summary finding is that the first-order energy return on investment in the best case considered could be as high as 520, as compared to 1.7 × 10 −3 in the experimental unit under development. While this analysis shows that significant improvement may be possible, the ultimate thermodynamic efficiency of algal biofuels likely lies closer to the moderate case examined here, which yielded a first-order energy return on investment of 10. For perspective, the first-order energy return on investment for oil and gas production has been estimated in the literature to be ∼35. -- Highlights: ► A first-principles thermodynamic analysis was conducted for algal biocrude production. ► The energy, entropy, and exergy was determined for each intermediate product by assuming the products were ideal solutions. ► The thermodynamic properties were used to calculate the energy and exergy return on investments for three cases. ► It was determined that the energy and exergy return on investments could be as high as ∼500. ► More realistic assumptions for efficient systems yielded return on investments on the order of 10.
Klaa, K.; Labidi, S.; Masrour, R.; Jabar, A.; Labidi, M.; Amara, A.; Drici, A.; Hlil, E. K.; Ellouze, M.
2018-06-01
Structural, electronic, magnetic and thermodynamic main features for Ni1-xTixO ternary alloys in rock-salt structure with Ti content in the range ? were studied using the full potential Linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within density functional theory. The exchange-correlation potential was calculated by the generalized gradient approximation. The analysis of the electronic density of states curves allowed the computation of the magnetic moments which are considered to lie along (010) axes. The thermodynamic stability of this alloy was investigated by calculating the excess enthalpy of mixing ? as well as the phase diagram. In addition, the Monte Carlo simulations have been exploited to calculate the transition temperature and magnetic coercive field in the alloy.
The heat is on: thermodynamic analysis in fragment-based drug discovery
Edink, E.S.; Jansen, C.J.W.; Leurs, R.; De Esch, I.J.
2010-01-01
Thermodynamic analysis provides access to the determinants of binding affinity, enthalpy and entropy. In fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), thermodynamic analysis provides a powerful tool to discriminate fragments based on their potential for successful optimization. The thermodynamic data
Thermodynamic analysis and numerical modeling of supercritical injection
Banuti, Daniel
2015-01-01
Although liquid propellant rocket engines are operational and have been studied for decades, cryogenic injection at supercritical pressures is still considered essentially not understood. This thesis intends to approach this problem in three steps: by developing a numerical model for real gas thermodynamics, by extending the present thermodynamic view of supercritical injection, and finally by applying these methods to the analysis of injection. A new numerical real gas thermodynamics mode...
Thermodynamic analysis of PBMR plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sen, S.; Kadiroglu, O.K.
2002-01-01
The thermodynamic analysis of a PBMR is presented for various pressures and temperatures values. The design parameters of the components of the power plant are calculated and an optimum cycle for the maximum thermal efficiency is sought for. (author)
Electronic and thermodynamic properties of transition metal elements and compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haeglund, J.
1993-01-01
This thesis focuses on the use of band-structure calculations for studying thermodynamic properties of solids. We discuss 3d-, 4d- and 5d-transition metal carbides and nitrides. Through a detailed comparison between theoretical and experimental results, we draw conclusions on the character of the atomic bonds in these materials. We show how electronic structure calculations can be used to give accurate predictions for bonding energies. Part of the thesis is devoted to the application of the generalized gradient approximation in electronic structure calculations on transition metals. For structures with vibrational disorder, we present a method for calculating averaged phonon frequencies without using empirical information. For magnetic excitations, we show how a combined use of theoretical results and experimental data can yield information on magnetic fluctuations at high temperatures. The main results in the thesis are: Apart for an almost constant shift, theoretically calculated bonding energies for transition metal carbides and nitrides agree with experimental data or with values from analysis of thermochemical information. The electronic spectrum of transition metal carbides and nitrides can be separated into bonding, antibonding and nonbonding electronic states. The lowest enthalpy of formation for substoichiometric vanadium carbide VC 1-X at zero temperature and pressure occurs for a structure containing vacancies (x not equal to 0). The generalized gradient approximation improves theoretical calculated cohesive energies for 3d-transition metals. Magnetic phase transitions are sensitive to the description of exchange-correlation effects in electronic structure calculations. Trends in Debye temperatures can be successfully analysed in electronic structure calculations on disordered lattices. For the elements, there is a clear dependence on the crystal structure (e.g., bcc, fcc or hcp). Chromium has fluctuating local magnetic moments at temperatures well above
Yang, Xiao-Yong; Lu, Yong; Zheng, Fa-Wei; Zhang, Ping
2015-11-01
Mechanical, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of zirconium carbide have been systematically studied using the ab initio calculations. The calculated equilibrium lattice parameter, bulk modulus, and elastic constants are all well consistent with the experimental data. The electronic band structure indicates that the mixture of C 2p and Zr 4d and 4p orbitals around the Fermi level makes a large covalent contribution to the chemical bonds between the C and Zr atoms. The Bader charge analysis suggests that there are about 1.71 electrons transferred from each Zr atom to its nearest C atom. Therefore, the Zr-C bond displays a mixed ionic/covalent character. The calculated phonon dispersions of ZrC are stable, coinciding with the experimental measurement. A drastic expansion in the volume of ZrC is seen with increasing temperature, while the bulk modulus decreases linearly. Based on the calculated phonon dispersion curves and within the quasi-harmonic approximation, the temperature dependence of the heat capacities is obtained, which gives a good description compared with the available experimental data. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51071032).
Mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals
Qin, Hongbo; Luan, Xinghe; Feng, Chuang; Yang, Daoguo; Zhang, G.Q.
2017-01-01
For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli,
Systemic analysis of thermodynamic properties of lanthanide halides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirsaidov, U.; Badalov, A.; Marufi, V.K.
1992-01-01
System analysis of thermodynamic characteristics of lanthanide halides was carried out. A method making allowances for the influence of spin and orbital moments of momentum of the main states of lanthanide trivalent ions in their natural series was employed. Unknown in literature thermodynamic values were calculated and corrected for certain compounds. The character of lanthanide halide thermodynamic parameter change depending on ordinal number of the metals was ascertained. Pronouncement of tetrad-effect in series of compounds considered was pointed out
Thermodynamics, thermoeconomic and economic analysis of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The thermoeconomic analysis proposes the distribution of costs based on thermodynamic concepts, enabling the evaluation of reflection of the investment costs and fuel in the cost of products (steam and electricity). The economic analysis acts as a deciding factor for acceptance or project rejection. Keywords: Cogeneration ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pomogaev, Vladimir; Pomogaeva, Anna; Avramov, Pavel
2011-01-01
Three polycyclic organic molecules in various solvents focused on thermo-dynamical aspects were theoretically investigated using the recently developed statistical quantum mechanical/classical molecular dynamics method for simulating electronic-vibrational spectra. The absorption bands of estradiol...
Thermodynamics in rotating systems—analysis of selected examples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Güémez, J; Fiolhais, M
2014-01-01
We solve a set of selected exercises on rotational motion requiring a mechanical and thermodynamical analysis. When non-conservative forces or thermal effects are present, a complete study must use the first law of thermodynamics together with Newton’s second law. The latter is here better expressed in terms of an ‘angular’ impulse–momentum equation (Poinsot–Euler equation), or, equivalently, in terms of a ‘rotational’ pseudo-work–energy equation. Thermodynamical aspects in rotational systems, when e.g. frictional forces are present or when there is a variation of the rotational kinetic energy due to internal sources of energy, are discussed. (paper)
Heading in the right direction: thermodynamics-based network analysis and pathway engineering.
Ataman, Meric; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily
2015-12-01
Thermodynamics-based network analysis through the introduction of thermodynamic constraints in metabolic models allows a deeper analysis of metabolism and guides pathway engineering. The number and the areas of applications of thermodynamics-based network analysis methods have been increasing in the last ten years. We review recent applications of these methods and we identify the areas that such analysis can contribute significantly, and the needs for future developments. We find that organisms with multiple compartments and extremophiles present challenges for modeling and thermodynamics-based flux analysis. The evolution of current and new methods must also address the issues of the multiple alternatives in flux directionalities and the uncertainties and partial information from analytical methods. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Thermodynamic analysis of chemical heat pumps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obermeier, Jonas; Müller, Karsten; Arlt, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
Thermal energy storages and heat pump units represent an important part of high efficient renewable energy systems. By using thermally driven, reversible chemical reactions a combination of thermal energy storage and heat pump can be realized. The influences of thermophysical properties of the involved components on the efficiency of a heat pump cycle is analysed and the relevance of the thermodynamic driving force is worked out. In general, the behaviour of energetic and exergetic efficiency is contrary. In a real cycle, higher enthalpies of reaction decrease the energetic efficiency but increase the exergetic efficiency. Higher enthalpies of reaction allow for lower offsets from equilibrium state for a default thermodynamic driving force of the reaction. - Highlights: • A comprehensive efficiency analysis of gas-solid heat pumps is proposed. • Link between thermodynamic driving force and equilibrium drop is shown. • Calculation of the equilibrium drop based on thermochemical properties. • Reaction equilibria of the decomposition reaction of salt hydrates. • Contrary behavior of energetic and exergetic efficiency
Electronic, thermodynamics and mechanical properties of LaB6 from first-principles
Ivashchenko, V. I.; Turchi, P. E. A.; Shevchenko, V. I.; Medukh, N. R.; Leszczynski, Jerzy; Gorb, Leonid
2018-02-01
Up to date, the electronic structure properties of amorphous lanthanum hexaboride, a-LaB6, were not yet investigated, and the thermodynamic and mechanical properties of crystalline lanthanum hexaboride (c-LaB6) were studied incompletely. The goal of this work was to fill these gaps in the study of lanthanum hexaborides. The electronic and phonon structures, thermodynamic and mechanical properties of both crystalline and amorphous lanthanum hexaborides (c-LaB6, a-LaB6, respectively) were investigated within the density functional theory. An amorphyzation of c-LaB6 gives rise to the metal - semiconductor transition. The thermal conductivity decreases on going from c-LaB6 to a-LaB6. The elastic moduli, hardness, ideal tensile and shear strengths of a-LaB6 are significantly lower compared to those of the crystalline counterpart, despite the formation of the icosahedron-like boron network in the amorphous phase. For c-LaB6, the stable boron octahedrons are preserved after the failure under tensile and shear strains. The peculiarity in the temperature dependence of heat capacity, Cp(T), at 50 K is explained by the availability of a sharp peak at 100 cm-1 in the phonon density of states of c-LaB6. An analysis of the Fermi surface indicates that this peak is not related to the shape of the Fermi surface, and is caused by the vibration of lanthanum atoms. In the phonon spectrum of a-LaB6, the peak at 100 cm-1 is significantly broader than in the spectrum of c-LaB6, for which reason the anomaly in the Cp(T) dependence of a-LaB6 does not appear. The calculated characteristics are in good agreement with the available experimental data.
Cao, Ying; Zhang, Song-Chen; Zhang, Min; Shen, Guang-Bin; Zhu, Xiao-Qing
2013-07-19
A series of 69 polar olefins with various typical structures (X) were synthesized and the thermodynamic affinities (defined in terms of the molar enthalpy changes or the standard redox potentials in this work) of the polar olefins obtaining hydride anions, hydrogen atoms, and electrons, the thermodynamic affinities of the radical anions of the polar olefins (X(•-)) obtaining protons and hydrogen atoms, and the thermodynamic affinities of the hydrogen adducts of the polar olefins (XH(•)) obtaining electrons in acetonitrile were determined using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The pure C═C π-bond heterolytic and homolytic dissociation energies of the polar olefins (X) in acetonitrile and the pure C═C π-bond homolytic dissociation energies of the radical anions of the polar olefins (X(•-)) in acetonitrile were estimated. The remote substituent effects on the six thermodynamic affinities of the polar olefins and their related reaction intermediates were examined using the Hammett linear free-energy relationships; the results show that the Hammett linear free-energy relationships all hold in the six chemical and electrochemical processes. The information disclosed in this work could not only supply a gap of the chemical thermodynamics of olefins as one class of very important organic unsaturated compounds but also strongly promote the fast development of the chemistry and applications of olefins.
Protein electron transfer: is biology (thermo)dynamic?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matyushov, Dmitry V
2015-01-01
Simple physical mechanisms are behind the flow of energy in all forms of life. Energy comes to living systems through electrons occupying high-energy states, either from food (respiratory chains) or from light (photosynthesis). This energy is transformed into the cross-membrane proton-motive force that eventually drives all biochemistry of the cell. Life’s ability to transfer electrons over large distances with nearly zero loss of free energy is puzzling and has not been accomplished in synthetic systems. The focus of this review is on how this energetic efficiency is realized. General physical mechanisms and interactions that allow proteins to fold into compact water-soluble structures are also responsible for a rugged landscape of energy states and a broad distribution of relaxation times. Specific to a protein as a fluctuating thermal bath is the protein-water interface, which is heterogeneous both dynamically and structurally. The spectrum of interfacial fluctuations is a consequence of protein’s elastic flexibility combined with a high density of surface charges polarizing water dipoles into surface nanodomains. Electrostatics is critical to the protein function and the relevant questions are: (i) What is the spectrum of interfacial electrostatic fluctuations? (ii) Does the interfacial biological water produce electrostatic signatures specific to proteins? (iii) How is protein-mediated chemistry affected by electrostatics? These questions connect the fluctuation spectrum to the dynamical control of chemical reactivity, i.e. the dependence of the activation free energy of the reaction on the dynamics of the bath. Ergodicity is often broken in protein-driven reactions and thermodynamic free energies become irrelevant. Continuous ergodicity breaking in a dense spectrum of relaxation times requires using dynamically restricted ensembles to calculate statistical averages. When applied to the calculation of the rates, this formalism leads to the nonergodic
Partial Derivative Games in Thermodynamics: A Cognitive Task Analysis
Kustusch, Mary Bridget; Roundy, David; Dray, Tevian; Manogue, Corinne A.
2014-01-01
Several studies in recent years have demonstrated that upper-division students struggle with the mathematics of thermodynamics. This paper presents a task analysis based on several expert attempts to solve a challenging mathematics problem in thermodynamics. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we highlight the importance of cognitive task…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bingol Suat
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The geometric structural optimization, electronic band structure, total density of states for valence electrons, density of states for phonons, optical, dynamical, and thermodynamical features of cesium chloride have been investigated by linearized augmented plane wave method using the density functional theory under the generalized gradient approximation. Ground state properties of cesium chloride are studied. The calculated ground state properties are consistent with experimental results. Calculated band structure indicates that the cesium chloride structure has an indirect band gap value of 5.46 eV and is an insulator. From the obtained phonon spectra, the cesium chloride structure is dynamically stable along the various directions in the Brillouin zone. Temperature dependent thermodynamic properties are studied using the harmonic approximation model.
Thermodynamic and kinetic analysis of heterogeneous photocatalysis for semiconductor systems.
Liu, Baoshun; Zhao, Xiujian; Terashima, Chiaki; Fujishima, Akira; Nakata, Kazuya
2014-05-21
Since the report of the Honda-Fujishima effect, heterogeneous photocatalysis has attracted much attention around the world because of its potential energy and environmental applications. Although great progresses have been made in recent years, most were focused on preparing highly-active photocatalysts and investigating visible light utilization. In fact, we are still unclear on the thermodynamic and kinetic nature of photocatalysis to date, which sometimes leads to misunderstandings for experimental results. It is timely to give a review and discussion on the thermodynamics and kinetics of photocatalysis, so as to direct future researches. However, there is an absence of a detailed review on this topic until now. In this article, we tried to review and discuss the thermodynamics and kinetics of photocatalysis. We explained the thermodynamic driving force of photocatalysis, and distinguished the functions of light and heat in photocatalysis. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model, the ˙OH oxidation mechanism, and the direct-indirect (D-I) kinetic model were reviewed and compared. Some applications of the D-I model to study photocatalytic kinetics were also discussed. The electron transport mode and its importance in photocatalysis were investigated. Finally, the intrinsic relation between the kinetics and the thermodynamics of photocatalytic reactions was discussed.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Closed Steady or Cyclic Systems
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Jim McGovern
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Closed, steady or cyclic thermodynamic systems, which have temperature variations over their boundaries, can represent an extremely large range of plants, devices or natural objects, such as combined heating, cooling and power plants, computers and data centres, and planets. Energy transfer rates can occur across the boundary, which are characterized as heat or work. We focus on the finite time thermodynamics aspects, on energy-based performance parameters, on rational efficiency and on the environmental reference temperature. To do this, we examine the net work rate of a closed, steady or cyclic system bounded by thermal resistances linked to isothermal reservoirs in terms of the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Citing relevant references from the literature, we propose a methodology that can improve the thermodynamic analysis of an energy-transforming or an exergy-destroying plant. Through the reflections and analysis presented, we have found an explanation of the second law that clarifies the link between the Clausius integral of heat over temperature and the reference temperature of the Gouy–Stodola theorem. With this insight and approach, the specification of the environmental reference temperature in exergy analysis becomes more solid. We have explained the relationship between the Curzon Ahlborn heat engine and an irreversible Carnot heat engine. We have outlined the nature of subsystem rational efficiencies and have found Rant’s anergy to play an important role. We postulate that heat transfer through thermal resistance is the sole basis of irreversibility.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jezierski, Andrzej; Szytuła, Andrzej
2016-01-01
The electronic structures and thermodynamic properties of LaPtIn and CePtIn are studied by means of ab-initio full-relativistic full-potential local orbital basis (FPLO) method within densities functional (DFT) methodologies. We have also examined the influence of hydrogen on the electronic structure and stability of CePtInH and LaPtInH systems. The positions of the hydrogen atoms have been found from the minimum of the total energy. Our calculations have shown that band structure and topology of the Fermi surfaces changed significantly during the hydrogenation. The thermodynamic properties (bulk modulus, Debye temperatures, constant pressure heat capacity) calculated in quasi-harmonic Debye-Grüneisen model are in a good agreement with the experimental data. We have applied different methods of the calculation of the equation of states (EOS) (Murnaghan, Birch-Murnaghan, Poirier–Tarantola, Vinet). The thermodynamic properties are presented for the pressure 0< P<9 GPa and the temperature range 0< T<300 K. - Highlights: • Full relativistic band structure of LaPtIn and CePtIn. • Fermi surface of LaPtIn, LaPtInH, CePtIn, CePtInH. • Effect of hydrogenation on the electronic structure of LaPtIn and CePtIn. • Thermodynamic properties in the quasi-harmonic Debye-Grüneisen model.
Prus, O.; Yaish, Y.; Reznikov, M.; Sivan, U.; Pudalov, V.
2002-01-01
A novel method invented to measure the minute thermodynamic spin magnetization of dilute two dimensional fermions is applied to electrons in a silicon inversion layer. Interplay between the ferromagnetic interaction and disorder enhances the low temperature susceptibility up to 7.5 folds compared with the Pauli susceptibility of non-interacting electrons. The magnetization peaks in the vicinity of the density where transition to strong localization takes place. At the same density, the suscep...
Thermodynamics-based Metabolite Sensitivity Analysis in metabolic networks.
Kiparissides, A; Hatzimanikatis, V
2017-01-01
The increasing availability of large metabolomics datasets enhances the need for computational methodologies that can organize the data in a way that can lead to the inference of meaningful relationships. Knowledge of the metabolic state of a cell and how it responds to various stimuli and extracellular conditions can offer significant insight in the regulatory functions and how to manipulate them. Constraint based methods, such as Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and Thermodynamics-based flux analysis (TFA), are commonly used to estimate the flow of metabolites through genome-wide metabolic networks, making it possible to identify the ranges of flux values that are consistent with the studied physiological and thermodynamic conditions. However, unless key intracellular fluxes and metabolite concentrations are known, constraint-based models lead to underdetermined problem formulations. This lack of information propagates as uncertainty in the estimation of fluxes and basic reaction properties such as the determination of reaction directionalities. Therefore, knowledge of which metabolites, if measured, would contribute the most to reducing this uncertainty can significantly improve our ability to define the internal state of the cell. In the present work we combine constraint based modeling, Design of Experiments (DoE) and Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) into the Thermodynamics-based Metabolite Sensitivity Analysis (TMSA) method. TMSA ranks metabolites comprising a metabolic network based on their ability to constrain the gamut of possible solutions to a limited, thermodynamically consistent set of internal states. TMSA is modular and can be applied to a single reaction, a metabolic pathway or an entire metabolic network. This is, to our knowledge, the first attempt to use metabolic modeling in order to provide a significance ranking of metabolites to guide experimental measurements. Copyright © 2016 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pissarra, P.D.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal
1997-01-01
This paper describes the thermodynamic analysis of pathways related to penicillin production in Penicillium chrysogenum. First a thermodynamic feasibility analysis is performed of the L-lysine pathway of which one of the precursors for penicillin biosynthesis (alpha-aminoadipic acid......) is an intermediate. It is found that the L-lysine pathway in P. chrysogenum is thermodynamically feasible and that the calculated standard Gibbs free energy values of the two enzymes controlling the pathway flux indicate that they operate far from equilibrium. It is therefore proposed that the regulation of alpha......-aminoadipate reductase by lysine is important to maintain a high concentration of alpha-aminoadipate in order to direct the carbon flux to penicillin production. Secondly the changes in Gibbs free energy in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway during fed-batch cultivation were studied. The analysis showed that all...
First principal studya of structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of KTaO3-perovskite.
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Hiadsi S.
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The results of first-principles theoretical study of structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of KTaO3 compound, have been performed using the full-potential linear augmented plane-wave method plus local orbitals (FP-APW+lo as implemented in the Wien2k code. The exchange-correlation energy, is treated in generalized gradient approximation (GGA using the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof (PBE96 and PBEsol, Perdew 2008 parameterization. Also we have used the Engel-Vosko GGA optimizes the corresponding potential for band structure calculations. The calculated equilibrium parameter is in good agreement with other works. The elastic constants were calculated by using the Mehl method. The electronic band structure of this compound has been calculated using the Angel-Vosko (EV generalized gradient approximation (GGA for the exchange correlation potential. We deduced that KTaO3-perovskite exhibit an indirect from R to Γ point. To complete the fundamental characterization of KTaO3 material we have analyzed the thermodynamic properties using the quasi-harmonic Debye model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett
2005-01-01
This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scalettar, Richard T.; Pickett, Warren E.
2004-07-01
This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (1) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (2) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (3) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Richard T. Scalettar; Warren E. Pickett
2005-08-02
This project involves research into the thermodynamic properties of f-electron metals, transition metal oxides, and half-metallic magnets at high pressure. These materials are ones in which the changing importance of electron-electron interactions as the distance between atoms is varied can tune the system through phase transitions from localized to delocalized electrons, from screened to unscreened magnetic moments, and from normal metal to one in which only a single spin specie can conduct. Three main thrusts are being pursued: (i) Mott transitions in transition metal oxides, (ii) magnetism in half-metallic compounds, and (iii) large volume-collapse transitions in f-band metals.
Analysis of thermodynamic properties for high-temperature superconducting oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kushwah, S.S.; Shanker, J.
1993-01-01
Analysis of thermodynamic properties such as specific heat, Debye temperature, Einstein temperature, thermal expansion coefficient, bulk modulus, and Grueneisen parameter is performed for rare-earth-based, Tl-based, and Bi-based superconducting copper oxides. Values of thermodynamic parameters are calculated and reported. The relationship between the Debye temperature and the superconducting transition temperature is used to estimate the values of T c using the interaction parameters from Ginzburg. (orig.)
Thermodynamic analysis of (Ni, Fe)3Al formation by mechanical alloying
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adabavazeh, Z.; Karimzadeh, F.; Enayati, M.H.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► (Ni, Fe) 3 Al intermetallic compound was synthesized by mechanical alloying. ► We use a thermodynamic analysis to predict the more stable phase. ► We calculate the Gibbs free-energy changes by using extended Miedema model. ► The results of MA compared with thermodynamic analysis and showed a good agreement with it. - Abstract: (Ni, Fe) 3 Al intermetallic compound was synthesized by mechanical alloying (MA) of Ni, Fe and Al elemental powder mixtures of composition Ni 50 Fe 25 Al 25 . Phase transformation and microstructure characteristics of the alloy powders were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that mechanical alloying resulted in a Ni (Al, Fe) solid solution. By continued milling, this structure transformed to the disordered (Ni, Fe) 3 Al intermetallic compound. A thermodynamic model developed on the basis of extended theory of Miedema is used to calculate the Gibbs free-energy changes. Final product of MA is a phase having minimal Gibbs free energy compared with other competing phases in Ni–Fe–Al system. However in Ni–Fe–Al system, the most stable phase at all compositions is intermetallic compound (not amorphous phase or solid solution). The results of MA were compared with thermodynamic analysis and revealed the leading role of thermodynamic on the formation of MA product prediction.
Thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification for fatty acid alkyl esters production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voll, Fernando A.P.; Silva, Camila da; Rossi, Carla C.R.S.; Guirardello, Reginaldo; Castilhos, Fernanda de; Oliveira, J. Vladimir; Cardozo-Filho, Lucio
2011-01-01
The development of renewable energy source alternatives has become a planet need because of the unavoidable fossil fuel scarcity and for that reason biodiesel production has attracted growing interest over the last decade. The reaction yield for obtaining fatty acid alkyl esters varies significantly according to the operating conditions such as temperature and the feed reactants ratio and thus investigation of the thermodynamics involved in such reactional systems may afford important knowledge on the effects of process variables on biodiesel production. The present work reports a thermodynamic analysis of fatty acid esterification reaction at low pressure. For this purpose, Gibbs free energy minimization was employed with UNIFAC and modified Wilson thermodynamic models through a nonlinear programming model implementation. The methodology employed is shown to reproduce the most relevant investigations involving experimental studies and thermodynamic analysis.
Naumovich, E. N.; Kharton, V. V.; Yaremchenko, A. A.; Patrakeev, M. V.; Kellerman, D. G.; Logvinovich, D. I.; Kozhevnikov, V. L.
2006-08-01
A statistical thermodynamic approach to analyze defect thermodynamics in strongly nonideal solid solutions was proposed and validated by a case study focused on the oxygen intercalation processes in mixed-conducting LaGa0.65Mg0.15Ni0.20O3-δ perovskite. The oxygen nonstoichiometry of Ni-doped lanthanum gallate, measured by coulometric titration and thermogravimetric analysis at 923-1223K in the oxygen partial pressure range 5×10-5to0.9atm , indicates the coexistence of Ni2+ , Ni3+ , and Ni4+ oxidation states. The formation of tetravalent nickel was also confirmed by the magnetic susceptibility data at 77-600K , and by the analysis of p -type electronic conductivity and Seebeck coefficient as function of the oxygen pressure at 1023-1223K . The oxygen thermodynamics and the partial ionic and hole conductivities are strongly affected by the point-defect interactions, primarily the Coulombic repulsion between oxygen vacancies and/or electron holes and the vacancy association with Mg2+ cations. These factors can be analyzed by introducing the defect interaction energy in the concentration-dependent part of defect chemical potentials expressed by the discrete Fermi-Dirac distribution, and taking into account the probabilities of local configurations calculated via binomial distributions.
Mechanical breakdown in the nuclear multifragmentation phenomena. Thermodynamic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bulavin, L.A.; Cherevko, K.V.; Sysoev, V.M.
2012-01-01
Based on a similarity of the Van der Waals and nucleon-nucleon interaction the known thermodynamic relations for ordinary liquids are used to analyze the possible decay channels in the proton induced nuclear multifragmentation phenomena. The main features of the different phase trajectories in the P-V plane are compared with the experimental data on multifragmentation. It allowed choosing the phase trajectories with the correct qualitative picture of the phenomena. Based on the thermodynamic analysis of the proton-induced multifragmentation phenomena the most appropriate decay channel corresponding to the realistic phase trajectory is chosen. Macroscopic analysis of the suggested decay channel is done in order to check the possibility of the mechanical breakdown of the heated system. Based on a simple thermodynamic model preliminary quantitative calculations of corresponding macroscopic parameters (energy, pressure) are done and therefore the model verification on macroscopic level is held. It is shown that on macroscopic level the chosen decay channel through the mechanical breakdown meets the necessary conditions for describing the proton-induced multifragmentation phenomena
Thermodynamic modeling of the Ge-Ti system supported by key experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Dandan; Yan, Huanli; Yuan, Xiaoming; Chung, Yoonsung; Du, Yong; Xu, Honghui; Liu, Libin; Nash, Philip
2011-01-01
Highlights: → All of the experimental phase diagram and thermodynamic data available for the Ge-Ti system have been critically evaluated. → The general feature of the Ge-Ti system and enthalpy of formation of Ti 5 Ge 3 have been checked via experiment. The annealed samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and differential thermal analysis. → An optimum thermodynamic data set for the Ge-Ti system was obtained. The comprehensive comparison shows that the calculated phase diagram and thermodynamic properties are in good agreement with the experimental data. - Abstract: A complete thermodynamic investigation of the Ge-Ti system was performed in this study. Seven samples were prepared by arc-melting the pure elements in order to check the literature data on phase diagram and enthalpy of formation of Ti 5 Ge 3 . The samples were annealed at certain temperatures for extended periods of time, and then quenched. Both the as-cast and annealed samples were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscope (SEM) technology. The phase transformation temperatures were measured by differential thermal analysis (DTA). The measurement on enthalpy of formation for Ti 5 Ge 3 was performed using the Kleppa-type HTRC with the calorimeter temperature set at 1100 ± 2 o C. Based upon the literature data and current experimental results, the Ge-Ti system was critically assessed by means of CALPHAD approach. The calculated phase diagram and thermodynamic properties agree well with the literature data and the present experimental results.
Akiba, Hiroki; Tsumoto, Kouhei
2015-07-01
Antibodies (immunoglobulins) bind specific molecules (i.e. antigens) with high affinity and specificity. In order to understand their mechanisms of recognition, interaction analysis based on thermodynamic and kinetic parameters, as well as structure determination is crucial. In this review, we focus on mutational analysis which gives information about the role of each amino acid residue in antibody-antigen interaction. Taking anti-hen egg lysozyme antibodies and several anti-small molecule antibodies, the energetic contribution of hot-spot and non-hot-spot residues is discussed in terms of thermodynamics. Here, thermodynamics of the contribution from aromatic, charged and hydrogen bond-forming amino acids are discussed, and their different characteristics have been elucidated. The information gives fundamental understanding of the antibody-antigen interaction. Furthermore, the consequences of antibody engineering are analysed from thermodynamic viewpoints: humanization to reduce immunogenicity and rational design to improve affinity. Amino acid residues outside hot-spots in the interface play important roles in these cases, and thus thermodynamic and kinetic parameters give much information about the antigen recognition. Thermodynamic analysis of mutant antibodies thus should lead to advanced strategies to design and select antibodies with high affinity. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.
Thermodynamic analysis of biochemical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuan, Y.; Fan, L.T.; Shieh, J.H.
1989-01-01
Introduction of the concepts of the availability (or exergy), datum level materials, and the dead state has been regarded as some of the most significant recent developments in classical thermodynamics. Not only the available energy balance but also the material and energy balances of a biological system may be established in reference to the datum level materials in the dead state or environment. In this paper these concepts are illustrated with two examples of fermentation and are shown to be useful in identifying sources of thermodynamic inefficiency, thereby leading naturally to the rational definition of thermodynamic efficiency of a biochemical process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Umberto Lucia
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The interest in designing nanosystems is continuously growing. Engineers apply a great number of optimization methods to design macroscopic systems. If these methods could be introduced into the design of small systems, a great improvement in nanotechnologies could be achieved. To do so, however, it is necessary to extend classical thermodynamic analysis to small systems, but irreversibility is also present in small systems, as the Loschmidt paradox highlighted. Here, the use of the recent improvement of the Gouy-Stodola theorem to complex systems (GSGL approach, based on the use of entropy generation, is suggested to obtain the extension of classical thermodynamics to nanothermodynamics. The result is a new approach to nanosystems which avoids the difficulties highlighted in the usual analysis of the small systems, such as the definition of temperature for nanosystems.
Thermodynamically consistent Bayesian analysis of closed biochemical reaction systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Goutsias John
2010-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry from noisy time series measurements of molecular concentrations is an important step for building predictive models of cellular function. Inference techniques currently available in the literature may produce rate constant values that defy necessary constraints imposed by the fundamental laws of thermodynamics. As a result, these techniques may lead to biochemical reaction systems whose concentration dynamics could not possibly occur in nature. Therefore, development of a thermodynamically consistent approach for estimating the rate constants of a biochemical reaction system is highly desirable. Results We introduce a Bayesian analysis approach for computing thermodynamically consistent estimates of the rate constants of a closed biochemical reaction system with known stoichiometry given experimental data. Our method employs an appropriately designed prior probability density function that effectively integrates fundamental biophysical and thermodynamic knowledge into the inference problem. Moreover, it takes into account experimental strategies for collecting informative observations of molecular concentrations through perturbations. The proposed method employs a maximization-expectation-maximization algorithm that provides thermodynamically feasible estimates of the rate constant values and computes appropriate measures of estimation accuracy. We demonstrate various aspects of the proposed method on synthetic data obtained by simulating a subset of a well-known model of the EGF/ERK signaling pathway, and examine its robustness under conditions that violate key assumptions. Software, coded in MATLAB®, which implements all Bayesian analysis techniques discussed in this paper, is available free of charge at http://www.cis.jhu.edu/~goutsias/CSS%20lab/software.html. Conclusions Our approach provides an attractive statistical methodology for
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phan, Anh Thu; Paek, Min-Kyu; Kang, Youn-Bae
2014-01-01
In order to provide an efficient tool to design alloy chemistry and processing conditions for high-strength, lightweight steel, an investigation of the Fe–Al–C ternary system was carried out by experimental phase diagram measurement and a CALPHAD thermodynamic analysis. Discrepancies between previously available experimental results and thermodynamic calculations were identified. The Fe–Al sub-binary system was re-optimized in order to obtain an accurate description of the liquid phase, while Gibbs energies of solid phases were mainly taken from a previous thermodynamic modeling. Phase equilibria among face-centered cubic (fcc)/body-centered cubic (bcc)/graphite/κ-carbide/liquid phases in the Fe–Al–C system in the temperature range from 1000 to 1400 °C were obtained by chemical equilibration followed by quenching, and subsequent composition analysis using electron probe microanalysis/inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. By merging the revised Fe–Al binary description with existing Fe–C and Al–C binary descriptions, a complete thermodynamic description of the Fe–Al–C system was obtained in the present study. The modified quasi-chemical model in the pair approximation was used to model the liquid phase, while solid solutions were modeled using compound energy formalism. A2/B2 order/disorder transition in the bcc phase was taken into account. Compared with previously known experiments/thermodynamic modeling, a better agreement was obtained in the present study, regarding the stable region of fcc and the solidification thermal peak of a ternary alloy near the liquidus temperature. The obtained thermodynamic description also reproduced various types of experimental data in the Fe–Al–C system such as isothermal sections, vertical sections, liquidus projection, etc. The solidification of various steel grades was predicted and discussed
Batool, Javaria; Alay-e-Abbas, Syed Muhammad; Amin, Nasir
2018-04-01
The density functional theory based total energy calculations are performed to examine the effect of charge neutral and fully charged intrinsic vacancy defects on the thermodynamic, electronic, and magnetic properties of Ca3SnO antiperovskite. The chemical stability of Ca3SnO is evaluated with respect to binary compounds CaO, CaSn, and Ca2Sn, and the limits of atomic chemical potentials of Ca, Sn, and O atoms for stable synthesis of Ca3SnO are determined within the generalized gradient approximation parametrization scheme. The electronic properties of the pristine and the non-stoichiometric forms of this compound have been explored and the influence of isolated intrinsic vacancy defects (Ca, Sn, and O) on the structural, bonding, and electronic properties of non-stoichiometric Ca3SnO are analyzed. We also predict the possibility of achieving stable ferromagnetism in non-stoichiometric Ca3SnO by means of charge neutral tin vacancies. From the calculated total energies and the valid ranges of atomic chemical potentials, the formation energetics of intrinsic vacancy defects in Ca3SnO are evaluated for various growth conditions. Our results indicate that the fully charged calcium vacancies are thermodynamically stable under the permissible Sn-rich condition of stable synthesis of Ca3SnO, while tin and oxygen vacancies are found to be stable under the extreme Ca-rich condition.
Thermodynamic analysis of an HCCI engine based system running on natural gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Djermouni, Mohamed; Ouadha, Ahmed
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis of an HCCI based system has been carried out. • A thermodynamic model has been developed taking into account the gas composition resulting from the combustion process. • The specific heat of the working fluid is temperature dependent. - Abstract: This paper attempts to carry out a thermodynamic analysis of a system composed of a turbocharged HCCI engine, a mixer, a regenerator and a catalytic converter within the meaning of the first and the second law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, a thermodynamic model has been developed taking into account the gas composition resulting from the combustion process and the specific heat temperature dependency of the working fluid. The analysis aims in particular to examine the influence of the compressor pressure ratio, ambient temperature, equivalence ratio, engine speed and the compressor isentropic efficiency on the performance of the HCCI engine. Results show that thermal and exergetic efficiencies increase with increasing the compressor pressure ratio. However, the increase of the ambient temperature involves a decrease of the engine efficiencies. Furthermore, the variation of the equivalence ratio improves considerably both thermal and exergetic efficiencies. As expected, the increase of the engine speed enhances the engine performances. Finally, an exergy losses mapping of the system show that the maximum exergy losses occurs in the HCCI engine
Dreyer, Wolfgang; Guhlke, Clemens; Müller, Rüdiger
2016-09-28
Electron transfer reactions are commonly described by the phenomenological Butler-Volmer equation which has its origin in kinetic theories. The Butler-Volmer equation relates interfacial reaction rates to bulk quantities like the electrostatic potential and electrolyte concentrations. Although the general structure of the equation is well accepted, for modern electrochemical systems like batteries and fuel cells there is still intensive discussion about the specific dependencies of the coefficients. A general guideline for the derivation of Butler-Volmer type equations is missing in the literature. We derive very general relations of Butler-Volmer structure which are based on a rigorous non-equilibrium thermodynamic model and allow for adaption to a wide variety of electrochemical systems. We discuss the application of the new thermodynamic approach to different scenarios like the classical electron transfer reactions at metal electrodes and the intercalation process in lithium-iron-phosphate electrodes. Furthermore we show that under appropriate conditions also adsorption processes can lead to Butler-Volmer equations. We illustrate the application of our theory by a strongly simplified example of electroplating.
Thermodynamic and aerodynamic meanline analysis of wet compression in a centrifugal compressor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Jeong Seek; Cha, Bong Jun; Yang, Soo Seok
2006-01-01
Wet compression means the injection of water droplets into the compressor of gas turbines. This method decreases the compression work and increases the turbine output by decreasing the compressor exit temperature through the evaporation of water droplets inside the compressor. Researches on wet compression, up to now, have been focused on the thermodynamic analysis of wet compression where the decrease in exit flow temperature and compression work is demonstrated. This paper provides thermodynamic and aerodynamic analysis on wet compression in a centrifugal compressor for a microturbine. The meanline dry compression performance analysis of centrifugal compressor is coupled with the thermodynamic equation of wet compression to get the meanline performance of wet compression. The most influencing parameter in the analysis is the evaporative rate of water droplets. It is found that the impeller exit flow temperature and compression work decreases as the evaporative rate increases. And the exit flow angle decreases as the evaporative rate increases
Thermodynamic and Mechanical Analysis of a Thermomagnetic Rotary Engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fajar, D M; Khotimah, S N; Khairurrijal
2016-01-01
A heat engine in magnetic system had three thermodynamic coordinates: magnetic intensity ℋ, total magnetization ℳ, and temperature T, where the first two of them are respectively analogous to that of gaseous system: pressure P and volume V. Consequently, Carnot cycle that constitutes the principle of a heat engine in gaseous system is also valid on that in magnetic system. A thermomagnetic rotary engine is one model of it that was designed in the form of a ferromagnetic wheel that can rotates because of magnetization change at Curie temperature. The study is aimed to describe the thermodynamic and mechanical analysis of a thermomagnetic rotary engine and calculate the efficiencies. In thermodynamic view, the ideal processes are isothermal demagnetization, adiabatic demagnetization, isothermal magnetization, and adiabatic magnetization. The values of thermodynamic efficiency depend on temperature difference between hot and cold reservoir. In mechanical view, a rotational work is determined through calculation of moment of inertia and average angular speed. The value of mechanical efficiency is calculated from ratio between rotational work and heat received by system. The study also obtains exergetic efficiency that states the performance quality of the engine. (paper)
Thermodynamic and Mechanical Analysis of a Thermomagnetic Rotary Engine
Fajar, D. M.; Khotimah, S. N.; Khairurrijal
2016-08-01
A heat engine in magnetic system had three thermodynamic coordinates: magnetic intensity ℋ, total magnetization ℳ, and temperature T, where the first two of them are respectively analogous to that of gaseous system: pressure P and volume V. Consequently, Carnot cycle that constitutes the principle of a heat engine in gaseous system is also valid on that in magnetic system. A thermomagnetic rotary engine is one model of it that was designed in the form of a ferromagnetic wheel that can rotates because of magnetization change at Curie temperature. The study is aimed to describe the thermodynamic and mechanical analysis of a thermomagnetic rotary engine and calculate the efficiencies. In thermodynamic view, the ideal processes are isothermal demagnetization, adiabatic demagnetization, isothermal magnetization, and adiabatic magnetization. The values of thermodynamic efficiency depend on temperature difference between hot and cold reservoir. In mechanical view, a rotational work is determined through calculation of moment of inertia and average angular speed. The value of mechanical efficiency is calculated from ratio between rotational work and heat received by system. The study also obtains exergetic efficiency that states the performance quality of the engine.
THERMODYNAMIC PARAMETERS OF LEAD SULFIDE CRYSTALS IN THE CUBIC PHASE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. O. Parashchuk
2016-07-01
Full Text Available Geometric and thermodynamic parameters of cubic PbS crystals were obtained using the computer calculations of the thermodynamic parameters within density functional theory method DFT. Cluster models for the calculation based on the analysis of the crystal and electronic structure. Temperature dependence of energy ΔE and enthalpy ΔH, Gibbs free energy ΔG, heat capacity at constant pressure CP and constant volume CV, entropy ΔS were determined on the basis of ab initio calculations of the crystal structure of molecular clusters. Analytical expressions of temperature dependences of thermodynamic parameters which were approximated with quantum-chemical calculation points have been presented. Experimental results compared with theoretically calculated data.
Thermodynamic analysis of regulation in metabolic networks using constraint-based modeling
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Mahadevan Radhakrishnan
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Geobacter sulfurreducens is a member of the Geobacter species, which are capable of oxidation of organic waste coupled to the reduction of heavy metals and electrode with applications in bioremediation and bioenergy generation. While the metabolism of this organism has been studied through the development of a stoichiometry based genome-scale metabolic model, the associated regulatory network has not yet been well studied. In this manuscript, we report on the implementation of a thermodynamics based metabolic flux model for Geobacter sulfurreducens. We use this updated model to identify reactions that are subject to regulatory control in the metabolic network of G. sulfurreducens using thermodynamic variability analysis. Findings As a first step, we have validated the regulatory sites and bottleneck reactions predicted by the thermodynamic flux analysis in E. coli by evaluating the expression ranges of the corresponding genes. We then identified ten reactions in the metabolic network of G. sulfurreducens that are predicted to be candidates for regulation. We then compared the free energy ranges for these reactions with the corresponding gene expression fold changes under conditions of different environmental and genetic perturbations and show that the model predictions of regulation are consistent with data. In addition, we also identify reactions that operate close to equilibrium and show that the experimentally determined exchange coefficient (a measure of reversibility is significant for these reactions. Conclusions Application of the thermodynamic constraints resulted in identification of potential bottleneck reactions not only from the central metabolism but also from the nucleotide and amino acid subsystems, thereby showing the highly coupled nature of the thermodynamic constraints. In addition, thermodynamic variability analysis serves as a valuable tool in estimating the ranges of ΔrG' of every reaction in the model
Thermodynamic analysis of a milk pasteurization process assisted by geothermal energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yildirim, Nurdan; Genc, Seda
2015-01-01
Renewable energy system is an important concern for sustainable development of the World. Thermodynamic analysis, especially exergy analysis is an intense tool to assess sustainability of the systems. Food processing industry is one of the energy intensive sectors where dairy industry consumes substantial amount of energy among other food industry segments. Therefore, in this study, thermodynamic analysis of a milk pasteurization process assisted by geothermal energy was studied. In the system, a water–ammonia VAC (vapor absorption cycle), a cooling section, a pasteurizer and a regenerator were used for milk pasteurization. Exergetic efficiencies of each component and the whole system were separately calculated. A parametric study was undertaken. In this regard, firstly the effect of the geothermal resource temperature on (i) the total exergy destruction of the absorption cycle and the whole system, (ii) the efficiency of the VAC, the whole system and COP (coefficient of performance) of the VAC, (iii) the flow rate of the pasteurized milk were investigated. Then, the effect of the geothermal resource flow rate on the pasteurization load was analyzed. The exergetic efficiency of the whole system was calculated as 56.81% with total exergy destruction rate of 13.66 kW. The exergetic results were also illustrated through the Grassmann diagram. - Highlights: • Geothermal energy assisted milk pasteurization system was studied thermodynamically. • The first study on exergetic analysis of a milk pasteurization process with VAC. • The thermodynamic properties of water–ammonia mixture were calculated by using EES. • Energetic and exergetic efficiency calculated as 71.05 and 56.81%, respectively.
Thermodynamic DFT analysis of natural gas.
Neto, Abel F G; Huda, Muhammad N; Marques, Francisco C; Borges, Rosivaldo S; Neto, Antonio M J C
2017-08-01
Density functional theory was performed for thermodynamic predictions on natural gas, whose B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p), B3LYP/6-31+G(d), CBS-QB3, G3, and G4 methods were applied. Additionally, we carried out thermodynamic predictions using G3/G4 averaged. The calculations were performed for each major component of seven kinds of natural gas and to their respective air + natural gas mixtures at a thermal equilibrium between room temperature and the initial temperature of a combustion chamber during the injection stage. The following thermodynamic properties were obtained: internal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy and entropy, which enabled us to investigate the thermal resistance of fuels. Also, we estimated an important parameter, namely, the specific heat ratio of each natural gas; this allowed us to compare the results with the empirical functions of these parameters, where the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) and G3/G4 methods showed better agreements. In addition, relevant information on the thermal and mechanic resistance of natural gases were investigated, as well as the standard thermodynamic properties for the combustion of natural gas. Thus, we show that density functional theory can be useful for predicting the thermodynamic properties of natural gas, enabling the production of more efficient compositions for the investigated fuels. Graphical abstract Investigation of the thermodynamic properties of natural gas through the canonical ensemble model and the density functional theory.
Thermodynamic analysis of the two-phase ejector air-conditioning system for buses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ünal, Şaban; Yilmaz, Tuncay
2015-01-01
Air-conditioning compressors of the buses are usually operated with the power taken from the engine of the buses. Therefore, an improvement in the air-conditioning system will reduce the fuel consumption of the buses. The improvement in the coefficient of performance (COP) of the air-conditioning system can be provided by using the two-phase ejector as an expansion valve in the air-conditioning system. In this study, the thermodynamic analysis of bus air-conditioning system enhanced with a two-phase ejector and two evaporators is performed. Thermodynamic analysis is made assuming that the mixing process in ejector occurs at constant cross-sectional area and constant pressure. The increase rate in the COP with respect to conventional system is analyzed in terms of the subcooling, condenser and evaporator temperatures. The analysis shows that COP improvement of the system by using the two phase ejector as an expansion device is 15% depending on design parameters of the existing bus air-conditioning system. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of the two-phase ejector refrigeration system. • Analysis of the COP increase rate of bus air-conditioning system. • Analysis of the entrainment ratio of the two-phase ejector refrigeration system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Capaz, Rodrigo B. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); ElMassalami, M., E-mail: massalam@if.ufrj.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Terrazos, L.A. [Centro de Educação e Saúde, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Cuité, PB 58175-000 (Brazil); Elhadi, M. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil); Takeya, H. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1, Sengen, Tsukuba, 305-0047 (Japan); Ghivelder, L. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21941-972 (Brazil)
2016-06-05
Using a combination of theoretical (first-principles total-energy and electronic structure calculations) as well as experimental (structural, thermodynamics) techniques, we systematically investigated the influence of B incorporation on the structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of a series of technologically-important B-containing AlNi matrix. Special attention was paid to calculating the energy cost of placing B at various sites within the cubic unit cell. The most energetically favorable defects were identified to be, depending on initial stoichiometry, substitutional B at Al site (B{sub Al}), Ni vacancy (V{sub Ni}), or Ni antisite (Ni{sub Al}). We show that the induced variation in the lattice parameters can be correlated with the type and concentration of the involved defects: e.g. the surge of V{sub Ni} defects leads to a stronger lattice-parameter reduction, that of Ni{sub Al} ones to a relatively weaker reduction while that of B{sub Al} defects to a much weaker influence. Both electronic band structure calculations as well as thermodynamics measurements indicate that the 3d bands of Ni are fully occupied and magnetically unpolarized and that the resulting N(E{sub F}) is very small: all studied compounds are normal conductors with no trace of superconductivity or magnetic polarization.
A Network Thermodynamic Approach to Compartmental Analysis
Mikulecky, D. C.; Huf, E. G.; Thomas, S. R.
1979-01-01
We introduce a general network thermodynamic method for compartmental analysis which uses a compartmental model of sodium flows through frog skin as an illustrative example (Huf and Howell, 1974a). We use network thermodynamics (Mikulecky et al., 1977b) to formulate the problem, and a circuit simulation program (ASTEC 2, SPICE2, or PCAP) for computation. In this way, the compartment concentrations and net fluxes between compartments are readily obtained for a set of experimental conditions involving a square-wave pulse of labeled sodium at the outer surface of the skin. Qualitative features of the influx at the outer surface correlate very well with those observed for the short circuit current under another similar set of conditions by Morel and LeBlanc (1975). In related work, the compartmental model is used as a basis for simulation of the short circuit current and sodium flows simultaneously using a two-port network (Mikulecky et al., 1977a, and Mikulecky et al., A network thermodynamic model for short circuit current transients in frog skin. Manuscript in preparation; Gary-Bobo et al., 1978). The network approach lends itself to computation of classic compartmental problems in a simple manner using circuit simulation programs (Chua and Lin, 1975), and it further extends the compartmental models to more complicated situations involving coupled flows and non-linearities such as concentration dependencies, chemical reaction kinetics, etc. PMID:262387
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, H.Z.; Mohamad, A.A.
2013-01-01
Due to the intermittent nature of the solar radiation, the day-long continuous production of cold is a challenge for solar-driven adsorption cooling systems. In the present study, a developed solar-powered adsorption cooling system is introduced. The proposed system is able to produce cold continuously along the 24-h of the day. The theoretical thermodynamic operating cycle of the system is based on adsorption at constant temperature. Both the cooling system operating procedure as well as the theoretical thermodynamic cycle are described and explained. Moreover, a steady state differential thermodynamic analysis is performed for all components and processes of the introduced system. The analysis is based on the energy conservation principle and the equilibrium dynamics of the adsorption and desorption processes. The Dubinin–Astakhov adsorption equilibrium equation is used in this analysis. Furthermore, the thermodynamic properties of the refrigerant are calculated from its equation of state. The case studied represents a water chiller which uses activated carbon–methanol as the working pair. The chiller is found to produce a daily mass of 2.63 kg cold water at 0 °C from water at 25 °C per kg of adsorbent. Moreover, the proposed system attains a cooling coefficient of performance of 0.66. - Highlights: • A new continuous operation solar-driven adsorption refrigeration system is introduced. • The theoretical thermodynamic cycle is presented and explained. • A complete thermodynamic analysis is performed for all components and processes of the system. • Activated carbon–methanol is used as the working pair in the case study
Growth rate of non-thermodynamic emittance of intense electron beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlsten, B.E.
1998-01-01
The nonlinear free-energy concept has been particularly useful in estimating the emittance growth resulting from any excess energy of electron beams in periodic and uniform channels. However, additional emittance growth, that is geometrical rather than thermodynamic in origin, is induced if the particles have different kinetic energies and axial velocities, which is common for mildly relativistic, very intense electron beams. This effect is especially strong if particles lose or gain significant kinetic energy due to the beam's potential depression, as the beam converges and diverges. In this paper we analyze these geometric emittance growth mechanisms for a uniform, continuous, intense electron beam in a focusing transport channel consisting of discrete solenoidal magnets, over distances short enough that the beam does not reach equilibrium. These emittance growth mechanisms are based on the effects of (1) energy variations leading to nonlinearities in the space-charge force even if the current density is uniform, (2) an axial velocity shear radially along the beam due to the beam's azimuthal motion in the solenoids, and (3) an energy redistribution of the beam as the beam compresses or expands. The geometric emittance growth is compared in magnitude with that resulting from the nonlinear free energy, for the case of a mismatched beam in a uniform channel, and is shown to dominate for certain experimental conditions. Rules for minimizing the emittance along a beamline are outlined. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Application of Statistical Thermodynamics in Refrigeration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avsec, J.; Marcic, M.
1999-01-01
The paper presents the mathematical model for computing the thermodynamical properties in the liquid, gas and two-phase domain by means of statistical thermodynamics. The paper features all important components (translation, rotation, internal rotation, vibration, intermolecular potential energy and influence of electron and nuclei excitation). To calculate the thermodynamic properties of real gases, we have developed the cluster theory, which yields better results than the virial equation. In case of real liquids, the Johnson-Zollweg-Gubbins model based on the modified Benedict-Webb-Rubin (BWR) equation was applied. The Lennard-Jones intermolecular potential was used. The analytical results are compared with the thermodynamical data and models obtained from classical thermodynamics, and they show relatively good agreement. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Watanabe
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Vapor production in cavitation extracts the latent heat of evaporation from the surrounding liquid, which decreases the local temperature, and hence the local vapor pressure in the vicinity of cavity. This is called thermodynamic/thermal effect of cavitation and leads to the good suction performance of cryogenic turbopumps. We have already established the simple analysis of partially cavitating flow with the thermodynamic effect, where the latent heat extraction and the heat transfer between the cavity and the ambient fluid are taken into account. In the present study, we carry out the analysis for cavitating inducer and compare it with the experimental data available from literatures using Freon R-114 and liquid nitrogen. It is found that the present analysis can simulate fairly well the thermodynamic effect of cavitation and some modification of the analysis considering the real fluid properties, that is, saturation characteristic, is favorable for more qualitative agreement.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gulebaglan Sinem Erden
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We performed first-principles calculations to obtain the electronic, optical, elastic, lattice-dynamical and thermodynamic properties of RbH compound with rock salt structure. The ground-state properties, i.e., the lattice constant and the band gap were investigated using a plane wave pseudopotential method within density functional theory. The calculated lattice constant, bulk modulus, energy band gap and elastic constants are reported and compared with previous theoretical and experimental results. Our calculated results and the previous results which are obtained from literature are in a good agreement. Moreover, real and imaginary parts of complex dielectric function, reflectivity spectrum, absorption, extinction coefficient and loss function as a function of photon energy and refractive index with respect to photon wavelength were calculated. In addition, temperature dependent thermodynamic properties such as Helmholtz free energy, internal energy, entropy and specific heat have been studied.
