WorldWideScience

Sample records for thermocouples descriptive note

  1. Thermocouple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlesworth, F.D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A thermocouple is provided by a cable of coaxial form with inner and outer conductors of thermocouple forming materials and with the conductors electrically joined together at one end of the cable to form the thermocouple junction. The inner and outer conductors are preferably of chromel and stainless steel respectively. (author)

  2. Composite thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debeir, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    As a rule, a composite thermocouple is a thermocouple where one or more components (wires, sheath, insulation) differ in kind between the hot junction measurement point and the cold termination with ordinary cables going on to measurement instrumentation. Three categories of such thermocouples are discussed: composite thermocouples having in common the continuity of the thermoelement wires over complete length, and different sheaths and insulation for the high temperature and intermediate temperature parts; those with different thermoelement wires, sheaths, and insulators for the high and intermediate temperature parts; a third category includes the high temperature thermoelements insulated by Al 2 O 3 or BeO and sheathed with a refractory metal, and with the intermediate temperature part made of 2Cr-Al couples, MgO insulated, and stainless steel or inconel sheathed

  3. Spatial filtring and thermocouple spatial filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Bing; Tong Yunxian

    1989-12-01

    The design and study on thermocouple spatial filter have been conducted for the flow measurement of integrated reactor coolant. The fundamental principle of spatial filtring, mathematical descriptions and analyses of thermocouple spatial filter are given

  4. Temperature measurements by thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liermann, J.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of a temperature (whatever the type of transducer used) raises three problems: the choice of transducer; where it should be placed; how it should be fixed and protected. These are the three main points examined, after a brief description of the most commonly used thermocouples [fr

  5. Description of an identification method of thermocouple time constant based on application of recursive numerical filtering to temperature fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.; Le Guillou, G.; Parcy, JP.

    1981-04-01

    Usual spectral methods, based on temperature fluctuation analysis, aiming at thermocouple time constant identification are using an equipment too much sophisticated for on-line application. It is shown that numerical filtering is optimal for this application, the equipment is simpler than for spectral methods and less samples of signals are needed for the same accuracy. The method is described and a parametric study was performed using a temperature noise simulator [fr

  6. Thermocouple modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, M.O.

    1984-01-01

    The temperature measurements provided by thermocouples (TCs) are important for the operation of pressurized water reactors. During severe inadequate core cooling incidents, extreme temperatures may cause type K thermocouples (TCs) used for core exit temperature monitoring to perform poorly. A model of TC electrical behavior has been developed to determine how TCs react under extreme temperatures. The model predicts the voltage output of the TC and its impedance. A series of experiments were conducted on a length of type K thermocouple to validate the model. Impedance was measured at several temperatures between 22 0 C and 1100 0 C and at frequencies between dc and 10 MHz. The model was able to accurately predict impedance over this wide range of conditions. The average percentage difference between experimental data and the model was less than 6.5%. Experimental accuracy was +-2.5%. There is a sriking difference between impedance versus frequency plots at 300 0 C and at higher temperatures. This may be useful in validating TC data during accident conditions

  7. Notes on Japanese Rhizocephala, with description of two new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschma, H.

    1935-01-01

    The following notes are based upon material of parasites on two Crustaceans from Japan, viz., Pachygrapsus crassipes Randall and Petrolisthes japonicus de Haan 1). Each of these two species may be infested by two different species of Rhizocephala: on Pachygrapsus crassipes occur the parasites

  8. A Note on the Field-Theoretical Description of Superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianopoli, L; Grassi, P A; Trigiante, M

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a Lagrangian description of superfluids attracted some interest from the fluid/gravity-correspondence viewpoint. In this respect, the work of Dubovksy et al. has proposed a new field theoretical description of fluids, which has several interesting aspects. On another side, we have provided in arXiv:1304.2206 a supersymmetric extension of the original works. In the analysis of the Lagrangian structures a new invariant appeared which, although related to known invariants, provides, in our opinion, a better parametrisation of the fluid dynamics in order to describe the fluid/superfluid phases.

  9. Thin film ceramic thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Otto (Inventor); Fralick, Gustave (Inventor); Wrbanek, John (Inventor); You, Tao (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A thin film ceramic thermocouple (10) having two ceramic thermocouple (12, 14) that are in contact with each other in at least on point to form a junction, and wherein each element was prepared in a different oxygen/nitrogen/argon plasma. Since each element is prepared under different plasma conditions, they have different electrical conductivity and different charge carrier concentration. The thin film thermocouple (10) can be transparent. A versatile ceramic sensor system having an RTD heat flux sensor can be combined with a thermocouple and a strain sensor to yield a multifunctional ceramic sensor array. The transparent ceramic temperature sensor that could ultimately be used for calibration of optical sensors.

  10. Immigrant fertility in Sweden, 2000-2011: A descriptive note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotta Persson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modern Scandinavian population registers provide excellent data sources that allow a user to quickly gain an impression of the level of fertility and its structure across subpopulations. This may also allow the analyst to check a feature of the much-cited disruption hypothesis, at least in part. Objective: The purpose of this note is to exploit this potential to give an overview of the structure of recent total fertility after immigration to Sweden from various groups of sending countries, separately for males and females. In the process we demonstrate to what extent the post-migration fertility compensation which is part of the fertility disruption hypothesis is fulfilled in our study population. Due to the nature of our data we have refrained from studying fertility before migration. Methods: Based on data from a combination of two Swedish administrative registers (the Historic Population Register and the Multi-Generation Register that cover both men and women in the entire population for the years 2000-2011, we compute and plot TFR-like age-cumulated fertility levels, specific for years since immigration, for six groups of sending countries, separately for men and women. Results: We find that the post-migration fertility compensation specified as part of the fertility disruption hypothesis is visibly confirmed in our Swedish study population for female European immigrants from non-EU countries and for female immigrants from non-European countries with a low or medium UN Human Development Index, but not so for other female immigrants, i.e. not for those who come from a Nordic country or from a non-Nordic EU country, and not for female immigrants from a non-European country with a high Human Development Index, including the United States. We find mild but less conclusive evidence for the same feature for males. Conclusions: This shows that at least as far as post-migration fertility compensation is concerned, the disruption

  11. Travelling gradient thermocouple calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broomfield, G.H.

    1975-01-01

    A short discussion of the origins of the thermocouple EMF is used to re-introduce the idea that the Peltier and Thompson effects are indistinguishable from one another. Thermocouples may be viewed as devices which generate an EMF at junctions or as integrators of EMF's developed in thermal gradients. The thermal gradient view is considered the more appropriate, because of its better accord with theory and behaviour, the correct approach to calibration, and investigation of service effects is immediately obvious. Inhomogeneities arise in thermocouples during manufacture and in service. The results of travelling gradient measurements are used to show that such effects are revealed with a resolution which depends on the length of the gradient although they may be masked during simple immersion calibration. Proposed tests on thermocouples irradiated in a nuclear reactor are discussed

  12. Noted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunberg, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    Considering how much attention people lavish on the technologies of writing--scroll, codex, print, screen--it's striking how little they pay to the technologies for digesting and regurgitating it. One way or another, there's no sector of the modern world that is not saturated with note-taking--the bureaucracy, the liberal professions, the…

  13. Noncontacting Measurement With a Thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherill, W. T.; Schoreder, C. J.; Freitag, H. J.

    1986-01-01

    Tentlike covering brings thermocouple to within few degrees of surface temperature. Technique originally developed for measuring surface temperature of quartz fabric under radiant heating requires no direct contact with heated surface. Technique particularly useful when measuring surface temperatures of materials damaged if thermocouple or other temperature sensor attached.

  14. Effects of thermocouple installation and location on fuel rod temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormick, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the results of analyses of nuclear fuel rod cladding temperature data obtained during in-reactor experiments under steady state and transient (simulated loss-of-coolant accident) operating conditions. The objective of the analyses was to determine the effect of thermocouple attachment method and location on measured thermal response. The use of external thermocouples increased the time to critical heat flux (CHF), reduced the blowdown peak temperature, and enhanced rod quench. A comparison of laser welded and resistance welded external thermocouple responses showed that the laser welding technique reduced the indicated cladding steady state temperatures and provided shorter time-to-CHF. A comparison of internal welded and embedded thermocouples indicated that the welded technique gave generally unsatisfactory cladding temperature measurements. The embedded thermocouple gave good, consistent results, but was possibly more fragile than the welded thermocouples. Detailed descriptions of the thermocouple designs, attachment methods and locations, and test conditions are provided

  15. PWR thermocouple mechanical sealing structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Qiuping; He Youguang

    1991-08-01

    The PWR in-core temperature detection device, which is one of measures to insure reactor safety operation, is to monitor and diagnose reactor thermal power output and in-core power distribution. The temperature detection device system uses thermocouples as measuring elements with stainless steel protecting sleeves. The thermocouple has a limited service time and should be replaced after its service time has reached. A new sealing device for the thermocouples of reactor in-core temperature detection system has been developed to facilitate replacement. The structure is complete tight under high temperature and pressure without any leakage and seepage, and easy to be assembled or disassembled in radioactive environment. The device is designed to make it possible to replace the thermocouple one by one if necessary. This is a new, simple and practical structure

  16. Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini: descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic notes on some Polyglyptini; descriptions of new genus and new species (Homoptera, Membracidae, Smiliinae. The genera Hemiptycha Germar, Metheisa Fowler, Maturnaria Metcalf, Aphetea Fowler, Dioclophara Kirkaldy, and Phormophora Stål, are redescribed; Creonus, gen.n. (type species: Maturna lloydi Funkhouser, 1914, and Aphetea robustula, sp.n. (from Bolivia, are described. Some nomenclatural changes are introduced, as follow: - Hemiptycha Germar, 1833 = Polyrhyssa Stål, 1869, syn.n.: - Hemiptycha cultrata (Coquebert, 1801, comb.n., = Polyglyptodes flavocostatus Haviland, 1925, syn.n., = Polyrhyssa cultrata maculata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Hemiptycha obtecta (Fabricius, 1803 = Hille herbicola Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Maturnaria ephippigera (Fairmaire, 1846 = Publilia tumulata Buckton, 1903, syn.n., = Metheisa fowleri Funkhouser, 1927, syn.n. - Creonus lloydi (Funkhouser, 1914, comb.n. - Aphetea parvula (Fabricius, 1803, comb.n., = Aphetea affinis Haviland, 1925, syn.n. - Dioclophara Kirkaldy, 1904 = lncolea Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Dioclophara viridula (Fairmaire, 1846 = Maturna multilineata Fonseca, 1942, syn.n. - Dioclophara variegata (Goding, 1926, comb.n. = lncolea viridis Goding, 1926, syn.n. - Phormophora maura (Fabricius, 1803 = Darnis dorsata Fabricius, 1803, syn.n.

  17. Temperature monitoring device and thermocouple assembly therefor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Noel P.; Bauer, Frank I.; Bengel, Thomas G.; Kothmann, Richard E.; Mavretish, Robert S.; Miller, Phillip E.; Nath, Raymond J.; Salton, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature monitoring device for measuring the temperature at a surface of a body, composed of: at least one first thermocouple and a second thermocouple; support members supporting the thermocouples for placing the first thermocouple in contact with the body surface and for maintaining the second thermocouple at a defined spacing from the body surface; and a calculating circuit connected to the thermocouples for receiving individual signals each representative of the temperature reading produced by a respective one of the first and second thermocouples and for producing a corrected temperature signal having a value which represents the temperature of the body surface and is a function of the difference between the temperature reading produced by the first thermocouple and a selected fraction of the temperature reading provided by the second thermocouple.

  18. Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Gustavo Hermes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Notes on Neotropical Eumeninae, with the description of a new species of Pachodynerus de Saussure (Hymenoptera, Vespidae. Taxonomic information on Neotropical Eumeninae is provided. A new species, Pachodynerus fessatus sp. nov. is described from southeastern São Paulo, Brazil. Additional material of Pachodynerus sericeus (Fox was examined, representing the first further specimens after the original description and including the previously unknown male. The examination of new material of the genus Stenonartonia adds some new distribution records and shows some previously unrecorded individual variation for some species. The males of Stenonartonia guaraya Garcete-Barrett and Stenonartonia rejectoides Garcete-Barrett are described for the first time.

  19. A note on the translation of conceptual data models into description logics: disjointness and covering assumptions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available possibilities for conceptual data modeling. It also raises the question of how existing conceptual models using ER, UML or ORM could be translated into Description Logics (DLs), a family of logics that have proved to be particularly appropriate for formalizing...

  20. Description and biological notes of the first species of Xenos (Strepsiptera:Stylopidae) parasitic in Polistes carnifex F. (Hymenoptera:Vespidae) in Mexico

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kathirithamby, J.; Hughes, David P.

    2006-01-01

    A description and biological notes on the first species of Xenos (X. hamiltoni) (Strepsiptera: Stylopidae) parasitic in Polistes carnifex F. from Mexico is given. A list of Strepsiptera and their hosts from Mexico is provided....

  1. LOFT small break test thermocouple installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fors, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    The subject thermocouple design has been analyzed for maximum expected hydraulic loading and found to be adequate. The natural frequency of the thermocouple was found to be between the vortex shedding frequencies for the gas and liquid phase so that a tendency for resonance will exist. However, since the thermocouple support will have a restricted displacement, stresses found are below the endurance limit and, thus, are acceptable in respect to fatigue life as well as primary stress due to pressure loading

  2. Exercise in completing design information questionnaire for model research reactor: model description, notes, questionnaire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellinger, J.; Ho, T.

    1989-01-01

    The document which defines the inspection measures which the IAEA can deploy at any given nuclear facility is known as the Facility Attachment. For the Agency to negotiate an effective Facility Attachment it must have available certain design information, including the facility's identity, capacity and location; the form, location and flow of nuclear material and the layout of important items of equipment; and a description of the features and procedures relating to nuclear material accountancy, containment and surveillance. In practice such information is solicited in a format, standardized for each facility type, known as the Design Information Questionnaire or the D.I.Q. The nuclear activities used as a model in this course are those of a fictitious country called Pacifica. These nuclear activities bear some resemblance to those at the Australian Atomic Energy Commission's Research Establishment at Lucas Heights. Specifically, Pacifica has a 10 MW heavy water cooled and moderated research reactor using enriched uranium fuel which is very similar to the HIFAR reactor. The reactor and the associated laboratories are described and the Design Information Questionnaire for them is completed. figs., tabs

  3. Taxonomic notes of Hemixantha (Diptera: Richardiidae with description of a new species from the Amazon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Dilli Wentd

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Richardiidae is represented by ca. 180 species in 33 genera. A new species of Hemixantha, now totaling 20 species, is described from the Amazon Region, state of Pará, Brazil, and from Teoponte, Bolivia. Hemixantha maculosa sp. nov., H. picta Hennig, 1937 and H. pulchripennis Hendel, 1911 are richardiids known to have an extensively banded wing pattern. Hemixantha maculosa sp. nov. represents the first record of Hemixantha from the state of Pará and this species can be distinguished from H. picta and H. pulchripennis by anepisternum and dorsal half of anepimeron bright yellow and vein R2+3 slightly sinuous. Besides the hyaline areas on the wing of H. maculosa are very distinct from these other species, as follows: (1 subtrapezoidal median area in cell cua1 extended anteriorly to vein M1, separated from hyaline area in cell dm; (2 two oblique areas from costal margin almost to or beyond vein R4+5, one proximal to and one distal to level of crossvein r-m; (3 a circular area on basal part of cell r4+5 and (4 a triangular area on basal region of cell m1. An identification key, diagnoses, description and redescriptions, and illustrations to the species of Hemixantha with an extensively banded wing pattern are provided.

  4. Novel thermocouples for automotive applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Gierth

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of temperatures in engine and exhaust systems in automotive applications is necessary for thermal protection of the parts and optimizing of the combustion process. State-of-the-art temperature sensors are very limited in their response characteristic and installation space requirement. Miniaturized sensor concepts with a customizable geometry are needed. The basic idea of this novel sensor concept is to use thick-film technology on component surfaces. Different standardized and especially nonstandard material combinations of thermocouples have been produced for the validation of this technology concept. Application-oriented measurements took place in the exhaust system of a test vehicle and were compared to standard laboratory conditions.

  5. Attaching Thermocouples by Peening or Crimping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtland, Kevin; Cox, Robert; Immer, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Two simple, effective techniques for attaching thermocouples to metal substrates have been devised for high-temperature applications in which attachment by such conventional means as welding, screws, epoxy, or tape would not be effective. The techniques have been used successfully to attach 0.005- in. (0.127-mm)-diameter type-S thermocouples to substrates of niobium alloy C-103 and stainless steel 416 for measuring temperatures up to 2,600 F (1,427 C). The techniques are equally applicable to other thermocouple and substrate materials. In the first technique, illustrated in the upper part of the figure, a hole slightly wider than twice the diameter of one thermocouple wire is drilled in the substrate. The thermocouple is placed in the hole, then the edge of the hole is peened in one or more places by use of a punch (see figure). The deformed material at the edge secures the thermocouple in the hole. In the second technique a hole is drilled as in the first technique, then an annular relief area is machined around the hole, resulting in structure reminiscent of a volcano in a crater. The thermocouple is placed in the hole as in the first technique, then the "volcano" material is either peened by use of a punch or crimped by use of sidecutters to secure the thermocouple in place. This second technique is preferable for very thin thermocouples [wire diameter .0.005 in. (.0.127 mm)] because standard peening poses a greater risk of clipping one or both of the thermocouple wires. These techniques offer the following advantages over prior thermocouple-attachment techniques: . Because these techniques involve drilling of very small holes, they are minimally invasive . an important advantage in that, to a first approximation, the thermal properties of surrounding areas are not appreciably affected. . These techniques do not involve introduction of any material, other than the substrate and thermocouple materials, that could cause contamination, could decompose, or oxidize

  6. AGR-1 Thermocouple Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einerson, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This report documents an effort to analyze measured and simulated data obtained in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel irradiation test program conducted in the INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to support the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) R and D program. The work follows up on a previous study (Pham and Einerson, 2010), in which statistical analysis methods were applied for AGR-1 thermocouple data qualification. The present work exercises the idea that, while recognizing uncertainties inherent in physics and thermal simulations of the AGR-1 test, results of the numerical simulations can be used in combination with the statistical analysis methods to further improve qualification of measured data. Additionally, the combined analysis of measured and simulation data can generate insights about simulation model uncertainty that can be useful for model improvement. This report also describes an experimental control procedure to maintain fuel target temperature in the future AGR tests using regression relationships that include simulation results. The report is organized into four chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification program, AGR-1 test configuration and test procedure, overview of AGR-1 measured data, and overview of physics and thermal simulation, including modeling assumptions and uncertainties. A brief summary of statistical analysis methods developed in (Pham and Einerson 2010) for AGR-1 measured data qualification within NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is also included for completeness. Chapters 2-3 describe and discuss cases, in which the combined use of experimental and simulation data is realized. A set of issues associated with measurement and modeling uncertainties resulted from the combined analysis are identified. This includes demonstration that such a combined analysis led to important insights for reducing uncertainty in presentation of AGR-1 measured data (Chapter 2) and interpretation of

  7. AGR-1 Thermocouple Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeff Einerson

    2012-05-01

    This report documents an effort to analyze measured and simulated data obtained in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel irradiation test program conducted in the INL's Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) to support the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) R&D program. The work follows up on a previous study (Pham and Einerson, 2010), in which statistical analysis methods were applied for AGR-1 thermocouple data qualification. The present work exercises the idea that, while recognizing uncertainties inherent in physics and thermal simulations of the AGR-1 test, results of the numerical simulations can be used in combination with the statistical analysis methods to further improve qualification of measured data. Additionally, the combined analysis of measured and simulation data can generate insights about simulation model uncertainty that can be useful for model improvement. This report also describes an experimental control procedure to maintain fuel target temperature in the future AGR tests using regression relationships that include simulation results. The report is organized into four chapters. Chapter 1 introduces the AGR Fuel Development and Qualification program, AGR-1 test configuration and test procedure, overview of AGR-1 measured data, and overview of physics and thermal simulation, including modeling assumptions and uncertainties. A brief summary of statistical analysis methods developed in (Pham and Einerson 2010) for AGR-1 measured data qualification within NGNP Data Management and Analysis System (NDMAS) is also included for completeness. Chapters 2-3 describe and discuss cases, in which the combined use of experimental and simulation data is realized. A set of issues associated with measurement and modeling uncertainties resulted from the combined analysis are identified. This includes demonstration that such a combined analysis led to important insights for reducing uncertainty in presentation of AGR-1 measured data (Chapter 2) and interpretation of

  8. Thermocouple pressure bushing in suspension rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasek, J.; Ondreicka, K.

    1975-01-01

    The seal is described of jacket thermocouples located in the pressure reducer in the fuel element suspension rod. The thermocouples are sealed in the pressure reducer with a silicon sealing compound. The sealing compound is compressed between the two reducers with a Bellevile spring and a pressure washer secured in position with a spring. The axial pressure of the inner parts of the reducer on the compound is adjustable by means of a thrust screw. The tightness and alignment of the thermocouples in the pressure reducer is achieved by tightening the thrust screw to the stop of the top reducer and the subsequent setting of the sealing compound. (J.B.)

  9. Characteristics of metal sheathed thermocouples in thermowell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, Takehiro; Nakase, Tsuyoshi; Tanabe, Yutaka; Yamada, Kunitaka; Yoshizaki, Akio; Roko, Kiyokazu

    1987-01-01

    Static and dynamic characteristics of thermowell type thermocouples which are planned to be used for the High-Temperature engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) have been investigated. A mock-up test section was installed in Kawasaki's Helium Test Loop (KH-200). Thermal characteristics tests were carried out under the 600 ∼ 1000 deg C temperature conditions. The test section was equipped with four types sheathed thermocouples; the well type, the non well type, and ones with and without the thermal radiation shielding plate. The measured temperature by the well type thermocouples with the shielding plate was only about 1.3 deg C higher than the one without the shielding plate at gas temperature 990 deg C. The measured time constant of the well type thermocouples was about 7 seconds in the condition of the heat transfer coefficient 1600 Kcal/m 2 h deg C on the well surface, and coincided with the calculated one by ''TRUMP'' code. (author)

  10. Operating problems of the thermocouples in VVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timonin, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    In WWER reactors, the coolant temperature at the outlet of the majority of fuel assemblies is measured with chromel-alumel cable thermocouples. The components of systematic errors in temperature measurements are discussed. Errors due to calibration drift can be avoided by periodical calibrations performed during the heating and hot test runs after reactor refueling. Errors due to radiation heating and response time can be estimated and thus eliminated. Errors due to flow stratification of the coolant can also be eliminated by an estimation of correction factors. The effects of the aging of the thermocouples are also discussed. The removal of thermocouples from their coverings for replacement presents some difficulties, which thus determine the service life of the thermocouples. (A.K.)

  11. Estimation of radiation losses from sheathed thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, I.L.; Coney, J.E.R.; Gibbs, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Thermocouples are often used for temperature measurements in heat exchangers. However if the radiation losses from a thermocouple in a high temperature gas flow to colder surroundings are ignored significant errors can occur. Even at moderate temperature differences, these can be significant. Prediction of radiation losses from theory can be problematic, especially in situations where there are large variations in the measured temperatures as the emissivity and radiative heat transfer coefficient of the thermocouple are not constant. The following approach combines experimental results with established empirical relationships to estimate losses due to radiation in an annular heat exchanger at temperatures up to 950 o C. - Highlights: → Sheathed thermocouples are often used to measure temperatures in heat exchangers. → Errors are introduced if radiation losses are ignored. → Radiation losses are environment specific and may be significant. → Experimental and theoretical methods are used to estimate losses. → Hot side maximum temperature 950 o C.

  12. Self-adapted thermocouple-diagnostic complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, S.V.; Grankovskij, K.Eh.; Olejnikov, P.P.; Prijmak, S.V.; Shikalov, V.F.

    2003-01-01

    A self-adapted thermocouple-diagnostic complex (STDC) for obtaining the reliable data on the coolant temperature in the reactors of NPP is described. The STDC in based on the thermal pulse monitoring of a thermocouple in the measuring channel of a reactor. Measurement method and STDC composition are substantiated. It is shown that introduction of the developed STDC ensures realization of precise and reliable temperature monitoring in the reactors of all types [ru

  13. Embedded cladding surface thermocouples on Zircaloy-sheathed heater rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.C.

    1977-06-01

    Titanium-sheathed Type K thermocouples embedded in the cladding wall of zircaloy-sheathed heater rods are described. These thermocouples constitute part of a program intended to characterize the uncertainty of measurements made by surface-mounted cladding thermocouples on nuclear fuel rods. Fabrication and installation detail, and laboratory testing of sample thermocouple installations are included

  14. Adhesive-Bonded Tab Attaches Thermocouples to Titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, C. F.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanical strength of titanium-alloy structures that support thermocouples is preserved by first spotwelding thermocouples to titanium tabs and then attaching tabs to titanium with a thermosetting adhesive. In contrast to spot welding, a technique previously used for thermocouples, fatigue strength of the titanium is unaffected by adhesive bonding. Technique is also gentler than soldering or attaching thermocouples with a tap screw.

  15. Reply to ''Comment on 'Thermocouple temperature measurements in shock-compressed solids' ''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomquist, D.D.; Sheffield, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    We disagree with the interpretation offered in the above comment. The suggestion was made that the anomalously fast response of thin-foil thermocouples reported previously is the result of strain dependence of the thermocouple response and not shock enhanced thermal equilibration. Although the emplacement geometry has a profound effect on the response of embedded thin-foil temperature gauges as noted in the above comment, the evidence presented, along with recent results discussed in this reply, do not support the conclusions presented in the above comment

  16. Study on thermocouple attachment in reflood experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Jun

    1977-03-01

    The method of thermocouple attachment to a heater rods has been studied for surface temperature measurement in reflood experiments. The method used as far in JAERI's reflood experiments had some possibilities of not estimating exactly the quench times. Various attachment method have been tested and some proved to be effective in the respect. (auth.)

  17. A thermocouple thermometry system for ultrasound hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozarka, M.; Gharakhani, A.; Magin, R.; Cain, C.

    1984-01-01

    A thermometry system designed to be used in the treatment of cancer by ultrasound hyperthermia is described. The system monitors tumor temperatures using 16 type T (copper-constantan) thermocouples and is controlled by a 12 MHz Intel 8031 microcomputer. An analog circuit board contains the thermocouple amplifiers, an analog multiplexer, scaling circuitry, and an analog to digital converter. A digital board contains the Intel 8031, program memory, data memory, as well as circuitry for control and data communications. Communication with the hyperthermia system control computer is serially by RS-232 with selectable baud rate. Since the thermocouple amplifiers may have slight differences in gain and offset, a calibrated offset is added to a lookup table value to obtain the proper display temperature to within +- 0.1 0 C. The calibration routine, implemented in software, loads a nonvolatile random access memory chip with the proper offset values based on the outputs of each thermocouple channel at known temperatures which bracket a range of interest

  18. Technological improvements to high temperature thermocouples for nuclear reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, R.; Leveque, J.P.

    1980-07-01

    The specific operating conditions of thermocouples in nuclear reactors have provided an incentive for further advances in high temperature thermocouple applications and performance. This work covers the manufacture and improvement of existing alloys, the technology of clad thermocouples, calibration drift during heat treatment, resistance to thermal shock and the compatibility of insulating materials with thermo-electric alloys. The results lead to specifying improved operating conditions for thermocouples in nuclear reactor media (pressurized water, sodium, uranium oxide) [fr

  19. Notes on the genus Conchapelopia Fittkau (Diptera: Chironomidae: Tanypodinae) from southern China, with description of a new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niitsuma, Hiromi; Tang, Hongqu

    2017-02-22

    Two interesting species, Conchapelopia togamaculosa Sasa & Okazawa and a new species, Conchapelopia brachiata sp. n., were collected from southern China. The male, pupa and larva of the new species are described, and new distributions of the former species are noted. Although the male of the new species is very distinct from that of the former in the hypopygial median volsella, the pupa and larva stunningly resemble those of the former.

  20. Thermocouples for conditions of aggressive environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, J.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Two new kinds of thermocouples have been chosen for temperature measurements in the in-pile safety program for light water reactors performed in France. They must give fuel centerline or roc cladding temperatures and withstand steam oxidation between 1000 0 C and 1800 0 C or higher, under severe fuel damage conditions. We describe briefly both types, then we emphasize on improvements under way concerning the tungsten-rhenium legs, the hafnia insulation and the sheaths materials. Oxidation resistance is achieved mainly by silicides layers, but other possibilities are considered, such as iridium coatings. Some details of insulators manufacturing or sensor assembly are given, as well as other high temperature applications for these thermocouples

  1. Core exit thermocouple upgrade at Zion station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulinski, T.M.; Ferg, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Following the Three Mile Island accident, the ability of the core exit thermocouple (CET) system to monitor reactor core conditions and core cooling status became a requirement of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Since the thermocouple system at Zion station was not originally required for postaccident monitoring, Commonwealth Edison Company (CECo) committed to upgrading the CET system and to installing a subcooling margin monitoring (SMM) system. The significance of this commitment was that CECo proposed to accomplish the upgrade effort using internal resources and by developing the required in-house expertise instead of procuring integrated packages from several nuclear steam supply system vendors. The result was that CECo was able to demonstrate a number of new capabilities and unique design features with a significant cost savings. These included a qualified connector with an integral thermocouple cold-reference junction temperature compensation; the design, assembly, testing, and installation of a seismically qualified class 1E microprocessor; a commercial-grade dedication/upgrade process for safety-related hardware; a human factors review capability, and a verification and validation program for safety-related software. A discussion of these new capabilities and details of the design features is presented in this paper

  2. Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Botero

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Description of the male of Eburella pinima Martins and notes on the geographical distribution of Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins and Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae. The male of Eburella pinima Martins, 1997 is described and illustrated for the first time. Information on Eburodacrys aenigma Galileo & Martins, 2006, previously known only from the female holotype, which lacked locality label, is herein complemented. This species is recorded from Brazil and the male is depicted for the first time. The geographical distribution of Eburodacrys lanei Zajciw, 1958 is further restricted here as some previous records are confirmed to result from misidentifications of E. aenigma.

  3. Taxonomic notes on Neoperla (Plecoptera: Perlidae) from Sichuan Province of China with the description of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weihai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Rongfeng

    2017-01-17

    Species of the perlid genus Neoperla from Sichuan Province, China are reviewed. Two new species are described, Neoperla caii Li & Wang, sp. nov. and N. emeishana Li & Wang, sp. nov. The new species are compared with related congeners. Available types of several known Neoperla species from Sichuan Province were studied and complementary descriptions or brief taxonomic comments are presented for N. bilineata Wu & Claassen, N. chui Wu & Claassen, N. microtumida Wu & Claassen, N. quadrata Wu & Claassen and N. truncata Wu.

  4. Description of the female of Navicordulia aemulatrix Pinto & Lamas and additional notes on the male (Odonata: Corduliidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, A P; Lamas, C J E

    2011-01-01

    The female of Navicordulia aemulatrix Pinto & Lamas is described and illustrated for the first time based on a single specimen from the same locality of the type series (state of Santa Catarina, [municipality of São Bento do Sul, 26°14'58"S, 49°22'59"W, railroad station] Rio Vermelho, 29.I.1952, in MZSP). In addition, further morphological notes for the male are provided based on three specimens collected at the type locality and at a new locality in the state of Santa Catarina (Timbó municipality). The pronotal process present in N. aemulatrix is re-evaluated and considered non-homologous to that found in Neocordulia setifera (Hagen in Selys) as previously suggested.

  5. Zircaloy sheathed thermocouples for PWR fuel rod temperature measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.V.; Wesley, R.D.; Wilkins, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    Small diameter zircaloy sheathed thermocouples have been developed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Surface mounted thermocouples were developed to measure the temperature of zircaloy clad fuel rods used in the Thermal Fuels Behavior Program (TFBP), and embedded thermocouples were developed for use by the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Program for support tests using zircaloy clad electrically heated nuclear fuel rod simulators. The first objective of this developmental effort was to produce zircaloy sheathed thermocouples to replace titanium sheathed thermocouples and thereby eliminate the long-term corrosion of the titanium-to-zircaloy attachment weld. The second objective was to reduce the sheath diameter to obtain faster thermal response and minimize cladding temperature disturbance due to thermocouple attachment

  6. Notes on some sertulariid hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa from the tropical western Pacific, with descriptions of nine new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horia R. Galea

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Forty-three species of sertulariid hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae, collected from the tropical western Pacific (Taiwan, Philippines, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Vanuatu, Fiji, Tonga, Solomon Islands during various expeditions of the French Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos program, are discussed. Of these, nine are new to science: Gonaxia nova sp. nov., G. plumularioides sp. nov., Sertularella folliformis sp. nov., Se. plicata sp. nov., Se. pseudocatena sp. nov., Se. splendida sp. nov., Se. tronconica sp. nov., Se. tubulosa sp. nov., and Symplectoscyphus paucicatillus sp. nov. The subspecies Symplectoscyphus johnstoni (Gray, 1843 tropicus Vervoort, 1993 is raised to species but, in order to avoid the secondary homonymy with Sy. tropicus (Hartlaub, 1901, the replacement name, Sy. fasciculatus nom. nov., is introduced. The male and female gonothecae of Diphasia cristata Billard, 1920, the male gonothecae of Gonaxia elegans Vervoort, 1993, as well as the female gonothecae of Salacia macer Vervoort & Watson, 2003, are described for the first time. Additional notes on the morphology of several other species are provided. All taxa are illustrated, in most cases using figures drawn at the same scale, so as to highlight the differences between related species.

  7. Error analysis of thermocouple measurements in the Radiant Heat Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakos, J.T.; Strait, B.G.

    1980-12-01

    The measurement most frequently made in the Radiant Heat Facility is temperature, and the transducer which is used almost exclusively is the thermocouple. Other methods, such as resistance thermometers and thermistors, are used but very rarely. Since a majority of the information gathered at Radiant Heat is from thermocouples, a reasonable measure of the quality of the measurements made at the facility is the accuracy of the thermocouple temperature data

  8. Transmutation of Thermocouples in Thermal and Fast Nuclear Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scervini, M.; Rae, C.; Lindley, B.

    2013-06-01

    Thermocouples are the most commonly used sensors for temperature measurement in nuclear reactors. Their role is fundamental for the control of current nuclear reactors and for the development of the nuclear technology needed for the implementation of GEN IV nuclear reactors. When used for in-core measurements thermocouples are strongly affected not only by high temperatures, but also by intense neutron fluxes. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition in the thermoelements and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift in the thermocouple signal. Thermocouple drift can be very significant for in-pile temperature measurements and may render the temperature sensors unreliable after exposure to nuclear radiation for relatively short times compared to the life required for temperature sensors in nuclear applications. In this work, undertaken as part of the European project METROFISSION, the change in composition occurring in irradiated thermocouples has been calculated using the software ORIGEN 2.2. Several thermocouples have been considered, including Nickel based thermocouples (type K and type N), Tungsten based thermocouples (W-5%Re vs W-26%Re and W- 3%Re vs W-25%Re), Platinum based thermocouples (type S and Platinum vs Palladium) and Molybdenum vs Niobium thermocouples. The transmutation induced by both thermal flux and fast flux has been calculated. Thermocouples undergo more pronounced transmutation in thermal fluxes rather than in fast fluxes, as the neutron cross section of an element is higher for thermal energies. Nickel based thermocouples have a minimal change in composition, while Platinum based and Tungsten based thermocouples experience a very significant transmutation. The use of coatings deposited on the sheath of a thermocouple has been considered as a mean to reduce the neutron flux the thermoelements inside the thermocouple sheath

  9. The first record of Litargus tetraspilotus (Coleoptera, Mycetophagidae in Brazil, with biological notes and complementary description of the species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julianne Milléo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Litargus tetraspilotus LeConte, 1856 was collected feeding on Oidium sp. (Fungi, Ascomycota, Erysiphaceae associated with fruit trees. This is the first time L. tetraspilotus is recorded in Brazil, totaling three species of Mycetophagidae for this country. This study aims to provide a complementary description of this species based on new characters and to present information on its life cycle under laboratory conditions and fluctuation in population in the field. During the period of inventories between July 2004 and August 2006, about every fifteen days, a total of 565 specimens of L. tetraspilotus were collected, with the highest abundance found on citrus plants, with values differing significantly between the two years. The population levels differed between the seasons; spring had the greatest abundance and autumn the least. There was a significant positive correlation of L. tetraspilotus abundance with rainfall and relative humidity. Mycetophagidae, as well as other mycophagous families of Brazilian coleopterans, are barely studied, warranting further future studies of their bioecology and systematics.

  10. Fabrication and use of zircaloy/tantalum-sheathed cladding thermocouples and molybdenum/rhenium-sheathed fuel centerline thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.C.; Sepold, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    The thermocouples described in this report are zircaloy/tantalum-sheathed and molybdenum/rhenium alloy-sheathed instruments intended for fuel rod cladding and fuel centerline temperature measurements, respectively. Both types incorporate beryllium oxide insulation and tungsten/rhenium alloy thermoelements. These thermocouples, operated at temperatures of 2000 0 C and above, were developed for use in the internationally sponsored Severe Fuel Damage test series in the Power Burst Facility. The fabrication steps for both thermocouple types are described in detail. A laser-welding attachment technique for the cladding-type thermocouple is presented, and experience with alternate materials for cladding and fuel therocouples is discussed

  11. Low Drift Type N Thermocouples for Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scervini, M.; Rae, C.

    2013-06-01

    Thermocouples are the most commonly used sensors for temperature measurement in nuclear reactors. They are crucial for the control of current nuclear reactors and for the development of GEN IV reactors. In nuclear applications thermocouples are strongly affected by intense neutron fluxes. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. Thermocouple drift can be very significant for in-pile temperature measurements and may render the temperature sensors unreliable after exposure to nuclear radiation for relatively short times compared to the life required for temperature sensors in nuclear applications. Previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of Nickel based thermocouples is limited to temperatures lower than 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. In this work, undertaken as part of the European project METROFISSION, the drift of type N thermocouples has been investigated in the temperature range 600-1300 deg. C. The approach of this study is based on the attempt to separate the contributions of each thermo-element to drift. In order to identify the dominant thermo-element for drift, the contributions of both positive (NP) and negative (NN) thermo-elements to the total drift of 3.2 mm diameter MIMS thermocouples have been measured in each drift test using a pure Pt thermo-element as a reference. Conventional Inconel-600 sheathed type N thermocouples have been compared with type N thermocouples sheathed in a new alloy. At temperatures higher than 1000 deg. C conventional Inconel600 sheathed type N thermocouples can experience a

  12. Sputtered type s thermocouples on quartz glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopko, B.; Vlk, J.; Chren, D.; Sopko, V.; Dammer, J.; Mengler, J.; Hynek, V.

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with the development of thin film thermocouples and their practical use. The principle of measuring planar thin film thermocouples is the same as for conventional thermocouples and is based on the thermoelectric effect, which named after its discoverer, Seebeck. Seebeck effect is direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage. In different applications it is necessary to use temperature sensors with high spatial resolution (with the placement of several measured points on the segment of length 1 mm) and short response time. For this application are currently used planar thermocouples with important advantage in production price and reproducible production. The innovative potential of thin-film thermocouples are to be found mainly in: 1 st use of technology in thin layers, unlike the already mature technologies applied in the production of conventional thermocouple probes are capable of further improvement with the usage of new substrate materials, modified methods for creating electrical contacts to the new thermocouple configuration and adhesive and protective layers, 2 nd in saving precious and rare metals, 3 rd decreasing the thickness of the layers and reducing the overall size of thermo probe. Measuring the temperature of molten steel, leading to a general loss of strength and the subsequent destruction of the probe. Here exhibited the highest resistance of quartz plates used in thin film substrates thermocouples. (authors)

  13. Thermocouple design for measuring temperatures of small insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.A. Hanson; R.C. Venette

    2013-01-01

    Contact thermocouples often are used to measure surface body temperature changes of insects during cold exposure. However, small temperature changes of minute insects can be difficult to detect, particularly during the measurement of supercooling points. We developed two thermocouple designs, which use 0.51 mm diameter or 0.127 mm diameter copper-constantan wires, to...

  14. Thermocouple correlation transit time flowmeter tests at WCL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassahn, G.D.

    1976-11-01

    Scoping tests indicate the feasibility for using transit time flowmeters with thermocouple sensors in steam-water steady state flow. Conclusive results were not obtained. More conclusive results are expected from tests to be conducted in the semiscale facility with a redesigned transit time thermocouple sensor

  15. Base metal thermocouples drift rate dependence from thermoelement diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlasek, P; Duris, S; Palencar, R

    2015-01-01

    Temperature measurements are one of the key factors in many industrial applications that directly affect the quality, effectiveness and safety of manufacturing processes. In many industrial applications these temperature measurements are realized by thermocouples. Accuracy of thermocouples directly affects the quality of the final product of manufacturing and their durability determines the safety margins required. One of the significant effects that affect the precision of the thermocouples is short and long term stability of their voltage output. This stability issue occurs in every type of thermocouples and is caused by multiple factors. In general these factors affect the Seebeck coefficient which is a material constant, which determines the level of generated voltage when exposed to a temperature gradient. Changes of this constant result in the change of the thermocouples voltage output thus indicated temperature which can result in production quality issues, safety and health hazards. These alternations can be caused by physical and chemical changes within the thermocouple lead material. Modification of this material constant can be of temporary nature or permanent. This paper concentrates on the permanent, or irreversible changes of the Seebeck coefficient that occur in commonly used swaged MIMS Type N thermocouples. These permanent changes can be seen as systematic change of the EMF of the thermocouple when it is exposed to a high temperature over a period of time. This change of EMF by time is commonly known as the drift of the thermocouple. This work deals with the time instability of thermocouples EMF at temperatures above 1200 °C. Instability of the output voltage was taken into relation with the lead diameter of the tested thermocouples. This paper concentrates in detail on the change of voltage output of thermocouples of different diameters which were tested at high temperatures for the overall period of more than 210 hours. The gather data from this

  16. Base metal thermocouples drift rate dependence from thermoelement diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlasek, P.; Duris, S.; Palencar, R.

    2015-02-01

    Temperature measurements are one of the key factors in many industrial applications that directly affect the quality, effectiveness and safety of manufacturing processes. In many industrial applications these temperature measurements are realized by thermocouples. Accuracy of thermocouples directly affects the quality of the final product of manufacturing and their durability determines the safety margins required. One of the significant effects that affect the precision of the thermocouples is short and long term stability of their voltage output. This stability issue occurs in every type of thermocouples and is caused by multiple factors. In general these factors affect the Seebeck coefficient which is a material constant, which determines the level of generated voltage when exposed to a temperature gradient. Changes of this constant result in the change of the thermocouples voltage output thus indicated temperature which can result in production quality issues, safety and health hazards. These alternations can be caused by physical and chemical changes within the thermocouple lead material. Modification of this material constant can be of temporary nature or permanent. This paper concentrates on the permanent, or irreversible changes of the Seebeck coefficient that occur in commonly used swaged MIMS Type N thermocouples. These permanent changes can be seen as systematic change of the EMF of the thermocouple when it is exposed to a high temperature over a period of time. This change of EMF by time is commonly known as the drift of the thermocouple. This work deals with the time instability of thermocouples EMF at temperatures above 1200 °C. Instability of the output voltage was taken into relation with the lead diameter of the tested thermocouples. This paper concentrates in detail on the change of voltage output of thermocouples of different diameters which were tested at high temperatures for the overall period of more than 210 hours. The gather data from this

  17. Heated junction thermocouple level measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevilacqua, F.; Burger, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level sensing apparatus senses the level of liquid surrounding the apparatus. A plurality of axially spaced sensors are enclosed in a separator tube. The separator tube tends to collapse the level of a two-phase fluid within the separator tube into essentially a liquid phase and a gaseous phase where the collapsed level bears a relationship to the coolant inventory outside the separator tube. The level of the liquid phase is sensed by level sensing apparatus. The separator tube contains inlet-outlet ports near the top and bottom thereof to equalize the liquid level inside and outside the separator tube when the level fluctuates or the water within the separator tube flashes to steam. Each sensor is comprised of a heater, a heated thermocouple junction and an unheated thermocouple junction within an elongated heat conductive housing. The heated portion of housing is enclosed in a splash guard with inlet-outlet ports near the top and bottom to equalize the liquid level inside and outside the splash guardand to eliminate the spurious indications of liquid level change which may arise if water droplets contact the housing in the region of the heater. To prevent steam bubbles entrained in a two-phase fluid cross flow from entering the lateral inlet-outlet ports of the separator tube, the separator tube is enclosed in support tube which may in turn be enclosed in an otherwise unused control element assembly shroud. The lateral inlet-outlet ports of separator tube are axially offset from lateral inlet-outlet ports of support tube at least where support tube is subjected to cross flow. The shroud is open on the bottom and has lateral inlet-outlet ports to facilitate liquid level fluctuations to equalize inside and outside shroud

  18. Study of thermocouples for control of high temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villamayor, M.

    1966-12-01

    Previous works have shown that the tungsten-rhenium alloys thermocouples were a good instrument for control of high temperatures. From its, the author has studied the W/W 26 per cent and W 5 per cent Re/W 26 per cent Re french manufactured thermocouples and intended for control of temperatures in nuclear reactors until 2300 deg. C. In 'out-pile' study he determines the general characteristics of these thermocouples: average calibration curves, thermal shocks influence, response times, and alloys allowing the cold source compensation. The evolution of these thermocouples under thermal neutron flux has been determined by 'in-pile' study. The observations have led the author to propose a new type of thermocouples settled of molybdenum-columbium alloys. (author) [fr

  19. Thermocouple evaluation model and evaluation of chromel--alumel thermocouples for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Washburn, B.W.