Hidayat, Taufiq; Shishin, Denis; Grimsey, David; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni
2018-02-01
The Kalgoorlie Nickel Smelter (KNS) produces low Fe, low Cu nickel matte in its Peirce-Smith converter operations. To inform process development in the plant, new fundamental data are required on the effect of CaO in slag on the distribution of arsenic between slag and matte. A combination of plant sample analysis, high-temperature laboratory experiments, and thermodynamic modeling was carried out to identify process conditions in the converter and to investigate the effect of slag composition on the chemical behavior of the system. The high-temperature experiments involved re-equilibration of industrial matte-slag-lime samples at 1498 K (1225 °C) and P(SO2) = 0.12 atm on a magnetite/quartz substrate, rapid quenching in water, and direct measurement of phase compositions using electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). A private thermodynamic database for the Ca-Cu-Fe-Mg-Ni-O-S-Si-(As) system was used together with the FactSage software package to assist in the analysis. Thermodynamic predictions combined with plant sample characterization and the present experimental data provide a quantitative basis for the analysis of the effect of CaO fluxing on the slag-matte thermochemistry during nickel sulfide converting, in particular on the spinel liquidus and the distribution of elements between slag and matte as a function of CaO addition.
Belmonte, Donato; Gatti, Carlo; Ottonello, Giulio; Richet, Pascal; Vetuschi Zuccolini, Marino
2016-11-10
Thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of Na 2 SiO 3 in the Cmc2 1 structural state are computed ab initio using the hybrid B3LYP density functional method. The static properties at the athermal limit are first evaluated through a symmetry-preserving relaxation procedure. The thermodynamic properties that depend on vibrational frequencies, viz., heat capacities, thermal expansion, thermal derivative of the bulk modulus, thermal correction to internal energy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy, are then computed in the framework of quasi-harmonic approximation. Acoustic branches are computed by solving the Christoffel determinant and are assumed to follow sine wave dispersion when traveling within the Brillouin zone. The procedure generates several thermo-physical properties of interest in materials science and geophysics (transverse and longitudinal wave velocities, shear modulus, Young modulus, Poisson ratio) all consistent with experimentally determined properties. A representative cluster is then abstracted from the cell and a detailed electron localization/delocalization analysis is performed on it, in the ground state geometry, and on deformed states imposed by two peculiar mixed asymmetric stretching/bending modes affecting the silicate chain that, according to literature data, have anomalous mode Grüneisen parameters. A Bader analysis reveals an intriguing feature associated with these deformations: an increase in the covalence of the Si-O bond that strengthens the linkage opposing the weakening induced by thermal stress. Finally, on the same cluster, the Ramsey contributions to the J NM coupling are evaluated by the gauge-independent atomic orbital method. The calculated isotropic chemical shifts of both 23 Na and 29 Si are again in substantial agreement with observations.
Thermodynamic and Spectrophotometric Studies of Electron Donor ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Some features of the formed complex, such as molar ratio of the reaction and effect of time ... Thermodynamic parameters were determined as well, the method was ... enthalpy change (ÄH) was steady at -0.254 kcal.mol-1 while the free energy ...
Thermodynamic analysis of environmental problems of energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaganovich Boris M.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The paper discusses the problems of the ecological analysis of physicochemical processes in power units and the impact of energy systems on the nature in large territorial regions. The model of extreme intermediate states developed at the Energy Systems Institute based on the principles of classical equilibrium thermodynamics was chosen to devise specific computational methods. The results of the conducted studies are presented and directions for further work are outlined.
Cantera Integration with the Toolbox for Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS)
Lavelle, Thomas M.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.; May, Ryan D.; Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei
2014-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has recently developed a software package for modeling generic thermodynamic systems called the Toolbox for the Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS). T-MATS is a library of building blocks that can be assembled to represent any thermodynamic system in the Simulink (The MathWorks, Inc.) environment. These elements, along with a Newton Raphson solver (also provided as part of the T-MATS package), enable users to create models of a wide variety of systems. The current version of T-MATS (v1.0.1) uses tabular data for providing information about a specific mixture of air, water (humidity), and hydrocarbon fuel in calculations of thermodynamic properties. The capabilities of T-MATS can be expanded by integrating it with the Cantera thermodynamic package. Cantera is an object-oriented analysis package that calculates thermodynamic solutions for any mixture defined by the user. Integration of Cantera with T-MATS extends the range of systems that may be modeled using the toolbox. In addition, the library of elements released with Cantera were developed using MATLAB native M-files, allowing for quicker prototyping of elements. This paper discusses how the new Cantera-based elements are created and provides examples for using T-MATS integrated with Cantera.
Ab initio study on half-metallic, electronic and thermodynamic attributes of LaFeO3
Tariq, Saad; Saad, Saher; Jamil, M. Imran; Sohail Gilani, S. M.; Mahmood Ramay, Shahid; Mahmood, Asif
2018-03-01
By using the density functional theory (DFT) the systematic study of the structural, electronic and thermodynamic properties of lanthanum ferrite (LaFeO3) has been conducted. The elastic stability criterion and structural tolerance factor reveal that LaFeO3 exists in the cubic phase and is found to be stable under the ambient conditions. In electronic properties, the optical spectrum of the compound has been found to fall in the range of 488 to 688nm which has been calculated from the electronic band gap values by using the PBE-GGA and mBJ-GGA techniques. The light between 488 to 688nm would cause the valence electrons to jump in the conduction band showing the photoconductivity. The pronounced half-metallic character has been discussed by using the projected electronic density of states. The ferromagnetic response has been observed which may be attributed to the Fe-O bonding situation. The compound exhibits ductile, indirect band gap and half-metallic traits in the bulk phase. We expect the compound to be felicitous for the novel spintronic applications.
Micro gas turbine thermodynamic and economic analysis up to 500 kWe size
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galanti, Leandro; Massardo, Aristide F.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → Thermoeconomic analysis and optimization of micro gas turbines up to 500 kWe. → Analysis carried out for both regenerative and intercooled regenerative cycles. → Focus on thermodynamic, geometric and cost parameters of the main MGT devices. → ICR cycle has an interesting reduction in capital and electricity costs, rising size. → Complete thermoeconomic investigation is essential to support thermodynamic analysis. -- Abstract: In this paper a thermoeconomic analysis and optimization of micro gas turbines (MGT) up to 500 kWe is presented. This analysis is strongly related to the need of minimizing specific capital cost, still high for MGT large market penetration, and optimizing MGT size to match market needs. The analysis was carried out for both existing regenerative MGT cycles and new inter-cooled regenerative cycles, using the Web-based ThermoEconomic Modular Program by the University of Genoa. The attention is mainly focused on the basis of thermodynamic, geometric and capital cost parameters of the main MGT devices (such as recuperator size, material and effectiveness, turbine inlet temperature, and compressor pressure ratio) and on economic scenario (fuel cost, cost of electricity, etc.) for different MGT size in the range 25-500 kWe.
Statistical thermodynamics of alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gokcen, N.A.
1986-01-01
This book presents information on the following topics: consequences of laws of thermodynamics; Helmholtz and Gibbs energies; analytical forms of excess partial molar properties; single-component and multicomponent equilibria; phase rules and diagrams; lever rule; fermions, bosons, and Boltzons; approximate equations; enthalpy and heat capacity; Pd-H system; hydrogen-metal systems; limitations of Wagner model; energy of electrons and hols; dopants in semiconductors; derived thermodynamic properties; simple equivalent circuit; calculation procedure; multicompoent diagrams re; Engel-Brewer theories; p-n junctions; and solar cells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snyder, S.C.; Lassahn, G.D.; Reynolds, L.D.
1993-01-01
Radial profiles of gas temperature, electron temperature, and electron density were measured in a free-burning atmospheric-pressure argon arc-discharge plasma using line-shape analysis of scattered laser light. This method yields gas temperature, electron temperature, and electron density directly, with no reliance on the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Our results show a significant departure from LTE in the center of the discharge, contrary to expectations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.P. Singh
2014-12-01
Full Text Available To study the structural, electronic and thermodynamic behavior of CeMgTl, full-potential linear augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW + lo method has been used. The lattice parameters (a0, c0, bulk modulus (B0 and its first order pressure derivative (B0′ have been calculated for CeMgTl. Band structure and density of states histograms depicts that “5d” orbital electrons of Tl have dominant character in the electronic contribution to CeMgTl. Impact of the temperature and pressure on unit cell volume, bulk modulus, Debye temperature, Grüneisen parameter, specific heat and thermal expansion coefficient (α have been studied in wide temperature range (0–300 K and pressure range (0–15 GPa.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fortin, Xavier
1971-01-01
The effects of thermal excitation are introduced in the study of a simple electronic structure model for condensed media. The choice of a particle-interaction potential leads to a self-consistent calculation performed on a computer. This calculation gives a metal - nonmetal transition similar to the MOTT transition. We consider the effects of temperature and density variations upon this transition. It is possible to make use of this electronic structure to obtain the thermodynamic properties near the transition: pressure, free energy, sound velocity. The numerical results of this simple model are satisfactory. Particularly, if a dielectric constant is taken into account, the transition temperature and density are of the same order of magnitude as those observed experimentally in semiconductors. (author) [fr
Thermodynamic Analysis of Chemically Reacting Mixtures-Comparison of First and Second Order Models.
Pekař, Miloslav
2018-01-01
Recently, a method based on non-equilibrium continuum thermodynamics which derives thermodynamically consistent reaction rate models together with thermodynamic constraints on their parameters was analyzed using a triangular reaction scheme. The scheme was kinetically of the first order. Here, the analysis is further developed for several first and second order schemes to gain a deeper insight into the thermodynamic consistency of rate equations and relationships between chemical thermodynamic and kinetics. It is shown that the thermodynamic constraints on the so-called proper rate coefficient are usually simple sign restrictions consistent with the supposed reaction directions. Constraints on the so-called coupling rate coefficients are more complex and weaker. This means more freedom in kinetic coupling between reaction steps in a scheme, i.e., in the kinetic effects of other reactions on the rate of some reaction in a reacting system. When compared with traditional mass-action rate equations, the method allows a reduction in the number of traditional rate constants to be evaluated from data, i.e., a reduction in the dimensionality of the parameter estimation problem. This is due to identifying relationships between mass-action rate constants (relationships which also include thermodynamic equilibrium constants) which have so far been unknown.
Structure and thermodynamics of molten salts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Papatheodorou, G.N.
1983-01-01
This chapter investigates single-component molten salts and multicomponent salt mixtures. Molten salts provide an important testing ground for theories of liquids, solutions, and plasmas. Topics considered include molten salts as liquids (the pair potential, the radial distribution function, methods of characterization), single salts (structure, thermodynamic correlations), and salt mixtures (the thermodynamics of mixing; spectroscopy and structure). Neutron and X-ray scattering techniques are used to determine the structure of molten metal halide salts. The corresponding-states theory is used to obtain thermodynamic correlations on single salts. Structural information on salt mixtures is obtained by using vibrational (Raman) and electronic absorption spectroscopy. Charge-symmetrical systems and charge-unsymmetrical systems are used to examine the thermodynamics of salt mixtures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubovitskii, V.A.; Pavlov, G.A.; Krasnikov, Yu.G.
1996-01-01
Thermodynamic analysis of media with strong interparticle (Coulomb) interaction is presented. A method for constructing isotherms is proposed for a medium described by a closed multicomponent thermodynamic model. The method is based on choosing an appropriate nondegenerate frame of reference in the extended space of thermodynamic variables and provides efficient thermodynamic calculations in a wide range of parameters, for an investigation of phase transitions of the first kind, and for determining both the number of phases and coexistence curves. A number of approximate thermodynamic models of hydrogen plasma are discussed. The approximation corresponding to the n5/2 law, in which the effects of particle attraction and repulsion are taken into account qualitatively, is studied. This approximation allows studies of thermodynamic properties of a substance for a wide range of parameters. In this approximation, for hydrogen at a constant temperature, various properties of the degree of ionization are revealed. In addition, the parameters of the second critical point are found under conditions corresponding to the Jovian interior
Branch-cut singularities in thermodynamics of Fermi liquid systems.
Shekhter, Arkady; Finkel'stein, Alexander M
2006-10-24
The recently measured spin susceptibility of the two-dimensional electron gas exhibits a strong dependence on temperature, which is incompatible with the standard Fermi liquid phenomenology. In this article, we show that the observed temperature behavior is inherent to ballistic two-dimensional electrons. Besides the single-particle and collective excitations, the thermodynamics of Fermi liquid systems includes effects of the branch-cut singularities originating from the edges of the continuum of pairs of quasiparticles. As a result of the rescattering induced by interactions, the branch-cut singularities generate nonanalyticities in the thermodynamic potential that reveal themselves in anomalous temperature dependences. Calculation of the spin susceptibility in such a situation requires a nonperturbative treatment of the interactions. As in high-energy physics, a mixture of the collective excitations and pairs of quasiparticles can effectively be described by a pole in the complex momentum plane. This analysis provides a natural explanation for the observed temperature dependence of the spin susceptibility, both in sign and in magnitude.
Miao, Yurun; Li, Huayang; Wang, Hongjuan; He, Kaihua; Wang, Qingbo
2018-02-01
First principles and quasi-harmonic Debye model have been used to study the thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties of MgO up to the core-mantle boundary (CMB) condition (137 GPa and 3700 K). Thermodynamic properties calculation includes thermal expansion coefficient and capacity, which have been studied up to the CMB pressure (137 GPa) and temperature (3700 K) by the Debye model with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) and local-density approximation (LDA). First principles with hybrid functional method (PBE0) has been used to calculate the electronic and optical properties under pressure up to 137 GPa and 0 K. Our results show the Debye model with LDA and first principles with PBE0 can provide accurate thermodynamic properties, enthalpies, electronic and optical properties. Calculated enthalpies show that MgO keep NaCl (B1) structure up to 137 GPa. And MgO is a direct bandgap insulator with a 7.23 eV calculated bandgap. The bandgap increased with increasing pressure, which will induce a blue shift of optical properties. We also calculated the density of states (DOS) and discussed the relation between DOS and band, optical properties. Equations were used to fit the relations between pressure and bandgaps, absorption coefficient (α(ω)) of MgO. The equations can be used to evaluate pressure after careful calibration. Our calculations can not only be used to identify some geological processes, but also offer a reference to the applications of MgO in the future.
Westerhold, Lauren E; Bridges, Lance C; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Zeczycki, Tonya N
2017-07-11
Allosteric regulation of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) activity is pivotal to maintaining metabolic homeostasis. In contrast, dysregulated PC activity contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, rendering PC a possible target for allosteric therapeutic development. Recent research efforts have focused on demarcating the role of acetyl-CoA, one of the most potent activators of PC, in coordinating catalytic events within the multifunctional enzyme. Herein, we report a kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of acetyl-CoA activation of the Staphylococcus aureus PC (SaPC)-catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate to identify novel means by which acetyl-CoA synchronizes catalytic events within the PC tetramer. Kinetic and linked-function analysis, or thermodynamic linkage analysis, indicates that the substrates of the biotin carboxylase and carboxyl transferase domain are energetically coupled in the presence of acetyl-CoA. In contrast, both kinetic and energetic coupling between the two domains is lost in the absence of acetyl-CoA, suggesting a functional role for acetyl-CoA in facilitating the long-range transmission of substrate-induced conformational changes within the PC tetramer. Interestingly, thermodynamic activation parameters for the SaPC-catalyzed carboxylation of pyruvate are largely independent of acetyl-CoA. Our results also reveal the possibility that global conformational changes give rise to observed species-specific thermodynamic activation parameters. Taken together, our kinetic and thermodynamic results provide a possible allosteric mechanism by which acetyl-CoA coordinates catalysis within the PC tetramer.
Thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected advanced gas turbine cycles
Pandey, Devendra; Bade, Mukund H.
2017-12-01
This paper deals with thermodynamic analysis of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle. To analyse the thermodynamic performance of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycles, a methodology based on pinch analysis is proposed. This graphical methodology is a systematic approach proposed for a selection of gas turbine with steam injection. The developed graphs are useful for selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) for optimal operation of it and helps designer to take appropriate decision. The selection of steam-injected gas turbine (STIGT) cycle can be done either at minimum steam ratio (ratio of mass flow rate of steam to air) with maximum efficiency or at maximum steam ratio with maximum net work conditions based on the objective of plants designer. Operating the steam injection based advanced gas turbine plant at minimum steam ratio improves efficiency, resulting in reduction of pollution caused by the emission of flue gases. On the other hand, operating plant at maximum steam ratio can result in maximum work output and hence higher available power.
Thermodynamics of Bioreactions.
Held, Christoph; Sadowski, Gabriele
2016-06-07
Thermodynamic principles have been applied to enzyme-catalyzed reactions since the beginning of the 1930s in an attempt to understand metabolic pathways. Currently, thermodynamics is also applied to the design and analysis of biotechnological processes. The key thermodynamic quantity is the Gibbs energy of reaction, which must be negative for a reaction to occur spontaneously. However, the application of thermodynamic feasibility studies sometimes yields positive Gibbs energies of reaction even for reactions that are known to occur spontaneously, such as glycolysis. This article reviews the application of thermodynamics in enzyme-catalyzed reactions. It summarizes the basic thermodynamic relationships used for describing the Gibbs energy of reaction and also refers to the nonuniform application of these relationships in the literature. The review summarizes state-of-the-art approaches that describe the influence of temperature, pH, electrolytes, solvents, and concentrations of reacting agents on the Gibbs energy of reaction and, therefore, on the feasibility and yield of biological reactions.
Constitution and thermodynamics of Pt-La alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reimann, S.; Schaller, H.-J.
2006-01-01
A complete set of thermodynamic functions was determined for the Pt-La system from electromotive force measurements on galvanic cells in the temperature range from 923 to 1073 K using CaF 2 single crystals as solid electrolytes. The phases on the platinum-rich side show pronounced negative deviations from ideal mixing behaviour; at 1073 K and infinite dilution, for instance, the relative partial excess Gibbs energy of La was determined to be -315 kJ/mol. Two effects are discussed to account for the deviations from ideal mixing behaviour: the transfer of the valence electrons of La to the electron gas of the alloy and the lattice distortion brought about by the size difference of the components. The phase relations were investigated by means of thermal, and X-ray analyses. The thermodynamic description of the system was optimized using experimental data from the present thermodynamic and phase diagram work. The calculated thermodynamic functions as well as the calculated phase diagram turned out to be in excellent accordance with the experimental results
Wang, Vincent C-C
2016-08-10
Finding fundamental and general mechanisms for electrochemical reactions, such as the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) from water and reduction of CO2, plays vital roles in developing the desired electrocatalysts for facilitating solar fuel production. Recently, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have shown that there is a universal scaling relation of adsorption energy between key intermediate species, HO(ad) and HOO(ad), on the surface of metal oxides as OER electrocatalysts. In this paper, a kinetic and thermodynamic model for the four-electron electrochemical reaction based on previous OER mechanisms proposed by DFT calculations is developed to further investigate the electrocatalytic properties over a wide range of metal oxides and photosystem II. The OER activity of metal oxides (i.e. electrocatalytic current) calculated from the DFT-calculated equilibrium potentials with kinetic properties, such as the rate constants for interfacial electron transfer and catalytic turnover, can lead to a volcano-shaped trend that agrees with the results observed in experiments. In addition, the kinetic aspects of the impact on the electrocatalysts are evaluated. Finally, comparing the results of metal oxides and photosystem II, and fitting experimental voltammograms give further insights into kinetic and thermodynamic roles. Here, the general guidelines for designing OER electrocatalysts with unified kinetic and thermodynamic properties are presented.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Oxygen-Enriched Direct Smelting of Jamesonite Concentrate
Zhang, Zhong-Tang; Dai, Xi; Zhang, Wen-Hai
2017-12-01
Thermodynamic analysis of oxygen-enriched direct smelting of jamesonite concentrate is reported in this article. First, the occurrence state of lead, antimony and other metallic elements in the smelting process was investigated theoretically. Then, the verification test was carried out. The results indicate that lead and antimony mainly exist in the alloy in the form of metallic lead and metallic antimony. Simultaneously, lead and antimony were also oxidized into the slag in the form of lead-antimony oxide. Iron and copper could be oxidized into the slag in the form of oxides in addition to combining with antimony in the alloy, while zinc was mainly oxidized into the slag in the form of zinc oxide. The verification test indicates that the main phases in the alloy contain metallic lead, metallic antimony and a small amount of Cu2Sb, FeSb2 intermetallic compounds, and the slag is mainly composed of kirschsteinite, fayalite and zinc oxide, in agreement with the thermodynamic analysis.
Zhu, Xiao-Qing; Liu, Qiao-Yun; Chen, Qiang; Mei, Lian-Rui
2010-02-05
A series of 61 imines with various typical structures were synthesized, and the thermodynamic affinities (defined as enthalpy changes or redox potentials in this work) of the imines to abstract hydride anions, hydrogen atoms, and electrons, the thermodynamic affinities of the radical anions of the imines to abstract hydrogen atoms and protons, and the thermodynamic affinities of the hydrogen adducts of the imines to abstract electrons in acetonitrile were determined by using titration calorimetry and electrochemical methods. The pure heterolytic and homolytic dissociation energies of the C=N pi-bond in the imines were estimated. The polarity of the C=N double bond in the imines was examined using a linear free-energy relationship. The idea of a thermodynamic characteristic graph (TCG) of imines as an efficient "Molecule ID Card" was introduced. The TCG can be used to quantitatively diagnose and predict the characteristic chemical properties of imines and their various reaction intermediates as well as the reduction mechanism of the imines. The information disclosed in this work could not only supply a gap of thermodynamics for the chemistry of imines but also strongly promote the fast development of the applications of imines.
First principles thermodynamics of alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ducastelle, F.
1993-01-01
We present a brief report on the methods of solid state physics (electronic structure, statistical thermodynamics) that allow us to discuss the phase stability of alloys and to determine their phase diagrams. (orig.)
Suhasini, M.; Sailatha, E.; Gunasekaran, S.; Ramkumaar, G. R.
2015-11-01
The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectra of Lornoxicam were recorded in the region 4000-450 cm-1 and 4000-50 cm-1 respectively. Density functional theory (DFT) has been used to calculate the optimized geometrical parameters, atomic charges, and vibrational wavenumbers and intensity of the vibrational bands. The computed vibrational wave numbers were compared with the FT-IR and FT-Raman experimental data. The computational calculations at DFT/B3LYP level with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-31++G(d,p) basis sets. The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the Vibrational modes calculated using Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA 4) program. The oscillator's strength calculated by TD-DFT and Lornoxicam is approach complement with the experimental findings. The NMR chemical shifts 13C and 1H were recorded and calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The Natural charges and intermolecular contacts have been interpreted using Natural Bond orbital (NBO) analysis and the HOMO-LUMO energy gap has been calculated. The thermodynamic properties like Entropy, Enthalpy, Specific heat capacity and zero vibrational energy have been calculated. Besides, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) was investigated using theoretical calculations.
Thermodynamic quantities and defect equilibrium in La2-xSrxNiO4+δ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Takashi; Yashiro, Keiji; Sato, Kazuhisa; Mizusaki, Junichiro
2009-01-01
In order to elucidate the relation between thermodynamic quantities, the defect structure, and the defect equilibrium in La 2-x Sr x NiO 4+δ , statistical thermodynamic calculation is carried out and calculated results are compared to those obtained from experimental data. Partial molar enthalpy of oxygen and partial molar entropy of oxygen are obtained from δ-P(O 2 )-T relation by using Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. Statistical thermodynamic model is derived from defect equilibrium models proposed before by authors, localized electron model and delocalized electron model which could well explain the variation of oxygen content of La 2-x Sr x NiO 4+δ . Although assumed defect species and their equilibrium are different, the results of thermodynamic calculation by localized electron model and delocalized electron model show minor difference. Calculated results by the both models agree with the thermodynamic quantities obtained from oxygen nonstoichiometry of La 2-x Sr x NiO 4+δ . - Graphical abstract: In order to elucidate the relation between thermodynamic quantities, the defect structure, and the defect equilibrium in La 2-x Sr x NiO 4+δ , statistics thermodynamic calculation is carried out and calculated results are compared to those obtained from experimental data.
The quantitative analysis of data for magnetization of ferromagnet. Extended thermodynamic approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodryakov, V.Yu.; Bashkatov, A.N.
2005-01-01
A quantitative analysis of M(H,T) data on magnetization of a gadolinium single crystal in the vicinity of Curie point is accomplished within the frameworks of extended thermodynamic approach. It is established that actually observed behavior of temperature dependences of thermodynamic coefficients for gadolinium even near Curie point is sharply different from that in Landau theory. A discrepancy revealed leads to conclusion that traditional concepts should be revised. The solution of extended equation of a ferromagnet magnetic state is found and criteria of its stability are shown [ru
THERMODYNAMICS OF PROTEIN-LIGAND INTERACTIONS AND THEIR ANALYSIS
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Rummi Devi Saini
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Physiological processes are controlled mainly by intermolecular recognition mechanisms which involve protein–protein and protein–ligand interactions with a high specificity and affinity to form a specific complex. Proteins being an important class of macromolecules in biological systems, it is important to understand their actions through binding to other molecules of proteins or ligands. In fact, the binding of low molecular weight ligands to proteins plays a significant role in regulating biological processes such as cellular metabolism and signal transmission. Therefore knowledge of the protein–ligand interactions and the knowledge of the mechanisms involved in the protein-ligand recognition and binding are key in understanding biology at molecular level which will facilitate the discovery, design, and development of drugs. In this review, the mechanisms involved in protein–ligand binding, the binding kinetics, thermodynamic concepts and binding driving forces are discussed. Thermodynamic mechanisms involved in a few important protein-ligand binding are described. Various spectroscopic, non-spectroscopic and computational method for analysis of protein–ligand binding are also discussed.
Analysis of the Glass-Forming Ability of Fe-Er Alloys, Based on Thermodynamic Modeling
Arutyunyan, N. A.; Zaitsev, A. I.; Dunaev, S. F.; Kalmykov, K. B.; El'nyakov, D. D.; Shaposhnikov, N. G.
2018-05-01
The Fe-Er phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of all its phases are assessed by means of self-consistent analysis. To refine the data on phase equilibria in the Fe-Er system, an investigation is performed in the 10-40 at % range of Er concentrations. The temperature-concentration dependences of the thermodynamic properties of a melt are presented using the model of ideal associated solutions. Thermodynamic parameters of each phase are obtained, and the calculated results are in agreement with available experimental data. The correlation between the thermodynamic properties of liquid Fe-Er alloys and their tendency toward amorphization are studied. It is shown that compositions of amorphous alloys prepared by melt quenching coincide with the ranges of concentration with the predominance of Fe3Er and FeEr2 associative groups that have large negative entropies of formation.
Thermodynamics of Crystalline States
Fujimoto, Minoru
2010-01-01
Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattices, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. This book is divided into three parts. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. In the third part, the multi-electron system is discussed theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for the superconducting state in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and examined in-depth. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States is an introductory treatise and textbook on meso...
Thermodynamics of nuclear materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-01-01
Full text: The science of chemical thermodynamics has substantially contributed to the understanding of the many problems encountered in nuclear and reactor technology. These problems include reaction of materials with their surroundings and chemical and physical changes of fuels. Modern reactor technology, by its very nature, has offered new fields of investigations for the scientists and engineers concerned with the design of nuclear fuel elements. Moreover, thermodynamics has been vital in predicting the behaviour of new materials for fission as well as fusion reactors. In this regard, the Symposium was organized to provide a mechanism for review and discussion of recent thermodynamic investigations of nuclear materials. The Symposium was held in the Juelich Nuclear Research Centre, at the invitation of the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany. The International Atomic Energy Agency has given much attention to the thermodynamics of nuclear materials, as is evidenced by its sponsorship of four international symposia in 1962, 1965, 1967, and 1974. The first three meetings were primarily concerned with the fundamental thermodynamics of nuclear materials; as with the 1974 meeting, this last Symposium was primarily aimed at the thermodynamic behaviour of nuclear materials in actual practice, i.e., applied thermodynamics. Many advances have been made since the 1974 meeting, both in fundamental and applied thermodynamics of nuclear materials, and this meeting provided opportunities for an exchange of new information on this topic. The Symposium dealt in part with the thermodynamic analysis of nuclear materials under conditions of high temperatures and a severe radiation environment. Several sessions were devoted to the thermodynamic studies of nuclear fuels and fission and fusion reactor materials under adverse conditions. These papers and ensuing discussions provided a better understanding of the chemical behaviour of fuels and materials under these
Experimental investigation and thermodynamic modeling of the Ga–Zr system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Wei [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Liu, Shuhong, E-mail: shhliu@csu.edu.cn [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Tang, Ying [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Yin, Ming [Thermal Processing Technology Center, Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), 10 West 32nd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Sundman, Bosse [INSTN, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Du, Yong [School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China); Nash, Philip [Thermal Processing Technology Center, Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), 10 West 32nd Street, Chicago, IL 60616 (United States); Tao, Huijin [State Key Laboratory of Powder Metallurgy, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410083 (China)
2014-02-25
Highlights: • Phase equilibria of the Ga–Zr system were investigated by experiment. • Δ{sub f}Hs for intermetallic compounds were computed via first–principles calculations. • The enthalpy of formation at 298 K for αGaZr was measured by calorimetry. • A set of self-consistent thermodynamic parameters was obtained. -- Abstract: Phase equilibria of the Ga–Zr system were investigated by experiment and thermodynamic modeling. In the experimental part, eleven alloys were prepared by melting the pure elements and annealed. Both the as-cast and annealed samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, and scanning electron microscope. The annealed alloys were investigated by differential thermal analysis and electron probe microanalysis. In order to assist the thermodynamic modeling, the enthalpies of formation at 0 K for the GaZr{sub 2}, Ga{sub 3}Zr{sub 5}, Ga{sub 2}Zr{sub 3}, Ga{sub 4}Zr{sub 5}, αGaZr, Ga{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}, Ga{sub 5}Zr{sub 3}, Ga{sub 2}Zr and Ga{sub 3}Zr phases were computed via first-principles calculations. The enthalpy of formation at 298 K for the αGaZr was measured by high temperature reaction calorimetry. Based on the experimental phase diagram data from the present work and the literature as well as the present first-principles calculations, the Ga–Zr system was critically assessed by means of CALPHAD approach. The calculated phase diagram and thermodynamic properties agree well with the available experimental data.
Thermodynamic model of a solid with RKKY interaction and magnetoelastic coupling
Balcerzak, T.; Szałowski, K.; Jaščur, M.
2018-04-01
Thermodynamic description of a model system with magnetoelastic coupling is presented. The elastic, vibrational, electronic and magnetic energy contributions are taken into account. The long-range RKKY interaction is considered together with the nearest-neighbour direct exchange. The generalized Gibbs potential and the set of equations of state are derived, from which all thermodynamic functions are self-consistently obtained. Thermodynamic properties are calculated numerically for FCC structure for arbitrary external pressure, magnetic field and temperature, and widely discussed. In particular, for some parameters of interaction potential and electron concentration corresponding to antiferromagnetic phase, the existence of negative thermal expansion coefficient is predicted.
Study of thermodynamics and electronics properties of hybrids of substituted Haucke compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crivello, J.C.
2005-06-01
This manuscript presents a combined experimental and theoretical contribution to the study of the substituted Haucke phase AB5. These compounds can reversibly absorb hydrogen under conditions of pressure and temperature satisfactory for many technological applications including hydrogen storage. The thermodynamic characterization of the solid-gas reaction was carried out for mono and poly-substituted compounds. In the respect of good conditions of growth (decomposition) of the hydride phase, we sought to determine the thermodynamic trajectories allowed during some various transformations. The experimental results showed that the rate of transformation and the hierarchy of the return-points memory are the only parameters allowing to draw a general law related to the irreversible character of hysteresis. These systems evolve in 'static' mode, independent of the time and whatever the nature of host materials. Moreover, the effect of substitution elements on electronic properties has been studied using ab initio band structure calculations for the ANi 5 (A=La, Y, Ca) and LaNi 5-x M x compounds, where M is an element of the type s-p (Al, Si, Ge, Sn), of type s (Cu), or a transition metal (Mn, Fe, Co). While dissociating the structural effects, the role of the chemical interaction with hydrogen was analyzed. These results made it possible to identify the factors which control the stability of the hydrides and their maximum absorption capacity. The bulk moduli of these materials were calculated and their variation was discussed in relation to the properties of hydrogen absorption. (author)
THERMODYNAMIC TOPOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION OF MAXIMUM BOILING AZEOTROPES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. F. Shen
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract This paper provides a feasibility study of azeotropic mixture separation based on a topological analysis combining thermodynamic knowledge of residue curve maps, univolatility and unidistribution curves, and extractive profiles. Thermodynamic topological features related to process operations for typical ternary diagram classes 1.0-2 are, for the first time, discussed. Separating acetone/chloroform is presented as an illustrative example; different entrainers are investigated: several heavy ones, a light one, and water, covering the Serafimov classes 1.0-2, 1.0-1a and 3.1-4, respectively. The general feasibility criterion that was previously established for ternary mixtures including only one azeotrope (1.0-1a or 1.0-2 is now, for the first time, extended to that including three azeotropes (class 3.1–4.
Thermodynamic analysis and experimental investigation of a Solo V161 Stirling cogeneration unit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogdakis, E.D.; Antonakos, G.D.; Koronaki, I.P.
2012-01-01
In order to investigate the Stirling engine implementation technology, a Solo Stirling Engine V161 cogeneration module has been installed at the Laboratory of Applied Thermodynamics of National Technical University of Athens. A special thermodynamic analysis of the engine's performance has been conducted introducing and utilizing specially designed computing codes along with the thermal balance study of the unit. Measurements were conducted under different operational conditions concerning various heat load stages of the engine, working pressure, as well as electric power production. Analysis of the experimental results has shown that the overall performance of the Stirling unit proved very promising and quite adequate for various areal applications, equally competing with other CHP systems. The performance of the unit experienced significant stability all over the operating range. The power stand ratio 0.35 differentiates Stirling cogeneration units from others that use diverging technologies significantly. The energy savings using a Stirling CHP unit, in respect to the concurrent use of a thermal and an electrical system at the same equivalent power has revealed 36.8%. -- Highlights: ► Thermodynamic analysis of an a-type Stirling engine. ► Development of generated electrical and thermal power of the m-CHP Solo Stirling Unit to engine's load comparison. ► Stirling m-CHP until heat balance analysis. ► Evaluation of the Solo Stirling V161 unit efficiency.
Optimization of powered Stirling heat engine with finite speed thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Bidi, Mokhtar; Hosseinzade, Hadi; Feidt, Michel
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Based on finite speed method and direct method, the optimal performance is investigated. • The effects of major parameters on the optimal performance are investigated. • The accuracy of the results was compared with previous works. - Abstract: Popular thermodynamic analyses including finite time thermodynamic analysis was lately developed based upon external irreversibilities while internal irreversibilities such as friction, pressure drop and entropy generation were not considered. The aforementioned disadvantage reduces the reliability of the finite time thermodynamic analysis in the design of an accurate Stirling engine model. Consequently, the finite time thermodynamic analysis could not sufficiently satisfy researchers for implementing in design and optimization issues. In this study, finite speed thermodynamic analysis was employed instead of finite time thermodynamic analysis for studying Stirling heat engine. The finite speed thermodynamic analysis approach is based on the first law of thermodynamics for a closed system with finite speed and the direct method. The effects of heat source temperature, regenerating effectiveness, volumetric ratio, piston stroke as well as rotational speed are included in the analysis. Moreover, maximum output power in optimal rotational speed was calculated while pressure losses in the Stirling engine were systematically considered. The result reveals the accuracy and the reliability of the finite speed thermodynamic method in thermodynamic analysis of Stirling heat engine. The outcomes can help researchers in the design of an appropriate and efficient Stirling engine.
Thermodynamics of quantum strings
Morgan, M J
1994-01-01
A statistical mechanical analysis of an ideal gas of non-relativistic quantum strings is presented, in which the thermodynamic properties of the string gas are calculated from a canonical partition function. This toy model enables students to gain insight into the thermodynamics of a simple 'quantum field' theory, and provides a useful pedagogical introduction to the more complicated relativistic string theories. A review is also given of the thermodynamics of the open bosonic string gas and the type I (open) superstring gas. (author)
Hou, Ling; Li, Wei-Dong; Wang, Fangwei; Eriksson, Olle; Wang, Bao-Tian
2017-12-01
We present a systematic investigation of the structural, magnetic, electronic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of CmO2 with the local density approximation (LDA)+U and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA)+U approaches. The strong Coulomb repulsion and the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) effects on the lattice structures, electronic density of states, and band gaps are carefully studied, and compared with other A O2 (A =U , Np, Pu, and Am). The ferromagnetic configuration with half-metallic character is predicted to be energetically stable while a charge-transfer semiconductor is predicted for the antiferromagnetic configuration. The elastic constants and phonon spectra show that the fluorite structure is mechanically and dynamically stable. Based on the first-principles phonon density of states, the lattice vibrational energy is calculated using the quasiharmonic approximation. Then, the Gibbs free energy, thermal expansion coefficient, specific heat, and entropy are obtained and compared with experimental data. The mode Grüneisen parameters are presented to analyze the anharmonic properties. The Slack relation is applied to obtain the lattice thermal conductivity in temperature range of 300-1600 K. The phonon group velocities are also calculated to investigate the heat transfer. For all these properties, if available, we compare the results of CmO2 with other A O2 .
Thermodynamic analysis applied to a food-processing plant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ho, J C; Chandratilleke, T T
1987-01-01
Two production lines of a multi-product, food-processing plant are selected for energy auditing and analysis. Thermodynamic analysis showed that the first-law and second-law efficiencies are 81.5% and 26.1% for the instant-noodles line and 23.6% and 7.9% for the malt-beverage line. These efficiency values are dictated primarily by the major energy-consuming sub-processes of each production line. Improvements in both first-law and second-law efficiencies are possible for the plants if the use of steam for heating is replaced by gaseous or liquid fuels, the steam ejectors for creating vacuum are replaced by a mechanical pump, and employing the cooler surroundings to assist in the cooling process.
Thermodynamic analysis and phase equilibria investigation in Pb−Zn−Ag system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitovski Aleksandra M.
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Physico-chemical processes that take place during the refining process in the extractive metallurgy of lead, are connected with ternary Pb−Zn−Ag system, which is necessary to study from the theoretical practical and aspects. Such investigation is important from production point of view, because of the phenomena that occur during desilvering of lead which is one of the important stages during lead refining process. Process of lead desilvering binds to ternary system Pb−Zn−Ag, which was the reason for numerous investigations, both from thermodynamic point of view and in terms of testing and determining the phase diagram, bearing in mind the theoretical, and practical importance of knowledge about the processes which are going in investigated system. The paper presents the results of thermodynamic analysis and investigation of phase equilibria of the Pb−Zn−Ag ternary system using the method of thermodynamic predictions and phase diagrams calculations, respectively, and the experimental results of metalography obtained by optical microscopy. Phase diagram of the vertical section Pb−Zn80Ag20 is presented, obtained by CALPHAD calculation methodology, and using PANDAT thermodynamic software, compared to experimental results obtained by DTA analysis. The results show a pronounced break in solubility, which is characteristic for the whole ternary Pb−Zn−Ag system. Also, it can be noticed that the thermodynamic properties follow the behavior of this system, which is expressed through positive deviation of Raoult’s law, pointing to the lack of lead affinity compared to the other two components in the system. The optical microscopy results of the investigated system show the following: - Sample L1 (weight% Pb = 98: the structure of the observed section shows double eutectic (Pbsol+Zn−Agsol which lies in the base of the primary crystals of lead (Pbsol - Samples L2−L5: the structure consists of a dual eutectic (Pbsol+Zn−Agsol and
Calculation and analysis of thermodynamic relations for superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nazarenko, A.B.
1989-01-01
The absorption coefficients of high-frequency and low-frequency sound have been calculated on the basis of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. This sound is a wave of periodic adiabatic bulk compressions and rarefactions of the frequency ω in an isotropic superconductor near the transition temperature. Thermodynamic relations have been obtained for abrupt changes in the physical quantities produced as a result of a transition from the normal state to the superconducting state. These relations are similar to the Ehrenfest relations. The above--mentioned thermodynamic quantities are compared with the published experimental results on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ . The experiments on the absorption of ultrasound in recently discovered superconductors mainformation on the phase transition type and thermodynamic relations for these superconductors, in particular, the T c -vs-dp curve. Similar calculations have been carried out for 2 He-transition experiments with ferromagnetic materials. The order parameter in the thermodynamic potential was assumed to be isotropic
The realization and analysis of a new thermodynamic cycle for internal combustion engine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dorić Jovan Ž.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents description and thermodynamic analysis of a new thermodynamic cycle. Realization of this new cycle is possible to achieve with valveless internal combustion engine with more complete expansion. The main purpose of this new IC engine is to increase engines’ thermal efficiency. The engine was designed so that the thermodynamic changes of the working fluid are different than in conventional engines. Specific differences are reflected in a more complete expansion of the working fluid (the expansion stroke is larger than compression stroke, valveless gas flowing and complete discharge of residual combustion products from the combustion chamber. In this concept, the movement of the piston is different than in conventional piston mechanisms. The results obtained herein include the efficiency characteristics of irreversible reciprocating new engine cycle which is very similar to Miller cycle. The results show that with this thermodynamic cycle engine has higher efficiency than with the standard Otto cycle. In this article, the patent application material under number 2008/607 at the Intellectual Property Office of the Republic of Serbia was used.
Erum, Nazia; Iqbal, Muhammad Azhar
2017-11-01
The structural, electronic, elastic, optical and thermodynamic properties of cubic fluoroperovskite SrLiF3 at ambient and high-pressure are investigated by using first-principles total energy calculations within the framework of Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA), combined with Quasi-harmonic Debye model in which the phonon effects are considered. The pressure effects are determined in the range of 0-50 GPa, in which cubic stability of SrLiF3 fluoroperovskite remains valid. The computed lattice parameters agree well with experimental and previous theoretical results. Decrease in lattice constant and bonds length is observed with the increase in pressure from 0 to 50 GPa. The effect of increase in pressure on electronic band structure calculations with GGA and GGA plus Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential reveals a predominant characteristic associated with widening of bandgap. The influence of pressure on elastic constants and their related mechanical parameters have been discussed in detail. All the calculated optical properties such as the complex dielectric function Ԑ(ω), optical conductivity σ(ω), energy loss function L(ω), absorption coefficient α(w), refractive index n (ω), reflectivity R (ω), and effective number of electrons neff, via sum rules shift towards the higher energies under the application of pressure. Moreover, important thermodynamic properties heat capacities (Cp and Cv), volume expansion coefficient (α), and Debye temperature (θD) are predicted successfully in the wide temperature and pressure ranges.
Thermodynamic properties of pressurized PH3 superconductor
Koka, S.; Rao, G. Venugopal
2018-05-01
The paper presents the superconducting thermodynamic functions determined for pressurized phosphorus trihydride (PH3). In particular, free energy difference ΔF, thermodynamic critical field Hc, specific heat etc. have been calculated using analytical expressions. The calculations were performed in the frame work of the strong-coupling formalism. The obtained dimensionless parameters: RΔ ≡ 2Δ(0)/kBTc, RC ≡ ΔC(Tc)/CN(Tc) and RH≡TcCN(Tc)/Hc2(0) are 4.05, 1.96 and 0.156 respectively, which significantly differ from the values arising from the BCS theory of superconductivity. The thermodynamic properties strongly depend on the depairing electron correlations and retardation effects.
Thermodynamic analysis of tar reforming through auto-thermal reforming process
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nurhadi, N., E-mail: nurhadi@tekmira.esdm.go.id; Diniyati, Dahlia; Efendi, M. Ade Andriansyah [R& D Centre for Mineral and Coal Technology, Jln. Jend.Sudirman no. 623, Bandung. Telp. 022-6030483 (Malaysia); Istadi, I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Diponegoro University, Jln. Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Semarang (Malaysia)
2015-12-29
Fixed bed gasification is a simple and suitable technology for small scale power generation. One of the disadvantages of this technology is producing tar. So far, tar is not utilized yet and being waste that should be treated into a more useful product. This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of tar conversion into gas producer through non-catalytic auto-thermal reforming technology. Tar was converted into components, C, H, O, N and S, and then reacted with oxidant such as mixture of air or pure oxygen. Thus, this reaction occurred auto-thermally and reached chemical equilibrium. The sensitivity analysis resulted that the most promising process performance occurred at flow rate of air was reached 43% of stoichiometry while temperature of process is 1100°C, the addition of pure oxygen is 40% and preheating of oxidant flow is 250°C. The yield of the most promising process performance between 11.15-11.17 kmol/h and cold gas efficiency was between 73.8-73.9%.The results of this study indicated that thermodynamically the conversion of tar into producer gas through non-catalytic auto-thermal reformingis more promising.
Thermodynamic model and parametric analysis of a tubular SOFC module
Campanari, Stefano
Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) have been considered in the last years as one of the most promising technologies for very high-efficiency electric energy generation from natural gas, both with simple fuel cell plants and with integrated gas turbine-fuel cell systems. Among the SOFC technologies, tubular SOFC stacks with internal reforming have emerged as one of the most mature technology, with a serious potential for a future commercialization. In this paper, a thermodynamic model of a tubular SOFC stack, with natural gas feeding, internal reforming of hydrocarbons and internal air preheating is proposed. In the first section of the paper, the model is discussed in detail, analyzing its calculating equations and tracing its logical steps; the model is then calibrated on the available data for a recently demonstrated tubular SOFC prototype plant. In the second section of the paper, it is carried out a detailed parametric analysis of the stack working conditions, as a function of the main operating parameters. The discussion of the results of the thermodynamic and parametric analysis yields interesting considerations about partial load SOFC operation and load regulation, and about system design and integration with gas turbine cycles.
Thermodynamic and transport properties of two-temperature SF6 plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Weizong; Rong Mingzhe; Wu Yi; Spencer, Joseph W.; Yan, Joseph D.; Mei, DanHua
2012-01-01
This paper deals with thermodynamic and transport properties of SF 6 plasmas in a two-temperature model for both thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. The species composition and thermodynamic properties are numerically determined using the two-temperature Saha equation and Guldberg-Waage equation according to deviation of van de Sanden et al. Transport properties including diffusion coefficient, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and electrical conductivity are calculated with most recent collision interaction potentials by adopting Devoto’s electron and heavy particle decoupling approach but expanded to the third-order approximation (second-order for viscosity) in the frame of Chapman–Enskog method. The results are computed for various values of pressures from 0.1 atm to 10 atm and ratios of the electron temperature to the heavy particle temperature from 1 to 20 with electron temperature range from 300 to 40 000 K. In the local thermodynamic equilibrium regime, results are compared with available results of previously published studies.
Putative regulatory sites unraveled by network-embedded thermodynamic analysis of metabolome data
Kümmel, Anne; Panke, Sven; Heinemann, Matthias
2006-01-01
As one of the most recent members of the omics family, large-scale quantitative metabolomics data are currently complementing our systems biology data pool and offer the chance to integrate the metabolite level into the functional analysis of cellular networks. Network-embedded thermodynamic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Yuezhong; Lu, Tiecheng; Zhang, Rongshi; Jiang, Shengli; Qi, Jianqi; Wang, Ying; Chen, Qingyun; Miao, Naihua; He, Duanwei
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► We reassess the chemical bonding character of γ-AlON which shows strong ionicity. ► γ-AlON single-crystals exhibit highly elastic anisotropy. ► The thermodynamic properties are investigated in a wider temperature/pressure range. ► γ-AlON is an O/N partially disordered structure. - Abstract: Spinel aluminium oxynitride (γ-AlON), as a kind of transparent ceramic material expectable, is studied using the ab initio density functional method, in terms of electronic, elastic, thermodynamic properties and structure disorder. The results show that γ-AlON exhibits strong ionicity, as quantitatively expressed by (Al O 2.43+ ) 15 (Al T 2.41+ ) 8 (O 1.64- ) 27 (N 2.27- ) 5 from our reassessment of the ionic character. We summarize and speculate that the considered oxynitride single-crystals exhibit highly elastic anisotropy. The interpretation of the thermodynamic properties of γ-AlON according to quasi-harmonic Debye model confirm the available experiments and are extended to a wider temperature/pressure range. This material holds high elastic strength under extreme environments, where dB/dT absolute value is less than 0.03 GPa/K, independent of the pressure. Finally, we study the O/N structure disorder character of γ-AlON solid solution by investigating nine possible crystal structures. It is found that γ-AlON should be partially disordered, and in fact, the O/N ordering has a significant effect on the properties.
Thermodynamic analysis of a pulse tube engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moldenhauer, Stefan; Thess, André; Holtmann, Christoph; Fernández-Aballí, Carlos
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► Numerical model of the pulse tube engine process. ► Proof that the heat transfer in the pulse tube is out of phase with the gas velocity. ► Proof that a free piston operation is possible. ► Clarifying the thermodynamic working principle of the pulse tube engine. ► Studying the influence of design parameters on the engine performance. - Abstract: The pulse tube engine is an innovative simple heat engine based on the pulse tube process used in cryogenic cooling applications. The working principle involves the conversion of applied heat energy into mechanical power, thereby enabling it to be used for electrical power generation. Furthermore, this device offers an opportunity for its wide use in energy harvesting and waste heat recovery. A numerical model has been developed to study the thermodynamic cycle and thereby help to design an experimental engine. Using the object-oriented modeling language Modelica, the engine was divided into components on which the conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy were applied. These components were linked via exchanged mass and enthalpy. The resulting differential equations for the thermodynamic properties were integrated numerically. The model was validated using the measured performance of a pulse tube engine. The transient behavior of the pulse tube engine’s underlying thermodynamic properties could be evaluated and studied under different operating conditions. The model was used to explore the pulse tube engine process and investigate the influence of design parameters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coban, Cansu [Balikesir Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Physics
2017-07-01
The pressure dependent behaviour of the structural, electronic, mechanical, vibrational, and thermodynamic properties of Pd{sub 2}TiX (X=Ga, In) Heusler alloys was investigated by ab initio calculations. The lattice constant, the bulk modulus and its first pressure derivative, the electronic band structure and the density of states (DOS), mechanical properties such as elastic constants, anisotropy factor, Young's modulus, etc., the phonon dispersion curves and phonon DOS, entropy, heat capacity, and free energy were obtained under pressure. It was determined that the calculated lattice parameters are in good agreement with the literature, the elastic constants obey the stability criterion, and the phonon dispersion curves have no negative frequency which shows that the compounds are stable. The band structures at 0, 50, and 70 GPa showed valence instability at the L point which explains the superconductivity in Pd{sub 2}TiX (X=Ga, In).
Thermodynamic analysis of onset characteristics in a miniature thermoacoustic Stirling engine
Huang, Xin; Zhou, Gang; Li, Qing
2013-06-01
This paper analyzes the onset characteristics of a miniature thermoacoustic Stirling heat engine using the thermodynamic analysis method. The governing equations of components are reduced from the basic thermodynamic relations and the linear thermoacoustic theory. By solving the governing equation group numerically, the oscillation frequencies and onset temperatures are obtained. The dependences of the kinds of working gas, the length of resonator tube, the diameter of resonator tube, on the oscillation frequency are calculated. Meanwhile, the influences of hydraulic radius and mean pressure on the onset temperature for different working gas are also presented. The calculation results indicate that there exists an optimal dimensionless hydraulic radius to obtain the lowest onset temperature, whose value lies in the range of 0.30-0.35 for different working gases. Furthermore, the amplitude and phase relationship of pressures and volume flows are analyzed in the time-domain. Some experiments have been performed to validate the calculations. The calculation results agree well with the experimental values. Finally, an error analysis is made, giving the reasons that cause the errors of theoretical calculations.
Network thermodynamic approach compartmental analysis. Na+ transients in frog skin.
Mikulecky, D C; Huf, E G; Thomas, S R
1979-01-01
We introduce a general network thermodynamic method for compartmental analysis which uses a compartmental model of sodium flows through frog skin as an illustrative example (Huf and Howell, 1974a). We use network thermodynamics (Mikulecky et al., 1977b) to formulate the problem, and a circuit simulation program (ASTEC 2, SPICE2, or PCAP) for computation. In this way, the compartment concentrations and net fluxes between compartments are readily obtained for a set of experimental conditions involving a square-wave pulse of labeled sodium at the outer surface of the skin. Qualitative features of the influx at the outer surface correlate very well with those observed for the short circuit current under another similar set of conditions by Morel and LeBlanc (1975). In related work, the compartmental model is used as a basis for simulation of the short circuit current and sodium flows simultaneously using a two-port network (Mikulecky et al., 1977a, and Mikulecky et al., A network thermodynamic model for short circuit current transients in frog skin. Manuscript in preparation; Gary-Bobo et al., 1978). The network approach lends itself to computation of classic compartmental problems in a simple manner using circuit simulation programs (Chua and Lin, 1975), and it further extends the compartmental models to more complicated situations involving coupled flows and non-linearities such as concentration dependencies, chemical reaction kinetics, etc.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chelli S.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of BaxSr1−xS ternary alloys have been investigated using the full-potential (linearized augmented plane wave method. The ground state properties, such as lattice constant, bulk modulus and elastic constants, are in good agreement with numerous experimental and theoretical data. The dependence of the lattice parameters, bulk modulus and band gap on the composition x was analyzed. Deviation of the lattice constant from Vegard’s law and the bulk modulus from linear concentration dependence (LCD was observed. The microscopic origins of the gap bowing were explained by using the approach of Zunger et al. The thermodynamic stability of BaxSr1−xS alloy was investigated by calculating the excess enthalpy of mixing, ΔHm and the calculated phase diagram showed a broad miscibility gap with a critical temperature.
Thermodynamic analysis of advanced fuels for fast breeder reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, D.; Garg, S.P.; Goswami, G.L.
1990-01-01
Six phase fields of interest in the M-C-N system (M= mixed U/Pu) with oxygen as impurity are i) U 1-x3 Pu x3 (=M)+ U 1-x1 Pu x1 C 1-y-z N y O z (= MCN O), ii)C+ U 1 x2 Pu x2 Csub(1.5) (=MCsub(1.5)), iii) MCsub(1.5) + MCNO, iv) C+MCNO, v) UN (1.5) + MCNO and vi) C + UNsub(1.5) + MCNO. In the present work a detailed thermodynamic analysis has been carried out for all the six phase fields existing in the system with x 1 , 1-y-z and y are varying from 0.0 to 1.0 and z as impurity from 0.0 to 0.15 at temperature between 1500K to 2000K. In the first part, composition of the phases in the different phase fields have been calculated as a function of overall composition of the fuel and temperature. In the second part, thermodynamic properties such as partial pressures of N 2 (g), O 2 (g), CO(g), Pu(g), U(g), PuO(g), UO(g), UC 2 (g) and PuC 2 (g) species and carbon potential of the fuel have been calculated as a function of compositions x 1 , y and z at different temperatures. Results obtained are discus sed in detail and compared with the reported measured data. Hitherto, thermodynamic properties for all the phase fields of M-C-N-O system have not been reported. (a uthor). 54 tabs., 13 figs., 24 refs
Kinetic and thermodynamic control of butyrate conversion in non-defined methanogenic communities.