    1977-03-01

    Factors affecting the performance and reliability of thermocouples for temperature measurements in High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors are investigated. A model of an inhomogeneous thermocouple, associated experimental technique, and a method of predicting measurement errors are described. Error drifts for Type K materials are predicted and compared with published stability measurements. 60 references

  20. Study of thermocouples for control of high temperatures; Etude de thermocouples pour le reperage des hautes temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villamayor, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Faculte des Sciences de l' Universite de Lyon - 69 (France)

    1967-07-01

    Previous works have shown that the tungsten-rhenium alloys thermocouples were a good instrument for control of high temperatures. From its, the author has studied the W/W 26 per cent and W 5 per cent Re/W 26 per cent Re french manufactured thermocouples and intended for control of temperatures in nuclear reactors until 2300 deg. C. In 'out-pile' study he determines the general characteristics of these thermocouples: average calibration curves, thermal shocks influence, response times, and alloys allowing the cold source compensation. The evolution of these thermocouples under thermal neutron flux has been determined by 'in-pile' study. The observations have led the author to propose a new type of thermocouples settled of molybdenum-columbium alloys. (author) [French] Des travaux anterieurs ont montre que les thermocouples des alliages tungstene-rhenium etaient susceptibles de reperer avec precision des hautes temperatures. A partir de la, l'auteur a etudie las thermocouples W/W 26 pour cent Re et W 5 pour cent Re/W 26 pour cent Re de fabrication francaise et destines au controle des temperatures dans les reacteurs nucleaires, jusqu'a 2300 deg. C Dans l'etude 'hors-pile' il a determine les caracteristiques generales de ces thermocouples: courbes d'etalonnage moyen, influence des chocs thermiques, temps de reponse, et alliages assurant la compensation de soudure froide. L'etude 'en-pile' a permis de rendre compte de l'evolution de ces thermocouples sous flux neutroniques. Les phenomenes observes ont conduit l'auteur a proposer un nouveau type de thermocouples constitues d'alliages molybdene-niobium. (auteur)

  1. Metallic and Ceramic Thin Film Thermocouples for Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto J. Gregory

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperatures of hot section components in today’s gas turbine engines reach as high as 1,500 °C, making in situ monitoring of the severe temperature gradients within the engine rather difficult. Therefore, there is a need to develop instrumentation (i.e., thermocouples and strain gauges for these turbine engines that can survive these harsh environments. Refractory metal and ceramic thin film thermocouples are well suited for this task since they have excellent chemical and electrical stability at high temperatures in oxidizing atmospheres, they are compatible with thermal barrier coatings commonly employed in today’s engines, they have greater sensitivity than conventional wire thermocouples, and they are non-invasive to combustion aerodynamics in the engine. Thin film thermocouples based on platinum:palladium and indium oxynitride:indium tin oxynitride as well as their oxide counterparts have been developed for this purpose and have proven to be more stable than conventional type-S and type-K thin film thermocouples. The metallic and ceramic thin film thermocouples described within this paper exhibited remarkable stability and drift rates similar to bulk (wire thermocouples.

  2. Evaluation of RTD and thermocouple for PID temperature control in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of RTD and thermocouple for PID temperature control in distributed control system laboratory. D. A. A. Nazarudin, M. K. Nordin, A. Ahmad, M. Masrie, M. F. Saaid, N. M. Thamrin, M. S. A. M. Ali ...

  3. Long duration performance of high temperature irradiation resistant thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rempe, J.; Knudson, D.; Condie, K.; Cole, J.; Wilkins, S.C.

    2007-01-01

    Many advanced nuclear reactor designs require new fuel, cladding, and structural materials. Data are needed to characterize the performance of these new materials in high temperature, radiation conditions. However, traditional methods for measuring temperature in-pile degrade at temperatures above 1100 C degrees. To address this instrumentation need, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) developed and evaluated the performance of a high temperature irradiation-resistant thermocouple that contains alloys of molybdenum and niobium. To verify the performance of INL's recommended thermocouple design, a series of high temperature (from 1200 to 1800 C) long duration (up to six months) tests has been initiated. This paper summarizes results from the tests that have been completed. Data are presented from 4000 hour tests conducted at 1200 and 1400 C that demonstrate the stability of this thermocouple (less than 2% drift). In addition, post test metallographic examinations are discussed which confirm the compatibility of thermocouple materials throughout these long duration, high temperature tests. (authors)

  4. Relative humidity measurements with thermocouple psychrometer and capacitance sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Naihsien.

    1991-01-01

    The relative humidity is one of the important hydrological parameters affecting waste package performance. Water potential of a system is defined as the amount of work required to reversibly and isothermally move an infinitesimal quantity of water from a pool of pure water to that system at the same elevation. The thermocouple psychrometer, which acts as a wet-dry bulb instrument based on the Peltier effect, is used to measure water potential. The thermocouple psychrometer works only for relative humidity greater than 94 percent. Other sensors must be used for drier conditions. Hence, the author also uses a Vaisala Humicap, which measures the capacitance change due to relative humidity change. The operation range of the Humicap (Model HMP 135Y) is from 0 to 100 percent relative humidity and up to 160C (320F) in temperature. A psychrometer has three thermocouple junctions. Two copper-constantan junctions serve as reference temperature junctions and the constantan-chromel junction is the sensing junction. Current is passed through the thermocouple causing cooling of the sensing junction by the Peltier effect. When the temperature of the junction is below the dew point, water will condense upon the junction from the air. The Peltier current is discontinued and the thermocouple output is recorded as the temperature of the thermocouple returns to ambient. The temperature changes rapidly toward the ambient temperature until it reaches the wet bulb depression temperature. At this point, evaporation of the water from the junction produces a cooling effect upon the junction that offsets the heat absorbed from the ambient surroundings. This continues until the water is depleted and the thermocouple temperature returns to the ambient temperature (Briscoe, 1984). The datalogger starts to take data roughly at the wet bulb depression temperature

  5. Using voice to create hospital progress notes: Description of a mobile application and supporting system integrated with a commercial electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Thomas H; Alonso, W David; Markiel, J Andrew; Lybarger, Kevin; White, Andrew A

    2018-01-01

    We describe the development and design of a smartphone app-based system to create inpatient progress notes using voice, commercial automatic speech recognition software, with text processing to recognize spoken voice commands and format the note, and integration with a commercial EHR. This new system fits hospital rounding workflow and was used to support a randomized clinical trial testing whether use of voice to create notes improves timeliness of note availability, note quality, and physician satisfaction with the note creation process. The system was used to create 709 notes which were placed in the corresponding patient's EHR record. The median time from pressing the Send button to appearance of the formatted note in the Inbox was 8.8 min. It was generally very reliable, accepted by physician users, and secure. This approach provides an alternative to use of keyboard and templates to create progress notes and may appeal to physicians who prefer voice to typing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Mineral insulated thermocouples - installation in steam generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bridges, W.J.; Brown, J.F.

    1980-01-01

    The main areas of interest considered are Central Station Fossil Fuel fired boilers of around 500 MW capacity, AGR Boilers, and Industrial and Research Development projects. While the requirement for temperature measurement in each of these areas may vary the techniques adopted to overcome installation and protection problems created by thermal, chemical and mechanical hazards remain basically the same. The reasons for temperature measurement are described together with methods of attachment development and procedures for protection of the thermocouple along its route length until its exit from the hazardous environment. These relative accuracies of the different attachments are discussed along with factors influencing the life of the thermocouple. In many instances thermocouple installation is either a once only opportunity and/or an expensive exercise. It is therefore essential to develop and apply an effective quality control system during the installation phase. An effective system is described. Finally, a brief outline of possible future trends is given. (author)

  7. An Innovative Flow-Measuring Device: Thermocouple Boundary Layer Rake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    An innovative flow-measuring device, a thermocouple boundary layer rake, was developed. The sensor detects the flow by using a thin-film thermocouple (TC) array to measure the temperature difference across a heater strip. The heater and TC arrays are microfabricated on a constant-thickness quartz strut with low heat conductivity. The device can measure the velocity profile well into the boundary layer, about 65 gm from the surface, which is almost four times closer to the surface than has been possible with the previously used total pressure tube.

  8. Magnetic tunnel junction thermocouple for thermoelectric power harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhnert, T.; Paz, E.; Ferreira, R.; Freitas, P. P.

    2018-05-01

    The thermoelectric power generated in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) is determined as a function of the tunnel barrier thickness for a matched electric circuit. This study suggests that lower resistance area product and higher tunnel magnetoresistance will maximize the thermoelectric power output of the MTJ structures. Further, the thermoelectric behavior of a series of two MTJs, a MTJ thermocouple, is investigated as a function of its magnetic configurations. In an alternating magnetic configurations the thermovoltages cancel each other, while the magnetic contribution remains. A large array of MTJ thermocouples could amplify the magnetic thermovoltage signal significantly.

  9. Failure of sheathed thermocouples due to thermal cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.L.; Ludwig, R.L.

    1982-03-01

    Open circuit failures (up to 100%) in small-diameter thermocouples used in electrically heated nuclear fuel rod simulator prototypes during thermal cycling tests were investigated to determine the cause(s) of the failures. The experiments conducted to determine the relative effects of differential thermal expansion, wire size, grain size, and manufacturing technology are described. It was concluded that the large grain size and embrittlement which result from certain common manufacturing annealing and drawing procedures were a major contributing factor in the breakage of the thermocouple wires

  10. Heat penetration and thermocouple location in home canning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel, Mark R; Willmore, Paola; Ingham, Barbara H

    2015-01-01

    We processed applesauce, tomato juice, and cranberries in pint jars in a boiling water canner to test thermal processing theories against home canning of high-acid foods. For each product, thermocouples were placed at various heights in the jar. Values for f h (heating), f cl (cooling), and F 82.2°C (lethality) were determined for each thermocouple location, and did not depend substantially on thermocouple location in accordance with heat transfer theory. There was a cold spot in the jar, but the cold spot during heating became the hot spot during cooling. During heating, the geometric center was the last to heat, and remained coldest the longest, but during coooling, it was also the last to cool, and remained hottest the longest. The net effect was that calculated lethality in home canning was not affected by thermocouple location. Most of the lethality during home canning occurred during air cooling, making cooling of home canned foods of great importance. Calculated lethality was far greater than the required 5-log reduction of spores in tomato juice and vegetative cells in cranberries, suggesting a wide margin of safety for approved home-canning processes for high-acid foods.

  11. Realization of Copper Melting Point for Thermocouple Calibrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. ABDELAZIZ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the temperature stability and uncertainty of the freezing plateau is better than that of the melting plateau in most of the thermometry fixed points, but realization of melting plateaus are easier than that of freezing plateaus for metal fixed points. It will be convenient if the melting points can be used instead of the freezing points in calibration of standard noble metal thermocouples because of easier realization and longer plateau duration of melting plateaus. In this work a comparison between the melting and freezing points of copper (Cu was carried out using standard noble metal thermocouples. Platinum - platinum 10 % rhodium (type S, platinum – 30 % rhodium / platinum 6 % rhodium (type B and platinum - palladium (Pt/Pd thermocouples are used in this study. Uncertainty budget analysis of the melting points and freezing points is presented. The experimental results show that it is possible to replace the freezing point with the melting point of copper cell in the calibration of standard noble metal thermocouples in secondary-level laboratories if the optimal methods of realization of melting points are used.

  12. The development of a fast response thermocouple for use in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morss, A.G.; Vincent, B.

    1987-03-01

    Work carried out at Berkeley Nuclear Laboratories to develop a fast-response thermocouple for use in liquid metals is described. This thermocouple because of its unique construction, has a junction mass approaching zero and hence its frequency response should be very high. Some of the problems of manufacture are discussed, in particular the high quality of seal required to avoid ingress of liquid metal. A comparison of results obtained with the fast-response thermocouple and with conventional stainless-steel-sheathed thermocouples is made. The improved response of the new thermocouple is clearly visible, hence confirming that measurements made with sheathed thermocouples suffer attenuation. It is concluded that results obtained with the fast-response thermocouple are close to the real magnitude of temperature fluctuations present in turbulent flow. It is also demonstrated that, with suitable corrections, results obtained with sheathed thermocouples can be used to estimate the real signals present in the flow. (author)

  13. A preliminary study of oxidation-resistant coatings on refractory-metal thermocouple sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    The need to make reliable temperature measurements up to 2200 0 C or higher in steam environments during in-pile nuclear fuel damage tests led to a search for oxidation-resistant coatings for the refractory-metal sheaths used to enclose and protect thermocouples used for such measurements. Iridium, thoria, and thoria-over-iridium coatings were separately sputter-deposited on molybdenum-rhenium alloy protection tubes for evaluation. The coated samples were individually heated in flowing steam in an induction furnace. An extension tube welded to each sample was connected to a vacuum pump and gauge; failure of the sample was detected by noting the degradation of the vacuum maintained in the sample. Relatively heavy coatings of iridium provided a modest degree of oxidation protection at the temperatures of interest. Thoria coatings provided no significant protection at those temperatures, compared to uncoated control samples

  14. Zircaloy-sheathed element rods fitted with thermo-couples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardy de Sigoyer, B.; Jacques, F.; Thome, P.

    1963-01-01

    In order to carry out thermal conductivity measurements on UO 2 in conditions similar to those under which fuel rods are used, it was necessary to measure the temperature at the interior of a fuel element sheathed in zircaloy. The temperatures are taken with Thermocoax type thermocouples, that is to say fitted with a very thin sheath of stainless steel or Inconel. It is known also that fusion welding of zircaloy onto stainless steel is impossible and that high temperature welded joints are very difficult because of their aggressiveness. The technique used consists in brazing the thermocouples to relatively large stainless steel parts and then joining these plugs by electron bombardment welding to diffused stainless steel-zircaloy couplings. The properties of these diffused couplings and of the brazed joints were studied; the various stages in the fabrication of the containers are also described. (authors) [fr

  15. Classification of Unknown Thermocouple Types Using Similarity Factor Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshu K. DAMARLA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to classification using PCA method, a new methodology is proposed for type identification of unknown thermocouple. The new methodology is based on calculating the degree of similarity between two multivariate datasets using two types of similarity factors. One similarity factor is based on principle component analysis and the angles between the principle component subspaces while the other is based on the Mahalanobis distance between the datasets. Datasets containing thermo-emfs against given temperature ranges are formed for each type of thermocouple (e.g. J, K, S, T, R, E, B and N type by experimentation are considered as reference datasets. Datasets corresponding to unknown type are captured. Similarity factor between the datasets one of which being the unknown type and the other being each known type are compared. When maximum similarity factor occurs, then the class of unknown type is allocated to that of known type.

  16. Recent improvements on micro-thermocouple based SThM

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, T. P.; Thiery, L.; Teyssieux, D.; Briand, Danick; Vairac, P.

    2017-01-01

    The scanning thermal microscope (SThM) has become a versatile tool for local surface temperature mapping or measuring thermal properties of solid materials. In this article, we present recent improvements in a SThM system, based on a micro-wire thermocouple probe associated with a quartz tuning fork for contact strength detection. Some results obtained on an electrothermal micro-hotplate device, operated in active and passive modes, allow demonstrating its performance as a coupled force detec...

  17. Thermocouple placement and hot spots in radioactive waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barker, J.J.

    1991-06-01

    Analytical solutions available in Carslaw and Jaeger's Conduction of Heat in Solids for continuous point sources and for continuous finite sources are used to demonstrate that placement of thermocouples on a fine enough grid to detect a hot spot is impracticable for existing waste tanks but fortunately not necessary. Graphs covering ranges of diffusivities, times, temperatures and heat generation rates are included. 2 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs

  18. Recommendations for the specification of thermocouples for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-05-01

    This Code of Practice is a guide for use in the preparation of individual specifications to cover, as fully as possible the conditions governing the supply of raw materials and the ordering, manufacture, testing, inspection, handling and installation of thermocouples for use in nuclear environments in order that reliable, consistent and generally acceptable results can be obtained. The insulation resistance values quoted in this document apply to magnesium oxide. If other insulants are called for, appropriate values must be specified. (author)

  19. Description of a new species of Apterotoxitiades Adlbauer, 2008 (Cerambycidae, Dorcasominae, Apatophyseini and the female of A. vivesi Adlbauer, 2008, with notes on the biology of the genus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Adlbauer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Following the description of the Apatophyseini genus Apterotoxitiades Adlbauer, 2008 (Cerambycidae: Dorcasominae from South Africa, a new species has now been discovered in the eastern Drakensberg range of the country. The holotype female is here described as A. aspinosus Björnstad, sp. n. Also, a new small series collected at Hogsback, in the Amathole range, has allowed the description of the previously unknown female of the type species, A. vivesi Adlbauer, 2008. Both species are high altitude dwellers, occurring above 1300 m asl and their habitat consists mainly of mountain grassland interspersed with mistbelt forest pockets. All specimens were recorded in the austral winter to early spring, when these mountain ranges are occasionally covered in snow and night temperature plummet below 0 °C. They appear to be nocturnal and their complete lack of wings indicates a remarkable adaptation to cold conditions at high altitude.

  20. Calibration Technique of the Irradiated Thermocouple using Artificial Neural Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jin Tae; Joung, Chang Young; Ahn, Sung Ho; Yang, Tae Ho; Heo, Sung Ho; Jang, Seo Yoon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To correct the signals, the degradation rate of sensors needs to be analyzed, and re-calibration of sensors should be followed periodically. In particular, because thermocouples instrumented in the nuclear fuel rod are degraded owing to the high neutron fluence generated from the nuclear fuel, the periodic re-calibration process is necessary. However, despite the re-calibration of the thermocouple, the measurement error will be increased until next re-calibration. In this study, based on the periodically calibrated temperature - voltage data, an interpolation technique using the artificial neural network will be introduced to minimize the calibration error of the C-type thermocouple under the irradiation test. The test result shows that the calculated voltages derived from the interpolation function have good agreement with the experimental sampling data, and they also accurately interpolate the voltages at arbitrary temperature and neutron fluence. That is, once the reference data is obtained by experiments, it is possible to accurately calibrate the voltage signal at a certain neutron fluence and temperature using an artificial neural network.

  1. Zircaloy-sheathed element rods fitted with thermo-couples; Barre combustible a thermocouple gainee de zircaloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardy de Sigoyer, B; Jacques, F; Thome, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    In order to carry out thermal conductivity measurements on UO{sub 2} in conditions similar to those under which fuel rods are used, it was necessary to measure the temperature at the interior of a fuel element sheathed in zircaloy. The temperatures are taken with Thermocoax type thermocouples, that is to say fitted with a very thin sheath of stainless steel or Inconel. It is known also that fusion welding of zircaloy onto stainless steel is impossible and that high temperature welded joints are very difficult because of their aggressiveness. The technique used consists in brazing the thermocouples to relatively large stainless steel parts and then joining these plugs by electron bombardment welding to diffused stainless steel-zircaloy couplings. The properties of these diffused couplings and of the brazed joints were studied; the various stages in the fabrication of the containers are also described. (authors) [French] Pour des mesures de conductivite thermique de l'UO{sub 2} dans des conditions voisines du fonctionnement des barres combustibles, il s'agissait de mesurer la temperature a l'interieur d'un element combustible gaine de zircaloy. Les prises de temperature sont faites par thermocouples du type Thermocoax, c'est-a-dire pourvu d'une gaine tres mince en inox ou inconel. Par ailleurs on sait que le soudage par fusion du zircaloy sur l'inox est impossible et que les brasures a haute temperature sont difficiles car tres agressives. La technique utilisee consiste a braser les thermocouples sur des pieces en inox relativement massives et de rapporter par soudage au bombardement electronique ces bouchons sur des raccords diffuses zircaloy-inox. Les proprietes de ces raccords diffuses et celles de joints brases ont ete etudiees; on expose egalement les diverses etapes de fabrication des containers. (auteurs)

  2. Descriptions of two new species and one new subspecies from the Exocelina okbapensis-group, and notes on the E. aipo-group (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Copelatinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Shaverdo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new species and one new subspecies of Exocelina Broun, 1886 from New Guinea are described: E. okbapensis Shaverdo & Balke, sp. n., E. okbapensis hajeki Shaverdo & Balke, ssp. n., and E. may Shaverdo & Balke, sp. n. These and two already described species are assigned to the E. okbapensis-group, which is morphologically (based on setation of the paramere and phylogenetically close to the E. aipo-group. On the latter, morphological and taxonomic notes are provided. An identification key to all known species of the groups is presented, and important diagnostic characters are illustrated. Data on the species distributions are mapped and show that the species occur only in the central mountain part of the island restricted by Wamena in the west and Sandaun Province in the east.

  3. Revision of Bondariella Hustache & Bondar (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), with descriptions of the first species from the Amazon and notes on natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Roberta De Melo; Cordeiro Júnior, Mariano Brandão

    2015-09-15

    Bondariella Hustache & Bondar, 1942 is revised. In addition to the redescription of the genus and its four previously known species, we report and describe the first species from the Amazonian region: Bondariella rudicula sp. nov. and Bondariella crenata sp. nov. We also provide a key to the species, illustrations and notes on natural history. All six species of Bondariella have been collected on palm flowers from Brazil, with the previously known species having only been recorded from species of Syagrus Mart. from the Atlantic Forest and Caatinga biomes. The two new species have only been recorded from species of Euterpe Mart. from the Amazon biome. Future work may prove if the associations with Syagrus and Euterpe are specific to the biomes.

  4. Description of the last nymphal instar of Talipes appendiculatus (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Membracinae, and notes on the biology of the immatures and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico Lencioni-Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The last instar nymph of Talipes appendiculatus (Fonseca is described and illustrated, and biological data are given on the immatures and adults. The 5th instar nymph has the body covered with tuberculate chalazae; head and thorax without scoli; abdomen with terga III-VIII with single dorsal scoli, all different in size, III and VIII small, V the largest about 2x longer than wide. Descriptions of the adults (male and female are also provided, with the addition of some new characters. The species (adults, immatures of various stages has been collected on branches of Cassia fistula L. (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioidea, and is frequently attended by bees and wasps.

  5. A comprehensive survey of thermoelectric homogeneity of commonly used thermocouple types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Jonathan; Tucker, Declan; Pearce, Jonathan V.

    2018-06-01

    Thermocouples are widely used as temperature sensors in industry. The electromotive force generated by a thermocouple is produced in a temperature gradient and not at the thermocouple tip. This means that the thermoelectric inhomogeneity represents one of the most important contributions to the overall measurement uncertainty associated with thermocouples. To characterise this effect, and to provide some general recommendations concerning the magnitude of this contribution to use when formulating uncertainty analyses, a comprehensive literature survey has been performed. Significant information was found for Types K, N, R, S, B, Pt/Pd, Au/Pt and various other Pt/Rh thermocouples. In the case of Type K and N thermocouples, the survey has been augmented by a substantial amount of data based on calibrations of mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed thermocouple cable reels from thermocouple manufacturers. Some general conclusions are drawn and outline recommendations given concerning typical values for the uncertainty arising from thermoelectric inhomogeneity for the most widely used thermocouple types in the as-new state. It is stressed that these recommendations should only be heeded when individual homogeneity measurements are not possible. It is also stressed that the homogeneity can deteriorate rapidly during use, particularly for base metal thermocouples.

  6. Characterization of a Method for Inverse Heat Conduction Using Real and Simulated Thermocouple Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Michelle E.; Glass, David E.

    2017-01-01

    It is often impractical to instrument the external surface of high-speed vehicles due to the aerothermodynamic heating. Temperatures can instead be measured internal to the structure using embedded thermocouples, and direct and inverse methods can then be used to estimate temperature and heat flux on the external surface. Two thermocouples embedded at different depths are required to solve direct and inverse problems, and filtering schemes are used to reduce noise in the measured data. Accuracy in the estimated surface temperature and heat flux is dependent on several factors. Factors include the thermocouple location through the thickness of a material, the sensitivity of the surface solution to the error in the specified location of the embedded thermocouples, and the sensitivity to the error in thermocouple data. The effect of these factors on solution accuracy is studied using the methodology discussed in the work of Pizzo, et. al.1 A numerical study is performed to determine if there is an optimal depth at which to embed one thermocouple through the thickness of a material assuming that a second thermocouple is installed on the back face. Solution accuracy will be discussed for a range of embedded thermocouple depths. Moreover, the sensitivity of the surface solution to (a) the error in the specified location of the embedded thermocouple and to (b) the error in the thermocouple data are quantified using numerical simulation, and the results are discussed.

  7. Stability Studies of a New Design Au/Pt Thermocouple Without a Strain Relieving Coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, Ferdouse; Ballico, Mark

    2007-12-01

    The performance of a simple, new design Au/Pt thermocouple developed by NMIA is assessed. This thermocouple is proposed as a more accurate replacement, over the temperature range from 0 to 1,000°C, for the commonly used Type R and S industrial transfer standards, in a robust form familiar to industrial calibration laboratories. Due to the significantly different thermal expansions of the Au and Pt thermoelements, reported designs of the Au/Pt thermocouple incorporate a strain-relieving coil or bridge at the thermocouple junction. As the strain relieving coil is mechanically delicate, these thermocouples are usually mounted in a protective quartz tube assembly, like a standard platinum resistance thermometer (SPRT). Although providing uncertainties at the mK level, they are more delicate than the commonly used Type R and S thermocouples. A new and simple design of the Au/Pt thermocouple was developed in which the differential thermal expansion between Au and Pt is accommodated in the thermocouple leads, facilitated by a special head design. The resulting thermocouple has the appearance and robustness of the traditional Type R and S thermocouples, while retaining stability better than 10 mK up to 961°C. Three thermocouples of this design were calibrated at fixed points and by comparison to SPRTs in a stirred salt bath. In order to assess possible impurity migration, strain effects, and mechanical robustness, sequences of heat treatment up to a total of 500 h together with over 50 thermal cycles from 900°C to ambient were performed. The effect of these treatments on the calibration was assessed, demonstrating the sensors to be robust and stable to better than 10 mK. The effects on the measured inhomogeneity of the thermocouple were assessed using the NMIA thermocouple scanning bath.

  8. A description of two new species of the genus Erenna (Siphonophora: Physonectae: Erennidae), with notes on recently collected specimens of other Erenna species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, P R; Haddock, S H D

    2016-11-10

    Two new Erenna species, E. insidiator sp. nov. and E. sirena sp. nov., are described from specimens collected in the vicinity of Monterey Bay, California, and also, for E. sirena at the southern end of the Gulf of California, Mexico. Further information on the three extant Erenna species is given, based on specimens collected in the same areas. These have enabled, for instance, the identification of three types of tentilla on the tentacles of E. cornuta Pugh, 2001, rather than the two noted on the single previously known specimen. The genus is remarkable for the presence of bioluminescent lures on the tentilla of all five species. In E. sirena sp. nov. the tentilla are also covered by a red-fluorescent layer, which was briefly described by Haddock et al. (2005), and further details are given herein. Another extraordinary feature of the colonies E. sirena sp. nov. is that the main part of the tentacle, with its tentilla, can be extended away from the siphosomal stem on a long peduncle. This phenomenon also appears to occur in E. laciniata Pugh, 2001, and has not been observed before for other physonect species.

  9. Summary of thermocouple performance during advanced gas reactor fuel irradiation experiments in the advanced test reactor and out-of-pile thermocouple testing in support of such experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, A. J.; Haggard, DC; Herter, J. W.; Swank, W. D.; Knudson, D. L.; Cherry, R. S. [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, MS 4112, Idaho Falls, ID, (United States); Scervini, M. [University of Cambridge, Department of Material Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, CB3 0FS, Cambridge, (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple-based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time-dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time-dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B) and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Type C). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with Type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly, Type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluence. Currently, the use of these nickel-based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past 10 years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700 deg. C - 1200 deg. C. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out-of-pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150 deg. C and 1200 deg. C for 2,000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250 deg. C and 200 hours at 1300 deg. C. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity, crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including a Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl{sub 2}O{sub 4}) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly

  10. Summary of Thermocouple Performance During Advanced Gas Reactor Fuel Irradiation Experiments in the Advanced Test Reactor and Out-of-Pile Thermocouple Testing in Support of Such Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. J. Palmer; DC Haggard; J. W. Herter; M. Scervini; W. D. Swank; D. L. Knudson; R. S. Cherry

    2011-07-01

    High temperature gas reactor experiments create unique challenges for thermocouple based temperature measurements. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. This drift is particularly severe for high temperature platinum-rhodium thermocouples (Types S, R, and B); and tungsten-rhenium thermocouples (Types C and W). For lower temperature applications, previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of these Nickel based thermocouples is limited when the temperature exceeds 1000°C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. High rates of open-circuit failure are also typical. Over the past ten years, three long-term Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) experiments have been conducted with measured temperatures ranging from 700oC – 1200oC. A variety of standard Type N and specialty thermocouple designs have been used in these experiments with mixed results. A brief summary of thermocouple performance in these experiments is provided. Most recently, out of pile testing has been conducted on a variety of Type N thermocouple designs at the following (nominal) temperatures and durations: 1150oC and 1200oC for 2000 hours at each temperature, followed by 200 hours at 1250oC, and 200 hours at 1300oC. The standard Type N design utilizes high purity crushed MgO insulation and an Inconel 600 sheath. Several variations on the standard Type N design were tested, including Haynes 214 alloy sheath, spinel (MgAl2O4) insulation instead of MgO, a customized sheath developed at the University of Cambridge, and finally a loose assembly thermocouple with hard fired alumina

  11. The disposition of can thermocouples in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkie, D.

    1978-01-01

    A philosophy is presented for deciding the distribution of can thermocouples within channels and of instrumented channels throughout the core of a reactor with cluster-type fuel elements when only a few thermocouples can be located in any one channel. The arrangement is made according to a 'factorial' design in which all fuel element positions of interest are covered in a group of channels. Two types of factorial design can be applied: the unconfounded design by which the thermocouples in each channel are chosen at random from the possible positions available, with the results that the temperatures have attached to them an uncertainty determined by the differences among channels; and the confounded design by which the positions are chosen so as to give temperatures whose uncertainty is determined only by the random variations within channels. It is also necessary to estimate standard deviations in order to predict the number of cans likely to reach a given temperature. The standard deviation can be expected to vary with channel position, and since there will also be systematic variations in temperature with channel position it is necessary to arrange channels into groups having similar mean fluxes and flux distributions. Each group is instrumented according to the pattern of a confounded design. The information that such an arrangement provides is an estimate of the systematic temperature variations within channels, estimates of within-channel variation of can temperature, of between-channel variation of can temperature, and of the variation of these quantities among groups of channels grouped according to similarity of mean flux and flux profile. (author)

  12. Amended diagnosis and redescription of Pristimantis marmoratus (Boulenger, 1900 (Amphibia: Craugastoridae, with a description of its advertisement call and notes on its breeding ecology and phylogenetic relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe J.R. Kok

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The frog Pristimantis marmoratus was originally described as Hylodes marmoratus by George A. Boulenger in 1900 based on a single specimen reported to have been collected at the foot of Mount Roraima in Guyana in 1898. We herein discuss the exact location of the type locality of P. marmoratus and provide a redescription of the species based on new material from Kaieteur National Park and from the slopes of Maringma-tepui in Guyana. We also describe the previously unknown vocalization and breeding ecology of the species, and conducted an exploratory molecular analysis of the phylogenetic relationships within the genus Pristimantis represented by the members of the “unistrigatus species group” in the Guiana Shield. Pristimantis marmoratus is a small-sized species mainly distinguished from its known Guiana Shield congeners by the combination of F I < II, SVL ≤ 20.4 in males, presence of vocal slits in males, granular/pustulate dorsal skin with well-developed scapular ridges, basal webbing between fingers, fringes on fingers and toes, crossed iris, diffuse yellow or pale green wash on groin, and absence of flashy colour on axillary/pre-axillary region. The advertisement call consists of a single note repeated at a rate of ca 11 calls/min with a dominant frequency ranging from 2756 to 3101 Hz. Pristimantis marmoratus is primarily arboreal, exclusively active at dusk, and probably restricted to the pristine rainforests of the Pantepui uplands and highlands, east of the Gran Sabana between ca 600 and 1800 m above sea level. Preliminary molecular analyses recovered Pristimantis marmoratus as sister to an unnamed species from the Eastern Guiana Shield. On grounds of the newly established distributional extent we suggest maintaining the IUCN conservation status as Least Concern.

  13. Measurement errors for thermocouples attached to thin plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolik, K.B.; Keltner, N.R.; Beck, J.V.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses Unsteady Surface Element (USE) methods which are applied to a model of a thermocouple wire attached to a thin disk. Green's functions are used to develop the integral equations for the wire and the disk. The model can be used to evaluate transient and steady state responses for many types of heat flux measurement devices including thin skin calorimeters and circular foil (Gardon) head flux gauges. The model can accommodate either surface or volumetric heating of the disk. The boundary condition at the outer radius of the disk can be either insulated or constant temperature. Effect on the errors of geometrical and thermal factors can be assessed. Examples are given

  14. Recent improvements on micro-thermocouple based SThM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, TP; Thiery, L.; Teyssieux, D.; Briand, D.; Vairac, P.

    2017-01-01

    The scanning thermal microscope (SThM) has become a versatile tool for local surface temperature mapping or measuring thermal properties of solid materials. In this article, we present recent improvements in a SThM system, based on a micro-wire thermocouple probe associated with a quartz tuning fork for contact strength detection. Some results obtained on an electrothermal micro-hotplate device, operated in active and passive modes, allow demonstrating its performance as a coupled force detection and thermal measurement system.

  15. Temperature Control System for Chromel-Alumel Thermocouple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piping Supriatna; Nurhanan; Riswan DJ; Heru K, B.; Edi Karyanta

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plan Operation Safety needs serious handling on temperature measurement and control. In this report has been done manufacturing Temperature Control System for Chromel-Alumel Thermocouple, accordance to material, equipment and human resource ability in the laboratory. Basic component for the Temperature Control System is LM-741 type of Operation Amplifier, which is functionalized as summer for voltage comparator. Function test for this Control System shown its ability for damping on temperature reference. The Temperature Control System will be implemented on PCB Processing Machine. (author)

  16. A method to eliminate the effect of radiation on thermocouple performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Fawaz; Lu Lixuan

    2007-01-01

    In-core temperature measurements are pivotal in maintaining nuclear reactors in a safe state of operation. Thermocouples serve as the liaison in ensuring this safe state. The realization of the thermocouple's full potential is hindered by the fact that thermocouples cannot be situated in areas with high radiation fields. Radiation has the potential of generating voltages in the thermocouple wires, hence producing an error in the temperature transmitter output. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to quantify the effect that radiation from the Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) has on the thermocouple temperature reading. Subsequently, a method to offset the effect of radiation on the thermocouple is proposed. Simulation is performed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed system

  17. Research Note:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behuria, Pritish; Buur, Lars; Gray, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    its core conceptual and methodological features. This Research Note starts by setting out our understanding of political settlements and provides an overview of existing political settlements literature on African countries. The note then explores how the key concept of ‘holding power’ has been...

  18. RESEARCH NOTE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    RESEARCH NOTE. CDKN2A and MC1R ... Department of Pharmacy and Department of Nursing, School of Health Sciences, Frederick. University, Nicosia ..... Appears with highest frequency in African, Asian-Indian, and Papua. New Guinean ...

  19. Editorial note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tore Ahlbäck

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Editorial note of the Scripta Instituti Donneriani Aboensis, vol. 21, Postmodern Spirituality, based on papers read at the symposium on Postmodern Spirituality held at Åbo, Finland, on 11–13 June 2008.

  20. Project Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    School Science Review, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents sixteen project notes developed by pupils of Chipping Norton School and Bristol Grammar School, in the United Kingdom. These Projects include eight biology A-level projects and eight Chemistry A-level projects. (HM)

  1. Writing a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, K H; Peh, W C G

    2010-02-01

    A technical note is a short article giving a brief description of a specific development, technique or procedure, or it may describe a modification of an existing technique, procedure or device applicable to medicine. The technique, procedure or device described should have practical value and should contribute to clinical diagnosis or management. It could also present a software tool, or an experimental or computational method. Technical notes are variously referred to as technical innovations or technical developments. The main criteria for publication will be the novelty of concepts involved, the validity of the technique and its potential for clinical applications.

  2. Notes on Piezoelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-03

    These notes provide a pedagogical discussion of the physics of piezoelectricity. The exposition starts with a brief analysis of the classical (continuum) theory of piezoelectric phenomena in solids. The main subject of the notes is, however, a quantum mechanical analysis. We first derive the Frohlich Hamiltonian as part of the description of the electron-phonon interaction. The results of this analysis are then employed to derive the equations of piezoelectricity. A couple of examples with the zinc blende and and wurtzite structures are presented at the end

  3. 78 FR 56174 - In-Core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... 52 [Docket No. PRM-50-105; NRC-2012-0056] In-Core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Petition for rulemaking; denial...-core thermocouples at different elevations and radial positions throughout the reactor core to enable...

  4. 77 FR 30435 - In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 [Docket No. PRM-50-105; NRC-2012-0056] In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... of operating licenses for nuclear power plants (``NPP'') to operate NPPs with in-core thermocouples...

  5. Structural evaluation of thermocouple probes for 241-AZ-101 waste tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanjilal, S.K.

    1994-01-01

    This document reports on the structural analysis of the thermocouple probe to be installed in 241-AZ-101 waste tank. The thermocouple probe is analyzed for normal pump mixing operation and potential earthquake induced loads required by the Hanford Site Design Criteria SDC-4.1

  6. Structural evaluation of thermocouple probes for 241-AZ-101 waste tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanjilal, S.K.

    1994-12-06

    This document reports on the structural analysis of the thermocouple probe to be installed in 241-AZ-101 waste tank. The thermocouple probe is analyzed for normal pump mixing operation and potential earthquake induced loads required by the Hanford Site Design Criteria SDC-4.1.

  7. Detection of thermocouple malfunction in the Beacon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, T.; Heibel, M.D.; Congedo, T.V.

    1992-01-01

    The BEACON system uses Core Exit Thermocouples (T/C) extensively for continuous radial power distribution monitoring. The T/C's are used to adjust the reference power distribution generated by the BEACON system to match the current radial power distribution. T/C reliability, repeatability, and relative accuracy have been very satisfactory. However, it is very important to detect any T/C malfunctions during operation, since a T/C signal change caused by an undetected malfunction can lead to serious errors in the radial power distribution developed by BEACON. A simple procedure has been developed which is capable of discriminating between changes in T/C signals caused by actual changes in reactor conditions and signal changes caused by T/C malfunctions

  8. Design and research of seal structure for thermocouple column assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao Qiqi; Li Na; Zhao Wei; Ma Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    The new seal structure was designed to satisfy the function of thermocouple column assembly and the reactor structure. This seal structure uses the packing graphite ring and adopts the self-sealing principle. Cone angle is brought to the seal face of seal structure which is conveniently to assembly and disassembly. After the sealing principle analysis and stress calculation of graphite ring which adopt the cone angle, the cone angle increases the radial force of seal structure and improves the seal effect. The stress analysis result shows the seal structure strength satisfies the regulation requirement. The cold and hot function test results shows the sealing effect is good, and the design requirement is satisfied. (authors)

  9. LOFT ECC Pitot Tube and Thermocouple Rake Penetration thermal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolan, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    A thermal analysis of the LOFT ECC Pitot Tube and Thermocouple Rake Penetration was performed using COUPLE, a two-dimensional finite element computer code. Four transients which conservatively cover all transients the rake will be exposed to were included in this analysis in order to comply with the ASME Code Section III requirements. The transients conservatively cover hot and cold leg operation, and nuclear and nonnuclear operation. The four transients include the LOCE with ECC injection transient, the single control rod drop transient, the scram transient, and the heatup with 0 to 100% load change transient. Temperature distributions in the rake were obtained for each of the four transients and several plots of node temperatures vs. time are given

  10. Lifetime improvement of sheathed thermocouples for use in high-temperature and thermal transient operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, R.W.; Clift, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    Premature failure of small-diameter, magnesium-oxide-insulated sheathed thermocouples occurred when they were placed within nuclear fuel rod simulators (FRSs) to measure high temperatures and to follow severe thermal transients encountered during simulation of nuclear reactor accidents in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) thermal-hydraulic test facilities. Investigation of thermally cycled thermocouples yielded three criteria for improvement of thermocouple lifetime: (1) reduction of oxygen impurities prior to and during their fabrication, (2) refinement of thermoelement grain size during their fabrication, and (3) elimination of prestrain prior to use above their recrystallization temperature. The first and third criteria were satisfied by improved techniques of thermocouple assembly and by a recovery anneal prior to thermocouple use

  11. Blind system identification of two-thermocouple sensor based on cross-relation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zhijie; Hao, Xiaojian

    2018-03-01

    In dynamic temperature measurement, the dynamic characteristics of the sensor affect the accuracy of the measurement results. Thermocouples are widely used for temperature measurement in harsh conditions due to their low cost, robustness, and reliability, but because of the presence of the thermal inertia, there is a dynamic error in the dynamic temperature measurement. In order to eliminate the dynamic error, two-thermocouple sensor was used to measure dynamic gas temperature in constant velocity flow environments in this paper. Blind system identification of two-thermocouple sensor based on a cross-relation method was carried out. Particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to estimate time constants of two thermocouples and compared with the grid based search method. The method was validated on the experimental equipment built by using high temperature furnace, and the input dynamic temperature was reconstructed by using the output data of the thermocouple with small time constant.

  12. An experimental study of the effect of external thermocouples on rewetting during reflood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shires, G.L.; Butcher, A.A.; Carpenter, B.G.; McCune, D.S.; Pearson, K.G.

    1980-04-01

    The validation of computer codes used for PWR safety assessment often depends upon experiments carried out with either real fuel pins or electrically heated fuel pin simulators. In some cases, and this applies particularly to in-pile tests, temperatures are measured by means of sheathed thermocouples attached externally to the pins and this raises the question of the possible effect of such thermocouples on the two phase hydraulics and heat transfer which are being studied. This paper describes the experiments which subjected two realistic fuel pin simulators, one with and one without external thermocouples, to identical bottom flooding conditions. They demonstrate very clearly that external thermocouples act as preferential rewetting sites and thereby increase the rate of propagation of the quench front. In the view of the authors of this paper the facts described raise serious doubts about the validity of rewetting data obtained from experiments employing external thermocouples. (U.K.)

  13. A Modified Design of a Thermocouple Based Digital Temperature Indicator with Opto-Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. BERA

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the conventional thermocouple based digital temperature indicator the millivolt signal obtained from a thermocouple is first amplified and then converted into a digital signal by using analog-to-digital converter (ADC. This digital signal is then indicated as digital display of temperature using digital counter circuit or microprocessor/microcontroller based circuitry. In the present paper a modified AD conversion technique along with opto-isolation is used to indicate digitally the temperature without using any conventional analog-to-digital converter. The theory and design of the measuring technique are described in the paper. The non-linearity of thermocouple is eliminated by using look-up table within software program. The performance of the circuit has been experimentally tested by using mV input signal instead of a thermocouple as well as using a K-type thermocouple. The experimental results are reported in the paper.