Junicke, H; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kleerebezem, R
2016-01-01
Many anaerobic conversions proceed close to thermodynamic equilibrium and the microbial groups involved need to share their low energy budget to survive at the thermodynamic boundary of life. This study aimed to investigate the kinetic and thermodynamic control mechanisms of the electron transfer during syntrophic butyrate conversion in non-defined methanogenic communities. Despite the rather low energy content of butyrate, results demonstrate unequal energy sharing between the butyrate-utilizing species (17 %), the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (9-10 %), and the acetoclastic methanogens (73-74 %). As a key finding, the energy disproportion resulted in different growth strategies of the syntrophic partners. Compared to the butyrate-utilizing partner, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens compensated their lower biomass yield per mole of electrons transferred with a 2-fold higher biomass-specific electron transfer rate. Apart from these thermodynamic control mechanisms, experiments revealed a ten times lower hydrogen inhibition constant on butyrate conversion than proposed by the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1, suggesting a much stronger inhibitory effect of hydrogen on anaerobic butyrate conversion. At hydrogen partial pressures exceeding 40 Pa and at bicarbonate limited conditions, a shift from methanogenesis to reduced product formation was observed which indicates an important role of the hydrogen partial pressure in redirecting electron fluxes towards reduced products such as butanol. The findings of this study demonstrate that a careful consideration of thermodynamics and kinetics is required to advance our current understanding of flux regulation in energy-limited syntrophic ecosystems.
The use of molecular dynamics for the thermodynamic properties of simple and transition metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Straub, G.K.
1987-04-01
The technique of computer simulation of the molecular dynamics in metallic systems to calculate thermodynamic properties is discussed. The nature of a metal as determined by its electronic structure is used to determine the total adiabatic potential. The effective screened ion-ion interaction can then be used in a molecular dynamics simulation. The method for the construction of a molecular dynamics ensemble, its relation to the canonical ensemble, and the definition of thermodynamic functions from the Helmholtz free energy is given. The method for the analysis of the molecular dynamics results from quasiharmonic lattice dynamics and the decomposition in terms of harmonic and anharmonic contributions is given for solids. For fluid phase metals, procedures for calculating the thermodynamics and determining the constant of entropy are presented. The solid-fluid phase boundary as a function of pressure and temperature is determined using the results of molecular dynamics. Throughout, examples and results for metallic sodium are used. The treatment of the transition metal electronic d-states in terms of an effective pair-wise interaction is also discussed and the phonon dispersion curves of Al, Ni, and Cu are calculated
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schleger, P.; Hardy, W.N.; Casalta, H.
1994-01-01
A lattice-gas model for the high temperature oxygen-ordering thermodynamics in YBa2Cu3O6+x is presented, which assumes constant effective pair interactions between oxygen atoms and includes in a simple fashion the effect of the electron spin and charge degrees of freedom. This is done using...... a commonly utilized picture relating the creation of mobile electron holes and unpaired spins to the insertion of oxygen into the basal plane. The model is solved using the nearest-neighbor square approximation of the cluster-variation method. In addition, preliminary Monte Carlo results using next......-nearest-neighbor interactions are presented. The model is compared to experimental results for the thermodynamic response function, kT (partial derivative x/partial derivative mu)T (mu is the chemical potential), the number of monovalent copper atoms, and the fractional site occupancies. The model drastically improves...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westerhoff, Hans V.; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal; Snoep, Jacky L.
1998-01-01
-called emergent properties. Tendency towards increased entropy is an essential determinant for the behaviour of ideal gas mixtures, showing that even in the simplest physical/chemical systems, (dys)organisation of components is crucial for the behaviour of systems. This presentation aims at illustrating...... that the behaviour of two functionally interacting biological components (molecules, protein domains, pathways, organelles) differs from the behaviour these components would exhibit in isolation from one another, where the difference should be essential for the maintenance and growth of the living state, For a true...... understanding of this BioComplexity, modem thermodynamic concepts and methods (nonequilibrium thermodynamics, metabolic and hierarchical control analysis) will be needed. We shall propose to redefine nonequilibrium thermodynamics as: The science that aims at understanding the behaviour of nonequilibrium systems...
Thermodynamic analysis of salt corrosion of titanium alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Travkin, V.V.; Pshirkov, V.F.; Kolachev, B.A.
1979-01-01
About 200 possible chemical reactions of metals, salts and oxides (in a solid state) with water (in a vapour state), and with gases (O 2 , Cl 2 , HCl) were studied by the thermodynamic analysis to elucidate a chemical nature of processes taking place at salt corrosion of titanium alloys (VT22, VT6 and VT16). Temperature dependences of isobaric-isothermic potential were considered to reveal a possibility of spontaneous course and direction of reactions as well as to obtain a comparative estimate of the probability of their pro-cedure. Thermodynamically possible schemes of the chemism of titanium alloy salt corrosion are proposed. Complex che-mical reactions take place in the presence of salt, moisture and oxygen of air on the surface of the alloys. The reactions proceed with the formation of titanium and alloying component chlorides, free chlorine and hydrogen. The free chlorine or HCl are released during pyrohydrolysis and oxidation of chlo-rides. The former ones interact with the alloy with the formation of salts, and hydrogen may be absorbed by the metal and cause embrittlement. Chlorides on the metal surface accelerate the chlorination process. NaCl acts as a cata-lyst. The determination of salt corrosion products has confirmed the process mechanism proposed
Irreversible thermodynamic analysis and application for molecular heat engines
Lucia, Umberto; Açıkkalp, Emin
2017-09-01
Is there a link between the macroscopic approach to irreversibility and microscopic behaviour of the systems? Consumption of free energy keeps the system away from a stable equilibrium. Entropy generation results from the redistribution of energy, momentum, mass and charge. This concept represents the essence of the thermodynamic approach to irreversibility. Irreversibility is the result of the interaction between systems and their environment. The aim of this paper is to determine lost works in a molecular engine and compare results with macro (classical) heat engines. Firstly, irreversible thermodynamics are reviewed for macro and molecular cycles. Secondly, irreversible thermodynamics approaches are applied for a quantum heat engine with -1/2 spin system. Finally, lost works are determined for considered system and results show that macro and molecular heat engines obey same limitations. Moreover, a quantum thermodynamic approach is suggested in order to explain the results previously obtained from an atomic viewpoint.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, Jeong Ui; Jang, Jong Jae; Jee, Jong Gi
1987-01-01
The contents of this book are thermodynamics on the law of thermodynamics, classical thermodynamics and molecule thermodynamics, basics of molecule thermodynamics, molecule and assembly partition function, molecule partition function, classical molecule partition function, thermodynamics function for ideal assembly in fixed system, thermodynamics function for ideal assembly in running system, Maxwell-Boltzmann's law of distribution, chemical equilibrium like calculation of equilibrium constant and theory of absolute reaction rate.
Birkenmeier, Markus; Mack, Matthias; Röder, Thorsten
2015-10-01
In this study, we applied a coupled in silico thermodynamic and probabilistic metabolic control analysis methodology to investigate the control mechanisms of the commercially relevant riboflavin biosynthetic pathway in bacteria. Under the investigated steady-state conditions, we found that several enzyme reactions of the pathway operate far from thermodynamic equilibrium (transformed Gibbs energies of reaction below about -17 kJ mol(-1)). Using the obtained thermodynamic information and applying enzyme elasticity sampling, we calculated the distributions of the scaled concentration control coefficients (CCCs) and scaled flux control coefficients (FCCs). From the statistical analysis of the calculated distributions, we inferred that the control over the riboflavin producing flux is shared among several enzyme activities and mostly resides in the initial reactions of the pathway. More precisely, the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cyclohydrolase II activity, and therefore the bifunctional RibA protein of Bacillus subtilis because it catalyzes this activity, appears to mainly control the riboflavin producing flux (mean FCCs = 0.45 and 0.55, respectively). The GTP cyclohydrolase II activity and RibA also exert a high positive control over the riboflavin concentration (mean CCCs = 2.43 and 2.91, respectively). This prediction is consistent with previous findings for microbial riboflavin overproducing strains.
Eichhorn, Ralf; Aurell, Erik
2014-04-01
theory for small deviations from equilibrium, in which a general framework is constructed from the analysis of non-equilibrium states close to equilibrium. In a next step, Prigogine and others developed linear irreversible thermodynamics, which establishes relations between transport coefficients and entropy production on a phenomenological level in terms of thermodynamic forces and fluxes. However, beyond the realm of linear response no general theoretical results were available for quite a long time. This situation has changed drastically over the last 20 years with the development of stochastic thermodynamics, revealing that the range of validity of thermodynamic statements can indeed be extended deep into the non-equilibrium regime. Early developments in that direction trace back to the observations of symmetry relations between the probabilities for entropy production and entropy annihilation in non-equilibrium steady states [5-8] (nowadays categorized in the class of so-called detailed fluctuation theorems), and the derivations of the Bochkov-Kuzovlev [9, 10] and Jarzynski relations [11] (which are now classified as so-called integral fluctuation theorems). Apart from its fundamental theoretical interest, the developments in stochastic thermodynamics have experienced an additional boost from the recent experimental progress in fabricating, manipulating, controlling and observing systems on the micro- and nano-scale. These advances are not only of formidable use for probing and monitoring biological processes on the cellular, sub-cellular and molecular level, but even include the realization of a microscopic thermodynamic heat engine [12] or the experimental verification of Landauer's principle in a colloidal system [13]. The scientific program Stochastic Thermodynamics held between 4 and 15 March 2013, and hosted by The Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita), was attended by more than 50 scientists from the Nordic countries and elsewhere, amongst them
Tables of thermodynamic functions for gaseous thorium, uranium, and plutonium oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Green, D.W.
1980-03-01
Measured and estimated spectroscopic data for thorium, uranium, and plutonium oxide vapor species have been used with the methods of statistical mechanics to calculate thermodynamic functions. Some inconsistencies between spectroscopic data and some thermodynamic data have been resolved by recalculating ΔH 0 /sub f/ (298.15 0 K) values for the vapor species of these oxides. Evaluation of the uncertainties in data, methods of estimating molecular parameters, and effects of assumptions have been discussed elsewhere. The tables of thermodynamic functions that were reported earlier have been revised principally because the low-frequency vibrational modes of UO 2 and UO 3 have now been measured. These new empirical data resulted in changes in the electronic contributions to the calculated thermodynamic functions of UO 2 and the estimated vibrational contributions for PuO 2 . In addition, some minor changes have been made in the methods of calculation of the electronic contributions for all molecules
Thermodynamic performance analysis of ramjet engine at wide working conditions
Ou, Min; Yan, Li; Tang, Jing-feng; Huang, Wei; Chen, Xiao-qian
2017-03-01
Although ramjet has the advantages of high-speed flying and higher specific impulse, the performance parameters will decline seriously with the increase of flight Mach number and flight height. Therefore, the investigation on the thermodynamic performance of ramjet is very crucial for broadening the working range. In the current study, a typical ramjet model has been employed to investigate the performance characteristics at wide working conditions. First of all, the compression characteristic analysis is carried out based on the Brayton cycle. The obtained results show that the specific cross-section area (A2 and A5) and the air-fuel ratio (f) have a great influence on the ramjet performance indexes. Secondly, the thermodynamic calculation process of ramjet is given from the view of the pneumatic thermal analysis. Then, the variable trends of the ramjet performance indexes with the flow conditions, the air-fuel ratio (f), the specific cross-sectional area (A2 and A5) under the fixed operating condition, equipotential dynamic pressure condition and variable dynamic pressure condition have been discussed. Finally, the optimum value of the specific cross-sectional area (A5) and the air-fuel ratio (f) of the ramjet model at a fixed work condition (Ma=3.5, H=12 km) are obtained.
QED corrections to Planck's radiation law and photon thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Partovi, M.H.
1994-01-01
Leading corrections to Planck's radiation formula and other photon thermodynamic functions arising from the pair-mediated photon-photon interaction are calculated. This interaction is found to be attractive and to cause a small increase in occupation number for all modes and a corresponding correction to the equation of state. The results are valid for the range of temperatures well below T e =5.9 GK, the temperature equivalent to the electron mass, a range for which the photon gas is essentially free of pair-produced electrons and positrons. An interesting effect of these corrections is the behavior of the photon gas as an elastic medium and its ability to propagate density perturbations. It is found that the cosmic photon gas subsequent to electron-positron annihilation would have manifested these elastic properties were it not for the presence of the free electrons and their dominance of the photon thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yoon Jo; Kim, Sarah; Joshi, Yogendra K.; Fedorov, Andrei G.; Kohl, Paul A.
2012-01-01
Thermodynamics of an ionic-liquid (IL) based absorption refrigeration system has been numerically analyzed. It provides an alternative to the normally toxic working fluids, such as the ammonia in conventional absorption systems. The use of ILs also eliminates crystallization and metal-compatibility problems of the water/LiBr system. Mixtures of refrigerants and imidazolium-based ILs are theoretically explored as the working fluid pairs in a miniature absorption refrigeration system, so as to utilize waste-heat to power a refrigeration/heat pump system for electronics cooling. A non-random two-liquid (NRTL) model was built and used to predict the solubility of the mixtures. Saturation temperatures at the evaporator and condenser were set at 25 °C and 50 °C, respectively, with the power dissipation of 100 W. Water in combination with [emim][BF 4 ] (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate) gave the highest coefficient of performance (COP) around 0.9. The refrigerant/IL compatibility indicated by the circulation ratio, alkyl chain length of the IL, and thermodynamic properties of the refrigerants, such as latent heat of evaporation were proven to be important factors in determining the performance of the absorption system. The negative effect of high viscosity was mitigated by dilution of the IL with the refrigerant and the use of slightly larger microfluidic channel heat exchangers. -- Highlights: ► Mixtures of refrigerant/ionic-liquid are studied for absorption system. ► We carry out comprehensive theoretical thermodynamic analysis. ► The essential factors of refrigerant/IL affecting the performance are identified. ► Water/[emim][BF 4 ] showed the best performance of COP. ► The effects of high viscosity ILs on the system performance are not significant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bernhoeft, N.; Lander, G.H.; Colineau, E.
2003-01-01
An asymmetric shift in the position of the magnetic Bragg peak with respect to the fiducial lattice has been observed by resonant X-ray scattering in a diverse series of antiferromagnetic compounds. This apparent violation of Bragg's law is interpreted in terms of a dynamically phased order parameter. We demonstrate the use of this effect as a novel probe of fragile or dynamic thermodynamic order in strongly correlated electronic systems. In particular, fresh light is shed on the paradoxical situation encountered in URu 2 Si 2 where the measured entropy gain on passing through T Neel is incompatible with the ground state moment estimated by neutron diffraction. The intrinsic space-time averaging of the probe used to characterise the thermodynamic macroscopic state may play a crucial and previously neglected role. In turn, this suggests the further use of resonant X-ray scattering in investigations of systems dominated by quantum fluctuations. (author)
Fe-solubility of Ni7S6 and Ni9S8: Thermodynamic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waldner, P.
2011-01-01
Experimental data on phase equilibria have been used for thermodynamic analysis of the iron solubility of the nickel sulfides Ni 7 S 6 and Ni 9 S 8 . For both compounds, a two-sublattice approach within the framework of the compound energy formalism has been applied to perform Gibbs free energy modelling at 0.1 MPa total pressure consistently embedded in recent thermodynamic assessment studies of other iron-nickel-sulfides. The predicted maxima of iron solubility around 3 at% of Ni 7 S 6 and 5.5 at% of Ni 9 S 8 are confirmed by experimental data. The calculations of complex ternary phase relations with Fe-bearing Ni 7 S 6 and Ni 9 S 8 gain further improvement. The first internally consistent description of all thermodynamically stable phases known in the literature for the iron-nickel-sulfur system is completed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuli Tang
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the electronic, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of AlNi2Ti are studied by first-principles calculations in order to reveal the influence of AlNi2Ti as an interfacial phase on ZTA (zirconia toughened alumina/Fe. The results show that AlNi2Ti has relatively high mechanical properties, which will benefit the impact or wear resistance of the ZTA/Fe composite. The values of bulk, shear and Young’s modulus are 164.2, 63.2 and 168.1 GPa respectively, and the hardness of AlNi2Ti (4.4 GPa is comparable to common ferrous materials. The intrinsic ductile nature and strong metallic bonding character of AlNi2Ti are confirmed by B/G and Poisson’s ratio. AlNi2Ti shows isotropy bulk modulus and anisotropic elasticity in different crystallographic directions. At room temperature, the linear thermal expansion coefficient (LTEC of AlNi2Ti estimated by quasi-harmonic approximation (QHA based on Debye model is 10.6 × 10−6 K−1, close to LTECs of zirconia toughened alumina and iron. Therefore, the thermal matching of ZTA/Fe composite with AlNi2Ti interfacial phase can be improved. Other thermodynamic properties including Debye temperature, sound velocity, thermal conductivity and heat capacity, as well as electronic properties, are also calculated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Yuezhong, E-mail: wyzphysics@163.com [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Tianjin Jinhang Institute of Technical Physics, Tianjin 300192 (China); Lu, Tiecheng, E-mail: lutiecheng@scu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); International Center for Material Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110015 (China); Zhang, Rongshi [Tianjin Jinhang Institute of Technical Physics, Tianjin 300192 (China); Jiang, Shengli; Qi, Jianqi; Wang, Ying [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); Chen, Qingyun [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China); National Defense Key Discipline Laboratory of Nuclear Waste and Environmental Safety, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010 (China); Miao, Naihua [Physique Theorique des Materiaux, Universite de Liege, Sart Tilman B-4000 (Belgium); He, Duanwei [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)
2013-01-25
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reassess the chemical bonding character of {gamma}-AlON which shows strong ionicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {gamma}-AlON single-crystals exhibit highly elastic anisotropy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The thermodynamic properties are investigated in a wider temperature/pressure range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {gamma}-AlON is an O/N partially disordered structure. - Abstract: Spinel aluminium oxynitride ({gamma}-AlON), as a kind of transparent ceramic material expectable, is studied using the ab initio density functional method, in terms of electronic, elastic, thermodynamic properties and structure disorder. The results show that {gamma}-AlON exhibits strong ionicity, as quantitatively expressed by (Al{sub O}{sup 2.43+}){sub 15}(Al{sub T}{sup 2.41+}){sub 8}(O{sup 1.64-}){sub 27}(N{sup 2.27-}){sub 5} from our reassessment of the ionic character. We summarize and speculate that the considered oxynitride single-crystals exhibit highly elastic anisotropy. The interpretation of the thermodynamic properties of {gamma}-AlON according to quasi-harmonic Debye model confirm the available experiments and are extended to a wider temperature/pressure range. This material holds high elastic strength under extreme environments, where dB/dT absolute value is less than 0.03 GPa/K, independent of the pressure. Finally, we study the O/N structure disorder character of {gamma}-AlON solid solution by investigating nine possible crystal structures. It is found that {gamma}-AlON should be partially disordered, and in fact, the O/N ordering has a significant effect on the properties.
Exergetical analysis of combustion, heat transfers, thermodynamical cycles and their applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buchet, E.
1983-11-01
Exergetic analysis allowed to show up and evaluate irreversibilities in combustion, vapor exchanges and thermodynamic cycles, and also to justify processes often used to improve yields of thermal and energetic plants, and among them some more and more complex in cogeneration plants. This analysic method has been applied to thermal or nuclear steam power plant, to gas turbines and to cogeneration [fr
Thermal modeling of a hydraulic hybrid vehicle transmission based on thermodynamic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwon, Hyukjoon; Sprengel, Michael; Ivantysynova, Monika
2016-01-01
Hybrid vehicles have become a popular alternative to conventional powertrain architectures by offering improved fuel efficiency along with a range of environmental benefits. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles (HHV) offer one approach to hybridization with many benefits over competing technologies. Among these benefits are lower component costs, more environmentally friendly construction materials, and the ability to recover a greater quantity of energy during regenerative braking which make HHVs partially well suited to urban environments. In order to further the knowledge base regarding HHVs, this paper explores the thermodynamic characteristics of such a system. A system model is detailed for both the hydraulic and thermal components of a closed circuit hydraulic hybrid transmission following the FTP-72 driving cycle. Among the new techniques proposed in this paper is a novel method for capturing rapid thermal transients. This paper concludes by comparing the results of this model with experimental data gathered on a Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) transmission dynamometer possessing the same architecture, components, and driving cycle used within the simulation model. This approach can be used for several applications such as thermal stability analysis of HHVs, optimal thermal management, and analysis of the system's thermodynamic efficiency. - Highlights: • Thermal modeling for HHVs is introduced. • A model for the hydraulic and thermal system is developed for HHVs. • A novel method for capturing rapid thermal transients is proposed. • The thermodynamic system diagram of a series HHV is predicted.
Thermodynamic analysis of dust sulphation reactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang Yongxiang; Jokilaakso, A.
1997-12-31
Sulphation reactions of metal oxides with SO{sub 2} and O. or SO{sub 3} play significant roles in sulphation roasting of sulphide and oxide minerals as well as in desulphurisation process of combustion gases. In metallurgical waste-heat boilers for sulphide smelting, the sulphation of the oxidic flue dust in the atmosphere containing sulphur oxides is an unavoidable process, and the sulphation reactions have to be guided in a controlled way in the proper parts of the gas handling equipment. In this report, some thermodynamic analyses were conducted for the oxide sulphation reactions in relation to sulphide smelting processes. The phase stability of Me-S-O systems especially for oxides - sulphates equilibrium was studied under different thermodynamic conditions of gas compositions and temperatures. The sulphate stability was analysed for an example of gas compositions in the copper flash smelter of Outokumpu Harjavalta Metals Oy, in relation to temperature. In the report, most of the information was from literature. Moreover, a number of thermodynamic computations were carried out with the HSC program, and the constructed phase stability diagrams were compared with those from the literature whenever possible. The maximum temperatures for stable sulphates under normal operating conditions of the waste-heat boilers in sulphide smelting processes were obtained. This report will serve as the basis for the kinetic studies of the sulphation reactions and the sulphation reaction modelling in pyrometallurgical processes. (orig.) SULA 2 Programme. 36 refs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shim, Irene; Baba, M. Sai; Gingerich, K.A.
2002-01-01
The low-lying states of the molecule Ge-2 and of the ion Ge-2(-) have been investigated by all electron ab initio multiconfiguration self-consistent field (CASSCF) and multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations. The relativistic corrections for the Darwin contact term and for t......The low-lying states of the molecule Ge-2 and of the ion Ge-2(-) have been investigated by all electron ab initio multiconfiguration self-consistent field (CASSCF) and multi-reference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations. The relativistic corrections for the Darwin contact term...... excited states are presented. Thermal functions based on the theoretically determined molecular parameters were used to derive the thermodynamic properties of the Ge-2 molecule from new mass spectrometric equilibrium data. The literature value for the dissociation energy of Ge-2 has been re...
Interphase thermodynamic bond in heterogeneous alloys: effects on alloy properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savchenko, A.M.; Konovalov, Yu.V.; Yuferov, O.I.
2005-01-01
Inconsistency between a conventional thermodynamic description of alloys as a mechanical mixture of phases and a real alloys state as a common thermodynamic system in which there is a complicated physical-chemical phases interaction has been considered. It is supposed that in heterogeneous alloys (eutectic ones, for instance), so called interphase thermodynamic bond can become apparent due to a partial electron levels splitting under phase interaction. Thermodynamic description of phase equilibrium in alloys is proposed taking into account a thermodynamic bond for the system with phase diagram of eutectic type, and methods of the value of this bond estimation are presented. Experimental evidence (Al-Cu-Si, Al-Si-Mg-Cu, U-Mo + Al) of the effect of interphase thermodynamic bond on temperature and enthalpy of melting of alloys are produced as well as possibility of its effects on alloys electrical conduction, strength, heat and corrosion resistance is substantiated theoretically [ru
Thermodynamic analysis of a minimum maintenance solar pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brew-Hammond, A.; Roullier, J.; Appeagyei-Kissi, D. (University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana))
1993-10-01
The Minimum Maintenance Solar Pump (MMSP) is a solar-thermal pumping system which operates on a diurnal cycle with solar heating and nocturnal cooling/suction. Several prototypes of the MMSP have been constructed in Ghana, Canada and France with varying degrees of success. A thermodynamic analysis of the MMSP has yielded an expression which is used with the aid of a micro-computer to predict the performance characteristics of the MMSP. The predictions compare favourably with available experimental results and indicate that it is imperative for temperatures well above 80[sup o]C to be obtained in the MMSP if pumping is to be achieved at heads of practical significance. (author)
Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of an irreversible Ericsson cryogenic refrigerator cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Thermodynamic modeling of Ericsson refrigeration is performed. • The latter is achieved using NSGA algorithm and thermodynamic analysis. • Different decision makers are utilized to determine optimum values of outcomes. - Abstract: Optimum ecological and thermal performance assessments of an Ericsson cryogenic refrigerator system are investigated in different optimization settings. To evaluate this goal, ecological and thermal approaches are proposed for the Ericsson cryogenic refrigerator, and three objective functions (input power, coefficient of performance and ecological objective function) are gained for the suggested system. Throughout the current research, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) and thermodynamic analysis are employed to specify optimum values of the input power, coefficient of performance and ecological objective function of an Ericsson cryogenic refrigerator system. Four setups are assessed for optimization of the Ericsson cryogenic refrigerator. Throughout the three scenarios, a conventional single-objective optimization has been utilized distinctly with each objective function, nonetheless of other objectives. Throughout the last setting, input power, coefficient of performance and ecological function objectives are optimized concurrently employing a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (GA) named the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II). As in multi-objective optimization, an assortment of optimum results named the Pareto optimum frontiers are gained rather than a single ultimate optimum result gained via conventional single-objective optimization. Thus, a process of decision making has been utilized for choosing an ultimate optimum result. Well-known decision-makers have been performed to specify optimized outcomes from the Pareto optimum results in the space of objectives. The outcomes gained from aforementioned optimization setups are discussed and compared employing an index of deviation presented in this
Thermodynamical stability of the Bardeen black hole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bretón, Nora [Dpto. de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del I. P. N., Apdo. 14-740, D.F. (Mexico); Perez Bergliaffa, Santiago E. [Dpto. de Física, U. Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
2014-01-14
We analyze the stability of the regular magnetic Bardeen black hole both thermodynamically and dynamically. For the thermodynamical analysis we consider a microcanonical ensemble and apply the turning point method. This method allows to decide a change in stability (or instability) of a system, requiring only the assumption of smoothness of the area functional. The dynamical stability is asserted using criteria based on the signs of the Lagrangian and its derivatives. It turns out from our analysis that the Bardeen black hole is both thermodynamically and dynamically stable.
Boulechfar, R.; Khenioui, Y.; Drablia, S.; Meradji, H.; Abu-Jafar, M.; Omran, S. Bin; Khenata, R.; Ghemid, S.
2018-05-01
Ab-initio calculations based on density functional theory have been performed to study the structural, electronic, thermodynamic and mechanical properties of intermetallic compounds Pt3Sc and Pt3Y using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave(FP-LAPW) method. The total energy calculations performed for L12, D022 and D024 structures confirm the experimental phase stability. Using the generalized gradient approximation (GGA), the values of enthalpies formation are -1.23 eV/atom and -1.18 eV/atom for Pt3Sc and Pt3Y, respectively. The densities of states (DOS) spectra show the existence of a pseudo-gap at the Fermi level for both compounds which indicate the strong spd hybridization and directing covalent bonding. Furthermore, the density of states at the Fermi level N(EF), the electronic specific heat coefficient (γele) and the number of bonding electrons per atom are predicted in addition to the elastic constants (C11, C12 and C44). The shear modulus (GH), Young's modulus (E), Poisson's ratio (ν), anisotropy factor (A), ratio of B/GH and Cauchy pressure (C12-C44) are also estimated. These parameters show that the Pt3Sc and Pt3Y are ductile compounds. The thermodynamic properties were calculated using the quasi-harmonic Debye model to account for their lattice vibrations. In addition, the influence of the temperature and pressure was analyzed on the heat capacities (Cp and Cv), thermal expansion coefficient (α), Debye temperature (θD) and Grüneisen parameter (γ).
Chloride corrosion in biomass-fired boilers – Fe-O-Cl system thermodynamic analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaczmarczyk Robert
2016-01-01
The paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of chloride-induced corrosion in the Fe-O-Cl system. The ranges of the metallic, oxide and chloride phase stability are determined within the temperature range T = 750-1000 K. Based on the parametric equations the equilibrium concentration of gaseous phase determined by Deacon reaction are presented. The effect of H2O concentration in the gaseous phase on high-temperature corrosion process and gaseous NaCl influence on NaFeO2 formation in the passive oxide scale layer (FeO/Fe3O4/Fe2O3 are discussed as well. The results are correlated with available in the literature laboratory experimental data and industrial corrosion process observations. Presented thermodynamic analysis is compared with assumptions of “active oxidation” model. The results may be used for experimental research prediction and a corrosion prevention in the industry.
Sustainable biocatalytic biodiesel production : A thermodynamic analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guezel, G
2012-09-15
In the present thesis it was aimed at achieving thermodynamic analysis of reactions involved in enzymatic biodiesel production with specific focus on chemical and phase equilibria of reactive systems. Lipase-catalyzed biodiesel production (biocatalytic ethanolysis) presents significant advantages: Easy recovery of glycerol, no complex down-processing operations for elimination of catalyst and salt, and requires less organic solvent and lower energy consumption compared with conventional chemical methods. In overall, the major aims of this thesis were evaluating and subsequently finding feasible solutions to the questions emerged during the corresponding studies that have been performed worldwide. Some of the questions that were answered as appropriate as possible can be listed as follows: 1) What is the solubility of EtOH in vegetable oils and in FAEE blends and how does it change with temperature? 2) Is it possible to prevent denaturing impact of EtOH on biocatalysts? 3) What are the feedstock content (water and FFA) impacts on glycerol and EtOH miscibility with ester species? 4) Is it necessary removing glycerol by-product simultaneously? 5) Is it feasible providing monophasic or homogeneous reaction media that procure lower external mass transfer resistance? 6) What are the moisture absorption limits of FAAE species? 7) How are the interactions of reactive species in terms of miscibility/immiscibility phenomena? 8) Is it thermodynamically feasible providing monophasic reaction media? 9) How can LLE and VLE phase behaviors help to determine optimum reaction conditions? 10) How can the results of LLE and VLE studies be used so as to determine appropriate refining operations? (LN)
The statistical-inference approach to generalized thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lavenda, B.H.; Scherer, C.
1987-01-01
Limit theorems, such as the central-limit theorem and the weak law of large numbers, are applicable to statistical thermodynamics for sufficiently large sample size of indipendent and identically distributed observations performed on extensive thermodynamic (chance) variables. The estimation of the intensive thermodynamic quantities is a problem in parametric statistical estimation. The normal approximation to the Gibbs' distribution is justified by the analysis of large deviations. Statistical thermodynamics is generalized to include the statistical estimation of variance as well as mean values
Comparative thermodynamic analysis of the Pb-Au0.7Sn0.3 section in the Pb-Au-Sn ternary system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trumic, B.; Zivkovic, D.; Zivkovic, Z.; Manasijevic, D.
2005-01-01
The results of comparative thermodynamic analysis of Pb-Au 0.7 Sn 0.3 section in Pb-Au-Sn system are presented in this paper. Investigation was done comparatively by calorimetric measurements and thermodynamic calculation according to the general solution model. Thermodynamic parameters, such as partial and integral molar quantities, were determined at different temperatures. The comparison between experimental and calculated results showed mutual agreement. Demixing tendency of lead, presented in the positive deviation from ideal behavior, was confirmed through the study of concentration fluctuation in the long-wavelength limit. Also, chosen alloys in the investigated section were characterized using SEM-EDX analysis
New electronics stuff chemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Byeon, Su Il
2003-04-01
The first part of this book is about equilibrium electrochemistry on electric thermo dynamic equilibrium state of electrochemistry, crystal defect of solid, thermodynamics on defect electron and election in semiconductor, Gawani potential, volta potential and equilibrium potential and thermodynamics application in Gawani battery. The second part deals with dynamic electrochemistry electrode reaction kinetics and corrosion potential in normal state, diffusion and transport of ion and electron and current impedance spectroscopy. It also mentions industrial electrochemistry and laboratory works in electronics chemistry course.
Thermodynamic cycle analysis for capacitive deionization
Biesheuvel, P.M.
2009-01-01
Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an ion removal technology based on temporarily storing ions in the polarization layers of two oppositely positioned electrodes. Here we present a thermodynamic model for the minimum work required for ion separation in the fully reversible case by describing the ionic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Leng Fei
2008-09-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the seismic analysis of concrete dams with consideration of material nonlinearity. Based on a consistent rate-dependent model and two thermodynamics-based models, two thermodynamics-based rate-dependent constitutive models were developed with consideration of the influence of the strain rate. They can describe the dynamic behavior of concrete and be applied to nonlinear seismic analysis of concrete dams taking into account the rate sensitivity of concrete. With the two models, a nonlinear analysis of the seismic response of the Koyna Gravity Dam and the Dagangshan Arch Dam was conducted. The results were compared with those of a linear elastic model and two rate-independent thermodynamics-based constitutive models, and the influences of constitutive models and strain rate on the seismic response of concrete dams were discussed. It can be concluded from the analysis that, during seismic response, the tensile stress is the control stress in the design and seismic safety evaluation of concrete dams. In different models, the plastic strain and plastic strain rate of concrete dams show a similar distribution. When the influence of the strain rate is considered, the maximum plastic strain and plastic strain rate decrease.
Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis.
Freire, Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti; Alexandrino, Francisco; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Picciani, Paulo Henrique de Souza; Silva, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda E; Genre, Julieta; Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes de; Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa do
2017-06-13
Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS) is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB) kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas-Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.
Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis
Freire, Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti; Alexandrino, Francisco; Marcelino, Henrique Rodrigues; Picciani, Paulo Henrique de Souza; Silva, Kattya Gyselle de Holanda e; Genre, Julieta; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes; do Egito, Eryvaldo Sócrates Tabosa
2017-01-01
Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS) is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB) kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability. PMID:28773009
Do electronic transitions contribute to the thermodynamics of condensed UO2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacInnes, D.A.
1979-01-01
Recent analysis of the role of electronic transitions in the thermophysical properties of UO 2 is surveyed. It is concluded to be highly likely that the 5f 2 electrons on the U 4+ metal ion play a major role in both the specific heat and thermal conductivity, in that they are primarily responsible for the large 'anomalous' increase displayed by each of these quantities between T = 1600 0 K and Tm = 3100 0 K. This has important implications for reactor analysis, since to obtain the required data for molten fuel one must extrapolate existing data through a wide range in temperature, and the behaviour of the electronic mechanisms may be expected to extrapolate quite differently from that of the mechanisms in current use (Frenkel defect generation and internal radiative heat transfer). (orig.) [de
Thermodynamic Activity-Based Progress Curve Analysis in Enzyme Kinetics.
Pleiss, Jürgen
2018-03-01
Macrokinetic Michaelis-Menten models based on thermodynamic activity provide insights into enzyme kinetics because they separate substrate-enzyme from substrate-solvent interactions. Kinetic parameters are estimated from experimental progress curves of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Three pitfalls are discussed: deviations between thermodynamic and concentration-based models, product effects on the substrate activity coefficient, and product inhibition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fermi, Enrico
1956-01-01
Indisputably, this is a modern classic of science. Based on a course of lectures delivered by the author at Columbia University, the text is elementary in treatment and remarkable for its clarity and organization. Although it is assumed that the reader is familiar with the fundamental facts of thermometry and calorimetry, no advanced mathematics beyond calculus is assumed.Partial contents: thermodynamic systems, the first law of thermodynamics (application, adiabatic transformations), the second law of thermodynamics (Carnot cycle, absolute thermodynamic temperature, thermal engines), the entr
Thermodynamical properties of liquid lanthanides-A variational approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Patel, H. P. [Department of Physics, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Thakor, P. B., E-mail: pbthakor@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India); Sonvane, Y. A. [Department of Applied Physics, S. V. National Institute of Technology, Surat 395 007, Gujarat (India)
2015-06-24
Thermodynamical properties like Entropy (S), Internal energy (E) and Helmholtz free energy (F) of liquid lanthanides using a variation principle based on the Gibbs-Bogoliubuv (GB) inequality with Percus Yevick hard sphere reference system have been reported in the present investigation. To describe electron-ion interaction we have used our newly constructed parameter free model potential along with Sarkar et al. local field correction function. Lastly, we conclude that our newly constructed model potential is capable to explain the thermodynamical properties of liquid lanthanides.
Thermodynamic exergy analysis for small modular reactor in nuclear hybrid energy system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boldon Lauren
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Small modular reactors (SMRs provide a unique opportunity for future nuclear development with reduced financial risks, allowing the United States to meet growing energy demands through safe, reliable, clean air electricity generation while reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the reliance on unstable fossil fuel prices. A nuclear power plant is comprised of several complex subsystems which utilize materials from other subsystems and their surroundings. The economic utility of resources, or thermoeconomics, is extremely difficult to analyze, particularly when trying to optimize resources and costs among individual subsystems and determine prices for products. Economics and thermodynamics cannot provide this information individually. Thermoeconomics, however, provides a method of coupling the quality of energy available based on exergy and the value of this available energy – “exergetic costs”. For an SMR exergy analysis, both the physical and economic environments must be considered. The physical environment incorporates the energy, raw materials, and reference environment, where the reference environment refers to natural resources available without limit and without cost, such as air input to a boiler. The economic environment includes market influences and prices in addition to installation, operation, and maintenance costs required for production to occur. The exergetic cost or the required exergy for production may be determined by analyzing the physical environment alone. However, to optimize the system economics, this environment must be coupled with the economic environment. A balance exists between enhancing systems to improve efficiency and optimizing costs. Prior research into SMR thermodynamics has not detailed methods on improving exergetic costs for an SMR coupled with storage technologies and renewable energy such as wind or solar in a hybrid energy system. This process requires balancing technological efficiencies and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jaroslav KOZACZKA
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The thermodynamic analysis of the absorption/desorption section of the ICGC–cycle has been presented using the Second Law with special emphasis on the thermodynamic effectivity concept and usability for complex systems investigations. Essential problems have been discussed based on the classical bibliographical items on the subject. Numerical calculations have been accomplished using results obtained in the first part, which contained absorption and desorption modeling approach oriented onto thermodynamic analyzes. Additionally the special properties of dilute solutions, especially the CO2/water system, have been presented and the problem of the solute chemical concentration exergy change suggested.
Understanding Drug Release Data through Thermodynamic Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marjorie Caroline Liberato Cavalcanti Freire
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Understanding the factors that can modify the drug release profile of a drug from a Drug-Delivery-System (DDS is a mandatory step to determine the effectiveness of new therapies. The aim of this study was to assess the Amphotericin-B (AmB kinetic release profiles from polymeric systems with different compositions and geometries and to correlate these profiles with the thermodynamic parameters through mathematical modeling. Film casting and electrospinning techniques were used to compare behavior of films and fibers, respectively. Release profiles from the DDSs were performed, and the mathematical modeling of the data was carried out. Activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy of the drug release process were determined. AmB release profiles showed that the relationship to overcome the enthalpic barrier was PVA-fiber > PVA-film > PLA-fiber > PLA-film. Drug release kinetics from the fibers and the films were better fitted on the Peppas–Sahlin and Higuchi models, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters corroborate these findings, revealing that the AmB release from the evaluated systems was an endothermic and non-spontaneous process. Thermodynamic parameters can be used to explain the drug kinetic release profiles. Such an approach is of utmost importance for DDS containing insoluble compounds, such as AmB, which is associated with an erratic bioavailability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Gyeong Hui
2008-03-01
This book consists of 15 chapters, which are basic conception and meaning of statistical thermodynamics, Maxwell-Boltzmann's statistics, ensemble, thermodynamics function and fluctuation, statistical dynamics with independent particle system, ideal molecular system, chemical equilibrium and chemical reaction rate in ideal gas mixture, classical statistical thermodynamics, ideal lattice model, lattice statistics and nonideal lattice model, imperfect gas theory on liquid, theory on solution, statistical thermodynamics of interface, statistical thermodynamics of a high molecule system and quantum statistics
Thermodynamic and Quantum Thermodynamic Analyses of Brownian Movement
Gyftopoulos, Elias P.
2006-01-01
Thermodynamic and quantum thermodynamic analyses of Brownian movement of a solvent and a colloid passing through neutral thermodynamic equilibrium states only. It is shown that Brownian motors and E. coli do not represent Brownian movement.
Modeling the basic superconductor thermodynamical-statistical characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palenskis, V.; Maknys, K.
1999-01-01
In accordance with the Landau second-order phase transition and other thermodynamical-statistical relations for superconductors, and using the energy gap as an order parameter in the electron free energy presentation, the fundamental characteristics of electrons, such as the free energy, the total energy, the energy gap, the entropy, and the heat capacity dependences on temperature were obtained. The obtained modeling results, in principle, well reflect the basic low- and high-temperature superconductor characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muramatsu, Ken; Kondo, Yasuhiko; Uchida, Masaaki; Soda, Kunihisa
1989-01-01
Fission product (EP) release during a core concrete interaction (CCI) is an important factor of the uncertainty associated with a source term estimation for an LWR severe accident. An analysis was made on the CCI Chemical Thermodynamic Benchmark Exercise organized by OECD/NEA/CSNI Group of Experts on Source Terms (GREST) for investigating the uncertainty in thermodynamic modeling for CCI. The benchmark exercise was to calculate the equilibrium FP vapor pressure for given system of temperature, pressure, and debris composition. The benchmark consisted of two parts, A and B. Part A was a simplified problem intended to test the numerical techniques. In part B, the participants were requested to use their own best estimate thermodynamic data base to examine the variability of the results due to the difference in thermodynamic data base. JAERI participated in this benchmark exercise with use of the MPEC2 code. Chemical thermodynamic data base needed for analysis of Part B was taken from the VENESA code. This report describes the computer code used, inputs to the code, and results from the calculation by JAERI. The present calculation indicates that the FP vapor pressure depends strongly on temperature and Oxygen potential in core debris and the pattern of dependency may be different for different FP elements. (author)
Thermodynamic Analysis of Ionic Compounds: Synthetic Applications.
Yoder, Claude H.
1986-01-01
Shows how thermodynamic cycles can be used to understand trends in heats of formation and aqueous solubilities and, most importantly, how they may be used to choose synthetic routes to new ionic compounds. (JN)
Thermodynamics of Crystalline States
Fujimoto, Minoru
2013-01-01
Thermodynamics is a well-established discipline of physics for properties of matter in thermal equilibrium with the surroundings. Applying to crystals, however, the laws encounter undefined properties of crystal lattice, which therefore need to be determined for a clear and well-defined description of crystalline states. Thermodynamics of Crystalline States explores the roles played by order variables and dynamic lattices in crystals in a wholly new way. The book begins by clarifying basic concepts for stable crystals. Next, binary phase transitions are discussed to study collective motion of order variables, as described mostly as classical phenomena. New to this edition is the examination of magnetic crystals, where magnetic symmetry is essential for magnetic phase transitions. The multi-electron system is also discussed theoretically, as a quantum-mechanical example, for superconductivity in metallic crystals. Throughout the book, the role played by the lattice is emphasized and studied in-depth. Thermod...
Plasma Wind Tunnel Testing of Electron Transpiration Cooling Concept
2017-02-28
Colorado State University ETC Electron Transpiration Cooling LHTS Local Heat Transfer Simulation LTE Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium RCC Reinforced...ceramic electric material testing in plasma environment (not performed), 4. measurements and analysis of the Electron Transpiration Cooling (Sec. 4.2). 2...VKI 1D boundary layer code for computation of enthalpy and boundary layer parameters: a) iterate on ’virtually measured ’ heat flux, b) once enthalpy
Thermodynamic analysis of Mg-doped p-type GaN semiconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Jingbo; Liang Jingkui; Rao Guanghui; Zhang Yi; Liu Guangyao; Chen Jingran; Liu Quanlin; Zhang Weijing
2006-01-01
A thermodynamic modeling of Mg-doped p-type GaN was carried out to describe the thermodynamic behaviors of native defects, dopants (Mg and H) and carriers in GaN. The formation energies of charged component compounds in a four-sublattice model were defined as functions of the Fermi-level based on the results of the first-principles calculations and adjusted to fit experimental data. The effect of the solubility of Mg on the low doping efficiency of Mg in GaN and the role of H in the Mg-doping MOCVD process were discussed. The modeling provides a thermodynamic approach to understand the doping process of GaN semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duthil, P
2014-01-01
The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duthil, P [Orsay, IPN (France)
2014-07-01
The goal of this paper is to present a general thermodynamic basis that is useable in the context of superconductivity and particle accelerators. The first part recalls the purpose of thermodynamics and summarizes its important concepts. Some applications, from cryogenics to magnetic systems, are covered. In the context of basic thermodynamics, only thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.
Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids
Neindre, B Le
2013-01-01
Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio
Mechanics, Waves and Thermodynamics
Ranjan Jain, Sudhir
2016-05-01
Figures; Preface; Acknowledgement; 1. Energy, mass, momentum; 2. Kinematics, Newton's laws of motion; 3. Circular motion; 4. The principle of least action; 5. Work and energy; 6. Mechanics of a system of particles; 7. Friction; 8. Impulse and collisions; 9. Central forces; 10. Dimensional analysis; 11. Oscillations; 12. Waves; 13. Sound of music; 14. Fluid mechanics; 15. Water waves; 16. The kinetic theory of gases; 17. Concepts and laws of thermodynamics; 18. Some applications of thermodynamics; 19. Basic ideas of statistical mechanics; Bibliography; Index.
International thermodynamic tables of the fluid state helium-4
de Reuck, K M; McCarty, R D
2013-01-01
International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State Helium-4 presents the IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables for the thermodynamic properties of helium. The IUPAC Thermodynamic Tables Project has therefore encouraged the critical analysis of the available thermodynamic measurements for helium and their synthesis into tables. This book is divided into three chapters. The first chapter discusses the experimental results and compares with the equations used to generate the tables. These equations are supplemented by a vapor pressure equation, which represents the 1958 He-4 scale of temperature that is
Thermodynamic analysis of a beta-type Stirling engine with rhombic drive mechanism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aksoy, Fatih; Cinar, Can
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of Stirling engine with rhombic-drive mechanism was performed. • The analysis was performed for smooth and grooved displacer cylinders. • The convective heat transfer coefficient was predicted using the experimental results. • The experimental results was compared with the theoretical results. - Abstract: This paper presents a theoretical investigation on kinematic and thermodynamic analysis of a beta type Stirling engine with rhombic-drive mechanism. Variations in the hot and cold volumes of the engine were calculated using kinematic relations. Two different displacer cylinders were investigated: one of them had smooth inner surface and the other had axial slots grooved into the cylinder to increase the heat transfer area. The effects of the slots grooved into the displacer cylinder inner surface on the performance were calculated using nodal analysis in Fortran. The effects of working fluid mass on cyclic work were investigated using 200, 300 and 400 W/m 2 K convective heat transfer coefficients for smooth and grooved displacer cylinders. The variation of engine power with engine speed was obtained by using the same convective heat transfer coefficients and isothermal conditions. The convective heat transfer coefficient was predicted as 104 W/m 2 K using the experimental results measured from the prototype engine under atmospheric conditions. The variation in cyclic work determined by the experimental study was also compared with the theoretical results obtained for different convective heat transfer coefficients and isothermal conditions
Thermodynamic geometry and phase transitions of AdS braneworld black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chaturvedi, Pankaj, E-mail: cpankaj@iitk.ac.in; Sengupta, Gautam, E-mail: sengupta@iitk.ac.in
2017-02-10
The thermodynamics and phase transitions of charged RN–AdS and rotating Kerr–AdS black holes in a generalized Randall–Sundrum braneworld are investigated in the framework of thermodynamic geometry. A detailed analysis of the thermodynamics, stability and phase structures in the canonical and the grand canonical ensembles for these AdS braneworld black holes are described. The thermodynamic curvatures for both these AdS braneworld black holes are computed and studied as a function of the thermodynamic variables. Through this analysis we illustrate an interesting dependence of the phase structures on the braneworld parameter for these black holes.
Unified geometric description of black hole thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez, Jose L.; Quevedo, Hernando; Sanchez, Alberto
2008-01-01
In the space of thermodynamic equilibrium states we introduce a Legendre invariant metric which contains all the information about the thermodynamics of black holes. The curvature of this thermodynamic metric becomes singular at those points where, according to the analysis of the heat capacities, phase transitions occur. This result is valid for the Kerr-Newman black hole and all its special cases and, therefore, provides a unified description of black hole phase transitions in terms of curvature singularities.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Averesch, Nils J. H.; Martínez, Verónica S.; Nielsen, Lars K.
2018-01-01
Adipic acid, a nylon-6,6 precursor, has recently gained popularity in synthetic biology. Here, 16 different production routes to adipic acid were evaluated using a novel tool for network-embedded thermodynamic analysis of elementary flux modes. The tool distinguishes between thermodynamically...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Moliner, F.
1975-01-01
Basic thermodynamics of a system consisting of two bulk phases with an interface. Solid surfaces: general. Discussion of experimental data on surface tension and related concepts. Adsorption thermodynamics in the Gibbsian scheme. Adsorption on inert solid adsorbents. Systems with electrical charges: chemistry and thermodynamics of imperfect crystals. Thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Simple models of charge transfer chemisorption. Adsorption heat and related concepts. Surface phase transitions
Black Hole Thermodynamics in an Undergraduate Thermodynamics Course.
Parker, Barry R.; McLeod, Robert J.
1980-01-01
An analogy, which has been drawn between black hole physics and thermodynamics, is mathematically broadened in this article. Equations similar to the standard partial differential relations of thermodynamics are found for black holes. The results can be used to supplement an undergraduate thermodynamics course. (Author/SK)
Quantum Thermodynamics at Strong Coupling: Operator Thermodynamic Functions and Relations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jen-Tsung Hsiang
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Identifying or constructing a fine-grained microscopic theory that will emerge under specific conditions to a known macroscopic theory is always a formidable challenge. Thermodynamics is perhaps one of the most powerful theories and best understood examples of emergence in physical sciences, which can be used for understanding the characteristics and mechanisms of emergent processes, both in terms of emergent structures and the emergent laws governing the effective or collective variables. Viewing quantum mechanics as an emergent theory requires a better understanding of all this. In this work we aim at a very modest goal, not quantum mechanics as thermodynamics, not yet, but the thermodynamics of quantum systems, or quantum thermodynamics. We will show why even with this minimal demand, there are many new issues which need be addressed and new rules formulated. The thermodynamics of small quantum many-body systems strongly coupled to a heat bath at low temperatures with non-Markovian behavior contains elements, such as quantum coherence, correlations, entanglement and fluctuations, that are not well recognized in traditional thermodynamics, built on large systems vanishingly weakly coupled to a non-dynamical reservoir. For quantum thermodynamics at strong coupling, one needs to reexamine the meaning of the thermodynamic functions, the viability of the thermodynamic relations and the validity of the thermodynamic laws anew. After a brief motivation, this paper starts with a short overview of the quantum formulation based on Gelin & Thoss and Seifert. We then provide a quantum formulation of Jarzynski’s two representations. We show how to construct the operator thermodynamic potentials, the expectation values of which provide the familiar thermodynamic variables. Constructing the operator thermodynamic functions and verifying or modifying their relations is a necessary first step in the establishment of a viable thermodynamics theory for
Thermodynamic tables to accompany Modern engineering thermodynamics
Balmer, Robert T
2011-01-01
This booklet is provided at no extra charge with new copies of Balmer's Modern Engineering Thermodynamics. It contains two appendices. Appendix C contains 40 thermodynamic tables, and Appendix D consists of 6 thermodynamic charts. These charts and tables are provided in a separate booklet to give instructors the flexibility of allowing students to bring the tables into exams. The booklet may be purchased separately if needed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nahum T
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Tehila Nahum,1 Hanna Dodiuk,2 Samuel Kenig,2 Artee Panwar,1 Carol Barry,1 Joey Mead,1 1Department of Plastics Engineering, University of Massachusetts Lowell, Lowell, MA, USA; 2Department of Polymers and Plastics Engineering, Shenkar College of Engineering Design and Art, Ramat Gan, Israel Abstract: Durable superhydrophobic coatings were synthesized using a system of silica nanoparticles (NPs to provide nanoscale roughness, fluorosilane to give hydrophobic chemistry, and three different polymer binders: urethane acrylate, ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, and epoxy. Coatings composed of different binders incorporating NPs in various concentrations exhibited different superhydrophobic attributes when applied on polycarbonate (PC and glass substrates and as a function of coating composition. It was found that the substrate surface characteristics and wettability affected the superhydrophobic characteristics of the coatings. Interfacial tension and spreading coefficient parameters (thermodynamics of the coating components were used to predict the localization of the NPs for the different binders’ concentrations. The thermodynamic analysis of the NPs localization was in good agreement with the experimental observations. On the basis of the thermodynamic analysis and the experimental scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, profilometry, and atomic force microscopy results, it was concluded that localization of the NPs on the surface was critical to provide the necessary roughness and resulting superhydrophobicity. The durability evaluated by tape testing of the epoxy formulations was the best on both glass and PC. Several coating compositions retained their superhydrophobicity after the tape test. In summary, it was concluded that thermodynamic analysis is a powerful tool to predict the roughness of the coating due to the location of NPs on the surface, and hence can be used in the design of superhydrophobic coatings. Keywords
Involvement of Thermodynamic Cycle Analysis in a Concurrent Approach to Reciprocating Engine Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Macek
2001-01-01
Full Text Available A modularised approach to thermodynamic optimisation of new concepts of volumetric combustion engines concerning efficiency and emissions is outlined. Levels of primary analysis using a computerised general-change entropy diagram and detailed multizone, 1 to 3-D finite volume methods are distinguished. The use of inverse algorithms based on the same equations is taken into account.
Generalization of first-principles thermodynamic model: Application to hexagonal close-packed ε-Fe3N
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bakkedal, Morten B.; Shang, Shu- Li; Liu, Zi-Kui
2016-01-01
A complete first-principles thermodynamic model was developed and applied to hexagonal close-packed structure ε-Fe3N. The electronic structure was calculated using density functional theory and the quasiharmonic phonon approximation to determine macroscopic thermodynamic properties at finite...
Analysis of radioactive-matter interaction near thermodynamical equilibrium states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damamme, G.
1993-01-01
We study the absorption/emission process of photon by matter in the framework of a radiativo-collisionnal model of atom, a thermodynamical approach being used. The considered matter description is the atomic sphere one. First we give the expression of the balance equation around an equilibrium state. Then we express the atomic populations in function of the characteristics of the radiation and of the free electrons and of their time history. This permit us to interpret the photon balance as being due to true emission/absorption process of photons as well as fluorescence terms, all these processes being affected by relaxation effects. The total energy balance between matter and radiation can also be analyzed in the same way and conduct to introduce one photon effective interactions terms for each radiative proper mode, terms also affected by retardation effects. Such a taking into account of atom populations has no consequence on the radiative flux equation (i.e. the transfer opacity) but can considerably modify the energy balance between matter and radiation. (author). 11 refs., 3 figs
New methods of thermodynamics; Nouvelles methodes en thermodynamique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
2001-07-01
This day, organized by the SFT French Society of Thermology, took stock on the new methods in the domain of the thermodynamics. Eight papers have been presented during this day: new developments of the thermodynamics in finite time; the optimal efficiency of energy converters; a version of non-equilibrium thermodynamics with entropy and information as positive and negative thermal change; the role of thermodynamics in process integration; application of the thermodynamics to critical nuclear accidents; the entropic analysis help in the case of charge and discharge state of an energy storage process; fluid flow threw a stable state in the urban hydraulic; a computer code for phase diagram prediction. (A.L.B.)
Thermodynamic calculations in ternary titanium–aluminium–manganese system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ANA I. KOSTOV
2008-04-01
Full Text Available Thermodynamic calculations in the ternary Ti–Al–Mn system are shown in this paper. The thermodynamic calculations were performed using the FactSage thermochemical software and database, with the aim of determining thermodynamic properties, such as activities, coefficient of activities, partial and integral values of the enthalpies and Gibbs energies of mixing and excess energies at two different temperatures: 2000 and 2100 K. Bearing in mind that no experimental data for the Ti–Al–Mn ternary system have been obtained or reported. The obtained results represent a good base for further thermodynamic analysis and may be useful as a comparison with some future critical experimental results and thermodynamic optimization of this system.
Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics Thermodynamics
Capitelli, Mario; D'Angola, Antonio
2012-01-01
Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics - Thermodynamics develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma thermodynamics from both classical and statistical points of view. After a refreshment of classical thermodynamics applied to the dissociation and ionization regimes, the book invites the reader to discover the role of electronic excitation in affecting the properties of plasmas, a topic often overlooked by the thermal plasma community. Particular attention is devoted to the problem of the divergence of the partition function of atomic species and the state-to-state approach for calculating the partition function of diatomic and polyatomic molecules. The limit of ideal gas approximation is also discussed, by introducing Debye-Huckel and virial corrections. Throughout the book, worked examples are given in order to clarify concepts and mathematical approaches. This book is a first of a series of three books to be published by the authors on fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics. The next bo...
Dimić, Dušan S.; Milenković, Dejan A.; Marković, Jasmina M. Dimitrić; Marković, Zoran S.
2018-05-01
The antiradical potency of catecholamines (dopamine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, L-DOPA), metabolites of dopamine (homovanillic acid, 3-methoxytyramine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) and catechol towards substituted methylperoxy radicals is investigated. The thermodynamic parameters, together with the kinetic approach, are used to determine the most probable mechanism of action. The natural bond orbital and quantum theory of atoms in molecules are utilised to explain the highest reactivity of trichloromethylperoxy radical. The preferred mechanism is dependent both on the thermodynamic and kinetic parameters . The number of chlorine atoms on radical, the presence of intra-molecular hydrogen bond and number of hydroxy groups attached to the aromatic ring significantly influence the mechanism. The results suggest that sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) is the most probable for reaction with methylperoxy and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) for reaction with trichloromethylperoxy radicals, with a gradual transition between SPLET and HAT for other two radicals. Due to the significant deprotonation of molecules containing the carboxyl group, the respective anions are also investigated. The HAT and SPLET mechanisms are highly competitive in reaction with MP radical, while the dominant mechanism towards chlorinated radicals is HAT. The reactions in methanol and benzene are also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahli, B. [Laboratoire de Génie Physique, Université Ibn Khaldoun, Tiaret, 14000 (Algeria); Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Université Djillali Liabés, Sidi Bel-Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Bouafia, H., E-mail: hamza.tssm@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Génie Physique, Université Ibn Khaldoun, Tiaret, 14000 (Algeria); Abidri, B.; Abdellaoui, A. [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Université Djillali Liabés, Sidi Bel-Abbes 22000 (Algeria); Hiadsi, S.; Akriche, A. [Laboratoire de Microscope Electronique et Sciences des Matériaux, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Mohamed Boudiaf, département de Génie Physique, BP1505 El m’naouar, Oran (Algeria); Benkhettou, N.; Rached, D. [Laboratoire des Matériaux Magnétiques, Université Djillali Liabés, Sidi Bel-Abbes 22000 (Algeria)
2015-06-25
Highlights: • The ground state properties of SrUO{sub 3}-Perovskite were investigated. • Elastic constants and their related parameters were calculated. • Electronic properties are treated using GGA-PBEsol + U approach. - Abstract: In this paper, we investigate bulk properties of the cubic SrUO{sub 3}-Perovskite in their nonmagnetic (NM), antiferromagnetic (AFM) and ferromagnetic (FM) states using all-electron self consistent Full Potential Augmented Plane Waves plus local orbital (FP-(L)APW + lo) method within PBEsol Generalized Gradiant density approximations. Our calculation allowed us to predict that the more stable magnetic state of the cubic SrUO{sub 3}-Perovskite is that of the ferromagnetic (FM). This work is the first prediction of elastic constants and their related parameters (Young modulus, shear modulus, Poisson ratio, Zener anisotropy and the Debye temperature) for this cubic compound using Mehl method. We have employed the GGA(PBEsol) and GGA(PBEsol) + U to investigate the electronic band structure, density of states and electronic charge density of SrUO{sub 3}-Perovskite. The electronic band structure calculations revealed that SrUO{sub 3} exhibits metallic behavior. On the other hand the charge density plots for [1 1 0] direction indicates a strong ionic character along the Sr–O bond while the U–O bond has strong covalent character. Finally, we have analyzed the thermodynamic properties using the quasi-harmonic Debye model to complete the fundamental characterization of cubic SrUO{sub 3}-Perovskite.
Müller, Ingo
1993-01-01
Physicists firmly believe that the differential equations of nature should be hyperbolic so as to exclude action at a distance; yet the equations of irreversible thermodynamics - those of Navier-Stokes and Fourier - are parabolic. This incompatibility between the expectation of physicists and the classical laws of thermodynamics has prompted the formulation of extended thermodynamics. After describing the motifs and early evolution of this new branch of irreversible thermodynamics, the authors apply the theory to mon-atomic gases, mixtures of gases, relativistic gases, and "gases" of phonons and photons. The discussion brings into perspective the various phenomena called second sound, such as heat propagation, propagation of shear stress and concentration, and the second sound in liquid helium. The formal mathematical structure of extended thermodynamics is exposed and the theory is shown to be fully compatible with the kinetic theory of gases. The study closes with the testing of extended thermodynamics thro...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dufour, C.; Toulemonde, M.; Paumier, E.; Lesellier de Chezelles, B.; Delignon, V.
1991-01-01
Latent tracks have been observed in amorphous semi-conductors after heavy ion irradiation in the electronic stopping power regime. A transient thermodynamic model is developed including energy diffusion on the electron gas and on the atomic lattice and energy exchange between these two systems. A set of two non linear differential equations is solved numerically in cylindrical geometry in order to predict the radii of the latent tracks observed in amorphous germanium and silicon. A good agreement is obtained for the two materials using the same set of input parameters for the energy diffusion on the electronic system and the same coupling constant for the energy exchange between electron and lattice atoms despite the large differences in the macroscopic lattice thermodynamical parameters of the two materials
Thermodynamic Equilibria and Extrema Analysis of Attainability Regions and Partial Equilibria
Gorban, Alexander N; Kaganovich, Boris M; Keiko, Alexandre V; Shamansky, Vitaly A; Shirkalin, Igor A
2006-01-01
This book discusses mathematical models that are based on the concepts of classical equilibrium thermodynamics. They are intended for the analysis of possible results of diverse natural and production processes. Unlike the traditional models, these allow one to view the achievable set of partial equilibria with regards to constraints on kinetics, energy and mass exchange and to determine states of the studied systems of interest for the researcher. Application of the suggested models in chemical technology, energy and ecology is illustrated in the examples.
Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis of a cement plant: Part II – Application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atmaca, Adem; Yumrutaş, Recep
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant is found to be 59.37% and 38.99% respectively. • Performance assessment of a cement plant indicates that the calcination process involves the highest portion of energy losses. • The specific exergetic cost cement produced by the cement plant is calculated to be 180.5 USD/GJ. • The specific cement manufacturing cost is found to be 41.84 USD/ton. - Abstract: This paper is Part 2 of the study on the thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analysis of a cement plant. In Part 1, thermodynamic and exergoeconomic formulations and procedure for such a comprehensive analysis are provided while this paper provides an application of the developed formulation that considers an actual cement plant located in Gaziantep, Turkey. The overall energy and exergy efficiencies of the plant is found to be 59.37% and 38.99% respectively. The exergy destructions, exergetic cost allocations, and various exergoeconomic performance parameters are determined by using the exergoeconomic analysis based on specific exergy costing method (SPECO) for the entire plant and its components. The specific unit exergetic cost of the farine, clinker and cement produced by the cement plant are calculated to be 43.77 USD/GJ, 133.72 USD/GJ and 180.5 USD/GJ respectively. The specific manufacturing costs of farine, clinker and cement are found to be 3.8 USD/ton, 33.11 USD/ton and 41.84 USD/ton respectively
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Hyun Jung; Kim, Jong Hoon; Youn, Sung Hun; Shin, Chul Soo
2006-01-01
The eutectic melting of a CBZ-L-Asp/L-PheOMe.HCl model mixture was investigated in kinetic, thermal, thermodynamic, rheological, and morphological aspects. From TX-phase diagrams, the eutectic composition was determined to be 0.55 M fraction of CBZ-L-Asp. The highest melting rate and the lowest apparent viscosity in the range of 55-75 deg. C were obtained at the eutectic composition. Using Arrhenius plots of melting rates and apparent viscosities, minimum activation energies in the range of 60-80 deg. C were obtained at the eutectic composition, whereas maximum values were attained below 60 deg. C. At the eutectic composition, the maximum heat of fusion, the lowest excess free energy, and the highest excess entropy values were observed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). A highly homogeneous morphology due to rearrangement of molecules was observed in the eutectic mixture via scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. IR spectra revealed that hydrogen bonding in the mixture increases during eutectic melting
Romano, M.C.; Campanari, S.; Spallina, V.; Lozza, G.
2011-01-01
This work discusses the thermodynamic analysis of integrated gasification fuel cell plants, where a simple cycle gas turbine works in a hybrid cycle with a pressurized intermediate temperature–solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC), integrated with a coal gasification and syngas cleanup island and a bottoming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burande, Chandrakant S.; Bhalekar, Anil A.
2005-01-01
The thermodynamic stability of a few representative elementary chemical reactions proceeding at finite rates has been investigated using the recently proposed thermodynamic Lyapunov function and following the steps of Lyapunov's second method (also termed as the direct method) of stability of motion. The thermodynamic Lyapunov function; L s , used herein is the excess rate of entropy production in the thermodynamic perturbation space, which thereby inherits the dictates of the second law of thermodynamics. This Lyapunov function is not the same as the excess entropy rate that one encounters in thermodynamic (irreversible) literature. The model chemical conversions studied in this presentation are A+B→v x X and A+B↔ν x X. For the sake of simplicity, the thermal effects of chemical reactions have been considered as not adding to the perturbation as our main aim was to demonstrate how one should use systematically the proposed thermodynamic Lyapunov function following the steps of Lyapunov's second method of stability of motion. The domains of thermodynamic stability under the constantly acting small disturbances, thermodynamic asymptotic stability and thermodynamic instability in these model systems get established
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.L. Chen
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Electronic structure and elastic properties of Al2Y, Al3Y, Al2Gd and Al3Gd phases were investigated by means of first-principles calculations from CASTEP program based on density functional theory (DFT. The ground state energy and elastic constants of each phase were calculated, the formation enthalpy (ΔH, bulk modulus (B, shear modulus (G, Young's modulus (E, Poisson's ratio (ν and anisotropic coefficient (A were derived. The formation enthalpy shows that Al2RE is more stable than Al3RE, and Al-Y intermetallics have stronger phase stability than Al-Gd intermetallics. The calculated mechanical properties indicate that all these four intermetallics are strong and hard brittle phases, it may lead to the similar performance when deforming due to their similar elastic constants. The total and partial electron density of states (DOS, Mulliken population and metallicity were calculated to analyze the electron structure and bonding characteristics of the phases. Finally, phonon calculation was conducted, and the thermodynamic properties were obtained and further discussed.
Defining Electron Bifurcation in the Electron-Transferring Flavoprotein Family.
Garcia Costas, Amaya M; Poudel, Saroj; Miller, Anne-Frances; Schut, Gerrit J; Ledbetter, Rhesa N; Fixen, Kathryn R; Seefeldt, Lance C; Adams, Michael W W; Harwood, Caroline S; Boyd, Eric S; Peters, John W
2017-11-01
energy conservation. Bifurcating enzymes couple thermodynamically unfavorable reactions with thermodynamically favorable reactions in an overall spontaneous process. Here we show that the electron-transferring flavoprotein (Etf) enzyme family exhibits far greater diversity than previously recognized, and we provide a phylogenetic analysis that clearly delineates bifurcating versus nonbifurcating members of this family. Structural modeling of proteins within these groups reveals key differences between the bifurcating and nonbifurcating Etfs. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garvie, R.C.
1985-01-01
A thermodynamic analysis was made of a simple model comprising a transforming t-ZrO 2 microcrystal of size d constrained in a matrix subjected to a hydrostatic tensile stress field. The field generated a critical size range such that a t-particle transformed if dsub(cl) < d < dsub(cu). The lower limit dsub(cl) exists because at this point the maximum energy (supplied by the applied stress) which can be taken up by the crystal is insufficient to drive the transformation. The upper limit dsub(cu) is a consequence of the microcrystal being so large that it transforms spontaneously when the material is cooled to room temperature. Using the thermodynamic (Griffith) approach and assuming that transformation toughening is due to the dilational strain energy, this mechanism accounted for about one-third of the total observed effective surface energy in a peak-aged Ca-PSZ alloy. (author)
Thermodynamic analysis of a fuel cell power system for transportation applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hussain, M.M.; Baschuk, J.J.; Li, X.; Dincer, I.
2004-01-01
This study deals with the thermodynamic modeling of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system for transportation applications. The PEM fuel cell performance model developed previously by two of the authors is incorporated into the present model. The analysis includes the operation of all the components in the system, which consists of two major modules: PEM fuel cell stack module and system module and a cooling pump. System module includes air compressor, heat exchanger, humidifier and a cooling loop. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect of varying operating conditions (e.g., temperature pressure and air stoichiometry) on the energy and exergy efficiencies of the system. Further, thermodynamic irreversibilities in each component of the system are determined. It is found that, with the increase of external load (current density), the difference between the gross stack power and net system power increases. The largest irreversibility rate occurs in the fuel cell stack. Thus, minimization of irreversibility rate in the fuel cell stack is essential to enhance the performance of the system, which in turn reduces the cost and helps in commercialization of fuel cell power system in transportation applications. (author)
Thermodynamic analysis of the reduction process of Colombian lateritic nickel ore
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz, S. C.; Garces, A.; Restrepo, O. J.; Lara, M. A.; Camporredondo, J. E.
2015-01-01
The Colombian nickeliferous laterites are minerals used for the nickel extraction by hydrometallurgical and pyrometallurgical processes. In this work the thermodynamic behaviour of three Colombian lateritic mineral samples are described, with contents of 1.42%, 1.78% y 2.04% of nickel, when they are subjected to the calcination and reduction processes. The mineral was characterized using X Rays Diffraction and X Rays Fluorescence, giving evidence of the presence of mineralogical species such as nepouite (Ni 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ), goethite (Fe 2 O 3 .H 2 O), silica (SiO 2 ), antigorite (Mg 3 Si 2 O 5 (OH) 4 ) and fosferite (Mg 2 SiO 4 ). The thermodynamic analysis was conducted using the software HSC Chemistry for Windows 5.1 and was focused in the quantitative determination of the chemical evolution of the mixture of these minerals with variable quantities of coal, in function of temperature. The results produced by the program showed, in the equilibrium, the feasibility of complete reduction of the nickel, and additionally, a considerable high percentage of reduction of iron oxides (up to 99%) using ratio C/O .1 at temperatures close to 1100 degree centigrade. (Author)
Systematic vibration thermodynamic properties of bromine
Liu, G. Y.; Sun, W. G.; Liao, B. T.
2015-11-01
Based on the analysis of the maturity and finiteness of vibrational levels of bromine molecule in ground state and evaluating the effect on statistical computation, according to the elementary principles of quantum statistical theorem, using the full set of bromine molecular vibrational levels determined with algebra method, the statistical contribution for bromine systematical macroscopic thermodynamic properties is discussed. Thermodynamic state functions Helmholtz free energy, entropy and observable vibration heat capacity are calculated. The results show that the determination of full set of vibrational levels and maximum vibrational quantum number is the key in the correct statistical analysis of bromine systematical thermodynamic property. Algebra method results are clearly different from data of simple harmonic oscillator and the related algebra method results are no longer analytical but numerical and are superior to simple harmonic oscillator results. Compared with simple harmonic oscillator's heat capacities, the algebra method's heat capacities are more consistent with the experimental data in the given temperature range of 600-2100 K.
Thermodynamical motivation of the Polish energy policy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ziębik Andrzej
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Basing on the first and second law of thermodynamics the fundamental trends in the Polish energy policy are analysed, including the aspects of environmental protection. The thermodynamical improvement of real processes (reduction of exergy losses is the main way leading to an improvement of the effectivity of energy consumption. If the exergy loss is economically not justified, we have to do with an error from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The paper contains a thermodynamical analysis of the ratio of final and primary energy, as well as the analysis of the thermo-ecological cost and index of sustainable development concerning primary energy. Analyses of thermo-ecological costs concerning electricity and centralized heat production have been also carried out. The effect of increasing the share of high-efficiency cogeneration has been analyzed, too. Attention has been paid to an improved efficiency of the transmission and distribution of electricity, which is of special importance from the viewpoint of the second law analysis. The improvement of the energy effectivity in industry was analyzed on the example of physical recuperation, being of special importance from the point of view of exergy analysis.
Thermodynamic study of the U-Si system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berche, A.; Rado, C.; Rapaud, O.; Gueneau, C.; Rogez, J.
2009-01-01
The uranium-silicon phase diagram is a key system to predict the possible interaction between the fuel kernel (U, Pu)C and the inert matrix SiC considered for the gas-cooled fast reactor systems. The experimental data from the literature on the uranium-silicon system are critically reviewed. Differential Thermal Analysis experiments are carried out to measure the temperatures of the phase transitions in the composition range 6-46% at Si. The experimental results are compared to the available data of the literature. The microstructure of the samples has been analysed using scanning electron microscopy. In view of the analyses, some solidification paths are proposed. Finally, the present experimental results and the available data of the literature have been used to perform a thermodynamic modelling of the uranium-silicon system using the CALPHAD method.
Experimental study and thermodynamic assessment of the ZrO2-DyO1.5 system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Chong; Zinkevich, M.; Aldinger, F.; Stuttgart Univ.
2007-01-01
The phase equilibria and thermodynamic properties in the ZrO 2 -DyO 1.5 system have been studied using the experimental methods of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis and high temperature drop calorimetry. The tetragonal + fluorite and fluorite + C-Dy 2 O 3 phase equilibria between 1400 C and 1700 C have been determined, together with the enthalpy increments of the materials with 30 mol.% and 50 mol.% DyO 1.5 in the temperature range 200-1400 C. Furthermore, the martensitic transformation temperatures (A s ,M s ) have been measured for the samples with 1 and 2 mol.% DyO 1.5 . Finally, thermodynamic assessment has been carried out using the experimental results obtained and literature data. (orig.)
Thermodynamics of micellization from heat-capacity measurements.
Šarac, Bojan; Bešter-Rogač, Marija; Lah, Jurij
2014-06-23
Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the most important technique for studying the thermodynamics of structural transitions of biological macromolecules, is seldom used in quantitative thermodynamic studies of surfactant micellization/demicellization. The reason for this could be ascribed to an insufficient understanding of the temperature dependence of the heat capacity of surfactant solutions (DSC data) in terms of thermodynamics, which leads to problems with the design of experiments and interpretation of the output signals. We address these issues by careful design of DSC experiments performed with solutions of ionic and nonionic surfactants at various surfactant concentrations, and individual and global mass-action model analysis of the obtained DSC data. Our approach leads to reliable thermodynamic parameters of micellization for all types of surfactants, comparable with those obtained by using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). In summary, we demonstrate that DSC can be successfully used as an independent method to obtain temperature-dependent thermodynamic parameters for micellization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Diagram analysis of the Hubbard model: Stationarity property of the thermodynamic potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moskalenko, V. A.; Dohotaru, L. A.; Cebotari, I. D.
2010-01-01
The diagram approach proposed many years ago for the strongly correlated Hubbard model is developed with the aim to analyze the thermodynamic potential properties. A new exact relation between renormalized quantities such as the thermodynamic potential, the one-particle propagator, and the correlation function is established. This relation contains an additional integration of the one-particle propagator with respect to an auxiliary constant. The vacuum skeleton diagrams constructed from the irreducible Green's functions and tunneling propagator lines are determined and a special functional is introduced. The properties of this functional are investigated and its relation to the thermodynamic potential is established. The stationarity property of this functional with respect to first-order variations of the correlation function is demonstrated; as a consequence, the stationarity property of the thermodynamic potential is proved.
Experimental and thermodynamic investigation of Al-Cu-Nd ternary system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bai, W.M. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Jiang, Y. [Hunan Sushi Guangbo Testing Techniques Co. LTD, Changsha (China); Guo, Z.Y.; Zeng, L.J.; Tan, M.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Meggs, C. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Zhang, L.G., E-mail: ligangzhang@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Liu, L.B., E-mail: pdc@csu.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China); Jin, Z.P. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha, 410083 (China)
2017-07-01
The phase relationships in the Al–Cu-Nd ternary system at 673 K have been investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy disperse X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in backscattered electron imaging (BSE) modes. The existence of six ternary Stoichiometric compounds, namely τ{sub 1}-Al{sub 8}Cu{sub 4}Nd, τ{sub 2}-Al{sub 9}Cu{sub 8}Nd{sub 2}, τ{sub 3}-Al{sub 6}Cu{sub 7}Nd, τ{sub 4}-Al{sub 2.4}Cu{sub 8.6}Nd, τ{sub 5}-Al{sub 3}CuNd, τ{sub 6}-AlCuNd, have been confirmed. A complete thermodynamic description of the Al–Cu-Nd ternary system coupled with the CALPHAD method is obtained based on experimental results and first-principles calculations. The calculated phase equilibria were in agreement with the available experimental data. - Highlights: • Phase relationships in the Al-Cu-Nd system has been systematically investigated. • 9 three-phase regions and 4 two-phase regions are confirmed. • A complete thermodynamic description of the Al-Cu-Nd system is obtained. • Results of first-principle calculation consist with thermodynamic calculation.
Introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz
van Tongeren, Stijn J.
2016-08-01
We give a pedagogical introduction to the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz, a method that allows us to describe the thermodynamics of integrable models whose spectrum is found via the (asymptotic) Bethe ansatz. We set the stage by deriving the Fermi-Dirac distribution and associated free energy of free electrons, and then in a similar though technically more complicated fashion treat the thermodynamics of integrable models, focusing first on the one-dimensional Bose gas with delta function interaction as a clean pedagogical example, secondly the XXX spin chain as an elementary (lattice) model with prototypical complicating features in the form of bound states, and finally the {SU}(2) chiral Gross-Neveu model as a field theory example. Throughout this discussion we emphasize the central role of particle and hole densities, whose relations determine the model under consideration. We then discuss tricks that allow us to use the same methods to describe the exact spectra of integrable field theories on a circle, in particular the chiral Gross-Neveu model. We moreover discuss the simplification of TBA equations to Y systems, including the transition back to integral equations given sufficient analyticity data, in simple examples.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hostrup, Martin; Gani, Rafiqul; Kravanja, Zdravko
1999-01-01
This paper presents an integrated approach to the solution of process synthesis, design and analysis problems. Integration is achieved by combining two different techniques, synthesis based on thermodynamic insights and structural optimization together with a simulation engine and a properties pr...
Thermodynamic analysis of a new combined cooling and power system using ammonia–water mixture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Jiangfeng; Wang, Jianyong; Zhao, Pan; Dai, Yiping
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A new combined cooling and power system is proposed. • Exergy destruction analysis is used to identify irreversibility of components in system. • Thermodynamic parameter analysis is performed for system. - Abstract: In order to achieve both power and cooling supply for users, a new combined cooling and power system using ammonia–water mixture is proposed to utilizing low grade heat sources, such as industrial waste heat, solar energy and geothermal energy. The proposed system combines a Kalina cycle and an ammonia–water absorption refrigeration cycle, in which the ammonia–water turbine exhaust is delivered to a separator to extract purer ammonia vapor. The purer ammonia vapor enters an evaporator to generate refrigeration output after being condensed and throttled. Mathematical models are established to simulate the combined system under steady-state conditions. Exergy destruction analysis is conducted to display the exergy destruction distribution in the system qualitatively and the results show that the major exergy destruction occurs in the heat exchangers. Finally a thermodynamic sensitivity analysis is performed and reveals that with an increase in the pressure of separator I or the ammonia mass fraction of basic solution, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system increase, whereas with an increase in the temperature of separator I, the ammonia–water turbine back pressure or the condenser II pressure, thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system drop.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Wenming; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hong [China Building Materials Academy, Beijing (China); Zhang, Zhenwei [Linyi Academy of Technology Cooperation and Application, Linyi (China); Zhang, Liang [NeoTrident Technology Ltd., Shanghai (China); Bu, Yuxiang [Shandong University, Jinan (China)
2017-02-15
For guidance for developing Fe/Co-Sn-based anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of FeSn{sub 5} and CoSn{sub 5} intermetallic phases under pressures ranging from 0 to 30 GPa have been investigated systematically using first-principles total-energy calculations within the framework of the generalized gradient approximation. The pressure was found to have significant effects on the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of these compounds. In the selected pressure range, CoSn{sub 5} has a more negative formation enthalpy than FeSn{sub 5}. Based on the calculated elastic constants, the bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young's modulus were determined via the Viogt-Reuss-Hill averaging scheme. The variations of specific heats at constant volume for FeSn{sub 5} and CoSn{sub 5} in a wide pressure (0 - 30 GPa) and temperature (0 - 1000 K) range are also predicted from phonon density of states calculation. The calculated results suggested that both FeSn{sub 5} and CoSn{sub 5} are mechanically stable at pressure from 0 to 30 GPa. FeSn{sub 5} is dynamically stable at pressure up to, 30 GPa, at least, however, CoSn{sub 5} is dynamically stable no higher than 15 GPa.
Thermodynamic properties of gaseous ruthenium species.
Miradji, Faoulat; Souvi, Sidi; Cantrel, Laurent; Louis, Florent; Vallet, Valérie
2015-05-21
The review of thermodynamic data of ruthenium oxides reveals large uncertainties in some of the standard enthalpies of formation, motivating the use of high-level relativistic correlated quantum chemical methods to reduce the level of discrepancies. The reaction energies leading to the formation of ruthenium oxides RuO, RuO2, RuO3, and RuO4 have been calculated for a series of reactions. The combination of different quantum chemical methods has been investigated [DFT, CASSCF, MRCI, CASPT2, CCSD(T)] in order to predict the geometrical parameters, the energetics including electronic correlation and spin-orbit coupling. The most suitable method for ruthenium compounds is the use of TPSSh-5%HF for geometry optimization, followed by CCSD(T) with complete basis set (CBS) extrapolations for the calculation of the total electronic energies. SO-CASSCF seems to be accurate enough to estimate spin-orbit coupling contributions to the ground-state electronic energies. This methodology yields very accurate standard enthalpies of formations of all species, which are either in excellent agreement with the most reliable experimental data or provide an improved estimate for the others. These new data will be implemented in the thermodynamical databases that are used by the ASTEC code (accident source term evaluation code) to build models of ruthenium chemistry behavior in severe nuclear accident conditions. The paper also discusses the nature of the chemical bonds both from molecular orbital and topological view points.
Mean-field potential approach for thermodynamic properties of lanthanide: Europium as a prototype
Kumar, Priyank; Bhatt, N. K.; Vyas, P. R.; Gohel, V. B.
2018-03-01
In the present paper, a simple conjunction scheme [mean-field potential (MFP) + local pseudopotential] is used to study the thermodynamic properties of divalent lanthanide europium (Eu) at extreme environment. Present study has been carried out due to the fact that divalent nature of Eu arises because of stable half-filled 4f-shell at ambient condition, which has great influence on the thermodynamic properties at extreme environment. Due to such electronic structure, it is different from remaining lanthanides having incomplete 4f-shell. The presently computed results of thermodynamic properties of Eu are in good agreement with the experimental results. Looking to such success, it seems that the concept of MFP approach is successful to account contribution due to nuclear motion to the total Helmholtz free energy at finite temperatures and pressure-induced inter-band transfer of electrons for condensed state of matter. The local pseudopotential is used to evaluate cold energy and hence MFP accounts the s-p-d-f hybridization properly. Looking to the reliability and transferability along with its computational and conceptual simplicity, we would like to extend the present scheme for the study of thermodynamic properties of remaining lanthanides and actinides at extreme environment.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Chalk–Brine–Oil Interactions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eftekhari, Ali Akbar; Thomsen, Kaj; Stenby, Erling Halfdan
2017-01-01
The surface complexation models (SCMs) are used successfully for describing the thermodynamic equilibrium between the pure calcite surface (carbonate and calcium sites) and brine solutions. In this work, we show that the model parameters that are reported for the calcite–brine system are not appl......The surface complexation models (SCMs) are used successfully for describing the thermodynamic equilibrium between the pure calcite surface (carbonate and calcium sites) and brine solutions. In this work, we show that the model parameters that are reported for the calcite–brine system...... are not applicable to the natural carbonates. We adjust the SCM reaction equilibrium constants by fitting the model to the ζ potential data that are reported for the pulverized Stevns Klint chalk. Then, we use the model, implemented in the PhreeqcRM geochemistry package coupled with a finite volume solver...... parameters for the reactive transport applications .We propose an optimization procedure that fits the coupled SCM–transport model parameters to the chromatographic (single-phase core flooding)data. The ζ potential measurements are implemented in the optimization scheme as nonlinear constraints. We then use...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Jiangjiang; Lu, Yanchao; Yang, Ying; Mao, Tianzhi
2016-01-01
This study aims to present a thermodynamic performance analysis and to optimize the configurations of a hybrid combined cooling, heating and power (CCHP) system incorporating solar energy and natural gas. A basic natural gas CCHP system containing a power generation unit, a heat recovery system, an absorption cooling system and a storage tank is integrated with solar photovoltaic (PV) panels and/or a heat collector. Based on thermodynamic modeling, the thermodynamic performance, including energy and exergy efficiencies, under variable work conditions, such as electric load factor, solar irradiance and installation ratio, of the solar PV panels and heat collector is investigated and analyzed. The results of the energy supply side analysis indicate that the integration of solar PV into the CCHP system more efficiently improves the exergy efficiency, whereas the integration of a solar heat collector improves the energy efficiency. To match the building loads, the optimization method combined with the operation strategy is employed to optimize the system configurations to maximize the integrated benefits of energy and economic costs. The optimization results of demand–supply matching demonstrate that the integration of a solar heat collector achieves a better integrated performance than the solar PV integration in the specific case study. - Highlights: • Design a CCHP system integrated with solar PV and heat collector. • Present the energy and exergy analyses under variable work conditions. • Propose an optimization method of CCHP system for demand-supply matching.
Two-temperature thermodynamic and transport properties of SF6–Cu plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Rong, Mingzhe; Sun, Hao; Cressault, Yann; Murphy, Anthony B; Guo, Anxiang; Liu, Zirui
2015-01-01
SF 6 and Cu are widely adopted in electrical equipment as a dielectric medium and for conductive components, respectively. SF 6 –Cu plasmas are frequently formed, particularly in high-voltage circuit breaker arcs and fault current arcs, due to erosion of the Cu components. In this paper, calculated values of the thermodynamic and transport properties of plasmas in SF 6 –Cu mixtures are presented for both thermal equilibrium and non-equilibrium conditions. The composition is determined by the two-temperature Saha equation and Guldberg–Waage equation in the form derived by van de Sanden. The composition and the thermodynamic properties are evaluated through a classical statistical mechanics approach. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman–Enskog method developed by Devoto, which decouples the electrons and heavy species, has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. The thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated for different electron temperatures (300–40 000 K), ratios of electron to heavy-species temperature (1–10), pressures (0.1–10 atm) and copper molar proportions (0–50%). It is found that deviations from thermal equilibrium strongly affect the thermodynamic and transport properties of the SF 6 –Cu plasmas. Further, the presence of copper has different effects on some of the properties for plasmas in and out of thermal equilibrium. The main reason for these changes is that dissociation reactions are delayed for non-thermal equilibrium plasmas, which in turn influences the ionization reactions that occur. (paper)
Rational extended thermodynamics
Müller, Ingo
1998-01-01
Ordinary thermodynamics provides reliable results when the thermodynamic fields are smooth, in the sense that there are no steep gradients and no rapid changes. In fluids and gases this is the domain of the equations of Navier-Stokes and Fourier. Extended thermodynamics becomes relevant for rapidly varying and strongly inhomogeneous processes. Thus the propagation of high frequency waves, and the shape of shock waves, and the regression of small-scale fluctuation are governed by extended thermodynamics. The field equations of ordinary thermodynamics are parabolic while extended thermodynamics is governed by hyperbolic systems. The main ingredients of extended thermodynamics are • field equations of balance type, • constitutive quantities depending on the present local state and • entropy as a concave function of the state variables. This set of assumptions leads to first order quasi-linear symmetric hyperbolic systems of field equations; it guarantees the well-posedness of initial value problems and f...
Classical and statistical thermodynamics
Rizk, Hanna A
2016-01-01
This is a text book of thermodynamics for the student who seeks thorough training in science or engineering. Systematic and thorough treatment of the fundamental principles rather than presenting the large mass of facts has been stressed. The book includes some of the historical and humanistic background of thermodynamics, but without affecting the continuity of the analytical treatment. For a clearer and more profound understanding of thermodynamics this book is highly recommended. In this respect, the author believes that a sound grounding in classical thermodynamics is an essential prerequisite for the understanding of statistical thermodynamics. Such a book comprising the two wide branches of thermodynamics is in fact unprecedented. Being a written work dealing systematically with the two main branches of thermodynamics, namely classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics, together with some important indexes under only one cover, this treatise is so eminently useful.
Thermodynamic properties of bcc crystals at high temperatures: The transition metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
MacDonald, R.A.; Shukla, R.C.
1985-01-01
The second-neighbor central-force model of a bcc crystal, previously used in lowest-order anharmonic perturbation theory to calculate the thermodynamic properties of the alkali metals, is here applied to the transition metals V, Nb, Ta, Mo, and W. The limitations of the model are apparent in the thermal-expansion results, which fall away from the experimental trend above about 1800 K. The specific heat similarly fails to exhibit the sharp rise that is observed at higher temperatures. A static treatment of vacancies cannot account for the difference between theory and experiment. The electrons have been taken into account by using a model that specifically includes d-band effects in the electron ground-state energy. The results thus obtained for the bulk moduli are quite satisfactory. In the light of these results, we discuss the prerequisites for a better treatment of metals when the electrons play an important role in determining the thermodynamic properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nguyen, Manh-Thuong, E-mail: manhth.nguyen@gmail.com; Gebauer, Ralph [The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy); Farnesi Camellone, Matteo, E-mail: mfarnesi@sissa.it [CNR-IOM DEMOCRITOS, Istituto Officina dei Materiali, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche and SISSA Scuola Internazionale di Studi Superiori Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy)
2015-07-21
Extensive first principles calculations are carried out to investigate Au monomers and dimers supported on α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) surfaces in terms of structure optimizations, electronic structure analyses, and ab initio thermodynamics calculations of surface phase diagrams. All computations rely on density functional theory in the generalized gradient approximation (Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE)) and account for on-site Coulomb interactions via inclusion of a Hubbard correction (PBE+U). The relative stability of Au monomers/dimers on the stoichiometric termination of α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) decorated with various vacancies (multiple oxygen vacancies, iron vacancy, and mixed iron-oxygen vacancies) has been computed as a function of the oxygen chemical potential. The charge rearrangement induced by Au at the oxide contact is analyzed in detail and discussed. On one hand, ab initio thermodynamics predicts that under O-rich conditions, structures obtained by replacing a surface Fe atom with a Au atom are thermodynamically stable over a wide range of temperatures. On the other hand, the complex of a CO molecule on a Au atom substituting surface Fe atoms is thermodynamically stable only in a much more narrow range of values of the O chemical potential under O-rich conditions. In the case of a Au dimer, under O-rich conditions, supported Au atoms at an O-Fe di-vacancy are more stable. However, upon CO adsorption, the complex of a CO molecule and 2 Au atoms located at a single Fe vacancy is more favorable.
Araujo, Pablo Granda; Gras, Anna; Ginovart, Marta
2016-01-01
Modelling cellular metabolism is a strategic factor in investigating microbial behaviour and interactions, especially for bio-technological processes. A key factor for modelling microbial activity is the calculation of nutrient amounts and products generated as a result of the microbial metabolism. Representing metabolic pathways through balanced reactions is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists, ecologists, modellers and engineers. A new computational tool to represent microbial pathways through microbial metabolic reactions (MMRs) using the approach of the Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model has been designed and implemented in the open-access framework NetLogo. This computational tool, called MbT-Tool (Metabolism based on Thermodynamics) can write MMRs for different microbial functional groups, such as aerobic heterotrophs, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, methanogens, sulphate reducers, sulphide oxidizers and fermenters. The MbT-Tool's code contains eighteen organic and twenty inorganic reduction-half-reactions, four N-sources (NH4 (+), NO3 (-), NO2 (-), N2) to biomass synthesis and twenty-four microbial empirical formulas, one of which can be determined by the user (CnHaObNc). MbT-Tool is an open-source program capable of writing MMRs based on thermodynamic concepts, which are applicable in a wide range of academic research interested in designing, optimizing and modelling microbial activity without any extensive chemical, microbiological and programing experience.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sega, Marcello; Fábián, Balázs; Jedlovszky, Pál
2015-01-01
Interfaces are ubiquitous objects, whose thermodynamic behavior we only recently started to understand at the microscopic detail. Here, we borrow concepts from the techniques of surface identification and intrinsic analysis, to provide a complementary point of view on the density, stress, energy, and free energy distribution across liquid (“soft”) interfaces by analyzing the respective contributions coming from successive layers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sega, Marcello [Computational Physics Group, University of Vienna, Sensengasse 8/9, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Fábián, Balázs [Institut UTINAM (CNRS UMR 6213), Université de Franche-Comté, 16 route de Gray, F-25030 Besançon (France); Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Szt. Gellért tér 4, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Jedlovszky, Pál [Laboratory of Interfaces and Nanosize Systems, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, Pázmány P. Stny 1/A, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary); MTA-BME Research Group of Technical Analytical Chemistry, Szt. Gellért tér 4, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary); Department of Chemistry, EKF, Leányka u. 6, H-3300 Eger (Hungary)
2015-09-21
Interfaces are ubiquitous objects, whose thermodynamic behavior we only recently started to understand at the microscopic detail. Here, we borrow concepts from the techniques of surface identification and intrinsic analysis, to provide a complementary point of view on the density, stress, energy, and free energy distribution across liquid (“soft”) interfaces by analyzing the respective contributions coming from successive layers.
Thermodynamics, stability and processes of transport in high-Tc-superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goepel, W.
1993-01-01
The aim of this paper is: Characterisation of oxygen nonstoichiometry (7-x) and oxygen diffusion (D o ) in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x -ceramics. Separation of electronic (σ e ) and ionic (σ o2- ) conductivities. Determination of the electronic structure at the surface and in the bulk of epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x -films. Analysis of chemical reactions between YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x -films and substrates, electrodes, pasivation layers etc. with the aim of preparing epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x -films on Si-substrates with high values for T c and J c . The results make it possible to prepare longterm stable epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x -films on Si and to control the oxygen content in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x thermodynamically or kinetically by controlled solid state diffusion. (orig./MM) [de
Pathway Thermodynamics Highlights Kinetic Obstacles in Central Metabolism
Flamholz, Avi; Reznik, Ed; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Milo, Ron
2014-01-01
In metabolism research, thermodynamics is usually used to determine the directionality of a reaction or the feasibility of a pathway. However, the relationship between thermodynamic potentials and fluxes is not limited to questions of directionality: thermodynamics also affects the kinetics of reactions through the flux-force relationship, which states that the logarithm of the ratio between the forward and reverse fluxes is directly proportional to the change in Gibbs energy due to a reaction (ΔrG′). Accordingly, if an enzyme catalyzes a reaction with a ΔrG′ of -5.7 kJ/mol then the forward flux will be roughly ten times the reverse flux. As ΔrG′ approaches equilibrium (ΔrG′ = 0 kJ/mol), exponentially more enzyme counterproductively catalyzes the reverse reaction, reducing the net rate at which the reaction proceeds. Thus, the enzyme level required to achieve a given flux increases dramatically near equilibrium. Here, we develop a framework for quantifying the degree to which pathways suffer these thermodynamic limitations on flux. For each pathway, we calculate a single thermodynamically-derived metric (the Max-min Driving Force, MDF), which enables objective ranking of pathways by the degree to which their flux is constrained by low thermodynamic driving force. Our framework accounts for the effect of pH, ionic strength and metabolite concentration ranges and allows us to quantify how alterations to the pathway structure affect the pathway's thermodynamics. Applying this methodology to pathways of central metabolism sheds light on some of their features, including metabolic bypasses (e.g., fermentation pathways bypassing substrate-level phosphorylation), substrate channeling (e.g., of oxaloacetate from malate dehydrogenase to citrate synthase), and use of alternative cofactors (e.g., quinone as an electron acceptor instead of NAD). The methods presented here place another arrow in metabolic engineers' quiver, providing a simple means of evaluating
Thermodynamic stabilization of colloids
Stol, R.J.; Bruyn, P.L. de
An analysis is given of the conditions necessary for obtaining a thermodynamically stable dispersion (TSD) of solid particles in a continuous aqueous solution phase. The role of the adsorption of potential-determining ions at the planar interface in lowering the interfacial free energy (γ) to
Thermodynamic modelling of alkali-activated slag cements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, Rupert J.; Lothenbach, Barbara; Bernal, Susan A.; Provis, John L.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A thermodynamic modelling analysis of alkali-activated slag cements is presented. • Thermodynamic database describes zeolites, alkali carbonates, C–(N–)A–S–H gel. • Updated thermodynamic model for Mg–Al layered double hydroxides. • Description of phase assemblages in Na 2 SiO 3 - and Na 2 CO 3 -activated slag cements. • Phase diagrams for NaOH-activated and Na 2 SiO 3 -activated slag cements are simulated. - Abstract: This paper presents a thermodynamic modelling analysis of alkali-activated slag-based cements, which are high performance and potentially low-CO 2 binders relative to Portland cement. The thermodynamic database used here contains a calcium (alkali) aluminosilicate hydrate ideal solid solution model (CNASH-ss), alkali carbonate and zeolite phases, and an ideal solid solution model for a hydrotalcite-like Mg–Al layered double hydroxide phase. Simulated phase diagrams for NaOH- and Na 2 SiO 3 -activated slag-based cements demonstrate the high stability of zeolites and other solid phases in these materials. Thermodynamic modelling provides a good description of the chemical compositions and types of phases formed in Na 2 SiO 3 -activated slag cements over the most relevant bulk chemical composition range for these cements, and the simulated volumetric properties of the cement paste are consistent with previously measured and estimated values. Experimentally determined and simulated solid phase assemblages for Na 2 CO 3 -activated slag cements were also found to be in good agreement. These results can be used to design the chemistry of alkali-activated slag-based cements, to further promote the uptake of this technology and valorisation of metallurgical slags
Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem
2012-05-01
The Gibbs free energy of mixing dissipated when fresh river water flows into the sea can be harnessed for sustainable power generation. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is one of the methods proposed to generate power from natural salinity gradients. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of PRO work extraction. First, we present a reversible thermodynamic model for PRO and verify that the theoretical maximum extractable work in a reversible PRO process is identical to the Gibbs free energy of mixing. Work extraction in an irreversible constant-pressure PRO process is then examined. We derive an expression for the maximum extractable work in a constant-pressure PRO process and show that it is less than the ideal work (i.e., Gibbs free energy of mixing) due to inefficiencies intrinsic to the process. These inherent inefficiencies are attributed to (i) frictional losses required to overcome hydraulic resistance and drive water permeation and (ii) unutilized energy due to the discontinuation of water permeation when the osmotic pressure difference becomes equal to the applied hydraulic pressure. The highest extractable work in constant-pressure PRO with a seawater draw solution and river water feed solution is 0.75 kWh/m(3) while the free energy of mixing is 0.81 kWh/m(3)-a thermodynamic extraction efficiency of 91.1%. Our analysis further reveals that the operational objective to achieve high power density in a practical PRO process is inconsistent with the goal of maximum energy extraction. This study demonstrates thermodynamic and energetic approaches for PRO and offers insights on actual energy accessible for utilization in PRO power generation through salinity gradients. © 2012 American Chemical Society
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xuan L Liu
Full Text Available The phase relations and thermodynamic properties of the condensed Al-Co-Cr ternary alloy system are investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory (DFT and phase-equilibria experiments that led to X-ray diffraction (XRD and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA measurements. A thermodynamic description is developed by means of the calculations of phase diagrams (CALPHAD method using experimental and computational data from the present work and the literature. Emphasis is placed on modeling the bcc-A2, B2, fcc-γ, and tetragonal-σ phases in the temperature range of 1173 to 1623 K. Liquid, bcc-A2 and fcc-γ phases are modeled using substitutional solution descriptions. First-principles special quasirandom structures (SQS calculations predict a large bcc-A2 (disordered/B2 (ordered miscibility gap, in agreement with experiments. A partitioning model is then used for the A2/B2 phase to effectively describe the order-disorder transitions. The critically assessed thermodynamic description describes all phase equilibria data well. A2/B2 transitions are also shown to agree well with previous experimental findings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonghua Wang
Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are endogenously produced approximately 21-nt riboregulators that associate with Argonaute (Ago proteins to direct mRNA cleavage or repress the translation of complementary RNAs. Capturing the molecular mechanisms of miRNA interacting with its target will not only reinforce the understanding of underlying RNA interference but also fuel the design of more effective small-interfering RNA strands. To address this, in the present work the RNA-bound (Ago-miRNA, Ago-miRNA-target and RNA-free Ago forms were analyzed by performing both molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Based on the principal component analysis results of the simulation trajectories as well as the correlation analysis in fluctuations of residues, we discover that: 1 three important (PAZ, Mid and PIWI domains exist in Argonaute which define the global dynamics of the protein; 2 the interdomain correlated movements are so crucial for the interaction of Ago-RNAs that they not only facilitate the relaxation of the interactions between residues surrounding the RNA binding channel but also induce certain conformational changes; and 3 it is just these conformational changes that expand the cavity of the active site and open putative pathways for both the substrate uptake and product release. In addition, by thermodynamic analysis we also discover that for both the guide RNA 5'-end recognition and the facilitated site-specific cleavage of the target, the presence of two metal ions (of Mg(2+ plays a predominant role, and this conclusion is consistent with the observed enzyme catalytic cleavage activity in the ternary complex (Ago-miRNA-mRNA. Our results find that it is the set of arginine amino acids concentrated in the nucleotide-binding channel in Ago, instead of the conventionally-deemed seed base-paring, that makes greater contributions in stabilizing the binding of the nucleic acids to Ago.
Wang, Yonghua; Li, Yan; Ma, Zhi; Yang, Wei; Ai, Chunzhi
2010-07-29
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenously produced approximately 21-nt riboregulators that associate with Argonaute (Ago) proteins to direct mRNA cleavage or repress the translation of complementary RNAs. Capturing the molecular mechanisms of miRNA interacting with its target will not only reinforce the understanding of underlying RNA interference but also fuel the design of more effective small-interfering RNA strands. To address this, in the present work the RNA-bound (Ago-miRNA, Ago-miRNA-target) and RNA-free Ago forms were analyzed by performing both molecular dynamics simulations and thermodynamic analysis. Based on the principal component analysis results of the simulation trajectories as well as the correlation analysis in fluctuations of residues, we discover that: 1) three important (PAZ, Mid and PIWI) domains exist in Argonaute which define the global dynamics of the protein; 2) the interdomain correlated movements are so crucial for the interaction of Ago-RNAs that they not only facilitate the relaxation of the interactions between residues surrounding the RNA binding channel but also induce certain conformational changes; and 3) it is just these conformational changes that expand the cavity of the active site and open putative pathways for both the substrate uptake and product release. In addition, by thermodynamic analysis we also discover that for both the guide RNA 5'-end recognition and the facilitated site-specific cleavage of the target, the presence of two metal ions (of Mg(2+)) plays a predominant role, and this conclusion is consistent with the observed enzyme catalytic cleavage activity in the ternary complex (Ago-miRNA-mRNA). Our results find that it is the set of arginine amino acids concentrated in the nucleotide-binding channel in Ago, instead of the conventionally-deemed seed base-paring, that makes greater contributions in stabilizing the binding of the nucleic acids to Ago.
Thermodynamic exergy analysis for small modular reactor in nuclear hybrid energy system - 15110
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boldon, L.; Liu, L.; Sabharwall, P.; Rabiti, C.; Bragg-Sitton, S.M.
2015-01-01
To assess the inherent value of energy in a thermal system, it is necessary to understand both the quantity and quality of energy available or the exergy. We study the case where nuclear energy through a small modular reactor (SMR) is supplementing the available wind energy through storage to meet the needs of the electrical grid. Nuclear power is also being used for the production of hydrogen via high temperature steam electrolysis. For a SMR exergy analysis, both the physical and economic environments must be considered. The physical environment incorporates the energy, raw materials, and reference environment, where the reference environment refers to natural resources available without limit and without cost. This paper aims to explore the use of exergy analysis methods to estimate and optimize SMR resources and costs for individual subsystems, based on thermodynamic principles-resource utilization and efficiency. The paper will present background information on exergy theory; identify the core subsystems in an SMR plant coupled with storage systems in support of renewable energy and hydrogen production; perform a thermodynamic exergy analysis; determine the cost allocation among these subsystems; and calculate unit 'exergetic' costs, unit 'exergo-economic' costs, and first and second law efficiencies. Exergetic and 'exergo-economic' costs ultimately determine how individual subsystems contribute to overall profitability and how efficiencies and consumption may be optimized to improve profitability, making SMRs more competitive with other generation technologies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Murtaza, G., E-mail: murtaza@icp.edu.pk [Materials Modeling Laboratory, Department of Physics, Islamia College Peshawar (Pakistan); Gupta, S.K. [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States); Seddik, T. [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Khenata, R., E-mail: khenata_rabah@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Quantique et de Modélisation Mathématique, Université de Mascara, 29000 Mascara (Algeria); Alahmed, Z.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Ahmed, R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Khachai, H. [Physics Department, Djillali Liabes University of Sidi Bel-Abbes (Algeria); Jha, P.K. [Department of Physics, Maharaja Krishnakumarsinhji Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar 364001 (India); Bin Omran, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)
2014-06-01
Highlights: • REGa{sub 3} (RE = Sc or Lu) compounds are mechanical stabile. • Both ScGa{sub 3} and LuGa{sub 3} exhibit metallic behavior just like other REGa{sub 3} compounds. • Melting temperature T{sub m} (K) for ScGa{sub 3} and LuGa{sub 3} are 1244.2 and 1143.8. • High absorption observed in the visible energy region. • The present study would be helpful for future experimental/theoretical explorations. - Abstract: Structural, elastic, optoelectronic and thermodynamic properties of REGa{sub 3} (RE = Sc and Lu) compounds have been studied self consistently by employing state of the art full potential (FP) linearized (L) approach of augmented plane wave (APW) plus local orbitals method. Calculations were executed at the level of Perdew–Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE) parameterized generalized gradient approximation (GGA) for exchange correlation functional in addition to modified Becke–Johnson (mBJ) potential. Our obtained results of lattice parameters show reasonable agreement to the previously reported experimental and other theoretical studies. Analysis of the calculated band structure of ScGa{sub 3} and LuGa{sub 3} compounds demonstrates their metallic character. Moreover, a positive value of calculated Cauchy pressure, in addition to reflecting their ductile nature, endorses their metallic character as well. To understand optical behavior calculations related to the important optical parameters; real and imaginary parts of the dielectric function, reflectivity R(ω), refractive index n(ω) and electron energy-loss function L(ω) have also been performed. In the present work, thermodynamically properties are also investigated by employing lattice vibrations integrated in quasi harmonic Debye model. Obtained results of volume, heat capacity and Debye temperature as a function of temperature for both compounds, at different values of pressure, are found to be consistent. The calculated value of melting temperature for both compounds (ScGa{sub 3} and Lu
Asplund-Samuelsson, Johannes; Janasch, Markus; Hudson, Elton P
2018-01-01
Introducing biosynthetic pathways into an organism is both reliant on and challenged by endogenous biochemistry. Here we compared the expansion potential of the metabolic network in the photoautotroph Synechocystis with that of the heterotroph E. coli using the novel workflow POPPY (Prospecting Optimal Pathways with PYthon). First, E. coli and Synechocystis metabolomic and fluxomic data were combined with metabolic models to identify thermodynamic constraints on metabolite concentrations (NET analysis). Then, thousands of automatically constructed pathways were placed within each network and subjected to a network-embedded variant of the max-min driving force analysis (NEM). We found that the networks had different capabilities for imparting thermodynamic driving forces toward certain compounds. Key metabolites were constrained differently in Synechocystis due to opposing flux directions in glycolysis and carbon fixation, the forked tri-carboxylic acid cycle, and photorespiration. Furthermore, the lysine biosynthesis pathway in Synechocystis was identified as thermodynamically constrained, impacting both endogenous and heterologous reactions through low 2-oxoglutarate levels. Our study also identified important yet poorly covered areas in existing metabolomics data and provides a reference for future thermodynamics-based engineering in Synechocystis and beyond. The POPPY methodology represents a step in making optimal pathway-host matches, which is likely to become important as the practical range of host organisms is diversified. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mohammadi, Amin; Kasaeian, Alibakhsh; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis of a hybrid CCHP system. • Sensitivity analysis is performed on the most important parameters of the system. • Pressure ratio and gas turbine inlet temperature are the most effective parameters. - Abstract: Hybrid power systems are gained more attention due to their better performance and higher efficiency. Widespread use of these systems improves environmental situation as they reduce the amount of fossil fuel consumption. In this paper a hybrid system composed of a gas turbine, an ORC cycle and an absorption refrigeration cycle is proposed as a combined cooling, heating and power system for residential usage. Thermodynamic analysis is applied on the system. Also a parametric analysis is carried out to investigate the effect of different parameters on the system performance and output cooling, heating and power. The results show that under design conditions, the proposed plant can produce 30 kW power, 8 kW cooling and almost 7.2 ton hot water with an efficiency of 67.6%. Moreover, parametric analysis shows that pressure ratio and gas turbine inlet temperature are the most important and influential parameters. After these two, ORC turbine inlet temperature is the most effective parameter as it can change both net output power and energy efficiency of the system.