  14. The transient response for different types of erodable surface thermocouples using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Hussein

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of erodable surface thermocouples has been numerically assessed by using a two dimensional finite element analysis. Four types of base metal erodable surface thermocouples have been examined in this study, included type-K (alumel-chromel, type-E (chromel-constantan, type-T (copper-constantan, and type-J (iron-constantan with 50 mm thick- ness for each. The practical importance of these types of thermocouples is to be used in internal combustion engine studies and aerodynamics experiments. The step heat flux was applied at the surface of the thermocouple model. The heat flux from the measurements of the surface temperature can be commonly identified by assuming that the heat transfer within these devices is one-dimensional. The surface temperature histories at different positions along the thermocouple are presented. The normalized surface temperature histories at the center of the thermocouple for different types at different response time are also depicted. The thermocouple response to different heat flux variations were considered by using a square heat flux with 2 ms width, a sinusoidal surface heat flux variation width 10 ms period and repeated heat flux variation with 2 ms width. The present results demonstrate that the two dimensional transient heat conduction effects have a significant influence on the surface temperature history measurements made with these devices. It was observed that the surface temperature history and the transient response for thermocouple type-E are higher than that for other types due to the thermal properties of this thermocouple. It was concluded that the thermal properties of the surrounding material do have an impact, but the properties of the thermocouple and the insulation materials also make an important contribution to the net response.

  15. SAFETY NOTES

    CERN Document Server

    TIS Secretariat

    2001-01-01

    Please note that the revisions of safety notes no 3 (NS 3 Rev. 2) and no 24 (NS 24 REV.) entitled respectively 'FIRE PREVENTION FOR ENCLOSED SPACES IN LARGE HALLS' and 'REMOVING UNBURIED ELV AND LVA ELECTRIC CONDUITS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322811&version=1&filename=version_francaise.pdf http://edmsoraweb.cern.ch:8001/cedar/doc.download?document_id=322861&version=2&filename=version_francaise.pdf Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email tis.secretariat@cern.ch

  16. Technical Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    In this report on four patients, we did not use any of these techniques. The existence and the site of the fistulas was clearly demonstrated using basic but important preoperative detailed assessment and two intraoperative findings. The preoperative referral note that indicated the site of technical difficulty during the previous ...

  17. Please note

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Thank you for your understanding. (Version française la semaine prochaine.)

  18. Editor's Note

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On another note: the editor and the editorial team acknowledge the financial support of the Carnegie Corporation of New York through the University of Ghana Building A New Generation of Academics in Africa (BANGA-Africa) Project. We also use this platform to express our gratitude for the support of various stakeholders, ...

  19. Temperature measurement error due to the effects of time varying magnetic fields on thermocouples with ferromagnetic thermoelements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, D.W.

    1977-01-01

    Thermocouples with ferromagnetic thermoelements (iron, Alumel, Nisil) are used extensively in industry. We have observed the generation of voltage spikes within ferromagnetic wires when the wires are placed in an alternating magnetic field. This effect has implications for thermocouple thermometry, where it was first observed. For example, the voltage generated by this phenomenon will contaminate the thermocouple thermal emf, resulting in temperature measurement error

  20. Thin film platinum–palladium thermocouples for gas turbine engine applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tougas, Ian M.; Gregory, Otto J., E-mail: gregory@egr.uri.edu

    2013-07-31

    Thin film platinum:palladium thermocouples were fabricated on alumina and mullite surfaces using radio frequency sputtering and characterized after high temperature exposure to oxidizing environments. The thermoelectric output, hysteresis, and drift of these sensors were measured at temperatures up to 1100 °C. Auger electron spectroscopy was used to follow the extent of oxidation in each thermocouple leg and interdiffusion at the metallurgical junction. Minimal oxidation of the platinum and palladium thermoelements was observed after high temperature exposure, but considerable dewetting and faceting of the films were observed in scanning electron microscopy. An Arrhenius temperature dependence on the drift rate was observed and later attributed to microstructural changes during thermal cycling. The thin film thermocouples, however, did exhibit excellent stability at 1000 °C with drift rates comparable to commercial type-K wire thermocouples. Based on these results, platinum:palladium thin film thermocouples have considerable potential for use in the hot sections of gas turbine engines. - Highlights: • Stable thin film platinum:palladium thermocouples for gas turbine engines • Little oxidation but significant microstructural changes from thermal cycling • Minimal hysteresis during repeated thermal cycling • Drift comparable to commercial wire thermocouples.

  1. Contact Thermocouple Methodology and Evaluation for Temperature Measurement in the Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Ethan J.; Pawlik, Ralph J.; Krause, David L.

    2013-01-01

    Laboratory testing of advanced aerospace components very often requires highly accurate temperature measurement and control devices, as well as methods to precisely analyze and predict the performance of such components. Analysis of test articles depends on accurate measurements of temperature across the specimen. Where possible, this task is accomplished using many thermocouples welded directly to the test specimen, which can produce results with great precision. However, it is known that thermocouple spot welds can initiate deleterious cracks in some materials, prohibiting the use of welded thermocouples. Such is the case for the nickel-based superalloy MarM-247, which is used in the high temperature, high pressure heater heads for the Advanced Stirling Converter component of the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator space power system. To overcome this limitation, a method was developed that uses small diameter contact thermocouples to measure the temperature of heater head test articles with the same level of accuracy as welded thermocouples. This paper includes a brief introduction and a background describing the circumstances that compelled the development of the contact thermocouple measurement method. Next, the paper describes studies performed on contact thermocouple readings to determine the accuracy of results. It continues on to describe in detail the developed measurement method and the evaluation of results produced. A further study that evaluates the performance of different measurement output devices is also described. Finally, a brief conclusion and summary of results is provided.

  2. Thermoelectric properties of currently available Au/Pt thermocouples related to the valid reference function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edler F.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Au/Pt thermocouples are considered to be an alternative to High Temperature Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (HTSPRTs for realizing temperatures according to the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90 in the temperature range between aluminium (660.323 °C and silver (961.78 °C. The original aim of this work was to develop and to validate a new reference function for Au/Pt thermocouples which reflects the properties of presently commercially available Au and Pt wires. The thermoelectric properties of 16 Au/Pt thermocouples constructed at different National Metrological Institutes by using wires from different suppliers and 4 commercially available Au/Pt thermocouples were investigated. Most of them exhibit significant deviations from the current reference function of Au/Pt thermocouples caused by the poor performance of the Au-wires available. Thermoelectric homogeneity was investigated by measuring immersion profiles during freezes at the freezing point of silver and in liquid baths. The thermoelectric inhomogeneities were found to be one order of magnitude larger than those of Au/Pt thermocouples of the Standard Reference Material® (SRM® 1749. The improvement of the annealing procedure of the gold wires is a key process to achieve thermoelectric homogeneities in the order of only about (2–3 mK, sufficient to replace the impracticable HTSPRTs as interpolation instruments of the ITS-90. Comparison measurements of some of the Au/Pt thermocouples against a HTSPRT and an absolutely calibrated radiation thermometer were performed and exhibit agreements within the expanded measurement uncertainties. It has been found that the current reference function of Au/Pt thermocouples reflects adequately the thermoelectric properties of currently available Au/Pt thermocouples.

  3. Application note :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Thomas V.

    2013-08-01

    The development of the XyceTM Parallel Electronic Simulator has focused entirely on the creation of a fast, scalable simulation tool, and has not included any schematic capture or data visualization tools. This application note will describe how to use the open source schematic capture tool gschem and its associated netlist creation tool gnetlist to create basic circuit designs for Xyce, and how to access advanced features of Xyce that are not directly supported by either gschem or gnetlist.

  4. Studies of Behavior Melting Temperature Characteristics for Multi Thermocouple In-Core Instrument Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Donghyup; Chae, Myoungeun; Kim, Sungjin; Lee, Kyulim

    2015-01-01

    Bottom-up type in-core instruments (ICIs) are used for the pressurized water reactors of OPR-1000, APR- 1400 in order to measure neutron flux and temperature in the reactor. It is a well-known technique and a proven design using years in the nuclear field. ICI consists of one pair of K-type thermocouple, five self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) and one back ground detector. K-type thermocouple's purpose is to measure the core exit temperature (CET) in the reactor. The CET is a very important factor for operating nuclear power plants and it is 327 .deg. C when generally operating the reactor in the nuclear power plant(NPP) in case of OPR- 1000. If the CET will exceed 650 .deg. C, Operators in the main control room should be considered to be an accident situation in accordance with a severe accident management guidance(SAMG). The Multi Thermocouple ICI is a new designed ICI assuming severe accident conditions. It consists of four more thermocouples than the existing design, so it has five Ktype thermocouples besides the thermocouple measuring CET is located in the same elevation as the ICI. Each thermocouple is able to be located in the desired location as required. The Multi Thermocouple ICI helps to measure the temperature distribution of the entire reactor. In addition, it will measure certain point of melted core because of the in-vessel debris of nuclear fuel when an accident occurs more seriously. In this paper, to simulate a circumstance such as a nuclear reactor severe accident was examined. In this study, the K-type thermocouples of Multi Thermocouple ICI was confirmed experimentally to be able to measure up to 1370 .deg. C before the thermocouples have been melted. And after the thermocouples were melted by debris, it was able to be monitored that the signal of EMF directed the infinite value of voltage. Therefore through the results of the test, it can be assumed that if any EMF data among the Multi Thermocouple ICI will direct the infinite value

  5. Studies of Behavior Melting Temperature Characteristics for Multi Thermocouple In-Core Instrument Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Donghyup; Chae, Myoungeun; Kim, Sungjin; Lee, Kyulim [Woojin inc, Hwasung (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Bottom-up type in-core instruments (ICIs) are used for the pressurized water reactors of OPR-1000, APR- 1400 in order to measure neutron flux and temperature in the reactor. It is a well-known technique and a proven design using years in the nuclear field. ICI consists of one pair of K-type thermocouple, five self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) and one back ground detector. K-type thermocouple's purpose is to measure the core exit temperature (CET) in the reactor. The CET is a very important factor for operating nuclear power plants and it is 327 .deg. C when generally operating the reactor in the nuclear power plant(NPP) in case of OPR- 1000. If the CET will exceed 650 .deg. C, Operators in the main control room should be considered to be an accident situation in accordance with a severe accident management guidance(SAMG). The Multi Thermocouple ICI is a new designed ICI assuming severe accident conditions. It consists of four more thermocouples than the existing design, so it has five Ktype thermocouples besides the thermocouple measuring CET is located in the same elevation as the ICI. Each thermocouple is able to be located in the desired location as required. The Multi Thermocouple ICI helps to measure the temperature distribution of the entire reactor. In addition, it will measure certain point of melted core because of the in-vessel debris of nuclear fuel when an accident occurs more seriously. In this paper, to simulate a circumstance such as a nuclear reactor severe accident was examined. In this study, the K-type thermocouples of Multi Thermocouple ICI was confirmed experimentally to be able to measure up to 1370 .deg. C before the thermocouples have been melted. And after the thermocouples were melted by debris, it was able to be monitored that the signal of EMF directed the infinite value of voltage. Therefore through the results of the test, it can be assumed that if any EMF data among the Multi Thermocouple ICI will direct the infinite value

  6. Flow measurements using noise signals of axially displaced thermocouples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozma, R.; Hoogenboom, J.E. (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands))

    1990-01-01

    Determination of the flow rate of the coolant in the cooling channels of nuclear reactors is an important aspect of core monitoring. It is usually impossible to measure the flow by flowmeters in the individual channels due to the lack of space and safety reasons. An alternative method is based on the analysis of noise signals of the available in-core detectors. In such a noise method, a transit time which characterises the propagation of thermohydraulic fluctuations (density or temperature fluctuations) in the coolant is determined from the correlation between the noise signals of axially displaced detectors. In this paper, the results of flow measurements using axially displaced thermocouples in the channel wall will be presented. The experiments have been performed in a simulated MRT-type fuel assembly located in the research reactor HOR of the Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft. It was found that the velocities obtained via temperature noise correlation methods are significantly larger than the area-averaged velocity in the single-phase coolant flow. Model calculations show that the observed phenomenon can be explained by effects due to the radial velocity distribution in the channel. (author).

  7. Field installed brazed thermocouple feedthroughs for high vacuum experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.; Messick, C.

    1983-01-01

    In order to reduce the occurrence of vacuum leaks and to increase the availability of the DIII vacuum vessel for experimental operation, effort was applied to developing a vacuum-tight brazed feedthrough system for sheathed thermocouples, stainless steel sheathed conductor cables and tubes for cooling fluids. This brazed technique is a replacement for elastomer ''O'' ring sealed feedthroughs that have proven vulnerable to leaks caused by thermal cycling, etc. To date, about 200 feedthroughs have been used. Up to 91 were grouped on a single conflat flange mounted in a bulkhead connector configuration which facilitates installation and removal. Investigation was required to select a suitable braze alloy, flux and installation procedure. Braze alloy selection was challenging since the alloy was required to have: 1) Melting temperature in excess of the 250 0 C (482 0 F) bakeout temperature. 2) No high vapor pressure elements. 3) Good wetting properties when used in air with acceptable flux. 4) Good wettability to 300 series stainless steel and inconel

  8. Temperature measurement: Development work on noise thermometry and improvement of conventional thermocouples for applications in nuclear process heat (PNP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.; Hecker, R.; Oehmen, J.; Barbonus, P.; Hans, R.

    1982-06-01

    The behaviour was studied of NiCr-Ni sheathed thermocouples (sheath Inconel 600 or Incoloy 800, insulation MgO) in a helium and carbon atmosphere at temperatures of 950-1150 deg. C. All the thermocouples used retained their functional performance. The insulation resistance tended towards a limit value which is dependent on the temperature and quality of the thermocouple. Temperature measurements were loaded with great uncertainty in the temperature range of 950-1150 deg. C. Recalibrations at the temperature of 950 deg. C showed errors of up to 6%. Measuring sensors were developed which consist of a sheathed double thermocouple with a noise resistor positioned between the two hot junctions. Using the noise thermometer it is possible to recalibrate the thermocouple at any time in situ. A helium system with a high temperature experimental area was developed to test the thermocouples and the combined thermocouple-noise thermometer sensors under true experimental conditions

  9. Thermocouples calibration and analysis of the influence of the length of the sensor coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noriega, M; Ramírez, R; López, R; Vaca, M; Morales, J; Terres, H; Lizardi, A; Chávez, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the design and construction of a lab prototype, with a much lower cost compared to the ones commercially sold, enabling the manufacture of thermocouples which are then calibrated to verify their functionality and acceptance. We also analyze the influence of the external insulation over the wires, to determine whether it influences temperature measurement. The tested lengths ranged from 0.00 m up to 0.030 m. The thermocouple was compared against the behavior of a thermocouple of the same type that was purchased with a commercial supplier. The obtained measurement showed less than 1 °C difference in some points. This makes the built thermocouple reliable, since the standard allows a difference of up to 2.2 °C

  10. The use of thermocouples which transmute during service in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.E.

    1980-06-01

    Some current nuclear fuel experiments at CRNL require the use of thermocouples to measure temperatures of up to 2200 0 C under reactor operating conditions. A literature search has shown that transient electrical effects and transmutation of the thermocouple alloys can cause temperature measurement errors of up to +-1% and +-30%, respectively. However, the error due to transient electrical effects can be corrected by making temperature measurements immediately following reactor shutdown. Furthermore it has been shown that transmutation effects can be corrected for by calibrating the high temperature tungsten-rhenium thermocouples against a chromel-alumel thermocouple in a cooler part of the experiment. The use of these techniques is expected to reduce temperature measurement errors to +-2% in the best case. (auth)

  11. Thermocouple module halt failure acceptance test procedure for Tank 241-SY-101 DACS-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermi, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    The readiness of the Tank 241-SY-101 Data Acquisition and Control System (DACS-1) to provide monitoring and alarms for a halt failure of any thermocouple module will be tested during the performance of this procedure. Updated DACS-1 ''1/0 MODULE HEALTH STATUS'', ''MININ1'', and ''MININ2'' screens, which now provide indication of thermocouple module failure, will also be tested as part of this procedure

  12. Thermocouple calibration facility for 2900 deg C high temperature and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Daolong

    1991-01-01

    The construction and the performance characteristic of a 2900 deg C high temperature thermocouple calibration facility are described. The calibration error analysis is made. The test results of the calibration characteristics of high temperature thermocouples Mo/Nb, W-3Re/W-25Re, and W-1Mo/W-25Mo are given. The test result of temperature dependent resistivity of BeO made by this facility is given

  13. Attachment of Free Filament Thermocouples for Temperature Measurements on CMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Cuy, Michael D.; Wnuk, Stephen P.

    1997-01-01

    Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMC) are being developed for use as enabling materials for advanced aeropropulsion engine and high speed civil transport applications. The characterization and testing of these advanced materials in hostile, high-temperature environments require accurate measurement of the material temperatures. Commonly used wire Thermo-Couples (TC) can not be attached to this ceramic based material via conventional spot-welding techniques. Attachment of wire TC's with commercially available ceramic cements fail to provide sufficient adhesion at high temperatures. While advanced thin film TC technology provides minimally intrusive surface temperature measurement and has good adhesion on the CMC, its fabrication requires sophisticated and expensive facilities and is very time consuming. In addition, the durability of lead wire attachments to both thin film TC's and the substrate materials requires further improvement. This paper presents a newly developed attachment technique for installation of free filament wire TC's with a unique convoluted design on ceramic based materials such as CMC's. Three CMC's (SiC/SiC CMC and alumina/alumina CMC) instrumented with type IC, R or S wire TC's were tested in a Mach 0.3 burner rig. The CMC temperatures measured from these wire TC's were compared to that from the facility pyrometer and thin film TC's. There was no sign of TC delamination even after several hours exposure to 1200 C. The test results proved that this new technique can successfully attach wire TC's on CMC's and provide temperature data in hostile environments. The sensor fabrication process is less expensive and requires very little time compared to that of the thin film TC's. The same installation technique/process can also be applied to attach lead wires for thin film sensor systems.

  14. Editors' note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Carsten; Feller, Alex; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2012-11-01

    This topical issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes is a collection of reference articles covering the GREGOR solar telescope, its science capabilities, its subsystems, and its dedicated suite of instruments for high-resolution observations of the Sun. Because ground-based telescopes have life spans of several decades, it is only natural that they continuously reinvent themselves. Literally, the GREGOR telescope builds on the foundations of the venerable Gregory-Coudé Telescope (GCT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. Acknowledging the fact that new discoveries in observational solar physics are driven by larger apertures to collect more photons and to scrutinize the Sun in finer detail, the GCT was decommissioned and the building was made available to the GREGOR project.

  15. Editorial note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Hrymak, A.; Lee, J.

    2009-01-01

    industrial and educational applications. These articles will highlight theory, models, algorithms and applications with respect to value preservation and/or value creation or growth within the chemical product supply chain. To highlight and motivate research in the emerging challenges in PSE, we plan...... components of PSE—modeling, numerical analysis, optimization, systems and control theory, computer science, and, management science will be highlighted through the published articles (full-length papers, perspective papers, review papers, short notes and letters to the editor). They will cover...... and intelligent systems, integrated approaches to design, control and data analysis, systematic techniques for managing complexity, etc.), PSE emerging domains (product-process design, enterprise-wide optimization, energy and sustainability, biological engineering, pharmaceutical engineering, etc.) and novel...

  16. Editorial Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, F.; Ommen Kloeke, E.

    2015-07-01

    With this editorial note we would like to update you on the performance of the International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation (JAG) and inform you about changes that have been made to the composition of the editorial team. Our Journal publishes original papers that apply earth observation data for the management of natural resources and the environment. Environmental issues include biodiversity, land degradation, industrial pollution and natural hazards such as earthquakes, floods and landslides. As such the scope is broad and ranges from conceptual and more fundamental work on earth observation and geospatial sciences to the more problem-solving type of work. When I took over the role of Editor-in-Chief in 2012, I together with the Publisher set myself the mission to position JAG in the top-3 of the remote sensing and GIS journals. To do so we strived at attracting high quality and high impact papers to the journal and to reduce the review turnover time to make JAG a more attractive medium for publications. What has been achieved? Have we reached our ambitions? We can say that: The submissions have increased over the years with over 23% for the last 12 months. Naturally not all may lead to more papers, but at least a portion of the additional submissions should lead to a growth in journal content and quality.

  17. Note & Recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available VolumiVito Campanelli, Web Aesthetics. How Digital Media Affect Culture and Society; Id., Remix It Yourself. Analisi socio-estetica delle forme comunicative del Web [Emanuele Crescimanno] • Jean-François Bordron, Image et vérité. Essais sur les dimensions iconiques de la connaissance [Veronica Estay Stange] • Stéphane Dumas, Les peaux créatrices – Esthétique de la sécrétion [Marc-Vincent Howlett]NoteQuidam veritatis effectus. A proposito di A Plea for Balance in Philosophy. Essays in honour of Paolo Parrini [Fabrizio Desideri] • A Single Face to Capture the Whole World: Literary Shapes and Shadows. An Interview With Tolm Coibin [Fabrizia Abbate] •Convegno Le sensible a l’oeuvre: savoirs du corps entre esthetique et neurosciences, Parigi, 15 Maggio 2014 [Jessica Murano] 

  18. Degradation by radiation of the response of a thermocouple of a fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez V, A.

    1994-01-01

    In the TRIGA Mark III Reactor of the National Institute of Nuclear Research, is necessary to use an instrumented fuel element for measurement the fuel temperature during pulses of power. This fuel element is exposed to daily temperature gradient of order to 390 Centigrade degrees in normal condition of reactor operation at 1 MW. The experience which this instrumented fuel elements is that useful life of the thermocouples is less then the fuel, because they show important changes in their chemistry composition and electrical specifications, until the point they don't give any response. So is necessary to know the factors that influenced in the shortening of the thermocouples life. The change in composition affects the thermocouple calibration depends on where the changes take place relative to the temperature gradient. The change will be dependent on the neutron flux and so the value of the neutron flux may be used as a measure or the composition change. If there is no neutron flux within the temperature gradient, there will be no composition change, and so the thermocouple calibration will no change. If the neutron flux varies within the region in which a temperature gradients exists, the composition of the thermocouple will vary and the calibration will change. But the maximum change in calibration will occur if the neutron flux is high and constant within the region of the temperature gradient. In this case, a composition change takes place which is uniform throughout the gradient and so the emf output can be expected to change. In this reactor, the thermocouples are in the second case. Then, the relative position of the thermal and neutron flux gradients are the most important factor that explain the composition change after or 2,500 times of exposing the thermocouples to the temperature gradients of order to 390 Centigrade degrees. (Author)

  19. Development of a micro-thermal flow sensor with thin-film thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Kim, Sung Jin

    2006-11-01

    A micro-thermal flow sensor is developed using thin-film thermocouples as temperature sensors. A micro-thermal flow sensor consists of a heater and thin-film thermocouples which are deposited on a quartz wafer using stainless steel masks. Thin-film thermocouples are made of standard K-type thermocouple materials. The mass flow rate is measured by detecting the temperature difference of the thin-film thermocouples located in the upstream and downstream sections relative to a heater. The performance of the micro-thermal flow sensor is experimentally evaluated. In addition, a numerical model is presented and verified by experimental results. The effects of mass flow rate, input power, and position of temperature sensors on the performance of the micro-thermal flow sensor are experimentally investigated. At low values, the mass flow rate varies linearly with the temperature difference. The linearity of the micro-thermal flow sensor is shown to be independent of the input power. Finally, the position of the temperature sensors is shown to affect both the sensitivity and the linearity of the micro-thermal flow sensor.

  20. Cladding temperature measurement by thermocouples at preirradiated LWR fuel rod samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leiling, W.

    1981-12-01

    This report describes the technique to measure cladding temperatures of test fuel rod samples, applied during the in-pile tests on fuel rod failure in the steam loop of the FR2 reactor. NiCr/Ni thermocouples with stainless steel and Inconel sheaths, respectively,of 1 mm diameter were resistance spot weld to the outside of the fuel rod cladding. For the pre-irradiated test specimens, welding had to be done under hot-cell conditions, i.e. under remote handling. In order to prevent the formation of eutectics between zirconium and the chemical elements of the thermocouple sheath at elevated temperatures, the thermocouples were covered with a platinum jacket of 1.4 mm outside diameter swaged onto the sheath in the area of the measuring junction. This thermocouple design has worked satisfactorily in the in-pile experiments performed in a steam atmosphere. Even in the heatup phase, in which cladding temperatures up to 1050 0 C were reached, only very few failures occured. This good performance is to a great part due to a careful control and a thorough inspection of the thermocouples. (orig.) [de

  1. Establishment of the Co-C Eutectic Fixed-Point Cell for Thermocouple Calibrations at NIMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongrai, O.; Elliott, C. J.

    2017-08-01

    In 2015, NIMT first established a Co-C eutectic temperature reference (fixed-point) cell measurement capability for thermocouple calibration to support the requirements of Thailand's heavy industries and secondary laboratories. The Co-C eutectic fixed-point cell is a facility transferred from NPL, where the design was developed through European and UK national measurement system projects. In this paper, we describe the establishment of a Co-C eutectic fixed-point cell for thermocouple calibration at NIMT. This paper demonstrates achievement of the required furnace uniformity, the Co-C plateau realization and the comparison data between NIMT and NPL Co-C cells by using the same standard Pt/Pd thermocouple, demonstrating traceability. The NIMT measurement capability for noble metal type thermocouples at the new Co-C eutectic fixed point (1324.06°C) is estimated to be within ± 0.60 K (k=2). This meets the needs of Thailand's high-temperature thermocouple users—for which previously there has been no traceable calibration facility.

  2. Evaluation of thermocouple fin effect in cladding surface temperature measurement during film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuruta, Takaharu; Fujishiro, Toshio

    1984-01-01

    Thermocouple fin effect on surface temperature measurement of a fuel rod has been studied at elevated wall temperatures under film boiling condition in a reactivity initiated accident (RIA) situation. This paper presents an analytical equation to evaluate temperature drops caused by the thermocouple wires attached to cladding surface. The equation yielded the local temperature drop at measuring point depending on thermocouple diameter, cladding temperature, coolant flow condition and vapor film thickness. The temperature drops by the evaluating equation were shown in cases of free and forced convection conditions. The analytical results were compared with the measured data for various thermocouple sizes, and also with the estimated maximum cladding temperature based on the oxidation layer thickness in the cladding outer surface. It was concluded that the temperature drops at above 1,000 0 C in cladding temperature were around 120 and 150 0 C for 0.2 and 0.3 mm diameter Pt-Pt.Rh thermocouples, respectively, under a stagnant coolant condition. The fin effect increases with the decrease of vapor film thickness such as under forced flow cooling or at near the quenching point. (author)

  3. R and D advances in high temperature thermocouples for nuclear utilization in severe environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, R.; Blanc, J.Y.

    1984-09-01

    Safety experiments for water reactors in Cadarache have made necessary a research program for developing special thermocouples for use in severe fuel damage conditions (superheated steam). Standard cladding thermocouples (type K, alumina insulated, zircaloy sheathed, O.D. 0.7 mm) must be replaced by others with W3Re versus W25Re legs, Ta sheath protected by a zircaloy outer sheath, and hafnia or thoria insulation. The zircaloy sheath will be sufficient to protect correctly tantalum. Fuel centerline thermocouples have W5Re versus W26Re or W3Re versus W25Re legs, hard-fired thoria insulation and rhenium CVD sheath (O.D. 1.1 mm). A protective ReSi 2 coating is applied. This protection withstands at least 1600 0 C, 45 minutes in steam. Tests are done-concerning: a) materials compatibilities in helium between 1400 0 C and 2000 0 C, b) prototypes qualification (in Saclay or Grenoble), c) determination of errors due to degradation of insulation resistance of thermocouples cables (with magnesia, hafnia, alumina), d) Ir or Re protective coatings by CVD process, other coatings by ionic bombardment, etc... A completely new type of hot junction has been patented. Future works will include: completion of these tests, Mo-Nb alloys thermocouples legs realization withstanding heavy neutronic fluence, and use of ceramics glues

  4. Thermocouple Errors when Mounted on Cylindrical Surfaces in Abnormal Thermal Environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakos, James T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Suo-Anttila, Jill M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zepper, Ethan T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Koenig, Jerry J [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Valdez, Vincent A. [ECI Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Mineral-insulated, metal-sheathed, Type-K thermocouples are used to measure the temperature of various items in high-temperature environments, often exceeding 1000degC (1273 K). The thermocouple wires (chromel and alumel) are protected from the harsh environments by an Inconel sheath and magnesium oxide (MgO) insulation. The sheath and insulation are required for reliable measurements. Due to the sheath and MgO insulation, the temperature registered by the thermocouple is not the temperature of the surface of interest. In some cases, the error incurred is large enough to be of concern because these data are used for model validation, and thus the uncertainties of the data need to be well documented. This report documents the error using 0.062" and 0.040" diameter Inconel sheathed, Type-K thermocouples mounted on cylindrical surfaces (inside of a shroud, outside and inside of a mock test unit). After an initial transient, the thermocouple bias errors typically range only about +-1-2% of the reading in K. After all of the uncertainty sources have been included, the total uncertainty to 95% confidence, for shroud or test unit TCs in abnormal thermal environments, is about +-2% of the reading in K, lower than the +-3% typically used for flat shrouds. Recommendations are provided in Section 6 to facilitate interpretation and use of the results. .

  5. Relocation work of temporary thermocouples for measuring the vessel cooling system in the safety demonstration test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazaki, Yosuke; Shinohara, Masanori; Ono, Masato; Yanagi, Shunki; Tochio, Daisuke; Iigaki, Kazuhiko

    2012-05-01

    It is necessary to confirm that the temperature of water cooling panel of the vessel cooling system (VCS) is controlled under the allowable working temperature during the safety demonstration test because the water cooling panel temperature rises due to stop of cooling water circulation pumps. Therefore, several temporary thermocouples are relocated to the water cooling panel near the stabilizers of RPV and the side cooling panel outlet ring header of VCS in order to observe the temperature change of VCS. The relocated thermocouples can measure the temperature change with starting of the cooling water circulation pumps of VCS. So it is confirmed that the relocated thermocouples can observe the VCS temperature change in the safety demonstration test. (author)

  6. Difference equation approach to two-thermocouple sensor characterization in constant velocity flow environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, P.C.; Irwin, G.; Kee, R.; McLoone, S.

    2005-01-01

    Thermocouples are one of the most popular devices for temperature measurement due to their robustness, ease of manufacture and installation, and low cost. However, when used in certain harsh environments, for example, in combustion systems and engine exhausts, large wire diameters are required, and consequently the measurement bandwidth is reduced. This article discusses a software compensation technique to address the loss of high frequency fluctuations based on measurements from two thermocouples. In particular, a difference equation (DE) approach is proposed and compared with existing methods both in simulation and on experimental test rig data with constant flow velocity. It is found that the DE algorithm, combined with the use of generalized total least squares for parameter identification, provides better performance in terms of time constant estimation without any a priori assumption on the time constant ratios of the thermocouples

  7. Thermocouple Rakes for Measuring Boundary Layer Flows Extremely Close to Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Danny P.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Martin, Lisa C.; Blaha, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    Of vital interest to aerodynamic researchers is precise knowledge of the flow velocity profile next to the surface. This information is needed for turbulence model development and the calculation of viscous shear force. Though many instruments can determine the flow velocity profile near the surface, none of them can make measurements closer than approximately 0.01 in. from the surface. The thermocouple boundary-layer rake can measure much closer to the surface than conventional instruments can, such as a total pressure boundary layer rake, hot wire, or hot film. By embedding the sensors (thermocouples) in the region where the velocity is equivalent to the velocity ahead of a constant thickness strut, the boundary-layer flow profile can be obtained. The present device fabricated at the NASA Glenn Research Center microsystem clean room has a heater made of platinum and thermocouples made of platinum and gold. Equal numbers of thermocouples are placed both upstream and downstream of the heater, so that the voltage generated by each pair at the same distance from the surface is indicative of the difference in temperature between the upstream and downstream thermocouple locations. This voltage differential is a function of the flow velocity, and like the conventional total pressure rake, it can provide the velocity profile. In order to measure flow extremely close to the surface, the strut is made of fused quartz with extremely low heat conductivity. A large size thermocouple boundary layer rake is shown in the following photo. The latest medium size sensors already provide smooth velocity profiles well into the boundary layer, as close as 0.0025 in. from the surface. This is about 4 times closer to the surface than the previously used total pressure rakes. This device also has the advantage of providing the flow profile of separated flow and also it is possible to measure simultaneous turbulence levels within the boundary layer.

  8. Analysis of heat transfer from fuel rods with externally attached thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, C.R.; Coddington, P.

    1988-05-01

    This paper describes the development of 2 and 3 dimensional finite element heat conduction models to simulate the behaviour of the external thermocouples attached to the LOFT fuel rods during the blowdown phase of a large break loss-of-coolant accident. To establish the model and determine the thermal coupling between the thermocouple and the fuel rod extensive use was made of two series of experiments performed at INEL in the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF). These experiments were high pressure reflood experiments with fluid conditions 'typical' of those seen during the bottom-up flow period of the LOFT experiments. (author)

  9. Determination of the availability of core exit thermocouples during severe accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edson, J.L.

    1985-04-01

    This report presents the findings and recommendations of the Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation Evaluation (NPPIE) program concerning signal validation methods to determine the on-line availability of core exit thermocouples during accident situations. Methods of selecting appropriate signal validation techniques are discussed and sources of error identified. This report shows that through the use of these techniques the existence of high-temperature-caused errors may be detected as they occur. Specific recommendations for application of selected signal validation techniques to core exit thermocouples and other measurement systems are made. 23 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Accuracy of small diameter sheathed thermocouples for the core flow test loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.L.; Kollie, T.G.

    1979-04-01

    This report summarizes the research and development on 0.5-mm-diameter, compacted, metal sheathed thermocouples. The objectives of this research effort have been: to identify and analyze the sources of temperature measurement errors in the use of 0.5-mm-diameter sheathed thermocouples to measure the surface temperature of the cladding of fuel-rod simulators in the Core Flow Test Loop (CFTL) at ORNL; to devise methods for reducing or correcting for these temperature measurement errors; to estimate the overall temperature measurement uncertainties; and to recommend modifications in the manufacture, installation, or materials used to minimize temperature measurement uncertainties in the CFTL experiments

  11. A Study of the Behavior Characteristics for K-type Thermocouple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Songhae; Kim, Yongsik; Lee, Sooill; Kim, Sungjin; Lyou, Jooon

    2014-01-01

    K-type thermocouple is widely used in nuclear power plants (NPP) and they provide reliable service. Generally, the thermocouple assembly is the finished product and usually only nondestructive tests are performed on the assembly, whereas destructive tests are confined to selected bulk cable specimens. This K-type thermocouple has been used representatively in the In-Core Instrument Assembly (ICI) in the nuclear power plants. The ICI consists of five rhodium emitter detectors that provide information on the thermal power for the core and one K-type thermocouple made with two cables (Chromel-Alumel) that provides the temperature of core exit (CET). Generally, the quantity of the ICI is absolutely different according to the number of fuel assemblies in the NPP. In the case of SKN 3 and 4, they were designed to the 61 ICI to provide information on the core cooling to the inadequate core cooling monitoring system (ICCMS). This measured temperature could be also used to check the entry condition of severe accidents. The technology of the TFDR is a generic skill to detect the fault position of the cable. In-core Instruments (ICIs) were used to detect the Core Exit Temperature (CET) in a reactor. This measured temperature was also used to check the entry condition of severe accidents. However, if a serious accident occurs, the upper portion of the core is damaged. This instrument has not been available. This paper illustrates the estimation possibility for the status of molten core through the high-temperature characteristics test of k-type thermocouple. It turns out that it is possible to measure the k-type thermocouple up to 1350 .deg. C degrees before melting during insertion into the melting furnace. Additionally, in order to measure a high temperature of 2000 .deg. C or more, the replacement possibility of k-type thermocouple was evaluated. However the tungsten-rhenium thermocouple is impossible to use in the detection of temperature at the in-core because of the

  12. Development of thermocouple re-instrumentation technique for irradiated fuel rod. Techniques for making center hole into UO2 pellets and thermocouple re-instrumentation to fuel rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Michio; Saito, Junichi; Oshima, Kunio

    1995-07-01

    The information on FP gas pressure and centerline temperature of fuel pellets during power transient is important to study the pellet clad interaction (PCI) mechanism of high burnup LWR fuel rods. At the Department of JMTR, a re-instrumentation technique of FP gas pressure gage for an irradiated fuel rod was developed in 1990. Furthermore, a thermocouple re-instrumentation technique was successfully developed in 1994. Two steps were taken to carry out the development program of the thermocouple re-instrumentation technique. In the first step, a drilling technique was developed for making a center hole of the irradiated fuel pellets. Various drilling tests were carried out using dummy of fuel rods consisted of Ba 2 FeO 3 pellets and Zry-2 cladding. On this work it is important to keep the pellets just the state cracked at a power reactor. In these tests, the technique to fix the pellets by frozen CO 2 was used during the drilling work. Also, diamond drills were used to make the center hole. These tests were completed successfully. A center hole, 54mm depth and 2.5mm diameter, was realized by these methods. The second step of this program is the in-pile demonstration test on an irradiated fuel rod instrumented dually a thermocouple and FP gas pressure gage. The demonstration test was carried out at the JMTR in 1995. (author)

  13. Experiences with W3Re/W25Re thermocouples in fuel pins of NS Otto Hahn's two cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, M.

    1975-01-01

    Applications and performance of thermocouples in the Otto Hahn reactor are presented. The measurement of effective thermocouple time constants and of fuel rod heat transfer time constants utilizing the reactor noise and the resulting small temperature fluctuations which has become practical by the advent of modern noise analysis systems, is dealt with

  14. Low drift type N thermocouples in out-of-pile advanced gas reactor mock-up test: metallurgical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scervini, M.; Palmer, J.; Haggard, D.C.; Swank, W.D.

    2015-01-01

    Thermocouples are the most commonly used sensors for temperature measurement in nuclear reactors. They are crucial for the control of current nuclear reactors and for the development of GEN IV reactors. In nuclear applications thermocouples are strongly affected by intense neutron fluxes. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. Thermocouple drift can be very significant for in-pile temperature measurements and may render the temperature sensors unreliable after exposure to nuclear radiation for relatively short times compared to the life required for temperature sensors in nuclear applications. Previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of Nickel based thermocouples is limited to temperatures lower than 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. As part of a collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the University of Cambridge a variety of Type N thermocouples have been exposed at INL in an Advanced Gas Reactor mock-up test at 1150 deg. C for 2000 h, 1200 deg. C for 2000 h, 125 deg. C for 200 h and 1300 deg. C for 200 h, and later analysed metallurgically at the University of Cambridge. The use of electron microscopy allows to identify the metallurgical changes occurring in the thermocouples during high temperature exposure and correlate the time dependent thermocouple drift with the microscopic changes experienced by the thermoelements of different thermocouple designs. In this paper conventional Inconel 600 sheathed type N thermocouples and a type N using a customized sheath developed at the University of

  15. Low drift type N thermocouples in out-of-pile advanced gas reactor mock-up test: metallurgical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scervini, M. [University of Cambridge, Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, 27 Charles Babbage Road, CB30FS Cambridge, (United Kingdom); Palmer, J.; Haggard, D.C.; Swank, W.D. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3840, (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Thermocouples are the most commonly used sensors for temperature measurement in nuclear reactors. They are crucial for the control of current nuclear reactors and for the development of GEN IV reactors. In nuclear applications thermocouples are strongly affected by intense neutron fluxes. As a result of the interaction with neutrons, the thermoelements of the thermocouples undergo transmutation, which produces a time dependent change in composition and, as a consequence, a time dependent drift of the thermocouple signal. Thermocouple drift can be very significant for in-pile temperature measurements and may render the temperature sensors unreliable after exposure to nuclear radiation for relatively short times compared to the life required for temperature sensors in nuclear applications. Previous experiences with type K thermocouples in nuclear reactors have shown that they are affected by neutron irradiation only to a limited extent. Similarly type N thermocouples are expected to be only slightly affected by neutron fluxes. Currently the use of Nickel based thermocouples is limited to temperatures lower than 1000 deg. C due to drift related to phenomena other than nuclear irradiation. As part of a collaboration between Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the University of Cambridge a variety of Type N thermocouples have been exposed at INL in an Advanced Gas Reactor mock-up test at 1150 deg. C for 2000 h, 1200 deg. C for 2000 h, 125 deg. C for 200 h and 1300 deg. C for 200 h, and later analysed metallurgically at the University of Cambridge. The use of electron microscopy allows to identify the metallurgical changes occurring in the thermocouples during high temperature exposure and correlate the time dependent thermocouple drift with the microscopic changes experienced by the thermoelements of different thermocouple designs. In this paper conventional Inconel 600 sheathed type N thermocouples and a type N using a customized sheath developed at the University of

  16. Computer subroutines to aid analysis of experimental data from thermocouples and pressure transducers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durham, M.E.

    1976-08-01

    Three subroutines (CALSET, CALBR8 and PTRCAL) have been written to provide a convenient system for converting experimental measurements obtained from thermocouples and pressure transducers to temperatures and pressures. The method of operation and the application of the subroutines are described. (author)

  17. Measuring skin temperature before, during and after exercise: a comparison of thermocouples and infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Alex de Andrade; Amorim, Paulo Roberto dos Santos; De Moura, Anselmo Gomes; Moreira, Danilo Gomes; Costa, Carlos Magno Amaral; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Brito, Ciro José; Sillero-Quintana, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Measuring skin temperature (T SK ) provides important information about the complex thermal control system and could be interesting when carrying out studies about thermoregulation. The most common method to record T SK  involves thermocouples at specific locations; however, the use of infrared thermal imaging (IRT) has increased. The two methods use different physical processes to measure T SK , and each has advantages and disadvantages. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the mean skin temperature (MT SK ) measurements using thermocouples and IRT in three different situations: pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise. Analysis of the residual scores in Bland–Altman plots showed poor agreement between the MT SK  obtained using thermocouples and those using IRT. The averaged error was −0.75 °C during pre-exercise, 1.22 °C during exercise and −1.16 °C during post-exercise, and the reliability between the methods was low in the pre- (ICC = 0.75 [0.12 to 0.93]), during (ICC = 0.49 [−0.80 to 0.85]) and post-exercise (ICC = 0.35 [−1.22 to 0.81] conditions. Thus, there is poor correlation between the values of MT SK  measured by thermocouples and IRT pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise, and low reliability between the two forms of measurement. (paper)

  18. Direct Measurement of Neutral/Ion Beam Power using Thermocouple Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, I.; Gee, S.

    2006-01-01

    Modern Neutral Beam Injection systems such as those used on JET and MAST routinely use thermocouples embedded close to the surface of beam stopping elements, such as calorimeters and ion dumps, coupled to high speed data acquisition systems to determine beam profile and position from temperature rise data. With the availability of low cost data acquisition and storage systems it is now possible to record data from all thermocouples in a fully instrumented calorimeter or ion dump on 20 ms timescales or better. This sample rate is sufficiently fast to enable the thermocouple data to be used to calculate the incident power density from 1d heat transfer theory. This power density data coupled with appropriate Gaussian fits enables the determination of the 2d beam profile and thus allows an instantaneous and direct measurement of beam power. The theory and methodology required to analyse the fast thermocouple data from the MAST calorimeter and residual ion dump thermocouples is presented and direct measurements of beam power density are demonstrated. The power of desktop computers allows such analysis to be carried out virtually instantaneously. The methods used to automate this analysis are discussed in detail. A code, utilising the theory and methodology, has been developed to allow immediate measurements of beam power on a pulse by pulse basis. The uncertainty in determining the beam power density is shown to be less than 10 %. This power density data is then fitted to a 2d Gaussian beam profile and integrated to establish the total beam power. Results of this automated analysis for the neutral beam and residual ion power of the MAST duopigatron and PINI NBI systems are presented. This technology could be applied to a beam power safety interlock system. The application to a beam shine through protection system for the inner wall of the JET Tokamak is discussed as an example. (author)

  19. Thermal Recovery from Cold-Working in Type K Bare-Wire Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenen, A. D.; Webster, E. S.

    2017-12-01

    Cold-working of most thermocouples has a significant, direct impact on the Seebeck coefficient which can lead to regions of thermoelectric inhomogeneity and accelerated drift. Cold-working can occur during the wire swaging process, when winding the wire onto a bobbin, or during handling by the end user—either accidentally or deliberately. Swaging-induced cold-work in thermocouples, if uniformly applied, may result in a high level of homogeneity. However, on exposure to elevated temperatures, the subsequent recovery process from the cold-working can then result in significant drift, and this can in turn lead to erroneous temperature measurements, often in excess of the specified manufacturer tolerances. Several studies have investigated the effects of cold-work in Type K thermocouples usually by bending, or swaging. However, the amount of cold-work applied to the thermocouple is often difficult to quantify, as the mechanisms for applying the strains are typically nonlinear when applied in this fashion. A repeatable level of cold-working is applied to the different wires using a tensional loading apparatus to apply a known yield displacement to the thermoelements. The effects of thermal recovery from cold-working can then be accurately quantified as a function of temperature, using a linear gradient furnace and a high-resolution homogeneity scanner. Variation in these effects due to differing alloy compositions in Type K wire is also explored, which is obtained by sourcing wire from a selection of manufacturers. The information gathered in this way will inform users of Type K thermocouples about the potential consequences of varying levels of cold-working and its impact on the Seebeck coefficient at a range of temperatures between ˜ 70°C and 600° C. This study will also guide users on the temperatures required to rapidly alleviate the effects of cold-working using thermal annealing treatments.