Vibrational analysis and thermodynamic properties of C120 nanotorus: a DFT study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
López-Chávez, Ernesto; Cruz-Torres, Armando; Landa Castillo-Alvarado, Fray de; Ortíz-López, Jaime; Peña-Castañeda, Yésica A.; Martínez-Magadán, José Manuel
2011-01-01
Density functional theory (DFT) computational methods are applied to a C 120 carbon nanotorus studied as an isolated molecular species, using the functional GGA PW91. This toroidal form of carbon contains five fold, six fold, and sevenfold rings. The calculated cohesive energy of the nanotorus, indicates that the ground state of this structure is energetically more stable than that of fullerene C 60 . Geometry and stability, Raman and IR vibrational analysis and thermodynamic properties have been reported and compared to the values obtained by other authors.
Geometro-thermodynamics of tidal charged black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gergely, Laszlo Arpad; Pidokrajt, Narit; Winitzki, Sergei
2011-01-01
Tidal charged spherically symmetric vacuum brane black holes are characterized by their mass m and tidal charge q, an imprint of the five-dimensional Weyl curvature. For q>0 they are formally identical to the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole of general relativity. We study the thermodynamics and thermodynamic geometries of tidal charged black holes and discuss similarities and differences as compared to the Reissner-Nordstroe m black hole. As a similarity, we show that (for q>0) the heat capacity of the tidal charged black hole diverges on a set of measure zero of the parameter space, nevertheless both the regularity of the Ruppeiner metric and a Poincare stability analysis show no phase transition at those points. The thermodynamic state spaces being different indicates that the underlying statistical models could be different. We find that the q<0 parameter range, which enhances the localization of gravity on the brane, is thermodynamically preferred. Finally we constrain for the first time the possible range of the tidal charge from the thermodynamic limit on gravitational radiation efficiency at black hole mergers. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aphornratana, S; Eames, I W [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Mechanical and Process Engineering
1995-05-01
The paper provides an easy to follow description of the second law (of thermodynamics) method as applied to a single-effect absorption refrigerator cycle. Results are presented in a novel graphical format, which aids insight and understanding of those factors that most affect the performance of absorption refrigerators, and which in turn provides strong indicators for the direction of future research. A novel method of calculating the entropy of lithium bromide solutions is offered. (author)
Nanofluidics thermodynamic and transport properties
Michaelides, Efstathios E (Stathis)
2014-01-01
This volume offers a comprehensive examination of the subject of heat and mass transfer with nanofluids as well as a critical review of the past and recent research projects in this area. Emphasis is placed on the fundamentals of the transport processes using particle-fluid suspensions, such as nanofluids. The nanofluid research is examined and presented in a holistic way using a great deal of our experience with the subjects of continuum mechanics, statistical thermodynamics, and non-equilibrium thermodynamics of transport processes. Using a thorough database, the experimental, analytical, and numerical advances of recent research in nanofluids are critically examined and connected to past research with medium and fine particles as well as to functional engineering systems. Promising applications and technological issues of heat/mass transfer system design with nanofluids are also discussed. This book also: Provides a deep scientific analysis of nanofluids using classical thermodynamics and statistical therm...
Yip, N.Y.; Vermaas, D.A.; Nijmeijer, K.; Elimelech, M.
2014-01-01
Reverse electrodialysis (RED) can harness the Gibbs free energy of mixing when fresh river water flows into the sea for sustainable power generation. In this study, we carry out a thermodynamic and energy efficiency analysis of RED power generation, and assess the membrane power density. First, we
Nonequilibrium thermodynamic models and applications to hydrogen plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, K.Y.
1988-01-01
A generalized multithermal equilibrium (GMTE) thermodynamic model is developed and presented with applications to hydrogen. A new chemical equilibrium equation for GMTE is obtained without the ensemble temperature concept, used by a previous MTE model. The effects of the GMTE model on the derivation and calculation of the thermodynamic, transport, and radiative properties are presented and significant differences from local thermal equilibrium (LTE) and two temperature model are discussed. When the electron translational temperature (T e ) is higher than the translational temperature of the heavy particles, the effects of hydrogen molecular species to the properties are significant at high T e compared with LTE results. The density variations of minor species are orders of magnitude with kinetic nonequilibrium at a constant electron temperature. A collisional-radiative model is also developed with the GMTE chemical equilibrium equation to study the effects of radiative transfer and the ambipolar diffusion on the population distribution of the excited atoms. The nonlocal radiative transfer effect is parameterized by an absorption factor, which is defined as a ratio of the absorbed intensity to the spontaneous emission coefficient
Thermodynamic Analysis of the Static Spherically Symmetric Field Equations in Rastall Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moradpour, Hooman; Salako, Ines G.
2016-01-01
The restrictions on the Rastall theory due to application of the Newtonian limit to the theory are derived. In addition, we use the zero-zero component of the Rastall field equations as well as the unified first law of thermodynamics to find the Misner-Sharp mass content confined to the event horizon of the spherically symmetric static spacetimes in the Rastall framework. The obtained relation is calculated for the Schwarzschild and de-Sitter back holes as two examples. Bearing the obtained relation for the Misner-Sharp mass in mind together with recasting the one-one component of the Rastall field equations into the form of the first law of thermodynamics, we obtain expressions for the horizon entropy and the work term. Finally, we also compare the thermodynamic quantities of system, including energy, entropy, and work, with their counterparts in the Einstein framework to have a better view about the role of the Rastall hypothesis on the thermodynamics of system.
Mavris, Dimitri; Roth, Bryce; McDonald, Rob
2002-01-01
The objective of this report is to provide a tool to facilitate the application of thermodynamic work potential methods to aircraft and engine analysis. This starts with a discussion of the theoretical background underlying these methods, which is then used to derive various equations useful for thermodynamic analysis of aircraft engines. The work potential analysis method is implemented in the form of a set of working charts and tables that can be used to graphically evaluate work potential stored in high-enthalpy gas. The range of validity for these tables is 300 to 36,000 R, pressures between between 0.01 atm and 100 atm, and fuel-air ratios from zero to stoichiometric. The derivations and charts assume mixtures of Jet-A and air as the working fluid. The thermodynamic properties presented in these charts were calculated based upon standard thermodynamic curve fits.
Lin, Jiefeng; Babbitt, Callie W; Trabold, Thomas A
2013-01-01
A methodology that integrates life cycle assessment (LCA) with thermodynamic analysis is developed and applied to evaluate the environmental impacts of producing biofuels from waste biomass, including biodiesel from waste cooking oil, ethanol from corn stover, and compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes. Solid oxide fuel cell-based auxiliary power units using bio-fuel as the hydrogen precursor enable generation of auxiliary electricity for idling heavy-duty trucks. Thermodynamic analysis is applied to evaluate the fuel conversion efficiency and determine the amount of fuel feedstock needed to generate a unit of electrical power. These inputs feed into an LCA that compares energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of different fuel pathways. Results show that compressed natural gas from municipal solid wastes is an optimal bio-fuel option for SOFC-APU applications in New York State. However, this methodology can be regionalized within the U.S. or internationally to account for different fuel feedstock options. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sun, Dongqiang; Wang, Yongxin; Zhang, Xinyi; Zhang, Minyu; Niu, Yanfei
2016-12-01
First-principles calculations based on density functional theory was used to investigate the structural, thermodynamic and elastic properties of precipitations, θ″, θ‧ and θ, in Al-Cu alloys. The values of lattice constants accord with experimental results well. The structural stability of θ is the best, followed by θ‧ and θ″. In addition, due to the highest bulk modulus, shear modulus and Young's modulus, θ possesses the best reinforcement effect in precipitation hardening process considered only from mechanical properties of perfect crystal. According to the values of B/G, Poisson's ratio and C11-C12, θ‧ has the worst ductility, while θ″ has the best ductility, the ductility of θ is in the middle. The ideal tensile strength of θ″, θ‧ and θ calculated along [100] and [001] directions are 20.87 GPa, 23.11 GPa and 24.70 GPa respectively. The analysis of electronic structure suggests that three precipitations all exhibit metallic character, and number of bonding electrons and bonding strength are the nature of different thermodynamic and elastic properties for θ″, θ‧ and θ.
Chemical thermodynamic representation of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindemer, T.B.; Besmann, T.M.
1984-01-01
The entire data base for the dependence of the nonstoichiometry, x, on temperature and chemical potential of oxygen (oxygen potential) was retrieved from the literature and represented. This data base was interpreted by least-squares analysis using equations derived from the classical thermodynamic theory for the solid solution of a solute in a solvent. For hyperstoichiometric oxide at oxygen potentials more positive than -266700 + 16.5T kJ/mol, the data were best represented by a [UO 2 ]-[U 3 O 7 ] solution. For O/U ratios above 2 and oxygen potentials below this boundary, a [UO 2 ]-[U 2 O 4 . 5 ] solution represented the data. The data were represented by a [UO 2 ]-[U 1 / 3 ] solution. The resulting equations represent the experimental ln(PO 2 ) - ln(x) behavior and can be used in thermodynamic calculations to predict phase boundary compositions consistent with the literature. Collectively, the present analysis permits a mathematical representation of the behavior of the total data base
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rokni, Masoud
2013-01-01
Integrated gasification Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and Stirling engine for combined heat and power application is analysed. The target for electricity production is 120 kW. Woodchips are used as gasification feedstock to produce syngas which is utilized for feeding the SOFC stacks for electricity...... and suggested. Thermodynamic analysis shows that a thermal efficiency of 42.4% based on LHV (lower heating value) can be achieved. Different parameter studies are performed to analysis system behaviour under different conditions. The analysis show that increasing fuel mass flow from the design point results...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.
2011-01-01
A two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique that allows inferring the electron and gas densities of axisymmetric arc plasmas without imposing any assumption regarding statistical equilibrium models is reported. This technique was applied to the study of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) departures within the core of a 30 A high-energy density cutting arc. In order to derive the electron and heavy particle temperatures from the inferred density profiles, a generalized two-temperature Saha equation together with the plasma equation of state and the quasineutrality condition were employed. Factors such as arc fluctuations that influence the accuracy of the measurements and the validity of the assumptions used to derive the plasma species temperature were considered. Significant deviations from chemical equilibrium as well as kinetic equilibrium were found at elevated electron temperatures and gas densities toward the arc core edge. An electron temperature profile nearly constant through the arc core with a value of about 14000-15000 K, well decoupled from the heavy particle temperature of about 1500 K at the arc core edge, was inferred.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian-Hua
2015-01-01
Based on CAES (compressed air energy storage) and PM (pneumatic motor), a novel tri-generation system (heat energy, mechanical energy and cooling power) is proposed in this paper. Both the cheap electricity generated at night and the excess power from undelivered renewable energy due to instability, can be stored as compressed air and hot water by the proposed system. When energy is in great demand, the compressed air stored in this system is released to drive PM to generate mechanical power. The discharged air from PM can be further utilized as valuable cooling power. Compared to conventional CAES systems, the biggest characteristic of the proposed system is that the discharged air usually abandoned is used as cooling power. In order to study the performances of this system, a thermodynamic analysis and an experimental investigation are carried out. The thermodynamic model is validated by the experimental data. Using the validated thermodynamic model, the mechanical energy output, cooling capacity and temperature of discharged air, as well as the efficiency of the system are analyzed. The theoretical analysis indicates that the additional application of discharged air can improve total energy efficiency by 20–30%. Therefore, this system is very worthy of consideration and being popularized. - Highlights: • The proposed system can provide mechanical energy, heat energy and cooling power. • The exhaust air of pneumatic motor is used as cooling power instead of abandoned. • A thermodynamic model of the proposed system is constructed and validated. • The effects of several parameters on system performance are examined. • The proposed system can improve total energy efficiency of CAES system by 20–30%.
A Thermodynamic Point of View on Dark Energy Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vincenzo F. Cardone
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We present a conjugate analysis of two different dark energy models, namely the Barboza–Alcaniz parameterization and the phenomenologically-motivated Hobbit model, investigating both their agreement with observational data and their thermodynamical properties. We successfully fit a wide dataset including the Hubble diagram of Type Ia Supernovae, the Hubble rate expansion parameter as measured from cosmic chronometers, the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO standard ruler data and the Planck distance priors. This analysis allows us to constrain the model parameters, thus pointing at the region of the wide parameters space, which is worth focusing on. As a novel step, we exploit the strong connection between gravity and thermodynamics to further check models’ viability by investigating their thermodynamical quantities. In particular, we study whether the cosmological scenario fulfills the generalized second law of thermodynamics, and moreover, we contrast the two models, asking whether the evolution of the total entropy is in agreement with the expectation for a closed system. As a general result, we discuss whether thermodynamic constraints can be a valid complementary way to both constrain dark energy models and differentiate among rival scenarios.
Correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics: connection with Hill nanothermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Garcia-Morales, Vladimir; Cervera, Javier; Pellicer, Julio
2005-01-01
The equivalence between Tsallis thermodynamics and Hill's nanothermodynamics is established. The correct thermodynamic forces in Tsallis thermodynamics are pointed out. Through this connection we also find a general expression for the entropic index q which we illustrate with two physical examples, allowing in both cases to relate q to the underlying dynamics of the Hamiltonian systems
Granet, Irving
2014-01-01
Fundamental ConceptsIntroductionThermodynamic SystemsTemperatureForce and MassElementary Kinetic Theory of GasesPressureReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsWork, Energy, and HeatIntroductionWorkEnergyInternal EnergyPotential EnergyKinetic EnergyHeatFlow WorkNonflow WorkReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsFirst Law of ThermodynamicsIntroductionFirst Law of ThermodynamicsNonflow SystemSteady-Flow SystemApplications of First Law of ThermodynamicsReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsThe Second Law of ThermodynamicsIntroductionReversibility-Second Law of ThermodynamicsThe Carnot CycleEntropyReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsProperties of Liquids and GasesIntroductionLiquids and VaporsThermodynamic Properties of SteamComputerized PropertiesThermodynamic DiagramsProcessesReviewKey TermsEquations Developed in This ChapterQuestionsProblemsThe Ideal GasIntroductionBasic ConsiderationsSpecific Hea...
Optimization of thermal systems based on finite-time thermodynamics and thermoeconomics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durmayaz, A. [Istanbul Technical University (Turkey). Department of Mechanical Engineering; Sogut, O.S. [Istanbul Technical University, Maslak (Turkey). Department of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering; Sahin, B. [Yildiz Technical University, Besiktas, Istanbul (Turkey). Department of Naval Architecture; Yavuz, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Maslak (Turkey). Institute of Energy
2004-07-01
The irreversibilities originating from finite-time and finite-size constraints are important in the real thermal system optimization. Since classical thermodynamic analysis based on thermodynamic equilibrium do not consider these constraints directly, it is necessary to consider the energy transfer between the system and its surroundings in the rate form. Finite-time thermodynamics provides a fundamental starting point for the optimization of real thermal systems including the fundamental concepts of heat transfer and fluid mechanics to classical thermodynamics. In this study, optimization studies of thermal systems, that consider various objective functions, based on finite-time thermodynamics and thermoeconomics are reviewed. (author)
The Thermodynamics of Internal Combustion Engines: Examples of Insights
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jerald A. Caton
2018-05-01
Full Text Available A major goal of the development of internal combustion (IC engines continues to be higher performance and efficiencies. A major aspect of achieving higher performance and efficiencies is based on fundamental thermodynamics. Both the first and second laws of thermodynamics provide strategies for and limits to the thermal efficiencies of engines. The current work provides three examples of the insights that thermodynamics provides to the performance and efficiencies of an IC engine. The first example evaluates low heat rejection engine concepts, and, based on thermodynamics, demonstrates the difficulty of this concept for increasing efficiencies. The second example compares and contrasts the thermodynamics associated with external and internal exhaust gas dilution. Finally, the third example starts with a discussion of the Otto cycle analysis and explains why this is an incorrect model for the IC engine. An important thermodynamic property that is responsible for many of the observed effects is specific heat.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansson, B.A.
1990-01-01
Economics, as the social science most concerned with the use and distribution of natural resources, must start to make use of the knowledge at hand in the natural sciences about such resources. In this, thermodynamics is an essential part. In a physicists terminology, human economic activity may be described as a dissipative system which flourishes by transforming and exchanging resources, goods and services. All this involves complex networks of flows of energy and materials. This implies that thermodynamics, the physical theory of energy and materials flows, must have implications for economics. On another level, thermodynamics has been recognized as a physical theory of value, with value concepts similar to those of economic theory. This paper discusses some general aspects of the significance of non-equilibrium thermodynamics for economics. The role of exergy, probably the most important of the physical measures of value, is elucidated. Two examples of integration of thermodynamics with economic theory are reviewed. First, a simple model of a steady-state production system is sued to illustrate the effects of thermodynamic process constraints. Second, the framework of a simple macroeconomic growth model is used to illustrate how some thermodynamic limitations may be integrated in macroeconomic theory
The Thermodynamics of General and Local Anesthesia
Græsbøll, Kaare; Sasse-Middelhoff, Henrike; Heimburg, Thomas
2014-05-01
General anesthetics are known to cause depression of the freezing point of transitions in biomembranes. This is a consequence of ideal mixing of the anesthetic drugs in the membrane fluid phase and exclusion from the solid phase. Such a generic law provides physical justification of the famous Meyer-Overton rule. We show here that general anesthetics, barbiturates and local anesthetics all display the same effect on melting transitions. Their effect is reversed by hydrostatic pressure. Thus, the thermodynamic behavior of local anesthetics is very similar to that of general anesthetics. We present a detailed thermodynamic analysis of heat capacity profiles of membranes in the presence of anesthetics. This analysis is able to describe experimentally observed calorimetric profiles and permits prediction of the anesthetic features of arbitrary molecules. In addition, we discuss the thermodynamic origin of the cutoff-effect of long-chain alcohols and the additivity of the effect of general and local anesthetics.
Saxena, A K
2014-01-01
Heat and thermodynamics aims to serve as a textbook for Physics, Chemistry and Engineering students. The book covers basic ideas of Heat and Thermodynamics, Kinetic Theory and Transport Phenomena, Real Gases, Liquafaction and Production and Measurement of very Low Temperatures, The First Law of Thermodynamics, The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics and Heat Engines and Black Body Radiation. KEY FEATURES Emphasis on concepts Contains 145 illustrations (drawings), 9 Tables and 48 solved examples At the end of chapter exercises and objective questions
Thermodynamic analysis of solar assisted multi-functional trigeneration system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Önder KIZILKAN
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In this study, modelling and thermodynamic analysis of solar assisted trigeneration system was carried out. The required thermal energy for gas and vapor cycles were supplied from solar tower which is a new concept for gas cycle applications. Additionally, an absorption refrigeration cycle, vapor production process, drying process and water heating process were integrated to the system. Energy and exergy efficiencies of the trigeneration system were determined by the application of first and second law analyses. The results showed that the gas cycle efficiency was found to be 31%, vapor cycle efficiency was found to be 28% and coefficient of performance (COP values of the refrigeration system was found to be 0.77. Also the highest exergy destruction rate was found to be 4154 kW in solar tower.Keywords: Solar tower, Trigeneration, Gas cycle, Vapor cycle, Energy, Exergy
Thermodynamic analysis of the advanced zero emission power plant
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kotowicz Janusz
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the structure and parameters of advanced zero emission power plant (AZEP. This concept is based on the replacement of the combustion chamber in a gas turbine by the membrane reactor. The reactor has three basic functions: (i oxygen separation from the air through the membrane, (ii combustion of the fuel, and (iii heat transfer to heat the oxygen-depleted air. In the discussed unit hot depleted air is expanded in a turbine and further feeds a bottoming steam cycle (BSC through the main heat recovery steam generator (HRSG. Flue gas leaving the membrane reactor feeds the second HRSG. The flue gas consist mainly of CO2 and water vapor, thus, CO2 separation involves only the flue gas drying. Results of the thermodynamic analysis of described power plant are presented.
Arjunan, V.; Raj, Arushma; Santhanam, R.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.
2013-02-01
Extensive vibrational investigations of 2-amino-4-methoxybenzothiazole have been carried out with FTIR and FT-Raman spectral techniques. The electronic structure of the molecule has been analysed by UV-Visible and NMR spectroscopies. The DFT studies were carried out with B3LYP and HF methods utilising 6-31G(d,p), 6-311++G(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets to determine the structural, thermodynamical, vibrational, electronic characteristics of the compound and also to understand the electronic and steric influence of the methoxy amino groups on the skeletal frequencies. The mixing of the fundamental modes was determined with the help of total energy distribution (TED). The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals have also been determined. The kinetic and thermodynamic stability and chemical hardness of the molecule have been determined. Complete NBO analysis was also carried out to find out the intramolecular electronic interactions and their stabilisation energy. 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts and the electronic transitions of the molecule are also discussed.
Arjunan, V; Raj, Arushma; Santhanam, R; Marchewka, M K; Mohan, S
2013-02-01
Extensive vibrational investigations of 2-amino-4-methoxybenzothiazole have been carried out with FTIR and FT-Raman spectral techniques. The electronic structure of the molecule has been analysed by UV-Visible and NMR spectroscopies. The DFT studies were carried out with B3LYP and HF methods utilising 6-31G(d,p), 6-311++G(d,p) and cc-pVDZ basis sets to determine the structural, thermodynamical, vibrational, electronic characteristics of the compound and also to understand the electronic and steric influence of the methoxy amino groups on the skeletal frequencies. The mixing of the fundamental modes was determined with the help of total energy distribution (TED). The energies of the frontier molecular orbitals have also been determined. The kinetic and thermodynamic stability and chemical hardness of the molecule have been determined. Complete NBO analysis was also carried out to find out the intramolecular electronic interactions and their stabilisation energy. (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts and the electronic transitions of the molecule are also discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Application of exergy analysis to the thermodynamical study of operation cycles of diesel engines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zellat, M
1987-01-01
To simulate the operation cycle of a diesel engine a general methodology is proposed, called as exergy theory, based on the simultaneous application of the first and second principles of thermodynamics. This analysis accounts for the exergy losses in function of what can be recovered from the second principle and give a more fruitful representation than the pure energy analysis which takes into account only the first principle. The concept of a recovery power turbine RPT, linked to the driving shaft and declutchable is described. The yield increase in nominal power and at half-charge when the RPT is disconnected, is explained by exergy analysis.
Thermodynamic analysis of transcritical CO2 booster refrigeration systems in supermarket
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ge, Y.T.; Tassou, S.A.
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → The CO 2 booster systems are widely applied in supermarket refrigeration. → Control optimisation can improve the performance of the CO 2 refrigeration systems. → The effects of some important parameters on the system performance are examined. → The optimal high-side pressure in the transcritical cycles is established and derived. -- Abstract: Due to less environmental impact, the CO 2 booster refrigeration system has been widely applied in the modern supermarket as a substitute for the conventional R404A multiplex system. However, the performance efficiency of the CO 2 system still requires further improvement in order to save energy; thus, one of the most efficient techniques would be to investigate and employ the optimal controls for refrigerant high side pressures at various operating states. In this paper, the possible parameters affecting system efficiency of the CO 2 system in the transcritical cycle at a higher ambient air temperature are identified through thermodynamic analysis, but cannot be quantified mathematically because of the high non-linearity involved. Instead, sensitive analysis of the system by means of the thermodynamic model is used to examine the effects of parameters including high side refrigerant pressure, ambient air temperature, refrigerant intermediate pressure, and medium and low evaporating temperatures, superheating, effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger, and compressor efficiency on system performance. Consequently, the optimal high side pressure in the transcritical cycle is established and derived as a function of three important parameters consisting of ambient air temperature, the effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger and compressor efficiency. In addition, optimal operating parameters such as the intermediate pressure are also proposed to improve the system performance.
Virial theorem and Gibbs thermodynamic potential for Coulomb systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.
2014-01-01
Using the grand canonical ensemble and the virial theorem, we show that the Gibbs thermodynamic potential of the non-relativistic system of charged particles is uniquely defined by single-particle Green functions of electrons and nuclei. This result is valid beyond the perturbation theory with respect to the interparticle interaction
Virial theorem and Gibbs thermodynamic potential for Coulomb systems
Bobrov, V. B.; Trigger, S. A.
2013-01-01
Using the grand canonical ensemble and the virial theorem, we show that the Gibbs thermodynamic potential of the non-relativistic system of charged particles is uniquely defined by single-particle Green functions of electrons and nuclei. This result is valid beyond the perturbation theory with respect to the interparticle interaction.
Quantum corrections to thermodynamics of quasitopological black holes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sudhaker Upadhyay
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Based on the modification to area-law due to thermal fluctuation at small horizon radius, we investigate the thermodynamics of charged quasitopological and charged rotating quasitopological black holes. In particular, we derive the leading-order corrections to the Gibbs free energy, charge and total mass densities. In order to analyze the behavior of the thermal fluctuations on the thermodynamics of small black holes, we draw a comparative analysis between the first-order corrected and original thermodynamical quantities. We also examine the stability and bound points of such black holes under effect of leading-order corrections.
Design of thermodynamic experiments and analyses of thermodynamic relationships
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oezer Arnas, A.
2009-01-01
In teaching of thermodynamics, a certain textbook is followed internationally whatever language it is written in. However, although some do a very good job, most are not correct and precise and furthermore NONE discuss at all the need for and importance of designing thermodynamic experiments although experimentation in engineering is considered to be the back bone of analyses, not pursued much these days, or numerical studies, so very predominant these days. Here some thermodynamic experiments along with physical interpretation of phenomena through simple mathematics will be discussed that are straightforward, meaningful and which can be performed by any undergraduate/graduate student. Another important topic for discussion is the fact that the thermodynamic state principle demands uniqueness of results. It has been found in literature that this fact is not well understood by those who attempt to apply it loosely and end up with questionable results. Thermodynamics is the fundamental science that clarifies all these issues if well understood, applied and interpreted. The attempt of this paper is to clarify these situations and offer alternative methods for analyses. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huo, Jin-Rong [Institute of Applied Physics, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Wang, Xiao-Xu [Institute of Applied Physics, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Cloud Computing Department, Beijing Computing Center, Beijing 100084 (China); Hu, Yao-Wen [Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Guo-Hua; Cheng, Hai-Xia; Li, Lu [Institute of Applied Physics, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China); Qian, Ping, E-mail: qianping@ustb.edu.cn [Institute of Applied Physics, Beijing University of Science and Technology, Beijing 100083 (China)
2016-05-15
The magnetic moment, lattice parameter and atom fraction coordinates for Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 29}Si{sub 4}B{sub 10} are calculated by the first-principles GGA+U method, and the results indicate that the calculated and experimental values are basically accordant when U=2.6 eV. We study the interaction effect and orbital hybridization between Co and Ce atoms. The projected density of states at U=2.6 eV which provided by Co-2c, Ce-2b and Ce-4d sites are contrasted with else U values. Meanwhile the electron density of states for different sites and the distance between various atoms are exhibited. In addition, the thermodynamic properties of Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 29}Si{sub 4}B{sub 10} are evaluated by using a series of interatomic pair potentials. - Graphical abstract: Change of the total magnetic moment for Ce{sub 3}Co{sub 29}Si{sub 4}B{sub 10} along with the value of U. There is a sharply decline of the curve at U=2.6 eV and, at the moment, the total magnetic moment of the compound have a good agreement with the experimental data. - Highlights: • We research of quaternary rare earth and transition metal compounds. • We perform the calculation of magnetic moment and electronic structure by GGA+U method. • The orbital hybridization between Co and Ce atoms is displayed and analyzed. • Show the plot of projected density of states for different sites more clearly. • Calculate the thermodynamic property of rare-earth transition metal compound.
Thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine including regenerator dead volume
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puech, Pascal; Tishkova, Victoria [Universite de Toulouse, UPS, CNRS, CEMES, 29 rue Jeanne Marvig, F-31055 Toulouse (France)
2011-02-15
This paper provides a theoretical investigation on the thermodynamic analysis of a Stirling engine with linear and sinusoidal variations of the volume. The regenerator in a Stirling engine is an internal heat exchanger allowing to reach high efficiency. We used an isothermal model to analyse the net work and the heat stored in the regenerator during a complete cycle. We show that the engine efficiency with perfect regeneration doesn't depend on the regenerator dead volume but this dead volume strongly amplifies the imperfect regeneration effect. An analytical expression to estimate the improvement due to the regenerator has been proposed including the combined effects of dead volume and imperfect regeneration. This could be used at the very preliminary stage of the engine design process. (author)
An introduction to equilibrium thermodynamics
Morrill, Bernard; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F
1973-01-01
An Introduction to Equilibrium Thermodynamics discusses classical thermodynamics and irreversible thermodynamics. It introduces the laws of thermodynamics and the connection between statistical concepts and observable macroscopic properties of a thermodynamic system. Chapter 1 discusses the first law of thermodynamics while Chapters 2 through 4 deal with statistical concepts. The succeeding chapters describe the link between entropy and the reversible heat process concept of entropy; the second law of thermodynamics; Legendre transformations and Jacobian algebra. Finally, Chapter 10 provides a
Thermodynamics for scientists and engineers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim, Gyeong Hui
2011-02-01
This book deals with thermodynamics for scientists and engineers. It consists of 11 chapters, which are concept and background of thermodynamics, the first law of thermodynamics, the second law of thermodynamics and entropy, mathematics related thermodynamics, properties of thermodynamics on pure material, equilibrium, stability of thermodynamics, the basic of compound, phase equilibrium of compound, excess gibbs energy model of compound and activity coefficient model and chemical equilibrium. It has four appendixes on properties of pure materials and thermal mass.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pablo Araujo Granda
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Modelling cellular metabolism is a strategic factor in investigating microbial behaviour and interactions, especially for bio-technological processes. A key factor for modelling microbial activity is the calculation of nutrient amounts and products generated as a result of the microbial metabolism. Representing metabolic pathways through balanced reactions is a complex and time-consuming task for biologists, ecologists, modellers and engineers. A new computational tool to represent microbial pathways through microbial metabolic reactions (MMRs using the approach of the Thermodynamic Electron Equivalents Model has been designed and implemented in the open-access framework NetLogo. This computational tool, called MbT-Tool (Metabolism based on Thermodynamics can write MMRs for different microbial functional groups, such as aerobic heterotrophs, nitrifiers, denitrifiers, methanogens, sulphate reducers, sulphide oxidizers and fermenters. The MbT-Tool's code contains eighteen organic and twenty inorganic reduction-half-reactions, four N-sources (NH4+, NO3−, NO2−, N2 to biomass synthesis and twenty-four microbial empirical formulas, one of which can be determined by the user (CnHaObNc. MbT-Tool is an open-source program capable of writing MMRs based on thermodynamic concepts, which are applicable in a wide range of academic research interested in designing, optimizing and modelling microbial activity without any extensive chemical, microbiological and programing experience.
Electronic, magnetic, elastic and thermodynamic properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, Sukriti [Department of Physics, Government Kamla Raja Girls Autonomous Post Graduate College, Gwalior 474001, Madhya Pradesh (India); Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, Madhya Pradesh (India); Gupta, Dinesh C., E-mail: sosfizix@gmail.com [Condensed Matter Theory Group, School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior 474 011, Madhya Pradesh (India)
2016-08-01
The full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method in the stable Fm-3m phase has been implemented to investigate the structural, elastic, magnetic and electronic properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. The optimized equilibrium lattice parameter in stable phase is found to be 5.9495 Å. By the spin resolved density of states calculations, we have shown that the exchange splitting due to Mn atom is the main reason of ferromagnetic behavior of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. The absence of energy gap in both the spin channels predicts that the material is metallic. The total and partial density of states, elastic constants, Shear, Bulk and Young’s moduli, Zener isotropy factor, Cauchy pressure, Pugh's ductility, Kleinman parameter and Poisson's ratio are reported for the first time for the alloy. Cauchy's pressure and Pugh's index of ductility label Cu{sub 2}MnGa as ductile. Cu{sub 2}MnGa is found to be ferromagnetic and anisotropic in nature. The quasi-harmonic approximations have been employed to study the pressure and temperature dependent thermodynamic properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. - Highlights: • It is the first attempt to predict a variety of crystal properties of Cu{sub 2}MnGa. • Cu{sub 2}MnGa shows magnetism and hence can prove to be important in modern technology. • Cu{sub 2}MnGa is ductile and hence can attract attention of scientists and technologists.
Reiss, Howard
1997-01-01
Since there is no shortage of excellent general books on elementary thermodynamics, this book takes a different approach, focusing attention on the problem areas of understanding of concept and especially on the overwhelming but usually hidden role of ""constraints"" in thermodynamics, as well as on the lucid exposition of the significance, construction, and use (in the case of arbitrary systems) of the thermodynamic potential. It will be especially useful as an auxiliary text to be used along with any standard treatment.Unlike some texts, Methods of Thermodynamics does not use statistical m
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendi, S.H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.
2017-01-01
Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.H. Hendi
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piekarczyk, W.; Prawer, S.
1992-01-01
Chemically vapour deposited diamond is commonly synthesized from activated hydrogen-rich, carbon/hydrogen gas mixtures under conditions which should, from a thermodynamic equilibrium point of view, favour the production of graphite. Much remains to be understood about why diamond, and not graphite, forms under these conditions. However, it is well known that the presence of atomic hydrogen, is crucial to the success of diamond deposition. As part of an attempt to better understand the deposition process, a thermodynamic analysis of the process was performed on diamond (111) faces in hydrogen rich environments. It is shown that the key role of atomic hydrogen is to inhibit the reconstruction of the (111) face to an sp 2 -bonded structure, which would provide a template for graphite, rather than diamond formation. The model correctly predicts experimentally determined trends in growth rate and diamond film quality as a function of methane concentration in the stating gas mixture. 17 refs., 4 figs
Mathematical foundations of thermodynamics
Giles, R; Stark, M; Ulam, S
2013-01-01
Mathematical Foundations of Thermodynamics details the core concepts of the mathematical principles employed in thermodynamics. The book discusses the topics in a way that physical meanings are assigned to the theoretical terms. The coverage of the text includes the mechanical systems and adiabatic processes; topological considerations; and equilibrium states and potentials. The book also covers Galilean thermodynamics; symmetry in thermodynamics; and special relativistic thermodynamics. The book will be of great interest to practitioners and researchers of disciplines that deal with thermodyn
Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the polymerization of polyurethanes by a rheological method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lucio, Beatriz; Fuente, José Luis de la
2016-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis for the formation of a functional polyurethane (PU) has been carried out. • Rheological parameters were used to obtain the profile of the resin's curing degree. • Kamal-Sourour autocatalytic kinetic model describes well this polyaddition reaction. • A deeper understanding of the mechanism of PU systems has been achieved. • This metallo-PU finds its application in the chemistry of advanced energetic materials. - Abstract: As part of an investigation into the mechanism and chemorheology of linear segmented polyurethane (PU) systems, this paper presents the kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the reaction between an advanced functional metallo-polyol derivative of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), (ferrocenylbutyl)dimethylsilane grafted HTPB, and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). The evolution of viscoelastic properties, such as the storage modulus (G′), was recorded in bulk under isothermal conditions at four different temperatures between 50 and 80 °C, and a resin curing degree profile was obtained for this elastic modulus. The use of the Kamal-Sourour autocatalytic kinetic model was proposed, describing the overall curing process perfectly. All the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, including reaction orders, kinetic constants and activation energy, were determined for the polyaddition reaction under study. A relevant autocatalysis effect, promoted by the urethane group, has been found. The isoconversion method was also used to analyze the variation of the global activation energy with conversion. The global activation energy increases slightly as the curing reaction proceeds with a maximum value reached at approximately 30% conversion. In addition, the Eyring parameters were calculated from the obtained kinetic data.
Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the polymerization of polyurethanes by a rheological method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucio, Beatriz; Fuente, José Luis de la, E-mail: fuentegj@inta.es
2016-02-10
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis for the formation of a functional polyurethane (PU) has been carried out. • Rheological parameters were used to obtain the profile of the resin's curing degree. • Kamal-Sourour autocatalytic kinetic model describes well this polyaddition reaction. • A deeper understanding of the mechanism of PU systems has been achieved. • This metallo-PU finds its application in the chemistry of advanced energetic materials. - Abstract: As part of an investigation into the mechanism and chemorheology of linear segmented polyurethane (PU) systems, this paper presents the kinetic and thermodynamic characterization of the reaction between an advanced functional metallo-polyol derivative of hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), (ferrocenylbutyl)dimethylsilane grafted HTPB, and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). The evolution of viscoelastic properties, such as the storage modulus (G′), was recorded in bulk under isothermal conditions at four different temperatures between 50 and 80 °C, and a resin curing degree profile was obtained for this elastic modulus. The use of the Kamal-Sourour autocatalytic kinetic model was proposed, describing the overall curing process perfectly. All the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, including reaction orders, kinetic constants and activation energy, were determined for the polyaddition reaction under study. A relevant autocatalysis effect, promoted by the urethane group, has been found. The isoconversion method was also used to analyze the variation of the global activation energy with conversion. The global activation energy increases slightly as the curing reaction proceeds with a maximum value reached at approximately 30% conversion. In addition, the Eyring parameters were calculated from the obtained kinetic data.
A study in cosmology and causal thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, H.P. de.
1986-01-01
The especial relativity of thermodynamic theories for reversible and irreversible processes in continuous medium is studied. The formalism referring to equilibrium and non-equilibrium configurations, and theories which includes the presence of gravitational fields are discussed. The nebular model in contraction with dissipative processes identified by heat flux and volumetric viscosity is thermodymically analysed. This model is presented by a plane conformal metric. The temperature, pressure, entropy and entropy production within thermodynamic formalism which adopts the hypothesis of local equilibrium, is calculated. The same analysis is carried out considering a causal thermodynamics, which establishes a local entropy of non-equilibrium. Possible homogeneous and isotropic cosmological models, considering the new phenomenological equation for volumetric viscosity deriving from cause thermodynamics are investigated. The found out models have plane spatial section (K=0) and some ones do not have singularities. The energy conditions are verified and the entropy production for physically reasobable models are calculated. (M.C.K.) [pt
Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes
Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa
2010-01-01
We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…
A New Perspective on Thermodynamics
Lavenda, Bernard H
2010-01-01
Dr. Bernard H. Lavenda has written A New Perspective on Thermodynamics to combine an old look at thermodynamics with a new foundation. The book presents a historical perspective, which unravels the current presentation of thermodynamics found in standard texts, and which emphasizes the fundamental role that Carnot played in the development of thermodynamics. A New Perspective on Thermodynamics will: Chronologically unravel the development of the principles of thermodynamics and how they were conceived by their discoverers Bring the theory of thermodynamics up to the present time and indicate areas of further development with the union of information theory and the theory of means and their inequalities. New areas include nonextensive thermodynamics, the thermodynamics of coding theory, multifractals, and strange attractors. Reintroduce important, yet nearly forgotten, teachings of N.L. Sardi Carnot Highlight conceptual flaws in timely topics such as endoreversible engines, finite-time thermodynamics, geometri...
Candel, Adela M; van Nuland, Nico A J; Martin-Sierra, Francisco M; Martinez, Jose C; Conejero-Lara, Francisco
2008-03-14
A complete understanding of the thermodynamic determinants of binding between SH3 domains and proline-rich peptides is crucial to the development of rational strategies for designing ligands for these important domains. Recently we engineered a single-chain chimeric protein by fusing the alpha-spectrin Src homology region 3 (SH3) domain to the decapeptide APSYSPPPPP (p41). This chimera mimics the structural and energetic features of the interaction between SH3 domains and proline-rich peptides. Here we show that analysing the unfolding thermodynamics of single-point mutants of this chimeric fusion protein constitutes a very useful approach to deciphering the thermodynamics of SH3-ligand interactions. To this end, we investigated the contribution of each proline residue of the ligand sequence to the SH3-peptide interaction by producing six single Pro-Ala mutants of the chimeric protein and analysing their unfolding thermodynamics by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Structural analyses of the mutant chimeras by circular dichroism, fluorescence and NMR together with NMR-relaxation measurements indicate conformational flexibility at the binding interface, which is strongly affected by the different Pro-Ala mutations. An analysis of the DSC thermograms on the basis of a three-state unfolding model has allowed us to distinguish and separate the thermodynamic magnitudes of the interaction at the binding interface. The model assumes equilibrium between the "unbound" and "bound" states at the SH3-peptide binding interface. The resulting thermodynamic magnitudes classify the different proline residues according to their importance in the interaction as P2 approximately P7 approximately P10>P9 approximately P6>P8, which agrees well with Lim's model for the interaction between SH3 domains and proline-rich peptides. In addition, the thermodynamic signature of the interaction is the same as that usually found for this type of binding, with a strong enthalpy
Ab-initio study of thermodynamic properties of boron nanowire at atomic scale
Bhuyan, Prabal D.; Gupta, Sanjeev K.; Sonvane, Y.; Gajjar, P. N.
2018-04-01
In the present work, we have optimized ribbon like zigzag structure of boron (B) nanowire (NW) and investigated vibrational and thermodynamic properties using quasi-harmonic approximations (QHA). All positive phonon in the phonon dispersive curve have confirmed dynamical stability of ribbon B-NW. The thermodynamic properties, like Debye temperature, internal energy and specific heat, are calculated as a function of temperature. The variation of specific heat is proportional to T3 Debye law at lower temperature for B-NW, while it becomes constant above room temperature at 1200K; obeys Dulong-Petit's law. The high Debye temperature of 1120K is observed at ambient temperature, which can be attributed to high thermal conductivity. Our study shows that B-NW with high thermal conductivity could be the next generation electron connector for nanoscale electronic devices.
Neto, A F G; Lopes, F S; Carvalho, E V; Huda, M N; Neto, A M J C; Machado, N T
2015-10-01
This paper presents a theoretical study using density functional theory to calculate thermodynamics properties of major molecules compounds at gas phase of fuels like gasoline, ethanol, and gasoline-ethanol mixture in thermal equilibrium on temperature range up to 1500 K. We simulated a composition of gasoline mixture with ethanol for a thorough study of thermal energy, enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, entropy, heat capacity at constant pressure with respect to temperature in order to study the influence caused by ethanol as an additive to gasoline. We used semi-empirical computational methods as well in order to know the efficiency of other methods to simulate fuels through this methodology. In addition, the ethanol influence through the changes in percentage fractions of chemical energy released in combustion reaction and the variations on thermal properties for autoignition temperatures of fuels was analyzed. We verified how ethanol reduces the chemical energy released by gasoline combustion and how at low temperatures the gas phase fuels in thermal equilibrium have similar thermodynamic behavior. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data, when available, and showed agreement. Graphical Abstract Thermodynamic analysis of fuels in gas phase.
Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation of the Mg-Sr-Zr system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Hua; Chen, Chong; Du, Yong; Central South Univ., Hunan; Gong, Haoran
2016-01-01
Both experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation were performed for the Mg-Sr-Zr system. Four decisive alloys were firstly selected and prepared using a powder metallurgy method to measure the isothermal section at 400 C via a combination of X-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis. No ternary compound has been observed for this ternary system. Four three-phase regions, (Mg) + (αZr) + Mg 17 Sr 2 , Mg 17 Sr 2 + (αZr) + Mg 38 Sr 9 , Mg 38 Sr 9 + (αZr) + Mg 23 Sr 6 , and Mg 23 Sr 6 + (αZr) + Mg 2 Sr, have been identified at 400 C. No appreciable ternary solubility has been detected in the binary Mg-Sr compounds. Phase transition temperatures of the Mg-Sr-Zr alloys were measured by means of differential scanning calorimetry. The thermodynamic calculations match well with the experimental data in the present work, indicating that no ternary thermodynamic parameters are needed for the thermodynamic description of this ternary system. In order to verify the reliability of the current thermodynamic calculations of the Mg-Sr-Zr system, eight as-cast alloys in the Mg-rich corner were also prepared. The calculated liquidus projection is consistent with the observed primary phase regions. The present thermodynamic calculations are reliable and can be used in the development of Mg alloys.
Energetic Constraints on H-2-Dependent Terminal Electron Accepting Processes in Anoxic Environments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heimann, Axel Colin; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Blodau, C.
2010-01-01
and sulfate reduction are under direct thermodynamic control in soils and sediments and generally approach theoretical minimum energy thresholds. If H-2 concentrations are lowered by thermodynamically more potent TEAPs, these processes are inhibited. This principle is also valid for TEAPS providing more free......Microbially mediated terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs) to a large extent control the fate of redox reactive elements and associated reactions in anoxic soils, sediments, and aquifers. This review focuses on thermodynamic controls and regulation of H-2-dependent TEAPs, case studies...... illustrating this concept and the quantitative description of thermodynamic controls in modeling. Other electron transfer processes are considered where appropriate. The work reviewed shows that thermodynamics and microbial kinetics are connected near thermodynamic equilibrium. Free energy thresholds...
Contact symmetries and Hamiltonian thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bravetti, A.; Lopez-Monsalvo, C.S.; Nettel, F.
2015-01-01
It has been shown that contact geometry is the proper framework underlying classical thermodynamics and that thermodynamic fluctuations are captured by an additional metric structure related to Fisher’s Information Matrix. In this work we analyse several unaddressed aspects about the application of contact and metric geometry to thermodynamics. We consider here the Thermodynamic Phase Space and start by investigating the role of gauge transformations and Legendre symmetries for metric contact manifolds and their significance in thermodynamics. Then we present a novel mathematical characterization of first order phase transitions as equilibrium processes on the Thermodynamic Phase Space for which the Legendre symmetry is broken. Moreover, we use contact Hamiltonian dynamics to represent thermodynamic processes in a way that resembles the classical Hamiltonian formulation of conservative mechanics and we show that the relevant Hamiltonian coincides with the irreversible entropy production along thermodynamic processes. Therefore, we use such property to give a geometric definition of thermodynamically admissible fluctuations according to the Second Law of thermodynamics. Finally, we show that the length of a curve describing a thermodynamic process measures its entropy production
Introduction to applied thermodynamics
Helsdon, R M; Walker, G E
1965-01-01
Introduction to Applied Thermodynamics is an introductory text on applied thermodynamics and covers topics ranging from energy and temperature to reversibility and entropy, the first and second laws of thermodynamics, and the properties of ideal gases. Standard air cycles and the thermodynamic properties of pure substances are also discussed, together with gas compressors, combustion, and psychrometry. This volume is comprised of 16 chapters and begins with an overview of the concept of energy as well as the macroscopic and molecular approaches to thermodynamics. The following chapters focus o
Twenty lectures on thermodynamics
Buchdahl, H A
2013-01-01
Twenty Lectures on Thermodynamics is a course of lectures, parts of which the author has given various times over the last few years. The book gives the readers a bird's eye view of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics. The book covers many areas in thermodynamics such as states and transition; adiabatic isolation; irreversibility; the first, second, third and Zeroth laws of thermodynamics; entropy and entropy law; the idea of the application of thermodynamics; pseudo-states; the quantum-static al canonical and grand canonical ensembles; and semi-classical gaseous systems. The text
Applying the Coupled-Cluster Ansatz to Solids and Surfaces in the Thermodynamic Limit
Gruber, Thomas; Liao, Ke; Tsatsoulis, Theodoros; Hummel, Felix; Grüneis, Andreas
2018-04-01
Modern electronic structure theories can predict and simulate a wealth of phenomena in surface science and solid-state physics. In order to allow for a direct comparison with experiment, such ab initio predictions have to be made in the thermodynamic limit, substantially increasing the computational cost of many-electron wave-function theories. Here, we present a method that achieves thermodynamic limit results for solids and surfaces using the "gold standard" coupled cluster ansatz of quantum chemistry with unprecedented efficiency. We study the energy difference between carbon diamond and graphite crystals, adsorption energies of water on h -BN, as well as the cohesive energy of the Ne solid, demonstrating the increased efficiency and accuracy of coupled cluster theory for solids and surfaces.
Quantum Coherence, Time-Translation Symmetry, and Thermodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matteo Lostaglio
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The first law of thermodynamics imposes not just a constraint on the energy content of systems in extreme quantum regimes but also symmetry constraints related to the thermodynamic processing of quantum coherence. We show that this thermodynamic symmetry decomposes any quantum state into mode operators that quantify the coherence present in the state. We then establish general upper and lower bounds for the evolution of quantum coherence under arbitrary thermal operations, valid for any temperature. We identify primitive coherence manipulations and show that the transfer of coherence between energy levels manifests irreversibility not captured by free energy. Moreover, the recently developed thermomajorization relations on block-diagonal quantum states are observed to be special cases of this symmetry analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franco, Alessandro; Casarosa, Claudio
2015-01-01
In the present paper, after a brief review of the perspectives of the various schemes proposed for electricity generation from the regasification of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), a detailed analysis of two particular direct expansion solutions is proposed. The purpose is to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered with the aim of electricity production, using configurations with direct expansion. The analysis developed resorting to a simplified thermodynamic model, shows that using a direct expansion configurations with multistage turbine, values of power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ for each kg of natural gas that flows through the plant) can be obtained. The development of a direct expansion plant with multistage turbine and internal heat recovery systems could permit to approach the production of more than 160 kJ for each kg of flowing liquefied natural gas. Considering values of the mass flow rate typical of LNG gas stations (e.g. 70 kg/s); this corresponds to an output power ranging between 8.3 MW and 11.4 MW. - Highlights: • Recovery of the cold energy contained in Liquefied Natural Gas. • Thermodynamic analysis of systems for electricity generation in regasification. • Direct expansion solutions with multistage expansion. • Comparison of direct expansion solutions with conventional ORC systems. • Power output in conditions typical of existing LNG regasification terminals
Thermodynamic principles governing metabolic operation : inference, analysis, and prediction
Niebel, Bastian
2015-01-01
The principles governing metabolic flux are poorly understood. Because diverse organisms show similar metabolic flux patterns, we hypothesized that fundamental thermodynamic constraints might shape cellular metabolism. We developed a constraint-based model for Saccharomyces cerevisiae that included
Wei, Bo-Bo; Jiang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Ren-Bao
2015-01-01
The holographic principle states that the information about a volume of a system is encoded on the boundary surface of the volume. Holography appears in many branches of physics, such as optics, electromagnetism, many-body physics, quantum gravity, and string theory. Here we show that holography is also an underlying principle in thermodynamics, a most important foundation of physics. The thermodynamics of a system is fully determined by its partition function. We prove that the partition function of a finite but arbitrarily large system is an analytic function on the complex plane of physical parameters, and therefore the partition function in a region on the complex plane is uniquely determined by its values along the boundary. The thermodynamic holography has applications in studying thermodynamics of nano-scale systems (such as molecule engines, nano-generators and macromolecules) and provides a new approach to many-body physics. PMID:26478214
Thermodynamic functions of element 105 in neutral and ionized states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pershina, V.; Fricke, B.; Ionova, G.V.; Johnson, E.
1994-01-01
The basic thermodynamic functions, the entropy, free energy, and enthalpy, for element 105 (hahnium) in electronic configurations d 3 s 2 , d 3 sp, and d 4 s 1 and for its + 5 ionized state (5f 14 ) have been calculated as a function of temperature. The data are based on the results of the calculations of the corresponding electronic states of element 105 using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method. 19 refs., 1 fig., 11 tabs
Advanced classical thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emanuel, G.
1987-01-01
The theoretical and mathematical foundations of thermodynamics are presented in an advanced text intended for graduate engineering students. Chapters are devoted to definitions and postulates, the fundamental equation, equilibrium, the application of Jacobian theory to thermodynamics, the Maxwell equations, stability, the theory of real gases, critical-point theory, and chemical thermodynamics. Diagrams, graphs, tables, and sample problems are provided. 38 references
Thermodynamic analysis of a new Marnoch Heat Engine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saneipoor, P.; Dincer, I.; Naterer, G.F.
2013-01-01
In this paper, recovery of waste heat from an industrial facility with a new Marnoch Heat Engine (MHE) is examined. The MHE can be operated with temperature differentials below 100 K. A flowing liquid transfers heat from the heat source into heat exchangers and then removes heat from cold heat exchangers. Compressed dry air is used as a working medium in the heat engine. In this paper, the mechanical configuration of the heat engine is presented and analyzed. A thermodynamic model is developed to study the performance of the heat engine under various operating conditions. The results show that the exergy efficiency of the MHE reaches up to 17%. The major sources of exergy loss are presented and discussed, in order to optimize the system performance. -- Highlights: ► To develop a thermodynamic model to study the performance of a Marnoch Heat Engine (MHE). ► To investigate the effects of changing operational conditions on the MHE's efficiency. ► To assess the application of the MHE's commercial viability
The thermodynamic-buffer enzymes.
Stucki, J W
1980-08-01
Oxidative phosphorylation operates at optimal efficiency if and only if the condition of conductance matching L33/L11 = square root 1-q2 is fulfilled. In this relation L11 is the phenomenological conductance of phosphorylation, L33 the phenomenological conductance of the load, i.e. the irreversible ATP-utilizing processes in the cell, and q the degree of coupling of oxidative phosphorylation driven by respiration. Since during short time intervals L11 and q are constant whereas L33 fluctuates in the cell, oxidative phosphorylation would only rarely operate at optimal efficiency due to violation of conductance matching. This paper demonstrates that the reversible ATP-utilizing reaction catalyzed by adenylate kinase can effectively compensate deviations from conductance matching in the presence of a fluctuating L33 and hence allows oxidative phosphorylation to operate at optimal efficiency in the cell. Since the adenylate kinase reaction was found to buffer a thermodynamic potential, i.e. the phosphate potential, this finding was generalized to the concept of thermodynamic buffering. The thermodynamic buffering ability of the adenylate kinase reaction was demonstrated by experiments with incubated rat-liver mitochondria. Considerations of changes introduced in the entropy production by the adenylate kinase reaction allowed to establish the theoretical framework for thermodynamic buffering. The ability of thermodynamic buffering to compensate deviations from conductance matching in the presence of fluctuating loads was demonstrated by computer simulations. The possibility of other reversible ATP-utilizing reactions, like the ones catalyzed by creatine kinase and arginine kinase, to contribute to thermodynamic buffering is discussed. Finally, the comparison of the theoretically calculated steady-stae cytosolic adenine nucleotide concentrations with experimental data from perfused livers demonstrated that in livers from fed rats conductance matching is fulfilled on a
Redox Thermodynamics of Cytochromes c Subjected to Urea Induced Unfolding
Monari, S.; Ranieri, A.; Di Rocco, G.; van der Zwan, G.; Peressini, S.; Tavagnacco, C.; Millo, D.; Borsari, M.