  20. Description of new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from the Western Ghats of India with the redescription of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and notes on mating plug in the genus (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothalil A. Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the jumping spider genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886, S. albus sp. n., is described from the Western Ghats of India, one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnostic features and illustrations of copulatory organs of both sexes are given. Detailed redescription, diagnosis and illustration of S. lesserti Reimoser, 1934 are provided. The occurrence of a mating plug in the genus is reported.

  1. External attachment of titanium sheathed thermocouples to zirconium nuclear fuel rods for the LOFT reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc., acting as a Subcontractor to EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, has developed a welding process to attach titanium sheathed thermocouples to the outside of the zircaloy clad fuel rods. The fuel rods and thermocouples are used to test simulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in a pressurized water reactor (LOFT Reactor, Idaho National Laboratory). A laser beam was selected as the optimum welding process because of the extremely high energy input per unit volume that can be achieved allowing local fusion of a small area irrespective of the difference in material thickness to be joined. A commercial pulsed laser and energy control system was installed along with specialized welding fixtures. Laser room facility requirements and tolerances were established. Performance qualifications, and detailed welding procedures were also developed. Product performance tests were conducted to assure that engineering design requirements could be met on a production basis

  2. Proposed algorithm for determining the delta intercept of a thermocouple psychrometer curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurzmack, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The USGS Hydrologic Investigations Program is currently developing instrumentation to study the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain in Nevada. Surface-based boreholes up to 2,500 feet in depth will be drilled, and then instrumented in order to define the water potential field within the unsaturated zone. Thermocouple psychrometers will be used to monitor the in-situ water potential. An algorithm is proposed for simply and efficiently reducing a six wire thermocouple psychrometer voltage output curve to a single value, the delta intercept. The algorithm identifies a plateau region in the psychrometer curve and extrapolates a linear regression back to the initial start of relaxation. When properly conditioned for the measurements being made, the algorithm results in reasonable results even with incomplete or noisy psychrometer curves over a 1 to 60 bar range

  3. Attachment of Free Filament Thermocouples for Temperature Measurements on Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jih-Fen; Cuy, Michael D.; Wnuk, Stephen P.

    1998-01-01

    At the NASA Lewis Research Center, a new installation technique utilizing convoluted wire thermocouples (TC's) was developed and proven to produce very good adhesion on CMC's, even in a burner rig environment. Because of their unique convoluted design, such TC's of various types and sizes adhere to flat or curved CMC specimens with no sign of delamination, open circuits, or interactions-even after testing in a Mach 0.3 burner rig to 1200 C (2200 F) for several thermal cycles and at several hours at high temperatures. Large differences in thermal expansion between metal thermocouples and low-expansion materials, such as CMC's, normally generate large stresses in the wires. These stresses cause straight wires to detach, but convoluted wires that are bonded with strips of coating allow bending in the unbonded portion to relieve these expansion stresses.

  4. A Simple Test to Evaluate the Calibration Stability and Accuracy of Infrared Thermocouple Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnock, Derek R.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Accurately measuring surface temperature is not difficult when the surface, the sensor, and air temperatures are similar, but it is challenging when the surface temperature is significantly different than air and sensor temperatures. We tested three Infrared Thermocouple sensors (IRT’s) that had been used for two years in a greenhouse environment. The importance of the correction for sensor body temperature was also examined.

  5. Lecture Notes and Exercises for Course 21240 (Basic Analytical Chemistry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years.......The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years....

  6. Lecture Notes and Exercises for Course 21240 (Basic Analytical Chemistry)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years.......The publication contains notes dealing with difficult topics in analytical chemistry (cfr. Course Descriptions, DTU), relevant exercises as well as final examination problems from the last years....

  7. R and D advances in high temperature thermocouples for nuclear utilization in severe environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, R.; Blanc, J.Y.

    1985-01-01

    Safety experiments for water reactors in Cadarache have made necessary a research program for developing special thermocopules for use in severe fuel damage conditions (superheated steam). Standard cladding thermocouples (type K, alumina insulated, zircaloy sheathed, O.D. 0.7 mm) must be replaced by others with W3Re versus W25Re legs, Ta sheath protected by a zircaloy outer sheath, and hafnia or thoria insulation. The zircaloy sheath will be sufficient to protect correctly tantalum. Fuel centerline thermocouples have W5Re versus W26Re or W3Re versus W25Re legs, hard-fired thoria insulation and rhenium CVD sheath (O.D. 1.1 mm). A protective ReSi/sub 2/ coating is applied. This protection withstands at least 1600 0 C, 45 minutes in steam. Tests are done concerning: (a) materials compatibilities in helium between 1400 0 C and 2000 0 C, (b) prototypes qualification (In Saclay or Grenoble), (c) determination of errors due to degradation of insulation resistance of thermocouples cables (with magnesia, hafnia, alumina), (d) Ir or Re protective coatings by CVD process, other coatings by ionic bombardment, etc...A completely new type of hot junction has been patented

  8. A Highly Thermostable In2O3/ITO Thin Film Thermocouple Prepared via Screen Printing for High Temperature Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yantao Liu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An In2O3/ITO thin film thermocouple was prepared via screen printing. Glass additives were added to improve the sintering process and to increase the density of the In2O3/ITO films. The surface and cross-sectional images indicate that both the grain size and densification of the ITO and In2O3 films increased with the increase in annealing time. The thermoelectric voltage of the In2O3/ITO thermocouple was 53.5 mV at 1270 °C at the hot junction. The average Seebeck coefficient of the thermocouple was calculated as 44.5 μV/°C. The drift rate of the In2O3/ITO thermocouple was 5.44 °C/h at a measuring time of 10 h at 1270 °C.

  9. Thermocouples used in emission systems of internal combustion engines; Thermoelemente fuer den Einsatz in Abgassystemen von Verbrennungsmotoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustin, Silke; Froehlich, Thomas; Mammen, Helge [Technische Univ. Illmenau (Germany). Inst. fuer Prozessmess- und Sensortechnik; Ament, Christoph; Guether, Thomas [Technische Univ. Illmenau (Germany). Inst. fuer Automatisierungs- und Systemtechnik

    2012-11-01

    Thermocouples used in exhaust systems of combustion engines are exposed to high temperature gradients and temperature leaps ({Delta}T > 900 K), high flow speeds and pressure. When constructing these thermocouples, a compromise is needed between the resulting high demands on the mechanical-thermal stability, accuracy and the fast response time demanded by the servo-control of the motors. Additionally, a numerical correction of the measured signal may contribute to an improved sensor dynamics. (orig.)

  10. A novel method for in-situ estimation of time constant for core temperature monitoring thermocouples of operating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sylvia, J.I.; Chandar, S. Clement Ravi; Velusamy, K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Core temperature sensor was mathematically modeled. • Ramp signal generated during reactor operating condition is used. • Procedure and methodology has been demonstrated by applying it to FBTR. • Same technique will be implemented for all fast reactors. - Abstract: Core temperature monitoring system is an important component of reactor protection system in the current generation fast reactors. In this system, multiple thermocouples are housed inside a thermowell of fuel subassemblies. Response time of the thermocouple assembly forms an important input for safety analysis of fast reactor and hence frequent calibration/time constant estimation is essential. In fast reactors the central fuel subassembly is provided with bare fast response thermocouples to detect under cooling events in reactor and take proper safety action. On the other hand, thermocouples in thermowell are mainly used for blockage detection in individual fuel subassemblies. The time constant of thermocouples in thermowell can drift due to creep, vibration and thermal fatigue of the thermowell assembly. A novel method for in-situ estimation of time constant is proposed. This method uses the Safety Control Rod Accelerated Mechanism (SCRAM) or lowering of control Rod (LOR) signals of the reactor along with response of the central subassembly thermocouples as reference data. Validation of the procedure has been demonstrated by applying it to FBTR

  11. A preliminary study of factors affecting the calibration stability of the iridium versus iridium-40 percent rhodium thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Shaffiq; Germain, Edward F.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Alderfer, David W.; Wright, Robert E.

    1987-01-01

    An iridium versus iridium-40% rhodium thermocouple was studied. Problems associated with the use of this thermocouple for high temperature applications (up to 2000 C) were investigated. The metallurgical studies included X-ray, macroscopic, resistance, and metallographic studies. The thermocouples in the as-received condition from the manufacturer revealed large amounts of internal stress caused by cold working during manufacturing. The thermocouples also contained a large amount of inhomogeneities and segregations. No phase transformations were observed in the alloy up to 1100 C. It was found that annealing the thermocouple at 1800 C for two hours, and then at 1400 C for 2 to 3 hours yielded a fine grain structure, relieving some of the strains, and making the wire more ductile. It was also found that the above annealing procedure stabilized the thermal emf behavior of the thermocouple for application below 1800 C (an improvement from + or - 1% to + or - 0.02% within the range of the test parameters used).

  12. Note Taking and Recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Judith L.; Harris, Mary B.

    1974-01-01

    To study the effect of note taking and opportunity for review on subsequent recall, 88 college students were randomly assigned to five treatment groups utilizing different note taking and review combinations. No treatment effects were found, although quality of notes was positively correlated with free recall an multiple-choice measures.…

  13. Description of a new species of skate of the genus Malacoraja Stehmann, 1970: the first species from the southwestern Atlantic Ocean, with notes on generic monophyly and composition (Chondrichthyes: Rajidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. de Carvalho

    Full Text Available The first report of a western South Atlantic soft skate, genus Malacoraja Stehmann, 1970, is described as Malacoraja obscura, new species, from the southeastern Brazilian continental slope off the states of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, in depths ranging from 808-1105 m. The new species is known from five specimens and is distinguished from congeners by its unique dorsal coloration with small, faded white spots on disc and pelvic fins, by retaining in larger specimens an irregular row of thorns along dorsal midline of tail (extending from tail base to two-thirds of tail length in 680 mm total length female, and by presenting a ventral tail midline devoid of small denticles only at base (naked region not extending posterior to pelvic fin rear margin. Further diagnostic characters in combination include the lack of scapular thorns in larger specimens, elevated number of tooth rows (64/62 tooth rows in subadult male of 505 mm TL, and 76/74 in large female of 680 mm TL and vertebrae (27-28 Vtr, 68-75 Vprd, ventral disc and tail with a uniform dark brown coloration, paired postventral fenestrae on scapulocoracoid, enlarged posterior postventral fenestra, circular foramen magnum and paired internal carotid foramina on braincase floor. Adult males were unavailable for study, but an anatomical description of M. obscura, n. sp., is provided. Comparisons are made with all known material of M. kreffti, literature accounts of M. senta, and with abundant material of South African M. spinacidermis; M. obscura, n. sp., most closely resembles M. spinacidermis from the eastern South Atlantic in squamation, coloration and size. Malacoraja is monophyletic due to its unique squamation and rostral appendices, and apparently comprises two species-groups, one for M. obscura and M. spinacidermis, and the other for M. kreffti and M. senta, but clarification of species-level relationships must await more anatomical information, particularly of the latter two

  14. Development of Mechanical Sealing and Laser Welding Technology to Instrument Thermocouple for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Zircaloy-4 of the nuclear fuel test rod, AISI 316L of the mechanical sealing parts, and the MI (mineral insulated) cable at a thermocouple instrumentation are hetero-metals, and are difficult to weld to dissimilar materials. Therefore, a mechanical sealing method to instrument the thermocouple should be conducted using two kinds of sealing process as follows: One is a mechanical sealing process using Swagelok, which is composed of sealing components that consists of an end-cap, a seal tube, a compression ring and a Swagelok nut. The other is a laser welding process used to join a seal tube, and an MI cable, which are made of the same material. The mechanical sealing process should be sealed up with the mechanical contact compressed by the strength forced between a seal tube and an end-cap, and the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a seal tube and an MI cable. Therefore, the mechanical sealing and laser welding techniques need to be developed to accurately measure the centerline temperature of the nuclear fuel test rod in an experimental reactor. The mechanical sealing and laser welding tests were conducted to develop the thermocouple instrumentation techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The optimum torque value of a Swagelok nut to seal the mechanical sealing part between the end-cap and seal tube was established through various torque tests using a torque wrench. The optimum laser welding conditions to seal the welding part between a seal tube and an MI cable were obtained through various welding tests using a laser welding system

  15. Development of Mechanical Sealing and Laser Welding Technology to Instrument Thermocouple for Nuclear Fuel Test Rod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joung, Chang-Young; Ahn, Sung-Ho; Hong, Jin-Tae; Kim, Ka-Hye; Huh, Sung-Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Zircaloy-4 of the nuclear fuel test rod, AISI 316L of the mechanical sealing parts, and the MI (mineral insulated) cable at a thermocouple instrumentation are hetero-metals, and are difficult to weld to dissimilar materials. Therefore, a mechanical sealing method to instrument the thermocouple should be conducted using two kinds of sealing process as follows: One is a mechanical sealing process using Swagelok, which is composed of sealing components that consists of an end-cap, a seal tube, a compression ring and a Swagelok nut. The other is a laser welding process used to join a seal tube, and an MI cable, which are made of the same material. The mechanical sealing process should be sealed up with the mechanical contact compressed by the strength forced between a seal tube and an end-cap, and the laser welding process should be conducted to have no defects on the sealing area between a seal tube and an MI cable. Therefore, the mechanical sealing and laser welding techniques need to be developed to accurately measure the centerline temperature of the nuclear fuel test rod in an experimental reactor. The mechanical sealing and laser welding tests were conducted to develop the thermocouple instrumentation techniques for the nuclear fuel test rod. The optimum torque value of a Swagelok nut to seal the mechanical sealing part between the end-cap and seal tube was established through various torque tests using a torque wrench. The optimum laser welding conditions to seal the welding part between a seal tube and an MI cable were obtained through various welding tests using a laser welding system.

  16. An Explicit Approach Toward Modeling Thermo-Coupled Deformation Behaviors of SMPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A new elastoplastic J 2 -flow models with thermal effects is proposed toward simulating thermo-coupled finite deformation behaviors of shape memory polymers. In this new model, an elastic potential evolving with development of plastic flow is incorporated to characterize the stress-softening effect at unloading and, moreover, thermo-induced plastic flow is introduced to represent the strain recovery effect at heating. It is shown that any given test data for both effects may be accurately simulated by means of direct and explicit procedures. Numerical examples for model predictions compare well with test data in literature.

  17. Improvement in the technology of thermocouples for the detection of high temperatures with a view to using them in irradiation safety tests in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schley, R.; Liermann, J.; Aujollet, J.M.; Wilkins, S.C.

    1979-01-01

    The safety tests carried out under the CABRI and PHEBUS programmes have made it possible to improve the technology of W/Re thermocouples and their reliability in particularly hard operating conditions. An element of response is provided to the problem of W/Re thermocouple drift under neutron flux by defining the new thermocouple Mo 5% Nb/Nb 10% Mo which, because of the low capture cross section of thermoelectric elements, gives one reason to hope for a less significant drift of these thermocouples under neutron flux than that found with W/Re thermocouples. Finally, determining the surface temperature of fuel element cladding with the Mo/Zircaloy thermocouple may prove worthwhile providing the temperatures do not exceed 1300 0 C and the electric insulator is aluminium oxide which up to 1300 0 C does not appear to react with thermoelectric wires [fr

  18. Description of the immature stages of Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Corixidae: Corixini, with ecological notes Descripción de los estadios larvales de Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi (Heteroptera: Corixidae, con notas acerca de su ecología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Melo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi Jaczewski is the smallest species of the subgenus ranging from 4.2-4.7 mm, and it is characterized by the absence of a strigil, the small and narrow genital capsule with a short hypandrium in males, and the shape of the abdominal tergite VII in females. This species is endemic to the Patagonian subregion (Andean region in Argentina. A monthly sampling study was performed during a year in northern Mendoza, and additional material was collected in southern Mendoza, more precisely from Bañado Carilauquen in the Llancanelo Lake Reserve (Malargüe Department. Since little is known about the ecological requirements of S. (T. jensenhaarupi, herein we describe its habitat, the environmental conditions and its association with other macroinvertebrates. Also, we provide a morphological description of larval stages, and provide new records of this species.Sigara (Tropocorixa jensenhaarupi Jaczewski es la especie más pequeña del subgénero (4.2-4.7 mm, y se caracteriza por la ausencia de estrigilo, la cápsula genital masculina pequeña y angosta con el hipandro corto, y la forma característica del tergito abdominal VII en las hembras. Esta especie es endémica de la subregión Patagónica (región Andina en Argentina. Se realizaron muestreos mensuales durante un año en el norte de la provincia de Mendoza, material adicional fue recolectado en el sur de la provincia, más precisamente en el Bañado Carilauquen en la Reserva Laguna Llancanelo (Departamento de Malargüe. Poco se conoce acerca de los requerimientos ecológicos de S. (T. jensenhaarupi, por lo que en este trabajo describimos su hábitat, las condiciones ambientales y su asociación con otros macroinvertebrados. Además, describimos los estadios larvales y damos nuevos registros de esta especie.

  19. Descriptive Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wigram, Anthony Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Descriptive research is described by Lathom-Radocy and Radocy (1995) to include Survey research, ex post facto research, case studies and developmental studies. Descriptive research also includes a review of the literature in order to provide both quantitative and qualitative evidence of the effect...... starts will allow effect size calculations to be made in order to evaluate effect over time. Given the difficulties in undertaking controlled experimental studies in the creative arts therapies, descriptive research methods offer a way of quantifying effect through descriptive statistical analysis...

  20. 1. On note taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaut, Alfred B J

    2005-02-01

    In this paper the author explores the theoretical and technical issues relating to taking notes of analytic sessions, using an introspective approach. The paper discusses the lack of a consistent approach to note taking amongst analysts and sets out to demonstrate that systematic note taking can be helpful to the analyst. The author describes his discovery that an initial phase where as much data was recorded as possible did not prove to be reliably helpful in clinical work and initially actively interfered with recall in subsequent sessions. The impact of the nature of the analytic session itself and the focus of the analyst's interest on recall is discussed. The author then describes how he modified his note taking technique to classify information from sessions into four categories which enabled the analyst to select which information to record in notes. The characteristics of memory and its constructive nature are discussed in relation to the problems that arise in making accurate notes of analytic sessions.

  1. Experience from replacement and check of thermocouples during reconstruction of in-reactor temperature measurements at Bohunice V-1 units 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slanina, M.; Stanc, J.

    2001-01-01

    Replacement of thermocouples in the protection tube blocks was a key phase of the reconstruction of in-reactor temperature measurements at Bohunice V-1 with regard to the success, reliability and impact on safety of unit operation. The replacement consisted of reliable and safe withdrawal of 216 old thermocouples, their disposal and installation of new thermocouples into dry channels. In the material presented, this phase of reconstruction is described in details, with focus on the evaluation of replacement quality and check activities carried out at the new installed thermocouples. (Authors)

  2. Some notes about the nuclear data libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panini, G.C.

    1984-01-01

    The paper gives a short description of the main nuclear data collections. The features which are particular of each source are enhanced and compared. Notes about the Nuclear Data Processing are also outlined. The paper is intended as a preliminary approach for people interested in the Nuclear Data management

  3. A note on notes: note taking and containment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard B

    2007-07-01

    In extreme situations of massive projective identification, both the analyst and the patient may come to share a fantasy or belief that his or her own psychic reality will be annihilated if the psychic reality of the other is accepted or adopted (Britton 1998). In the example of' Dr. M and his patient, the paradoxical dilemma around note taking had highly specific transference meanings; it was not simply an instance of the generalized human response of distracted attention that Freud (1912) had spoken of, nor was it the destabilization of analytic functioning that I tried to describe in my work with Mr. L. Whether such meanings will always exist in these situations remains a matter to be determined by further clinical experience. In reopening a dialogue about note taking during sessions, I have attempted to move the discussion away from categorical injunctions about what analysis should or should not do, and instead to foster a more nuanced, dynamic, and pair-specific consideration of the analyst's functioning in the immediate context of the analytic relationship. There is, of course, a wide variety of listening styles among analysts, and each analyst's mental functioning may be affected differently by each patient whom the analyst sees. I have raised many questions in the hopes of stimulating an expanded discussion that will allow us to share our experiences and perhaps reach additional conclusions. Further consideration may lead us to decide whether note taking may have very different meanings for other analysts and analyst-patient pairs, and whether it may serve useful functions in addition to the one that I have described.

  4. Calibration of the Dodewaard downcomer thermocouple cross-correlation flow-rate measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stekelenburg, A J.C. [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Interfacultair Reactor Inst.; Hagen, T.H.J.J. van der [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Interfacultair Reactor Inst.; Akker, H.E.A. van den [Technische Univ. Delft (Netherlands). Lab. voor Fysische Technologie

    1992-12-01

    The cross-correlation flow measurement technique, applied for measuring the coolant flow rate in a nuclear reactor, was calibrated with the use of numerical simulations of turbulent flow. The three-dimensional domain was collapsed into two dimensions. With a two-dimensional calculation of steady-state flow with transient thermal characteristics the response of thermocouples to a temperature variation was calculated. By cross-correlating the calculated thermocouple responses, the link between total flow rate and measured transit times was made. Three calibration points were taken in the range of 579 kg/s to 1477 kg/s. In this range, the product of the calculated transit time and the mass flow-rate is constant up to +3.5% and -2.4%. The reliability of the calibration was estimated at {+-}4.6%. The influence of the inlet boundary conditions, and the modelling of the flow in the upper part of the downcomer channel on the calibration result is shown to be small. A measured velocity profile effect was successfully predicted. (orig.).

  5. Comparative evaluation of corrosion behaviour of type K thin film thermocouple and its bulk counterpart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, S.K.; Barhai, P.K.; Srikanth, S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Anodic vacuum arc deposited chromel and alumel films are more 'noble' in 5% NaCl solution than their respective wires. → Chromel undergoes localised corrosion while alumel shows uniform corrosion. → Virgin samples of chromel-alumel TFTCs exhibit good thermoelectric response. → Their thermoelectric outputs remain largely unaffected when shelved under normal atmospheric conditions. → After 288 h of exposure in salt spray environment, their thermoelectric outputs show noticeable change due to size effects. - Abstract: This paper investigates the corrosion behaviour of type K thermoelements and their thin films, and compares the performance of chromel-alumel thin film thermocouple with its wire counterpart before and after exposure to 5% NaCl medium. Potentiodynamic polarisation tests reveal that chromel and alumel films are more 'noble' than their respective wires. Alumel corrodes faster when coupled with chromel in films than as wires. Secondary electron micrographs and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements suggest that chromel shows localised corrosion while alumel undergoes uniform corrosion. Corrosion adversely affects the thermocouple output and introduces an uncertainty in the measurement.

  6. Experience with W3Re/W25Re thermocouples in fuel pins of NS Otto Hahn's two cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper first deals with the installation of 18 and 9 high-temperature sheathed thermocouples in fuel rods of the cores FDR-1 and FDR-2, respectively. The measured fuel rod centerline temperatures could be related to the local linear rod power at any given time by means of the densities of fission products with different half-lives obtained from fuel rod γ-scans. The fuel temperatures show then already an increase with the burn-up of the FDR-1 which becomes steeper when taking into account the decrease of the EMF measured at irradiated thermocouples taken from the fuel rods. Finally, the determination of effective thermocouple time constants and of fuel rod heat transfer time constants is demonstrated by utilizing the reactor noise to measure the transfer function between neutron flux and fuel temperature signal. (orig.) [de

  7. Apparatus for spot welding sheathed thermocouples to the inside of small-diameter tubes at precise locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baucum, W.E.; Dial, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    Equipment and procedures used to spot weld tantalum- or stainless-steel-sheathed thermocouples to the inside diameter of Zircaloy tubing to meet the requirements of the Multirod Burst Test (MRBT) Program at ORNL are described. Spot welding and oxide cleaning tools were fabricated to remove the oxide coating on the Zircaloy tubing at local areas and spot weld four thermocouples separated circumferentially by 90 0 at any axial distribution desired. It was found necessary to apply a nickel coating to stainless-steel-sheathed thermocouples to obtain acceptable welds. The material and shape of the inner electrode and resistance between inner and outer electrodes were found to be critical parameters in obtaining acceptable welds

  8. On that Note...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Harry

    1988-01-01

    Provides suggestions for note-taking from books, lectures, visual presentations, and laboratory experiments to enhance student knowledge, memory, and length of attention span during instruction. Describes topical and structural outlines, visual mapping, charting, three-column note-taking, and concept mapping. Benefits and application of…

  9. Making Notes, Making Meaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Jim

    2002-01-01

    Introduces notetaking tools used successfully with English-as-a-second-language students and low-achieving high school freshmen. Provides an overview of each tool and explains how students use them to take notes when reading textbooks and articles. Notes these tools and academic habits have helped students succeed in their mainstream academic…

  10. A note on Fukui’s note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Cheng-Yu Edwin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This commentary relates Fukui’s (2015 note on weak vs. strong generation to two aspects of quantification in Chinese: quantifier scope and the syntactic licensing conditions of noninterrogative wh-expressions. It is shown that the phenomena under discussion echo Fukui’s (2015 view that only strong generation allows for a deeper understanding of natural language and that dependencies are to be distinguished structurally.

  11. A study of actions in operative notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Pakhomov, Serguei; Burkart, Nora E; Ryan, James O; Melton, Genevieve B

    2012-01-01

    Operative notes contain rich information about techniques, instruments, and materials used in procedures. To assist development of effective information extraction (IE) techniques for operative notes, we investigated the sublanguage used to describe actions within the operative report 'procedure description' section. Deep parsing results of 362,310 operative notes with an expanded Stanford parser using the SPECIALIST Lexicon resulted in 200 verbs (92% coverage) including 147 action verbs. Nominal action predicates for each action verb were gathered from WordNet, SPECIALIST Lexicon, New Oxford American Dictionary and Stedman's Medical Dictionary. Coverage gaps were seen in existing lexical, domain, and semantic resources (Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus, SPECIALIST Lexicon, WordNet and FrameNet). Our findings demonstrate the need to construct surgical domain-specific semantic resources for IE from operative notes.

  12. Mysore study: A study of suicide notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namratha, P; Kishor, M; Sathyanarayana Rao, T S; Raman, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Suicide is one of the leading causes of preventable deaths. Recent data suggest South India as one of the regions with highest suicide rates in the world. In 2013, 134,799 people committed suicide in India according to the statistics released by the National Crime Records Bureau. Suicide note is one of the most important sources to understand suicide, which may be beneficial in suicide prevention. Studies on suicidal notes from this part of the world are sparse. The aim was to study the themes in suicide notes that might be useful in prevention strategies. A descriptive study of all suicide notes of those individuals who committed suicide between 2010 and 2013 available with Police Department, Mysore district was obtained and analyzed. A total of 22 suicide note were available. A majority of suicide note was in age group of 16-40 years (86%) and most were men (59%). All suicide notes were handwritten, the majority (70%) in regional language Kannada. Length of notes varied from just few words to few pages. Contents of suicide notes included apology/shame/guilt (80%), love for those left behind (55%) and instruction regarding practical affairs (23%). Most have blamed none for the act (50%). 23% mentioned that they are committing suicide to prove their innocence. 32% mentioned a last wish. The majority of suicidal note contained "guilt" which is a strong indicator of possible depression in deceased. Creating awareness about suicide among public and ensuring access to professionals trained in suicide prevention is need of the hour in this part of the world.

  13. MixedNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jokela, Tero; Lucero, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Affinity Diagramming is a technique to organize and make sense of qualitative data. It is commonly used in Contextual Design and HCI research. However, preparing notes for and building an Affinity Diagram remains a laborious process, with a wide variety of different approaches and practices....... In this paper, we present MixedNotes, a novel technique to prepare physical paper notes for Affinity Diagramming, and a software tool to support this technique. The technique has been tested with large real-life Affinity Diagrams with overall positive results....

  14. Lagos Notes and Records

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Lagos Notes and Records is an annual, interdisciplinary journal of the humanities. ... Insuring the Nation: Europeans and the Emergence of Modern Insurance Business in Colonial Nigeria ...

  15. Notes on Contributors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NOTES ON CONTRIBUTORS. Samuel AMOAKO, Associate Researcher, South African Research Unit in Social Change. Contact Details: C/o Lucinda Bercony, Humanities Research Village (House No. 3). University of Johannesburg, P. O. Box 524. Bunting Road Campus, Auckland Park, 2006.

  16. NCEP Internal Office Notes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and its predecessors have produced internal publications, known as Office Notes, since the mid-1950's. In...

  17. Writing a Condolence Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the eyes of others. For example, a mother whose son had died found out that her ... few suggestions on ending your condolence note: “Our love and support will always be here for you.” “ ...

  18. W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility experiment centerline fuel thermocouple performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, S.C.; Henderson, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment is the fifth in a series of experiments sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the National Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) Safety Assurance Program. The experiments are being conducted under the direction of Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL). The irradiation phase of the W-1 SLSF experiment was conducted between May 27 and July 20, 1979, and terminated with incipient fuel pin cladding failure during the final boiling transient. Experimental hardware and facility performed as designed, allowing completion of all planned tests and test objectives. This paper focuses on high temperature in-fuel thermocouples and discusses their development, fabrication, and performance in the W-1 experiment

  19. Boiling detection using signals of self-powered neutron detectors and thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, R.

    1989-01-01

    A specially-equipped simulated fuel assembly has been placed into the core of the 2 MW research reactor of the IRI, Delft. In this paper the recent results concerning the detection of coolant boiling in the simulated fuel assembly are introduced. Applying the theory of boiling temperature noise, different stages of boiling, i.e. one-phase flow, subcooled boiling, volume boiling, were identified in the measurements using the low-frequency noise components of the thermocouple signals. It has been ascertained that neutron noise spectra remained unchanged when subcooled boiling appeared, and that they changed reasonably only when developed volume boiling took place in the channels. At certain neutron detector positions neutron spectra did not vary at all, although developed volume boiling occurred at a distance of 3-4 cm from these neutron detectors. This phenomenon was applied in studying the field-of-view of neutron detectors

  20. Preparation and Thermoelectric Characteristics of ITO/PtRh:PtRh Thin Film Thermocouple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaohui; Wang, Hongmin; Zhao, Zixiang; Zhang, Wanli; Jiang, Hongchuan

    2017-12-15

    Thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) can provide more precise in situ temperature measurement for aerospace propulsion systems without disturbance of gas flow and surface temperature distribution of the hot components. ITO/PtRh:PtRh TFTC with multilayer structure was deposited on alumina ceramic substrate by magnetron sputtering. After annealing, the TFTC was statically calibrated for multiple cycles with temperature up to 1000 °C. The TFTC with excellent stability and repeatability was realized for the negligible variation of EMF in different calibration cycles. It is believed that owing to oxygen diffusion barriers by the oxidation of top PtRh layer and Schottky barriers formed at the grain boundaries of ITO, the variation of the carrier concentration of ITO film is minimized. Meanwhile, the life time of TFTC is more than 30 h in harsh environment. This makes ITO/PtRh:PtRh TFTC a promising candidate for precise surface temperature measurement of hot components of aeroengines.

  1. Energy deposition measurements in fast reactor safety experiments with fission thermocouple detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, S.A.; Scott, H.L.

    1979-01-01

    The investigation of phenomena occurring in in-pile fast reactor safety experiments requires an accurate measurement of the time dependent energy depositions within the fissile material. At Sandia Laboratories thin-film fission thermocouples are being developed for this purpose. These detectors have high temperature capabilities (400 to 500 0 C), are sodium compatible, and have milli-second time response. A significant advantage of these detectors for use as energy deposition monitors is that they produce an output voltage which is directly dependent on the temperature of a small chip of fissile material within the detectors. However, heat losses within the detector make it necessary to correct the response of the detector to determine the energy deposition. A method of correcting the detector response which uses an inverse convolution procedure has been developed and successfully tested with experimental data obtained in the Sandia Pulse Reactor (SPR-II) and in the Annular Core Research Reactor

  2. Tile Surface Thermocouple Measurement Challenges from the Orbiter Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Charles H.; Berger, Karen; Anderson, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hypersonic entry flight testing motivated by efforts seeking to characterize boundary layer transition on the Space Shuttle Orbiters have identified challenges in our ability to acquire high quality quantitative surface temperature measurements versus time. Five missions near the end of the Space Shuttle Program implemented a tile surface protuberance as a boundary layer trip together with tile surface thermocouples to capture temperature measurements during entry. Similar engineering implementations of these measurements on Discovery and Endeavor demonstrated unexpected measurement voltage response during the high heating portion of the entry trajectory. An assessment has been performed to characterize possible causes of the issues experienced during STS-119, STS-128, STS-131, STS-133 and STS-134 as well as similar issues encountered during other orbiter entries.

  3. Operating Temperatures of a Sodium-Cooled Exhaust Valve as Measured by a Thermocouple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, J. C.; Wilsted, H. D.; Mulcahy, B. A.

    1943-01-01

    A thermocouple was installed in the crown of a sodium-cooled exhaust valve. The valve was then tested in an air-cooled engine cylinder and valve temperatures under various engine operating conditions were determined. A temperature of 1337 F was observed at a fuel-air ratio of 0.064, a brake mean effective pressure of 179 pounds per square inch, and an engine speed of 2000 rpm. Fuel-air ratio was found to have a large influence on valve temperature, but cooling-air pressure and variation in spark advance had little effect. An increase in engine power by change of speed or mean effective pressure increased the valve temperature. It was found that the temperature of the rear spark-plug bushing was not a satisfactory indication of the temperature of the exhaust valve.

  4. Low-noise audio amplifiers and preamplifier for use with intrinsic thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langner, G.C.; Sachs, R.D.; Stewart, F.L.

    1979-03-01

    Two simple, low-noise audio amplifiers and one low-noise preamplifier for use with intrinsic thermocouples were designed, built, and tested. The amplifiers and the preamplifier have different front end designs. One amplifier uses ultralow-noise operational amplifiers; the other amplifier uses a hybrid component. The preamplifier uses ultralow-noise discrete components. The amplifiers' equivalent noise inputs, at maximum gain, are 4.09 nV and 50 nV; the preamplifier's input is 4.05 μV. Their bandwidths are 15 600 Hz, 550 Hz, and 174 kHz, respectively. the amplifiers' equivalent noise inputs were measured from approx. 0 to 100 Hz, whereas the preamplifier's equivalent noise input was measured from approx. 0 to 174 kHz

  5. SMORN-1: thermoelectrically generated noise in sheathed thermocouples and in other low level instrumentation cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, F.; Meier, R.; Soenen, M.; Delcon, M.; Nysten, C.

    Starting from the fact that thermoelectric emfs of thermocouples are generated in the thermal gradients and not at the hot junction, it is shown how thermoelectric heterogeneity in conjunction with natural and forced convection phenomena gives rise to unwanted noise called: ''thermoelectric noise'' in the technological sense. A distinction is made between four different types of noise--i.e. uncorrelated noise, correlated noise, spectral noise and thermoelectric noise in the physical sense--each of which has its own characteristics. The experimental results presented reveal that noise amplitudes may be quite embarrassing when dealing with problems of quantitative signal fluctuation analysis. It is however emphasized that thermoelectric noise may also convey useful information which, without noise, might be lost

  6. Boiling point measurement of a small amount of brake fluid by thermocouple and its application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogami, Kazunari

    2002-09-01

    This study describes a new method for measuring the boiling point of a small amount of brake fluid using a thermocouple and a pear shaped flask. The boiling point of brake fluid was directly measured with an accuracy that was within approximately 3 C of that determined by the Japanese Industrial Standards method, even though the sample volume was only a few milliliters. The method was applied to measure the boiling points of brake fluid samples from automobiles. It was clear that the boiling points of brake fluid from some automobiles dropped to approximately 140 C from about 230 C, and that one of the samples from the wheel cylinder was approximately 45 C lower than brake fluid from the reserve tank. It is essential to take samples from the wheel cylinder, as this is most easily subjected to heating.

  7. Specific features of thermocouple calorimeter application for measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V. V.; Fasakhov, I. K.

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the accuracy of time-integrated measurements of pulsed X-ray emission from hot plasma with calibrated thermocouple calorimeters is mainly determined by two factors. The first and the most important factor is heating of the filter by the absorbed X-rays; as a result, the calorimeter measures the thermal radiation of the filter, which causes appreciable distortion of the temporal profile and amplitude of the recorded signal. The second factor is the dependence of the effective depth of X-ray absorption in the dielectric that covers the entrance window of the calorimeter on the energy of X-ray photons, i.e., on the recorded radiation spectrum. The results of model calculations of the calorimeter signal are compared with the experimental data.

  8. A note on name individuation and identifying descriptions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    used to refer to either the famous philosopher or to the shipping magnate. ..... chain that produced the use of the name is a list containing the generic name and the ... arcane issues concerning currency individuation, object to my claim that I ...

  9. Notes on the genus Digitaria, with descriptions of new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1934-01-01

    Some years ago I had the opportunity to study more extensively a very interesting group of grasses, belonging to what is now accepted as a distinct genus, the genus Digitaria, formerly belonging as a subgenus to the genus Panicum. As to living plants of this group I was familiar with two european

  10. Analytical dynamics course notes

    CERN Document Server

    Lindenbaum, Samuel D

    1994-01-01

    This book comprises a set of lecture notes on rational mechanics, for part of the graduate physics curriculum, delivered by the late Prof. Shirley L. Quimby during his tenure at Columbia University, New York. The notes contain proofs of basic theorems, derivations of formulae and amplification of observations, as well as the presentation and solution of illustrative problems. Collateral readings from more than 50 source references are indicated at appropriate places in the text.

  11. Co-C and Pd-C Eutectic Fixed Points for Radiation Thermometry and Thermocouple Thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.

    2017-12-01

    Two Co-C and Pd-C eutectic fixed point cells for both radiation thermometry and thermocouple thermometry were constructed at NMC. This paper describes details of the cell design, materials used, and fabrication of the cells. The melting curves of the Co-C and Pd-C cells were measured with a reference radiation thermometer realized in both a single-zone furnace and a three-zone furnace in order to investigate furnace effect. The transition temperatures in terms of ITS-90 were determined to be 1324.18 {°}C and 1491.61 {°}C with the corresponding combined standard uncertainty of 0.44 {°}C and 0.31 {°}C for Co-C and Pd-C, respectively, taking into account of the differences of two different types of furnaces used. The determined ITS-90 temperatures are also compared with that of INRIM cells obtained using the same reference radiation thermometer and the same furnaces with the same settings during a previous bilateral comparison exercise (Battuello et al. in Int J Thermophys 35:535-546, 2014). The agreements are within k=1 uncertainty for Co-C cell and k = 2 uncertainty for Pd-C cell. Shapes of the plateaus of NMC cells and INRIM cells are compared too and furnace effects are analyzed as well. The melting curves of the Co-C and Pd-C cells realized in the single-zone furnace are also measured by a Pt/Pd thermocouple, and the preliminary results are presented as well.

  12. Investigating Microbial Habitats in Hydrothermal Chimneys using Ti-Thermocouple Arrays: Microbial Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagé, A.; Tivey, M. K.; Stakes, D. S.; Bradley, A. M.; Seewald, J. S.; Wheat, C. G.; Reysenbach, A.

    2004-12-01

    In order to examine the changes that occur in the microbial community composition as a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney develops, we deployed Ti-thermocouple arrays over high temperature vents at two active sites of the Guaymas Basin Southern Trough. Chimney material that precipitated around the arrays was recovered after 4 and 72 days. Chimney material that precipitated prior to deployment of the arrays was also recovered at one of the sites (Busted Shroom). Culture-independent analysis based on the small subunit rRNA sequence (cloning and DGGE) was used to determine the microbial diversity associated with subsamples of each chimney. The original Busted Shroom chimney (BSO) was dominated by members of the Crenarchaeota Marine Group I, a group of cosmopolitan marine Archaea, ɛ -Proteobacteria, and γ -Proteobacteria, two divisions of Bacteria that are common to deep-sea vents. The 4 days old Busted Shroom chimney (BSD1) was dominated by members of the Methanocaldococcaceae, hyperthermophilic methanogens, and the 72 days old chimney (BSD2) by members of the Methanosarcinaceae, mesophilic and thermophilic methanogens. At the second site, Toadstool, the 72 days old chimney material that had precipitated around the array (TS) revealed the dominance of sequences from uncultured marine Archaea, the DHVE group I and II, and from the ɛ -Proteobacteria. Additionally, sequences belonging to the Methanocaldococcaceae and Desulfurococcaceae were recovered next to thermocouples that were at temperatures of 109° C (at Busted Shroom) and 116° C (at Toadstool), respectively. These temperatures are higher than the upper limit for growth of cultured representatives from each family.

  13. Note Taking and Note Sharing While Browsing Campaign Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Scott P.; Vatrapu, Ravi; Abraham, George

    2009-01-01

    Participants were observed while searching and browsing the internet for campaign information in a mock-voting situation in three online note-taking conditions: No Notes, Private Notes, and Shared Notes. Note taking significantly influenced the manner in which participants browsed for information...

  14. Descriptive statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nick, Todd G

    2007-01-01

    Statistics is defined by the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) thesaurus as the science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The two broad categories of summarizing and analyzing data are referred to as descriptive and inferential statistics. This chapter considers the science and art of summarizing data where descriptive statistics and graphics are used to display data. In this chapter, we discuss the fundamentals of descriptive statistics, including describing qualitative and quantitative variables. For describing quantitative variables, measures of location and spread, for example the standard deviation, are presented along with graphical presentations. We also discuss distributions of statistics, for example the variance, as well as the use of transformations. The concepts in this chapter are useful for uncovering patterns within the data and for effectively presenting the results of a project.

  15. Physicians’ Progress Notes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bansler, Jørgen; Havn, Erling C.; Mønsted, Troels

    2013-01-01

    in patient care, they have not dealt specifically with the role, structure, and content of the progress notes. As a consequence, CSCW research has not yet taken fully into account the fact that progress notes are coordinative artifacts of a rather special kind, an open-ended chain of prose texts, written...... sequentially by cooperating physicians for their own use as well as for that of their colleagues. We argue that progress notes are the core of the medical record, in that they marshal and summarize the overwhelming amount of data that is available in the modern hospital environment, and that their narrative...... format is uniquely adequate for the pivotal epistemic aspect of cooperative clinical work: the narrative format enables physicians to not only record ‘facts’ but also—by filtering, interpreting, organizing, and qualifying information—to make sense and act concertedly under conditions of uncertainty...

  16. Grouping Notes Through Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    , both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-ItTM notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-ItTM note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  17. Grouping Notes Through Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie; Biskjær, Michael Mose

    2017-01-01

    , both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-ItTM notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-ItTM note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  18. Note by Note: a New Revolution in Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Roisin; Danaher, Pauline

    2016-01-01

    Note by note cooking is an application of Molecular Gastronomy. It was first proposed by French Physical Chemist and Molecular Gastronomy Co-founder, Hervé This. Note by Note dishes are being created as part of Ph.D. research in the Dublin Institute of Technology, Cathal Brugha Street.

  19. Comparison of two surface temperature measurement using thermocouples and infrared camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares two methods applied to measure surface temperatures at an experimental setup designed to analyse flow boiling heat transfer. The temperature measurements were performed in two parallel rectangular minichannels, both 1.7 mm deep, 16 mm wide and 180 mm long. The heating element for the fluid flowing in each minichannel was a thin foil made of Haynes-230. The two measurement methods employed to determine the surface temperature of the foil were: the contact method, which involved mounting thermocouples at several points in one minichannel, and the contactless method to study the other minichannel, where the results were provided with an infrared camera. Calculations were necessary to compare the temperature results. Two sets of measurement data obtained for different values of the heat flux were analysed using the basic statistical methods, the method error and the method accuracy. The experimental error and the method accuracy were taken into account. The comparative analysis showed that although the values and distributions of the surface temperatures obtained with the two methods were similar but both methods had certain limitations.

  20. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  1. Thermocouple and infrared sensor-based measurement of temperature distribution in metal cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-12

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  2. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M. Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining. PMID:25587976

  3. Note Taking for Geography Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneale, Pauline E.

    1998-01-01

    Addresses geography students' questions about why, when, and how to take notes. Outlines a step-by-step process for taking notes from written sources and from class lectures. Discusses what types of notes are appropriate for various types of sources. Suggests some ideas for making notes useful for individual learning styles. (DSK)

  4. External attachment of titanium sheathed thermocouples to zirconium nuclear fuel rods for the loss-of-fluid-test (LOFT) Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, R.K.

    1980-01-01

    A welding process to attach titanium sheathed thermocouples to the outside of the zircaloy clad fuel rods has been developed. A laser beam was selected as the optimum welding process because of the extremely high energy input per unit volume that can be achieved allowing local fusion of a small area irrespective of the difference in material thickness to be joined. Irradiation tests showed no degradation of thermocouples or weld structure. Fast thermal cycle and heater rod blowdown reflood tests were made to subject the weldments to high temperatures, high pressure steam, and fast water quench cycles. From the behavior of these tests, it was concluded that the attachment welds would survive a series of reactor safety tests. 2 refs

  5. Nuclear Power Plant Thermocouple Sensor-Fault Detection and Classification Using Deep Learning and Generalized Likelihood Ratio Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Santhi, B.; Sridhar, S.; Vinolia, K.; Swaminathan, P.

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, an online fault detection and classification method is proposed for thermocouples used in nuclear power plants. In the proposed method, the fault data are detected by the classification method, which classifies the fault data from the normal data. Deep belief network (DBN), a technique for deep learning, is applied to classify the fault data. The DBN has a multilayer feature extraction scheme, which is highly sensitive to a small variation of data. Since the classification method is unable to detect the faulty sensor; therefore, a technique is proposed to identify the faulty sensor from the fault data. Finally, the composite statistical hypothesis test, namely generalized likelihood ratio test, is applied to compute the fault pattern of the faulty sensor signal based on the magnitude of the fault. The performance of the proposed method is validated by field data obtained from thermocouple sensors of the fast breeder test reactor.

  6. OpenLabNotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    List, Markus; Franz, Michael; Tan, Qihua

    2015-01-01

    be advantageous if an ELN was Integrated with a laboratory information management system to allow for a comprehensive documentation of experimental work including the location of samples that were used in a particular experiment. Here, we present OpenLabNotes, which adds state-of-the-art ELN capabilities to Open......LabFramework, a powerful and flexible laboratory information management system. In contrast to comparable solutions, it allows to protect the intellectual property of its users by offering data protection with digital signatures. OpenLabNotes effectively Closes the gap between research documentation and sample management......, thus making Open-Lab Framework more attractive for laboratories that seek to increase productivity through electronic data management....

  7. A note on Marx

    OpenAIRE

    Olesen, Finn; Jensen, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Throughout all his life Karl Marx wrote angrily about capitalism. By use of a dialectic approach he was convinced that the working class had to unite and make a social revolution and thereby free them selves from exploitation. Marx himself was in many ways a dialectic person as we try to show in the note. So in some sense he became one with his scientific methodology.

  8. New fixed-point mini-cell to investigate thermocouple drift in a high-temperature environment under neutron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurie, M.; Vlahovic, L.; Rondinella, V.V. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, P.O. Box 2340, D-76125 Karlsruhe, (Germany); Sadli, M.; Failleau, G. [Laboratoire Commun de Metrologie, LNE-Cnam, Saint-Denis, (France); Fuetterer, M.; Lapetite, J.M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Energy and Transport, P.O. Box 2, NL-1755 ZG Petten, (Netherlands); Fourrez, S. [Thermocoax, 8 rue du pre neuf, F-61100 St Georges des Groseillers, (France)

    2015-07-01

    Temperature measurements in the nuclear field require a high degree of reliability and accuracy. Despite their sheathed form, thermocouples subjected to nuclear radiations undergo changes due to radiation damage and transmutation that lead to significant EMF drift during long-term fuel irradiation experiment. For the purpose of a High Temperature Reactor fuel irradiation to take place in the High Flux Reactor Petten, a dedicated fixed-point cell was jointly developed by LNE-Cnam and JRC-IET. The developed cell to be housed in the irradiation rig was tailor made to quantify the thermocouple drift during the irradiation (about two year duration) and withstand high temperature (in the range 950 deg. C - 1100 deg. C) in the presence of contaminated helium in a graphite environment. Considering the different levels of temperature achieved in the irradiation facility and the large palette of thermocouple types aimed at surveying the HTR fuel pebble during the qualification test both copper (1084.62 deg. C) and gold (1064.18 deg. C) fixed-point materials were considered. The aim of this paper is to first describe the fixed-point mini-cell designed to be embedded in the reactor rig and to discuss the preliminary results achieved during some out of pile tests as much as some robustness tests representative of the reactor scram scenarios. (authors)

  9. Use of indexed sensitivity factors in the analysis of nickel and iron based alloys: study of the decalibration of sheathed Chromel/Alumel thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christie, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    Sheathed Chromel versus Alumel thermocouples decalibrate when exposed to temperatures in excess of 1100 0 C. Thermocouples sheathed in Inconel-600 and type 304 stainless steel were studied in this work. Quantified SIMS data showed that the observed decalibrations were due to significant alterations that took place in the Chromel and Alumel thermoelements. The amount of alteration was different for each thermocouple and was influenced by the particular sheath material used in the thermocouple construction. Relative sensitivity factors, indexed by a matrix ion species ratio, were used to quantify SIMS data for three nickel-based alloys, Chromel, Alumel, and Inconel-600, and an iron-based alloy, type 304 stainless steel. Oxygen pressure >2 x 10 -6 torr in the sputtering region gave enhanced sensitivity and superior quantitative results as compared to data obtained at instrumental residual pressure

  10. The influence of lead temperature on the accuracy of various stainless-steel sheathed, mineral-inulated nickel-chromium/nickel aluminium thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, P.; Burns, J.S.

    1977-10-01

    Samples of three types of stainless steel sheathed MI thermocouples, such as are currently used in fire and furnace tests of transport flasks, have been subjected to high lead temperatures whilst the thermojunctions were kept at a constant low temperature. Both the lead temperature and the length of lead at temperature have been varied. As the lead temperature rises from ambient to a selected value, the emf output from the thermocouple initially decreases and then increases, taking up a final value dependent on the particular conditions. Below a threshold lead temperature, no significant steady state error occurs and the negative transient is generally negligible. Each thermocouple has its own threshold temperature, the lowest found being about 600 0 C, although the average lies at about 750 0 C. Above the threshold lead temperature, the thermal emf can be in error by the equivalent of more than 100 0 C, the highest error found being nearly 230 0 C at a temperature 250 0 C above threshold. The same thermocouple showed a negative transient of 13 0 C 3 minutes after start of heating to 890 0 C. It is probable that the steady state error arises because of the degradation of the thermocouple mineral insulation at elevated temperatures and recommendations are made on the use of such thermocouples in fire and furnace tests. The cause of the initial negative transient error has not been identified, but ways of minimising any resultant errors are suggested. (author)

  11. Notes on Laser Acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    2008-01-01

    This note intends to motivate our effort toward the advent of new methods of particle acceleration, utilizing the fast rising laser technology. By illustrating the underlying principles in an intuitive manner and thus less jargon-clad fashion, we seek a direction in which we shall be able to properly control and harness the promise of laser acceleration. First we review the idea behind the laser wakefield. We then go on to examine ion acceleration by laser. We examine the sheath acceleration in particular and look for the future direction that allows orderly acceleration of ions in high energies

  12. MISCELLANEOUS BOTANICAL NOTES 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J.G.H KOSTERMANS

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available 1.   Durio  cupreus Ridley is considered to  represent a  distinct  species.2.   Durio wyatt-smithii Kosterm. is reported from Borneo.3.   Machilus nervosa Merr. represents Meliosma bontoeensis Merr.4.   Beilschmiedia brassii Allen represents Vavaea brassii (Allen Kosterm.5.   The author of the generic name Heritiera is Aiton.6.   Heritiera macrophylla (non Wall. Merr. is conspecific with H. ungus-tata Pierre.7.   Some specimens from N. Celebes, attributed formerly to H. sylvatica Merr., belong to H. arafurensis Kosterm.8.   Additional note on Heritiera littoralis Ait. and H. macrophylla Wall, ex Kurz.9.   Heritiera   montana   Kosterm.,   nov.   spec,   from   New   Guinea   and H. khidii Kosterm., nov. spec, from Northern Siam.10.   Additional note on Heritiera, novoguineensis Kosterm. and H. pereo-riacea Kosterm. and an undescribed species.11.   Heritiera acuminata Wall, ex Kurz represents a distinct species.12.   Heritiera  solomonensis  Kosterm.,  nov.  spec,  from the  Solomon  Isl.13.   A note on Firmiana bracteata A. DC.14.   Firmiana fulgens (Wall, ex King  Corner is based on a mixtum com-positum and has been the source of constant confusion. For the element, which occurs in Malaysia a new name is coined: F. malayana Kosterm. It does not occur in Tenasserim.15.   A revised bibliography of Firmiana colorata R. Br., F. pallens Stearn and F. malayana Kosterm. is presented.16.   Additional note on Firmiana hainanensis Kosterm.17.   Firmiana kerrii (Craib Kosterm., comb, nov., based on Sterculia kerrii Craib.18.   Additional specimens of Firmiana papuana Mildbr.19.   Cryptocarya hintonii Allen is referred to Primus as Primus hintonii (Allen  Kosterm.20.   Beilschmiedia wallichiana (G. Don   Kosterm., based on Sideroxylon wallichianum, G. Don, is described. Formerly it was relegated to Litsea by Kurz.21.   New species in Lauraceae: Beilschmiedia aborensis Kosterm., B

  13. Notes on functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    These notes are a record of a one semester course on Functional Analysis given by the author to second year Master of Statistics students at the Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi. Students taking this course have a strong background in real analysis, linear algebra, measure theory and probability, and the course proceeds rapidly from the definition of a normed linear space to the spectral theorem for bounded selfadjoint operators in a Hilbert space. The book is organised as twenty six lectures, each corresponding to a ninety minute class session. This may be helpful to teachers planning a course on this topic. Well prepared students can read it on their own.

  14. Uniformity index measurement technology using thermocouples to improve performance in urea-selective catalytic reduction systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sangki; Oh, Jungmo

    2018-05-01

    The current commonly used nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction techniques employ hydrocarbons (HCs), urea solutions, and exhaust gas emissions as the reductants. Two of the primary denitrification NOx (DeNOx) catalyst systems are the HC-lean NOx trap (HC-LNT) catalyst and urea-selective catalytic reduction (urea-SCR) catalyst. The secondary injection method depends on the type of injector, injection pressure, atomization, and spraying technique. In addition, the catalyst reaction efficiency is directly affected by the distribution of injectors; hence, the uniformity index (UI) of the reductant is very important and is the basis for system optimization. The UI of the reductant is an indicator of the NOx conversion efficiency (NCE), and good UI values can reduce the need for a catalyst. Therefore, improving the UI can reduce the cost of producing a catalytic converter, which are expensive due to the high prices of the precious metals contained therein. Accordingly, measurement of the UI is an important process in the development of catalytic systems. Two of the commonly used methods for measuring the reductant UI are (i) measuring the exhaust emissions at many points located upstream/downstream of the catalytic converter and (ii) acquisition of a reductant distribution image on a section of the exhaust pipe upstream of the catalytic converter. The purpose of this study is to develop a system and measurement algorithms to measure the exothermic response distribution in the exhaust gas as the reductant passes through the catalytic converter of the SCR catalyst system using a set of thermocouples downstream of the SCR catalyst. The system is used to measure the reductant UI, which is applied in real-time to the actual SCR system, and the results are compared for various types of mixtures for various engine operating conditions and mixer types in terms of NCE.

  15. Long Hole Film Cooling Dataset for CFD Development . Part 1; Infrared Thermography and Thermocouple Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shyam, Vikram; Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Phillip; Ameri, Ali; Eichele, Peter; Knight, James

    2013-01-01

    An experiment investigating flow and heat transfer of long (length to diameter ratio of 18) cylindrical film cooling holes has been completed. In this paper, the thermal field in the flow and on the surface of the film cooled flat plate is presented for nominal freestream turbulence intensities of 1.5 and 8 percent. The holes are inclined at 30deg above the downstream direction, injecting chilled air of density ratio 1.0 onto the surface of a flat plate. The diameter of the hole is 0.75 in. (0.01905 m) with center to center spacing (pitch) of 3 hole diameters. Coolant was injected into the mainstream flow at nominal blowing ratios of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. The Reynolds number of the freestream was approximately 11,000 based on hole diameter. Thermocouple surveys were used to characterize the thermal field. Infrared thermography was used to determine the adiabatic film effectiveness on the plate. Hotwire anemometry was used to provide flowfield physics and turbulence measurements. The results are compared to existing data in the literature. The aim of this work is to produce a benchmark dataset for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) development to eliminate the effects of hole length to diameter ratio and to improve resolution in the near-hole region. In this report, a Time-Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS), also known as Partially Resolved Navier Stokes (PRNS), method that was implemented in the Glenn-HT code is used to model coolant-mainstream interaction. This method is a high fidelity unsteady method that aims to represent large scale flow features and mixing more accurately.

  16. Thermocouple psychrometer measurements of in situ water potential changes in heated welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Nai-hsien; Wang, H.F.

    1991-05-01

    Ten thermocouple psychrometers (TCPs) to measure water potential (WP) were installed in three holes in G-Tunnel at the Nevada Test Site as part of the Prototype Engineered Barrier System Field Tests. These integrated tests measured several parameters as a function of location and time within a few meters of a heater emplaced in welded tuff. The primary goal of the TCP experiment was to find out whether the combination of laboratory calibration and field use of the TCP can provide useful data for determining the change of moisture condition in the field. We calibrated the TCPs in NaCl solutions up to 80 degree C(176 degree F) in the laboratory. In two holes, we used rubber sleeves and packers to house TCPs, and in the third hole, we used foam. All three holes were grouted behind the TCP assemblages. Field results of the heater test showed that small temperature gradients were present for all measurements. Nevertheless, the WP calibration made the necessary correction for the nonisothermal condition. A drying and re-wetting cycle peaked at about day 140 with a WP of -65 bar in borehole P3, located below the heater. A similar cycle but reduced in scale was found at about day 175 with a WP of -45 bar in borehole P2, above the heater. This difference in drying behavior above and below the heater was also observed from neutron data and was explained as a gravity effect. As temperatures increased, the evaporation rate of pore water increased, In unfractured rock, the gas-phase flow was primarily outward. Water condensed above the heater would drain back to keep the boiling region wet, but water condensed below the heater would drain away from the boiling region. This conceptual model explained both the time and magnitude differences for data from holes above and below the heater. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Figures of Merit Software: Description, User's Guide, Installation Notes, Versions Description, and License Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    hoelzer, H. D.; Fourroux, K. A.; Rickman, D. L.; Schrader, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Figures of Merit (FoMs) and the FoM software provide a method for quantitatively evaluating the quality of a regolith simulant by comparing the simulant to a reference material. FoMs may be used for comparing a simulant to actual regolith material, specification by stating the value a simulant s FoMs must attain to be suitable for a given application and comparing simulants from different vendors or production runs. FoMs may even be used to compare different simulants to each other. A single FoM is conceptually an algorithm that computes a single number for quantifying the similarity or difference of a single characteristic of a simulant material and a reference material and provides a clear measure of how well a simulant and reference material match or compare. FoMs have been constructed to lie between zero and 1, with zero indicating a poor or no match and 1 indicating a perfect match. FoMs are defined for modal composition, particle size distribution, particle shape distribution, (aspect ratio and angularity), and density. This TM covers the mathematics, use, installation, and licensing for the existing FoM code in detail.

  18. Notes on black holes and three dimensional gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banados, Maximo

    1999-01-01

    In these notes we review some relevant results on 2+1 quantum gravity. These include the Chern-Simons formulation and its affine Kac-Moody symmetry, the asymptotic algebra of Brown and Henneaux, and the statistical mechanics description of 2+1 black holes. A brief introduction to the classical and semiclassical aspects of black holes is also included. The level of the notes is basic assuming only some knowledge on Statistical Mechanics, General Relativity and Yang-Mills theory

  19. Note e Recensioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a cura di Mariagrazia Portera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Volumi Winfried Menninghaus, La promessa della bellezza, [Fabrizio Desideri, p. 272] • David Rothenberg, Survival of the Beautiful. Art, Science and Evolution [Danae Crocchiola, p. 274] • Lev Manovich, Software Takes Command [Angela Maiello, p. 277]. Note Method in Aesthetics: Philosophy, Evolution and the Cognitive Sciences [Aaron Meskin, Matthew Kieran, Gregory Currie, p. 280] • L’Abitare possibile. Estetica, Architettura e New Media, Ravello, Auditorium Oscar Niemeyer, 28-30 maggio 2013 [Sara Matetich, p. 282] • Copenhagen Summer School in Phenomenology and Philosophy of Mind, University of Copenhagen, 12-16 Agosto 2013 [Raoul Frauenfelder, p. 289] • Ciò che è vivo e ciò che è morto nell’estetica di Archibald Ali- son. Nota a margine del convegno: Neoestetica ed emozione. Archibald Alison e l’estetica con- temporanea, Palermo, 4-5 ottobre 2013 [Giuseppe Pucci, p. 294

  20. Notes on quantum groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pressley, A.; Chari, V.; Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay

    1990-01-01

    The authors presents an introduction to quantum groups defined as a deformation of the universal enveloping algebra of a Lie algebra. After the description of Hopf algebras with some examples the approach of Drinfel'd and Jimbo is described, where the quantization of a Lie algebra represents a Hopf algebra, defined over the algebra of formal power series in an indetermined h. The authors show that this approach arises from a r-matrix, which satisfies the classical Yang-Baxter equation. As example quantum sl 2 is considered. Furthermore the approaches of Manin and Woroniwicz and the R-matrix approach are described. (HSI)

  1. Experimental measurement of the interfacial heat transfer coefficients of subcooled flow boiling using micro-thermocouple and double directional images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong-Jin Kim; Goon-Cherl Park

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Models or correlations for phase interface are needed to analyze the multi-phase flow. Interfacial heat transfer coefficients are important to constitute energy equation of multi-phase flow, specially. In subcooled boiling flow, bubble condensation at the bubble-liquid interface is a major mechanism of heat transfer within bulk subcooled liquid. Bubble collapse rates and temperatures of each phase are needed to determine the interfacial heat transfer coefficient for bubble condensation. Bubble collapse rates were calculated through image processing in single direction, generally. And in case of liquid bulk temperature, which has been obtained by general temperature sensor such as thermocouple, was used. However, multi-directional images are needed to analyze images due to limitations of single directional image processing. Also, temperature sensor, which has a fast response time, must be used to obtain more accurate interfacial heat transfer coefficient. Low pressure subcooled water flow experiments using micro-thermocouple and double directional image processing with mirrors were conducted to investigate bubble condensation phenomena and to modify interfacial heat transfer correlation. Experiments were performed in a vertical subcooled boiling flow of a rectangular channel. Bubble condensing traces with respect to time were recorded by high speed camera in double direction and bubble collapse rates were calculated by processing recorded digital images. Temperatures were measured by micro-thermocouple, which is a K-type with a 12.7 μm diameter. The liquid temperature was estimated by the developed algorithm to discriminate phases and find each phase temperature in the measured temperature including both liquid and bubble temperature. The interfacial heat transfer coefficient for bubble condensation was calculated from the bubble collapse rates and the estimated liquid temperature, and its correlation was modified. The modified

  2. Scanning thermal microscopy based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-thermocouple in active mode (2ω method)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Nguyen, Tran Phong; Salut, Roland; Thiery, Laurent; Teyssieux, Damien; Vairac, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    A novel probe for scanning thermal microscope using a micro-thermocouple probe placed on a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) is presented. Instead of using an external deflection with a cantilever beam for contact detection, an original combination of piezoelectric resonator and thermal probe is employed. Due to a non-contact photothermal excitation principle, the high quality factor of the QTF allows the probe-to-surface contact detection. Topographic and thermal scanning images obtained on a specific sample points out the interest of our system as an alternative to cantilevered resistive probe systems which are the most spread.

  3. Scanning thermal microscopy based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-thermocouple in active mode (2ω method).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Nguyen, Tran Phong; Salut, Roland; Thiery, Laurent; Teyssieux, Damien; Vairac, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    A novel probe for scanning thermal microscope using a micro-thermocouple probe placed on a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) is presented. Instead of using an external deflection with a cantilever beam for contact detection, an original combination of piezoelectric resonator and thermal probe is employed. Due to a non-contact photothermal excitation principle, the high quality factor of the QTF allows the probe-to-surface contact detection. Topographic and thermal scanning images obtained on a specific sample points out the interest of our system as an alternative to cantilevered resistive probe systems which are the most spread.

  4. Scanning thermal microscopy based on a quartz tuning fork and a micro-thermocouple in active mode (2ω method)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bontempi, Alexia; Nguyen, Tran Phong; Salut, Roland; Thiery, Laurent; Teyssieux, Damien; Vairac, Pascal [FEMTO-ST Institute UMR 6174, Université de Franche-Comté, CNRS, ENSMM, UTBM, 15B Avenue des Montboucons, F-25030 Besançon (France)

    2016-06-15

    A novel probe for scanning thermal microscope using a micro-thermocouple probe placed on a Quartz Tuning Fork (QTF) is presented. Instead of using an external deflection with a cantilever beam for contact detection, an original combination of piezoelectric resonator and thermal probe is employed. Due to a non-contact photothermal excitation principle, the high quality factor of the QTF allows the probe-to-surface contact detection. Topographic and thermal scanning images obtained on a specific sample points out the interest of our system as an alternative to cantilevered resistive probe systems which are the most spread.

  5. Study of Thermocurrents in ILC cavities via measurements of the Seebeck Effect in niobium, titanium, and stainless steel thermocouples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, Victoria [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The goals of Fermilab’s Superconductivity and Radio Frequency Development Department are to engineer, fabricate, and improve superconducting radio frequency (SCRF) cavities in the interest of advancing accelerator technology. Improvement includes exploring possible limitations on cavity performance and mitigating such impediments. This report focuses on investigating and measuring the Seebeck Effect observed in cavity constituents titanium, niobium, and stainless steel arranged in thermocouples. These junctions exist between cavities, helium jackets, and bellows, and their connection can produce a loop of electrical current and magnetic flux spontaneously during cooling. The experimental procedure and results are described and analyzed. Implications relating the results to cavity performance are discussed.

  6. Attachment of lead wires to thin film thermocouples mounted on high temperature materials using the parallel gap welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, Raymond; Kim, Walter S.; Pencil, Eric; Groth, Mary; Danzey, Gerald A.

    1990-01-01

    Parallel gap resistance welding was used to attach lead wires to sputtered thin film sensors. Ranges of optimum welding parameters to produce an acceptable weld were determined. The thin film sensors were Pt13Rh/Pt thermocouples; they were mounted on substrates of MCrAlY-coated superalloys, aluminum oxide, silicon carbide and silicon nitride. The entire sensor system is designed to be used on aircraft engine parts. These sensor systems, including the thin-film-to-lead-wire connectors, were tested to 1000 C.

  7. Investigation of pool boiling dynamics on a rectangular heater using nano-thermocouples: is it chaotic or stochastic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar; Banerjee, Debjyoti [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], e-mail: dbanerjee@tamu.edu

    2009-07-01

    The non-linear dynamical model of pool boiling on a horizontal rectangular heater is assessed from experimental results in this study. Pool boiling experiments are conducted over a horizontal rectangular silicon substrate measuring 63 mm x 35 mm with PF-5060 as the test fluid. Novel nano-thermocouples, micro-machined in-situ on the silicon substrate are used to measure the surface temperature fluctuations for steady state pool boiling. The acquisition frequency for temperature data from the nano-thermocouples is 1 k Hz. The surface temperature fluctuations are analyzed using the TISEAN{sup c} package. A time-delay embedding is employed to generate higher dimensional phase-space vectors from the temperature time series record. The optimal delay is determined from the first minimum of the mutual information function. Techniques such as recurrence plots, and false nearest neighbors tests are employed to assess the presence of deterministic chaotic dynamics. Chaos quantifiers such as correlation dimensions are found for various pool boiling regimes using the raw data as well as noise-reduced data. Additionally, pseudo-phase spaces are used to reconstruct the 'attractors'. The results after non-linear noise reduction shows definitive presence of low-dimensional (d {<=} 7) chaos in fully developed nucleate boiling, at critical heat flux and in film boiling. (author)

  8. Investigation of pool boiling dynamics on a rectangular heater using nano-thermocouples: is it chaotic or stochastic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar; Banerjee, Debjyoti

    2009-01-01

    The non-linear dynamical model of pool boiling on a horizontal rectangular heater is assessed from experimental results in this study. Pool boiling experiments are conducted over a horizontal rectangular silicon substrate measuring 63 mm x 35 mm with PF-5060 as the test fluid. Novel nano-thermocouples, micro-machined in-situ on the silicon substrate are used to measure the surface temperature fluctuations for steady state pool boiling. The acquisition frequency for temperature data from the nano-thermocouples is 1 k Hz. The surface temperature fluctuations are analyzed using the TISEAN c package. A time-delay embedding is employed to generate higher dimensional phase-space vectors from the temperature time series record. The optimal delay is determined from the first minimum of the mutual information function. Techniques such as recurrence plots, and false nearest neighbors tests are employed to assess the presence of deterministic chaotic dynamics. Chaos quantifiers such as correlation dimensions are found for various pool boiling regimes using the raw data as well as noise-reduced data. Additionally, pseudo-phase spaces are used to reconstruct the 'attractors'. The results after non-linear noise reduction shows definitive presence of low-dimensional (d ≤ 7) chaos in fully developed nucleate boiling, at critical heat flux and in film boiling. (author)

  9. Notes in Colombian Herpetology, II Notes in Colombian Herpetology, II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunn Emmett Reid

    1944-03-01

    Full Text Available The Lizard Genus Echinosaura (Teiidae in Colombia / Notes on the habits of the Tadpole-Carrying Frog Hyloxalus granuliventris / A New Marsupian Frog (Gastrotheca from Colombia The Lizard Genus Echinosaura (Teiidae in Colombia / Notes on the habits of the Tadpole-Carrying Frog Hyloxalus granuliventris / A New Marsupian Frog (Gastrotheca from Colombia.

  10. Notes on Three Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Chloris divaricata R. Br. var. cynodontoides (Bal. Lazarides, Boerhavia coccinea Mill., and Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit. are recently found naturalized in Taiwan. The present study gives the taxonomic description and line drawings of the three species. In addition, their distribution and notes on ecology and taxonomy are provided.

  11. Internal attachment of laser beam welded stainless steel sheathed thermocouples into stainless steel upper end caps in nuclear fuel rods for the LOFT Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welty, R.K.; Reid, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Exxon Nuclear Company, Inc., acting as a subcontractor to EG and G Idaho Inc., Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho, conducted a laser beam welding study to attach internal stainless steel thermocouples into stainless steel upper end caps in nuclear fuel rods. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of laser welding a single 0.063 inch diameter stainless steel (304) sheathed thermocouple into a stainless steel (316) upper end cap for nuclear fuel rods. A laser beam was selected because of the extremely high energy input in unit volume that can be achieved allowing local fusion of a small area irrespective of the difference in material thickness to be joined. A special weld fixture was designed and fabricated to hold the end cap and the thermocouple with angular and rotational adjustment under the laser beam. A commercial pulsed laser and energy control system was used to make the welds

  12. Improving operation notes to meet British Orthopaedic Association guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, David; Fisher, Noel; Ahmad, Aman; Alam, Fazle

    2009-04-01

    Operation notes are an important part of medical records for clinical, academic and medicolegal reasons. This study audited the quality of operative note keeping for total knee replacements against the standards set by the British Orthopaedic Association (BOA). A prospective review of all patients undergoing total knee replacement at a district general hospital over 8 months. Data recorded were compared with those required by the BOA good-practice guidelines. Change in practice was implemented and the audit cycle completed. Data were statistically analysed. A total of 129 operation notes were reviewed. There was a significant improvement in the mean number of data points recorded from 9.6 to 13.1. The least well recorded data were diagnosis, description of findings, alignment and postoperative flexion range. All had a significant improvement except description of findings. The operating surgeon writing the note improved from 56% to 67%. Detailed postoperative instructions also improved in quality. Surgeon education and the use of a checklist produce better quality total knee replacement operation notes in line with BOA guidelines. Further improvements may be made by making the data points part of the operation note itself.

  13. A note on axial symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beetle, Christopher; Wilder, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    This note describes how to characterize and normalize an axial Killing field on a general Riemannian geometry or four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. No global assumptions are necessary, such as that the orbits of the Killing field all have period 2π. Rather, any Killing field that vanishes at at least one point necessarily has the expected global properties. (note)

  14. The Anatomy of a Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Herb

    1986-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn the physics of a musical note by learning how to synthesize sounds on a computer. Discusses ADSR (attack, decay, sustain, and release of a note) and includes a program (with listing) which students can use to examine ADSR on a Commodore 64 microcomputer. (JN)

  15. Relativistic description of atomic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    Papers on the relativistic description of nuclei are reviewed. The Brown and Rho ''small'' bag'' model is accepted for hardrons. Meson exchange potentials of the nucleon-nucleon interaction have been considered. Then the transition from a system of two interacting nucleons has been performed to the relativistic nucleus description as a multinucleon system on the basis of OBEP (one-boson exchange potential). The proboem of OPEP (one-pion-exchange potential) inclusion to a relativistic scheme is discussed. Simplicity of calculations and attractiveness of the Walecka model for specific computations and calculations was noted. The relativistic model of nucleons interacting through ''effective'' scalar and vector boson fields was used in the Walacka model for describing neutronaand nuclear mater matters

  16. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence determination of a waste tank criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marusich, R.M. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for criticality consequences for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Criticality scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided

  17. Manifestations of nonlinearity in fuel center thermocouple steady-state and transient data: implications for data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, D.D.; Barnes, B.O.; Williford, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The interpretation and verification of fuel centerline thermocouple data are analyzed. Two new concepts are discussed along with their application to in-reactor data from IFA-432, a heavily instrumented six-rod Halden reactor test assembly sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The main ideas presented in this report are that: it is more useful to plot resistance versus power than simply to plot temperature versus power; and the response of the centerline temperature to a linear power decrease is correlated to the rod's current resistance-vs-power behavior. Thus, the resistance-vs-power measurement can be verified by performing a linear power decrease and by plotting the temperature response

  18. Home-made temperature monitoring system from four-channel K-type thermocouples via internet of thing technology platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detmod, Thitaporn; Özmen, Yiǧiter; Songkaitiwong, Kittiphot; Saenyot, Khanuengchat; Locharoenrat, Kitsakorn; Lekchaum, Sarai

    2018-06-01

    This paper is aimed to design and construct the home-made temperature monitoring system from four-channel K-type thermocouples in order to improve the temperature measurement based on standard evaluation measurements guidance. The temperature monitoring system was capable to record the temperature on SD card and to display the realtime temperature on Internet of Thing Technology platform. The temperature monitoring system was tested in terms of the temperature measurement accuracy and delay response time. It was found that a standard deviation was acceptable as compared to the Instrument Society of America. The response time of the microcontroller to SD card was 2 sec faster than that of the microcontroller to Thingspeak.

  19. Note on the ABC Conjecture

    OpenAIRE

    Carella, N. A.

    2006-01-01

    This note imparts heuristic arguments and theorectical evidences that contradict the abc conjecture over the rational numbers. In addition, the rudimentary datails for transforming this problem into the doimain of equidistribution theory are provided.

  20. Lecture notes on quantum statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gill, R.D.

    2000-01-01

    These notes are meant to form the material for an introductory course on quantum statistics at the graduate level aimed at mathematical statisticians and probabilists No background in physics quantum or otherwise is required They are still far from complete

  1. Alcune Note di Analisi Matematica

    OpenAIRE

    Vasselli, Ezio

    2011-01-01

    Lectures notes (in italian) of some arguments of classical analysis, with exercises. A particular emphasis to functional analysis and elementary operator algebra theory is given, by means of exercises and examples.

  2. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  3. The Combined Use of a Gas-Controlled Heat Pipe and a Copper Point to Improve the Calibration of Thermocouples up to 1100 ˚C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astrua, M.; Iacomini, L.; Battuello, M.

    2008-10-01

    The calibration of platinum-based thermocouples from 420 °C to 1,100 ˚C is currently carried out at INRIM making use of two different apparatus: for temperatures below 930 ˚C, a potassium gas-controlled heat pipe (GCHP) is used, whereas a metal-block furnace is adopted for higher temperatures. The standard uncertainty of the reference temperature obtained in the lower temperature range is almost one order of magnitude better than in the higher temperature range. A sealed copper cell was investigated to see if it could be used to calibrate thermocouples above 930 ˚C with a lower uncertainty than our current procedures allowed. The cell was characterized with Type S and Pt/Pd thermocouples and with an HTPRT. The freezing plateaux were flat within 0.01 ˚C and lasted up to 1 h with a repeatability of 0.02 ˚C. The temperature of the cell was determined with a standard uncertainty of 0.04 ˚C. Hence, the copper cell was found to be superior to the comparator furnace for the calibration of platinum-based thermocouples because of the significant decrease in the uncertainty that it provides. An analysis was also carried out on the calibration of Pt/Pd thermocouples, and it was found that the combined use of the potassium GCHP and the Cu fixed-point cell is adequate to exploit the potential of these sensors in the range from 420 °C to 1,084 °C. A comparison with a fixed-point calibration was also made which gave rise to agreement within 0.07 ˚C between the two approaches.

  4. Note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kullman, Mikael; Campillo, Javier; Dahlquist, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Globally, more than 50% of all people are living in cities today. Enhancing sustainability and efficiency of urban energy systems is thus of high priority for global sustainable development. The European research project PLEEC (Planning for Energy Efficient Cities) focuses on technological...

  5. Technical note on drainage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Thomas Ruby

    This technical note will present simple but widely used methods for the design of drainage systems. The note will primarily deal with surface water (rainwater) which on a satisfactorily way should be transport into the drainage system. Traditional two types of sewer systems exist: A combined system......, where rainwater and sewage is transported in the same pipe, and a separate system where the two types of water are transported in individual pipe. This note will only focus on the separate rain/stormwater system, however, if domestic sewage should be included in the dimensioning procedure, it......’s not major different than described below - just remember to include this contribution for combined systems where the surface water (rain) and sewage are carried in the same pipes in the system and change some of the parameters for failure allowance (this will be elaborated further later on). The technical...

  6. Gaz de France. Operation note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  7. Guidelines for Description

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Links, P.; Horsman, Peter; Kühnel, Karsten; Priddy, M.; Reijnhoudt, Linda; Merenmies, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The Guidelines follow the conceptual metadata model (deliverable 17.2). They include guidelines for description of collection-holding institutions, document collections, organisations, personalities, events, camps and ghettos. As much as possible the guidelines comply with the descriptive standards

  8. Churchill on Stalin: A note.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellman, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this note is to draw attention to two limitations of Churchill's war memoirs as a source of accurate information about Stalin, his views ans actions. they concern, first Stalin's alleged remarks in 1942 about collectivisation, and second Stalin's allleged response to Churchill's

  9. Lecture notes on ideal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedbloed, J.P.

    1983-03-01

    Notes, prepared for a course of lectures held at the Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Brazil (June-August 1978). An extensive theoretical treatment of the behaviour of hot plasmas caught in equations and mathematical models is presented in 12 chapters

  10. Developing INDCs: a guidance note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim; Bee, Skylar; Naswa, Prakriti

    needs and low capability, would need means of implementation (MoI) for adaptation and to take ambitious mitigation actions. Developing countries would include MoI needs in the context of mitigation and adaptation. The note explains briefly how countries can identify their unconditional contributions....

  11. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  12. Notes on instrumentation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, G J

    2013-01-01

    Notes on Instrumentation and Control presents topics on pressure (i.e., U-tube manometers and elastic type gauges), temperature (i.e. glass thermometer, bi-metallic strip thermometer, filled system thermometer, vapor pressure thermometer), level, and flow measuring devices. The book describes other miscellaneous instruments, signal transmitting devices, supply and control systems, and monitoring systems. The theory of automatic control and semi-conductor devices are also considered. Marine engineers will find the book useful.

  13. Notes on modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, Antonio [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    These notes present a high-level overview of how modeling and simulation are carried out by practitioners. The discussion is of a general nature; no specific techniques are examined but the activities associated with all modeling and simulation approaches are briefly addressed. There is also a discussion of validation and verification and, at the end, a section on why modeling and simulation are useful.

  14. Fotonovela. Technical Note No. 13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, Patricio; Villacis, Rodrigo

    This report contains a description of a program that sought to develop the fotonovela as an instrument for increasing literacy and consciousness awareness in Ecuador. Following a general introduction to the work of the Nonformal Education Project, the creator of this program, the report presents information about the antecedents and…

  15. A Guide to Field Notes for Qualitative Research: Context and Conversation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippi, Julia; Lauderdale, Jana

    2018-02-01

    Field notes are widely recommended in qualitative research as a means of documenting needed contextual information. With growing use of data sharing, secondary analysis, and metasynthesis, field notes ensure rich context persists beyond the original research team. However, while widely regarded as essential, there is not a guide to field note collection within the literature to guide researchers. Using the qualitative literature and previous research experience, we provide a concise guide to collection, incorporation, and dissemination of field notes. We provide a description of field note content for contextualization of an entire study as well as individual interviews and focus groups. In addition, we provide two "sketch note" guides, one for study context and one for individual interviews or focus groups for use in the field. Our guides are congruent with many qualitative and mixed methodologies and ensure contextual information is collected, stored, and disseminated as an essential component of ethical, rigorous qualitative research.

  16. Descrição do girino de Lysapsus laevis (Parker, com notas sobre o ambiente, hábitos e desenvolvimento (Anura, Hylidae, Pseudinae Description of the tadpole of Lysapsus laevis (Parker, with notes on the habitat, habits, and development (Anura, Hylidae, Pseudinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses Caramaschi

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available O girino de Lysapsus laevis (Parker, 1935 é descrito e figurado, com base em exemplares coletados na Vila Surumu, Estado de Roraima, Brasil. No estágio 37, o girino possui 61,4 mm de comprimento total; corpo triangular em vista lateral, ovóide em vistas dorsal e ventral, correspondendo a 28% do comprimento total; olhos laterais, parcialmente visíveis em vistas dorsal e ventral; disco oral ânteroventral, pequeno; fórmula dentária, 2(2/3(1; espiráculo curto, sinistro; tubo anal longo, largo, direito, mediano; em vida, dorso do corpo verde, ventre branco iridescente; musculatura caudal e nadadeiras verdes; terço anterior da nadadeira caudal e tubo anal com manchas irregulares iridescentes; metade distal da cauda cinza a cinza escuro; íris bronze. Notas sobre o ambiente, hábitos e desenvolvimento são apresentadas.The tadpole of Lysapsus laevis (Parker, 1935 is described and figured, based on specimens from Vila Surumu, State of Roraima, northern Brazil. In stage 37, the tadpole attains 61.4 mm in total length; body triangular in lateral view, ovoid in dorsal and ventral views, corresponding to 28% of the total length; eyes lateral, partially visible in dorsal and ventral views; oral disc anteroventral, small; labial tooth row formula, 2(2/3(1; spiracle short, sinistral; anal tube large, wide, medium; in life, dorsum of body green, venter iridescent white; caudal musculature and fins green; anterior third of caudal fin and anal tube with irregular iridescent stains; distal half of tail gray to dark gray; iris bronze. Notes on the habitat, habits, and development are provided.

  17. Revising Lecture Notes: How Revision, Pauses, and Partners Affect Note Taking and Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Linlin; Kiewra, Kenneth A.; Samuelson, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    Note taking has been categorized as a two-stage process: the recording of notes and the review of notes. We contend that note taking might best involve a three-stage process where the missing stage is revision. This study investigated the benefits of revising lecture notes and addressed two questions: First, is revision more effective than…

  18. Descriptive set theory

    CERN Document Server

    Moschovakis, YN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in paperback, this monograph is a self-contained exposition of the main results and methods of descriptive set theory. It develops all the necessary background material from logic and recursion theory, and treats both classical descriptive set theory and the effective theory developed by logicians.

  19. Description logics of context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Klarman, S

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We introduce Description Logics of Context (DLCs) - an extension of Description Logics (DLs) for context-based reasoning. Our approach descends from J. McCarthy's tradition of treating contexts as formal objects over which one can quantify...

  20. Physics 3204. Course Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education.

    A description of the physics 3204 course in Newfoundland and Labrador is provided. The description includes: (1) statement of purpose, including general objectives of science education; (2) a list of six course objectives; (3) course content for units on sound, light, optical instruments, electrostatics, current electricity, Michael Faraday and…

  1. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein's mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented

  2. Notes on elementary particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Muirhead, William Hugh

    1972-01-01

    Notes of Elementary Particle Physics is a seven-chapter text that conveys the ideas on the state of elementary particle physics. This book emerged from an introductory course of 30 lectures on the subject given to first-year graduate students at the University of Liverpool. The opening chapter deals with pertinent terminologies in elementary particle physics. The succeeding three chapters cover the concepts of transition amplitudes, probabilities, relativistic wave equations and fields, and the interaction amplitude. The discussion then shifts to tests of electromagnetic interactions, particul

  3. Debriefing Note Secondary Education Support Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webster, Neil; Vagnby, Bo Hellisen; Thomsen, Thomas J.

    Debriefing note regarding joint programming for the Secondary Education Support Programme (2003- 2007). The note specifies preparation of SIP Physical Guidelines; Training needs assessment for Physical School Status and Rapid Technical Assessments; SIP/DEP preparation; Selection criteria...

  4. Note-Making in Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Robert W.

    1985-01-01

    Note-making is one excellent method for helping students retain important points made by the teacher. Techniques that elementary and secondary social studies teacher can use to teach note-making skills are described. (RM)

  5. Taking notes as an interactive process

    OpenAIRE

    Hornig, Wolfgang

    1984-01-01

    Taking notes as an interactive process : how to improve students´ notes / Hornig W. ; Nowak, J. - In: Nowak, Johann: Textverstehen und Textrekonstruktion in Vorlesungen. - Augsburg : HDZ, 1984. - S. 227-253. - (Augsburger Studien zur Hochschuldidaktik ; 12)

  6. The new bank note distribution system

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrit Bilkes

    1997-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines the recent changes made to the way Canada's bank notes are distributed. The new system allows financial institutions to exchange notes directly with one another at designated points across the country, rather than through Bank of Canada agencies, as was previously the case. The institutions communicate with the Bank of Canada through a computerized inventory-management system. Two Bank of Canada operations centres monitor note quality and supply new notes ...

  7. What Predicts Skill in Lecture Note Taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peverly, Stephen T.; Ramaswamy, Vivek; Brown, Cindy; Sumowski, James; Alidoost, Moona; Garner, Joanna

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of good lecture notes to test performance, very little is known about the cognitive processes that underlie effective lecture note taking. The primary purpose of the 2 studies reported (a pilot study and Study 1) was to investigate 3 processes hypothesized to be significantly related to quality of notes: transcription…

  8. A Grid of Fine Wire Thermocouples to Study the Spatial Coherence of Turbulence within Katabatic Flow through a Vineyard Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, K.; Christen, A.; Sturman, A.; Skaloud, P.

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the dynamics and thermodynamics of katabatic flow is relevant in vineyards, where grapevines are sensitive to temperature changes (frost protection and cooling). Basic understanding of the occurrence and evolution of, and turbulence within, katabatic flow is well known over bare slopes. However, little work has been completed to extend this understanding to mid-sized canopies and how the presence of a canopy affects the turbulent exchange of momentum and heat within the flow. Measurements were carried out over a 6° vineyard slope near Oliver, BC, Canada in the Okanagan Valley between July 5 and July 22, 2016. The set-up consisted of an array of five vertically arranged CSAT 3D (Campbell Scientific, Inc.) ultrasonic anemometers at z = 0.45 m, 0.90 m, 1.49 m, 2.34 m, and 4.73 m above ground level (AGL), and a 2-D grid of 40 Type-E (copper-constantan) fine-wire thermocouples (FWTC) arranged at the same heights as the CSAT 3D array on 8 masts extending in the upslope (flow) direction at locations x = 0.0 m (CSAT 3D tower), 0.5 m, 1.0 m, 2.0 m, 4.0 m, 8.0 m, 16.0 m, and 32.0 m. The FWTC array formed a sheet of 40 sampling points in the upslope-vertical plane. The height of the grapevine canopy (h) was approximately 2 m AGL, and rows were aligned along the local slope direction with a row spacing of 2.45 m. CSAT-3s were sampled at 60 Hz with 20 Hz data recording, the FWTCs were sampled at 2 Hz, all synchronized by a data logger. Katabatic flow was observed on several nights during the campaign, with a wind speed maximum located within the canopy. This contribution will focus on the measurement techniques, combining ultrasonic anemometer data with the spatially synchronized FWTC array using image process techniques. We identify the dynamics and structure of the katabatic flow, relevant for heat exchange, using the spatial coherence of the temperature field given by the FWTC array. Improved knowledge of the vertical structure and the dynamics of katabatic

  9. Lecture notes on diophantine analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Zannier, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    These lecture notes originate from a course delivered at the Scuola Normale in Pisa in 2006. Generally speaking, the prerequisites do not go beyond basic mathematical material and are accessible to many undergraduates. The contents mainly concern diophantine problems on affine curves, in practice describing the integer solutions of equations in two variables. This case historically suggested some major ideas for more general problems. Starting with linear and quadratic equations, the important connections with Diophantine Approximation are presented and Thue's celebrated results are proved in full detail. In later chapters more modern issues on heights of algebraic points are dealt with, and applied to a sharp quantitative treatment of the unit equation. The book also contains several Supplements, hinted exercises and an Appendix on recent work on heights.