2009-01-01
The thermodynamics of the electron transfer (ET) process for beef heart and yeast cytochromes c and the Lys72Ala/Lys73Ala/Lys79Ala mutant of the latter species subjected to progressive urea-induced unfolding was determined electrochemically. The results indicate the presence of at least three
Fluctuating Thermodynamics for Biological Processes
Ham, Sihyun
Because biomolecular processes are largely under thermodynamic control, dynamic extension of thermodynamics is necessary to uncover the mechanisms and driving factors of fluctuating processes. The fluctuating thermodynamics technology presented in this talk offers a practical means for the thermodynamic characterization of conformational dynamics in biomolecules. The use of fluctuating thermodynamics has the potential to provide a comprehensive picture of fluctuating phenomena in diverse biological processes. Through the application of fluctuating thermodynamics, we provide a thermodynamic perspective on the misfolding and aggregation of the various proteins associated with human diseases. In this talk, I will present the detailed concepts and applications of the fluctuating thermodynamics technology for elucidating biological processes. This work was supported by Samsung Science and Technology Foundation under Project Number SSTF-BA1401-13.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heverton Silva Camargos
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy was used to study the main structural accommodations of spin labels in bilayers of saturated phosphatidylcholines with acyl chain lengths ranging from 16 to 22 carbon atoms. EPR spectra allowed the identification of two distinct spectral components in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperatures below and above the main phase transition. An accurate analysis of EPR spectra, using two fitting programs, enabled determination of the thermodynamic profile for these major probe accommodations. Focusing the analysis on two-component EPR spectra of a spin-labeled lipid, the influence of 40 mol % cholesterol in DPPC was studied.
Thermodynamic analysis of a new dual evaporator CO2 transcritical refrigeration cycle
Abdellaoui, Ezzaalouni Yathreb; Kairouani, Lakdar Kairouani
2017-03-01
In this work, a new dual-evaporator CO2 transcritical refrigeration cycle with two ejectors is proposed. In this new system, we proposed to recover the lost energy of condensation coming off the gas cooler and operate the refrigeration cycle ejector free and enhance the system performance and obtain dual-temperature refrigeration simultaneously. The effects of some key parameters on the thermodynamic performance of the modified cycle are theoretically investigated based on energetic and exergetic analysis. The simulation results for the modified cycle indicate more effective system performance improvement than the single ejector in the CO2 vapor compression cycle using ejector as an expander ranging up to 46%. The exergetic analysis for this system is made. The performance characteristics of the proposed cycle show its promise in dual-evaporator refrigeration system.
Thermodynamic analysis of a new dual evaporator CO2 transcritical refrigeration cycle
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdellaoui Ezzaalouni Yathreb
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In this work, a new dual-evaporator CO2 transcritical refrigeration cycle with two ejectors is proposed. In this new system, we proposed to recover the lost energy of condensation coming off the gas cooler and operate the refrigeration cycle ejector free and enhance the system performance and obtain dual-temperature refrigeration simultaneously. The effects of some key parameters on the thermodynamic performance of the modified cycle are theoretically investigated based on energetic and exergetic analysis. The simulation results for the modified cycle indicate more effective system performance improvement than the single ejector in the CO2 vapor compression cycle using ejector as an expander ranging up to 46%. The exergetic analysis for this system is made. The performance characteristics of the proposed cycle show its promise in dual-evaporator refrigeration system.
Electronic Circuit Analysis Language (ECAL)
Chenghang, C.
1983-03-01
The computer aided design technique is an important development in computer applications and it is an important component of computer science. The special language for electronic circuit analysis is the foundation of computer aided design or computer aided circuit analysis (abbreviated as CACD and CACA) of simulated circuits. Electronic circuit analysis language (ECAL) is a comparatively simple and easy to use circuit analysis special language which uses the FORTRAN language to carry out the explanatory executions. It is capable of conducting dc analysis, ac analysis, and transient analysis of a circuit. Futhermore, the results of the dc analysis can be used directly as the initial conditions for the ac and transient analyses.
Iribarne, J V
1973-01-01
The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed (in the first four chapters), they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics of irreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a...
Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation of the Zn–Fe–Ce system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, Longfei; Wu, Changjun [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Wang, Jianhua, E-mail: wangjh@cczu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Liu, Ya; Tu, Hao; Su, Xuping [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, Jiangsu 213164 (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovolatic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, Jiangsu 213164 (China)
2015-11-05
The 450 °C and 600 °C isothermal sections of the Zn–Fe–Ce system were investigated using equilibrated alloys and diffusion couples. The samples were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy equipped with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer analysis and X-ray power diffraction. 15 and 13 three-phase regions were identified to exist at 450 °C and 600 °C, respectively. No ternary compound was found. Ce can not dissolve into all the Zn–Fe binary compounds and the solubilities of Fe in all the Zn–Ce binary phases were limited. All the Zn–Fe compounds can equilibrate with CeZn{sub 11} and all the Ce–Zn compounds (except CeZn) can equilibrate with α-Fe. Furthermore, thermodynamic extrapolation of the Zn–Fe–Ce system was carried out and showed good agreement well with detected phase relationships. - Highlights: • 450 °C and 600 °C sections of the Zn–Fe–Ce system were constructed. • No ternary compound exists. • Ce can not dissolve into all the Zn–Fe compounds. • All the Fe–Zn compounds can equilibrate with CeZn{sub 11}. • Thermodynamic extrapolation results agree with experimental data.
Electron temperature measurement of tungsten inert gas arcs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Manabu; Tashiro, Shinichi
2008-01-01
In order to make clear the physical grounds of deviations from LTE (Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium) in the atmospheric helium TIG arcs electron temperature and LTE temperature obtained from electron number density were measured by using of line-profile analysis of the laser scattering method without an assumption of LTE. The experimental results showed that in comparison with the argon TIG arcs, the region where a deviation from LTE occurs tends to expand in higher arc current because the plasma reaches the similar state to LTE within shorter distance from the cathode due to the slower cathode jet velocity
Thermodynamics of two component gaseous and solid state plasmas at any degeneracy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kraeft, W.D.; Stolzmann, W.; Fromhold-Treu, I.; Rother, T.
1988-10-01
We give the results of thermodynamical calculations for two component plasmas which are of interest for dense hydrogen, noble gas and alkali plasmas and for electron hole plasmas in optically excited semiconductors as well. 25 refs, 4 figs
Upgrading of syngas derived from biomass gasification: A thermodynamic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haryanto, Agus; Fernando, Sandun D.; Pordesimo, Lester O.; Adhikari, Sushil
2009-01-01
Hydrogen yields in the syngas produced from non-catalytic biomass gasification are generally low. The hydrogen fraction, however, can be increased by converting CO, CH 4 , higher hydrocarbons, and tar in a secondary reactor downstream. This paper discusses thermodynamic limits of the synthesis gas upgrading process. The method used in this process is minimization of Gibbs free energy function. The analysis is performed for temperature ranges from 400 to 1300 K, pressure of 1-10 atm (0.1-1 MPa), and different carbon to steam ratios. The study concludes that to get optimum H 2 yields, with negligible CH 4 and coke formation, upgrading syngas is best practiced at a temperature range of 900-1100 K. At these temperatures, H 2 could be possibly increased by 43-124% of its generally observed values at the gasifier exit. The analysis revealed that increasing steam resulted in a positive effect. The study also concluded that increasing pressure from 1 to 3 atm can be applied at a temperature >1000 K to further increase H 2 yields.
Upgrading of syngas derived from biomass gasification: A thermodynamic analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haryanto, Agus [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, 130 Creelman St., Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Agricultural Engineering Department, University of Lampung, Jl. Sumantri Brojonegoro No. 1, Bandar Lampung 35145 (Indonesia); Fernando, Sandun D. [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Texas A and M University, 2117 TAMU College Station, TX 77843-2117 (United States); Pordesimo, Lester O. [Agricultural and Biological Engineering Department, Mississippi State University, 130 Creelman St., Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Adhikari, Sushil [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 215 Tom Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States)
2009-05-15
Hydrogen yields in the syngas produced from non-catalytic biomass gasification are generally low. The hydrogen fraction, however, can be increased by converting CO, CH{sub 4}, higher hydrocarbons, and tar in a secondary reactor downstream. This paper discusses thermodynamic limits of the synthesis gas upgrading process. The method used in this process is minimization of Gibbs free energy function. The analysis is performed for temperature ranges from 400 to 1300 K, pressure of 1-10 atm (0.1-1 MPa), and different carbon to steam ratios. The study concludes that to get optimum H{sub 2} yields, with negligible CH{sub 4} and coke formation, upgrading syngas is best practiced at a temperature range of 900-1100 K. At these temperatures, H{sub 2} could be possibly increased by 43-124% of its generally observed values at the gasifier exit. The analysis revealed that increasing steam resulted in a positive effect. The study also concluded that increasing pressure from 1 to 3 atm can be applied at a temperature >1000 K to further increase H{sub 2} yields. (author)
Thermodynamical Aspects of Modified Holographic Dark Energy Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Hui; Zhang Yi
2014-01-01
We investigate the unified first law and the generalized second law in a modified holographic dark energy model. The thermodynamical analysis on the apparent horizon can work and the corresponding entropy formula is extracted from the systematic algorithm. The entropy correction term depends on the extra-dimension number of the brane as expected, but the interplay between the correction term and the extra dimensions is more complicated. With the unified first law of thermodynamics well-founded, the generalized second law of thermodynamics is discussed and it is found that the second law can be violated in certain circumstances. Particularly, if the number of the extra dimensions is larger than one, the generalized law of thermodynamics is always satisfied; otherwise, the validity of the second law can only be guaranteed with the Hubble radius greatly smaller than the crossover scale r c of the 5-dimensional DGP model. (geophysics, astronomy, and astrophysics)
Haider, Kamran; Cruz, Anthony; Ramsey, Steven; Gilson, Michael K; Kurtzman, Tom
2018-01-09
We have developed SSTMap, a software package for mapping structural and thermodynamic water properties in molecular dynamics trajectories. The package introduces automated analysis and mapping of local measures of frustration and enhancement of water structure. The thermodynamic calculations are based on Inhomogeneous Fluid Solvation Theory (IST), which is implemented using both site-based and grid-based approaches. The package also extends the applicability of solvation analysis calculations to multiple molecular dynamics (MD) simulation programs by using existing cross-platform tools for parsing MD parameter and trajectory files. SSTMap is implemented in Python and contains both command-line tools and a Python module to facilitate flexibility in setting up calculations and for automated generation of large data sets involving analysis of multiple solutes. Output is generated in formats compatible with popular Python data science packages. This tool will be used by the molecular modeling community for computational analysis of water in problems of biophysical interest such as ligand binding and protein function.
Litt, Jonathan S. (Compiler)
2018-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center hosted a Users' Workshop on the Toolbox for the Modeling and Analysis of Thermodynamic Systems (T-MATS) on August 21, 2017. The objective of this workshop was to update the user community on the latest features of T-MATS, and to provide a forum to present work performed using T-MATS. Presentations highlighted creative applications and the development of new features and libraries, and emphasized the flexibility and simulation power of T-MATS.
The energy balance of a plasma in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium
Kroesen, G.M.W.; Schram, D.C.; Timmermans, C.J.; de Haas, J.C.M.
1990-01-01
The energy balance for electrons and heavy particles constituting a plasma in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium is derived. The formulation of the energy balance used allows for evaluation of the source terms without knowledge of the particle and radiation transport situation, since most of
Kaur, Ravneet; Gera, Poonam; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Bhaskar, Thallada
2018-02-01
Castor plant is a fast-growing, perennial shrub from Euphorbiaceae family. More than 50% of the residue is generated from its stems and leaves. The main aim of this work is to study the pyrolytic characteristics, kinetics and thermodynamic properties of castor residue. The TGA experiments were carried out from room temperature to 900 °C under an inert atmosphere at different heating rates of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30 and 40 °C/min. The kinetic analysis was carried using different models namely Kissinger, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) and Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS). The average E ɑ calculated by FWO and KAS methods were 167.10 and 165.86 kJ/mole respectively. Gibbs free energy varied from 150.62-154.33 to 150.59-154.65 kJ/mol for FWO and KAS respectively. The HHV of castor residue was 14.43 MJ/kg, considered as potential feedstock for bio-energy production. Kinetic and thermodynamic results will be useful input for the design of pyrolytic process using castor residue as feedstock. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gravity as a thermodynamic phenomenon
Moustos, Dimitris
2017-01-01
The analogy between the laws of black hole mechanics and the laws of thermodynamics led Bekenstein and Hawking to argue that black holes should be considered as real thermodynamic systems that are characterised by entropy and temperature. Black hole thermodynamics indicates a deeper connection between thermodynamics and gravity. We review and examine in detail the arguments that suggest an interpretation of gravity itself as a thermodynamic theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Jiangjiang; Wu, Jing; Xu, Zilong; Li, Meng
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Propose a fuel cell trigeneration system integrated with solar-assisted methanol reforming. • Optimize the reaction parameters of methanol steam reforming. • Present the energy and exergy analysis under design and off-design work conditions. • Analyze the contributions of solar energy to the trigeneration system. - Abstract: A solar-assisted trigeneration system for producing electricity, cooling, and heating simultaneously is an alternative scheme to improve energy efficiency and boost renewable energy. This paper proposes a phosphoric acid fuel cell trigeneration system integrated with methanol and steam reforming assisted by solar thermal energy. The trigeneration system consists of a solar heat collection subsystem, methanol steam reforming subsystem, fuel cell power generation subsystem, and recovered heat utilization subsystem. Their respective thermodynamic models are constructed to simulate the system input/output characteristics, and energy and exergy efficiencies are employed to evaluate the system thermodynamic performances. The contribution of solar energy to the system is analyzed using solar energy/exergy share. Through the simulation and analysis of methanol and steam reforming reactions, the optimal reaction pressure, temperature, and methanol to water ratio are obtained to improve the flow rate and content of produced hydrogen. The thermodynamic simulations of the trigeneration system show that the system energy efficiencies at the summer and winter design work conditions are 73.7% and 51.7%, while its exergy efficiencies are 18.8% and 26.1%, respectively. When the solar radiation intensity is different from the design work condition, the total energy and exergy efficiencies in winter decrease approximately by 4.7% and 2.2%, respectively, due to the decrease in solar heat collection efficiency. This proposed novel trigeneration system complemented by solar heat energy and methanol chemical energy is favorable for improving the
Luo, Ercang
2012-06-01
This paper analyzes the thermodynamic cycle of oscillating-flow regenerative machines. Unlike the classical analysis of thermodynamic textbooks, the assumptions for pistons' movement limitations are not needed and only ideal flowing and heat transfer should be maintained in our present analysis. Under such simple assumptions, the meso-scale thermodynamic cycles of each gas parcel in typical locations of a regenerator are analyzed. It is observed that the gas parcels in the regenerator undergo Lorentz cycle in different temperature levels, whereas the locus of all gas parcels inside the regenerator is the Ericson-like thermodynamic cycle. Based on this new finding, the author argued that ideal oscillating-flow machines without heat transfer and flowing losses is not the Stirling cycle. However, this new thermodynamic cycle can still achieve the same efficiency of the Carnot heat engine and can be considered a new reversible thermodynamic cycle under two constant-temperature heat sinks.
Thermodynamic and structural characteristics of cement minerals at elevated temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruton, C.J.; Meike, A.; Viani, B.E.; Martin, S.; Phillips, B.L.
1994-05-01
We have instituted an experimental and including program designed to elucidate the structural and thermodynamic response of cement minerals to elevated temperature. Components of the program involve: (a) synthesis of hydrated Ca-silicates; (b) structural analysis of cement phases induced by heating and dehydration/rehydration; (c) mechanistic and thermodynamic descriptions of the hydration/dehydration behavior of hydrated Ca-silicates as a function of temperature, pressure and relative humidity; (d) study of naturally occurring hydrated Ca-silicates; and (e) measurements of thermodynamic data for hydrated Ca-silicates
Thermodynamic modeling of the Mg-Al-Ca system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janz, A.; Groebner, J. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Cao, H.; Zhu, J.; Chang, Y.A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Wisconsin, 1509 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Schmid-Fetzer, R. [Clausthal University of Technology, Institute of Metallurgy, Robert-Koch-Str. 42, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)], E-mail: schmid-fetzer@tu-clausthal.de
2009-02-15
A thermodynamic model has been developed that provides a quantitative description for a wide area of the Mg-Al-Ca system. All available experimental data plus new key experiments using differential scanning calorimetry/differential thermal analysis have been considered to create a dataset which reproduces the primary crystallizing phases, the extensive ternary solubilities of binary phases and the ternary C36 Laves phase. This enables validated thermodynamic calculations in various areas of this ternary system.
Thermodynamic estimation: Ionic materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glasser, Leslie
2013-01-01
Thermodynamics establishes equilibrium relations among thermodynamic parameters (“properties”) and delineates the effects of variation of the thermodynamic functions (typically temperature and pressure) on those parameters. However, classical thermodynamics does not provide values for the necessary thermodynamic properties, which must be established by extra-thermodynamic means such as experiment, theoretical calculation, or empirical estimation. While many values may be found in the numerous collected tables in the literature, these are necessarily incomplete because either the experimental measurements have not been made or the materials may be hypothetical. The current paper presents a number of simple and relible estimation methods for thermodynamic properties, principally for ionic materials. The results may also be used as a check for obvious errors in published values. The estimation methods described are typically based on addition of properties of individual ions, or sums of properties of neutral ion groups (such as “double” salts, in the Simple Salt Approximation), or based upon correlations such as with formula unit volumes (Volume-Based Thermodynamics). - Graphical abstract: Thermodynamic properties of ionic materials may be readily estimated by summation of the properties of individual ions, by summation of the properties of ‘double salts’, and by correlation with formula volume. Such estimates may fill gaps in the literature, and may also be used as checks of published values. This simplicity arises from exploitation of the fact that repulsive energy terms are of short range and very similar across materials, while coulombic interactions provide a very large component of the attractive energy in ionic systems. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Estimation methods for thermodynamic properties of ionic materials are introduced. • Methods are based on summation of single ions, multiple salts, and correlations. • Heat capacity, entropy
Thermodynamic analysis of transcritical CO{sub 2} booster refrigeration systems in supermarket
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ge, Y.T., E-mail: yunting.ge@brunel.ac.u [Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Tassou, S.A. [Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering and Design, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)
2011-04-15
Research highlights: {yields} The CO{sub 2} booster systems are widely applied in supermarket refrigeration. {yields} Control optimisation can improve the performance of the CO{sub 2} refrigeration systems. {yields} The effects of some important parameters on the system performance are examined. {yields} The optimal high-side pressure in the transcritical cycles is established and derived. -- Abstract: Due to less environmental impact, the CO{sub 2} booster refrigeration system has been widely applied in the modern supermarket as a substitute for the conventional R404A multiplex system. However, the performance efficiency of the CO{sub 2} system still requires further improvement in order to save energy; thus, one of the most efficient techniques would be to investigate and employ the optimal controls for refrigerant high side pressures at various operating states. In this paper, the possible parameters affecting system efficiency of the CO{sub 2} system in the transcritical cycle at a higher ambient air temperature are identified through thermodynamic analysis, but cannot be quantified mathematically because of the high non-linearity involved. Instead, sensitive analysis of the system by means of the thermodynamic model is used to examine the effects of parameters including high side refrigerant pressure, ambient air temperature, refrigerant intermediate pressure, and medium and low evaporating temperatures, superheating, effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger, and compressor efficiency on system performance. Consequently, the optimal high side pressure in the transcritical cycle is established and derived as a function of three important parameters consisting of ambient air temperature, the effectiveness of suction line heat exchanger and compressor efficiency. In addition, optimal operating parameters such as the intermediate pressure are also proposed to improve the system performance.
Thermodynamics analysis of the rare earth metals and their alloys with indium in solid state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vassiliev, V.P.; Benaissa, Ablazeze; Taldrik, A.F.
2013-01-01
Graphical abstract: Gibbs energies of formation vs. RE atomic numbers in REIn 3 . Highlights: •Set of experimental values was collected for REIn 3 phases. •Thermodynamic functions of formation were calculated at 298 K and 775 K. •Experimental and calculated values were compared. -- Abstract: Nonlinear correlative analyses between thermodynamic and some physico-chemical properties of rare-earth metals (RE) and their alloys with indium are performed for the isostructural phases RE and REIn 3 . The thermodynamics values (Gibbs energies of formation, enthalpies of formation, and entropies of formation at 298 K and 775 K and standard entropies) of LnIn 3 phases are calculated on the basis of calorimetry and potentiometry results. The proposed correlation between physico-chemical and thermodynamic properties agrees for all the isostructural phases REX (X are others elements of the periodic table). The resulting thermodynamic data are recommended for metallurgical handbook
Hidayat, Taufiq; Shishin, Denis; Decterov, Sergei A.; Hayes, Peter C.; Jak, Evgueni
2017-01-01
Uncertainty in the metal price and competition between producers mean that the daily operation of a smelter needs to target high recovery of valuable elements at low operating cost. Options for the improvement of the plant operation can be examined and decision making can be informed based on accurate information from laboratory experimentation coupled with predictions using advanced thermodynamic models. Integrated high-temperature experimental and thermodynamic modelling research on phase equilibria and thermodynamics of copper-containing systems have been undertaken at the Pyrometallurgy Innovation Centre (PYROSEARCH). The experimental phase equilibria studies involve high-temperature equilibration, rapid quenching and direct measurement of phase compositions using electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPMA). The thermodynamic modelling deals with the development of accurate thermodynamic database built through critical evaluation of experimental data, selection of solution models, and optimization of models parameters. The database covers the Al-Ca-Cu-Fe-Mg-O-S-Si chemical system. The gas, slag, matte, liquid and solid metal phases, spinel solid solution as well as numerous solid oxide and sulphide phases are included. The database works within the FactSage software environment. Examples of phase equilibria data and thermodynamic models of selected systems, as well as possible implementation of the research outcomes to selected copper making processes are presented.
Biesheuvel, P.M.; Geerlings, J.J.C.
2008-01-01
We present results of a thermodynamic analysis of direct internal reforming fuel cells, based on either a proton conducting fuel cell (FC-H+) or an oxygen ion conducting fuel cell (FC-O2-). We analyze the option of methane as fuel as well as butane. The model self-consistently combines all chemical
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maziar Heidari
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The spatial block analysis (SBA method has been introduced to efficiently extrapolate thermodynamic quantities from finite-size computer simulations of a large variety of physical systems. In the particular case of simple liquids and liquid mixtures, by subdividing the simulation box into blocks of increasing size and calculating volume-dependent fluctuations of the number of particles, it is possible to extrapolate the bulk isothermal compressibility and Kirkwood–Buff integrals in the thermodynamic limit. Only by explicitly including finite-size effects, ubiquitous in computer simulations, into the SBA method, the extrapolation to the thermodynamic limit can be achieved. In this review, we discuss two of these finite-size effects in the context of the SBA method due to (i the statistical ensemble and (ii the finite integration domains used in computer simulations. To illustrate the method, we consider prototypical liquids and liquid mixtures described by truncated and shifted Lennard–Jones (TSLJ potentials. Furthermore, we show some of the most recent developments of the SBA method, in particular its use to calculate chemical potentials of liquids in a wide range of density/concentration conditions.
Thermodynamic Analysis of a Supercritical Mercury Power Cycle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roberts, Jr, A S
1969-04-15
An heat engine is considered which employs supercritical mercury as the working fluid and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator for thermal to electrical energy conversion. The main thrust of the paper is power cycle thermodynamics, where constraints are imposed by utilizing a MHD generator operating between supercritical, electrically conducting states of the working fluid; and, pump work is accomplished with liquid mercury. The temperature range is approximately 300 to 2200 K and system pressure is > 1,500 atm. Equilibrium and transport properties are carefully considered since these are known to vary radically in the vicinity of the critical point, which is found near the supercritical states of interest. A maximum gross plant efficiency is 20% with a regenerator effectiveness of 90% and greater, a cycle pressure ratio of two, and with highly efficient pump and generator. Certain specified cycle irreversibilities and others such as heat losses and heat exchanger pressure drops, which are not accounted for explicitly, reduce the gross plant efficiency to a few per cent. Experimental efforts aimed at practical application of the power cycle are discouraged by the marginal thermodynamic performance predicted by this study, unless such applications are insensitive to gross cycle efficiency.
Thermodynamic Analysis of a Supercritical Mercury Power Cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberts, A.S. Jr.
1969-04-01
An heat engine is considered which employs supercritical mercury as the working fluid and a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator for thermal to electrical energy conversion. The main thrust of the paper is power cycle thermodynamics, where constraints are imposed by utilizing a MHD generator operating between supercritical, electrically conducting states of the working fluid; and, pump work is accomplished with liquid mercury. The temperature range is approximately 300 to 2200 K and system pressure is > 1,500 atm. Equilibrium and transport properties are carefully considered since these are known to vary radically in the vicinity of the critical point, which is found near the supercritical states of interest. A maximum gross plant efficiency is 20% with a regenerator effectiveness of 90% and greater, a cycle pressure ratio of two, and with highly efficient pump and generator. Certain specified cycle irreversibilities and others such as heat losses and heat exchanger pressure drops, which are not accounted for explicitly, reduce the gross plant efficiency to a few per cent. Experimental efforts aimed at practical application of the power cycle are discouraged by the marginal thermodynamic performance predicted by this study, unless such applications are insensitive to gross cycle efficiency
A Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldiotti, M.C., E-mail: baldiotti@uel.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86051-990, Londrina-PR (Brazil); Fresneda, R., E-mail: rodrigo.fresneda@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC, Av. dos Estados 5001, 09210-580, Santo André-SP (Brazil); Molina, C., E-mail: cmolina@usp.br [Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Arlindo Bettio 1000, CEP 03828-000, São Paulo-SP (Brazil)
2016-10-15
In the present work we develop a strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics. A thermodynamic description based on symplectic geometry is introduced, where all thermodynamic processes can be described within the framework of Analytic Mechanics. Our proposal is constructed on top of a usual symplectic manifold, where phase space is even dimensional and one has well-defined Poisson brackets. The main idea is the introduction of an extended phase space where thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. We are then able to apply the canonical transformation toolkit to thermodynamic problems. Throughout this development, Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. To illustrate the formalism, we consider paradigmatic examples, namely, the ideal, van der Waals and Clausius gases. - Highlights: • A strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics is proposed. • Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. • Thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. • Thermodynamic potentials are related by canonical transformations.
A Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baldiotti, M.C.; Fresneda, R.; Molina, C.
2016-01-01
In the present work we develop a strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics. A thermodynamic description based on symplectic geometry is introduced, where all thermodynamic processes can be described within the framework of Analytic Mechanics. Our proposal is constructed on top of a usual symplectic manifold, where phase space is even dimensional and one has well-defined Poisson brackets. The main idea is the introduction of an extended phase space where thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. We are then able to apply the canonical transformation toolkit to thermodynamic problems. Throughout this development, Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. To illustrate the formalism, we consider paradigmatic examples, namely, the ideal, van der Waals and Clausius gases. - Highlights: • A strictly Hamiltonian approach to Thermodynamics is proposed. • Dirac’s theory of constrained systems is extensively used. • Thermodynamic equations of state are realized as constraints. • Thermodynamic potentials are related by canonical transformations.
Yourgrau, Wolfgang; Raw, Gough
2002-01-01
Extensively revised edition of a much-respected work examines thermodynamics of irreversible processes, general principles of statistical thermodynamics, assemblies of noninteracting structureless particles, and statistical theory. 1966 edition.
Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of ultra-high pressure and heat ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Agriculture/Synergetic Innovation Center of Food Safety and Nutrition, Nanjing ... Purpose: To undertake comparative kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the interaction of bovine ..... efficacy evaluation of anti-cancer drugs in apoptosis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hyldgaard, P
2012-01-01
The standard formulation of tunneling transport rests on an open-boundary modeling. There, conserving approximations to nonequilibrium Green function or quantum statistical mechanics provide consistent but computational costly approaches; alternatively, the use of density-dependent ballistic-transport calculations (e.g., Lang 1995 Phys. Rev. B 52 5335), here denoted ‘DBT’, provides computationally efficient (approximate) atomistic characterizations of the electron behavior but has until now lacked a formal justification. This paper presents an exact, variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory for fully interacting tunneling and provides a rigorous foundation for frozen-nuclei DBT calculations as a lowest-order approximation to an exact nonequilibrium thermodynamic density functional evaluation. The theory starts from the complete electron nonequilibrium quantum statistical mechanics and I identify the operator for the nonequilibrium Gibbs free energy which, generally, must be treated as an implicit solution of the fully interacting many-body dynamics. I demonstrate a minimal property of a functional for the nonequilibrium thermodynamic grand potential which thus uniquely identifies the solution as the exact nonequilibrium density matrix. I also show that the uniqueness-of-density proof from a closely related Lippmann-Schwinger collision density functional theory (Hyldgaard 2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 165109) makes it possible to express the variational nonequilibrium thermodynamic description as a single-particle formulation based on universal electron-density functionals; the full nonequilibrium single-particle formulation improves the DBT method, for example, by a more refined account of Gibbs free energy effects. I illustrate a formal evaluation of the zero-temperature thermodynamic grand potential value which I find is closely related to the variation in the scattering phase shifts and hence to Friedel density oscillations. This paper also discusses the
Chemical Thermodynamics Vol. 12 - Chemical Thermodynamics of tin
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gamsjaeger, Heinz; GAJDA, Tamas; Sangster, James; Saxena, Surendra K.; Voigt, Wolfgang; Perrone, Jane
2012-01-01
This is the 12th volume of a series of expert reviews of the chemical thermodynamics of key chemical elements in nuclear technology and waste management. This volume is devoted to the inorganic species and compounds of tin. The tables contained in Chapters III and IV list the currently selected thermodynamic values within the NEA TDB Project. The database system developed at the NEA Data Bank, see Section II.6, assures consistency among all the selected and auxiliary data sets. The recommended thermodynamic data are the result of a critical assessment of published information. The values in the auxiliary data set, see Tables IV-1 and IV-2, have been adopted from CODATA key values or have been critically reviewed in this or earlier volumes of the series
Communication: Thermodynamic analysis of critical conditions of polymer adsorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cimino, R.; Neimark, A. V.; Rasmussen, C. J.
2013-01-01
Polymer adsorption to solid surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon, which has attracted long-lasting attention. Dependent on the competition between the polymer-solid adsorption and polymer-solvent solvation interactions, a chain may assume either 3d solvated conformation when adsorption is weak or 2d adsorbed conformation when adsorption is strong. The transition between these conformations occurring upon variation of adsorption strength is quite sharp, and in the limit of “infinite” chain length, can be treated as a critical phenomenon. We suggest a novel thermodynamic definition of the critical conditions of polymer adsorption from the equality of incremental chemical potentials of adsorbed and free chains. We show with the example of freely jointed Lennard-Jones chains tethered to an adsorbing surface that this new definition provides a link between thermodynamic and geometrical features of adsorbed chains and is in line with classical scaling relationships for the fraction of adsorbed monomers, chain radii of gyration, and free energy
Communication: Thermodynamic analysis of critical conditions of polymer adsorption
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cimino, R.; Neimark, A. V., E-mail: aneimark@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854 (United States); Rasmussen, C. J. [DuPont Central Research and Development, Corporate Center for Analytical Sciences, Macromolecular Characterization, Route 141 and Henry Clay, Wilmington, Delaware 19803 (United States)
2013-11-28
Polymer adsorption to solid surfaces is a ubiquitous phenomenon, which has attracted long-lasting attention. Dependent on the competition between the polymer-solid adsorption and polymer-solvent solvation interactions, a chain may assume either 3d solvated conformation when adsorption is weak or 2d adsorbed conformation when adsorption is strong. The transition between these conformations occurring upon variation of adsorption strength is quite sharp, and in the limit of “infinite” chain length, can be treated as a critical phenomenon. We suggest a novel thermodynamic definition of the critical conditions of polymer adsorption from the equality of incremental chemical potentials of adsorbed and free chains. We show with the example of freely jointed Lennard-Jones chains tethered to an adsorbing surface that this new definition provides a link between thermodynamic and geometrical features of adsorbed chains and is in line with classical scaling relationships for the fraction of adsorbed monomers, chain radii of gyration, and free energy.
Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculations of the Bi–In–Ni phase diagram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Premović, Milena; Minić, Duško; Manasijević, Dragan; Ćosović, Vladan; Živković, Dragana; Dervišević, Irma
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Calculated constitutive binary system based on literature data. • Experimentally determined (DTA) temperatures of phase transformations compared with analytical calculation. • Definition of several vertical sections. • Calculated horizontal section, confirmed by experimental SEM–EDS and XRD method. • Calculated liquidus surface projection and determined invariant reaction occurred in ternary Bi–In–Ni system. - Abstract: Phase diagram of the Bi–In–Ni ternary system was investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. Experimentally obtained results were compared with the results of thermodynamic calculation of phase equilibria based on calculation of phase diagram (CALPHAD) method and literature data. Phase transition temperatures of alloys with overall compositions along three selected vertical sections In–Bi 0.8 Ni 0.2 , x(Bi) = 0.6 and Bi–In 0.5 Ni 0.5 were measured by DTA. Liquidus temperatures were experimentally determined and compared with the results of thermodynamic calculation. Identification of coexisting phases in samples equilibrated at 100 °C, 300 °C and 350 °C was carried out using SEM–EDS and XRD methods. The obtained results were compared with the calculated isothermal sections of the Bi–In–Ni ternary system at corresponding temperatures. Calculated liquidus projection and invariant equilibria of the Bi–In–Ni ternary system were presented
Applied chemical engineering thermodynamics
Tassios, Dimitrios P
1993-01-01
Applied Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics provides the undergraduate and graduate student of chemical engineering with the basic knowledge, the methodology and the references he needs to apply it in industrial practice. Thus, in addition to the classical topics of the laws of thermodynamics,pure component and mixture thermodynamic properties as well as phase and chemical equilibria the reader will find: - history of thermodynamics - energy conservation - internmolecular forces and molecular thermodynamics - cubic equations of state - statistical mechanics. A great number of calculated problems with solutions and an appendix with numerous tables of numbers of practical importance are extremely helpful for applied calculations. The computer programs on the included disk help the student to become familiar with the typical methods used in industry for volumetric and vapor-liquid equilibria calculations.
Entransy loss in thermodynamic processes and its application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, Xuetao; Liang, Xingang
2012-01-01
The entransy theory has been developed for heat transfer optimization. This paper extends it to optimize thermodynamic processes. The entransy balance equation of thermodynamic processes is introduced, with which the concept of entransy loss is developed. For the Carnot cycle and the irreversible thermodynamic processes where the working fluid is heated by the streams with prescribed inlet temperatures and specific capacity flow rates, we find that the maximum entransy loss leads to the maximum output work, which is the maximum principle of entransy loss in thermodynamic processes. However, the entropy generation cannot describe the change of the output work for the Carnot cycle. Therefore, the concept of entransy loss could describe the performance of thermodynamic processes. Then, the principle is used to optimize the thermodynamic processes of heat exchanger groups and the design of the irreversible Brayton cycle. For these problems, the operation parameters are optimized to get the maximum output work by calculating the maximum entransy loss when the entransy loss induced by dumping the used streams into the environment is considered. The analysis of the air conditioning system for room heating with heat–work conversion processes demonstrates the entransy loss has a direct relation with the input heat. -- Highlights: ► The entransy balance equation of thermodynamic processes is introduced. ► The concept of entransy loss is developed. ► The maximum entransy loss corresponds to the maximum output work. ► Examples show that entransy loss can be used to optimize heat–work conversion.
Thermodynamics of gravitationally induced particle creation scenario in DGP braneworld
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Rafique, Salman [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)
2018-01-15
In this paper, we discuss the thermodynamical analysis for gravitationally induced particle creation scenario in the framework of DGP braneworld model. For this purpose, we consider apparent horizon as the boundary of the universe. We take three types of entropy such as Bakenstein entropy, logarithmic corrected entropy and power law corrected entropy with ordinary creation rate Γ. We analyze the first law and generalized second law of thermodynamics analytically for these entropies which hold under some constraints. The behavior of total entropy in each case is also discussed which implies the validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics. Also, we check the thermodynamical equilibrium condition for two phases of creation rate, that is constant and variable Γ and found its vitality in all cases of entropy. (orig.)
Thermodynamics of gravitationally induced particle creation scenario in DGP braneworld
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Rafique, Salman
2018-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the thermodynamical analysis for gravitationally induced particle creation scenario in the framework of DGP braneworld model. For this purpose, we consider apparent horizon as the boundary of the universe. We take three types of entropy such as Bakenstein entropy, logarithmic corrected entropy and power law corrected entropy with ordinary creation rate Γ. We analyze the first law and generalized second law of thermodynamics analytically for these entropies which hold under some constraints. The behavior of total entropy in each case is also discussed which implies the validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics. Also, we check the thermodynamical equilibrium condition for two phases of creation rate, that is constant and variable Γ and found its vitality in all cases of entropy. (orig.)
Thermodynamic basis for effective energy utilization
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rogers, J. T.
1977-10-15
A major difficulty in a quantitative assessment of effective energy utilization is that energy is always conserved (the First Law of Thermodynamics). However, the Second Law of Thermodynamics shows that, although energy cannot be destroyed, it can be degraded to a state in which it is of no further use for performing tasks. Thus, in considering the present world energy crisis, we are not really concerned with the conservation of energy but with the conservation of its ability to perform useful tasks. A measure of this ability is thermodynamic availability or, a less familiar term, exergy. In a real sense, we are concerned with an entropy-crisis, rather than an energy crisis. Analysis of energy processes on an exergy basis provides significantly different insights into the processes than those obtained from a conventional energy analysis. For example, process steam generation in an industrial boiler may appear quite efficient on the basis of a conventional analysis, but is shown to have very low effective use of energy when analyzed on an exergy basis. Applications of exergy analysis to other systems, such as large fossil and nuclear power stations, are discussed, and the benefits of extraction combined-purpose plants are demonstrated. Other examples of the application of the exergy concept in the industrial and residential energy sectors are also given. The concept is readily adaptable to economic optimization. Examples are given of economic optimization on an availability basis of an industrial heat exchanger and of a combined-purpose nuclear power and heavy-water production plant. Finally, the utility of the concept of exergy in assessing the energy requirements of an industrial society is discussed.
Thermodynamic analysis on optimum performance of scramjet engine at high Mach numbers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Duo; Yang, Shengbo; Zhang, Silong; Qin, Jiang; Bao, Wen
2015-01-01
In order to predict the maximum performance of scramjet engine at flight conditions with high freestream Mach numbers, a thermodynamic model of Brayton cycle was utilized to analyze the effects of inlet pressure ratio, fuel equivalence ratio and the upper limit of gas temperature to the specific thrust and the fuel impulse of the scramjet considering the characteristics of non-isentropic compression in the inlet. The results show that both the inlet efficiency and the temperature limit in the combustor have remarkable effects on the overall engine performances. Different with the ideal Brayton cycles assuming isentropic compression without upper limit of gas temperature, both the maximum specific thrust and the maximum fuel impulse of a scramjet present non-monotonic trends against the fuel equivalence ratio in this study. Considering the empirical design efficiencies of inlet, there is a wide range of fuel equivalence ratios in which the fuel impulses remain at high values. Moreover, the maximum specific thrust can also be achieved with a fuel equivalence ratio near this range. Therefore, it is possible to achieve an overall high performance in a scramjet at high Mach numbers. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic analysis with Brayton cycle on overall performances of scramjet. • The compression loss in the inlet was considered in predicting scram-mode operation. • Non-monotonic trends of engine performances against fuel equivalence ratio.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKinley, James P.; Istok, Jonathan
2005-01-01
Previously published research from in situ field experiments at the NABIR Field Research Center have shown that cooperative metabolism of denitrifiers and Fe(III)/sulfate reducers is essential for creating subsurface conditions favorable for U(VI) and Tc(VII) bioreduction (Istok et al., 2004). The overall goal of this project is to develop and test a thermodynamic network model for predicting the effects of substrate additions and environmental perturbations on the composition and functional stability of subsurface microbial communities. The overall scientific hypothesis is that a thermodynamic analysis of the energy-yielding reactions performed by broadly defined groups of microorganisms can be used to make quantitative and testable predictions of the change in microbial community composition that will occur when a substrate is added to the subsurface or when environmental conditions change. An interactive computer program was developed to calculate the overall growth equation and free energy yield for microorganisms that grow by coupling selected combinations of electron acceptor and electron donor half-reactions. Each group performs a specific function (e.g. oxidation of acetate coupled to reduction of nitrate); collectively the groups provide a theoretical description of the entire natural microbial community. The microbial growth data are combined with an existing thermodynamic data base for associated geochemical reactions and used to simulate the coupled microbial-geochemical response of a complex natural system to substrate addition or any other environmental perturbations
Thermodynamics of nuclear materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rand, M.H.
1975-01-01
A report is presented of the Fourth International Symposium on Thermodynamics of Nuclear Materials held in Vienna, 21-25 October 1974. The technological theme of the Symposium was the application of thermodynamics to the understanding of the chemistry of irradiated nuclear fuels and to safety assessments for hypothetical accident conditions in reactors. The first four sessions were devoted to these topics and they were followed by four more sessions on the more basic thermodynamics, phase diagrams and the thermodynamic properties of a wide range of nuclear materials. Sixty-seven papers were presented
Thermodynamic Properties and Thermodynamic Geometries of Black p-Branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yi-Huan Wei; Xiao Cui; Jia-Xin Zhao
2016-01-01
The heat capacity and the electric capacitance of the black p-branes (BPB) are generally defined, then they are calculated for some special processes. It is found that the Ruppeiner thermodynamic geometry of BPB is flat. Finally, we give some discussions for the flatness of the Ruppeiner thermodynamic geometry of BPB and some black holes. (paper)
Olander, Donald
2007-01-01
The book’s methodology is unified, concise, and multidisciplinary, allowing students to understand how the principles of thermodynamics apply to all technical fields that touch upon this most fundamental of scientific theories. It also offers a rigorous approach to the quantitative aspects of thermodynamics, accompanied by clear explanations to help students transition smoothly from the physical concepts to their mathematical representations
Thermodynamic model for growth mechanisms of multiwall carbon nanotubes
Kaatz, F. H.; Siegal, M. P.; Overmyer, D. L.; Provencio, P. P.; Tallant, D. R.
2006-12-01
Multiwall carbon nanotubes are grown via thermal chemical vapor deposition between temperatures of 630 and 830°C using acetylene in nitrogen as the carbon source. This process is modeled using classical thermodynamics to explain the total carbon deposition as a function of time and temperature. An activation energy of 1.60eV is inferred for nanotube growth after considering the carbon solubility term. Scanning electron microscopy shows growth with diameters increasing linearly with time. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show multiwall nanotubes surrounded by a glassy-carbon sheath, which grows with increasing wall thickness as growth temperatures and times rise.
Non-equilibrium thermodynamics
De Groot, Sybren Ruurds
1984-01-01
The study of thermodynamics is especially timely today, as its concepts are being applied to problems in biology, biochemistry, electrochemistry, and engineering. This book treats irreversible processes and phenomena - non-equilibrium thermodynamics.S. R. de Groot and P. Mazur, Professors of Theoretical Physics, present a comprehensive and insightful survey of the foundations of the field, providing the only complete discussion of the fluctuating linear theory of irreversible thermodynamics. The application covers a wide range of topics: the theory of diffusion and heat conduction, fluid dyn
Advanced thermodynamics engineering
Annamalai, Kalyan; Jog, Milind A
2011-01-01
Thermolab Excel-Based Software for Thermodynamic Properties and Flame Temperatures of Fuels IntroductionImportance, Significance and LimitationsReview of ThermodynamicsMathematical BackgroundOverview of Microscopic/NanothermodynamicsSummaryAppendix: Stokes and Gauss Theorems First Law of ThermodynamicsZeroth LawFirst Law for a Closed SystemQuasi Equilibrium (QE) and Nonquasi-equilibrium (NQE) ProcessesEnthalpy and First LawAdiabatic Reversible Process for Ideal Gas with Constant Specific HeatsFirst Law for an Open SystemApplications of First Law for an Open SystemIntegral and Differential Form
Modern engineering thermodynamics
Balmer, Robert T
2010-01-01
Designed for use in a standard two-semester engineering thermodynamics course sequence. The first half of the text contains material suitable for a basic Thermodynamics course taken by engineers from all majors. The second half of the text is suitable for an Applied Thermodynamics course in mechanical engineering programs. The text has numerous features that are unique among engineering textbooks, including historical vignettes, critical thinking boxes, and case studies. All are designed to bring real engineering applications into a subject that can be somewhat abstract and mathematica
Thermodynamic analysis on an anisotropically superhydrophobic surface with a hierarchical structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Jieliang [Division of Intelligent and Biomechanical Systems, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Room 3407, Building 9003, 100084 Beijing (China); Su, Zhengliang [Division of Intelligent and Biomechanical Systems, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Room 3407, Building 9003, 100084 Beijing (China); Department of Automotive Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yan, Shaoze, E-mail: yansz@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Division of Intelligent and Biomechanical Systems, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Room 3407, Building 9003, 100084 Beijing (China)
2015-12-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We model the superhydrophobic surface with anisotropic and hierarchical structure. • Anisotropic wetting only shows in noncomposite state (not in composite state). • Transition from noncomposite to composite state on dual-scale structure is hard. • Droplets tend to roll in the particular direction. • Droplets tend to stably remain in one preferred thermodynamic state. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces, which refer to the surfaces with contact angle higher than 150° and hysteresis less than 10°, have been reported in various studies. However, studies on the superhydrophobicity of anisotropic, hierarchical surfaces are limited and the corresponding thermodynamic mechanisms could not be explained thoroughly. Here we propose a simplified surface model of anisotropic patterned surface with dual scale roughness. Based on the thermodynamic method, we calculate the equilibrium contact angle (ECA) and the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) on the given surface. We show here that the hierarchical structure has much better anisotropic wetting properties than the single-scale one, and the results shed light on the potential application in controllable micro-/nano-fluidic systems. Our studies can be potentially applied for the fabrication of anisotropically superhydrophobic surfaces.
Thermodynamic analysis on an anisotropically superhydrophobic surface with a hierarchical structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Jieliang; Su, Zhengliang; Yan, Shaoze
2015-01-01
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We model the superhydrophobic surface with anisotropic and hierarchical structure. • Anisotropic wetting only shows in noncomposite state (not in composite state). • Transition from noncomposite to composite state on dual-scale structure is hard. • Droplets tend to roll in the particular direction. • Droplets tend to stably remain in one preferred thermodynamic state. - Abstract: Superhydrophobic surfaces, which refer to the surfaces with contact angle higher than 150° and hysteresis less than 10°, have been reported in various studies. However, studies on the superhydrophobicity of anisotropic, hierarchical surfaces are limited and the corresponding thermodynamic mechanisms could not be explained thoroughly. Here we propose a simplified surface model of anisotropic patterned surface with dual scale roughness. Based on the thermodynamic method, we calculate the equilibrium contact angle (ECA) and the contact angle hysteresis (CAH) on the given surface. We show here that the hierarchical structure has much better anisotropic wetting properties than the single-scale one, and the results shed light on the potential application in controllable micro-/nano-fluidic systems. Our studies can be potentially applied for the fabrication of anisotropically superhydrophobic surfaces.
Comparative analysis of the terms "electronic commerce" and "electronic business"
Kavaliauskienė, Virginija; Šarapovas, Tadas
2002-01-01
Establishing the terms that clearly and consistently describe growing and dynamic networked economy is a critical first step toward further analysis and evaluation of electronic commerce and electronic business processes. Electronic commerce is making an impact on the ways that purchasing activities are being conducted. Much of the early literature on this subject was very speculative. However, the growth of e-commerce has enabled more observations to be made of the use of electronic business...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magda Waldemar
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with mathematical modelling of a seabed layer in the thermodynamic analysis of a submarine pipeline buried in seabed sediments. The existing seabed soil models: a “soil ring” and a semi-infinite soil layer are discussed in a comparative analysis of the shape factor of a surrounding soil layer. The meaning of differences in the heat transfer coefficient of a soil layer is illustrated based on a computational example of the longitudinal temperaturę profile of a -kilometer long crude oil pipeline buried in seabed sediments.
Experimental investigation and thermodynamic calculation of the Fe-Mg-Mn and Fe-Mg-Ni systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Peisheng; Zhao, Jingrui; Xu, Honghui; Liu, Shuhong; Ouyang, Hongwu [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). State Key Lab. of Powder Metallurgy; Du, Yong [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). State Key Lab. of Powder Metallurgy; Harbin Institute of Technology (China). State Key Lab. of Advanced Welding Production Technology; Gang, Tie; Fen, Jicai [Harbin Institute of Technology (China). State Key Lab. of Advanced Welding Production Technology; Zhang, Lijun [Central South Univ., Hunan (China). State Key Lab. of Powder Metallurgy; Bochum Univ. (Germany). ICAMS Inst.; He, Cuiyun [Guangxi Univ. (China). College of Physical Science and Technology
2011-01-15
Based on the thermodynamic calculations extrapolated from the corresponding binary sub-systems, four decisive alloys in the Fe-Mg-Mn system and three in the Fe-Mg-Ni system were selected and prepared using a powder metallurgy method to measure the isothermal sections at 500 C in both systems. The prepared samples were annealed at 500 C, and then subjected to X-ray diffraction, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry as well as electron probe microanalysis. Taking into account the presently obtained experimental data and the experimental data available in the literature, thermodynamic modeling was performed for the above systems. It was found that a direct extrapolation from the corresponding three binary systems can well reproduce all the experimental data in the Fe-Mg-Mn system, while two thermodynamic parameters are needed in the Fe-Mg-Ni system to fit all the experimental data. The liquidus projections and reaction schemes for the Fe-Mg-Mn and Fe-Mg-Ni systems are also presented. (orig.)
Small Systems and Limitations on the Use of Chemical Thermodynamics
Tovbin, Yu. K.
2018-01-01
Limitations on using chemical thermodynamics to describe small systems are formulated. These limitations follow from statistical mechanics for equilibrium and nonequilibrium processes and reflect (1) differences between characteristic relaxation times in momentum, energy, and mass transfer in different aggregate states of investigated systems; (2) achievements of statistical mechanics that allow us to determine criteria for the size of smallest region in which thermodynamics can be applied and the scale of the emergence of a new phase, along with criteria for the conditions of violating a local equilibrium. Based on this analysis, the main thermodynamic results are clarified: the phase rule for distorted interfaces, the sense and area of applicability of Gibbs's concept of passive forces, and the artificiality of Kelvin's equation as a result of limitations on the thermodynamic approach to considering small bodies. The wrongness of introducing molecular parameters into thermodynamic derivations, and the activity coefficient for an activated complex into the expression for a reaction rate constant, is demonstrated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gomez Palacio, German Rau
1998-01-01
Ecology is no more a descriptive and self-sufficient science. Many viewpoints are needed simultaneously to give a full coverage of such complex systems: ecosystems. These viewpoints come from physics, chemistry, and nuclear physics, without a new far from equilibrium thermodynamics and without new mathematical tools such as catastrophe theory, fractal theory, cybernetics and network theory, the development of ecosystem science would never have reached the point of today. Some ideas are presented about the importance that concept such as energy, entropy, exergy information and none equilibrium have in the analysis of processes taking place in ecosystems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boudia Keltouma
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of ternary cubic filled skutterudite compound were calculated. We have computed the elastic modulus and its pressure dependence. From the elastic parameter behavior, it is inferred that this compound is elastically stable and ductile in nature. Through the quasi-harmonic Debye model, in which phononic effects are considered, the effect of pressure P (0 to 50 GPa and temperature T (0 to 3000 °C on the lattice constant, elastic parameters, bulk modulus B, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient α, internal energy U, entropy S, Debye temperature θD, Helmholtz free energy A, and Gibbs free energy G are investigated.
REA, The Editors of
2012-01-01
REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Thermodynamics I includes review of properties and states of a pure substance, work and heat, energy and the first law of thermodynamics, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Shi-Quan; Li Jun-Yu; Cheng Xin-Lu
2015-01-01
The structural, dielectric, lattice dynamical and thermodynamic properties of zinc-blende CdX (X=S, Se, Te) are studied by using a plane-wave pseudopotential method within the density-functional theory. Our calculated lattice constants and bulk modulus are compared with the published experimental and theoretical data. In addition, the Born effective charges, electronic dielectric tensors, phonon frequencies, and longitudinal optical-transverse optical splitting are calculated by the linear-response approach. Some of the characteristics of the phonon-dispersion curves for zinc-blende CdX (X=S, Se, Te) are summarized. What is more, based on the lattice dynamical properties, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of CdX (X=S, Se, Te) and analyze the temperature dependences of the Helmholtz free energy F, the internal energy E, the entropy S and the constant-volume specific heat C_v. The results show that the heat capacities for CdTe, CdSe, and CdS approach approximately to the Petit-Dulong limit 6R. (paper)
Statistical Thermodynamics and Microscale Thermophysics
Carey, Van P.
1999-08-01
Many exciting new developments in microscale engineering are based on the application of traditional principles of statistical thermodynamics. In this text Van Carey offers a modern view of thermodynamics, interweaving classical and statistical thermodynamic principles and applying them to current engineering systems. He begins with coverage of microscale energy storage mechanisms from a quantum mechanics perspective and then develops the fundamental elements of classical and statistical thermodynamics. Subsequent chapters discuss applications of equilibrium statistical thermodynamics to solid, liquid, and gas phase systems. The remainder of the book is devoted to nonequilibrium thermodynamics of transport phenomena and to nonequilibrium effects and noncontinuum behavior at the microscale. Although the text emphasizes mathematical development, Carey includes many examples and exercises to illustrate how the theoretical concepts are applied to systems of scientific and engineering interest. In the process he offers a fresh view of statistical thermodynamics for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as practitioners, in mechanical, chemical, and materials engineering.
Is there a link between selectivity and binding thermodynamics profiles?