  10. Lecture notes on wavelet transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic exposition of the basic ideas and results of wavelet analysis suitable for mathematicians, scientists, and engineers alike. The primary goal of this text is to show how different types of wavelets can be constructed, illustrate why they are such powerful tools in mathematical analysis, and demonstrate their use in applications. It also develops the required analytical knowledge and skills on the part of the reader, rather than focus on the importance of more abstract formulation with full mathematical rigor.  These notes differs from many textbooks with similar titles in that a major emphasis is placed on the thorough development of the underlying theory before introducing applications and modern topics such as fractional Fourier transforms, windowed canonical transforms, fractional wavelet transforms, fast wavelet transforms, spline wavelets, Daubechies wavelets, harmonic wavelets and non-uniform wavelets. The selection, arrangement, and presentation of the material in these ...

  11. Hardware description languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Jerry H.

    1994-01-01

    Hardware description languages are special purpose programming languages. They are primarily used to specify the behavior of digital systems and are rapidly replacing traditional digital system design techniques. This is because they allow the designer to concentrate on how the system should operate rather than on implementation details. Hardware description languages allow a digital system to be described with a wide range of abstraction, and they support top down design techniques. A key feature of any hardware description language environment is its ability to simulate the modeled system. The two most important hardware description languages are Verilog and VHDL. Verilog has been the dominant language for the design of application specific integrated circuits (ASIC's). However, VHDL is rapidly gaining in popularity.

  12. Some Notes and Critiques of Selected Lexicographic Texts in Bikol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louward Allen Zubiri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study revolves around notes and critiques of Bikol lexicography. Based on a selection of six dictionaries, the structure and diachronic development of Bikol lexicography were analyzed. Half of the selected dictionaries were authored in full or part by Malcolm Mintz, a renowned Bikol expert. These enabled a linear analysis of changes in lexicography that have occurred within the span of four decades. The dictionaries studied include the earliest and most influential Bikol dictionary of Lisboa (1865. The study presents a preliminary description of lexicographic work done in Bikol and traces the shift in the paradigm of dictionary making from the Spanish era to the present.

  13. Studies on Neotropical Phasmatodea XVI: Revision of Haplopodini Günther, 1953 (rev. stat.), with notes on the subfamily Cladomorphinae Bradley & Galil, 1977 and the descriptions of a new tribe, four new genera and nine new species (Phasmatodea: "Anareolatae": Phasmatidae: Cladomorphinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennemann, Frank H; Conle, Oskar V; Perez-Gelabert, Daniel E

    2016-06-27

    along with a discussion of the distributional patterns. Detailed descriptions, differential diagnoses, synonymic listings, illustrations, material listings and measurements are given of all 26 currently known species and subspecies of Haplopodini. Four new genera are described within Haplopodini. The monotypical Apteroplopus n. gen. (type-species: Dyme grosse-tuberculata Brunner v. Wattenwyl, 1907) from Honduras is the only taxon of the tribe represented in Central America. It is only known from the male which differs from all other genera by being entirely apterous. Cephaloplopus n. gen. (type-species: Cephaloplopus pulchellus n. sp.) and Parhaplopus n. gen. (type-species: Haplopus cubensis Saussure, 1868) occur only on Hispaniola and Cuba. Both are closely related to Haplopus Burmeister, 1838 but in addition to having noticeably different eggs, both genera differ from Haplopus in several morphological characters. The monotypical Venupherodes n. gen. (type-species: Platycrana venustula Audinet-Serville, 1838) is endemic to Cuba, and in females being apterous resembles the second exclusively Cuban genus Aploploides Rehn & Hebard, 1938. It however differs from all other members of Haplopodini by the laterally expanded mesonotum of females, which overlaps the mesopleurae, as well as the morphology of the eggs. Two species-groups are recognized within Diapherodes Gray, 1835. The gigantea species-group comprises the species from the Lesser Antilles, which are: D. angulata (Fabricius, 1793), Diapherodes dominicae (Rehn & Hebard, 1938), D. gigantea gigantea (Gmélin, 1789), D. gigantea saintluciae n. ssp. and Diapherodes martinicensis Lelong & Langlois, 2005. The three species of the jamaicensis species-group, which are D. achalus (Rehn, 1904), D. jamaicensis (Drury, 1773) and D. laevicollis Redtenbacher, 1906, are restricted to the two Greater Antillean islands Jamaica and Puerto Rico. Haplopus Burmeister, 1838 is the most widely distributed genus being represented on all

  14. Resource description and access 2013 revision

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This e-book contains the 2013 Revision of RDA: Resource Description and Access, and includes the July 2013 Update. This e-book offers links within the RDA text and the capability of running rudimentary searches of RDA, but please note that this e-book does not have the full range of content or functionality provided by the subscription product RDA Toolkit. Included: A full accumulation of RDA- the revision contains a full set of all current RDA instructions. It replaces the previous version of RDA Print as opposed to being an update packet to that version. RDA has gone through many changes sin

  15. Quality of outpatient clinical notes: a stakeholder definition derived through qualitative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanson Janice L

    2012-11-01

    content. Conclusions Perspectives of these four stakeholder groups provide a comprehensive description of quality in outpatient clinical documentation. The resulting description of characteristics and content necessary for quality notes provides a research-based foundation for assessing the quality of clinical documentation in outpatient health care settings.

  16. Quality of outpatient clinical notes: a stakeholder definition derived through qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Janice L; Stephens, Mark B; Pangaro, Louis N; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2012-11-19

    groups provide a comprehensive description of quality in outpatient clinical documentation. The resulting description of characteristics and content necessary for quality notes provides a research-based foundation for assessing the quality of clinical documentation in outpatient health care settings.

  17. Notes on neutron flux measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcala Ruiz, F.

    1984-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to get an useful guide to carry out topical neutron flux measurements. Although the foil activation technique is used in the majority of the cases, other techniques, such as those based on fission chambers and self-powered neutron detectors, are also shown. Special interest is given to the description and application of corrections on the measurement of relative and absolute induced activities by several types of detectors (scintillators, G-M and gas proportional counters). The thermal arid epithermal neutron fluxes, as determined in this work, are conventional or effective (West cots fluxes), which are extensively used by the reactor experimentalists; however, we also give some expressions where they are related to the integrated neutron fluxes, which are used in neutron calculations. (Author) 16 refs

  18. Profiling Chilean Suicide Note-Writers through Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Ceballos-Espinoza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Suicides account for 2000 deaths in Chile each year. With a suicide rate of 11.3, it is classified as a country with high suicide risk. Aims: to identify personality and cognitive characteristics of the group of Chilean suicides that left suicide notes, through a content analysis. Methods: descriptive field study with an ex post facto design. All suicides registered between 2010 and 2012 by the Investigations Police of Chile were analyzed, obtaining 203 suicide notes from 96 cases. The Darbonne categories for content analysis were used with the inter-judge method. Results: The mean age of the suicides was 44.2 (SD = 18.53. Most of the notes were addressed to family members (51.7%. The most expressed reasons were marital- or interpersonal-related (24.6%; another 23.6% expressed a lack of purpose or hopelessness (including depression, wish to die, low self-esteem. The most frequent content expressed were instructions (about money, children, and funeral. All of the notes showed logical thinking and were written with coherence and clarity. Notably 42% of the notes were marked by affections of fondness, love or dependence of others. Regarding attitudes, the most common were of escape or farewell (42.4%, followed by fatalism, hopelessness, frustration or tiredness (40%. 24 statistically significant differences were found throughout the categories of analysis, according to cohorts of age, marital status and sex. Conclusions: the findings contribute to the profiling of Chilean suicides and to the implementation of suicide prevention programs

  19. Implications of observing and writing field notes through different lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellesø R

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Ragnhild Hellesø,1 Line Melby,1 Solveig Hauge21Department of Nursing Science, Institute of Health and Society, Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway; 2Faculty of Health and Social Studies, Telemark University College, Porsgrunn, NorwayBackground: From a philosophy of science perspective, the literature has posited that different research approaches influence field studies. Studies addressing interdisciplinary research have focused on the challenges of organizing and running interdisciplinary teams, cultural differences between and within disciplines, and constraints in conducting interdisciplinary research. Studies exploring and discussing the process and outcome of transferring observations to notes from an interdisciplinary point of view are not identified. The aim of this paper is to explore the characteristics of field notes created by researchers representing different disciplines and experiences.Methods: A case study using a modified dynamic observation method was employed. The analyses were initiated by a researcher who had not been involved in the data collection. The field notes were analyzed using three main steps.Results: The structures of both researchers' field notes were characterized by similarities in their descriptions, but the notes' foci and analytical levels differed.Conclusion: The findings contribute new insights concerning the execution of interdisciplinary observational studies. Our findings demonstrate that entering the field with different lenses produced richer and more varied data, providing a broader platform from which to discuss and interpret a study's findings. From a theoretical point of view, the findings enable a more nuanced discussion and a conceptual elaboration regarding how observational approaches should be pursued in future studies. On a practical level, the findings show that even if the researchers agree on what the overall focus in the observations should be, differences can occur in

  20. Notes on the quantum tetrahedron

    CERN Document Server

    Coquereaux, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This is a set of notes describing several aspects of the space of paths on ADE Dynkin diagrams, with a particular attention paid to the graph E6. Many results originally due to A. Ocneanu are here described in a very elementary way (manipulation of square or rectangular matrices). We define the concept of essential matrices for a graph and describe their module properties with respect to right and left actions of fusion algebras. In the case of the graph E6, essential matrices build up a right module with respect to its fusion algebra but a left module with respect to the fusion algebra of A11. We present two original results: 1) We show how to recover the Ocneanu graph of quantum symmetries of the Dynkin diagram E6 from the natural multiplication defined in the tensor square of its fusion algebra (the tensor product should be taken over a particular subalgebra); this is the Cayley graph for the two generators of the twelve dimensional algebra (E6 \\otimes_A3 E6); here A3 and E6 refer to the commutative fusion...

  1. Revisiting convergence: A research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Rob

    2015-09-01

    A number of recent studies show that income inequality is declining between countries. In this research note, I question the significance of this trend by examining the role of initial conditions in producing convergence. An important (but neglected) property of inequality dynamics is the tendency for extreme distributions to become more moderate. When income disparities are large, the subsequent trend is biased toward convergence. Conversely, when initial conditions approach parity, divergence becomes the more likely long-term outcome. I apply this principle to trends in GDP PC across 127 countries during the 1980-2010 period. Using counterfactual analysis, I manipulate the initial level of inequality in GDP PC while holding constant each country's observed growth rate during the sample period. I find that the growth dynamics of GDP PC produce either convergence or divergence based simply on the initial distribution of income. The point of transition occurs at a moderate level of inequality, whether using population weights (Gini=.365) or not (Gini=.377). I conclude that the recent convergence observed in GDP PC is primarily a function of large income gaps between countries and would not have materialized at more moderate levels of initial inequality. By contrast, an examination of the pre-1950 period reveals divergent growth patterns that are not sensitive to initial conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Notes on the Spatial Turn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stipe Grgas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of ever-mounting evidence, amongst which is the “zone” problematic of the Zadar conference that occassioned these notes, it can be concluded that the spatial turn has insinuated itself as an all-pervading heuristic tool throughout the humanities and the social sciences. The extent to which space and spatiality have usurped the central stage in the various branches of reasearch can be gauged by admonishments that what we are witnessing is a new fundamentalism that has simply inverted the terms of the dualism of time and space (May and Thrift 2001: “Introduction”. According to Michael Dear the sway of space is manifested in multifold ways: in the ubiquity of spatial analysis in social theories and practices; in the explosion of publications devoted to the exploration of the interface of the social and the spatial; in the reintegration of human geography into various domains of knowledge; in the focus given to difference and the consequent diversification of theoretical and empirical practices; in a theoretically informed exploration of the relation between geographical knowledge and social action; and, finally, in the unprecedented proliferation of research agendas and publications pertaining to these isuuses (Dear 2001: 24. Two recent collections of papers are indicative of the ubiquity of spatial issues in scholarly work.

  3. n⁺ GaAs/AuGeNi-Au Thermocouple-Type RF MEMS Power Sensors Based on Dual Thermal Flow Paths in GaAs MMIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liao, Xiaoping

    2017-06-17

    To achieve radio frequency (RF) power detection, gain control, and circuit protection, this paper presents n⁺ GaAs/AuGeNi-Au thermocouple-type RF microelectromechanical system (MEMS) power sensors based on dual thermal flow paths. The sensors utilize a conversion principle of RF power-heat-voltage, where a thermovoltage is obtained as the RF power changes. To improve the heat transfer efficiency and the sensitivity, structures of two heat conduction paths are designed: one in which a thermal slug of Au is placed between two load resistors and hot junctions of the thermocouples, and one in which a back cavity is fabricated by the MEMS technology to form a substrate membrane underneath the resistors and the hot junctions. The improved sensors were fabricated by a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) process. Experiments show that these sensors have reflection losses of less than -17 dB up to 12 GHz. At 1, 5, and 10 GHz, measured sensitivities are about 63.45, 53.97, and 44.14 µ V/mW for the sensor with the thermal slug, and about 111.03, 94.79, and 79.04 µ V/mW for the sensor with the thermal slug and the back cavity, respectively.

  4. n+ GaAs/AuGeNi-Au Thermocouple-Type RF MEMS Power Sensors Based on Dual Thermal Flow Paths in GaAs MMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available To achieve radio frequency (RF power detection, gain control, and circuit protection, this paper presents n+ GaAs/AuGeNi-Au thermocouple-type RF microelectromechanical system (MEMS power sensors based on dual thermal flow paths. The sensors utilize a conversion principle of RF power-heat-voltage, where a thermovoltage is obtained as the RF power changes. To improve the heat transfer efficiency and the sensitivity, structures of two heat conduction paths are designed: one in which a thermal slug of Au is placed between two load resistors and hot junctions of the thermocouples, and one in which a back cavity is fabricated by the MEMS technology to form a substrate membrane underneath the resistors and the hot junctions. The improved sensors were fabricated by a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC process. Experiments show that these sensors have reflection losses of less than −17 dB up to 12 GHz. At 1, 5, and 10 GHz, measured sensitivities are about 63.45, 53.97, and 44.14 µV/mW for the sensor with the thermal slug, and about 111.03, 94.79, and 79.04 µV/mW for the sensor with the thermal slug and the back cavity, respectively.

  5. Accounting for the inertia of the thermocouples' measurements by modelling of a NPP Kalinin-3 transient with the coupled system code ATHLET-BIPR-VVER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikonov, S.; Velkov, K.

    2008-01-01

    The ATHLET-BIPR-VVER coupled system code is applied for performing of safety analysis for different WWER reactors. During the last years its validation matrix is continuously being enlarged. The measurements performed during the commissioning phase of NPP Kalinin Unit 3 for the transient 'Switching-off of one Main Circulation Pump at nominal power' are very well documented and have a variety of recorded integral and local thermo-hydraulic and neutron-physic parameters including the measurements' errors. This data is being used for further validation of the coupled code system ATHLET-BIPR-VVER. In the paper are discussed the problems and our solutions by the correct interpretation of the measured thermocouples' records at NPP Kalinin-3 and the comparison with the predicted results by the coupled thermal-hydraulic/neutron-kinetic code ATHLET-BIPR-VVER. Of primary importance by such comparisons is the correct accounting of the fluid mixing process that take place in the surrounding of the measuring sensors and also the consideration of the time delay (inertia term) of the measuring devices. On the bases of previous experience and many simulations of the defined transient a method is discussed and proposed to consider correctly the inertia term of the thermocouples' measurements. The new modelling is implemented in the coupled system code ATHLET-BIPR-VVER for further validation. (Author)

  6. Open Oncology Notes: A Qualitative Study of Oncology Patients' Experiences Reading Their Cancer Care Notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayastha, Neha; Pollak, Kathryn I; LeBlanc, Thomas W

    2018-04-01

    Electronic medical records increasingly allow patients access to clinician notes. Although most believe that open notes benefits patients, some suggest negative consequences. Little is known about the experiences of patients with cancer reading their medical notes; thus we aimed to describe this qualitatively. We interviewed 20 adults with metastatic or incurable cancer receiving cancer treatment. The semistructured qualitative interviews included four segments: assessing their overall experience reading notes, discussing how notes affected their cancer care experiences, reading a real note with the interviewer, and making suggestions for improvement. We used a constant comparison approach to analyze these qualitative data. We found four themes. Patients reported that notes resulted in the following: (1) increased comprehension; (2) ameliorated uncertainty, relieved anxiety, and facilitated control; (3) increased trust; and (4) for a subset of patients, increased anxiety. Patients described increased comprehension because notes refreshed their memory and clarified their understanding of visits. This helped mitigate the unfamiliarity of cancer, addressing uncertainty and relieving anxiety. Notes facilitated control, empowering patients to ask clinicians more questions. The transparency of notes also increased trust in clinicians. For a subset of patients, however, notes were emotionally difficult to read and raised concerns. Patients identified medical jargon and repetition in notes as areas for improvement. Most patients thought that reading notes improved their care experiences. A small subset of patients experienced increased distress. As reading notes becomes a routine part of the patient experience, physicians might want to elicit and address concerns that arise from notes, thereby further engaging patients in their care.

  7. CRAC2 model description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritchie, L.T.; Alpert, D.J.; Burke, R.P.; Johnson, J.D.; Ostmeyer, R.M.; Aldrich, D.C.; Blond, R.M.

    1984-03-01

    The CRAC2 computer code is a revised version of CRAC (Calculation of Reactor Accident Consequences) which was developed for the Reactor Safety Study. This document provides an overview of the CRAC2 code and a description of each of the models used. Significant improvements incorporated into CRAC2 include an improved weather sequence sampling technique, a new evacuation model, and new output capabilities. In addition, refinements have been made to the atmospheric transport and deposition model. Details of the modeling differences between CRAC2 and CRAC are emphasized in the model descriptions

  8. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties

  9. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  10. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Upon commencement of my internship, I was in charge of maintaining the CoFR (Certificate of Flight Readiness) Tool. The tool acquires data from existing Excel workbooks on NASA's and Boeing's databases to create a new spreadsheet listing out all the potential safety concerns for upcoming flights and software transitions. Since the application was written in Visual Basic, I had to learn a new programming language and prepare to handle any malfunctions within the program. Shortly afterwards, I was given the assignment to automate the Station Program Note (SPN) Pull process. I developed an application, in Python, that generated a GUI (Graphical User Interface) that will be used by the International Space Station Safety & Mission Assurance team here at Johnson Space Center. The application will allow its users to download online files with the click of a button, import SPN's based on three different pulls, instantly manipulate and filter spreadsheets, and compare the three sources to determine which active SPN's (Station Program Notes) must be reviewed for any upcoming flights, missions, and/or software transitions. Initially, to perform the NASA SPN pull (one of three), I had created the program to allow the user to login to a secure webpage that stores data, input specific parameters, and retrieve the desired SPN's based on their inputs. However, to avoid any conflicts with sustainment, I altered it so that the user may login and download the NASA file independently. After the user has downloaded the file with the click of a button, I defined the program to check for any outdated or pre-existing files, for successful downloads, to acquire the spreadsheet, convert it from a text file to a comma separated file and finally into an Excel spreadsheet to be filtered and later scrutinized for specific SPN numbers. Once this file has been automatically manipulated to provide only the SPN numbers that are desired, they are stored in a global variable, shown on the GUI, and

  11. Employers' views on the fit note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotze, E

    2014-12-01

    The fit note replaced the sick note in 2010. The statement of fitness for work (fit note) is expected to benefit the British economy by helping more people stay in work and prevent long-term sickness absence. Understanding and responding to employers' views on the fit note is key, in order for this goal to be achieved. To explore employers' views on the fit note. A qualitative study was undertaken and face-to-face interviews were conducted with participants representing employers from a variety of industries. There were 21 participants who were mainly human resources officers and line managers. Employers welcomed the introduction of the fit note and felt that it was an improvement on the sick note. The majority of employers felt the fit note had the potential to promote an earlier return to work, if used properly. The main problems reported were the completion of the fit notes and quality of advice received from general practitioners. Employers felt that the most helpful advice came from fit notes with information on the functional effects of the medical condition. Some employers found return to work decisions problematic. The fit note has the potential to promote an earlier return to work. In order for the fit note to achieve its aim, further understanding of the difficulties employers are having when making return to work decisions is important, in order to develop guidance to enable them to provide the practical support employees need to return to work sooner. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Clinical Note Creation, Binning, and Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Deliberato, Rodrigo Oct?vio; Celi, Leo Anthony; Stone, David J

    2017-01-01

    The creation of medical notes in software applications poses an intrinsic problem in workflow as the technology inherently intervenes in the processes of collecting and assembling information, as well as the production of a data-driven note that meets both individual and healthcare system requirements. In addition, the note writing applications in currently available electronic health records (EHRs) do not function to support decision making to any substantial degree. We suggest that artifici...

  13. Descriptive data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cheryl Bagley

    2009-01-01

    This 13th article of the Basics of Research series is first in a short series on statistical analysis. These articles will discuss creating your statistical analysis plan, levels of measurement, descriptive statistics, probability theory, inferential statistics, and general considerations for interpretation of the results of a statistical analysis.

  14. Osiris reactor descriptive report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    OSIRIS is a swimming pool reactor of 70 MW thermal power. Its main purpose is the irradiation of reactor materials in high neutron flux. A description is given of the air conditioning, ventilation, and radioactive gas removal system. (R.L.)

  15. Plot Description (PD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Plot Description (PD) form is used to describe general characteristics of the FIREMON macroplot to provide ecological context for data analyses. The PD data characterize the topographical setting, geographic reference point, general plant composition and cover, ground cover, fuels, and soils information. This method provides the general ecological data that can be...

  16. Generalizing: The descriptive struggle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser, Ph.D.; Hon Ph.D.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The literature is not kind to the use of descriptive generalizations. Authors struggle and struggle to find and rationalize a way to use them and then fail in spite of trying a myriad of work-arounds. And then we have Lincoln and Guba’s famous statement: “The only generalization is: there is no generalization” in referring to qualitative research. (op cit, p. 110 They are referring to routine QDA yielding extensive descriptions, but which tacitly include conceptual generalizations without any real thought of knowledge about them. In this chapter I wish to explore this struggle for the purpose of explaining that the various contra arguments to using descriptive generalizations DO NOT apply to the ease of using conceptual generalizations yielded in SGT and especially FGT. I will not argue for the use of descriptive generalization. I agree with Lincoln and Guba with respect to QDA, “the only generalization is: there is no generalization.” It is up to the QDA methodologists, of whom there are many; to continue the struggle and I wish them well.

  17. Fractal description of fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lung, C.W.

    1991-06-01

    Recent studies on the fractal description of fractures are reviewed. Some problems on this subject are discussed. It seems hopeful to use the fractal dimension as a parameter for quantitative fractography and to apply fractal structures to the development of high toughness materials. (author). 28 refs, 7 figs

  18. Tore Supra: technical description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-08-01

    This report is aimed, after a brief recall of physics and technologic perspectives of Tore Supra, at giving a detailed description of the basic machine; details of each component are defined. Volume 1 is specifically concerned with the general aspects of Tore Supra and the toroidal field system [fr

  19. A Note on the Stability of the Job Descriptive Index (J. D. I.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-05-01

    AND A D D R E S S 10. P R O G R A M ELEMENT , PROJE CT , TASK A R E A & WORK UNIT NUMBER S Departme nt of Psychology 6 l l53 N University of...Center , University of Mary land , College Park 19. KEY WOR DS (Con t inue on re v e rse aids II necalaary ~ td ident ify by block num ber) Attitudes

  20. Notes on Wyeomyia Mosquitoes of Suriname, with a Description of Wyeomyia surinamensis sp.n.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijning, C.F.A.

    1959-01-01

    Most of the material recorded in this paper was collected by the author during his stay in Suriname from 1949 to 1955. By courtesy of Mrs. J. BONNE-WEPSTER, the author was enabled to study the Wyeomyia specimens which were collected by BONNE and BONNE-WEPSTER in Suriname and are at present in the

  1. Notes on the genus Abantis Hopffer, 1855 with description of two new species (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae, Pyrginae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Belcastro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Afrotropical genus Abantis Hopffer, 1855 includes about 23 species so far, all quite rare. In Evans’ Catalogue of the African Hesperiidae only 14 species were listed but, apart from a few newly discovered ones, some of the subspecies indicated over there have subsequently been raised to species level, although they look very similar in facies with previously recognised taxa. This article shows the presence of an unrecognised species similar to A. lucretia Druce, 1909 in West Africa, namely A. fabiana sp. n., and another one similar to both A. contigua Evans, 1937 and A. elegantula Mabille, 1890 in Central Africa, namely A. torbeni sp. n. The rarity in collections of almost all forest-dwelling Abantis spp. is reported as connected to their habit of flying high in the forest canopy, but the authors have no conclusive evidence of it. Most Abantis are hill-toppers, mud lovers and are attracted by dead animals (fish and turtles, although some of them are also flower-visiting.

  2. Some preliminary notes on Surinam Sting Rays, including the description of a new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeseman, M.

    1948-01-01

    In Dr. D. C. Geijskes' collection of Surinam fishes, mentioned in my previous paper on this subject (Boeseman, 1948), I found six specimens belonging to the so-called "sting rays" (Dasyatidae), representing three different species, and all very interesting in some respects. I. Dasyatis schmardae

  3. Note on the hydrodynamic description of thin nematic films: Strong anchoring model

    KAUST Repository

    Lin, Te-Sheng; Cummings, Linda J.; Archer, Andrew J.; Kondic, Lou; Thiele, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the long-wave hydrodynamic model for a thin film of nematic liquid crystal in the limit of strong anchoring at the free surface and at the substrate. We rigorously clarify how the elastic energy enters the evolution equation for the film thickness in order to provide a solid basis for further investigation: several conflicting models exist in the literature that predict qualitatively different behaviour. We consolidate the various approaches and show that the long-wave model derived through an asymptotic expansion of the full nemato-hydrodynamic equations with consistent boundary conditions agrees with the model one obtains by employing a thermodynamically motivated gradient dynamics formulation based on an underlying free energy functional. As a result, we find that in the case of strong anchoring the elastic distortion energy is always stabilising. To support the discussion in the main part of the paper, an appendix gives the full derivation of the evolution equation for the film thickness via asymptotic expansion. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  4. Taxonomic notes and description of the male of Xenochlora nigrofemorata (Smith, 1879) (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Halictinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Leandro M; Melo, Gabriel A R

    2013-01-01

    The present work describes for the first time the male of the bee genus Xenochlora Engel, Brooks & Yanega, 1997. The male of X. nigrofemorata (Smith, 1879) is described and illustrated. Additionally, Megalopta opacicollis Friese, 1926 is placed as a junior synonym of X. nigrofemorata (Smith, 1879).

  5. Notes on the tribe Mimagathidini Enderlein, with the description of a new genus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Orgilinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Achterberg, van C.; Chen, X.

    2000-01-01

    Eleonoria gen. nov. (type species: E. mesembria spec. nov. from Malaysia; five additional species from Japan, China (including Taiwan), Philippines, and Indonesia (Halmahera) are included), Orgilonia pasohensis spec. nov. from Malaysia, Orgilus reclinatus spec. nov. from Congo, O. alboannulatus

  6. Technical Note: Description and assessment of a nudged version of the new dynamics Unified Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Morgenstern

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a "nudged" version of the Met Office general circulation model, the Unified Model. We constrain this global climate model using ERA-40 re-analysis data with the aim of reproducing the observed "weather" over a year from September 1999. Quantitative assessments are made of its performance, focusing on dynamical aspects of nudging and demonstrating that the "weather" is well simulated.

  7. Taxonomic notes on Chironomidae (Diptera from Okinawa Island, Japan, with the description of three new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamamoto

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three new species: Ionthosmittia cuneipenne sp. nov., Orthocladius (Euorthocladius okinawanus sp. nov. and Parakiefferiella semiovata sp. nov., are described from Okinawa Island, Ryukyus, Japan. In addition to these species, twelve species are newly recorded from this island. Diagnostic characters of Tokyobrillia tamamegaseta (Kobayashi et Sasa are emended. Pentapedilum yakuabeum Sasa et Suzuki syn. nov. and Polypedilum yakucedeum Sasa et Suizuki syn. nov. are junior synonyms of Ainuyusurika tuberculatum (Tokunaga. Einfeldia kanazawai (Yamamoto is transferred to the genus Chironomus Meigen and its systematic position is discussed.

  8. Description of male Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 (Araneae, Tetragnathidae with notes on habits and conservation status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Kulkarni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The male sex of Tylorida sataraensis Kulkarni, 2014 is described based on specimens from the type locality. The distinguishing characters from its closest species Tylorida ventralis (Thorell, 1877 are detailed. An interesting behaviour of going underwater by T. sataraensis, on disturbance is recorded and tested for significance. The surveys have shown sighting of this species only to the perennial streams of the rocky outcrops in Satara region. The potential threats to this species and the possible conservation status based on known distribution are discussed.

  9. Notes on Pauropoda (Myriapoda from U.S.A. with descriptions of two new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Scheller

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Pauropoda are described from USA, Kionopauropus alyeskaensis sp. n. (Pauropodidae, and Eurypauropus arcuatus sp. n. (Eurypauropodidae. The genus Kionopauropus is reported from the Western Hemisphere for the first time.

  10. Revisionary notes on Bentonia van Achterberg, 1992 (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Orgilinae) with description of two new species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braet, Y.; Tignon, M.

    1998-01-01

    Two new species of the genus Bentonia van Achterberg, 1992 (Braconidae: Orgilinae) (B. inca from Peru and B. xochiquetzalis from Mexico) are described and partly illustrated. A third undescribed species was found for which some characters are listed. The distribution of B. scutellaris van

  11. Notes on Loricata (Mollusca) 11-14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaas, P.

    1985-01-01

    Four new species of chitons (Mollusca, Polyplacophora) are described, viz Leptochiton (L.) dispersus and L. (L.) permodestus from Transkei, L. (L.) meiringae from the eastern Cape Province, S Africa (note 11) and Ischnochiton (Stenosemus) vanbellei from the Mediterranean Sea (note 14). New records

  12. Suicide Notes in Hong Kong in 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Paul W. C.; Yeung, April W. M.; Chan, Wincy S. C.; Yip, Paul S. F.; Tang, Arthur K. H.

    2009-01-01

    Suicide notes have been regarded as one of the most informative data sources to understand the reasons why people commit suicide. However, there is a paucity of suicide note studies, leaving researchers with an assumption that this phenomenon remains static over time. This study examines this assumption by comparing the characteristics of…

  13. Stalin and Marxism: a research note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, E.

    1997-01-01

    This article concerns the research done by the author in Stalin‘s private library. The notes made in the works of Marx, Engels and Lenin suggest that until the end of his life Stalin felt himself in general agreement with these "classics." The choice of books and the notes support the thesis that,

  14. Children's note taking as a mnemonic tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskritt, Michelle; McLeod, Kellie

    2008-09-01

    When given the opportunity to take notes in memory tasks, children sometimes make notes that are not useful. The current study examined the role that task constraints might play in the production of nonmnemonic notes. In Experiment 1, children played one easy and one difficult memory game twice, once with the opportunity to make notes and once without that opportunity. More children produced functional notations for the easier task than for the more difficult task, and their notations were beneficial to memory performance. Experiment 2 found that the majority of children who at first made nonmnemonic notations were able to produce functional notations with minimal training, and there was no significant difference in notation quality or memory performance between spontaneous and trained note takers. Experiment 3 revealed that the majority of children could transfer their training to a novel task. The results suggest that children's production of nonmnemonic notes may be due in part to a lack of knowledge regarding what task information is important to represent or how to represent it in their notes rather than to an inability to make functional notes in general.

  15. Observing professionals taking notes on screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this study 38 participants wrote a piece of advice based on reading and annotating information from an extensive Web site. Half of the participants took notes in a separate window, the other half used an advanced annotation tool. In text annotations were far more used than separate notes. The

  16. RETRIEVAL EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Steinhoff

    1997-01-01

    The objective and the scope of this document are to list and briefly describe the major mobile equipment necessary for waste package (WP) retrieval from the proposed subsurface nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. Primary performance characteristics and some specialized design features of the equipment are explained and summarized in the individual subsections of this document. There are no quality assurance requirements or QA controls in this document. Retrieval under normal conditions is accomplished with the same fleet of equipment as is used for emplacement. Descriptions of equipment used for retrieval under normal conditions is found in Emplacement Equipment Descriptions, DI: BCAF00000-01717-5705-00002 (a document in progress). Equipment used for retrieval under abnormal conditions is addressed in this document and consists of the following: (1) Inclined Plane Hauler; (2) Bottom Lift Transporter; (3) Load Haul Dump (LHD) Loader; (4) Heavy Duty Forklift for Emplacement Drifts; (5) Covered Shuttle Car; (6) Multipurpose Vehicle; and (7) Scaler

  17. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  18. TMACS system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaief, C.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a description of the Tank Monitor and Control System (TMACS). It is intended as an introduction for those persons unfamiliar with the system as well as a reference document for the users, maintenance personnel, and system designers. In addition to describing the system, the document outlines the associated drawing documentation, provides maintenance and spare parts information, and discusses other TMACS documents that provide additional detail

  19. Input description for BIOPATH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, J.E.; Bergstroem, U.; Edlund, O.

    1980-01-01

    The computer program BIOPATH describes the flow of radioactivity within a given ecosystem after a postulated release of radioactive material and the resulting dose for specified population groups. The present report accounts for the input data necessary to run BIOPATH. The report also contains descriptions of possible control cards and an input example as well as a short summary of the basic theory.(author)

  20. XML Diagnostics Description Standard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neto, A.; Fernandes, H.; Varandas, C.; Lister, J.; Yonekawa, I.

    2006-01-01

    A standard for the self-description of fusion plasma diagnostics will be presented, based on the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The motivation is to maintain and organise the information on all the components of a laboratory experiment, from the hardware to the access security, to save time and money when problems arises. Since there is no existing standard to organise this kind of information, every Association stores and organises each experiment in different ways. This can lead to severe problems when the organisation schema is poorly documented or written in national languages. The exchange of scientists, researchers and engineers between laboratories is a common practice nowadays. Sometimes they have to install new diagnostics or to update existing ones and frequently they lose a great deal of time trying to understand the currently installed system. The most common problems are: no documentation available; the person who understands it has left; documentation written in the national language. Standardisation is the key to solving all the problems mentioned. From the commercial information on the diagnostic (component supplier; component price) to the hardware description (component specifications; drawings) to the operation of the equipment (finite state machines) through change control (who changed what and when) and internationalisation (information at least in the native language and in English), a common XML schema will be proposed. This paper will also discuss an extension of these ideas to the self-description of ITER plant systems, since the problems will be identical. (author)

  1. Olkiluoto site description 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, J.; Ahokas, H.; Hudson, J.A.

    2007-03-01

    This second version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2004 (Posiva 2005) with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2005. The main product of the modelling has been to develop a descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model), i.e. a model describing the geometry, properties of the bedrock and the water and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. For practical reasons, the Site Descriptive Model is divided into five parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry, which are presented in individual chapters. Four separated models are presented: the geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models. The consistency between the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models is assessed in a joint chapter. Chapter 1 presents an outline of the report, explains the background to its development and sets out its objectives and scope. It is also introduces and explains the integrated modelling methodology, the nomenclature used in the descriptions of the models and the prediction/outcome studies. Chapter 2 provides a brief overview of the data used for producing the Site Description. Chapters 3 to 8 present the descriptive modelling, which involves interpreting data, interpolating or extrapolating between measurement points and calibrating the model against data, based on the various assumptions made about each conceptual model. Chapter 9 presents the results of the prediction/outcome studies performed during 2005 and Chapter 10 the overall consistency and confidence assessment. Overall conclusions are provided in Chapter 11. The main advances since Site Report 2004 are: A new geological model is presented in Chapter 4, representing a significant change from Bedrock Model 2003/1. There has been extensive use of geological data, whereas hydrogeological data have deliberately not been used and more

  2. Management control system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bence, P. J.

    1990-10-01

    This Management Control System (MCS) description describes the processes used to manage the cost and schedule of work performed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) for the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL), Richland, Washington. Westinghouse Hanford will maintain and use formal cost and schedule management control systems, as presented in this document, in performing work for the DOE-RL. This MCS description is a controlled document and will be modified or updated as required. This document must be approved by the DOE-RL; thereafter, any significant change will require DOE-RL concurrence. Westinghouse Hanford is the DOE-RL operations and engineering contractor at the Hanford Site. Activities associated with this contract (DE-AC06-87RL10930) include operating existing plant facilities, managing defined projects and programs, and planning future enhancements. This document is designed to comply with Section I-13 of the contract by providing a description of Westinghouse Hanford's cost and schedule control systems used in managing the above activities. 5 refs., 22 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Suicide note themes and suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Tom

    2003-01-01

    The aim was to determine if suicide note themes might inform suicide prevention strategies. The themes of 42 suicide notes from the Northern Ireland Suicide Study (major psychological autopsy study) were examined. The commonest themes were "apology/shame" (74%), "love for those left behind" (60%), "life too much to bear" (48%), "instructions regarding practical affairs post-mortem" (36%), "hopelessness/nothing to live for" (21%) and "advice for those left behind" (21%). Notes of suicides with major unipolar depression were more likely than notes of suicides without major unipolar depression to contain the themes "instructions regarding practical affairs post-mortem" (67% versus 19%, p = 0.005) and "hopelessness/nothing to live for" (40% versus 11%, p = 0.049). Notes of suicides with a previous history of deliberate self-harm were less likely than notes of suicides without a history of deliberate self-harm to contain the theme "apology/shame" (58% versus 87%, p = 0.04). Notes of elderly suicides were more likely than non-elderly notes to contain the theme "burden to others" (40% versus 3%, p = 0.03). The fact that three quarters of suicide notes contained the theme "apology/shame" suggests that the deceased may have welcomed alternative solutions for their predicaments. Scrutiny of suicide note themes in the light of previous research findings suggests that cognitive therapy techniques, especially problem solving, may have an important role to play in suicide prevention and that potential major unipolar depressive (possibly less impulsive) suicides, in particular, may provide fertile ground for therapeutic intervention (physical and psychological). Ideally all primary care doctors and mental health professionals working with (potentially) suicidal people should be familiar with basic cognitive therapy techniques, especially problem solving skills training.

  4. Note Taking on Trial: A Legal Application of Note-Taking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewra, Kenneth A.

    2016-01-01

    This article is about note taking, but it is not an exhaustive review of note-taking literature. Instead, it portrays the application of note-taking research to an unusual and important area of practice--the law. I was hired to serve as an expert witness on note taking in a legal case that hinged, in part, on the completeness and accuracy of…

  5. Study for on-line system to identify inadvertent control rod drops in PWR reactors using ex-core detector and thermocouple measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Thiago J.; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C.; Goncalves, Alessandro C.

    2015-01-01

    Accidental control rod drops event in PWR reactors leads to an unsafe operating condition. It is important to quickly identify the rod to minimize undesirable effects in such a scenario. In this event, there is a distortion in the power distribution and temperature in the reactor core. The goal of this study is to develop an on-line model to identify the inadvertent control rod dropped in PWR reactor. The proposed model is based on physical correlations and pattern recognition of ex-core detector responses and thermocouples measures. The results of the study demonstrated the feasibility of an on-line system, contributing to safer operation conditions and preventing undesirable effects, as its shutdown. (author)

  6. Study for on-line system to identify inadvertent control rod drops in PWR reactors using ex-core detector and thermocouple measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Thiago J.; Medeiros, Jose A.C.C.; Goncalves, Alessandro C., E-mail: tsouza@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: canedo@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: alessandro@nuclear.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Accidental control rod drops event in PWR reactors leads to an unsafe operating condition. It is important to quickly identify the rod to minimize undesirable effects in such a scenario. In this event, there is a distortion in the power distribution and temperature in the reactor core. The goal of this study is to develop an on-line model to identify the inadvertent control rod dropped in PWR reactor. The proposed model is based on physical correlations and pattern recognition of ex-core detector responses and thermocouples measures. The results of the study demonstrated the feasibility of an on-line system, contributing to safer operation conditions and preventing undesirable effects, as its shutdown. (author)

  7. Thin film thermocouples for in situ membrane electrode assembly temperature measurements in a polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane unit cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Syed Talat; Lebæk, Jesper; Nielsen, Lars Pleth

    2010-01-01

    m thick layer of TFTCs on 75 mu m thick Kapton foil. The Kapton foil was treated with in situ argon plasma etching to improve the adhesion between TFTCs and the Kapton substrate. The TFTCs were covered with a 7 mu m liquid Kapton layer using spin coating technique to protect them from environmental......This paper presents Type-T thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) fabricated on Kapton (polyimide) substrate for measuring the internal temperature of PBI(polybenzimidazole)-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC). Magnetron sputtering technique was employed to deposit a 2 mu...... degradation. This Kapton foil with deposited TFTCs was used as sealing inside a PBI (polybenzimidazole)-based single cell test rig, which enabled measurements of in situ temperature variations of the working fuel cell MEA. The performance of the TFTCs was promising with minimal interference to the operation...

  8. Construção e avaliação de psicrômetro aspirado de termopar Construction and evaluation of an aspirated thermocouple psychrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ricardo Marin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Construiu-se um psicrômetro de termopar aspirado, de baixo custo e fácil utilização em sistemas automáticos de aquisição de dados, utilizando-se tubos de PVC. A aspiração foi feita por ventiladores utilizados em microcomputadores e as temperaturas foram determinadas com junções de termopar de cobre-constantan. Para umidecimento do bulbo, utilizou-se um cordão de algodão. Os resultados da comparação com higrômetro capacitivo Vaisala Inc. e com psicrômetro aspirado tipo Assman mostraram que tanto em ambientes naturais como em controlados, a precisão e a exatidão das medidas foi muito boa, de maneira que o psicrômetro aqui descrito pode ser empregado para determinação da pressão atual de vapor e da umidade relativa sem perda de qualidade dos dados, e também em estudos que levem em conta gradientes de temperatura e umidade específica.The construction of a low cost aspirated thermocouple psychrometer made of PVC tubes is described. The instrument can easily be connected to dataloggers. The aspiration is made by fans used in microcomputers and temperatures measured with cooper-constantan thermocouples. A cotton string was used to make the wet junction. Its perfomance was evaluated in comparison to an Assman aspirated psychrometer and a Vaisala Inc. capacitive higrometer, in natural and controlled environments. The results show a good agreement between measures, allowing air vapour, relative humidity, temperature and specific humidity gradients to be determined using the proposed psychrometer.

  9. Bank note recognition for the vision impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinwood, A; Preston, P; Suaning, G J; Lovell, N H

    2006-06-01

    Blind Australians find great difficulty in recognising bank notes. Each note has the same feel, with no Braille markings, irregular edges or other tangible features. In Australia, there is only one device available that can assist blind people recognise their notes. Internationally, there are devices available; however they are expensive, complex and have not been developed to cater for Australian currency. This paper discusses a new device, the MoneyTalker that takes advantage of the largely different colours and patterns on each Australian bank note and recognises the notes electronically, using the reflection and transmission properties of light. Different coloured lights are transmitted through the inserted note and the corresponding sensors detect distinct ranges of values depending on the colour of the note. Various classification algorithms were studied and the final algorithm was chosen based on accuracy and speed of recognition. The MoneyTalker has shown an accuracy of more than 99%. A blind subject has tested the device and believes that it is usable, compact and affordable. Based on the devices that are available currently in Australia, the MoneyTalker is an effective alternative in terms of accuracy and usability.

  10. Open notes: doctors and patients signing on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbanco, Tom; Walker, Jan; Darer, Jonathan D; Elmore, Joann G; Feldman, Henry J; Leveille, Suzanne G; Ralston, James D; Ross, Stephen E; Vodicka, Elisabeth; Weber, Valerie D

    2010-07-20

    Few patients read their doctors' notes, despite having the legal right to do so. As information technology makes medical records more accessible and society calls for greater transparency, patients' interest in reading their doctors' notes may increase. Inviting patients to review these notes could improve understanding of their health, foster productive communication, stimulate shared decision making, and ultimately lead to better outcomes. Yet, easy access to doctors' notes could have negative consequences, such as confusing or worrying patients and complicating rather than improving patient-doctor communication. To gain evidence about the feasibility, benefits, and harms of providing patients ready access to electronic doctors' notes, a team of physicians and nurses have embarked on a demonstration and evaluation of a project called OpenNotes. The authors describe the intervention and share what they learned from conversations with doctors and patients during the planning stages. The team anticipates that "open notes" will spread and suggests that over time, if drafted collaboratively and signed by both doctors and patients, they might evolve to become contracts for care.

  11. EndNote 7.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eapen Bell

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available EndNote is a useful software for online literature search and efficient bibliography management. It helps to format the bibliography according to the citation style of each journal. EndNote stores references in a library file, which can be shared with others. It can connect to online resources like PubMed and retrieve search results as per the search criteria. It can also effortlessly integrate with popular word processors like MS Word. The Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology website has a provision to import references to EndNote.

  12. Description logic rules

    CERN Document Server

    Krötzsch, M

    2010-01-01

    Ontological modelling today is applied in many areas of science and technology,including the Semantic Web. The W3C standard OWL defines one of the most important ontology languages based on the semantics of description logics. An alternative is to use rule languages in knowledge modelling, as proposed in the W3C's RIF standard. So far, it has often been unclear how to combine both technologies without sacrificing essential computational properties. This book explains this problem and presents new solutions that have recently been proposed. Extensive introductory chapters provide the necessary

  13. MCO Monitoring activity description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEXTON, R.A.

    1998-01-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel remaining from Hanford's N-Reactor operations in the 1970s has been stored under water in the K-Reactor Basins. This fuel will be repackaged, dried and stored in a new facility in the 200E Area. The safety basis for this process of retrieval, drying, and interim storage of the spent fuel has been established. The monitoring of MCOS in dry storage is a currently identified issue in the SNF Project. This plan outlines the key elements of the proposed monitoring activity. Other fuel stored in the K-Reactor Basins, including SPR fuel, will have other monitoring considerations and is not addressed by this activity description

  14. Analysis of medication adherence-related notes from a service-oriented community pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witry, Matthew; Parry, Rachel; McDonough, Randal; Deninger, Michael

    2017-07-15

    Medication nonadherence is a significant public health problem. Community pharmacists are positioned to intervene, however, the process is not well understood. To classify and quantify the reasons for nonadherence documented by community pharmacists. A retrospective content analysis of pharmacist notes related to nonadherence at a service oriented community pharmacy in the Midwest United States. Notes from the site's dispensing custom documentation software were obtained from September 1, 2014 through February 28, 2015 that were labeled "compliance", either prompted by proportion of days covered calculations or entered as a drug therapy problem. A code list was iterated for the notes based on the literature and by reading the notes and generating descriptive codes. A reliability analysis was calculated for two coders. Notes were coded, check-coded, and discrepancies were resolved using a consensus process. Frequencies were calculated for each code and representative text was selected. Pharmacists documented 3491 notes as part of their continuous medication monitoring process. Nineteen codes were developed. The reliability for the coders had a Cohen's Kappa of 0.749. The majority of notes (61.4%) documented the pharmacist evaluated the refill and had no concerns or would continue to follow. Also documented were specific reasons for out of range PDCs not indicative of a nonadherence problem. Only 2.2% of notes specifically documented a nonadherence problem, such as forgetfulness or cost. While pharmacists encountered many false positive nonadherence alerts, following up with patients led to hundreds of discussions and clarifications about how patients use their medications at home. These results suggest a small minority of late refills are judged by pharmacists as indicative of an adherence problem, contrary to the prevailing literature. Pharmacists may benefit from modifying their approach to nonadherence interviewing and documentation as they seek to address

  15. Usage Notes in the Oxford American Dictionary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, R. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Compares the "Oxford American Dictionary" with the "American Heritage Dictionary." Examines the dictionaries' differences in philosophies of language, introductory essays, and usage notes. Concludes that the "Oxford American Dictionary" is too conservative, paternalistic, and dogmatic for the 1980s. (DMM)

  16. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status......, on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...

  17. A NOTE ON THE POCHHAMMER FREQUENCY EQUATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cistvr

    A note on the Pochhammer frequency equation. ),,,,(. ),,,,(;/. 2 zwura. ZWURA. tT ρω. µ. = ω= , where ωis the angular frequency of the wave, which is considered to be imposed in this problem. We also introduce a material parameter α defined by. )2. /(. µ+λµ=α , which is related to Poisson's ratio ν by n- n-. =a. 22. 21 . We note ...

  18. Electronic health records improve clinical note quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Harry B; Sessums, Laura L; Hoang, Albert; Becher, Dorothy A; Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Stephens, Mark; Pangaro, Louis N; O'Malley, Patrick G; Baxi, Nancy S; Bunt, Christopher W; Capaldi, Vincent F; Chen, Julie M; Cooper, Barbara A; Djuric, David A; Hodge, Joshua A; Kane, Shawn; Magee, Charles; Makary, Zizette R; Mallory, Renee M; Miller, Thomas; Saperstein, Adam; Servey, Jessica; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2015-01-01

    The clinical note documents the clinician's information collection, problem assessment, clinical management, and its used for administrative purposes. Electronic health records (EHRs) are being implemented in clinical practices throughout the USA yet it is not known whether they improve the quality of clinical notes. The goal in this study was to determine if EHRs improve the quality of outpatient clinical notes. A five and a half year longitudinal retrospective multicenter quantitative study comparing the quality of handwritten and electronic outpatient clinical visit notes for 100 patients with type 2 diabetes at three time points: 6 months prior to the introduction of the EHR (before-EHR), 6 months after the introduction of the EHR (after-EHR), and 5 years after the introduction of the EHR (5-year-EHR). QNOTE, a validated quantitative instrument, was used to assess the quality of outpatient clinical notes. Its scores can range from a low of 0 to a high of 100. Sixteen primary care physicians with active practices used QNOTE to determine the quality of the 300 patient notes. The before-EHR, after-EHR, and 5-year-EHR grand mean scores (SD) were 52.0 (18.4), 61.2 (16.3), and 80.4 (8.9), respectively, and the change in scores for before-EHR to after-EHR and before-EHR to 5-year-EHR were 18% (pquality scores significantly improved over the 5-year time interval. The EHR significantly improved the overall quality of the outpatient clinical note and the quality of all its elements, including the core and non-core elements. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the EHR significantly improves the quality of clinical notes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  19. Remedial action programs annual meeting: Meeting notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office was pleased to host the 1987 Remedial Action programs Annual Meeting and herein presents notes from that meeting as prepared (on relatively short notice) by participants. These notes are a summary of the information derived from the workshops, case studies, and ad hoc committee reports rather than formal proceedings. The order of the materials in this report follows the actual sequence of presentations during the annual meeting

  20. Lecture Notes in Statistics. 3rd Semester

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The lecture note is prepared to meet the requirements for the 3rd semester course in statistics at the Aarhus School of Business. It focuses on multiple regression models, analysis of variance, and log-linear models.......The lecture note is prepared to meet the requirements for the 3rd semester course in statistics at the Aarhus School of Business. It focuses on multiple regression models, analysis of variance, and log-linear models....

  1. Note-taking Strategies and Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Haghverdi, Hamid; Biria, Reza; Karimi, Lotfollah

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is two fold. That is, revealing the significance, underlying theory and findings concerning note-taking in the literature related and exploring, through a survey study, the Iranian professors‘ and students‘ attitudes towards the effect of teaching note-taking strategies on the students‘ academic achievement. To this end, many previous studies were reviewed and we knew that many scholars, conducting empirical studies, surveys and interviews, have highlighted ...

  2. Note taking, review, memory, and comprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohay, Mark; Blakely, Daniel P; Tamplin, Andrea K; Radvansky, Gabriel A

    2011-01-01

    In previous work assessing memory at various levels of representation, namely the surface form, textbase, and situation model levels, participants read texts but were otherwise not actively engaged with the texts. The current study tested the influence of active engagement with the material via note taking, along with the opportunity to review such notes, and the modality of presentation (text vs. spoken). The influence of these manipulations was assessed both immediately and 1 week later. In Experiment 1 participants read a text, whereas in Experiment 2 participants watched a video recording of the material being read as a lecture. For each experiment the opportunity to take notes was manipulated within participants, and the opportunity to review these notes before the test was manipulated between participants. Note taking improved performance at the situation model level in both experiments, although there was also some suggestion of benefit for the surface form. Thus, active engagement with material, such as note taking, appears to have the greatest benefit at the deeper levels of understanding.

  3. MITHRAS REDISCOVERED II. FURTHER NOTES ON CIMRM 1938 AND 1986

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabo Csaba

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, an important Mithraic relief was rediscovered and republished by the author of these lines in collaboration with George Bounegru and Victor Sava. The relief, known in the literature as CIMRM 1938 was for a long time considered a „disappeared” monument, the only laconic description being that of Marteen J. Vermaseren from his monumental corpus. Due to the recently rediscovered photographs of the relief and the detailed analysis of the correspondence between Béla Cserni and Franz Cumont, the CIMRM 1938 is now became available for further research. In this article, I will add some further historiographic and iconographic notes on one of the biggest Mithraic reliefs found in Dacia, solving also another mysterious piece in Vermaseren’s catalogue, the CIMRM 1986. The article is also the first publication of Béla Cserni’s photograph about the relief.

  4. THULE: A detailed description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, M.J.

    1964-07-01

    This report describes the THULE scheme of lattice physics calculation which has been developed in FORTRAN for the IBM 7090. This scheme predicts the neutron flux over energy and space, for many groups and regions, together with reactivity and reaction rate edits for both a single lattice cell and a reactor core. This report describes in detail the input requirements for the THULE programme which forms the main part of the scheme. Brief descriptions of the 7090 programmes TED 6 and NOAH are included as appendices. TED 6 will produce the THULE edits from a WDSN output tape and NOAH is a version of the METHUSELAH programme which contains many of the THULE edits and will also produce input cards for THULE. (author)

  5. Evalutive Descriptions of Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Lah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Taking into account the fact that, throughout history, certain artworks have been considered as “worth of watching” (according to the Greek etymon ἀξιοϑέατος / aksioteatos, preservation, or theorizing, while others were not, one is led to investigate the various types of evaluative descriptions. Those artworks that are more valuable than others, or simply valuable in themselves on the basis of rather specific features, have always represented the paradigmatic model for the evaluator, thus revealing the identitary nature of value as different from one epoch to another. Our aim has been to discern, with regard to this starting point, the way in which the process of evaluating artworks fits the general matrix of the universal theory of value, with its clearly distinguished levels of evaluation, beginning with value descriptions, continuing through the features of evaluation or abstract qualities of values extracted from these descriptions, and ending with value norms or systems of accepted generalizations in evaluation. Value standpoints in such an evaluation matrix represent dispositions or preferences in procedures, which reflect the norms or signifying concepts of the time. Corresponding procedures, or applications of the hierarchicized signification of artworks, are manifested in all known forms of artwork assessment: attribution, institutionalization, and setting of priorities in terms of exhibition, conservation, acquisition, restoration, and so on. Research in the history of European art-historical ideas has corroborated the hypothesis that, prior to the late 18th century, clear normative patterns were applied when it came to the evaluation of artworks. However, with the emergence of early Romanticism, this could no longer be done in the traditional way. Before the period in question, visual art was created (regardless of some stylistic discrepancies between individual authors and classified according to well-defined thematic

  6. Metaphorical descriptions of wrongdoers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dryll Ewa Marta

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available What is a metaphoric picture of an evil person made of? In a study devoted to the development of the ability to use metaphorical descriptions of humans, the semantic fields of four target metaphors - Human-Swamp, Human-Snake, Human-Knife, and Human-Nettle - were established and compared. Subjects (365 young adults were asked to decipher the metaphors’ meanings. The results were obtained mainly by qualitative analysis, with frequency analysis of clusters containing synonymous meanings. The results indicate that when creating imaginary characteristics of evil people, young adults seem to be more concerned about the possibility of suffering verbal harassment (most commonly: vulgarity, mockery, gossip, jeering than the threat of actual physical assault. The results may prove useful for developmental comparisons.

  7. Polemic and Descriptive Negations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horslund, Camilla Søballe

    2011-01-01

    to semantics and pragmatics, negations can be used in three different ways, which gives rise to a typology of three different types of negations: 1) the descriptive negation, 2) the polemic negation, and 3) the meta-linguistic negation (Nølke 1999, 4). This typology illuminates the fact that the negation...... common in certain social context or genres, while polemic negations are more likely to come up in other genres and social settings. Previous studies have shown a relation between articulatory prominence and register, which may further inform the analysis. Hence, the paper investigates how articulatory...... prominence and register may either work in concert or oppose each other with respect to the cues they provide for the interpretation....

  8. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    A recent trend in descriptive sensory evaluation methodology has been the application of rapid evaluation techniques. The ease in use makes the techniques extremely easy to implement by industry and university environments. Thus, one might not consider validity in the choice of method. The overall...... aim of this thesis is to compare and evaluate selected rapid evaluation techniques for sensory profiling. Method variations have been suggested for evaluations in product development and quality control, and method insight is provided. The thesis includes three original studies, designed...... as a consequence of the current practices and needs faced in the industry. Study I compared applicability and validity of rapid methods across several panels of trained assessors. Two rapid approaches were introduced for the evaluation of foods. The first method, ‘Free Multiple Sorting’, allows subjects to perform...

  9. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  10. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  11. Note on Louis de Broglie's duality principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguez, G.

    1988-01-01

    For a material corpuscle, the principle of relativity ought to have a more complex expression due to the wave-particle dualism. As a matter of fact, three frame changes are necessary to link descriptions of two objects with uniform relative velocity, as a particle, as a wave, as both wave and particle. Galilean, dual, and Lorentz transformations correspond to these three descriptions [fr

  12. GeneNotes – A novel information management software for biologists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Wing H

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collecting and managing information is a challenging task in a genome-wide profiling research project. Most databases and online computational tools require a direct human involvement. Information and computational results are presented in various multimedia formats (e.g., text, image, PDF, word files, etc., many of which cannot be automatically processed by computers in biologically meaningful ways. In addition, the quality of computational results is far from perfect and requires nontrivial manual examination. The timely selection, integration and interpretation of heterogeneous biological information still heavily rely on the sensibility of biologists. Biologists often feel overwhelmed by the huge amount of and the great diversity of distributed heterogeneous biological information. Description We developed an information management application called GeneNotes. GeneNotes is the first application that allows users to collect and manage multimedia biological information about genes/ESTs. GeneNotes provides an integrated environment for users to surf the Internet, collect notes for genes/ESTs, and retrieve notes. GeneNotes is supported by a server that integrates gene annotations from many major databases (e.g., HGNC, MGI, etc.. GeneNotes uses the integrated gene annotations to (a identify genes given various types of gene IDs (e.g., RefSeq ID, GenBank ID, etc., and (b provide quick views of genes. GeneNotes is free for academic usage. The program and the tutorials are available at: http://bayes.fas.harvard.edu/genenotes/. Conclusions GeneNotes provides a novel human-computer interface to assist researchers to collect and manage biological information. It also provides a platform for studying how users behave when they manipulate biological information. The results of such study can lead to innovation of more intelligent human-computer interfaces that greatly shorten the cycle of biology research.

  13. Ophthalmology patients' interest in online access to clinic notes at three US clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bryan S; Oster, Natalia V; Chen, Galen Y; Ding, Leona L; Walker, Janice D; Elmore, Joann G

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to understand patients' perceptions about potential benefits and harms of accessing their own ophthalmology clinic notes via an electronic patient portal as part of the OpenNotes initiative. The authors conducted a cross-sectional, in-person survey of ophthalmology patients at three US eye clinics. The paper survey was self-administered or administered with assistance from study staff before or after patients' clinical visits. The authors used descriptive statistics to summarise patient characteristics and patient attitudes about accessing their ophthalmology notes online. Chi-square and t-tests were performed to assess differences in patient responses between clinic locations. Four hundred and fifty-one patients responded (response rate 65%). Most patients thought that accessing doctors' notes online was a good idea (95%), wanted to view their clinic notes online (94%), and agreed online access would increase their understanding of their eye problems (95%) and help them better remember their care plan (94%); 14% said online access would increase their worry; 43% had privacy concerns; and 96% indicated they would show or discuss their notes with at least one other person. Non-white patients were more likely than white patients to perceive online clinic notes as a useful tool, but they were also more likely to worry and to express greater privacy concerns. Patients at three US eye clinics were strongly in favour of online access to ophthalmology notes and were optimistic this access would improve their understanding and self-care. Ophthalmologists should consider offering online access to their notes to enhance doctor-patient communication and improve clinical outcomes. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  14. An Information Foraging Analysis of Note Taking and Note Sharing While Browsing Campaign Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Robertson, Scott

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental study of political information foraging in the context of e-voting. Participants were observed while searching and browsing the internet for campaign information in a mock-voting situation in three online note-taking conditions: No Notes, Private Notes...... with lack of scent, low value perception, and value depletion of information. Implications for the voter centered design of e-voting portals are discussed....

  15. What happens when patients can see their doctors' note? - the Open Notes movement

    OpenAIRE

    Mende, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:  The Open Notes movement represents a culture change, enabling patients’ access to their providers’ notes, thereby increasing transparency and patient engagement.Policy context, objective and highlights:  OpenNotes involves allowing patients on-line or hard copy access to their providers’ notes. The one-year initial pilot began in 2010 with twenty thousand patients and one hundred primary care physicians at three medical centers in the United States.  The pilot’s evaluation foun...

  16. Clinical Note Creation, Binning, and Artificial Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deliberato, Rodrigo Octávio; Celi, Leo Anthony; Stone, David J

    2017-08-03

    The creation of medical notes in software applications poses an intrinsic problem in workflow as the technology inherently intervenes in the processes of collecting and assembling information, as well as the production of a data-driven note that meets both individual and healthcare system requirements. In addition, the note writing applications in currently available electronic health records (EHRs) do not function to support decision making to any substantial degree. We suggest that artificial intelligence (AI) could be utilized to facilitate the workflows of the data collection and assembly processes, as well as to support the development of personalized, yet data-driven assessments and plans. ©Rodrigo Octávio Deliberato, Leo Anthony Celi, David J Stone. Originally published in JMIR Medical Informatics (http://medinform.jmir.org), 03.08.2017.

  17. VA OpenNotes: exploring the experiences of early patient adopters with access to clinical notes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L; Klein, Dawn M; Hogan, Timothy P; Woods, Susan S

    2015-03-01

    To explore the experience of early patient adopters who accessed their clinical notes online using the Blue Button feature of the My HealtheVet portal. A web-based survey of VA patient portal users from June 22 to September 15, 2013. 33.5% of respondents knew that clinical notes could be viewed, and nearly one in four (23.5%) said that they had viewed their notes at least once. The majority of VA Notes users agreed that accessing their notes will help them to do a better job of taking medications as prescribed (80.1%) and be better prepared for clinic visits (88.6%). Nine out of 10 users agreed that use of visit notes will help them understand their conditions better (91.8%), and better remember the plan for their care (91.9%). In contrast, 87% disagreed that VA Notes will make them worry more, and 88.4% disagreed that access to VA Notes will be more confusing than helpful. Users who had either contacted their provider or healthcare team (11.9%) or planned to (13.5%) primarily wanted to learn more about a health issue, medication, or test results (53.7%). Initial assessment of the patient experience within the first 9 months of availability provides evidence that patients both value and benefit from online access to clinical notes. These findings are congruent with OpenNotes study findings on a broader scale. Additional outreach and education is needed to enhance patient awareness. Healthcare professionals should author notes keeping in mind the opportunity patient access presents for enhanced communication. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Xyce parallel electronic simulator release notes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiter, Eric R; Hoekstra, Robert John; Mei, Ting; Russo, Thomas V.; Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Rankin, Eric Lamont; Coffey, Todd S; Pawlowski, Roger P; Santarelli, Keith R.

    2010-05-01

    The Xyce Parallel Electronic Simulator has been written to support, in a rigorous manner, the simulation needs of the Sandia National Laboratories electrical designers. Specific requirements include, among others, the ability to solve extremely large circuit problems by supporting large-scale parallel computing platforms, improved numerical performance and object-oriented code design and implementation. The Xyce release notes describe: Hardware and software requirements New features and enhancements Any defects fixed since the last release Current known defects and defect workarounds For up-to-date information not available at the time these notes were produced, please visit the Xyce web page at http://www.cs.sandia.gov/xyce.

  19. Application Note: Power Grid Modeling With Xyce.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This application note describes how to model steady-state power flows and transient events in electric power grids with the SPICE-compatible Xyce TM Parallel Electronic Simulator developed at Sandia National Labs. This application notes provides a brief tutorial on the basic devices (branches, bus shunts, transformers and generators) found in power grids. The focus is on the features supported and assumptions made by the Xyce models for power grid elements. It then provides a detailed explanation, including working Xyce netlists, for simulating some simple power grid examples such as the IEEE 14-bus test case.

  20. 15 CFR Notes Applicable to State... - Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: applicable Notes applicable to State of Understanding related to Medical Equipment: Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY,...

  1. Olkiluoto biosphere description 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haapanen, R.; Aro, L.; Ilvesniemi, H.; Kareinen, T.; Kirkkala, T.; Mykrae, S.; Turkki, H.; Lahdenperae, A.-M.; Ikonen, A.T.K.

    2007-02-01

    This report summarises the current knowledge of the biosphere of Olkiluoto, and it is the first Biosphere Description Report. The elements considered were climate, topography, land use, overburden, terrestrial vegetation and fauna and sea flora, fauna and water. The principal aim was to present a synthesis of the present state (now to 2020) and the main features of past evolution of the biosphere at the site using currently available data. The lack of site specific parameters and their importance was discussed. Conceptual ecosystem models are presented for land and sea. Currently available data made it possible to calculate the biomass of the terrestrial vegetation and further convert it to carbon. In the case of terrestrial animals, preliminary figures are given for moose alone due to lack of sitespecific data. For the same reason, the sea ecosystem model was not quantified within this work. The ecosystems on Olkiluoto do not deviate from the surrounding areas. Since mires are few on Olkiluoto, forests are the most important land ecosystem. However, coastal areas are the transition zones between land and sea, and also potential sites for deep groundwater discharge. The major interest concerning aquatic ecosystems was laid on four future lakes potentially developing from the sea due to the land up-lift. Current sea sediments near Olkiluoto are future land areas, and thus very important. Spatially, the forest ecosystems of Olkiluoto are now most comprehensively covered, while the temporal coverage is highest in sea ecosystems. Lack of data is greatest in terrestrial fauna and sea sediments. During this work, the system boundaries were crossed and the use of data over disciplines was started. The data were mostly in agreement, but some discrepancies were detected. To solve these, and to supplement the existing data, some recommendations were given. (orig.)

  2. Description of nuclear properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faessler, A.

    1991-01-01

    The lectures want to give a survey about new developments in the description of nuclei. In a first chapter we try to derive nuclear properties from the basis theory of quantum chromodynamics. This is not rigorously possible. There are still many cracks in the bridge between QCD and nuclear structure. The basic ingredient for nuclear structure calculations is the nucleon-nucleon interaction. We shall discuss the nucleon-nucleon interaction in a quark model. In a further chapter we discuss the way to come from a bare nucleon-nucleon interaction in free space to an effective nucleon-nucleon interaction in a limited model space for nuclear structure calculations. Such nuclear structure calculations can be done as shell model calculations. But they are due to the large number of configurations limited to light nuclei. We discuss possibilities (MONSTER and VAMPIR) to enlarge the model space for medium heavy and heavy nuclei. As the example of the low lying isovector 1 + states we discuss collective models (Bohr - Mottelson Model, interacting Boson Model) with proton and neutron degrees of freedom. The same states can also be described microscopically with the Quasi-Particle Random Phase Approximation (QRPA). We discuss the removal of spurious states in RPA. We also discuss the calculation of form factors and compare with inelastic electron scattering data. Finally we apply QRPA to the double-beta decay. Grand unified models predict, that the neutrino is identical with his antiparticle, that it has a finite mass and a weak right-handed interaction. If these properties are found the standard model of the strong and the electro-weak interaction can not be correct. Presently we can only derive from lower limits of the half lives of neutrinoless double-beta decays upper limits of the neutrino mass and of the right-handedness of the weak interaction and lower limits of the mass of the right handed heavy vector boson, if a specific grand unified model is given. (author)

  3. NOTES: issues and technical details with introduction of NOTES into a small general surgery residency program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavic, Michael S; Mirza, Brian; Horne, Walter; Moskowitz, Jesse B

    2008-01-01

    Natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) is a development of recent origin. In 2004, Kalloo et al first described NOTES investigation in an animal model. Since then, several investigators have pursued NOTES study in animal survival and nonsurvival models. Our objectives for this project included studying NOTES intervention in a laboratory environment using large animal (swine) models and learning to do so in a safe, controlled manner. Ultimately, we intend to introduce NOTES methodology into our surgical residency training program. The expertise of an experienced laparoscopic surgeon, fellowship-trained laparoendoscopic surgeon, and veterinarian along with a senior surgical resident was utilized to bring the input of several disciplines to this study. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) of Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine and Pharmacy (NEOUCOM/COP) approved this study. A series of 5 laboratory sessions using mixed breed farm swine varying in weight from 37 kg to 43.1 kg was planned for the initial phase of NOTES introduction into our residency program. Animals were not kept alive in this investigation. All animals were anesthetized using a standard swine protocol and euthanized following guidelines issued by the American Veterinary Medical Association Panel on Euthanasia. Equipment included a Fujinon EVE endoscope 0.8 cm in diameter with a suction/irrigation channel and one working channel. Initially, a US Endoscopy gastric overtube, 19.5 mm OD and 50 cm in length, was used to facilitate passage of the endoscope. However, this device was found to have insufficient length. Subsequently, commercially available 5/8" diameter clear plastic tubing, 70 cm to 80 cm in length, was adapted for use as an overtube. Standard endoscopic instruments included Boston Scientific biopsy forceps, needle-knife, papillotome, endoscopic clip applier, and Valley Lab electrosurgical unit. A Karl Storz laparoscope and tower were used for

  4. EPICS release 3.11.6 specific documentation -- Release notes for EPICS 3.11.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    These notes cover the following: (1) directions for switching to production APS release R3.11.6; (2) unbundling of channel access clients; (3) access security; (4) channel access additions; synchronous time support; and (5) description of major differences between R3.11.3 and R3.11.6 Also included is a list of new and/or updated documentation for the program

  5. Grouping Notes Through NodesThe Functions of Post-It™ Notes in Design Team Cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    The Post-It™ note is a frequently used, and yet seldom studied, design material. We investigate the functions Post-It™ notes serve when providing cognitive support for creative design team practice. Our investigation considers the ways in which Post-It™ notes function as design externalisations......, both individually and when grouped, and their role in categorisation in semantic long-term memory. To do this, we adopt a multimodal analytical approach focusing on interaction between humans, and between humans and artefacts, alongside language. We discuss in detail examples of four different...... externalisation functions served by Post-It™ notes, and show how these functions are present in complex overlapping combinations rather than being discrete. We then show how the temporal development of Post-It™ note interactions supports categorisation qualities of semantic long-term memory....

  6. Performance of core exit thermocouple for PWR accident management action in vessel top break LOCA simulation experiment at OECD/NEA ROSA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Presented are experiment results of the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) with a focus on core exit thermocouple (CET) performance to detect core overheat during a vessel top break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation experiment. The CET temperatures are used to start accident management (AM) action to quickly depressurize steam generator (SG) secondary side in case of core temperature excursion. Test 6-1 is first test of the OECD/NEA ROSA Project started in 2005, simulating withdraw of a control rod drive mechanism penetration nozzle at the vessel top head. The break size is equivalent to 1.9% cold leg break. The AM action was initiated when CET temperature rose up to 623K. There was no reflux water fallback onto the CETs during the core heat-up period. The core overheat, however, was detected with a time delay of about 230s. In addition, a large temperature discrepancy was observed between the CETs and the hottest core region. This paper clarifies the reason of time delay and temperature discrepancy between the CETs and heated core during boil-off including three-dimensional steam flows in the core and core exit. The paper discusses applicability of the LSTF CET performance to pressurized water reactor (PWR) conditions and a possibility of alternative indicators for earlier AM action than in Test 6-1 is studied by using symptom-based plant parameters such as a reactor vessel water level detection. (author)

  7. Simulation of a welding process in polyduct pipelines resolved with a finite elements computational model. Comparison with analytical solutions and tests with thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanzi, H; Elvira, G; Kloster, M; Asta, E; Zalazar, M

    2006-01-01

    All welding processes induce deformations and thermal tensions, which must be evaluated correctly since they can influence a component's structural integrity. This work determines the distribution of temperatures that develop during a manual welding process with shielded electrodes (SMAW), on the circumference seam of a pipe for use in polyducts. A simplified model of Finite Elements (FEA) using three dimensional solids is proposed for the study. The analysis considers that while the welding process is underway, no heat is lost into the environment, that is, adiabatic conditions are considered, and the transformations produced in the material due to phase changes do not produce modifications in the properties of the supporting or base materials. The results of the simulation are compared with those obtained by recent analytical studies developed by different investigators, such as Nguyen, Ohta, Matsuoka, Suzuki and Taeda, where a continuously moving three dimensional double ellipsoidal source was used. The results are then compared with the experimental results by measuring with thermocouples. This study reveals the sensitivity and the validity of the proposed computer model, and in a second stage optimizes the engineering times for the resolution of a problem like the one presented in order to design the corresponding welding procedure (CW)

  8. A novel approach for fault detection and classification of the thermocouple sensor in Nuclear Power Plant using Singular Value Decomposition and Symbolic Dynamic Filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Shyamapada; Santhi, B.; Sridhar, S.; Vinolia, K.; Swaminathan, P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel approach to classify the fault pattern using data-driven methods. • Application of robust reconstruction method (SVD) to identify the faulty sensor. • Analysing fault pattern for plenty of sensors using SDF with less time complexity. • An efficient data-driven model is designed to the false and missed alarms. - Abstract: A mathematical model with two layers is developed using data-driven methods for thermocouple sensor fault detection and classification in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) based method is applied to detect the faulty sensor from a data set of all sensors, at the first layer. In the second layer, the Symbolic Dynamic Filter (SDF) is employed to classify the fault pattern. If SVD detects any false fault, it is also re-evaluated by the SDF, i.e., the model has two layers of checking to balance the false alarms. The proposed fault detection and classification method is compared with the Principal Component Analysis. Two case studies are taken from Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) to prove the efficiency of the proposed method.

  9. Employing Picture Description to Assess the Students' Descriptive Paragraph Writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Mega Cahyani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Writing is considered as an important skill in learning process which is needed to be mastered by the students. However, in teaching learning process at schools or universities, the assessment of writing skill is not becoming the focus of learning process and the assessment is administered inappropriately. In this present study, the researcher undertook the study which dealt with assessing descriptive paragraph writing ability of the students through picture description by employing an ex post facto as the research design. The present study was intended to answer the research problem dealing with the extent of the students’ achievement of descriptive paragraph writing ability which is assessed through picture description. The samples under the study were 40 students determined by means of random sampling technique with lottery system. The data were collected through administering picture description as the research instrument. The obtained data were analyzed by using norm-reference measure of five standard values. The results of the data analysis showed that there were 67.50% samples of the study were successful in writing descriptive paragraph, while there were 32.50% samples were unsuccessful in writing descriptive paragraph which was assessed by administering picture description test

  10. A note on totally normal spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zougdani, H.K.

    1990-10-01

    In this note we give the necessary and sufficient condition for a topological space X such that the product space X x Y is totally normal for any (non discrete) metric space Y, and we show that a totally normal p-space need not be a perfectly normal in general, which makes Theorem 2 doubtful. (author). 6 refs

  11. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS Record of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    50. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND. REPORTS. Record of Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus from Mukundara Hills Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan,. India. Sailaja Nayak1*, Sunny Shah2 and Jimmy Borah2 .... Prey status and abundance in Mukundara Hills Tiger. Reserve. Technical Report, WWF-India. Rao, J.P. ...

  12. Botswana - Accrual Accounting Policy Note and Guide

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    This paper comprises two volumes: volume one, this concise policy and guidance note that deals with the request as outlined, and a volume two which provides more detailed technical guidance on the implementation of International Public Sector accounting Standards (IPSAS) accrual based standards. Recommended reforms directly relevant to this paper include: 1) fiscal reforms on both the reve...

  13. Additional notes on the Rubiaceae of Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremekamp, C.E.B.

    1936-01-01

    Since the appearance of my „Notes on the Rubiaceae of Surinam” (in Rec. d. Trav. bot. néerl. XXXI, 1934, 248; also in Meded. Bot. Mus. Herb. Utrecht no. 11, 1934) a number of species and varieties new to the flora of that country have come to light. The majority have been collected by Mr. Rombouts

  14. CIFSRF Concept Notes Call 2013 Instructions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC CRDI

    Cc: (the other principal investigators and third-party organisations). Subject: CultiAF 2013 Call for Concept Notes Submitted by (names of all principal ..... clerical, accounting, or secretarial help, general office expenses, office rental and utility ... Please provide the details of financial contributions that will be made to the ...

  15. Modern systematics, a further botanical note

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holttum, R.E.

    1948-01-01

    As noted in Dr L.G.M. Baas Becking’s Postscript to Mr van Bemmel’s article in Chronica Naturae Vol. 104, part 4, the new systematics has not been entirely neglected by botanists. I would like to put a further botanical vieuwpoint on this subject. Firstly, I suggest that there is no sharp distinction

  16. NOTE receives the prestigious ALICE Industrial Award

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "NOTE Lund has been given the ALICE Industrial Award due to good co-operation, great capacity for innovation and high quality of work, as a PCB manufacturer in the CERN project ALICE. Only a small number of awards have so far been conferred to a select number of companies."

  17. Note from TS/FM Group

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Renovation work at Restaurant no. 1 Please note that starting from 5 March and for one week, the men's toilets in Bldg. 500 (underground) will be closed because of the renovation work at Restaurant No. 1. The women's toilets in the same place will exceptionally be open to men and women during the same period. We apologize for the inconvenience and we are at your disposal for further information. Shuttle requests Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, shuttle requests: for official visits or bidders' conferences on the CERN site; to/from the airport or the centre of Geneva; for long distances, must be made via Fm.Support@cern.ch or by calling 77777. The radio taxi will still be reachable on 76969. Please note that starting from 1st of March, requests for the transport of PCs from your office to the PC store (Bldg. 513) and vice-versa, must be made the 'transport request' form on EDH under the field 'removals'). Mail distribution Please note that starting from 1 March 2007, mail distrib...

  18. [Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong Sik; Kim, Chul Young; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2008-03-01

    Recently, the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy is developing rapidly. Once limited to the gastroinstestinal lumen, the endoscopic technology is now breaking the barriers and extending its boundary to peritoneal and pleural space. In 2004, Dr. Kalloo, a gastroenterologist, observed intraperitoneal organs of a pig using a conventional endoscope through the stomach wall. Since then, new endoscopic technique of intraperitoneal intervention with transluminal approach named the Natural Orifice Transluminal Endoscopic Surgery or NOTES has been introduced. NOTES reaches the target organ by inserting the endoscope through a natural orifice (e.g. mouth, anus, vagina, urethra) and entering the peritoneal lumen by means of making an incision on the luminal wall. After a series of successful experiences in animal studies, NOTES are now being tried on human subjects. There are still many obstacles to overcome, but bright future for this new technology is expected because of its proposed advantages of less pain, lower complication rate, short recovery time, and scarless access. In this review, we plan to learn about NOTES.

  19. Note from the Goods Reception services

    CERN Multimedia

    FI Department

    2008-01-01

    Members of the personnel are invited to take note that only parcels corresponding to official orders or contracts will be handled at CERN. Individuals are not authorised to have private merchandise delivered to them at CERN and private deliveries will not be accepted by the Goods Reception services. Goods Reception Services

  20. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish, on the ot...... in the interpreting task, i.e. whether it functions as the source or the target language. Drawing on the concept of processing capacity and the Effort Model of consecutive, a tentative explanation of these findings is suggested......., on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status...

  1. European Science Notes. Volume 41, Number 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    management system and of the following: Secretaria de la Revista the inference engine. de Psicologia Social , Facultad de Psico- Application of Knowledge-Based...Notes NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Social and Environmental Psychology .................... William D. Crano 519 Applied Artificial Intelligence...An International Journal ................................. William D. Crano 520 New Spanish Journal of Social Psychology ................. William D

  2. Lecture notes for Advanced Time Series Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik; Holst, Jan

    1997-01-01

    A first version of this notes was used at the lectures in Grenoble, and they are now extended and improved (together with Jan Holst), and used in Ph.D. courses on Advanced Time Series Analysis at IMM and at the Department of Mathematical Statistics, University of Lund, 1994, 1997, ...

  3. Note Taking in Multi-Media Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kelly; Yao, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    We provide a preliminary exploration into the use of note taking when combined with video examples. Student volunteers were divided into three groups and asked to perform two problems. The first problem was explored in a classroom setting and the other problem was a novel problem. The students were asked to complete the two questions. Furthermore,…

  4. The impact of note taking style and note availability at retrieval on mock jurors' recall and recognition of trial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorley, Craig; Baxter, Rebecca E; Lorek, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Jurors forget critical trial information and what they do recall can be inaccurate. Jurors' recall of trial information can be enhanced by permitting them to take notes during a trial onto blank sheets of paper (henceforth called freestyle note taking). A recent innovation is the trial-ordered-notebook (TON) for jurors, which is a notebook containing headings outlining the trial proceedings and which has space beneath each heading for notes. In a direct comparison, TON note takers recalled more trial information than freestyle note takers. This study investigated whether or not note taking improves recall as a result of enhanced encoding or as a result of note access at retrieval. To assess this, mock jurors watched and freely recalled a trial video with one-fifth taking no notes, two-fifths taking freestyle notes and two-fifths using TONs. During retrieval, half of the freestyle and TON note takers could access their notes. Note taking enhanced recall, with the freestyle note takers and TON note takers without note access performing equally as well. Note taking therefore enhances encoding. Recall was greatest for the TON note takers with note access, suggesting a retrieval enhancement unique to this condition. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Dual descriptions of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrilligator, K.; Thomas, S.

    1996-08-01

    Dynamical supersymmetry breaking is considered in models which admit descriptions in terms of electric, confined, or magnetic degrees of freedom in various limits. In this way, a variety of seemingly different theories which break supersymmetry are actually interrelated by confinement or duality. Specific examples are given in which there are two dual descriptions of the supersymmetry breaking ground state

  6. Notes on Two Newly Naturalized Plants in Taiwan: Evolvulus nummularius (L. L. (Convolvulaceae and Acalypha aristata Kunth (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Huei Chen

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Evolvulus nummularius (L. L. and Acalypha aristata Kunth, originally native to tropical America, were recently found naturalized in disturbed sites of Taiwan. The present study gives the taxonomic description and line drawings of the two species. In addition, their distributions and notes on ecology are provided.

  7. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the in-tank fuel fire/deflageration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, R.D. Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for In-Tank Fuel fire/Deflageration consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Tank Fuel Fire/Deflageration scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided

  8. Calculation notes that support accident scenario and consequence of the in-tank fuel fire/deflagration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowe, R.D.

    1996-09-27

    The purpose of this calculation note is to provide the basis for In-Tank Fuel Fire/Deflageration consequence for the Tank Farm Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). Tank Fuel Fire/Deflageration scenario is developed and details and description of the analysis methods are provided.

  9. Using Guided Notes to Enhance Instruction for All Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, Moira; Joseph, Laurice M.; Itoi, Madoka

    2011-01-01

    Taking notes from lectures or reading material can be challenging, especially for those who have learning disabilities. An alternative to traditional note-taking is a method called "guided notes," which has been found to improve the accuracy of students' notes, increase the frequency of student responses, and improve students' quiz and test…

  10. DigiMemo: Facilitating the Note Taking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Serhat

    2009-01-01

    Everyone takes notes daily for various reasons. Note taking is very popular in school settings and generally recognized as an effective learning strategy. Further, note taking is a complex process because it requires understanding, selection of information and writing. Some new technological tools may facilitate the note taking process. Among such…

  11. LLW notes. Volume 11, No.8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    'LLW Notes' is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  12. LLW notes. Vol. 11, No. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    'LLW Notes' is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive 'LLW Notes'. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  13. LLW notes. Vol. 11, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    `LLW Notes` is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive `LLW Notes`. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  14. Writing and Music: Album Liner Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Leonard Biron

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A deceptive aspect of the ‘writing about music is like dancing about architecture’ cliché is the function of the preposition ‘about’. Literature and music, dance and architecture, painting and film – all are discrete aesthetic forms that nonetheless simultaneously feed off and provide nourishment for each other as part of art’s perpetual drive toward diversity and innovation. Nowhere is the aptness of the association between writing and music more obvious than in the phenomenon of album liner notes. Rather than merely an attempt at describing or translating musical experience, liner notes contribute to the dialogue between composer and listener and are a significant part of the culture of contemporary music.

  15. LLW notes, Vol. 11, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    `LLW Notes` is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties.

  16. Flatland an edition with notes and commentary

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Edwin A; Banchoff, Thomas F

    2010-01-01

    Flatland, Edwin Abbott Abbott's story of a two-dimensional universe, as told by one of its inhabitants who is introduced to the mysteries of three-dimensional space, has enjoyed an enduring popularity from the time of its publication in 1884. This fully annotated edition enables the modern-day reader to understand and appreciate the many "dimensions" of this classic satire. Mathematical notes and illustrations enhance the usefulness of Flatland as an elementary introduction to higher-dimensional geometry. Historical notes show connections to late-Victorian England and to classical Greece. Citations from Abbott's other writings as well as the works of Plato and Aristotle serve to interpret the text. Commentary on language and literary style includes numerous definitions of obscure words. An appendix gives a comprehensive account of the life and work of Flatland's remarkable author.

  17. Teaching Furlow palatoplasty: the sticky note method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mona Mengyue; Kim, JeeHong; Jabbour, Noel

    2014-11-01

    The double-opposing Z-plasty (Furlow palatoplasty) procedure is a well-established method for palate repair in children. We propose a simple and easily accessible sticky note model to demonstrate the lengthening in palatal anatomy afforded by this technically challenging procedure. Our model involves creating a lengthened three-dimensional representation of the Z-plasty through making specified incisions and rearrangements of the palatal layers. The sticky note model was made a total of 20 times and length of the palate model pre and post Z-plasty was measured. The average length of the palate pre-procedure was 72 mm. The average length of the palate post procedure was 78.9 mm, showing an increase of 6.9 mm (9.6%). Our model provides an accurate and valuable educational tool that will aid in the visualization and understanding of the Furlow palatoplasty procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. LLW notes, Vol. 11, No. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    'LLW Notes' is distributed by Afton Associates, Inc. to Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum Participants and other state, and compact officials identified by those Participants to receive LLW Notes. The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Forum (LLW Forum) is an association of state and compact representatives, appointed by governors and compact commissions, established to facilitate state and compact implementation of the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 and the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy amendments Act of 1985 and to promote the objectives of low-level radioactive waste regional compacts. The LLW Forum provides an opportunity for state and compact officials to share information with one another and to exchange views with officials of federal agencies and other interested parties

  19. Molecular gastronomy is a scientific discipline, and note by note cuisine is the next culinary trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    This Hervé

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For the past two decades, there has been much confusion about molecular gastronomy. This confusion has arisen because people ignore that the word gastronomy does not mean cuisine, it means knowledge about food. Similar to ‘molecular biology’, molecular gastronomy is a scientific discipline that looks for the mechanisms of phenomena occurring during dish preparation and consumption. As with any other scientific discipline, it can have many applications. One of the first was ‘molecular cuisine’ but since 1994, ‘note by note cuisine’ has also been promoted. The latter involves preparing dishes using pure compounds, or more practically mixture of compounds obtained by fractioning plant or animal tissues, instead of using these tissues themselves. Note by note cuisine raises issues in various fields: science, technology, nutrition, physiology, toxicology and politics.