Tarcsay, Ákos; Keserű, György M
2015-01-01
Thermodynamics of ligand binding is influenced by the interplay between enthalpy and entropy contributions of the binding event. The impact of these binding free energy components, however, is not limited to the primary target only. Here, we investigate the relationship between binding thermodynamics and selectivity profiles by combining publicly available data from broad off-target assay profiling and the corresponding thermodynamics measurements. Our analysis indicates that compounds binding their primary targets with higher entropy contributions tend to hit more off-targets compared with those ligands that demonstrated enthalpy-driven binding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics an integrated approach
Shell, M Scott
2015-01-01
Learn classical thermodynamics alongside statistical mechanics with this fresh approach to the subjects. Molecular and macroscopic principles are explained in an integrated, side-by-side manner to give students a deep, intuitive understanding of thermodynamics and equip them to tackle future research topics that focus on the nanoscale. Entropy is introduced from the get-go, providing a clear explanation of how the classical laws connect to the molecular principles, and closing the gap between the atomic world and thermodynamics. Notation is streamlined throughout, with a focus on general concepts and simple models, for building basic physical intuition and gaining confidence in problem analysis and model development. Well over 400 guided end-of-chapter problems are included, addressing conceptual, fundamental, and applied skill sets. Numerous worked examples are also provided together with handy shaded boxes to emphasize key concepts, making this the complete teaching package for students in chemical engineer...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Martel, P.; Florido, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Mendoza, M.A.; Minguez, E.
2013-01-01
In this work the spectrally resolved, multigroup and mean radiative opacities of carbon plasmas are calculated for a wide range of plasma conditions which cover situations where corona, local thermodynamic and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium regimes are found. An analysis of the influence of the thermodynamic regime on these magnitudes is also carried out by means of comparisons of the results obtained from collisional-radiative, corona or Saha–Boltzmann equations. All the calculations presented in this work were performed using ABAKO/RAPCAL code. -- Highlights: ► Spectrally resolved, multigroup and mean radiative opacities of carbon plasmas are calculated. ► Corona, local thermodynamic and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium regimes are analyzed. ► Simulations performed using the computational package ABAKO/RAPCAL. ► A criterion for the establishment of the thermodynamic regime is proposed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shi, Zhenguo; Geiker, Mette Rica; Lothenbach, Barbara
2017-01-01
Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermodynamic modelling have been used to obtain Friedel's salt profiles for saturated mortar cylinders exposed to a 2.8 M NaCl solution. Comparison of the measured Friedel's salt profiles with the total chloride profiles...
On the Correct Formulation of the First Law of Thermodynamics
Kalanov, Temur Z.
2006-04-01
The critical analysis of the generally accepted formulation of the first law of thermodynamics is proposed. The purpose of the analysis is to prove that the standard formulation contains a mathematical error and to offer the correct formulation. The correct formulation is based on the concepts of function and differential of function. Really, if internal energy Uof a system is a function of two independent variables Q=Q(t) (describing of the thermal form of energy) and R=R(t) (describing non-thermal form of energy), then the correct formulation of the first law of thermodynamics is: dU(Q,R)dt=( UQ )RdQdt+( UR )QdRdt, where t and -( UR )Q / ( UR )Q ( UQ ) . - ( UQ )R are time and measure of mutual transformation of forms of energy, correspondingly. General conclusion: standard thermodynamics is incorrect.
Erum, Nazia; Azhar Iqbal, Muhammad
2017-09-01
The effect of pressure variation on stability, structural parameters, elastic constants, mechanical, electronic and thermodynamic properties of cubic SrKF3 fluoroperovskite have been investigated by using the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method combined with Quasi-harmonic Debye model in which the phonon effects are considered. The calculated lattice parameters show a prominent decrease in lattice constant and bonds length with the increase in pressure. The application of pressure from 0 to 25 GPa reveals a predominant characteristic associated with widening of bandgap with GGA and GGA plus Tran-Blaha modified Becke-Johnson (TB-mBJ) potential. The influence of pressure on elastic constants and their related mechanical parameters have been discussed in detail. Apart of linear dependence of elastic coefficients, transition from brittle to ductile behavior is also observed at elevated pressure ranges. We have successfully computed variation of lattice constant, volume expansion, bulk modulus, Debye temperature and specific heat capacities at pressure and temperature in the range of 0-25 GPa and 0-600 K.
Thermodynamics and process analysis for future economic scenarios
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ayres, R.U.
1995-01-01
Economists are increasingly interested in forecasting future costs and benefits of policies for dealing with materials/energy fluxes, polluting emissions and environmental impacts on various scales, from sectoral to global. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are currently popular because they project demand and industrial structure into the future, along an equilibrium path. But they are applicable only to the extent that structural changes occur in or near equilibrium, independent of radical technological (or social) change. The alternative tool for analyzing economic implications of scenario assumptions is to use Leontief-type Input-Output (I-O) models. I-O models are unable to endogenize structural shifts (changing I-O coefficients). However, this can be a virtue when considering radical rather than incremental shifts. Postulated I-O tables can be used independently to check the internal consistency of scenarios. Or I-O models can be used to generate scenarios by linking them to econometric 'macro-drivers' (which can, in principle, be CGE models). Explicit process analysis can be integrated, in principle, with I-O models. This hybrid scheme provides a natural means of satisfying physical constraints, especially the first and second laws of thermodynamics. This is important, to avoid constructing scenarios based on physically impossible processes. Process analysis is really the only available tool for constructing physically plausible alternative future I-O tables, and generating materials/energy and waste emissions coefficients. Explicit process analysis also helps avoid several problems characteristic of 'pure' CGE or I-O models, viz. (1) aggregation errors (2) inability to handle arbitrary combinations of co-product and co-input relationships and (3) inability to reflect certain non-linearities such as internal feedback loops. 4 figs., 2 tabs., 38 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hendi, S.H., E-mail: hendi@shirazu.ac.ir [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Eslam Panah, B. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Physics Department, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran 19839 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-06-10
Violation of Lorentz invariancy in the high energy quantum gravity motivates one to consider an energy dependent spacetime with massive deformation of standard general relativity. In this paper, we take into account an energy dependent metric in the context of a massive gravity model to obtain exact solutions. We investigate the geometry of black hole solutions and also calculate the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, which are fully reproduced by the analysis performed with the standard techniques. After examining the validity of the first law of thermodynamics, we conduct a study regarding the effects of different parameters on thermal stability of the solutions. In addition, we employ the relation between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to study the possibility of phase transition. Interestingly, we will show that for the specific configuration considered in this paper, van der Waals like behavior is observed for different topology. In other words, for flat and hyperbolic horizons, similar to spherical horizon, a second order phase transition and van der Waals like behavior are observed. Furthermore, we use geometrical method to construct phase space and study phase transition and bound points for these black holes. Finally, we obtain critical values in extended phase space through the use of a new method.
SRD 100 Database for Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA)Database for Simulation of Electron Spectra for Surface Analysis (SESSA) (PC database for purchase) This database has been designed to facilitate quantitative interpretation of Auger-electron and X-ray photoelectron spectra and to improve the accuracy of quantitation in routine analysis. The database contains all physical data needed to perform quantitative interpretation of an electron spectrum for a thin-film specimen of given composition. A simulation module provides an estimate of peak intensities as well as the energy and angular distributions of the emitted electron flux.
Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of LNG energy recovery for power production
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franco, A; Casarosa, C
2014-01-01
An important option to transport the gas is to convert it into liquid natural gas (LNG) and convey it using insulated LNG tankers. At receiving terminals, the LNG is offloaded into storage tanks and then pumped at the required pressure and vaporized for final transmission to the pipeline. The LNG production process consumes a considerable amount of energy, while the cold availability, as also known as cold energy, has been stored in LNG. At a receiving terminal, LNG needs to be evaporated into gas at environmental temperature before fed into the gas distribution system. Seawater is commonly used for the regasification process of the LNG. In the present paper, after a general analysis of the perspectives of the various thermodynamic schemes proposed for power production from the regasification, a detailed analysis of enhanced direct expansion system is carried out in order to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered. The analysis outlines that power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ/kg) can be obtained with direct expansion solutions
Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of LNG energy recovery for power production
Franco, A.; Casarosa, C.
2014-11-01
An important option to transport the gas is to convert it into liquid natural gas (LNG) and convey it using insulated LNG tankers. At receiving terminals, the LNG is offloaded into storage tanks and then pumped at the required pressure and vaporized for final transmission to the pipeline. The LNG production process consumes a considerable amount of energy, while the cold availability, as also known as cold energy, has been stored in LNG. At a receiving terminal, LNG needs to be evaporated into gas at environmental temperature before fed into the gas distribution system. Seawater is commonly used for the regasification process of the LNG. In the present paper, after a general analysis of the perspectives of the various thermodynamic schemes proposed for power production from the regasification, a detailed analysis of enhanced direct expansion system is carried out in order to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered. The analysis outlines that power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ/kg) can be obtained with direct expansion solutions.
The Markov process admits a consistent steady-state thermodynamic formalism
Peng, Liangrong; Zhu, Yi; Hong, Liu
2018-01-01
The search for a unified formulation for describing various non-equilibrium processes is a central task of modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, a novel steady-state thermodynamic formalism was established for general Markov processes described by the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. Furthermore, corresponding formalisms of steady-state thermodynamics for the master equation and Fokker-Planck equation could be rigorously derived in mathematics. To be concrete, we proved that (1) in the limit of continuous time, the steady-state thermodynamic formalism for the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation fully agrees with that for the master equation; (2) a similar one-to-one correspondence could be established rigorously between the master equation and Fokker-Planck equation in the limit of large system size; (3) when a Markov process is restrained to one-step jump, the steady-state thermodynamic formalism for the Fokker-Planck equation with discrete state variables also goes to that for master equations, as the discretization step gets smaller and smaller. Our analysis indicated that general Markov processes admit a unified and self-consistent non-equilibrium steady-state thermodynamic formalism, regardless of underlying detailed models.
Structural, Electronic, and Thermodynamic Properties of Tetragonal t-SixGe3−xN4
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenxi Han
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The structural, mechanical, anisotropic, electronic, and thermal properties of t-Si3N4, t-Si2GeN4, t-SiGe2N4, and t-Ge3N4 in the tetragonal phase are systematically investigated in the present work. The mechanical stability is proved by the elastic constants of t-Si3N4, t-Si2GeN4, t-SiGe2N4, and t-Ge3N4. Moreover, they all demonstrate brittleness, because B/G < 1.75, and v < 0.26. The elastic anisotropy of t-Si3N4, t-Si2GeN4, t-SiGe2N4, and t-Ge3N4 is characterized by Poisson’s ratio, Young’s modulus, the percentage of elastic anisotropy for bulk modulus AB, the percentage of elastic anisotropy for shear modulus AG, and the universal anisotropic index AU. The electronic structures of t-Si3N4, t-Si2GeN4, t-SiGe2N4, and t-Ge3N4 are all wide band gap semiconductor materials, with band gaps of 4.26 eV, 3.94 eV, 3.83 eV, and 3.25 eV, respectively, when using the Heyd-Scuseria-Ernzerhof (HSE06 hybrid functional. Moreover, t-Ge3N4 is a quasi-direct gap semiconductor material. The thermodynamic properties of t-Si3N4, t-Si2GeN4, t-SiGe2N4, and t-Ge3N4 are investigated utilizing the quasi-harmonic Debye model. The effects of temperature and pressure on the thermal expansion coefficient, heat capacity, Debye temperature, and Grüneisen parameters are discussed in detail.
Thermodynamic properties of sea air
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Feistel
2010-02-01
Full Text Available Very accurate thermodynamic potential functions are available for fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air covering wide ranges of temperature and pressure conditions. They permit the consistent computation of all equilibrium properties as, for example, required for coupled atmosphere-ocean models or the analysis of observational or experimental data. With the exception of humid air, these potential functions are already formulated as international standards released by the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS, and have been adopted in 2009 for oceanography by IOC/UNESCO.
In this paper, we derive a collection of formulas for important quantities expressed in terms of the thermodynamic potentials, valid for typical phase transitions and composite systems of humid air and water/ice/seawater. Particular attention is given to equilibria between seawater and humid air, referred to as "sea air" here. In a related initiative, these formulas will soon be implemented in a source-code library for easy practical use. The library is primarily aimed at oceanographic applications but will be relevant to air-sea interaction and meteorology as well.
The formulas provided are valid for any consistent set of suitable thermodynamic potential functions. Here we adopt potential functions from previous publications in which they are constructed from theoretical laws and empirical data; they are briefly summarized in the appendix. The formulas make use of the full accuracy of these thermodynamic potentials, without additional approximations or empirical coefficients. They are expressed in the temperature scale ITS-90 and the 2008 Reference-Composition Salinity Scale.
Thermodynamic analysis of volatile organometallic fission products
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Auxier II, J.D.; Hall, H.L.; Cressy, Derek
2016-01-01
The ability to perform rapid separations in a post nuclear weapon detonation scenario is an important aspect of national security. In the past, separations of fission products have been performed using solvent extraction, precipitation, etc. The focus of this work is to explore the feasibility of using thermochromatography, a technique largely employed in superheavy element chemistry, to expedite the separation of fission products from fuel components. A series of fission product complexes were synthesized and the thermodynamic parameters were measured using TGA/DSC methods. Once measured, these parameters were used to predict their retention times using thermochromatography. (author)
Thermodynamics of black-holes in Brans-Dicke gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, H.; Kim, Y.
1997-01-01
It is recently been argued that non-trivial Brans-Dicke black-hole solutions different from the usual Schwarzschild solution could exist. The authors attempt here to 'censor' these non-trivial Brans-Dicke black-hole solutions by examining their thermodynamics properties. Quantities like Hawking temperature and entropy of the black holes are computed. The analysis of the behaviors of these thermodynamic quantities appears to show that even in Brans-Dicke gravity, the usual Schwarzschild space-time turns out to be the only physically relevant uncharged black-hole solution
Thermodynamics an engineering approach
Cengel, Yunus A
2014-01-01
Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach, eighth edition, covers the basic principles of thermodynamics while presenting a wealth of real-world engineering examples so students get a feel for how thermodynamics is applied in engineering practice. This text helps students develop an intuitive understanding by emphasizing the physics and physical arguments. Cengel and Boles explore the various facets of thermodynamics through careful explanations of concepts and use of numerous practical examples and figures, having students develop necessary skills to bridge the gap between knowledge and the confidence to properly apply their knowledge. McGraw-Hill is proud to offer Connect with the eighth edition of Cengel/Boles, Thermodynamics, An Engineering Approach. This innovative and powerful new system helps your students learn more efficiently and gives you the ability to assign homework problems simply and easily. Problems are graded automatically, and the results are recorded immediately. Track individual stude...
The thermodynamic efficiency of ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation.
Nath, Sunil
2016-12-01
As the chief energy source of eukaryotic cells, it is important to determine the thermodynamic efficiency of ATP synthesis in oxidative phosphorylation (OX PHOS). Previous estimates of the thermodynamic efficiency of this vital process have ranged from Lehninger's original back-of-the-envelope calculation of 38% to the often quoted value of 55-60% in current textbooks of biochemistry, to high values of 90% from recent information theoretic considerations, and reports of realizations of close to ideal 100% efficiencies by single molecule experiments. Hence this problem has been reinvestigated from first principles. The overall thermodynamic efficiency of ATP synthesis in the mitochondrial energy transduction OX PHOS process has been found to lie between 40 and 41% from four different approaches based on a) estimation using structural and biochemical data, b) fundamental nonequilibrium thermodynamic analysis, c) novel insights arising from Nath's torsional mechanism of energy transduction and ATP synthesis, and d) the overall balance of cellular energetics. The torsional mechanism also offers an explanation for the observation of a thermodynamic efficiency approaching 100% in some experiments. Applications of the unique, molecular machine mode of functioning of F 1 F O -ATP synthase involving direct inter-conversion of chemical and mechanical energies in the design and fabrication of novel, man-made mechanochemical devices have been envisaged, and some new ways to exorcise Maxwell's demon have been proposed. It is hoped that analysis of the fundamental problem of energy transduction in OX PHOS from a fresh perspective will catalyze new avenues of research in this interdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coskun, Ahmet; Bolatturk, Ali; Kanoglu, Mehmet
2014-01-01
Highlights: • We conduct the thermodynamic and economic analysis of various geothermal power cycles. • The optimization process was performed to minimize the exergy losses. • Kalina cycle is a new technology compared to flash and binary cycles. • It is shown that Kalina cycle presents a viable choice for both thermodynamically and economically. - Abstract: Geothermal power generation technologies are well established and there are numerous power plants operating worldwide. Turkey is rich in geothermal resources while most resources are not exploited for power production. In this study, we consider geothermal resources in Kutahya–Simav region having geothermal water at a temperature suitable for power generation. The study is aimed to yield the method of the most effective use of the geothermal resource and a rational thermodynamic and economic comparison of various cycles for a given resource. The cycles considered include double-flash, binary, combined flash/binary, and Kalina cycle. The selected cycles are optimized for the turbine inlet pressure that would generate maximum power output and energy and exergy efficiencies. The distribution of exergy in plant components and processes are shown using tables. Maximum first law efficiencies vary between 6.9% and 10.6% while the second law efficiencies vary between 38.5% and 59.3% depending on the cycle considered. The maximum power output, the first law, and the second law efficiencies are obtained for Kalina cycle followed by combined cycle and binary cycle. An economic analysis of four cycles considered indicates that the cost of producing a unit amount of electricity is 0.0116 $/kW h for double flash and Kalina cycles, 0.0165 $/kW h for combined cycle and 0.0202 $/kW h for binary cycle. Consequently, the payback period is 5.8 years for double flash and Kalina cycles while it is 8.3 years for combined cycle and 9 years for binary cycle
Deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium in a cesium-seeded argon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stefanov, B.; Zarkova, L.
1985-11-01
The possibility of deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium of a cesium seeded argon plasma has been analyzed. A four level model of cesium has been employed. Overpopulations of the ground state and the first excited state as well as the corresponding reduction of the electron density are calculated for cylindrical discharge structures by solving stationary rate equations. Numerical results are presented. These results indicate that in a large regime of plasma conditions the LTE assumption is valid for electron temperatures larger than 3000 K. (orig.)
Thermodynamics of adaptive molecular resolution.
Delgado-Buscalioni, R
2016-11-13
A relatively general thermodynamic formalism for adaptive molecular resolution (AMR) is presented. The description is based on the approximation of local thermodynamic equilibrium and considers the alchemic parameter λ as the conjugate variable of the potential energy difference between the atomistic and coarse-grained model Φ=U (1) -U (0) The thermodynamic formalism recovers the relations obtained from statistical mechanics of H-AdResS (Español et al, J. Chem. Phys. 142, 064115, 2015 (doi:10.1063/1.4907006)) and provides relations between the free energy compensation and thermodynamic potentials. Inspired by this thermodynamic analogy, several generalizations of AMR are proposed, such as the exploration of new Maxwell relations and how to treat λ and Φ as 'real' thermodynamic variablesThis article is part of the themed issue 'Multiscale modelling at the physics-chemistry-biology interface'. © 2016 The Author(s).
Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende GaN Crystals
Luan, Xinghe; Feng, Chuang; Yang, Daoguo; Zhang, Guoqi
2017-01-01
For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli, shear moduli, elastic moduli and Poisson’s ratios of the two GaN polycrystals were calculated using Voigt and Hill approximations, and the results show wurtzite GaN has larger shear and elastic moduli and exhibits more obvious brittleness. Moreover, both wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN monocrystals present obvious mechanical anisotropic behavior. For wurtzite GaN monocrystal, the maximum and minimum elastic moduli are located at orientations [001] and , respectively, while they are in the orientations and for zinc-blende GaN monocrystal, respectively. Compared to the elastic modulus, the shear moduli of the two GaN monocrystals have completely opposite direction dependences. However, different from elastic and shear moduli, the bulk moduli of the two monocrystals are nearly isotropic, especially for the zinc-blende GaN. Besides, in the wurtzite GaN, Poisson’s ratios at the planes containing [001] axis are anisotropic, and the maximum value is 0.31 which is located at the directions vertical to [001] axis. For zinc-blende GaN, Poisson’s ratios at planes (100) and (111) are isotropic, while the Poisson’s ratio at plane (110) exhibits dramatically anisotropic phenomenon. Additionally, the calculated Debye temperatures of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 641.8 and 620.2 K, respectively. At 300 K, the calculated heat capacities of wurtzite and zinc-blende are 33.6 and 33.5 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. Finally, the band gap is located at the G point for the two crystals, and the band gaps of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 3.62 eV and 3.06 eV, respectively. At the G point, the lowest energy of conduction band in the wurtzite GaN is larger, resulting in a wider band gap
Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende GaN Crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hongbo Qin
2017-12-01
Full Text Available For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli, shear moduli, elastic moduli and Poisson’s ratios of the two GaN polycrystals were calculated using Voigt and Hill approximations, and the results show wurtzite GaN has larger shear and elastic moduli and exhibits more obvious brittleness. Moreover, both wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN monocrystals present obvious mechanical anisotropic behavior. For wurtzite GaN monocrystal, the maximum and minimum elastic moduli are located at orientations [001] and <111>, respectively, while they are in the orientations <111> and <100> for zinc-blende GaN monocrystal, respectively. Compared to the elastic modulus, the shear moduli of the two GaN monocrystals have completely opposite direction dependences. However, different from elastic and shear moduli, the bulk moduli of the two monocrystals are nearly isotropic, especially for the zinc-blende GaN. Besides, in the wurtzite GaN, Poisson’s ratios at the planes containing [001] axis are anisotropic, and the maximum value is 0.31 which is located at the directions vertical to [001] axis. For zinc-blende GaN, Poisson’s ratios at planes (100 and (111 are isotropic, while the Poisson’s ratio at plane (110 exhibits dramatically anisotropic phenomenon. Additionally, the calculated Debye temperatures of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 641.8 and 620.2 K, respectively. At 300 K, the calculated heat capacities of wurtzite and zinc-blende are 33.6 and 33.5 J mol−1 K−1, respectively. Finally, the band gap is located at the G point for the two crystals, and the band gaps of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 3.62 eV and 3.06 eV, respectively. At the G point, the lowest energy of conduction band in the wurtzite GaN is larger
Mechanical, Thermodynamic and Electronic Properties of Wurtzite and Zinc-Blende GaN Crystals.
Qin, Hongbo; Luan, Xinghe; Feng, Chuang; Yang, Daoguo; Zhang, Guoqi
2017-12-12
For the limitation of experimental methods in crystal characterization, in this study, the mechanical, thermodynamic and electronic properties of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN crystals were investigated by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. Firstly, bulk moduli, shear moduli, elastic moduli and Poisson's ratios of the two GaN polycrystals were calculated using Voigt and Hill approximations, and the results show wurtzite GaN has larger shear and elastic moduli and exhibits more obvious brittleness. Moreover, both wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN monocrystals present obvious mechanical anisotropic behavior. For wurtzite GaN monocrystal, the maximum and minimum elastic moduli are located at orientations [001] and , respectively, while they are in the orientations and for zinc-blende GaN monocrystal, respectively. Compared to the elastic modulus, the shear moduli of the two GaN monocrystals have completely opposite direction dependences. However, different from elastic and shear moduli, the bulk moduli of the two monocrystals are nearly isotropic, especially for the zinc-blende GaN. Besides, in the wurtzite GaN, Poisson's ratios at the planes containing [001] axis are anisotropic, and the maximum value is 0.31 which is located at the directions vertical to [001] axis. For zinc-blende GaN, Poisson's ratios at planes (100) and (111) are isotropic, while the Poisson's ratio at plane (110) exhibits dramatically anisotropic phenomenon. Additionally, the calculated Debye temperatures of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 641.8 and 620.2 K, respectively. At 300 K, the calculated heat capacities of wurtzite and zinc-blende are 33.6 and 33.5 J mol -1 K -1 , respectively. Finally, the band gap is located at the G point for the two crystals, and the band gaps of wurtzite and zinc-blende GaN are 3.62 eV and 3.06 eV, respectively. At the G point, the lowest energy of conduction band in the wurtzite GaN is larger, resulting in a wider band gap. Densities of
Thermodynamic Data to 20,000 K For Monatomic Gases
Gordon, Sanford; McBride, Bonnie J.
1999-01-01
This report contains standard-state thermodynamic functions for 50 gaseous atomic elements plus deuterium and electron gas, 51 singly ionized positive ions, and 36 singly ionized negative ions. The data were generated by the NASA Lewis computer program PAC97, a modified version of PAC91 reported in McBride and Gordon. This report is being published primarily to document part of the data currently being used in several NASA Lewis computer programs. The data are presented in tabular and graphical format and are also represented in the form of least-squares coefficients. The tables give the following data as functions of temperature : heat capacity, enthalpy, entropy Gibbs energy, enthalpy of formation, and equilibrium constant. A brief discussion and a comparison of calculated results are given for several models for calculating ideal thermodynamic data for monatomic gases.
Equilibrium thermodynamics - Callen's postulational approach
Jongschaap, R.J.J.; Öttinger, Hans Christian
2001-01-01
In order to provide the background for nonequilibrium thermodynamics, we outline the fundamentals of equilibrium thermodynamics. Equilibrium thermodynamics must not only be obtained as a special case of any acceptable nonequilibrium generalization but, through its shining example, it also elucidates
Efficiency of an air-cooled thermodynamic cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bezborodov, Yu.A.; Bubnov, V.P.; Nesterenko, V.B.
1979-01-01
The application of air, nitrogen, helium and the chemically reacting N 2 O 4 reversible 2NO 2 reversible 2NO + O 2 system as working agents and coolants for a low capacity nuclear power plant is investigated. The above system due to its physico-chemical and thermo-physical properties allows both a gaseous cycle and a cycle with condensation. The analysis has shown that a thermodynamic air-cooled cycle with the dissociating nitrogen tetroxide in the temperature range from 500 to 600 deg C has an advantage over cycles with air and nitrogen. To identify the chemical reaction kinetics in the thermodynamic processes, thermodynamic calculations of the gas-liquid cycle with N 2 O 4 both with simple and intermediate heat regeneration at different pressures over hot side were performed. At gas pressures lower than 12 - 15 atm, the cycle with a simple regeneration is more effective, and at pressure increase, the cycle with an intermediate regeneration is preferable
Quality Systems. A Thermodynamics-Related Interpretive Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano A. Lollai
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, a Quality Systems Theory is presented. Certifiable Quality Systems are treated and interpreted in accordance with a Thermodynamics-based approach. Analysis is also conducted on the relationship between Quality Management Systems (QMSs and systems theories. A measure of entropy is proposed for QMSs, including a virtual document entropy and an entropy linked to processes and organisation. QMSs are also interpreted in light of Cybernetics, and interrelations between Information Theory and quality are also highlighted. A measure for the information content of quality documents is proposed. Such parameters can be used as adequacy indices for QMSs. From the discussed approach, suggestions for organising QMSs are also derived. Further interpretive thermodynamic-based criteria for QMSs are also proposed. The work represents the first attempt to treat quality organisational systems according to a thermodynamics-related approach. At this stage, no data are available to compare statements in the paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Čička R.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The precipitation of secondary phases was investigated in the 0.17C-16Cr-11Mn-0.43N austenitic stainless steel during annealing at 800 and 850°C for times between 5 min and 100 h. Light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and differential thermal analysis were used in experiments. Thermodynamic calculations were done by the ThermoCalc database software package. Cr2N and M23C6 were considered to be stable phases at the annealing temperatures. Cells consisting of alternating Cr2N and austenite lamellae were observed in the steel microstructure after sufficiently long annealing. The metastable chi phase was also found in all the annealed samples. After 100 h of annealing the equilibrium sigma started to precipitate. The thermodynamically predicted M6C was not confirmed experimentally in any of the annealed samples. DTA analysis showed the initial precipitation stage was followed by the phase dissolution. For the investigated steel the computational thermodynamics can be used only for qualitative interpretation of the experimental results as the measured endothermal peaks were found to be shifted of about 50 ÷ 70°C related to the computed results.
Thermodynamic analysis of separating lead and antimony in chloride system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Jin-zhong; CAO Hua-zhen; LI Bo; YUAN Hai-jun; ZHENG Guo-qu; YANG Tian-zu
2009-01-01
In chloride system, thermodynamic analysis is a useful guide to separate lead and antimony as well as to understand the separation mechanism. An efficient and feasible way for separating lead and antimony was discussed. The relationships of [Pb2+][Cl-]2-lg[Cl]T and E-lg[Cl]T in Pb-Sb-Cl-H2O system were studied, and the solubilities of lead chloride at different antimony concentrations were calculated based on principle of simultaneous equilibrium. The results show that insoluble salt PbCl2 will only exist stably in a certain concentration range of chlorine ion. This concentration range of chlorine ion expands a little with increasing the concentration of antimony in the system while narrows as the system acidity increases. The solubility of Pb2+ in solution decreases with increasing the concentration of antimony in the system, whereas increases with increasing the concentration of total chlorine. The concentration range of total chlorine causing lead solubility less than 0.005 mol/L increases monotonically.
Thermodynamics for the practicing engineer
Theodore, Louis; Vanvliet, Timothy
2009-01-01
This book concentrates specifically on the applications of thermodynamics, rather than the theory. It addresses both technical and pragmatic problems in the field, and covers such topics as enthalpy effects, equilibrium thermodynamics, non-ideal thermodynamics and energy conversion applications. Providing the reader with a working knowledge of the principles of thermodynamics, as well as experience in their application, it stands alone as an easy-to-follow self-teaching aid to practical applications and contains worked examples.
Thermodynamic analysis of a simple Organic Rankine Cycle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Javanshir, Alireza; Sarunac, Nenad
2017-01-01
Thermodynamic performance (thermal efficiency and net power output) of a simple subcritical and supercritical Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) was analyzed over a range of operating conditions for a number of working fluids to determine the effect of operating parameters on cycle performance and select the best working fluid. The results show that for an ORC operating with a dry working fluid, thermal efficiency decreases with an increase in the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) due to the convergence of the isobaric lines with temperature. The results also show that efficiency of an ORC operating with isentropic working fluids is higher compared to the dry and wet fluids, and working fluids with higher specific heat capacity provide higher cycle net power output. New expressions for thermal efficiency of a subcritical and supercritical simple ORC are proposed. For a subcritical ORC without the superheat, thermal efficiency is expressed as a function of the Figure of Merit (FOM), while for the superheated subcritical ORC thermal efficiency is given in terms of the modified Jacob number. For the supercritical ORC, thermal efficiency is expressed as a function of dimensionless temperature. - Highlights: • Analyzing thermodynamic performance of ORC over a range of operating conditions. • Selecting the best working fluid suitable for a simple ORC. • Proposing new expressions for thermal efficiency of a simple ORC.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xiong Wei; Du Yong; Wang Jiong; Zhang Wei-Wei [State Key Lab. of Powder Metallurgy, Central South Univ., Changsha (China); Hu Rong-Xiang; Nash, P. [Thermal Processing Technology Center, Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago (United States); Lu Xiao-Gang [Thermo-Calc AB, Stockholm Technology Park, Stockholm (Sweden)
2008-06-15
An extensive thermodynamic investigation of the Al-Ni-Si system is carried out via an integrated approach of calculation of phase diagrams, first-principles calculations, and key experiments. Eighteen decisive alloys are prepared in order to verify the existence of the previously reported ternary compounds and to provide new phase equilibrium data. Phase compositions, microstructure, and phase transition temperatures are determined using the combined techniques of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion X-ray analysis, and differential thermal analysis. The order/disorder transition between disordered bccA2 and ordered bccB2 phases as well as that between disordered fccA1 and ordered L1{sub 2} phase are described using a two-sublattice model. A self-consistent parameter set is finally obtained by considering the huge amount of experimental data including 13 vertical sections and 5 isothermal sections from both the literature and the present experiments. Almost all of the reliable phase diagram data can be well described by the present modeling. The reliability of the calculated thermodynamic properties for ternary phases is verified through enthalpy measurement employing drop calorimetry and first-principles calculations. The thermodynamic parameters obtained can also successfully predict most of the thermodynamic properties and describe the solidification path for the selected as-cast alloy Al{sub 6}Ni{sub 55}Si{sub 39}. (orig.)
Design of Ag-Ge-Zn braze/solder alloys: Experimental thermodynamics and surface properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Delsante S.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The experimental investigation of the Ag-Ge-Zn phase diagram was performed by using combined microstructural and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC analyses. The samples were subjected to thermal cycles by a heat-flux DSC apparatus with heating and cooling rate of 0.5 or 0.3°C/min. The microstructure of the samples, both after annealing and after DSC analysis, was studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy analysis. Considering the slow heating and cooling rate adopted, the isothermal section at room temperature was established. No ternary compounds were observed. On the basis of the experimental investigations the invariant reactions were identified. Combining the thermodynamic data on the Ag-Ge, Ag-Zn and Ge-Zn liquid phases by means of Butler’s model the surface tension of Ag-Ge-Zn alloys was calculated.
Thermodynamics in High Rhythms and Rhymes: Creative Ways of Knowing in Engineering
Bairaktarova, Diana; Eodice, Michele
2017-01-01
Thermodynamics is a foundational course in nearly every engineering program. In a traditional classroom, instructors focus on the analysis of thermodynamic energy systems and their application to real world contexts. Because these complex systems can be difficult to understand, some instructors encourage students to tap into their creative side…
Thermodynamic studies on charge-coupled substituted synthetic monazite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rawat, D. [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Phapale, S. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Mishra, R., E-mail: mishrar@barc.gov.in [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Dash, S. [Product Development Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)
2017-04-15
Phosphate-based monazite ceramic is considered worldwide as a potential crystalline host matrix for immobilization of long-lived tri- and tetra-valent actinides present in high-level nuclear waste. Monazite is chemically stable with respect to the leaching processes and has high radiation stability. The present paper describes the influence of charged coupled (Ca{sup 2+}, Th{sup 4+}) substitution in place of La{sup 3+} on thermodynamic stability of synthetic monazite ceramics. XRD-analysis of Ca, Th substituted LaPO{sub 4} viz., La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x/2}Th{sub x/2}PO{sub 4} (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) points to the formation of ideal solid-solution in the entire range of composition. However, thermodynamic analysis indicates deviation from ideal solid-solution with a minima at x = 0.25. The substituted La{sub 1-x}Ca{sub x/2}Th{sub x/2}PO{sub 4} system is found to be iso-entropic and stabilized mainly by enthalpy. Enthalpies of formation as a function of Ca{sup 2+}, Th{sup 4+} substitution were analysed to provide insights into the development of thermodynamically stable nuclear waste matrix.
Dresch, Jacqueline M; Liu, Xiaozhou; Arnosti, David N; Ay, Ahmet
2010-10-24
Quantitative models of gene expression generate parameter values that can shed light on biological features such as transcription factor activity, cooperativity, and local effects of repressors. An important element in such investigations is sensitivity analysis, which determines how strongly a model's output reacts to variations in parameter values. Parameters of low sensitivity may not be accurately estimated, leading to unwarranted conclusions. Low sensitivity may reflect the nature of the biological data, or it may be a result of the model structure. Here, we focus on the analysis of thermodynamic models, which have been used extensively to analyze gene transcription. Extracted parameter values have been interpreted biologically, but until now little attention has been given to parameter sensitivity in this context. We apply local and global sensitivity analyses to two recent transcriptional models to determine the sensitivity of individual parameters. We show that in one case, values for repressor efficiencies are very sensitive, while values for protein cooperativities are not, and provide insights on why these differential sensitivities stem from both biological effects and the structure of the applied models. In a second case, we demonstrate that parameters that were thought to prove the system's dependence on activator-activator cooperativity are relatively insensitive. We show that there are numerous parameter sets that do not satisfy the relationships proferred as the optimal solutions, indicating that structural differences between the two types of transcriptional enhancers analyzed may not be as simple as altered activator cooperativity. Our results emphasize the need for sensitivity analysis to examine model construction and forms of biological data used for modeling transcriptional processes, in order to determine the significance of estimated parameter values for thermodynamic models. Knowledge of parameter sensitivities can provide the necessary
A thermodynamic model for growth mechanisms of multiwall carbon nanotubes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kaatz, Forrest H.; Overmyer, Donald L.; Siegal, Michael P.
2006-02-01
Multiwall carbon nanotubes are grown via thermal chemical vapor deposition between temperatures of 630 and 830 C using acetylene in nitrogen as the carbon source. This process is modeled using classical thermodynamics to explain the total carbon deposition as a function of time and temperature. An activation energy of 1.60 eV is inferred for nanotube growth after considering the carbon solubility term. Scanning electron microscopy shows growth with diameters increasing linearly with time. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy show multiwall nanotubes surrounded by a glassy-carbon sheath, which grows with increasing wall thickness as growth temperatures and times rise.
Thermodynamic Analysis of Cast Irons Solidification With Various Types of Graphite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elbel T.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The contribution summarises the results of oxygen activity determinations, which were measured and registered continuously in castings from cast irons with various types of graphite. The results were used to find the relationship between two variables: natural logarithm of oxygen activities and reverse value of thermodynamic temperature 1 /T. Obtained regression lines were used to calculate oxygen activity at different temperatures, to calculate Gibbs free energy ΔG at the different temperatures and to calculate the single ΔG value for significant temperature of the graphite solidification. The results were processed by a statistical analysis of data files for the different types of graphite with flake, vermicular and spheroidal graphite. Each material has its proper typical oxygen activities range and individual temperature function of Gibbs free energy for analysing and governing casting quality.
Thermodynamic analysis of a supercritical water reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edwards, M.
2007-01-01
A thermodynamic model has been developed for a hypothetical design of a Supercritical Water Reactor, with emphasis on Canadian design criteria. The model solves for cycle efficiency, mass flows and physical conditions throughout the plant based on input parameters of operating pressures and efficiencies of components. The model includes eight feedwater heaters, three feedwater pumps, a deaerator, a condenser, the core, three turbines and two reheaters. To perform the calculations, Microsoft Excel was used in conjunction with FLUIDCAL-IAPWS95 and VBA code. The calculations show that a thermal efficiency of 47.5% can be achieved with a core outlet temperature of 625 o C. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Giacomo, A. [Department of Chemistry, University of Bari, Via Orabona 4, 70126 Bari (Italy); Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Dell' Aglio, M. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Gaudiuso, R., E-mail: rosalba.gaudiuso@ba.imip.cnr.it [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Santagata, A. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Potenza, Via S. Loja, Zona Ind., 85050 Tito Scalo (PZ) (Italy); Senesi, G.S. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Rossi, M.; Ghiara, M.R. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Naples ' Federico II' , Via Mezzocannone 8, 80134 Naples (Italy); Capitelli, F. [Institute of Crystallography - CNR, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo (Roma) (Italy); De Pascale, O. [Institute of Inorganic Methodologies and Plasmas - CNR, U.O.S. Bari, Via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy)
2012-04-04
Graphical abstract: Self-calibrated analytical techniques based on the approximation of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) have been employed for the analysis of gemstones and copper-based alloys by LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy), with a special focus on LTE conditions in laser induced plasmas. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Discussion of Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition in laser-induced plasmas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LIBS enables elemental analysis with self-calibrated LTE-based methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Be detection in alexandrite gemstone is made possible by LIBS. - Abstract: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an appealing technique to study laser-induced plasmas (LIPs), both from the basic diagnostics point of view and for analytical applications. LIPs are complex dynamic systems, expanding at supersonic velocities and undergoing a transition between different plasma regimes. If the Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (LTE) condition is valid for such plasmas, several analytical methods can be employed and fast quantitative analyses can be performed on a variety of samples. In the present paper, a discussion about LTE is carried out and an innovative application to the analysis of the alexandrite gemstone is presented. In addition, a study about the influence of plasma parameters on the performance of LTE-based methods is reported for bronze and brass targets.
SNG from coal: thermodynamic and kinetic constraints; use of nuclear energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapira, D.
1983-01-01
Part I contains an analysis of the thermodynamic constraints of converting coal to SNG. It is shown that the thermodynamic constraints that limit the thermal efficiency are not inherent, but are the result of design decisions, based on available technology, as well as on the kinetic properties of available catalysts. The latter, limits the yield of methane to that obtainable at global equilibrium over carbon in the presence of CO, H 2 , CO 2 and H 2 O. The equilibrium composition is shown to be independent of the thermodynamic properties of the char or coal fed. These limitations give the nonisothermal two-stage processes significant thermodynamic advantages. The analysis in part I results in suggesting directions for modifying present processes in order to obtain higher thermal efficiences. It also presents two-stage process schemes which may have significant advantages over present technology. As the methodology used for the thermodynamic analysis contains some novel elements, it should be of interest to the reaction engineer in general, and should be applicable to a wide range of catalytic and noncatalytic processes. Part II focuses on the use of nuclear energy in the production of synthetic fuel. Two processes for the production of hydrogen (which is used in coal-to-SNG processes) are analyzed and compared. The two processes are: 1) hydrogen from electrolysis of water using nuclear heat. 2) Hydrogen from steam reforming of methane using nuclear heat. The method used is differential economic analysis which focuses on evaluating the inherent advantages and disadvantages of the proposed technologies. Part II shows that the use of high temperature heat in production of hydrogen from coal is less attractive than the use of the same heat to generate electricity and split water into H 2 and O 2
Information Thermodynamics of Cytosine DNA Methylation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robersy Sanchez
Full Text Available Cytosine DNA methylation (CDM is a stable epigenetic modification to the genome and a widespread regulatory process in living organisms that involves multicomponent molecular machines. Genome-wide cytosine methylation patterning participates in the epigenetic reprogramming of a cell, suggesting that the biological information contained within methylation positions may be amenable to decoding. Adaptation to a new cellular or organismal environment also implies the potential for genome-wide redistribution of CDM changes that will ensure the stability of DNA molecules. This raises the question of whether or not we would be able to sort out the regulatory methylation signals from the CDM background ("noise" induced by thermal fluctuations. Here, we propose a novel statistical and information thermodynamic description of the CDM changes to address the last question. The physical basis of our statistical mechanical model was evaluated in two respects: 1 the adherence to Landauer's principle, according to which molecular machines must dissipate a minimum energy ε = kBT ln2 at each logic operation, where kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the absolute temperature and 2 whether or not the binary stretch of methylation marks on the DNA molecule comprise a language of sorts, properly constrained by thermodynamic principles. The study was performed for genome-wide methylation data from 152 ecotypes and 40 trans-generational variations of Arabidopsis thaliana and 93 human tissues. The DNA persistence length, a basic mechanical property altered by CDM, was estimated with values from 39 to 66.9 nm. Classical methylome analysis can be retrieved by applying information thermodynamic modelling, which is able to discriminate signal from noise. Our finding suggests that the CDM signal comprises a language scheme properly constrained by molecular thermodynamic principles, which is part of an epigenomic communication system that obeys the same thermodynamic
The generalized second law of thermodynamics in the accelerating universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Jia; Wang Bin; Gong Yungui; Abdalla, Elcio
2007-01-01
We show that in the accelerating universe the generalized second law of thermodynamics holds only in the case where the enveloping surface is the apparent horizon, but not in the case of the event horizon. The present analysis relies on the most recent SNe Ia events, being model independent. Our study might suggest that event horizon is not a physical boundary from the point of view of thermodynamics
Thermodynamics: The Unique Universal Science
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wassim M. Haddad
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Thermodynamics is a physical branch of science that governs the thermal behavior of dynamical systems from those as simple as refrigerators to those as complex as our expanding universe. The laws of thermodynamics involving conservation of energy and nonconservation of entropy are, without a doubt, two of the most useful and general laws in all sciences. The first law of thermodynamics, according to which energy cannot be created or destroyed, merely transformed from one form to another, and the second law of thermodynamics, according to which the usable energy in an adiabatically isolated dynamical system is always diminishing in spite of the fact that energy is conserved, have had an impact far beyond science and engineering. In this paper, we trace the history of thermodynamics from its classical to its postmodern forms, and present a tutorial and didactic exposition of thermodynamics as it pertains to some of the deepest secrets of the universe.
Protein Denaturation on p-T Axes--Thermodynamics and Analysis.
Smeller, László
2015-01-01
Proteins are essential players in the vast majority of molecular level life processes. Since their structure is in most cases substantial for their correct function, study of their structural changes attracted great interest in the past decades. The three dimensional structure of proteins is influenced by several factors including temperature, pH, presence of chaotropic and cosmotropic agents, or presence of denaturants. Although pressure is an equally important thermodynamic parameter as temperature, pressure studies are considerably less frequent in the literature, probably due to the technical difficulties associated to the pressure studies. Although the first steps in the high-pressure protein study have been done 100 years ago with Bridgman's ground breaking work, the field was silent until the modern spectroscopic techniques allowed the characterization of the protein structural changes, while the protein was under pressure. Recently a number of proteins were studied under pressure, and complete pressure-temperature phase diagrams were determined for several of them. This review summarizes the thermodynamic background of the typical elliptic p-T phase diagram, its limitations and the possible reasons for deviations of the experimental diagrams from the theoretical one. Finally we show some examples of experimentally determined pressure-temperature phase diagrams.
Santos-Carballal, David; Ngoepe, Phuti E.; de Leeuw, Nora H.
2018-02-01
The spinel-structured lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4 ) is a material currently used as cathode for secondary lithium-ion batteries, but whose properties are not yet fully understood. Here, we report a computational investigation of the inversion thermodynamics and electronic behavior of LiMn2O4 derived from spin-polarized density functional theory calculations with a Hubbard Hamiltonian and long-range dispersion corrections (DFT+U-D3). Based on the analysis of the configurational free energy, we have elucidated a partially inverse equilibrium cation distribution for the LiMn2O4 spinel. This equilibrium degree of inversion is rationalized in terms of the crystal field stabilization effects and the difference between the size of the cations. We compare the atomic charges with the oxidation numbers for each degree of inversion. We found segregation of the Mn charge once these ions occupy the tetrahedral and octahedral sites of the spinel. We have obtained the atomic projections of the electronic band structure and density of states, showing that the normal LiMn2O4 has half-metallic properties, while the fully inverse spinel is an insulator. This material is in the ferrimagnetic state for the inverse and partially inverse cation arrangement. The optimized lattice and oxygen parameters, as well as the equilibrium degree of inversion, are in agreement with the available experimental data. The partial equilibrium degree of inversion is important in the interpretation of the lithium ion migration and surface properties of the LiMn2O4 spinel.
Thermodynamic analysis of air solar collector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luminosu, Loan; Fara, Laurentiu
2006-01-01
The paper presents the experimental study of an air solar installation with a collecting area A c =4.2m 2 and variable working fluid flow rate in the range 0.02/0.06 kg/s. The experimental data are processed statistically through thermodynamic analysis using energy (semi-empirical and exergy methods. The aim of the paper is to establish the optimal air flow rate through this solar thermal system in order to ensure minimum irreversibility of the collecting-heating-cooling process under Romania's insolation conditions. The paper is also a demonstrative example of cost-effective and efficient use of solar energy for heating in Romania. It is experimentally proven that for this solar installation, the optimum air flow rate is of 0.04 kg/s. At a flow rate of 0.04 kg/s, irreversibility has the lowest values for all daytime hours with a maximum at noon (2640 W). For this flow rate the energy efficiency reaches the highest values. The maximum exergy efficiency value is 0 e x-max=0.197. In March 2000 the solar installation operated as an alternative thermal source for heating a garage, having an inner volume V=64.5 m 3 . The efficiency of the solar installation used for heating the garage is η=0.321. The economic ratio defined as the ratio between monetary benefit and financial investment is r=1.82. A value above 1 of ration r shows the economic utility of the solar installation for users who need thermal energy at low heat carrier levels. The study is useful to designers and users of solar thermal systems inCentral Europe as well as in other geographical areas where climatic conditions are comparable to those in South-Western Romania.(Author)
Experimental approaches to membrane thermodynamics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Westh, Peter
2009-01-01
Thermodynamics describes a system on the macroscopic scale, yet it is becoming an important tool for the elucidation of many specific molecular aspects of membrane properties. In this note we discuss this application of thermodynamics, and give a number of examples on how thermodynamic measurements...... have contributed to the understanding of specific membrane phenomena. We mainly focus on non-specific interactions of bilayers and small molecules (water and solutes) in the surrounding solvent, and the changes in membrane properties they bring about. Differences between thermodynamic...
Black Holes and Thermodynamics
Wald, Robert M.
1997-01-01
We review the remarkable relationship between the laws of black hole mechanics and the ordinary laws of thermodynamics. It is emphasized that - in analogy with the laws of thermodynamics - the validity the laws of black hole mechanics does not appear to depend upon the details of the underlying dynamical theory (i.e., upon the particular field equations of general relativity). It also is emphasized that a number of unresolved issues arise in ``ordinary thermodynamics'' in the context of gener...
The importance of hydration thermodynamics in fragment-to-lead optimization.
Ichihara, Osamu; Shimada, Yuzo; Yoshidome, Daisuke
2014-12-01
Using a computational approach to assess changes in solvation thermodynamics upon ligand binding, we investigated the effects of water molecules on the binding energetics of over 20 fragment hits and their corresponding optimized lead compounds. Binding activity and X-ray crystallographic data of published fragment-to-lead optimization studies from various therapeutically relevant targets were studied. The analysis reveals a distinct difference between the thermodynamic profile of water molecules displaced by fragment hits and those displaced by the corresponding optimized lead compounds. Specifically, fragment hits tend to displace water molecules with notably unfavorable excess entropies-configurationally constrained water molecules-relative to those displaced by the newly added moieties of the lead compound during the course of fragment-to-lead optimization. Herein we describe the details of this analysis with the goal of providing practical guidelines for exploiting thermodynamic signatures of binding site water molecules in the context of fragment-to-lead optimization. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Semiclassical methods in curved spacetime and black hole thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camblong, Horacio E.; Ordonez, Carlos R.
2005-01-01
Improved semiclassical techniques are developed and applied to a treatment of a real scalar field in a D-dimensional gravitational background. This analysis, leading to a derivation of the thermodynamics of black holes, is based on the simultaneous use of (i) a near-horizon description of the scalar field in terms of conformal quantum mechanics; (ii) a novel generalized WKB framework; and (iii) curved-spacetime phase-space methods. In addition, this improved semiclassical approach is shown to be asymptotically exact in the presence of hierarchical expansions of a near-horizon type. Most importantly, this analysis further supports the claim that the thermodynamics of black holes is induced by their near-horizon conformal invariance
Thermodynamics and statistical physics. 2. rev. ed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schnakenberg, J.
2002-01-01
This textbook covers tthe following topics: Thermodynamic systems and equilibrium, irreversible thermodynamics, thermodynamic potentials, stability, thermodynamic processes, ideal systems, real gases and phase transformations, magnetic systems and Landau model, low temperature thermodynamics, canonical ensembles, statistical theory, quantum statistics, fermions and bosons, kinetic theory, Bose-Einstein condensation, photon gas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reichel, Friederike
2007-11-19
This thesis addresses the effect of the parent metal-substrate orientation on the thermodynamics and kinetics of ultra-thin oxide-film growth on bare metals upon their exposure to oxygen gas at low temperatures (up to 650 K). A model description has been developed to predict the thermodynamically stable microstructure of a thin oxide film grown on its bare metal substrate as function of the oxidation conditions and the substrate orientation. For Mg and Ni, the critical oxide-film thickness is less than 1 oxide monolayer and therefore the initial development of an amorphous oxide phase on these metal substrates is unlikely. Finally, for Cu and densely packed Cr and Fe metal surfaces, oxide overgrowth is predicted to proceed by the direct formation and growth of a crystalline oxide phase. Further, polished Al single-crystals with {l_brace}111{r_brace}, {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} surface orientations were introduced in an ultra-high vacuum system for specimen processing and analysis. After surface cleaning and annealing, the bare Al substrates have been oxidized by exposure to pure oxygen gas. During the oxidation, the oxide-film growth kinetics has been established by real-time in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry. After the oxidation, the oxide-film microstructures were investigated by angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy electron diffraction. Finally, high-resolution transmission electron microscopic analysis was applied to study the microstructure and morphology of the grown oxide films on an atomic scale. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laosiripojana, N.; Assabumrungrat, S.; Pavarajarn, V.; Sangtongkitcharoen, W.; Tangjitmatee, A.; Praserthdam, P.
2004-01-01
'Full text:' This paper concerns a detailed thermodynamic analysis of carbon formation for a Direct Internal Reformer (DIR) Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC). The modeling of DIR-SOFC fueled by ethanol, methanol, and methane were compared. Two types of fuel cell electrolytes, i.e. oxygen-conducting and hydrogen-conducting, are considered. Equilibrium calculations were performed to find the ranges of inlet steam/fuel ratio where carbon formation is thermodynamically unfavorable in the temperature range of 500-1200 K. It was found that the key parameters determining the boundary of carbon formation are temperature, type of solid electrolyte and extent of the electrochemical reaction of hydrogen. The minimum requirements of H2O/fuel ratio for each type of fuel in which the carbon formation is thermodynamically unfavored were compared. At the same operating conditions, DIR-SOFC fueled by ethanol required the lowest inlet H2O/fuel ratio in which the carbon formation is thermodynamically unfavored. The requirement decreased with increasing temperature for all three fuels. Comparison between two types of the electrolytes reveals that the hydrogen-conducting electrolyte is impractical for use, regarding to the tendency of carbon formation. This is due mainly to the water formed by the electrochemical reaction at the electrodes. (author)
Thermodynamic analysis of growth of iron oxide films by MOCVD ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. Thermodynamic calculations, using the criterion of minimization of total Gibbs free energy of the system, have been carried out for the metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) process involving the -ketoesterate complex of iron [tris(-butyl-3-oxo-butanoato)iron(III) or Fe(tbob)3] and molecular oxygen.
Molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids
Lee, Lloyd L
2013-01-01
Molecular Thermodynamics of Nonideal Fluids serves as an introductory presentation for engineers to the concepts and principles behind and the advances in molecular thermodynamics of nonideal fluids. The book covers related topics such as the laws of thermodynamics; entropy; its ensembles; the different properties of the ideal gas; and the structure of liquids. Also covered in the book are topics such as integral equation theories; theories for polar fluids; solution thermodynamics; and molecular dynamics. The text is recommended for engineers who would like to be familiarized with the concept
Coherence and measurement in quantum thermodynamics.
Kammerlander, P; Anders, J
2016-02-26
Thermodynamics is a highly successful macroscopic theory widely used across the natural sciences and for the construction of everyday devices, from car engines to solar cells. With thermodynamics predating quantum theory, research now aims to uncover the thermodynamic laws that govern finite size systems which may in addition host quantum effects. Recent theoretical breakthroughs include the characterisation of the efficiency of quantum thermal engines, the extension of classical non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to the quantum regime and a new thermodynamic resource theory has led to the discovery of a set of second laws for finite size systems. These results have substantially advanced our understanding of nanoscale thermodynamics, however putting a finger on what is genuinely quantum in quantum thermodynamics has remained a challenge. Here we identify information processing tasks, the so-called projections, that can only be formulated within the framework of quantum mechanics. We show that the physical realisation of such projections can come with a non-trivial thermodynamic work only for quantum states with coherences. This contrasts with information erasure, first investigated by Landauer, for which a thermodynamic work cost applies for classical and quantum erasure alike. Repercussions on quantum work fluctuation relations and thermodynamic single-shot approaches are also discussed.