  20. Notes on HTR applications in methanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, B.; Barnert, H.

    1997-01-01

    Notes on the study of HTR applications are presented. The study in particular should be directed toward the most feasible applications of HTR for process heat generation. A prospective study is the conversion of CO 2 gas from Natuna to methanol or formic acid. Further studies needs to be deepened under the auspices of IAEA and countries that have similar interest. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs

  1. Political Investment in Economic Protection: A Note

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenio M. Balisacan

    1987-01-01

    This note presents some aspects of the neoclassical political economy of economic protection. It develops a conceptual framework which focuses on the costs and benefits of investment in political in?uence to certain conditions in the society and how the benefit-cost structure may affect the level of economic protection and the amount of what Bhagwati called "directly unproductive profit-seeking" activities.

  2. Mission climate note n.7, November 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominicis, A. de

    2005-01-01

    The year 2005 was the year of the implementing of the CO 2 quotas market and the implementing of the kyoto protocol after the ratification by Russia. This context confirmed the presence of a 'carbon finance' based on new financial products: the CO 2 actives or carbon credits which materialize the emissions reductions and exist on the new markets. This note presents the main points of these markets: the purchase funds implementing, the investments and the purchase mechanisms management. (A.L.B.)

  3. Note: How Does Product Proliferation Affect Responsiveness?

    OpenAIRE

    Diwakar Gupta; Mandyam M. Srinivasan

    1998-01-01

    In this note we consider some strategies that a manufacturing firm may use to deal with an increase in the variety of products it offers. We indicate how alternate strategies for dealing with product proliferation impact the firm's responsiveness, measured in terms of average production lead time and average work-in-process inventory. Focusing on the make-to-order environment and using queueing models, we derive conditions under which an increase in product variety can improve both individual...

  4. European Scientific Notes. Volume 36, Number 2,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-28

    noted that the alleged Symptom-limited exercise testing is gen- immunity of marathon runners to coronary erally accepted as an integral part of any...marathon runners out of coronary patients. risk, and the motivation pf both physician and Wenger emphasized that there is no fixed dose patient...never 45 ESN 36-2 (1982) RESCUE KITE The accuracy of addition of columns of 2-digit numbers was significantly worse at In emergencies at sea, detection

  5. A note on Ramsey numbers for fans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Yanbo; Broersma, Haitze J.; Chen, Yaojun

    For two given graphs G1 and G2, the Ramsey number R(G1,G2) is the smallest integer N such that, for any graph G of order N, either G contains G1 as a subgraph or the complement of G contains G2 as a subgraph. A fan Fl is l triangles sharing exactly one vertex. In this note, it is shown that R(Fn,

  6. Notes on two species of Processa (Decapoda: Processidae from the Mexican Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ayón-Parente

    Full Text Available Material belonging to the genus Processa, held in the Regional Marine Invertebrates Collection in Mazatlán, Mexico, is revised including specimens of the widely distributed P. peruviana, and the scarcely collected P. hawaiensis. For comparative purposes with the specimens from Hawaii and other localities, a detailed description of a male of P. hawaiensis collected in continental Mexico is provided, including illustrations of all appendages. Small differences are noted with previous description and partial redescriptions of this species, including proportion between propodus and dactylus of the fourth pereopod, and between merus and carpus of the right cheliped. In addition, the shape and setation of the first pair of pleopods in the Mexican material differs from the description of P. hawaiensis based on African material.

  7. Optimization for Guitar Fingering on Single Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Masaru; Hayashida, Takumi

    This paper presents an optimization method for guitar fingering. The fingering is to determine a unique combination of string, fret and finger corresponding to the note. The method aims to generate the best fingering pattern for guitar robots rather than beginners. Furthermore, it can be applied to any musical score on single notes. A fingering action can be decomposed into three motions, that is, a motion of press string, release string and move fretting hand. The cost for moving the hand is estimated on the basis of Manhattan distance which is the sum of distances along fret and string directions. The objective is to minimize the total fingering costs, subject to fret, string and finger constraints. As a sequence of notes on the score forms a line on time series, the optimization for guitar fingering can be resolved into a multistage decision problem. Dynamic programming is exceedingly effective to solve such a problem. A level concept is introduced into rendering states so as to make multiple DP solutions lead a unique one among the DP backward processes. For example, if two fingerings have the same value of cost at different states on a stage, then the low position would be taken precedence over the high position, and the index finger would be over the middle finger.

  8. Energy and greenhouse effect. Twelve short notes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevot, Henri

    2013-12-01

    The author proposes twelve brief notes aimed at discussing the reduction of fossil energy consumption in order to reduce CO 2 emissions and to improve the French energy supply security, without any useless expense. These notes address the reason for energy savings, the cost and price of a CO 2 ton, the issue of thermal regulation for buildings (it's not in compliance with the law, and results in higher expenses and increased CO 2 emissions), the introduction of a carbon tax to incite investments for energy saving, the status and health of the CO 2 European market, the support of actions aimed at reducing fossil energy consumption, the fact that bio-heat is ten times more efficient than bio-fuel and that therefore car holders should finance bio-heat, the development of hybrid uses of energy to avoid the difficulty of energy storage, the reduction of CO 2 emissions at low cost (by consuming as much renewable energy as nuclear energy but without wind or photovoltaic energy), the cost of less CO 2 , less fossil energy and less nuclear, and the interest of France to act on its own to reduce CO 2 emissions. The author proposes a brief synthesis of these notes and some proposals regarding thermal regulation for buildings, taxes, the European CO 2 market, the forest biomass, electricity production, and the European and word dimensions of these issues

  9. Notes on Soho and a Reminiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Hollis

    1992-01-01

    Discusses George Maciunas' pivotal contributions to the renaissance of SoHo, the New York City community south of Houston Street. Recounts the establishment of Fluxus cooperatives, the history of the FilmMakers' Cinematheque, Maciunas' long struggle with the Attorney General's office, and closes with a description of the February 1978 erotic Flux…

  10. Notes on Caribbean Phymatidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kormilev, N.A.; Doesburg, van P.H.

    1991-01-01

    New descriptive and distributional data are presented for Ambush bugs from the Dominican Republic: Phymatocoris iviei gen. nov., spec. nov. and Lophoscutus hispaniolensis spec. nov. New records are given for Phymata interjecta Dudich, 1922, Lophoscutus confusus Kormilev, 1989, and L. ypsilon

  11. Health Topic XML File Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/xmldescription.html Health Topic XML File Description: MedlinePlus To use the sharing ... information categories assigned. Example of a Full Health Topic Record A record for a MedlinePlus health topic ...

  12. Understanding Digital Note-Taking Practice for Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Wesley; Goffin, Pascal; Isenberg, Petra

    2015-05-13

    We present results and design implications from a study of digital note-taking practice to examine how visualization can support revisitation, reflection, and collaboration around notes. As digital notebooks become common forms of external memory, keeping track of volumes of content is increasingly difficult. Information visualization tools can help give note-takers an overview of their content and allow them to explore diverse sets of notes, find and organize related content, and compare their notes with their collaborators. To ground the design of such tools, we conducted a detailed mixed-methods study of digital note-taking practice. We identify a variety of different editing, organization, and sharing methods used by digital note-takers, many of which result in notes becoming "lost in the pile''. These findings form the basis for our design considerations that examine how visualization can support the revisitation, organization, and sharing of digital notes.

  13. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Alonso-Izquierdo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  14. A note on BPS vortex bound states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Izquierdo, A., E-mail: alonsoiz@usal.es [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain); Garcia Fuertes, W., E-mail: wifredo@uniovi.es [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Oviedo (Spain); Mateos Guilarte, J., E-mail: guilarte@usal.es [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental, Universidad de Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-02-10

    In this note we investigate bound states, where scalar and vector bosons are trapped by BPS vortices in the Abelian Higgs model with a critical ratio of the couplings. A class of internal modes of fluctuation around cylindrically symmetric BPS vortices is characterized mathematically, analyzing the spectrum of the second-order fluctuation operator when the Higgs and vector boson masses are equal. A few of these bound states with low values of quantized magnetic flux are described fully, and their main properties are discussed.

  15. Notes on human error analysis and prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, J.

    1978-11-01

    The notes comprise an introductory discussion of the role of human error analysis and prediction in industrial risk analysis. Following this introduction, different classes of human errors and role in industrial systems are mentioned. Problems related to the prediction of human behaviour in reliability and safety analysis are formulated and ''criteria for analyzability'' which must be met by industrial systems so that a systematic analysis can be performed are suggested. The appendices contain illustrative case stories and a review of human error reports for the task of equipment calibration and testing as found in the US Licensee Event Reports. (author)

  16. A note on the microeconomics of migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, K

    1983-11-01

    "The purpose of this note is to demonstrate in a simple model that an individual's migration from a small town to a large city may be rationalized purely by a consumption motive, rather than the motive of obtaining a higher income. More specifically, it is shown that in a large city an individual may derive a higher utility from spending a given amount of income than in a small town." A formal model is first developed that includes the principal forces at work and is then illustrated using a graphic example. The theoretical and empirical issues raised are considered in the concluding section. excerpt

  17. A note on oblique water entry

    KAUST Repository

    Moore, M. R.

    2012-10-02

    A minor error in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) obscured the fact that the points at which the free surface turns over in the solution of the Wagner model for the oblique impact of a two-dimensional body are directly related to the turnover points in the equivalent normal impact problem. This note corrects some of the earlier results given in Howison et al. (J. Eng. Math. 48:321-337, 2004) and discusses the implications for the applicability of the Wagner model. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  18. European Science Notes. Volume 40, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry mers and copolymers of polyacrylate salt series edited by Professor J.F.J. Todd latex) rather than an inorganic or or- (University...changes in the popu- cy with two potassium dihydrogen phos- lation of a vibrational manifold were phate (KDP) crystals. Following a fil- determined by...AD-A162 235 EUROPEAN SCIENCE NOTES VOLUME 48 NUMBER I(U) OFFICE OF i/1 NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON (ENGLAND) L E SHAFFER JAN 86 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 5/2

  19. Note about socio-economic calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Salling, Kim Bang

    2006-01-01

    these effects must be described qualitatively. This note describes the socio-economic evaluation based on market prices and not factor prices which has been the tradition in Denmark till now. This is due to the recommendation from the Ministry of Transport to start using calculations based on market prices...... alternative. In socio-economic evaluations it is intended to describe the effects in economic terms whenever possible (”+” is used when it is positive for the society, and ”–” when it is negative for the society). However, not all the effects for the society can be described in economic terms, and instead...

  20. A note on Jauch-Piron states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pták, Pavel

    1986-04-01

    A state s on a logic L is called Jauch-Piron if the equality s( a)= s( b)=1 for a,b∈ L implies the existence of such an element c∈ L that c⩽ a, c⩽ b and s( c)=1. If L is a lattice then the present definition coincides with Jauch-Piron states as defined in [7], [9] and [13]. A logic is called Jauch-Piron if its every state is Jauch-Piron. In this note we investigate the size of the class of Jauch-Piron logics.

  1. A note on simultaneous Monte Carlo tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Ute

    In this short note, Monte Carlo tests of goodness of fit for data of the form X(t), t ∈ I are considered, that reject the null hypothesis if X(t) leaves an acceptance region bounded by an upper and lower curve for some t in I. A construction of the acceptance region is proposed that complies to a...... to a given target level of rejection, and yields exact p-values. The construction is based on pointwise quantiles, estimated from simulated realizations of X(t) under the null hypothesis....

  2. Notes on Timed Concurrent Constraint Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens; Valencia, Frank D.

    2004-01-01

    and program reactive systems. This note provides a comprehensive introduction to the background for and central notions from the theory of tccp. Furthermore, it surveys recent results on a particular tccp calculus, ntcc, and it provides a classification of the expressive power of various tccp languages.......A constraint is a piece of (partial) information on the values of the variables of a system. Concurrent constraint programming (ccp) is a model of concurrency in which agents (also called processes) interact by telling and asking information (constraints) to and from a shared store (a constraint...

  3. Note from the radioprotection group's shipping service

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Le service SHIPPING du groupe de radioprotection souhaite vous rappeler qu'avant toute expédition de matériel susceptible d'être radioactif, une demande de transport doit être établie par EDH en cochant la case appropriée (danger radioactif). Merci de bien vouloir prendre note des informations figurant dans le site Web: http://cern.ch/service-rp-shipping Toute demande non conforme ne sera pas prise en compte. Radioactive Shipping Service http://cern.ch/service-rp-shippingTél: 73171Fax: 69200

  4. European Science Notes. Volume 41, Number 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-01

    college preparatory that the social constructionist view, as group. (Chances are only slightly better he describes it, offers anything more for the...new method for the recognition and positioning of two-dimensionl objects. The method uses segmented descriptions of the object contours to generate...and recursively evaluate a number of selected hypotheses. This article dis- cusses the method in detail. International Symposium on Simulation of

  5. European Scientific Notes. Volume 34, Number 4,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-30

    used to heat another body of water and most of the petroleum- exporting coun- to, say, 80°C and then condensed to form tries. And energy and water are...stocks, export subsidies, predator-prey relationship) and/or 194 ESN 34-4 (1980) Stages of Xoonoic Development and Structure of the Individual Farm Unit...such were not useful in agriculture because as cotton, are more tolerant, while they supplied only descriptive infor- others, including avocados (a

  6. Towards a worldsheet description of N=8 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipstein, Arthur; Schomerus, Volker

    2015-10-01

    In this note we address the worldsheet description of 4-dimensional N=8 supergravity using ambitwistors. After gauging an appropriate current algebra, we argue that the only physical vertex operators correspond to the N=8 supermultiplet. It has previously been shown that worldsheet correlators give rise to supergravity tree level scattering amplitudes. We extend this work by proposing a definition for genus-one amplitudes that passes several consistency checks such as exhibiting modular invariance and reproducing the expected infrared behavior of 1-loop supergravity amplitudes.

  7. The Husting dilemma: A methodological note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, J.D.; Hepp, G.R.; Pollock, K.H.; Hines, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    Recently, Gill (1985) discussed the interpretation of capture history data resulting from his own studies on the red-spotted newt, Notophthalmus viridescens , and work by Husting (1965) on spotted salamanders, Ambystoma maculatum. Gill (1985) noted that gaps in capture histories (years in which individuals were not captured, preceded and followed by years in which they were) could result from either of two very different possibilities: (1) failure of the animal to return to the fenced pond to breed (the alternative Husting (1965) favored), or (2) return of the animal to the breeding pond, but failure of the investigator to capture it and detect its presence. The authors agree entirely with Gill (1985) that capture history data such as his or those of Husting (1965) should be analyzed using models that recognize the possibility of 'census error,' and that it is important to try to distinguish between such 'error' and skipped breeding efforts. The purpose of this note is to point out the relationship between Gill's (1985:347) null model and certain capture-recapture models, and to use capture-recapture models and tests to analyze the original data of Husting (1965).

  8. Transport description of damped nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randrup, J.

    1984-01-01

    This lecture series is concerned with the transport description of damped nuclear reactions. Part 1 is an elementary introduction to the general transport theory of nuclear dynamics. It can be read without any special knowledge of the field, although basic quantum mechanics is required for the formal derivation of the general expressions for the transport coefficients. The results can also be used in a wider context than the present one. Part 2 gives the student an up-to-date orientation about recent progress in the understanding of the angular-momentum variables in damped reactions. The emphasis is here on the qualitative understanding of the physics rather than the, at times somewhat tedious, formal derivations. More detailed presentations are due to be published soon. By necessity entire topics have been omitted. For example, no discussion is given of the calculation of the form factors, and the several instructive applications of the theory to transport of mass and change are not covered at all. For these topics they refer to the literature. It is hoped that the present notes provide a sufficient basis to make the literature on the subject accessible to the student

  9. The Effectiveness of Note-Taking on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farnoush Bahrami

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available By taking notes students could save time for reading all textbooks for their exams or for their representations. Taking notes increases attention of students to read or heard materials, and this increases their comprehension. Thus, the present study is important because note-taking could help them to remember what they learnt, absolutely important information. The method used in this research was survey. The 40 Persian EFL learners were selected from a language institute in Karaj to participate in the present study. These learners were divided into two groups; one of them is experimental group (N=20 and the other one is control group (N=20. Pretest and post test were two instruments that were used to carry out this study, a pretest about skill of note-taking of passages of the lessons was used for both experimental and control group. This test consisted of 4 passages. The same test was administrated again as the post test for both groups by the end of the course to see the different conclusion between taking note of experimental group and control group. Reliability between 4 texts is in oscillation from 0.6 to 0.81 (from 0.6 upwards. Therefore this reliability was an acceptable one. To analyze data descriptive statistics (that was contained percentage, frequency and mean score and also inferential statistics (that was contained ANOVA, Pearson correlation, independent sample t-test, multivariate’s test, regression were carried out by using SPSS16 soft ware. The findings confirmed that note taking is effective in reading comprehension.

  10. Gaz de France. Operation note; Gaz de France. Note d'operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This note was published for the public at the occasion of the admission to Euronext's Eurolist of the existing shares that make the capital of Gaz de France company, the French gas utility. The note gives some informations about Gaz de France activity, and about its strategy of development in the European gas market. Then it describes the offer relative to the opening of Gaz de France capital. Some selected financial data and some precision about the risk factors and the management of the company complete the document. (J.S.)

  11. 29 CFR Appendix to Subpart B of... - Reporter's Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Part 18—Reporter's Notes Reporter's Introductory Note The Rules of Evidence for the United States... contained in its files, such as the revenue statistics contained in the reports submitted to it by a...

  12. Notes on the IMACON 500 streak camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The notes provided are intended to supplement the instruction manual for the IMACON 500 streak camera system. The notes cover the streak analyzer, instructions for timing the streak camera, and calibration

  13. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.F. Beesley

    2005-04-21

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  14. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beesley. J.F.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process

  15. Fuel Handling Facility Description Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M.A. LaFountain

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the facility description document (FDD) is to establish the requirements and their bases that drive the design of the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) to allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. It identifies the requirements and describes the facility design as it currently exists, with emphasis on design attributes provided to meet the requirements. This FDD was developed as an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. It trails the design with regard to the description of the facility. This description is a reflection of the results of the design process to date

  16. A Pedagogic Cycle for EFL Note-Taking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    More attention has been given to note-taking in EFL classrooms in recent years, probably due to growing numbers of EFL students who attend lectures given in English and the importance of note-taking during language proficiency tests. While textbooks and materials for note-taking practice are readily available, classroom techniques for teaching EFL…

  17. Insights regarding the Usefulness of Partial Notes in Mathematics Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardetti, Fabiana; Khamsemanan, Nirattaya; Orgnero, M. Carolina

    2010-01-01

    Note-taking is a widespread practice used by college students to record information from lectures. Unfortunately, even successful students' notes are incomplete and, therefore, may lack the potential to positively impact their academic performance. Research suggests that instructors can help students improve their note-taking skills by using…

  18. Grouping notes through nodes: The functions of Post-It notes in design team cognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dove, Graham; Abildgaard, Sille Julie Jøhnk; Biskjaer, Michael Mose

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the way Post-It notes support creative design team practice, focusing on how they function as cognitive externalisations that, through grouping activities, support categorisation qualities associated with semantic long-term memory. We use a multimodal approach, drawing...

  19. Lecture Notes on Topics in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, Alex W.

    2002-11-15

    These are lecture notes that cover a selection of topics, some of them under current research, in accelerator physics. I try to derive the results from first principles, although the students are assumed to have an introductory knowledge of the basics. The topics covered are: (1) Panofsky-Wenzel and Planar Wake Theorems; (2) Echo Effect; (3) Crystalline Beam; (4) Fast Ion Instability; (5) Lawson-Woodward Theorem and Laser Acceleration in Free Space; (6) Spin Dynamics and Siberian Snakes; (7) Symplectic Approximation of Maps; (8) Truncated Power Series Algebra; and (9) Lie Algebra Technique for nonlinear Dynamics. The purpose of these lectures is not to elaborate, but to prepare the students so that they can do their own research. Each topic can be read independently of the others.

  20. Lecture Notes on Topics in Accelerator Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Alex W.

    2002-01-01

    These are lecture notes that cover a selection of topics, some of them under current research, in accelerator physics. I try to derive the results from first principles, although the students are assumed to have an introductory knowledge of the basics. The topics covered are: (1) Panofsky-Wenzel and Planar Wake Theorems; (2) Echo Effect; (3) Crystalline Beam; (4) Fast Ion Instability; (5) Lawson-Woodward Theorem and Laser Acceleration in Free Space; (6) Spin Dynamics and Siberian Snakes; (7) Symplectic Approximation of Maps; (8) Truncated Power Series Algebra; and (9) Lie Algebra Technique for nonlinear Dynamics. The purpose of these lectures is not to elaborate, but to prepare the students so that they can do their own research. Each topic can be read independently of the others

  1. A note on migration with borrowing constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, S; Levine, P

    1994-12-01

    "This note examines an important conflict between the theory and evidence on migration in LDCs. While the Harris-Todaro class of models explain the phenomenon of migration mainly by expected income differential between the economically advanced and the backward regions, the actual evidence in some cases suggests that migration could actually rise following a rise in income in backward areas. We resolve this puzzle by analysing migration in the context of the existence of imperfect credit markets in LDCs. We show that under certain plausible conditions, the rate of migration from the rural to the urban areas may actually rise when rural wages rise, as they ease the constraints on borrowing by potential migrants." excerpt

  2. Note on the extended noncommutativity of coordinates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulahoual, Amina; Sedra, My. Brahim

    2001-04-01

    We present in this short note an idea about a possible extension of the standard noncommutative algebra to the formal differential operators framework. In this sense, we develop an analysis and derive an extended noncommutative algebra given by [x a , x b ] * =i(θ+χ) ab where θ ab , is the standard noncommutative parameter and χ ab (x)≡χ ab μ (x)δ μ =1/2(x a θ μ b -x b θ a )δ μ is an antisymmetric non-constant vector-field shown to play the role of the extended deformation parameter. This idea was motivated by the importance of noncommutative geometry framework in the current subject of D-brane and matrix theory physics. (author)

  3. Acoustic control system BN-350. Explanatory note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    A description of the acoustic system developed to control boiling in the active zone of the BN 350 reactor is given together with the corresponding technical characteristics. The results of experiments and calculations which confirm the validity of the solutions adopted are discussed. Theoretical calculations on the boiling process in the duct are reported together with details on the fast diagnostic system. A means for localizing the onset of boiling is also given, possible error being taken into consideration. The special features of the passive acoustic diagnostic method used to study boiling are described and schemas of the anciliary equipment presented [fr

  4. [Nutritional status recording in hospitalized patient notes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, L; Teixeira, M A; Henriques, A; Tavares, M M; Alvares, L; Antunes, A; Amaral, Teresa F

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of disease-related malnutrition (DRM) is described to be of 30-60% on admission to hospital, and of 10% in the community. It has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, namely higher morbidity and mortality as well as higher frequency of health care and its associated costs. The lack of screening and monitoring of nutritional status have been said to be risk factors for the increased prevalence of DRM during hospital stay. The aims of this study were to evaluate the importance given by health care professionals to certain aspects related with nutritional status (weight, food intake) of hospital patients and to see if there were any differences between the under and non undernourished ones. A systematic sample of patients from six hospitals was collected. Pregnancy, paediatric age and critical illness were exclusion criteria as well as incapacity to fulfil nutritional risk screening protocol and length-of-stay less than 24h. Socio-demographic, anthropometric data and clinical notes (e.g. weight, food/nutrient intake) from medical records were collected and Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 protocol was applied. A total of 1152 patients were included in this study. The prevalence of nutritional risk varied between 28.5% and 47.3% while undernutrition classified by anthropometrical parameters was considerably lower (6.3% to 14.9%). Two thirds of the patients had their food intake monitored and registered in medical records but only one third were weighted. Undernourished patients had their food intake more frequently monitored but their weight was less frequently measured, than the well-nourished ones. DRM prevalence amongst hospital patients on admission is significantly high. Clinical notes regarding nutritional status is rather infrequent on medical records. This study showed that urges the need to empower health care providers of the importance of the screening and monitoring of weight and food intake, on admission and during hospital stay.

  5. Emended description of Pasteuria nishizawae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noel, Gregory R; Atibalentja, N; Domier, Leslie L

    2005-07-01

    The description of the Gram-positive, obligately parasitic, mycelial and endospore-forming bacterium, Pasteuria nishizawae, is emended to include additional observations on the life cycle, host specificity and endospore morphology. The nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene is also provided.

  6. Manufacturer Usage Description Specification Implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasan, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Manufacturer Usage Description Specification (MUDS) is aframework under RFC development that aims to automate Internet access control rules for IoT devices . These access controls prevent malicious IoT devices from attacking other devices and also protect the IoT devices from being attacked by other devices.We are implementing this framework and trying to improve its security.

  7. Epsilon. A System Description Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kurt; Kyng, Morten

    This paper discusses the use of Petri nets as a semantic tool in the design of languages and in the construction and analysis of system descriptions. The topics treated are: -- Languages based on nets. -- The problem of time in nets. -- Nets and related models. -- Nets and formal semantics...

  8. Microscopic description of nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatov, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The genealogical series method has been extended to the continuous spectrum of the many-body systems. New nonlinear integral equations have been formulated to perform the microscopical description of the nuclear reactions with arbitrary number of particles. The way to solve them numerically is demonstrated

  9. Improving Published Descriptions of Germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Published descriptions of new germplasm, such as in the Journal of Plant Registrations (JPR) and, prior to mid-2007, in Crop Science, are important vehicles for allowing researchers and other interested parties to learn about such germplasm and the methods used to generate them. Launched in 2007, JP...

  10. NOAA Weather Radio - EAS Description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search Search For Go NWS All NOAA Emergency Alert System (EAS) List of EAS Event Codes NWS EAS fact sheet What Management Agency (FEMA) and the NWS, implements the EAS at the federal level. The EAS is the nation's public

  11. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  12. The geometry description markup language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytracek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, a lot of effort is being put on designing complex detectors. A number of simulation and reconstruction frameworks and applications have been developed with the aim to make this job easier. A very important role in this activity is played by the geometry description of the detector apparatus layout and its working environment. However, no real common approach to represent geometry data is available and such data can be found in various forms starting from custom semi-structured text files, source code (C/C++/FORTRAN), to XML and database solutions. The XML (Extensible Markup Language) has proven to provide an interesting approach for describing detector geometries, with several different but incompatible XML-based solutions existing. Therefore, interoperability and geometry data exchange among different frameworks is not possible at present. The author introduces a markup language for geometry descriptions. Its aim is to define a common approach for sharing and exchanging of geometry description data. Its requirements and design have been driven by experience and user feedback from existing projects which have their geometry description in XML

  13. Effects of Note-Taking Instruction and Note-Taking Languages on College EFL Students' Listening Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai-Fu, Tsai; Wu, Yongan

    2010-01-01

    Background: The effect of note-taking has been well-recognized by EFL educators. However, little empirical research has been done to investigate combined effects of note-taking instruction and note-taking language (whether in L1 or L2) in an acquisition-poor environment, where English is used as an instructional language yet the audience is…

  14. EVALUATION OF STUDENT'S NOTES IN A BLENDED LEARNING COURSE

    OpenAIRE

    Minoru Nakayama; Kouichi Mutsuura; Hiroh Yamamoto

    2011-01-01

    Student’s notes are evaluated to trace their learning process in a blended learning course, and the factors affecting the quality of these notes are discussed. As individual note-taking performance may be based on student’s characteristics, these contributions are also examined. Some factors about per-sonality and the learning experience are sig-nificant, and positively affect the grades given to notes. Lexical features of notes tak-en were extracted using a text analysis tech-nique, and ...

  15. Lecture background notes on transient sodium boiling and voiding in fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okrent, D.; Fauske, H.K.

    1972-01-01

    This set of lecture background notes includes the following: (1) Introductory remarks on fast reactor safety, which are intended to provide some perspective on the role played by sodium boiling. (2) A discussion of superheat which reviews the experimental data and nucleation models with emphasis on the pressure-temperature history effect on radius of active cavity sites, including the role played by inert gas. (3) A discussion of the growth and collapse of spherical bubbles. (4) A historical description of the development of computer codes to describe voiding and a detailed description of the analytical formulation of typical models for calculating voiding due to boiling, fission gas release, and molten fuel-coolant interaction. (U.S.)

  16. HOST liner cyclic facilities: Facility description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, D.

    1982-01-01

    A quartz lamp box, a quartz lamp annular rig, and a low pressure liner cyclic can rig planned for liner cyclic tests are described. Special test instrumentation includes an IR-TV camera system for measuring liner cold side temperatures, thin film thermocouples for measuring liner hot side temperatures, and laser and high temperature strain gages for obtaining local strain measurements. A plate temperature of 2,000 F was obtained in an initial test of an apparatus with three quartz lamps. Lamp life, however, appeared to be limited for the standard commercial quartz lamps available. The design of vitiated and nonvitiated preheaters required for the quartz lamp annular rig and the cyclic can test rigs is underway.

  17. Herwig++ 2.7 release note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellm, J.; Gieseke, S.; Grellscheid, D.

    2013-10-01

    A new release of the Monte Carlo event generator Herwig++ (version 2.7) is now available. This version comes with a number of improvements including: an interface to the Universal FeynRules Output (UFO) format allowing the simulation of a wide range of new-physics models; developments of the Matchbox framework for next-to-leading order (NLO) simulations; better treatment of QCD radiation in heavy particle decays in new-physics models; a new tune of underlying event and colour connection parameters that allows a good simultaneous description of both Tevatron and LHC underlying event data and the effective cross-section parameter for double-parton scattering parameter σ eff .

  18. Herwig++ 2.7 release note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellm, J.; Gieseke, S. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Grellscheid, D. [IPPP, Durham (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics] [and others

    2013-10-15

    A new release of the Monte Carlo event generator Herwig++ (version 2.7) is now available. This version comes with a number of improvements including: an interface to the Universal FeynRules Output (UFO) format allowing the simulation of a wide range of new-physics models; developments of the Matchbox framework for next-to-leading order (NLO) simulations; better treatment of QCD radiation in heavy particle decays in new-physics models; a new tune of underlying event and colour connection parameters that allows a good simultaneous description of both Tevatron and LHC underlying event data and the effective cross-section parameter for double-parton scattering parameter {sigma}{sub eff}.

  19. The silica road: Field trip notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Soto

    2016-09-01

    This paper present some keynotes distributed to the symposium attendants. It consists on: 1 a brief geological framework of the Montsant Massif, located at the southern margin of the Catalan Central Depression. It includes the definition of their Palaeozoic to Cenozoic depositional sequence and the localization of some points of interests with panoramic views and source areas where Tertiary chert nodules were available. They represent a significant focus for the raw materials procurement of several Paleolithic occupations since Lower Pleistocene. 2 A general presentation of the Middle Palaeolithic site of the Abric Romaní site, including a brief reference of the three research phases initiated at the beginning of 20th Century, the description of its 50 meters stratigraphic sequence, where 27 archaeological levels have been identified dating since 110 to 39 ka BP, and some of the main traits of the archaeological assemblages recovered.

  20. Data Description of a System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Nevriva

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a brief discussion on description of process by memorized data is given. The insight into the problem can offer modified views on optimal control, on data compression at communication systems with respect to information content of message, etc.The idea of process description by memorized data with different information content will be presented here on the classical case study of optimal control: the data based control algorithm (data algorithm, DA gathers data from the controlled process and derives control signal (control from data accumulated in the data base. The implementation of the DA on the ideal computer which is not limited by its speed or capacity of memory is expected for simplicity. Accuracy of the data algorithm is then given by a-priori knowledge of the task and by information exchange between the controlled process and the computer.

  1. Performance of the diffraction grating on a bank note: the experience with the Australian Commemorative note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardwick, Bruce A.

    1990-04-01

    In January 1988, we at the Note Printing Branch first released to the Reserve Bank a polymer based banknote containing an Optically Variable Device (OVD), a diffraction grating. This banknote was the culmination of many years of Research and Development effort, and represented a very significant departure from conventional banknote technology in many ways. It was a test bed. We are very pleased with its performance.

  2. Notes about psychology and art fruition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Ferrari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The exhibition entitled "Forme per il David", which took place at the Accademia of Florence between 2004 and 2005, and the analysis of the spectators’ reactions are the occasion for a series of reflections on psychological dynamics of the reception of art. After some preliminary notes on methodological issues of interdisciplinarity and on the way of empirical research about the attitude of the public in museums, the article (even taking into account the reactions of the audience in front of Michelangelo's David focuses on the erotic-instinctual elements in the enjoyment of arts, and offers some criticism about the use of the sublimation’s concept. It then speaks about the role and "degrees" of the “Uncanny” and about the dynamics of identification processes in the study of art fruition. It also emphasizes the importance of the "context" of use as a preliminary to the understanding of its mechanisms. The last section is devoted to the problem of emotion considered from the point of view of psychology, art and aesthetics.

  3. MCNP Version 6.2 Release Notes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bull, Jeffrey S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solomon, C. J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McKinney, Gregg Walter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dixon, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martz, Roger Lee [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hughes, Henry G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cox, Lawrence James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zukaitis, Anthony J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Armstrong, J. C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Forster, Robert Arthur [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Casswell, Laura [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-05

    Monte Carlo N-Particle or MCNP® is a general-purpose Monte Carlo radiation-transport code designed to track many particle types over broad ranges of energies. This MCNP Version 6.2 follows the MCNP6.1.1 beta version and has been released in order to provide the radiation transport community with the latest feature developments and bug fixes for MCNP. Since the last release of MCNP major work has been conducted to improve the code base, add features, and provide tools to facilitate ease of use of MCNP version 6.2 as well as the analysis of results. These release notes serve as a general guide for the new/improved physics, source, data, tallies, unstructured mesh, code enhancements and tools. For more detailed information on each of the topics, please refer to the appropriate references or the user manual which can be found at http://mcnp.lanl.gov. This release of MCNP version 6.2 contains 39 new features in addition to 172 bug fixes and code enhancements. There are still some 33 known issues the user should familiarize themselves with (see Appendix).

  4. Mathematician for all seasons recollections and notes

    CERN Document Server

    Szymaniec, Irena; Weron, Aleksander; Shenitzer, Abe

    2015-01-01

    This book presents, in his own words, the life of Hugo Steinhaus (1887–1972), noted Polish mathematician of Jewish background, educator, and mathematical popularizer. A student of Hilbert, a pioneer of the foundations of probability and game theory, and a contributor to the development of functional analysis, he was one of those instrumental to the extraordinary flowering of Polish mathematics before and after World War I. In particular, it was he who “discovered” the great Stefan Banach. Exhibiting his great integrity and wit, Steinhaus’s personal story of the turbulent times he survived – including two world wars and life postwar under the Soviet heel – cannot but be of consuming interest. His recounting of the fearful years spent evading Nazi terror is especially moving. The steadfast honesty and natural dignity he maintained while pursuing a life of demanding scientific and intellectual enquiry in the face of encroaching calamity and chaos show him to be truly a mathematician for all seasons. ...

  5. Note on specifying and verifying concurrent processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holenderski, L.

    1984-02-28

    To represent sequential processes, sets of finite sequences of symbols from a finite alphabet are used in this approach, alphabet symbols denote events occurring when a process is being executed, a sequence of symbols is a record of one execution of the process, and a set of such sequences represents the process itself by combining all its possible executions together. Although this model turned out adequate for specifying concurrent processes and allows proving their properties, there are two reasons, at least, why this note takes the same subject up again. First, by analogy to shuffle and its closure, which express parallel combination and parallel iteration of non-interacting processes, there is a need for a similar operation describing the behaviour of interaction processes. A new extension of shuffle is proposed as a generalization. The closure of this operation provides a tool for specification of parallelly iterated processes. Moreover, the closure makes mutually recursive specification unnecessary. Second, when this model was used to prove properties of concurrent computations, only flow-of-control schemes were considered (thus, only some general properties were proved). When applied to concrete programs using variables that have values, such schemes had to be interpreted. In contrast to such a schematic approach, the usefulness of the same method for concrete programs is argued. This is shown using an example of a correctness proof of an implementation of unbounded semaphore by binary semaphores. 8 references.

  6. BNL ALARA Center: ALARA Notes, No. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1994-02-01

    This issue of the Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alara Notes includes the agenda for the Third International Workshop on ALARA and specific instructions on the use of the on-line fax-on-demand service provided by BNL. Other topics included in this issue are: (1) A discussion of low-level discharges from Canadian nuclear plants, (2) Safety issues at French nuclear plants, (3) Acoustic emission as a means of leak detection, (4) Replacement of steam generators at Doel-3, Beaznau, and North Anna-1, (5) Remote handling equipment at Bruce, (6) EPRI's low level waste program, (7) Radiation protection during concrete repairs at Savannah River, (8) Reactor vessel stud removal/repair at Comanche Peak-1, (9) Rework of reactor coolant pump motors, (10) Restoration of service water at North Anna-1 and -2, (11) Steam generator tubing problems at Mihama-1, (12) Full system decontamination at Indian Point-2, (13) Chemical decontamination at Browns Ferry-2, and (14) Inspection methodolody in France and Japan

  7. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis

    2013-01-01

    A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  8. Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Serrà

    Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.

  9. July 2016 Arizona thoracic society notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first 150 words. The July 2016 Arizona Thoracic Society meeting was held on Wednesday, July 27, 2016 at the Scottsdale Shea Hospital beginning at 6:30 PM. This was a dinner meeting with case presentations. There were 14 in attendance representing the pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and radiology communities. Prior to the case presentations, a discussion was held on 4 issues. First, Dr. Rick Robbins gave a summary of ATS Hill Day. During Hill Day a presentation was given by a representative from the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids. Their web site lists tobacco company contributions to members of Congress on their web site. Dr. Gary Ewart from the ATS office in Washington gave a presentation on the Traditional Cigar Manufacturing and Small Business Jobs Preservation Act before Congress (aka the Cigar Bill which the ATS opposes. He noted that cosponsors for the bill included several Congressmen from Southwestern states. Dr. Robbins combined the two ...

  10. Looking Deeper into the Galaxy (Note 7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie J. Loveridge

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Li-ion cell designs, component integrity, and manufacturing processes all have critical influence on the safety of Li-ion batteries. Any internal defective features that induce a short circuit, can trigger a thermal runaway: a cascade of reactions, leading to a device fire. As consumer device manufacturers push aggressively for increased battery energy, instances of field failure are increasingly reported. Notably, Samsung made a press release in 2017 following a total product recall of their Galaxy Note 7 mobile phone, confirming speculation that the events were attributable to the battery and its mode of manufacture. Recent incidences of battery swelling on the new iPhone 8 have been reported in the media, and the techniques and lessons reported herein may have future relevance. Here we look deeper into the key components of one of these cells and confirm evidence of cracking of electrode material in tightly folded areas, combined with a delamination of surface coating on the separator, which itself is an unusually thin monolayer. We report microstructural information about the electrodes, battery welding attributes, and thermal mapping of the battery whilst operational. The findings present a deeper insight into the battery’s component microstructures than previously disseminated. This points to the most probable combination of events and highlights the impact of design features, whilst providing structural considerations most likely to have led to the reported incidences relating to this phone.

  11. Notes on Mayer expansions and matrix models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgine, Jean-Emile

    2014-01-01

    Mayer cluster expansion is an important tool in statistical physics to evaluate grand canonical partition functions. It has recently been applied to the Nekrasov instanton partition function of N=2 4d gauge theories. The associated canonical model involves coupled integrations that take the form of a generalized matrix model. It can be studied with the standard techniques of matrix models, in particular collective field theory and loop equations. In the first part of these notes, we explain how the results of collective field theory can be derived from the cluster expansion. The equalities between free energies at first orders is explained by the discrete Laplace transform relating canonical and grand canonical models. In a second part, we study the canonical loop equations and associate them with similar relations on the grand canonical side. It leads to relate the multi-point densities, fundamental objects of the matrix model, to the generating functions of multi-rooted clusters. Finally, a method is proposed to derive loop equations directly on the grand canonical model

  12. Continuum description for jointed media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.K.

    1982-04-01

    A general three-dimensional continuum description is presented for a material containing regularly spaced and approximately parallel jointing planes within a representative elementary volume. Constitutive relationships are introduced for linear behavior of the base material and nonlinear normal and shear behavior across jointing planes. Furthermore, a fracture permeability tensor is calculated so that deformation induced alterations to the in-situ values can be measured. Examples for several strain-controlled loading paths are presented

  13. Conformal description of spinning particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, I.T.

    1986-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the application of the conformal group to quantum field theory of particles with spin. After an introduction to the twistor representations of the conformal group of a conformally flat space-time and twistor flag manifolds with Su(2,2) orbits the classical phase space of conformal spinning particles is described. Thereafter the twistor description of classical zero mass fields is considered together with the quantization. (HSI)

  14. GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PAQUETTE,D.E.; BENNETT,D.B.; DORSCH,W.R.; GOODE,G.A.; LEE,R.J.; KLAUS,K.; HOWE,R.F.; GEIGER,K.

    2002-05-31

    THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ORDER 5400.1, GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAM, REQUIRES THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A GROUNDWATER PROTECTION PROGRAM. THE BNL GROUNDWATER PROTECTION MANAGEMENT PROGRAM DESCRIPTION PROVIDES AN OVERVIEW OF HOW THE LABORATORY ENSURES THAT PLANS FOR GROUNDWATER PROTECTION, MONITORING, AND RESTORATION ARE FULLY DEFINED, INTEGRATED, AND MANAGED IN A COST EFFECTIVE MANNER THAT IS CONSISTENT WITH FEDERAL, STATE, AND LOCAL REGULATIONS.

  15. Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pestian

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25–34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15–25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient’s thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.

  16. Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pestian, John; Nasrallah, Henry; Matykiewicz, Pawel; Bennett, Aurora; Leenaars, Antoon

    2010-08-04

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25-34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15-25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient's thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.

  17. Orthopterological notes IV Notes on Indomalayan and African Pterophyl-Linae (Tettigoniidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de C.

    1960-01-01

    The present paper contains a number of new facts concerning Indomalayan Pterophyllinae, which came to my attention after the publication of my first paper on this subfamily (De Jong, 1938 1))· Further it contains the description of new species: Cymatomera blötei and Tegrolcinia karnyi, an allotype:

  18. Note-taking and Handouts in The Digital Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Elizabeth Moore; Cain, Jeff

    2015-09-25

    Most educators consider note-taking a critical component of formal classroom learning. Advancements in technology such as tablet computers, mobile applications, and recorded lectures are altering classroom dynamics and affecting the way students compose and review class notes. These tools may improve a student's ability to take notes, but they also may hinder learning. In an era of dynamic technology developments, it is important for educators to routinely examine and evaluate influences on formal and informal learning environments. This paper discusses key background literature on student note-taking, identifies recent trends and potential implications of mobile technologies on classroom note-taking and student learning, and discusses future directions for note-taking in the context of digitally enabled lifelong learning.

  19. Digital Note-Taking: Discussion of Evidence and Best Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Jason A

    2016-03-01

    Balancing active course engagement and comprehension with producing quality lecture notes is challenging. Although evidence suggests that handwritten note-taking may improve comprehension and learning outcomes, many students still self-report a preference for digital note-taking and a belief that it is beneficial. Future research is warranted to determine the effects on performance of digitally writing notes. Independent of the methods or software chosen, best practices should be provided to students with information to help them consciously make an educated decision based on the evidence and their personal preference. Optimal note-taking requires self-discipline, focused attention, sufficient working memory, thoughtful rewording, and decreased distractions. Familiarity with the tools and mediums they choose will help students maximize working memory, produce better notes, and aid in their retention of material presented.

  20. Laparotomy operative note template constructed through a modified Delphi method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lolonya; Churley-Strom, Ruth; Singal, Bonita; O'Leary, Sharon

    2009-05-01

    An operative note is indispensable to physician documentation and decision-making; however, there are no accepted standards for operative note content. Our aim was to use a modified Delphi consensus-building method to construct a uniform operative note template for laparotomy. Using Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requirements, literature review, and feedback from 15 medical malpractice defense attorneys, we compiled a draft operative note template of 31 elements. We surveyed 37 Association of Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics/Solvay scholars asking for their input on inclusion of each item as essential content of the operative note. Two iterations of the survey were required to reach a predetermined 75% level of consensus. Nine elements were eliminated from the template: 6 original and 3 expert-suggested elements. We provide an operative note template that was compiled through a Delphi process.