Ben-Naim, Arieh
1987-01-01
This book deals with a subject that has been studied since the beginning of physical chemistry. Despite the thousands of articles and scores of books devoted to solvation thermodynamics, I feel that some fundamen tal and well-established concepts underlying the traditional approach to this subject are not satisfactory and need revision. The main reason for this need is that solvation thermodynamics has traditionally been treated in the context of classical (macroscopic) ther modynamics alone. However, solvation is inherently a molecular pro cess, dependent upon local rather than macroscopic properties of the system. Therefore, the starting point should be based on statistical mechanical methods. For many years it has been believed that certain thermodynamic quantities, such as the standard free energy (or enthalpy or entropy) of solution, may be used as measures of the corresponding functions of solvation of a given solute in a given solvent. I first challenged this notion in a paper published in 1978 b...
Ben-Naim, Arieh
2017-01-01
This textbook introduces thermodynamics with a modern approach, starting from four fundamental physical facts (the atomic nature of matter, the indistinguishability of atoms and molecules of the same species, the uncertainty principle, and the existence of equilibrium states) and analyzing the behavior of complex systems with the tools of information theory, in particular with Shannon's measure of information (or SMI), which can be defined on any probability distribution. SMI is defined and its properties and time evolution are illustrated, and it is shown that the entropy is a particular type of SMI, i.e. the SMI related to the phase-space distribution for a macroscopic system at equilibrium. The connection to SMI allows the reader to understand what entropy is and why isolated systems follow the Second Law of Thermodynamics. The Second Llaw is also formulated for other systems, not thermally isolated and even open with respect to the transfer of particles. All the fundamental aspects of thermodynamics are d...
Mingyi, Liu; Bo, Yu; Jingming, Xu; Jing, Chen
High-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), a reversible process of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) in principle, is a promising method for highly efficient large-scale hydrogen production. In our study, the overall efficiency of the HTSE system was calculated through electrochemical and thermodynamic analysis. A thermodynamic model in regards to the efficiency of the HTSE system was established and the quantitative effects of three key parameters, electrical efficiency (η el), electrolysis efficiency (η es), and thermal efficiency (η th) on the overall efficiency (η overall) of the HTSE system were investigated. Results showed that the contribution of η el, η es, η th to the overall efficiency were about 70%, 22%, and 8%, respectively. As temperatures increased from 500 °C to 1000 °C, the effect of η el on η overall decreased gradually and the η es effect remained almost constant, while the η th effect increased gradually. The overall efficiency of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with the HTSE system under different conditions was also calculated. With the increase of electrical, electrolysis, and thermal efficiency, the overall efficiencies were anticipated to increase from 33% to a maximum of 59% at 1000 °C, which is over two times higher than that of the conventional alkaline water electrolysis.
Thermodynamic analysis and experimental study on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg coating baths
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Su, Xuping, E-mail: sxping@cczu.edu.cn [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Center of Photovoltaic Science and Engineering, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China); Zhou, Jie; Wang, Jianhua; Wu, Changjun; Liu, Ya; Tu, Hao; Peng, Haoping [Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Materials Surface Science and Technology, Changzhou University, 213164 Jiangsu (China)
2017-02-28
Highlights: • The surface oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg melt were analyzed with XPS. • Certain Al must be added in bath containing Mg to get stable galvanizing melts. • The oxidation products vary with the bath composition. • Oxidation can be predicted in galvanizing by using the calculated phase diagrams. • The thermodynamic analysis can be used to design the practical bath melts. - Abstract: Surface oxidation of molten Zn-6Al baths containing 0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 wt. % Mg were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. γ-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is formed on the surface of the Zn-6Al bath, while MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} and MgO occur at 460 °C in the Zn-6Al-3Mg and Zn-6Al-6Mg baths, respectively. Thermodynamic analysis on the oxidation of the Zn-Al-Mg baths was performed. Calculated phase diagrams at 460 °C and 560 °C show good agreements with the experimental results. MgO or MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} exists in almost the entire composition range of the calculated oxidation diagrams. According to the calculation, oxidation products depend on the composition and temperature of the baths. The primary and secondary oxidation products of the Zn-Al-Mg baths can be reasonably explained by oxidation phase diagrams. Utilizing these results, the favorable practical bath melts and operating conditions can be designed.
Thermodynamically efficient solar concentrators
Winston, Roland
2012-10-01
Non-imaging Optics is the theory of thermodynamically efficient optics and as such depends more on thermodynamics than on optics. Hence in this paper a condition for the "best" design is proposed based on purely thermodynamic arguments, which we believe has profound consequences for design of thermal and even photovoltaic systems. This new way of looking at the problem of efficient concentration depends on probabilities, the ingredients of entropy and information theory while "optics" in the conventional sense recedes into the background.
Yang, Yan; Feng, Zhong-Ying; Zhang, Jian-Min
2018-05-01
The spin-polarized first-principles are used to study the surface thermodynamic stability, electronic and magnetic properties in various (001) surfaces of Zr2CoSn Heusler alloy, and the bulk Zr2CoSn Heusler alloy are also discussed to make comparison. The conduction band minimum (CBM) of half-metallic (HM) bulk Zr2CoSn alloy is contributed by ZrA, ZrB and Co atoms, while the valence band maximum (VBM) is contributed by ZrB and Co atoms. The SnSn termination is the most stable surface with the highest spin polarizations P = 77.1% among the CoCo, ZrCo, ZrZr, ZrSn and SnSn terminations of the Zr2CoSn (001) surface. In the SnSn termination of the Zr2CoSn (001) surface, the atomic partial density of states (APDOS) of atoms in the surface, subsurface and third layers are much influenced by the surface effect and the total magnetic moment (TMM) is mainly contributed by the atomic magnetic moments of atoms in fourth to ninth layers.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alves, Lourenco Gobira; Nebra, Silvia Azucena
2004-01-01
One of the proposals to increase the performance of the gas turbines is to improve chemical recuperated cycle. In this cycle, the heat in the turbine exhaust gases is used to heat and modify the chemical characteristics of the fuel. One mixture of natural gas and steam receives heat from the exhaust turbine gases; the mixture components react among themselves producing hot synthesis gas. In this work, an analysis and nonlinear optimization of the cycle were made in order to investigate the temperature and pressure influence on the global cycle performance. The chemical composition in the reformer was assumed according to chemical equilibrium equations, which presents good agreement with data from literature. The mixture of hot gases was treated like ideal gases. The maximum net profit was achieved and a thermodynamic second law analysis was made in order to detect the greatest sources of irreversibility
Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system
Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA
2009-09-29
The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.
Thermodynamics in Loop Quantum Cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, L.F.; Zhu, J.Y.
2009-01-01
Loop quantum cosmology (LQC) is very powerful to deal with the behavior of early universe. Moreover, the effective loop quantum cosmology gives a successful description of the universe in the semiclassical region. We consider the apparent horizon of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe as a thermodynamical system and investigate the thermodynamics of LQC in the semiclassical region. The effective density and effective pressure in the modified Friedmann equation from LQC not only determine the evolution of the universe in LQC scenario but also are actually found to be the thermodynamic quantities. This result comes from the energy definition in cosmology (the Misner-Sharp gravitational energy) and is consistent with thermodynamic laws. We prove that within the framework of loop quantum cosmology, the elementary equation of equilibrium thermodynamics is still valid.
Interface-mediated amorphization of coesite by 200 keV electron irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, W.L.; Wang, L.M.; Ewing, R.C.; Xie, H.S.
1997-01-01
Electron-induced amorphization of coesite was studied as a function of irradiation temperature by in situ transmission electron microscopy at an incident energy of 200 keV. Electron-induced amorphization of coesite is induced by an ionization mechanism and is mainly dominated by an interface-mediated, heterogeneous nucleation-and-growth controlled process. Amorphous domains nucleate at surfaces, crystalline-amorphous (c-a) interfaces, and grain boundaries. This is the same process as the interface-mediated vitrification of coesite by isothermal annealing above the thermodynamic melting temperature (875 K), but below the glass transition temperature (1480 K). The interface-mediated amorphization of coesite by electron irradiation is morphologically similar to interface-mediated thermodynamic melting. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Choice of the thermodynamic variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balian, R.
1985-09-01
Some basic ideas of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, both at equilibrium and off equilibrium, are recalled. In particular, the selection of relevant variables which underlies any macroscopic description is discussed, together with the meaning of the various thermodynamic quantities, in order to set the thermodynamic approaches used in nuclear physics in a general prospect [fr
Thermodynamic modeling to analyse composition of carbonaceous ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Equilibrium thermodynamic analysis has been applied to the low-pressure MOCVD process using manganese acetylacetonate as the precursor. ``CVD phase stability diagrams” have been constructed separately for the processes carried out in argon and oxygen ambient, depicting the compositions of the resulting films as ...
Xu, Yiliang; Chen, Baoliang
2013-10-01
The thermodynamic parameters of the conversion of two companion pair materials, i.e., rice straw vs dairy manure, and rice bran vs chicken manure, to biochars were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis. The overall changes of activation energy (Ea) were well described by the Flynn-Wall method. The Ea values increased steeply from about 120 to 180 kJ/mol at the mass conversion (α) at 0.2-0.4, followed by a relatively steady change at 0.40.65. The higher contents of minerals in manures resulted in the larger Ea. The individual conversion of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin in the feedstocks was identified and their thermodynamic parameters (ΔH°, ΔG° and ΔS°) were calculated. The yields of biochars calculated from TG curve were compared with the determined yields of biochars using muffle pyrolysis. Along with Fourier transform infrared spectra data, the distinct decompositions of biomasses and manures were evaluated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Emam, Rami Salah; Dincer, Ibrahim
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the performance of a RO (reverse osmosis) desalination plant at different seawater salinity values. An energy recovery Pelton turbine is integrated with the desalination plant. Thermodynamic analysis, based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics, as well as a thermo-based economic analysis is performed for the proposed system. The effects of the system components irreversibilities on the economics and cost of product water are parametrically studied through the thermoeconomic analysis. The exergy analysis shows that large irreversibilities occur in the high pressure pump and in the RO module. Both thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of the overall system are investigated under different operating parameters. For the base case; the system achieves an exergy efficiency of 5.82%. The product cost is estimated to be 2.451 $/m 3 and 54.2 $/MJ when source water with salinity of 35,000 ppm is fed to the system. - Highlights: • Thermodynamic and exergoeconomic analyses are performed for SWRO with energy recovery. • Parametric studies are done to study effects of operating conditions on performance. • Different seawater sources with different salinity values are tested. • At base case, plant exergy efficiency is 5.82% and product cost is 2.451 $/m 3
Shimada, Toru; Hasegawa, Takeshi
2017-10-01
The pH dependent chemical structures of bromothymol blue (BTB), which have long been under controversy, are determined by employing a combined technique of multivariate analysis of electronic absorption spectra and quantum chemistry. Principle component analysis (PCA) of the pH dependent spectra apparently reveals that only two chemical species are adequate to fully account for the color changes, with which the spectral decomposition is readily performed by using augmented alternative least-squares (ALS) regression analysis. The quantity variation by the ALS analysis also reveals the practical acid dissociation constant, pKa‧. The determination of pKa‧ is performed for various ionic strengths, which reveals the thermodynamic acid constant (pKa = 7.5) and the number of charge on each chemical species; the yellow form is negatively charged species of - 1 and the blue form that of - 2. On this chemical information, the quantum chemical calculation is carried out to find that BTB molecules take the pure quinoid form in an acid solution and the quinoid-phenolate form in an alkaline solution. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations for the theoretically determined chemical structures account for the peak shift of the electronic spectra. In this manner, the structures of all the chemical species appeared in equilibrium have finally been confirmed.
Thermodynamics in Einstein's thought
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klein, M.J.
1983-01-01
The role of the thermodynamical approach in the Einstein's scientific work is analyzed. The Einstein's development of a notion about statistical fluctuations of thermodynamical systems that leads him to discovery of corpuscular-wave dualism is retraced
Adiabatic Expansion of Electron Gas in a Magnetic Nozzle
Takahashi, Kazunori; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod; Ando, Akira
2018-01-01
A specially constructed experiment shows the near perfect adiabatic expansion of an ideal electron gas resulting in a polytropic index greater than 1.4, approaching the adiabatic value of 5 /3 , when removing electric fields from the system, while the polytropic index close to unity is observed when the electrons are trapped by the electric fields. The measurements were made on collisionless electrons in an argon plasma expanding in a magnetic nozzle. The collision lengths of all electron collision processes are greater than the scale length of the expansion, meaning the system cannot be in thermodynamic equilibrium, yet thermodynamic concepts can be used, with caution, in explaining the results. In particular, a Lorentz force, created by inhomogeneities in the radial plasma density, does work on the expanding magnetic field, reducing the internal energy of the electron gas that behaves as an adiabatically expanding ideal gas.
Second Law of Thermodynamics Applied to Metabolic Networks
Nigam, R.; Liang, S.
2003-01-01
We present a simple algorithm based on linear programming, that combines Kirchoff's flux and potential laws and applies them to metabolic networks to predict thermodynamically feasible reaction fluxes. These law's represent mass conservation and energy feasibility that are widely used in electrical circuit analysis. Formulating the Kirchoff's potential law around a reaction loop in terms of the null space of the stoichiometric matrix leads to a simple representation of the law of entropy that can be readily incorporated into the traditional flux balance analysis without resorting to non-linear optimization. Our technique is new as it can easily check the fluxes got by applying flux balance analysis for thermodynamic feasibility and modify them if they are infeasible so that they satisfy the law of entropy. We illustrate our method by applying it to the network dealing with the central metabolism of Escherichia coli. Due to its simplicity this algorithm will be useful in studying large scale complex metabolic networks in the cell of different organisms.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
She, Xiaohui; Yin, Yonggao; Zhang, Xiaosong
2014-01-01
Highlights: • An energy-efficient refrigeration system with a novel subcooling method is proposed. • Thermodynamic analysis is conducted to discuss the effects of operation parameters. • Two different utilization ways of condensation heat are compared. • The system achieves much higher COP, even higher than reverse Carnot cycle. • Suggested mass concentration for LiCl–H 2 O is around 32% at a typical case. - Abstract: A new energy-efficient refrigeration system subcooled by liquid desiccant dehumidification and evaporation was proposed in this paper. In the system, liquid desiccant system could produce very dry air for an indirect evaporative cooler, which would subcool the vapor compression refrigeration system to get higher COP than conventional refrigeration system. The desiccant cooling system can use the condensation heat for the desiccant regeneration. Thermodynamic analysis is made to discuss the effects of operation parameters (condensing temperature, liquid desiccant concentration, ambient air temperature and relative humidity) on the system performance. Results show that the proposed hybrid vapor compression refrigeration system achieves significantly higher COP than conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, and even higher than the reverse Carnot cycle at the same operation conditions. The maximum COPs of the hybrid systems using hot air and ambient air are 18.8% and 16.3% higher than that of the conventional vapor compression refrigeration system under varied conditions, respectively
The OpenCalphad thermodynamic software interface
Sundman, Bo; Kattner, Ursula R; Sigli, Christophe; Stratmann, Matthias; Le Tellier, Romain; Palumbo, Mauro; Fries, Suzana G
2017-01-01
Thermodynamic data are needed for all kinds of simulations of materials processes. Thermodynamics determines the set of stable phases and also provides chemical potentials, compositions and driving forces for nucleation of new phases and phase transformations. Software to simulate materials properties needs accurate and consistent thermodynamic data to predict metastable states that occur during phase transformations. Due to long calculation times thermodynamic data are frequently pre-calculated into “lookup tables” to speed up calculations. This creates additional uncertainties as data must be interpolated or extrapolated and conditions may differ from those assumed for creating the lookup table. Speed and accuracy requires that thermodynamic software is fully parallelized and the Open-Calphad (OC) software is the first thermodynamic software supporting this feature. This paper gives a brief introduction to computational thermodynamics and introduces the basic features of the OC software and presents four different application examples to demonstrate its versatility. PMID:28260838
Lorentz violation and black-hole thermodynamics: Compton scattering process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kant, E.; Klinkhamer, F.R.; Schreck, M.
2009-01-01
A Lorentz-noninvariant modification of quantum electrodynamics (QED) is considered, which has photons described by the nonbirefringent sector of modified Maxwell theory and electrons described by the standard Dirac theory. These photons and electrons are taken to propagate and interact in a Schwarzschild spacetime background. For appropriate Lorentz-violating parameters, the photons have an effective horizon lying outside the Schwarzschild horizon. A particular type of Compton scattering event, taking place between these two horizons (in the photonic ergoregion) and ultimately decreasing the mass of the black hole, is found to have a nonzero probability. These events perhaps allow for a violation of the generalized second law of thermodynamics in the Lorentz-noninvariant theory considered.
Transient Exciplex Formation Electron Transfer Mechanism
Michael G. Kuzmin; Irina V. Soboleva; Elena V. Dolotova
2011-01-01
Transient exciplex formation mechanism of excited-state electron transfer reactions is analyzed in terms of experimental data on thermodynamics and kinetics of exciplex formation and decay. Experimental profiles of free energy, enthalpy, and entropy for transient exciplex formation and decay are considered for several electron transfer reactions in various solvents. Strong electronic coupling in contact pairs of reactants causes substantial decrease of activation energy relative to that for c...
Black hole chemistry: thermodynamics with Lambda
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B; Teo, Mae
2017-01-01
We review recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. In this approach, the mass of the black hole is no longer regarded as internal energy, rather it is identified with the chemical enthalpy. This leads to an extended dictionary for black hole thermodynamic quantities; in particular a notion of thermodynamic volume emerges for a given black hole spacetime. This volume is conjectured to satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality—an inequality imposing a bound on the amount of entropy black hole can carry for a fixed thermodynamic volume. New thermodynamic phase transitions naturally emerge from these identifications. Namely, we show that black holes can be understood from the viewpoint of chemistry, in terms of concepts such as Van der Waals fluids, reentrant phase transitions, and triple points. We also review the recent attempts at extending the AdS/CFT dictionary in this setting, discuss the connections with horizon thermodynamics, applications to Lifshitz spacetimes, and outline possible future directions in this field. (topical review)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ling Zhang
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In the pharmaceutical industry, the analysis of atropisomers is of considerable interest from a scientific and regulatory perspective. The compound of interest contains two stereogenic axes due to the hindered rotation around the single bonds connecting the aryl groups, which results in four potential configurational isomers (atropisomers. The separation of the four atropisomers is achieved on a derivatized β-cyclodextrin bonded stationary phase. Further investigation shows that low temperature conditions, including sample preparation (−70 °C, sample storage (−70 °C, and chromatographic separation (6 °C, were critical to preventing interconversion. LC-UV-Laser Polarimetric analysis identified peak 1/2 as a pair of enantiomers and peak 3/4 as another. Thermodynamic analysis of the retention data indicated that the separation of the pairs of enantiomers is primarily enthalpy controlled as indicated by the positive slope of the van’t Huff plot. The difference in absolute Δ (Δ H, ranged from 2.20 kJ/mol to 2.42 kJ/mol.
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.
Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David
2016-09-23
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.
The Pu–U–Am system: An ab initio informed CALPHAD thermodynamic study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perron, A.; Turchi, P.E.A.; Landa, A.; Söderlind, P.; Ravat, B.; Oudot, B.; Delaunay, F.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • The ab initio informed CALPHAD assessment of the Am–U system has been realized. • A strong tendency toward phase separation across the whole composition range is predicted. • The ab initio informed Pu–U–Am thermodynamic database has been developed. • The solubility of Am and U in the liquid phase is improved by adding Pu. • The δ-Pu (fcc) phase is strongly stabilized by Am, on the contrary to the bcc phase. - Abstract: Phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of the Am–U system, that are experimentally unknown, are calculated using the CALPHAD method with input from ab initio electronic-structure calculations for the fcc and bcc phases. A strong tendency toward phase separation across the whole composition range is predicted. In addition, ab initio informed Pu–U and Am–Pu thermodynamic assessments are combined to build a Pu–U–Am thermodynamic database. Regarding the Pu-rich corner of the ternary system, predictions indicate that Am acts as a powerful δ-Pu (fcc) stabilizer. In the U-rich corner, similar predictions are made but to a lesser extent. In both cases, the bcc phase is destabilized and the fcc phase is enhanced. Finally, results and methodology are discussed and compared with previous assessments and guidelines are provided for further experimental studies
The Pu–U–Am system: An ab initio informed CALPHAD thermodynamic study
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perron, A., E-mail: perron1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Turchi, P.E.A.; Landa, A.; Söderlind, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ravat, B.; Oudot, B.; Delaunay, F. [CEA-Centre de Valduc, 21120 Is sur Tille (France)
2015-03-15
Highlights: • The ab initio informed CALPHAD assessment of the Am–U system has been realized. • A strong tendency toward phase separation across the whole composition range is predicted. • The ab initio informed Pu–U–Am thermodynamic database has been developed. • The solubility of Am and U in the liquid phase is improved by adding Pu. • The δ-Pu (fcc) phase is strongly stabilized by Am, on the contrary to the bcc phase. - Abstract: Phase diagram and thermodynamic properties of the Am–U system, that are experimentally unknown, are calculated using the CALPHAD method with input from ab initio electronic-structure calculations for the fcc and bcc phases. A strong tendency toward phase separation across the whole composition range is predicted. In addition, ab initio informed Pu–U and Am–Pu thermodynamic assessments are combined to build a Pu–U–Am thermodynamic database. Regarding the Pu-rich corner of the ternary system, predictions indicate that Am acts as a powerful δ-Pu (fcc) stabilizer. In the U-rich corner, similar predictions are made but to a lesser extent. In both cases, the bcc phase is destabilized and the fcc phase is enhanced. Finally, results and methodology are discussed and compared with previous assessments and guidelines are provided for further experimental studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Ching-Feng [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Hsien-Chie, E-mail: hccheng@fcu.edu.tw [Department of Aerospace and Systems Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung 40724, Taiwan (China); Chen, Wen-Hwa, E-mail: whchen@pme.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Power Mechanical Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)
2016-05-01
First principles density functional theory calculations within the generalized gradient approximation are performed to comprehensively study the structural, elastic, electronic and thermodynamic properties of triclinic single and polycrystalline Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3}. The polycrystalline elastic properties are predicted using the Voigt–Reuss–Hill approximation and the thermodynamic properties are evaluated based on the quasi-harmonic Debye model. Their temperature, hydrostatic pressure or crystal orientation dependences are also addressed, and the predicted physical properties are compared with the literature experimental and theoretical data and also with those of three other Cu–In compounds, i.e., CuIn, Cu{sub 2}In and Cu{sub 11}In{sub 9}. The present calculations show that in addition to being a much better conductor compared to Cu{sub 2}In and Cu{sub 11}In{sub 9}, Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} crystal reveals weak elastic anisotropy, high ductility and low stiffness, and tends to become more elastically isotropic at very high hydrostatic pressure. Moreover, the Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} holds the largest high-temperature heat capacity among the four Cu–In compounds. - Highlights: • The physical property of Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} is reported by first-principles calculations. • Pressure effect on the physical property of Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} is presented. • The calculated lattice constants of Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} agree well with the experimental data. • Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} tends to become more elastically isotropic at very high pressure. • The heat capacity of Cu{sub 7}In{sub 3} is much larger than that of CuIn, Cu{sub 2}In and Cu{sub 11}In{sub 9}.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La, D.; Li, Y.; Dai, Y.J.; Ge, T.S.; Wang, R.Z.
2012-01-01
A novel rotary desiccant cooling cycle is proposed and studied using thermodynamic analysis method. The proposed cycle integrates the technologies of isothermal dehumidification and regenerative evaporative cooling, which are beneficial for irreversibility reduction. Thermodynamic investigation on the basic rotary desiccant cooling cycle shows that the exergy efficiency of the basic cycle is only 8.6%. The processes of desiccant dehumidification and evaporative cooling, which are essentially the basis for rotary desiccant cooling, affect the exergy performance of the cycle greatly and account for about one third of the total exergy destruction. The proposed cycle has potential to improve rotary desiccant cooling technology. It is advantageous in terms of both heat source utilization rate and space cooling capacity. The exergy efficiency of the new cycle is enhanced significantly to 29.1%, which is about three times that of the ventilation cycle, and 60% higher than that of the two-stage rotary desiccant cooling cycle. Furthermore, the regeneration temperature is reduced from 80 °C to about 60 °C. The corresponding specific exergy of the supply air is increased by nearly 30% when compared with the conventional cycles. -- Highlights: ► A novel rotary desiccant cooling cycle is developed using thermodynamic analysis method. ► Isothermal dehumidification and regenerative evaporative cooling have been integrated. ► The cycle is advantageous in terms of both heat source utilization rate and space cooling capacity. ► Cascaded energy utilization is beneficial for cycle performance improvement. ► Upper limits, which will be helpful to practical design and optimization, are obtained.
Thermodynamic monitoring and misfunction detection in turbocharged diesel engines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milazzo, A.N.; Bidini, G.
1992-01-01
Many kinds of fault detection systems for reciprocating engines have been proposed. Mostly these systems rely on dynamic analysis of engine behavior or chemical analysis of exhaust. Very few systems achieve a real on line diagnosis. On the other hand, land based and aeronautic turbine power plants are mostly equipped with thermodynamic fault detection systems (gas path analysis). The authors are trying to design a simple, cheap and reliable diesel engine monitoring system, performing a real time, continuous service. State of the art dynamics, gas path analysis and some new ideas will be used. Here we present the first part of this project, dealing with thermodynamic engine analysis. Soon we hope to present also a different approach, relying on engine dynamic analysis. This paper is mainly concerned with diesel engines. It seems reasonable to concentrate ourselves on large and based engines, whose size and cost justify the implementation of a fault detection system. Anyway many results are fairly general, and could be used for smaller engines, like vehicle engines, and other cases in which large number of units can lower costs
Li, Heling; Ren, Jinxiu; Wang, Wenwei; Yang, Bin; Shen, Hongjun
2018-02-01
Using the semi-classical (Thomas-Fermi) approximation, the thermodynamic properties of ideal Fermi gases in a harmonic potential in an n-dimensional space are studied under the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP). The mean particle number, internal energy, heat capacity and other thermodynamic variables of the Fermi system are calculated analytically. Then, analytical expressions of the mean particle number, internal energy, heat capacity, chemical potential, Fermi energy, ground state energy and amendments of the GUP are obtained at low temperatures. The influence of both the GUP and the harmonic potential on the thermodynamic properties of a copper-electron gas and other systems with higher electron densities are studied numerically at low temperatures. We find: (1) When the GUP is considered, the influence of the harmonic potential is very much larger, and the amendments produced by the GUP increase by eight to nine orders of magnitude compared to when no external potential is applied to the electron gas. (2) The larger the particle density, or the smaller the particle masses, the bigger the influence of the GUP. (3) The effect of the GUP increases with the increase in the spatial dimensions. (4) The amendments of the chemical potential, Fermi energy and ground state energy increase with an increase in temperature, while the heat capacity decreases. T F0 is the Fermi temperature of the ideal Fermi system in a harmonic potential. When the temperature is lower than a certain value (0.22 times T F0 for the copper-electron gas, and this value decreases with increasing electron density), the amendment to the internal energy is positive, however, the amendment decreases with increasing temperature. When the temperature increases to the value, the amendment is zero, and when the temperature is higher than the value, the amendment to the internal energy is negative and the absolute value of the amendment increases with increasing temperature. (5) When electron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Land, E.J.; Lexa, D.; Bensasson, R.V.; Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L.; Liddell, P.A.; Nemeth, G.A.
1987-01-01
Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of intramolecular electron-transfer reactions in carotenoporphyrin dyads and carotenoid-porphyrin-quinone triads have been studied by using pulse radiolysis and cyclic voltammetry. Rapid (<1 μs) electron transfer from carotenoid radical anions to attached porphyrins has been inferred. Carotenoid cations, on the other hand, do not readily accept electrons from attached porphyrins or pyropheophorbides. Electrochemical studies provide the thermodynamic basis for these observations and also allow estimation of the energetics of photoinitiated two-step electron transfer and two-step charge recombination in triad models for photosynthetic charge separation
Ehteshami, Hossein; Korzhavyi, Pavel A.
2017-12-01
First-principles-based thermodynamic modeling of cubic α and β phases of Mn represent a challenge due to their structural complexity and the necessity of simultaneous treatment of several types of disorder (electronic, magnetic, and vibrational) that have very different characteristic time scales. Here we employ mean-field theoretical models to describe the different types of disorder and then we connect each layer of theory to the others using the adiabatic principle of separating faster and slower degrees of freedom. The slowest (vibrational) degrees of freedom are treated using the Moruzzi, Janak, and Schwarz formalism [Phys. Rev. B 37, 790 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevB.37.790] of the Debye-Grüneisen model parametrized based on the first-principles calculated equation of state which includes the free-energy contributions due to the fast (electronic and magnetic) degrees of freedom via the Fermi-Dirac distribution function and a mean-field theory of transverse spin fluctuations. The magnetic contribution due to transverse spin fluctuations has been computed self-consistently within the disordered local moment picture of the paramagnetic state. The obtained results for thermodynamic properties such as lattice parameter, linear thermal expansion coefficient, and heat capacity of both phases show a good agreement with available experimental data. We also tested the assumption about the nature (localized versus delocalized) of magnetic moment on site IV in α -Mn and site I in β -Mn on the thermodynamic properties of these two phases. Similar to the findings of experimental studies, we conclude that magnetic moment on site IV in α -Mn is not of a localized character. However, a similar analysis suggests that the magnetic moment of site I in β -Mn should be treated as localized.
Wang, Xiaotian; Khachai, Houari; Khenata, Rabah; Yuan, Hongkuan; Wang, Liying; Wang, Wenhong; Bouhemadou, Abdelmadjid; Hao, Liyu; Dai, Xuefang; Guo, Ruikang; Liu, Guodong; Cheng, Zhenxiang
2017-11-23
In this paper, we have investigated the structural, electronic, magnetic, half-metallic, mechanical, and thermodynamic properties of the equiatomic quaternary Heusler (EQH) compound FeCrRuSi using the density functional theory (DFT) and the quasi-harmonic Debye model. Our results reveal that FeCrRuSi is a half-metallic material (HMM) with a total magnetic moment of 2.0 μ B in agreement with the well-known Slater-Pauling rule M t = Z t - 24. Furthermore, the origin of the half-metallic band gap in FeCrRuSi is well studied through a schematic diagram of the possible d-d hybridization between Fe, Cr and Ru elements. The half-metallic behavior of FeCrRuSi can be maintained in a relatively wide range of variations of the lattice constant (5.5-5.8 Å) under uniform strain and the c/a ratio (0.96-1.05) under tetragonal distortion. The calculated phonon dispersion, cohesive and formation energies, and mechanical properties reveal that FeCrRuSi is stable with an EQH structure. Importantly, the compound of interest has been prepared and is found to exist in an EQH type structure with the presence of some B2 disorder. Moreover, the thermodynamic properties, such as the thermal expansion coefficient α, the heat capacity C V , the Grüneisen constant γ, and the Debye temperature Θ D are calculated.
Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of a High Temperature Triple Absorption Heat Transformer
Khamooshi, Mehrdad; Yari, Mortaza; Egelioglu, Fuat; Salati, Hana
2014-01-01
First law of thermodynamics has been used to analyze and optimize inclusively the performance of a triple absorption heat transformer operating with LiBr/H2O as the working pair. A thermodynamic model was developed in EES (engineering equation solver) to estimate the performance of the system in terms of the most essential parameters. The assumed parameters are the temperature of the main components, weak and strong solutions, economizers' efficiencies, and bypass ratios. The whole cycle is optimized by EES software from the viewpoint of maximizing the COP via applying the direct search method. The optimization results showed that the COP of 0.2491 is reachable by the proposed cycle. PMID:25136702
Thermodynamic Analysis and Optimization of a High Temperature Triple Absorption Heat Transformer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehrdad Khamooshi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available First law of thermodynamics has been used to analyze and optimize inclusively the performance of a triple absorption heat transformer operating with LiBr/H2O as the working pair. A thermodynamic model was developed in EES (engineering equation solver to estimate the performance of the system in terms of the most essential parameters. The assumed parameters are the temperature of the main components, weak and strong solutions, economizers’ efficiencies, and bypass ratios. The whole cycle is optimized by EES software from the viewpoint of maximizing the COP via applying the direct search method. The optimization results showed that the COP of 0.2491 is reachable by the proposed cycle.
Generalization of Gibbs Entropy and Thermodynamic Relation
Park, Jun Chul
2010-01-01
In this paper, we extend Gibbs's approach of quasi-equilibrium thermodynamic processes, and calculate the microscopic expression of entropy for general non-equilibrium thermodynamic processes. Also, we analyze the formal structure of thermodynamic relation in non-equilibrium thermodynamic processes.
Kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of ultra-high pressure and heat ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Purpose: To undertake comparative kinetic and thermodynamic analyses of the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with IgG pre-treated with ultra-high pressure (UHP) and moderate heat. Methods: BSA solutions were processed at 100 – 600 MPa and 25 – 40 °C. We applied an optical biosensor based on surface ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukasawa, Masanori; Tamura, Shigeyuki
2007-01-01
The molten corium stratification tested in the OECD MASCA project was analyzed with our thermo-dynamic database and the database was verified to be effective for the stratification analysis. The MASCA test shows that the molten corium can be stratified with the metal layer under the oxide when sub-oxidized corium including iron was retained in the lower head of the reactor vessel. This stratification is caused by the increased density of the metal layer attributed to a transfer of uranium metal that was reduced from uranium oxide by zirconium. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations with the database, which was developed for the corium U-Zr-Fe-O-B-C-FPs system using the ionic two-sublattice model for liquid, show quantitative agreements with the MASCA test, such as the composition of each layer, fission product (FP) partitioning between the layers and B 4 C effect on the stratification. (author)
Entropy and black-hole thermodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wald, R.M.
1979-01-01
The concept of entropy is examined with an eye toward gaining insight into the nature of black-hole thermodynamics. Definitions of entropy are given for ordinary classical and quantum-mechanical systems which lead to plausibility arguments for the ordinary laws of thermodynamics. The treatment of entropy for a classical system is in the spirit of the information-theory viewpoint, but by explicitly incorporating the coarse-grained observable into the definition of entropy, we eliminate any nonobjective features. The definition of entropy for a quantum-mechanical system is new, but directly parallels the classical treatment. We then apply these ideas to a self-gravitating quantum system which contains a black hole. Under some assumptions: which, although nontrivial, are by no means exotic: about the nature of such a system, it is seen that the same plausibility arguments which lead to the ordinary laws of thermodynamics for ordinary systems now lead to the laws of black-hole mechanics, including the generalized second law of thermodynamics. Thus, it appears perfectly plausible that black-hole thermodynamics is nothing more than ordinary thermodynamics applied to a self-gravitating quantum system
Thermodynamic treatment of nonphysical systems: formalism and an example (single-lane traffic)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reiss, H.; Hammerich, A.D.; Montroll, E.W.
1986-01-01
An effort is made to introduce thermodynamic and statistical thermodynamic methods into the treatment of nonphysical (e.g., social, economic, etc.) systems. Emphasis is placed on the use of the entire thermodynamic framework, not merely entropy. Entropy arises naturally, related in a simple manner to other measurables, but does not occupy a primary position in the theory. However, the maximum entropy formalism is a convenient procedure for deriving the thermodynamic analog framework in which undetermined multipliers are thermodynamic-like variables which summarize the collective behavior of the system. The authors discuss the analysis of Levine and his coworkers showing that the maximum entropy formalism is the unique algorithm for achieving consistent inference of probabilities. The thermodynamic-like formalism for treating a single lane of vehicular traffic is developed and applied to traffic in which the interaction between cars is chosen to be a particular form of the ''follow-the-leader'' type. The equation of state of the traffic, the distributions of velocity and headway, and the various thermodynamic-like parameters, e.g., temperature (collective sensitivity), pressure, etc. are determined for the example of the Holland Tunnel. Nearest-neighbor and pair correlation functions for the vehicles are also determined. Interesting and suggestive results are obtained
Thermodynamic properties of cryogenic fluids
Leachman, Jacob; Lemmon, Eric; Penoncello, Steven
2017-01-01
This update to a classic reference text provides practising engineers and scientists with accurate thermophysical property data for cryogenic fluids. The equations for fifteen important cryogenic fluids are presented in a basic format, accompanied by pressure-enthalpy and temperature-entropy charts and tables of thermodynamic properties. It begins with a chapter introducing the thermodynamic relations and functional forms for equations of state, and goes on to describe the requirements for thermodynamic property formulations, needed for the complete definition of the thermodynamic properties of a fluid. The core of the book comprises extensive data tables and charts for the most commonly-encountered cryogenic fluids. This new edition sees significant updates to the data presented for air, argon, carbon monoxide, deuterium, ethane, helium, hydrogen, krypton, nitrogen and xenon. The book supports and complements NIST’s REFPROP - an interactive database and tool for the calculation of thermodynamic propertie...
Critical analysis of industrial electron accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korenev, S. E-mail: sergey_korenev@steris.com
2004-10-01
The critical analysis of electron linacs for industrial applications (degradation of PTFE, curing of composites, modification of materials, sterilization and others) is considered in this report. Main physical requirements for industrial electron accelerators consist in the variations of beam parameters, such as kinetic energy and beam power. Questions for regulation of these beam parameters are considered. The level of absorbed dose in the irradiated product and throughput determines the main parameters of electron accelerator. The type of ideal electron linac for industrial applications is discussed.
Critical analysis of industrial electron accelerators
Korenev, S.
2004-09-01
The critical analysis of electron linacs for industrial applications (degradation of PTFE, curing of composites, modification of materials, sterlization and others) is considered in this report. Main physical requirements for industrial electron accelerators consist in the variations of beam parameters, such as kinetic energy and beam power. Questions for regulation of these beam parameters are considered. The level of absorbed dose in the irradiated product and throughput determines the main parameters of electron accelerator. The type of ideal electron linac for industrial applications is discussed.
Critical analysis of industrial electron accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korenev, S.
2004-01-01
The critical analysis of electron linacs for industrial applications (degradation of PTFE, curing of composites, modification of materials, sterilization and others) is considered in this report. Main physical requirements for industrial electron accelerators consist in the variations of beam parameters, such as kinetic energy and beam power. Questions for regulation of these beam parameters are considered. The level of absorbed dose in the irradiated product and throughput determines the main parameters of electron accelerator. The type of ideal electron linac for industrial applications is discussed
Entropy, related thermodynamic properties, and structure of methylisocyanate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, Phil S.; Kilpatrick, John E.
2013-01-01
Highlights: ► The thermodynamic properties of methylisocyanate have been determined by isothermal calorimetry from 15 to 298.15 K. ► The third law entropy has been compared with the entropy calculated by statistical thermodynamics. ► The comparisons are consistent with selected proposed molecular structures and vibrational frequencies. -- Abstract: The entropy and related thermodynamic properties of methylisocyanate, CH 3 NCO, have been determined by isothermal calorimetry. The entropy in the ideal gas state at 298.15 K and 1 atmosphere is S m o = 284.3 ± 0.6 J/K · mol. Other thermodynamic properties determined include: the heat capacity from 15 to 300 K, the temperature of fusion (T fus = 178.461 ± 0.024 K), the enthalpy of fusion (ΔH fus = 7455.2 ± 14.0 J/mol), the enthalpy of vaporization at 298.15 K (ΔH vap = 28768 ± 54 J/mol), and the vapor pressure from fusion to 300 K. Using statistical thermodynamics, the entropy in this same state has been calculated for various assumed structures for methylisocyante which have been proposed based on several spectroscopic and ab initio results. Comparisons between the experimental and calculated entropy have led to the following conclusions concerning historical differences among problematic structural properties: (1) The CNC/CNO angles can have the paired values of 140/180° or 135/173° respectively. It is not possible to distinguish between the two by this thermodynamic analysis. (2) The methyl group functions as a free rotor or near free rotor against the NCO rigid frame. The barrier to internal rotation is less than 2100 J/mol. (3) The CNC vibrational bending frequency is consistent with the more recently observed assignments at 165 and 172 cm −1 with some degree of anharmonicity or with a pure harmonic at about 158 cm −1
Thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. [thermodynamic properties of gases
1976-01-01
The basic thermodynamic properties of gases are reviewed and the relations between them are derived from the first and second laws. The elements of statistical mechanics are then formulated and the partition function is derived. The classical form of the partition function is used to obtain the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of kinetic energies in the gas phase and the equipartition of energy theorem is given in its most general form. The thermodynamic properties are all derived as functions of the partition function. Quantum statistics are reviewed briefly and the differences between the Boltzmann distribution function for classical particles and the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions for quantum particles are discussed.
Singularity-free interpretation of the thermodynamics of supercooled water
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sastry, S.; Debenedetti, P.G.; Sciortino, F.; Stanley, H.E.
1996-01-01
The pronounced increases in isothermal compressibility, isobaric heat capacity, and in the magnitude of the thermal expansion coefficient of liquid water upon supercooling have been interpreted either in terms of a continuous, retracing spinodal curve bounding the superheated, stretched, and supercooled states of liquid water, or in terms of a metastable, low-temperature critical point. Common to these two scenarios is the existence of singularities associated with diverging density fluctuations at low temperature. We show that the increase in compressibility upon lowering the temperature of a liquid that expands on cooling, like water, is not contingent on any singular behavior, but rather is a thermodynamic necessity. We perform a thermodynamic analysis for an anomalous liquid (i.e., one that expands when cooled) in the absence of a retracing spinodal and show that one may in general expect a locus of compressibility extrema in the anomalous regime. Our analysis suggests that the simplest interpretation of the behavior of supercooled water consistent with experimental observations is free of singularities. We then develop a waterlike lattice model that exhibits no singular behavior, while capturing qualitative aspects of the thermodynamics of water. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Theoretical physics 5 thermodynamics
Nolting, Wolfgang
2017-01-01
This concise textbook offers a clear and comprehensive introduction to thermodynamics, one of the core components of undergraduate physics courses. It follows on naturally from the previous volumes in this series, defining macroscopic variables, such as internal energy, entropy and pressure,together with thermodynamic principles. The first part of the book introduces the laws of thermodynamics and thermodynamic potentials. More complex themes are covered in the second part of the book, which describes phases and phase transitions in depth. Ideally suited to undergraduate students with some grounding in classical mechanics, the book is enhanced throughout with learning features such as boxed inserts and chapter summaries, with key mathematical derivations highlighted to aid understanding. The text is supported by numerous worked examples and end of chapter problem sets. About the Theoretical Physics series Translated from the renowned and highly successful German editions, the eight volumes of this series cove...
Thermodynamic analysis of a directly heated oxyfuel supercritical power system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chowdhury, A.S.M. Arifur; Bugarin, Luz; Badhan, Antara; Choudhuri, Ahsan; Love, Norman
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A thermodynamic analysis of a supercritical power cycle is presented. • The supercritical power cycle is modeled using ASPEN HYSYS®. • A liquid methane and oxygen feed system is more efficient than a gaseous system. • CO_2 recirculated in gas form is 10.6% more efficient than when in liquid form. • Commercially available technologies permit liquid feed system delivery. - Abstract: Directly heated supercritical oxy-fuel gas turbines have potential to provide a higher thermal efficiency and lower pollutant emissions compared to current gas turbine systems. Motivated by the advantages of an oxyfuel-based directly heated supercritical power system, this paper presents an analysis of different operating conditions using ASPEN HYSYS®. This study first investigates the efficiency of gaseous or liquid methane and oxygen feed systems. T-s and P-v diagrams are generated and compared to each other to determine which is more efficient. The analysis revealed that the entropy generated during the combustion process for a liquid feed system is approximately three times higher than when methane and oxygen are compressed in gaseous form and delivered to the combustor and burned. To mitigate the high temperatures (3300 K) of the methane and oxygen combustion reaction, carbon dioxide is recirculated. For this portion of the system, the use of gaseous and liquid carbon dioxide recirculation loops and their corresponding efficiencies are determined. The investigation shows that the system yielded a higher net efficiency of 55.1% when gaseous carbon dioxide is recirculated as a diluent with liquid methane and oxygen delivery to the combustor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, Evgeniy V.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Excess limiting molar volume may be regarded as a solvation-related characteristic. ► Volumetric and enthalpic effects of dissolution are interrelated thermodynamically. ► Possibility to estimate the partial change in solute compressibility is described. - Abstract: On the basis of thermodynamic analysis, it is concluded that the excess limiting partial molar volume, like the excess limiting partial molar enthalpy, can be considered as a solvation-related characteristic of a liquid nonelectrolyte. A thermodynamically grounded interrelation between standard volumetric and enthalpic effects of solution of a liquid nonelectrolyte (or series of nonelectrolytes) is suggested.
Thermodynamics of complex formation of natural iron(III)porphyrins with neutral ligands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebedeva, Nataliya Sh.; Yakubov, Sergey P.; Vyugin, Anatoly I.; Parfenyuk, Elena V.
2003-01-01
Calorimetric titrations in benzene and chloroform at 298.15 K have been performed to give the complexes stability constants and the thermodynamic parameters for the complex formation of nature iron(III)porphyrins with pyridine. Stoichimetry of the complexes formed has been determined. It has been found that the thermodynamic parameters obtained depend on nature of peripheral substituents of the porphyrins. The estimation of the influence of Cl - and Ac - ions on the processes studied has been carried out. Using thermodynamic analysis method, the crystallsolvates of nature iron(III)porphyrins with benzene have been studied. Stoichiometry, thermal and energetic stability of the π-π-complexes formed have been determined. The data obtained have been used to the estimate solvent effect on the thermodynamic parameters of axial coordination of pyridine on the iron(III)porphyrins in benzene
Thermodynamic optimization of the Cu-Nd system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Peisheng; Zhou Liangcai; Du Yong; Xu Honghui; Liu Shuhong; Chen Li; Ouyang Yifang
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → The enthalpies of formation of the compounds Cu 6 Nd, Cu 5 Nd, Cu 2 Nd and αCuNd were calculated using DFT. → The thermodynamic constraints to eliminate the artificial phase relations were imposed during the thermodynamic optimization procedure. → The Cu-Nd system was optimized under the thermodynamic constraints. - Abstract: The thermodynamic constraints to eliminate artificial phase relations were introduced with the Cu-Nd system as an example. The enthalpies of formation of the compounds Cu 6 Nd, Cu 5 Nd, Cu 2 Nd and αCuNd are calculated using density functional theory. Taking into account all the experimental data and the first-principles calculated enthalpies of formation of these compounds, the thermodynamic optimization of the Cu-Nd system was performed under the proposed thermodynamic constraints. It is demonstrated that the thermodynamic constraints are critical to obtain a set of thermodynamic parameters for the Cu-Nd system, which can avoid the appearance of all the artificial phase relations.
Optimum design and thermodynamic analysis of a gas turbine and ORC combined cycle with recuperators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cao, Yue; Gao, Yike; Zheng, Ya; Dai, Yiping
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A GT-ORC combined cycle with recuperators was designed. • The effect of the ORC turbine inlet pressure on the combined cycle was examined. • Toluene was a more suitable working fluid for the GT-ORC combined cycle. • The GT-ORC combined cycle performed better than the GT-Rankine combined cycle. • The sensitivity analysis to the ambient temperature was completed. - Abstract: Gas turbines are widely used in distributed power generation because of their high efficiency, low pollution and low operational cost. To further utilize the waste heat from gas turbines, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) was proposed as the bottoming cycle for gas turbines in this paper. Two recuperators were coupled with the combined cycle to increase the thermal efficiency, and aromatics were chosen as the working fluid for the bottoming cycle. This paper focused on the optimum design and thermodynamic analysis of the gas turbine and ORC (GT-ORC) combined cycle. Results showed that the net power and thermal efficiency of the ORC increased with the ORC turbine inlet pressure and achieved optimum values at a specific pressure based on the optimum criteria. Furthermore, compared with the GT-Rankine combined cycle, the GT-ORC combined cycle had better thermodynamic performance. Toluene was a more suitable working fluid for the GT-ORC combined cycle. Moreover, ambient temperature sensitivity simulations concluded that the GT-ORC combined cycle had a maximum thermal efficiency and the combined cycle net power was mainly determined by the topping gas turbine cycle.
Integrated stoichiometric, thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of steady state metabolism.
Fleming, R M T; Thiele, I; Provan, G; Nasheuer, H P
2010-06-07
The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for new modelling approaches at various levels of complexity including the metabolome of a cell or an organism. Understanding the metabolism of a single cell and multi-cell organism will provide the knowledge for the rational design of growth conditions to produce commercially valuable reagents in biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate how equations representing steady state mass conservation, energy conservation, the second law of thermodynamics, and reversible enzyme kinetics can be formulated as a single system of linear equalities and inequalities, in addition to linear equalities on exponential variables. Even though the feasible set is non-convex, the reformulation is exact and amenable to large-scale numerical analysis, a prerequisite for computationally feasible genome scale modelling. Integrating flux, concentration and kinetic variables in a unified constraint-based formulation is aimed at increasing the quantitative predictive capacity of flux balance analysis. Incorporation of experimental and theoretical bounds on thermodynamic and kinetic variables ensures that the predicted steady state fluxes are both thermodynamically and biochemically feasible. The resulting in silico predictions are tested against fluxomic data for central metabolism in Escherichia coli and compare favourably with in silico prediction by flux balance analysis. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A brief review study of various thermodynamic cycles for high temperature power generation systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Si-Cong; Chen, Lin; Zhao, Yan; Li, Hong-Xu; Zhang, Xin-Rong
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Various high temperature power generation cycles for are reviewed and analyzed. • The operating temperature is higher than 700 K for high temperature power systems. • Thermodynamic cycle model study and working fluid choices are discussed. • Characteristics and future developments of high temperature cycles are presented and compared. - Abstract: This paper presents a review of the previous studies and papers about various thermodynamic cycles working for high temperature power generation procedures, in these cycles the highest temperature is not lower than 700 K. Thermodynamic cycles that working for power generation are divided into two broad categories, thermodynamic cycle model study and working fluid analysis. Thermodynamic cycle contains the simple cycle model and the complex cycle model, emphasis has been given on the complex thermodynamic cycles due to their high thermal efficiencies. Working fluids used for high temperature thermodynamic cycles is a dense gas rather than a liquid. A suitable thermodynamic cycle is crucial for effectively power generation especially under the condition of high temperature. The main purpose is to find out the characteristics of various thermodynamic cycles when they are working in the high temperature region for power generation. As this study shows, combined cycles with both renewable and nonrenewable energies as the heat source can show good performance
Possible extended forms of thermodynamic entropy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sasa, Shin-ichi
2014-01-01
Thermodynamic entropy is determined by a heat measurement through the Clausius equality. The entropy then formalizes a fundamental limitation of operations by the second law of thermodynamics. The entropy is also expressed as the Shannon entropy of the microscopic degrees of freedom. Whenever an extension of thermodynamic entropy is attempted, we must pay special attention to how its three different aspects just mentioned are altered. In this paper, we discuss possible extensions of the thermodynamic entropy. (paper)
Thermodynamics of statistical inference by cells.
Lang, Alex H; Fisher, Charles K; Mora, Thierry; Mehta, Pankaj
2014-10-03
The deep connection between thermodynamics, computation, and information is now well established both theoretically and experimentally. Here, we extend these ideas to show that thermodynamics also places fundamental constraints on statistical estimation and learning. To do so, we investigate the constraints placed by (nonequilibrium) thermodynamics on the ability of biochemical signaling networks to estimate the concentration of an external signal. We show that accuracy is limited by energy consumption, suggesting that there are fundamental thermodynamic constraints on statistical inference.
Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints
Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S
2016-01-01
The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments. PMID:27035705
Microbial diversity arising from thermodynamic constraints.
Großkopf, Tobias; Soyer, Orkun S
2016-11-01
The microbial world displays an immense taxonomic diversity. This diversity is manifested also in a multitude of metabolic pathways that can utilise different substrates and produce different products. Here, we propose that these observations directly link to thermodynamic constraints that inherently arise from the metabolic basis of microbial growth. We show that thermodynamic constraints can enable coexistence of microbes that utilise the same substrate but produce different end products. We find that this thermodynamics-driven emergence of diversity is most relevant for metabolic conversions with low free energy as seen for example under anaerobic conditions, where population dynamics is governed by thermodynamic effects rather than kinetic factors such as substrate uptake rates. These findings provide a general understanding of the microbial diversity based on the first principles of thermodynamics. As such they provide a thermodynamics-based framework for explaining the observed microbial diversity in different natural and synthetic environments.
Thermodynamics for Chemists, Physicists and Engineers
Hołyst, Robert
2012-01-01
Thermodynamics is an essential part of chemical physics and is of fundamental importance in physics, chemistry and engineering courses. This textbook takes an interdisciplinary approach to the subject and is therefore suitable for undergraduates in all those courses. The book is an introduction to phenomenological thermodynamics and its applications to phase transitions and chemical reactions, with some references to statistical mechanics. It strikes the balance between the rigorousness of the Callen text and phenomenological approach of the Atkins text. The book is divided in three parts. The first introduces the postulates and laws of thermodynamics and complements these initial explanations with practical examples. The second part is devoted to applications of thermodynamics to phase transitions in pure substances and mixtures. The third part covers thermodynamic systems in which chemical reactions take place. There are some sections on more advanced topics such as thermodynamic potentials, natural variabl...
Thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes III
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Štejfa, Vojtěch; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, Květoslav; Červinka, Ctirad
2014-01-01
Highlights: • (−)-trans-Pinane, (+)-Δ-carene, eucalyptol, and limonene were studied. • New thermodynamic data were measured and calculated. • Many of thermodynamic data are reported for the first time. - Abstract: A thermodynamic study of selected monoterpenes, (−)-trans-pinane, (+)-Δ-carene, eucalyptol, (+)-limonene, and (−)-limonene, is presented in this work. The vapor pressure measurements were performed using the static method over the environmentally important temperature range (238 to 308) K. Liquid heat capacities were measured by Tian–Calvet calorimetry in the temperature interval (258 to 355) K. The phase behavior was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) from T = 183 K. The thermodynamic properties in the ideal-gas state were calculated by combining statistical thermodynamic and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Calculated ideal-gas heat capacities and experimental data for vapor pressures and condensed phase heat capacities were treated simultaneously to obtain a consistent thermodynamic description
Thermodynamic analysis of transition pressure of δ-stabilized binary plutonium alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Qinghui
1992-01-01
The transformation of δ-stabilized binary plutonium alloys to α-Pu was studies by thermodynamic analysis. A transition pressure-composition equation which can characterize the high pressure transformation from δ to α was derived. Values calculated by the equation and values measured by experiments of published references have the same tendency. the following facts can be explained properly by this equation. (1)The transformation pressure increases linearly with the amount of an alloying element. (2) The slope of the plot of transformation pressure versus composition of δ-Pu alloys is inversely proportional to the minimum amount of solute required to retain δ-phase at room temperature and pressure. (3) Curves showing the relationship between transformation pressure and composition of various δ-stabilized binary alloys interact at the same point of zero solute (transformation pressure axis). In addition, some transformation pressures from δ to α of δ-stabilized alloys are predicted by using the modified theoretical equation